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Sample records for immobilized penicillin acylase

  1. Radiation-induced polymerization for the immobilization of penicillin acylase

    SciTech Connect

    Boccu, E.; Carenza, M.; Lora, S.; Palma, G.; Veronese, F.M.

    1987-06-01

    The immobilization of Escherichia coli penicillin acylase was investigated by radiation-induced polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate at low temperature. A leak-proof composite that does not swell in water was obtained by adding the cross-linking agent trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate to the monomer-aqueous enzyme mixture. Penicillin acylase, which was immobilized with greater than 70% yield, possessed a higher Km value toward the substrate 6-nitro-3-phenylacetamidobenzoic acid than the free enzyme form (Km = 1.7 X 10(-5) and 1 X 10(-5) M, respectively). The structural stability of immobilized penicillin acylase, as assessed by heat, guanidinium chloride, and pH denaturation profiles, was very similar to that of the free-enzyme form, thus suggesting that penicillin acylase was entrapped in its native state into aqueous free spaces of the polymer matrix.

  2. Functionalized nanoporous silicas for the immobilization of penicillin acylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maria Chong, A. S.; Zhao, X. S.

    2004-10-01

    Nanoporous silica materials with uniform pore size and ordered structure have drawn growing interest of researchers since 1990s. A large-pore nanoporous material, SBA-15, was functionalized with organosilanes by co-condensation method in the presence of nonionic triblock copolymer P123 as a template under acidic conditions. The functionalization was demonstrated by using five organosilanes, namely 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS), vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), and 4-(triethoxysilyl)butyronitrile (TSBN), which modified the surface properties of the silica materials, enabling the materials to be a promising support for immobilization of biological molecules. The functionalized SBA-15 materials exhibited long-range ordering of two-dimensional hexagonal pore arrays of size ranging from 66 to 90 Å as demonstrated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and physical adsorption techniques. A variety of organosilane density in the range of 0.5-2.6 mmol/g was achieved as revealed by elemental analysis and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The functionalized materials displayed improved properties for immobilization of penicillin acylase (PA) in comparison with pure-silica SBA-15. Such improvement is believed to be due to the enhanced surface hydrophobicity and electrostatic interactions of the functional groups with the enzyme.

  3. Immobilization of Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase on epoxy-type supports.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Zhou, Y; Yuan, Z; Xu, G

    2009-01-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase has several desired features over other penicillin G acylases and its use in industry requires immobilization. In this work, two novel supports ZH-EP (epoxy-type) and ZH-HA (epoxy-amino type) were used to immobilize Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase (AfPGA) with Eupergit C as reference. The saturation of immobilized protein on ZH-EP (269 mg/g, 116 h) and ZH-HA (296 mg/g, 15 h) was obtained more rapidly than Eupergit C (197 mg/g, 260 h). And the activity of immobilized AfPGA on ZH-EP (520 U/g) and ZH-HA (2200 U/g) was higher than that on Eupergit C (310 U/g). The properties of three immobilized enzymes were compared and no obvious difference was observed, which indicated that ZH-EP and ZH-HA were promised in industry.

  4. Immobilization of penicillin G acylase on macro-mesoporous silica spheres.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junqi; Wang, Yujun; Luo, Guangsheng; Zhu, Shenlin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, macro-mesoporous silica spheres were prepared with a micro-device and used as the support for the immobilization of penicillin G acylase (PGA). To measure the enzymatic activity, the silica spheres with immobilized PGA were placed into a packed-bed reactor, in which the hydrolysis of penicillin G was carried out. The influences of the residence time, the initial concentration of the substrate, the accumulation of the target product 6-aminopenicillanic acid, and the enzyme loading amount on the performance of the immobilized PGA were investigated. The introduction of macropores increased the enzyme loading amount and decreased the internal mass transfer resistance, and the results showed that the enzyme loading amount reached 895 mg/g (dry support), and the apparent enzymatic activity achieved up to 1033 U/g (dry support). In addition, the immobilized PGA was found to have great stability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of penicillin G acylase multipoint immobilization on to glutaraldehyde-chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Adriano, Wellington S; Filho, Edilson H C; Silva, James A; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the immobilization of penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli on to chitosan-glutaraldehyde beads by multipoint covalent binding. This process was optimized using a 2(3) experimental design. The parameters selected for the present study were the concentrations of glutaraldehyde, phenylacetic acid and sodium borohydride. Three responses were chosen, namely immobilization yield and stabilization factors of enzyme derivatives at high temperature and at alkaline pH. All the runs at the maximum (+1) and minimum (-1) levels were performed at random. Three experiments were performed at the centre point, coded as zero, for experimental-error estimation. With respect to immobilization yield, the main effectors were the concentrations of glutaraldehyde and phenylacetic acid. For stabilization factors at 50 degrees C and at alkaline pH, the main effectors were the concentrations of glutaraldehyde and sodium borohydride and the interaction between them.

  6. Covalent Immobilization of Penicillin G Acylase onto Fe3O4@Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiao-Min; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Ma, Ping; Yang, Yi; Qin, Jie-Mei; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Ye-Wang

    2016-05-28

    Penicillin G acylase (PGA) was immobilized on magnetic Fe3O4@chitosan nanoparticles through the Schiff base reaction. The immobilization conditions were optimized as follows: enzyme/support 8.8 mg/g, pH 6.0, time 40 min, and temperature 25°C. Under these conditions, a high immobilization efficiency of 75% and a protein loading of 6.2 mg/g-support were obtained. Broader working pH and higher thermostability were achieved by the immobilization. In addition, the immobilized PGA retained 75% initial activity after ten cycles. Kinetic parameters Vmax and Km of the free and immobilized PGAs were determined as 0.91 mmol/min and 0.53 mmol/min, and 0.68 mM and 1.19 mM, respectively. Synthesis of amoxicillin with the immobilized PGA was carried out in 40% ethylene glycol at 25°C and a conversion of 72% was obtained. These results showed that the immobilization of PGA onto magnetic chitosan nanoparticles is an efficient and simple way for preparation of stable PGA.

  7. Epoxy-functionalized mesostructured cellular foams as effective support for covalent immobilization of penicillin G acylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ping; Xu, Fang; Xu, Lidong

    2008-12-01

    The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams (G-MCFs) with high specific surface area (˜400 m 2/g) and large-size mesopores (˜17 nm) were obtained by condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (GPTS) and the surface silanol groups of mesoporous cellular foams (MCFs) and used as the support for immobilization of penicillin G acylase (PGA). The structural properties of G-MCF were characterized by FT-IR, N 2 adsorption, TG-DTA and 29Si MAS NMR. The studies indicated that the glycidoxypropyl groups were chemically bonded to the silicon atoms on the surface of MCF. The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams can provide the microenvironments suitable for the immobilization of PGA, and the enzyme molecules could be immobilized covalently onto the G-MCF under mild conditions by reaction between the amino groups of the enzyme molecules and the epoxy groups on the surface of G-MCF. The PGA immobilized on G-MCF (PGA/G-MCF) exhibited the apparent activity of 1782 IU/g and 46.6% of activity recovery for hydrolyzing penicillin G potassium to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid at 37 °C which were higher than that of PGA on pure silica MCF (1521 IU/g and 39.8%, respectively). The kinetic study also indicated that PGA immobilized on G-MCF has a Km of 2.1 × 10 -2 mol/L lower than that of PGA immobilized on the pure silica MCF (5.0 × 10 -2 mol/L). These may be attributed to the enhanced surface affinity between G-MCF support and the substrate molecules. Due to the covalent immobilization of PGA molecules on the surface of G-MCF, the immobilized PGA with considerable operational stability was achieved. The activity of PGA/G-MCF is still about 91.4% of its initial activity at the 10th cycle reuse while that of PGA/MCF only remains 41.5% of its initial activity at the same reuse numbers. In addition, the investigation results show the thermal stability and durability on acid or basic medium of PGA immobilized on G-MCF were improved remarkably.

  8. Genetic Modification of the Penicillin G Acylase Surface To Improve Its Reversible Immobilization on Ionic Exchangers▿

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Tamara; Grazú, Valeria; López-Gallego, Fernando; Hermoso, Juan A.; García, Jose L.; Manso, Isabel; Galán, Beatriz; González, Ramón; Fernández-Lafuente, Roberto; Guisán, José M.

    2007-01-01

    A new mutant of the industrial enzyme penicillin G acylase (PGA) from Escherichia coli has been designed to improve its reversible immobilization on anionic exchangers (DEAE- or polyethyleneimine [PEI]-coated agarose) by assembling eight new glutamic residues distributed homogeneously through the enzyme surface via site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant PGA is produced and processed in vivo as is the native enzyme. Moreover, it has a similar specific activity to and shows the same pH activity profile as native PGA; however, its isoelectric point decreased from 6.4 to 4.3. Although the new enzyme is adsorbed on both supports, the adsorption was even stronger when supports were coated with PEI, allowing us to improve the enzyme stability in organic cosolvents. The use of restrictive conditions during the enzyme adsorption on anionic exchangers (pH 5 and high ionic strength) permitted us to still further increase the strength of adsorption and the enzyme stability in the presence of organic solvents, suggesting that these conditions allow the penetration of the enzyme inside the polymeric beds, thus becoming fully covered with the polymer. After the enzyme inactivation, it can be desorbed to reuse the support. The possibility to improve the immobilization properties on an enzyme by site-directed mutagenesis of its surface opens a promising new scenario for enzyme engineering. PMID:17098917

  9. [Phase transfer catalyzed bioconversion of penicillin G to 6-APA by immobilized penicillin acylase in recyclable aqueous two-phase systems with light/pH sensitive copolymers].

    PubMed

    Jin, Ke-ming; Cao, Xue-jun; Su, Jin; Ma, Li; Zhuang, Ying-ping; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Si-liang

    2008-03-01

    Immobilized penicillin acylase was used for bioconversion of penicillin PG into 6-APA in aqueous two-phase systems consisting of a light-sensitive polymer PNBC and a pH-sensitive polymer PADB. Partition coefficients of 6-APA was found to be about 5.78 in the presence of 1% NaCl. Enzyme kinetics showed that the reaction reached equilibrium at roughly 7 h. The 6-APA mole yields were 85.3% (pH 7.8, 20 degrees C), with about 20% increment as compared with the reaction of single aqueous phase buffer. The partition coefficient of PG (Na) varied scarcely, while that of the product, 6-APA and phenylacetic acid (PA) significantly varied due to Donnan effect of the phase systems and hydrophobicity of the products. The variation of the partition coefficients of the products also affected the bioconversion yield of the products. In the aqueous two-phase systems, the substrate, PG, the products of 6-APA and PA were biased in the top phase, while immobilized penicillin acylase at completely partitioned at the bottom. The substrate and PG entered the bottom phase, where it was catalyzed into 6-APA and PA and entered the top phase. Inhibition of the substrate and products was removed to result in improvement of the product yield, and the immobilized enzyme showed higher efficiency than the immobilized cells and occupied smaller volume. Compared with the free enzyme, immobilized enzyme had greater stability, longer life-time, and was completely partitioned in the bottom phase and recycle. Bioconversion in two-phase systems using immobilized penicillin acylase showed outstanding advantage. The light-sensitive copolymer forming aqueous two-phase systems could be recovered by laser radiation at 488 nm or filtered 450 nm light, while pH-sensitive polymer PADB could be recovered at the isoelectric point (pH 4.1). The recovery of the two copolymers was between 95% and 99%.

  10. Effect of internal diffusional restrictions on the hydrolysis of penicillin G: reactor performance and specific productivity of 6-APA with immobilized penicillin acylase.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Pedro; Flores, Sebastián; Wilson, Lorena; Illanes, Andrés

    2011-09-01

    A mathematical model that describes the heterogeneous reaction-diffusion process involved in penicillin G hydrolysis in a batch reactor with immobilized penicillin G acylase is presented. The reaction system includes the bulk liquid phase containing the dissolved substrate (and products) and the solid biocatalyst phase represented by glyoxyl-agarose spherical porous particles carrying the enzyme. The equations consider reaction and diffusion components that are presented in dimensionless form. This is a complex reaction system in which both products of reaction and the substrate itself are inhibitors. The simulation of a batch reactor performance with immobilized penicillin G acylase is presented and discussed for the internal diffusional restrictions impact on effectiveness and productivity. Increasing internal diffusional restrictions, through increasing catalyst particle size and enzyme loading, causes impaired catalyst efficiency expressed in a reduction of effectiveness factor and specific productivity. High penicillin G initial concentrations decrease the impact of internal diffusional restrictions by increasing the mass transfer towards porous catalyst until product inhibition becomes significant over approximately 50 mM of initial penicillin G, where a drop in conversion rate and a maximum in specific productivity are then obtained. Results highlight the relevance of considering internal diffusional restrictions, reactor performance, and productivity analysis for proper catalyst and reactor design.

  11. A new biocatalyst: Penicillin G acylase immobilized in sol-gel micro-particles with magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Susana M S A; Fernandes, Pedro; Fonseca, Luís P

    2009-05-01

    The present work focuses on the development and basic characterization of a new magnetic biocatalyst, namely penicillin G acylase (PGA), immobilized in sol-gel matrices with magnetic properties, ultimately aimed for application in cephalexin (CEX) synthesis. A mechanically stable carrier, based on porous xerogels silica matrixes starting from tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), was prepared leading to micro-carriers with medium sized particles of 30 microm, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. An immobilization yield of 95-100% and a recovered activity of 50-65% at 37 degrees C, as determined by penicillin G (PG) hydrolysis (pH STAT method), were observed. These results clearly exceed those reported in a previous work on PGA immobilization in sol-gel, where only 10% of activity was recovered. The values of activity were kept constant for 6 months. Immobilized PGA (682 U/g(dry weight)) retained high specific activity throughout ten consecutive runs for PG hydrolysis, suggesting adequate biocatalyst stability. The CEX synthesis was performed at 14 degrees C, using the free and immobilized PGA in aqueous medium. Phenylglycine methyl ester was used as acyl donor at 90 mM and 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid was the limiting substrate at 30 mM. The CEX stoichiometric yield after 1-h reaction was close to 68% (23 mM CEX/h) and 65% (19 mM CEX/h), respectively.

  12. Biotransformation of penicillin V to 6-aminopenicillanic acid using immobilized whole cells of E. coli expressing a highly active penicillin V acylase.

    PubMed

    Avinash, Vellore Sunder; Chauhan, Palna Dinesh; Gaikwad, Shraddha; Pundle, Archana

    2017-01-02

    The production of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) is a key step in the manufacture of semisynthetic antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry. The penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli has long been utilized for this purpose. However, the use of penicillin V acylases (PVA) presents some advantages including better stability and higher conversion rates. The industrial application of PVAs has so far been limited due to the nonavailability of suitable bacterial strains and cost issues. In this study, whole-cell immobilization of a recombinant PVA enzyme from Pectobacterium atrosepticum expressed in E. coli was performed. Membrane permeabilization with detergent was used to enhance the cell-bound PVA activity, and the cells were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Optimization of parameters for the biotransformation by immobilized cells showed that full conversion of pen V to 6-APA could be achieved within 1 hr at pH 5.0 and 35°C, till 4% (w/v) concentration of the substrate. The beads could be stored for 28 days at 4°C with minimal loss in activity and were reusable up to 10 cycles with 1-hr hardening in CaCl2 between each cycle. The high enzyme productivity of the PVA enzyme system makes a promising case for its application for 6-APA production in the industry.

  13. Immobilization of penicillin G acylase in epoxy-activated magnetic cellulose microspheres for improvement of biocatalytic stability and activities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaogang; Zhang, Lina

    2010-11-08

    We prepared magnetic cellulose porous microspheres (MCM) with mean diameter of ∼200 μm by employing the sol-gel transition (SGT) method from a mixture of magnemite ferrofluid and cellulose dissolved in 7 wt % NaOH/12% urea aqueous solvent precooled to -12 °C. Subsequently, the cellulose microspheres were activated with epoxy chloropropane to enhance loading efficiency of biomacromolecules. Their morphology, structure, and properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating-sample magnetometer. The results indicated that the spherical magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with mean size of 10 nm were uniformly dispersed and embedded in the cellulose substrate of MCM, and the structure and nature of γ-Fe2O3 were conserved perfectly. Penicillin G acylase (PGA) as a biocatalyst was immobilized successfully in the porous microspheres, as a result of the existence of the cavity and affinity forces in the activated cellulose matrix. The immobilized PGA exhibited highly effective catalytic activity, thermal stability, and enhanced tolerance to pH variations. Furthermore, the cellulose microspheres loaded with the enzymes could be removed and recovered easily by introducing a magnetic field, leading to an acceptable reusability. Therefore, we have provided a simple and biocompatible support for the enzyme immobilization, which will be promising for the applications in the biomaterial fields.

  14. In situ one-pot preparation of superparamagnetic hydrophilic porous microspheres for covalently immobilizing penicillin G acylase to synthesize amoxicillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ping; Gu, Yaohua; Su, Weiguang; Shuai, Huihui; Wang, Julan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic hydrophilic porous microspheres were successfully one-pot synthesized for the first time via in situ inverse suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate, N,N‧-methylene bisacrylamide and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in the presence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ dispersed in formamide, which were denoted as magnetic Fe3O4-GMH microspheres. The morphology and properties of magnetic Fe3O4-GMH microspheres were characterized by SEM, VSM, XRD, FTIR, and so on. The formamide content had an important influence on the morphology of Fe3O4-GMH, and nearly perfectly spherical Fe3O4-GMH particles were formed when the amount of formamide was 15 ml. The diameters of the microspheres were in the range of 100-200 μm and Fe3O4-GMH exhibited superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization of 5.44 emu/g. The specific surface area of microspheres was 138.7 m2/g, the average pore diameter and pore volume were 15.1 nm and 0.60 cm3/g, respectively. The content of oxirane groups on Fe3O4-GMH was 0.40 mmol/g. After penicillin G acylase (PGA) was covalently immobilized on Fe3O4-GMH microspheres, the catalytic performance for amoxicillin synthesis by 6-aminopenicillanic acid and D-hydroxyphenylglycine methyl ester was largely improved. As a result, 90.1% amoxicillin yield and 1.18 of the synthesis/hydrolysis (S/H) ratio were achieved on PGA/Fe3O4-GMH with ethylene glycol as solvent, but only 62.6% amoxicillin yield and 0.37 of the S/H ratio were obtained on free PGA under the same reaction conditions. Furthermore, the amoxicillin yield and S/H ratio were still kept at 88.2% and 1.06, respectively after the immobilized PGA was magnetically separated and recycled for 10 times, indicating that PGA/Fe3O4-GMH had a very good reusability.

  15. Hydrophilic porous magnetic poly(GMA-MBAA-NVP) composite microspheres containing oxirane groups: An efficient carrier for immobilizing penicillin G acylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ping; Su, Weiguang; Gu, Yaohua; Liu, Haifeng; Wang, Julan

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic hydrophilic polymeric microspheres containing oxirane groups were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), N, N‧-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) in the existence of formamide, which were denoted as magnetic poly(GMA-MBAA-NVP) microspheres. The magnetic poly(GMA-MBAA-NVP) microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and so on. The results showed that poly(GMA-MBAA-NVP) microspheres possessed well spherical shape, narrow size distribution, abundant porous structure, reactive oxirane groups and superparamagnetic properties. Formamide used in the present work served as a modifier, a dispersant and a porogen to form final porous polymer microspheres. The penicillin G acylase (PGA) was covalently immobilized onto the magnetic microspheres through the reaction between the amino groups of enzyme and the oxirane groups on the microspheres for producing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). The effects of GMA/NVP ratio and crosslink density on the activity of immobilized PGA were investigated. The highest apparent activity, enzyme loading and coupling yield of immobilized PGA were 821 IU/g, 65.3 mg/g and 42.3% respectively when the mass ratio of GMA/NVP was 1:1 and crosslink density was 60%. Compared with the free PGA, immobilized PGA showed a wider range of pH value and reaction temperature. The relative activity and reaction rate of immobilized PGA remained almost constant after 20 recycles. The magnetic poly(GMA-MBAA-NVP) microspheres would be very promising carriers for immobilizing enzymes in industrial application.

  16. An approach for the improved immobilization of penicillin G acylase onto macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) as a potential industrial biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D; Žuža, Milena G; Jakovetić, Sonja M; Stefanović, Andrea B; Džunuzović, Enis S; Jeremić, Katarina B; Jovanović, Slobodan M

    2016-01-01

    The use of penicillin G acylase (PGA) covalently linked to insoluble carrier is expected to produce major advances in pharmaceutical processing industry and the enzyme stability enhancement is still a significant challenge. The objective of this study was to improve catalytic performance of the covalently immobilized PGA on a potential industrial carrier, macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(GMA-co-EGDMA)], by optimizing the copolymerization process and the enzyme attachment procedure. This synthetic copolymer could be a very promising alternative for the development of low-cost, easy-to-prepare, and stable biocatalyst compared to expensive commercially available epoxy carriers such as Eupergit or Sepabeads. The PGA immobilized on poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) in the shape of microbeads obtained by suspension copolymerization appeared to have higher activity yield compared to copolymerization in a cast. Optimal conditions for the immobilization of PGA on poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) microbeads were 1 mg/mL of PGA in 0.75 mol/L phosphate buffer pH 6.0 at 25°C for 24 h, leading to the active biocatalyst with the specific activity of 252.7 U/g dry beads. Chemical amination of the immobilized PGA could contribute to the enhanced stability of the biocatalyst by inducing secondary interactions between the enzyme and the carrier, ensuring multipoint attachment. The best balance between the activity yield (51.5%), enzyme loading (25.6 mg/g), and stability (stabilization factor 22.2) was achieved for the partially modified PGA.

  17. Enhanced production of penicillin V acylase from Streptomyces lavendulae.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Ramón, F; de la Mata, I; Acebal, C; Castillón, M P

    1999-12-01

    A 28 degrees C, Streptomyces lavendulae produced high levels of penicillin V acylase (178 IU/l of culture) when grown on skim milk as the sole nutrient source for 275 h. The enzyme showed catabolite repression by glucose and was produced in the stationary phase of growth. Penicillin V was a good inducer of penicillin V acylase formation, while phenoxyacetic acid, the side-chain moiety of penicillin V, did not alter enzyme production significantly. The enzyme was stable between pH 6 and 11 and at temperatures from 20 degrees C to 55 degrees C. This extracellular enzyme was able to hydrolyse natural penicillins and unable to hydrolyse penicillin G.

  18. A new role for penicillin acylases: degradation of acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signals by Kluyvera citrophila penicillin G acylase.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Ruchira; Varshney, Nishant Kumar; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Suresh, C G; Prabhune, Asmita

    2014-03-05

    Use of penicillin acylases for the production of semi-synthetic penicillins is well-known. Escherichia coli penicillin G acylase (EcPGA) has been extensively used for this purpose; however, Kluyvera citrophila penicillin G acylase (KcPGA) is assumed to be a better substitute, owing to its increased resilience to extreme pH conditions and ease of immobilization. In the present article we report a new dimension for the amidase activity of KcPGA by demonstrating its ability to cleave bacterial quorum sensing signal molecules, acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) with acyl chain length of 6-8 with or without oxo-substitution at third carbon position. Initial evidence of AHL degrading capability of KcPGA was obtained using CV026 based bioassay method. Kinetic studies performed at pH 8.0 and 50 °C revealed 3-oxo-C6 HSL to be the best substrate for the enzyme with V(max) and K(m) values of 21.37+0.85 mM/h/mg of protein and 0.1+0.01 mM, respectively. C6 HSL was found to be the second best substrate with V(max) and K(m) value of 10.06+0.27 mM/h/mg of protein and 0.28+0.02 mM, respectively. Molecular modeling and docking studies performed on the active site of the enzyme support these findings by showing the fitting of AHLs perfectly within the hydrophobic pocket of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation of 6-Aminopenicillanic Acid, Penicillins, and Penicillin Acylase by Various Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M.

    1966-01-01

    Several penicillin-producing fungi were examined for ability to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and penicillin acylase. 6-APA was found in corn steep liquor fermentations of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus ochraceous, and three strains of Penicillium sp. 6-APA was not detected in fermentations of Epidermophyton floccosum although penicillins were produced. 6-APA formed a large part of the total antibiotic production of T. mentagrophytes. The types of penicillins produced by various fungi were identified by paper chromatography, and it was found that all cultures produced benzylpenicillin. T. mentagrophytes and A. ochraceous showed increased yields of benzylpenicillin and the formation of phenoxymethylpenicillin in response to the addition to the fermentation medium of phenylacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid, respectively. Washed mycelia of the three Penicillium spp. and two high penicillin-yielding strains of P. chrysogenum possessed penicillin acylase activity against phenoxymethylpenicillin. A. ochraceous, T. mentagrophytes, E. floccosum, and Cephalosporium sp. also had penicillin acylase activity against phenoxymethylpenicillin. Only two of the above fungi, T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum, showed significant penicillin acylase activity against benzylpenicillin; in both cases it was very low. The acylase activity of A. ochraceous was considerably increased by culturing in the presence of phenoxyacetic acid. It is concluded that 6-APA frequently but not invariably accompanies the formation of penicillin, and that penicillin acylase activity against phenoxymethylpenicillin is present in all penicillin-producing fungi. PMID:5950252

  20. [Immobilization of penicilin G acylase on polyacrylonitrile fiber].

    PubMed

    Xian, H; Wang, Z

    2001-08-01

    The immobilization of Penicillin G Acylase from Bacillus megaterium by glutaraldehyde crosslinking on the partially acid-hydrolyed polyacrylonitrile fiber was studied. When the amount of--NH2 on fiber were 690 mumol/g and the moisture in the fiber was 64%, and the content of enzyme protein immobilized on fiber was more than 100 mg/g. The activity of 2300 IU/g was obtained with 30% of overall yield and 56% of binding efficiency. The immobilization yield was markedly influenced by ratio of the amount of free enzyme used to the weight of the fiber. The half-life of storage stability of immobilized PGA at room temperature was 130 days. The immobilized PGA kept 80% of the initial activity after 20 cycles of operation in 10% of PGK(W/V) in 0.05 mol/L phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, at 37 degrees C and an enzyme load of 150 IU/g(PGK) and 10 g(PGK) for per cycle of operation. The hydrolysis conversion of PGK in the range of 2.5%-12.5% (W/V) were over 98% for the immobilized PGA. The operation stability of immobilized PGA treated with DTT was better than that of immobilized PGA untreated.

  1. Expression of the Arthrobacter viscosus penicillin G acylase gene in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, H; Katsuta, Y; Nagashima, M; Kamei, T; Yano, M

    1989-01-01

    The penicillin G acylase gene cloned from Arthrobacter viscosus 8895GU was subcloned into vectors, and the recombinant plasmids were transferred into Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis. Both E. coli and B. subtilis transformants expressed the A. viscosus penicillin G acylase. The enzyme activity was found in the intracellular portion of the E. coli transformants or in the cultured medium of the B. subtilis transformants. Penicillin G acylase production in the B. subtilis transformants was 7.2 times higher than that in the parent A. viscosus. The A. viscosus penicillin G acylase was induced by phenylacetic acid in A. viscosus, whereas the enzyme was produced constitutively in both the E. coli and B. subtilis transformants carrying the A. viscosus penicillin G acylase gene. Images PMID:2504107

  2. [Penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli: catalytically active subunits].

    PubMed

    Kabakov, V E; Kliachko, N L; Levashov, A V

    1995-05-01

    Gel filtration under denaturing conditions was used to isolate the alpha- and beta-subunits of penicillin acylase (PA). Refolded subunits were obtained through removing urea by dialysis. Both renatured subunits were catalytically active during hydrolysis of phenylacetic acid p-nitroanilide; this activity decreased after addition of a serine-specific inhibitor--phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The subunits were also active in reversed micelles of Aerosol OT (AOT) in octane, the optimum hydration degree being 11.9 and 17.5 for the light (alpha) and heavy (beta) subunits, respectively. The positions of the maxima were consistent with both theoretically calculated optimum hydration degrees and the earlier reported profile of enzymatic activity for native PA in reversed micelles.

  3. Efficient cascade synthesis of ampicillin from penicillin G potassium salt using wild and mutant penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Senwen; Ma, Xiaoqiang; Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-02-10

    To avoid isolation and purification of the intermediate 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a two-enzyme two-step cascade synthesis of ampicillin from penicillin G was established. In purely aqueous medium, penicillin G hydrolysis and ampicillin synthesis were catalyzed by immobilized wild-type and mutagenized penicillin G acylases from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af PGA), respectively (Fig. 1). The βF24 G mutant Af PGA (the 24th Phenylalanine of the β-subunit was replaced by Glycine) was employed for its superior performance in enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin. By optimizing the reaction conditions, including enzyme loading, temperature, initial pH and D-PGME/6-APA ratio, the conversion of the second step of ampicillin synthesis reached approximately 90% in 240 min and less than 1.7 mole D-PGME were required to produce 1 mole ampicillin. Overall, in a 285 min continuous two-step procedure, an ampicillin yield of 87% was achieved, demonstrating the possibility of improving the cascade synthesis of ampicillin by mutagenized PGA, providing an economically efficient and environmentally benign procedure for semi-synthetic penicillins antibiotics synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of penicillin V acylase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Rathinaswamy, Priya; Pundle, Archana V.; Prabhune, Asmita A.; SivaRaman, Hepzibah; Brannigan, James A. Dodson, Guy G.; Suresh, C. G.

    2005-07-01

    An unannotated protein reported from B. subtilis has been expressed in E. coli and identified as possessing penicillin V acylase activity. The crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of this penicillin V acylase is presented. Penicillin acylase proteins are amidohydrolase enzymes that cleave penicillins at the amide bond connecting the side chain to their β-lactam nucleus. An unannotated protein from Bacillus subtilis has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess penicillin V acylase activity. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 4 M sodium formate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 8.2. Diffraction data were collected under cryogenic conditions to a spacing of 2.5 Å. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.0, b = 308.0, c = 56.0 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 3.23 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 62% solvent content. The structure has been solved using molecular-replacement methods with B. sphaericus penicillin V acylase (PDB code 2pva) as the search model.

  5. Penicillins and other acylamino compounds synthesized by the cell-bound penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M.

    1969-01-01

    1. The penicillin acylase of Eschericha coli N.C.I.B. 8743 is a reversible enzyme. Reaction rates for the two directions have been determined. 2. Measurements of the rates of enzymic synthesis of penicillins from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and various carboxylic acids revealed that p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the best substrate, followed by phenylacetic, 2-thienylacetic, substituted phenylacetic, 3-hexenoic and n-hexanoic acids. 3. The rate of synthesis of penicillin improved when amides or N-acylglycines were used; α-aminobenzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were only synthesized when using these more energy-rich compounds. 4. Phenyl-acetylglycine was the best substrate for the synthesis of benzylpenicillin compared with other derivatives of phenylacetic acid. 5. The enzyme was specific for acyl-l-amino acids, benzylpenicillin being synthesized from phenylacetyl-l-α-aminophenylacetic acid but not from phenylacetyl-d-α-aminophenylacetic acid. 6. α-Phenoxyethylpenicillin was synthesized from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and α-phenoxypropionylthioglycollic acid non-enzymically, but the rate was faster in the presence of the enzyme. 7. The E. coli acylase catalysed the acylation of hydroxylamine by acids or amides to give hydroxamic acids, the phenylacetyl group being the most suitable acyl group. The enzyme also catalysed other acyl-group transfers. PMID:4982418

  6. Hydrolysis of penicillins and related compounds by the cell-bound penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M.

    1969-01-01

    1. A method is given for the preparation of penicillin acylase by using Escherichia coli N.C.I.B. 8743 and a strain selected for higher yield. The enzyme is associated with the bacterial cells and removes the side chains of penicillins to give 6-amino-penicillanic acid and a carboxylic acid. 2. The rates of penicillin deacylation indicated that p-hydroxybenzylpenicillin was the best substrate, followed in diminishing order by benzyl-, dl-α-hydroxybenzyl-, 2-furylmethyl-, 2-thienylmethyl-, d-α-aminobenzyl-, n-propoxymethyl- and isobutoxymethyl-penicillin. Phenylpenicillin and dl-α-carboxybenzylpenicillin were not substrates and phenoxymethyl-penicillin was very poor. 3. Amides and esters of the above penicillins were also substrates for the deacylation reaction, as were cephalosporins with a thienylmethyl side chain. 4. For the deacylation of 2-furylmethylpenicillin at 21° the optimum pH was 8·2. The optimum temperature was 60° at pH7. 5. By using selection A of N.C.I.B. 8743 and determining reaction velocities by assaying yields of 6-amino-penicillanic acid in a 10min. reaction at 50° and pH8·2, the Km for benzylpenicillin was found to be about 30mm and the Km for 2-furylmethylpenicillin, about 10mm. The Vmax. values were 0·6 and 0·24μmole/min./mg. of bacterial cells respectively. PMID:4982417

  7. Molecular cloning and analysis of the gene encoding the thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Verhaert, R M; Riemens, A M; van der Laan, J M; van Duin, J; Quax, W J

    1997-01-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase is more stable than the Escherichia coli enzyme. The activity of the A. faecalis enzyme was not affected by incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 min, whereas more than 50% of the E. coli enzyme was irreversibly inactivated by the same treatment. To study the molecular basis of this higher stability, the A. faecalis enzyme was isolated and its gene was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a polypeptide that is characteristic of periplasmic penicillin G acylase (signal peptide-alpha subunit-spacer-beta subunit). Purification, N-terminal amino acid analysis, and molecular mass determination of the penicillin G acylase showed that the alpha and beta subunits have molecular masses of 23.0 and 62.7 kDa, respectively. The length of the spacer is 37 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment demonstrated significant homology with the penicillin G acylase from E. coli A unique feature of the A. faecalis enzyme is the presence of two cysteines that form a disulfide bridge. The stability of the A. faecalis penicillin G acylase, but not that of the E. coli enzyme, which has no cysteines, was decreased by a reductant. Thus, the improved thermostability is attributed to the presence of the disulfide bridge. PMID:9292993

  8. Crystallization and X-ray structure analysis of a thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Nishant Kumar; Suresh Kumar, R.; Ignatova, Zoya; Prabhune, Asmita; Pundle, Archana; Dodson, Eleanor; Suresh, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme penicillin G acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) catalyzes amide-bond cleavage in benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) to yield 6-aminopenicillanic acid, an intermediate chemical used in the production of semisynthetic penicillins. A thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfPGA) has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in two different space groups: C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.9, b = 86.0, c = 260.2 Å, and P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.6, c = 298.8 Å. Data were collected at 293 K and the structure was determined using the molecular-replacement method. Like other penicillin acylases, AfPGA belongs to the N-terminal nucleophilic hydrolase superfamily, has undergone post-translational processing and has a serine as the N-­terminal residue of the β-chain. A disulfide bridge has been identified in the structure that was not found in the other two known penicillinacylase structures. The presence of the disulfide bridge is perceived to be one factor that confers higher stability to this enzyme. PMID:22442220

  9. Engineering the Substrate Specificity of a Thermophilic Penicillin Acylase from Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Leticia L.; Cantero, Ángel; del Valle, Mercedes; Marina, Anabel; López-Gallego, Fernando; Guisán, José M.

    2013-01-01

    A homologue of the Escherichia coli penicillin acylase is encoded in the genomes of several thermophiles, including in different Thermus thermophilus strains. Although the natural substrate of this enzyme is not known, this acylase shows a marked preference for penicillin K over penicillin G. Three-dimensional models were created in which the catalytic residues and the substrate binding pocket were identified. Through rational redesign, residues were replaced to mimic the aromatic binding site of the E. coli penicillin G acylase. A set of enzyme variants containing between one and four amino acid replacements was generated, with altered catalytic properties in the hydrolyses of penicillins K and G. The introduction of a single phenylalanine residue in position α188, α189, or β24 improved the Km for penicillin G between 9- and 12-fold, and the catalytic efficiency of these variants for penicillin G was improved up to 6.6-fold. Structural models, as well as docking analyses, can predict the positioning of penicillins G and K for catalysis and can demonstrate how binding in a productive pose is compromised when more than one bulky phenylalanine residue is introduced into the active site. PMID:23263966

  10. Engineering the substrate specificity of a thermophilic penicillin acylase from thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Leticia L; Cantero, Angel; del Valle, Mercedes; Marina, Anabel; López-Gallego, Fernando; Guisán, José M; Berenguer, José; Hidalgo, Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    A homologue of the Escherichia coli penicillin acylase is encoded in the genomes of several thermophiles, including in different Thermus thermophilus strains. Although the natural substrate of this enzyme is not known, this acylase shows a marked preference for penicillin K over penicillin G. Three-dimensional models were created in which the catalytic residues and the substrate binding pocket were identified. Through rational redesign, residues were replaced to mimic the aromatic binding site of the E. coli penicillin G acylase. A set of enzyme variants containing between one and four amino acid replacements was generated, with altered catalytic properties in the hydrolyses of penicillins K and G. The introduction of a single phenylalanine residue in position α188, α189, or β24 improved the K(m) for penicillin G between 9- and 12-fold, and the catalytic efficiency of these variants for penicillin G was improved up to 6.6-fold. Structural models, as well as docking analyses, can predict the positioning of penicillins G and K for catalysis and can demonstrate how binding in a productive pose is compromised when more than one bulky phenylalanine residue is introduced into the active site.

  11. New active site oriented glyoxyl-agarose derivatives of Escherichia coli penicillin G acylase

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Davide A; Serra, Immacolata; Ubiali, Daniela; Terreni, Marco; Albertini, Alessandra M

    2007-01-01

    Background Immobilized Penicillin G Acylase (PGA) derivatives are biocatalysts that are industrially used for the hydrolysis of Penicillin G by fermentation and for the kinetically controlled synthesis of semi-synthetic β-lactam antibiotics. One of the most used supports for immobilization is glyoxyl-activated agarose, which binds the protein by reacting through its superficial Lys residues. Since in E. coli PGA Lys are also present near the active site, an immobilization that occurs through these residues may negatively affect the performance of the biocatalyst due to the difficult diffusion of the substrate into the active site. A preferential orientation of the enzyme with the active site far from the support surface would be desirable to avoid this problem. Results Here we report how it is possible to induce a preferential orientation of the protein during the binding process on aldehyde activated supports. A superficial region of PGA, which is located on the opposite side of the active site, is enriched in its Lys content. The binding of the enzyme onto the support is consequently forced through the Lys rich region, thus leaving the active site fully accessible to the substrate. Different mutants with an increasing number of Lys have been designed and, when active, immobilized onto glyoxyl agarose. The synthetic performances of these new catalysts were compared with those of the immobilized wild-type (wt) PGA. Our results show that, while the synthetic performance of the wt PGA sensitively decreases after immobilization, the Lys enriched mutants have similar performances to the free enzyme even after immobilization. We also report the observations made with other mutants which were unable to undergo a successful maturation process for the production of active enzymes or which resulted toxic for the host cell. Conclusion The desired orientation of immobilized PGA with the active site freely accessible can be obtained by increasing the density of Lys residues

  12. Crystallization and X-ray structure analysis of a thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Nishant Kumar; Kumar, R Suresh; Ignatova, Zoya; Prabhune, Asmita; Pundle, Archana; Dodson, Eleanor; Suresh, C G

    2012-03-01

    The enzyme penicillin G acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) catalyzes amide-bond cleavage in benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) to yield 6-aminopenicillanic acid, an intermediate chemical used in the production of semisynthetic penicillins. A thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfPGA) has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in two different space groups: C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 72.9, b = 86.0, c = 260.2 , and P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.6, c = 298.8 . Data were collected at 293 and the structure was determined using the molecular-replacement method. Like other penicillin acylases, AfPGA belongs to the N-terminal nucleophilic hydrolase superfamily, has undergone post-translational processing and has a serine as the N-terminal residue of the β-chain. A disulfide bridge has been identified in the structure that was not found in the other two known penicillin G cylase structures. The presence of the disulfide bridge is perceived to be one factor that confers higher stability to this enzyme.

  13. Cloning, preparation and preliminary crystallographic studies of penicillin V acylase autoproteolytic processing mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P. Manish; Brannigan, James A.; Prabhune, Asmita; Pundle, Archana; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Dodson, G. Guy; Suresh, C. G.

    2005-01-01

    The production, crystallization and characterization of three inactive mutants of penicillin V acylase from B. sphaericus in their respective precursor and processed forms are reported. The space groups are different for the native enzyme and the mutants. The crystallization of three catalytically inactive mutants of penicillin V acylase (PVA) from Bacillus sphaericus in precursor and processed forms is reported. The mutant proteins crystallize in different primitive monoclinic space groups that are distinct from the crystal forms for the native enzyme. Directed mutants and clone constructs were designed to study the post-translational autoproteolytic processing of PVA. The catalytically inactive mutants will provide three-dimensional structures of precursor PVA forms, plus open a route to the study of enzyme–substrate complexes for this industrially important enzyme.

  14. Stabilization of Penicillin G Acylase from Escherichia coli: Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Protein Surface To Increase Multipoint Covalent Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Abian, Olga; Grazú, Valeria; Hermoso, Juan; González, Ramón; García, José Luis; Fernández-Lafuente, Roberto; Guisán, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Three mutations on the penicillin acylase surface (increasing the number of Lys in a defined area) were performed. They did not alter the enzyme's stability and kinetic properties; however, after immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose, the mutant enzyme showed improved stability under all tested conditions (e.g., pH 2.5 at 4°C, pH 5 at 60°C, pH 7 at 55°C, or 60% dimethylformamide), with stabilization factors ranging from 4 to 11 compared with the native enzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose. PMID:14766616

  15. Heterologous production of Escherichia coli penicillin G acylase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Krzeslak, Joanna; Braun, Peter; Voulhoux, Rome; Cool, Robbert H; Quax, Wim J

    2009-07-15

    Penicillin G acylase (PGA) is a widely studied bacterial enzyme of great industrial importance. Since its overproduction in the original organisms is mostly limited to the intracellular bacterial spaces which may lead to aggregation and cell toxicity, we have set out to explore the host organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa that possesses the Xcp machinery for secretion of folded proteins to the extracellular medium. We have made fusion proteins, consisting of Pseudomonas Sec- or Tat-specific signal peptides, the elastase propeptide and the mature penicillin G acylase. With all constructs we obtained production of PGA in P. aeruginosa, but we observed that processing of the PGA was temperature dependent and that the active enzyme could only be found after growth at 25 degrees C or lower temperatures. Remarkably, the mature protein, expressed from a TatProPGA hybrid, was not only found in the extracellular medium and the periplasm, but also in the cytoplasm as assessed by comparison to the reporter beta-lactamase protein. The unusual cytoplasmic localization of the mature protein strongly suggests that processing of PGA can also occur in the cytoplasm of P. aeruginosa. The extracellular localization of the TatProPGA hybrid was found not to be dependent on the tatABC-genes. The elastase signal sequence/propeptide combination appeared to be an inadequate carrier for transporting penicillin G acylase across the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa.

  16. Studies on isolation and purification of penicillin acylase by adsorption on bentonite.

    PubMed

    Sun, W

    1994-01-01

    When bentonite I as an absorbent according to 0.6% (w/v) was added to the supernatant of the fermentation broth for adsorption of penicillin acylase from Bacillus megatherium, 100% activity of penicillin acylase and about 10% protein in the supernatant were adsorbed. The adsorption of enzyme was not obviously changed with different pH and salt concentration of the supernatant. Various kinds of buffer with different pH were used to wash the enzyme-adsorbent complex. Only 1% enzyme activity adsorbed was washed out; however, it can wash out about 15% protein adsorbed. When phosphate buffer containing 10% PEG and NaCl as an eluent was used to elute the complex, 100% of enzyme activity adsorbed on the complex would be eluted, and purification and concentration times of enzyme could achieve about 25 and 6, respectively. The isolation and purification process can be carried out at room temperature. Its characters were very simple and showed a high recovery yield of enzyme activity, and it can be directly used for isolation and purification of penicillin acylase from the fermentation broth.

  17. Chemical modification of serine at the active site of penicillin acylase from Kluyvera citrophila.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, J; Slade, A; Aitken, A; Arche, R; Virden, R

    1991-01-01

    The site of reaction of penicillin acylase from Kluyvera citrophila with the potent inhibitor phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride was investigated by incubating the inactivated enzyme with thioacetic acid to convert the side chain of the putative active-site serine residue to that of cysteine. The protein product contained one thiol group, which was reactive towards 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and iodoacetic acid. Carboxymethylcysteine was identified as the N-terminal residue of the beta-subunit of the carboxy[3H]methylthiol-protein. No significant changes in tertiary structure were detected in the modified penicillin acylase using near-u.v. c.d. spectroscopy. However, the catalytic activity (kcat) with either an anilide or an ester substrate was decreased in the thiol-protein by a factor of more than 10(4). A comparison of sequences of apparently related acylases shows no other extensive regions of conserved sequence containing an invariant serine residue. The side chain of this residue is proposed as a candidate nucleophile in the formation of an acyl-enzyme during catalysis. PMID:1764029

  18. Penicillin V acylase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum exhibits high specific activity and unique kinetics.

    PubMed

    Avinash, V S; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Suresh, C G; Pundle, Archana

    2015-08-01

    Penicillin V acylases (PVAs, E.C.3.5.11) belong to the Ntn hydrolase super family of enzymes that catalyze the deacylation of the side chain from phenoxymethyl penicillin (penicillin V). Penicillin acylases find use in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of semi-synthetic antibiotics. PVAs employ the N-terminal cysteine residue as catalytic nucleophile and are structurally and evolutionarily related to bile salt hydrolases (BSHs). Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a PVA enzyme from the Gram-negative plant pathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum (PaPVA). The enzyme was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli attaining a very high yield (250 mg/l) and a comparatively high specific activity (430 IU/mg). The enzyme showed marginally better pH and thermo-stability over PVAs characterized from Gram-positive bacteria. The enzyme also showed enhanced activity in presence of organic solvents and detergents. The enzyme kinetics turned out to be significantly different from that of previously reported PVAs, displaying positive cooperativity and substrate inhibition. The presence of bile salts had a modulating effect on PaPVA activity. Sequence analysis and characterization reveal the distinctive nature of these enzymes and underscore the need to study PVAs from Gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Structural modelling of substrate binding and inhibition in penicillin V acylase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Avinash, V S; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Suresh, C G; Pundle, Archana V; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar

    2013-08-09

    Penicillin V acylases (PVAs) and bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) have considerable sequence and structural similarity; however, they vary significantly in their substrate specificity. We have identified a PVA from a Gram-negative organism, Pectobacterium atrosepticum (PaPVA) that turned out to be a remote homolog of the PVAs and BSHs reported earlier. Even though the active site residues were conserved in PaPVA it showed high specificity towards penV and interestingly the penV acylase activity was inhibited by bile salts. Comparative modelling and docking studies were carried out to understand the structural differences of the binding site that confer this characteristic property. We show that PaPVA exhibits significant differences in structure, which are in contrast to those of known PVAs and such enzymes from Gram-negative bacteria require further investigation.

  20. Structure-based stabilization of an enzyme: the case of penicillin acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianwen; Zhu, Hu; Ma, Xingyuan; Ma, Yushu; Wei, Dongzhi

    2006-01-01

    The modeled structure of penicillin acylase from Alcaligenes faecali (AFPGA) was constructed by comparative modeling with the Modeller program. Candidate positions that could be replaced with cysteine were estimated by scanning the modeled structure of AFPGA with the program MODIP (modeling disulfide bond in protein). The mutant Q3C/P751C had a higher optimum temperature by three degrees than that of the wild type AFPGA. The half life of the double mutant Q3C/P751C at 55 degrees C was increased by 50%. To our knowledge, this was the first structure-based genetic modification of AFPGA.

  1. Characterization of an industrial biocatalyst: immobilized glutaryl-7-ACA acylase.

    PubMed

    Monti, D; Carrea, G; Riva, S; Baldaro, E; Frare, G

    2000-10-20

    A batch of the immobilized industrial biocatalyst glutaryl-7-ACA acylase (GA), one of the two enzymes involved in the biotransformation of cephalosporin C (CefC) into 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), was characterized. K(m) value for glutaryl-7-ACA was 5 mM. Enzyme activity was found to be optimal at pH between 7 and 9.5 and to increase with temperature and in buffered solutions. To avoid product degradation, optimal reaction conditions were obtained working at 25 degrees C using a 50-mM phosphate buffer, pH 8.0. Immobilized GA showed good stability at pH value below 9 and at temperature up to 30 degrees C. The inactivation of immobilized GA in the presence of different amounts of H(2)O(2), a side product that might be present in the plant-scale industrial solutions of glutaryl-7-ACA, was also investigated, but the deactivation rates were negligible at H(2)O(2) concentration that might be reached under operative conditions. Finally, biocatalyst performance in the complete two-step enzymatic conversion process from CefC to 7-ACA was determined on a laboratory scale. Following the complete conversion of a 75 mM solution of CefC into glutaryl-7-ACA catalyzed by an immobilized D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), immobilized GA was used for the transformation of this intermediate into the final product 7-ACA. This reaction was repeated for 42 cycles. An estimation of the residual activity of the biocatalyst showed that 50% inactivation of immobilized GA was reached after approximately 300 cycles, corresponding to an enzyme consumption of 0.4 kU per kg of isolated 7-ACA. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Penicillin G acylase from Achromobacter sp. CCM 4824 : an efficient biocatalyst for syntheses of beta-lactam antibiotics under conditions employed in large-scale processes.

    PubMed

    Bečka, Stanislav; Štěpánek, Václav; Vyasarayani, Rajasekar W; Grulich, Michal; Maršálek, Jaroslav; Plháčková, Kamila; Dobišová, Marie; Marešová, Helena; Plačková, Martina; Valešová, Renáta; Palyzová, Andrea; Datla, Anupama; Ashar, Trupti K; Kyslík, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    Penicillin G acylase from Achromobacter sp. (NPGA) was studied in the enzymatic synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics by kinetically controlled N-acylation. When compared with penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli (PGA), the NPGA was significantly more efficient at syntheses of ampicillin and amoxicillin (higher S/H ratio and product accumulation) in the whole range of substrate concentrations. The degree of conversion of 6-aminopenicillanic acid to amoxicillin and ampicillin (160 mM 6-APA, 350 mM acyl donor methylester[Symbol: see text]HCl, pH 6.3, 25 °C, reaction time of 200 min) with immobilized NPGA equaled 96.9 % and 91.1 %, respectively. The enzyme was highly thermostable with maximum activity at 60 °C (pH 8.0) and 65 °C (pH 6.0). Activity half-life at 60 °C (pH 8.0) and at 60 °C (pH 6.0) was 24 min and 6.9 h, respectively. Immobilized NPGA exhibited long operational stability with half-life of about 2,000 cycles for synthesis of amoxicillin at conversion conditions used in large-scale processes (230 mM 6-APA, 340 mM D-4-hydroxyphenylglycine methylester[Symbol: see text]HCl, 27.5 °C, pH 6.25). We discuss our results with literature data available for related penicillin acylases in terms of their industrial potential.

  3. Cloning, overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a slow-processing mutant of penicillin G acylase from Kluyvera citrophila

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Nishant Kumar; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Suresh, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    Kluyvera citrophila penicillin G acylase (KcPGA) has recently attracted increased attention relative to the well studied and commonly used Escherichia coli PGA (EcPGA) because KcPGA is more resilient to harsh conditions and is easier to immobilize for the industrial hydrolysis of natural penicillins to generate the 6-aminopenicillin (6-APA) nucleus, which is the starting material for semi-synthetic antibiotic production. Like other penicillin acylases, KcPGA is synthesized as a single-chain inactive pro-PGA, which upon autocatalytic processing becomes an active heterodimer of α and β chains. Here, the cloning of the pac gene encoding KcPGA and the preparation of a slow-processing mutant precursor are reported. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of this precursor protein are described. The protein crystallized in two different space groups, P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.0, b = 124.6, c = 135.1 Å, α = 104.1, β = 101.4, γ = 96.5°, and C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 265.1, b = 54.0, c = 249.2 Å, β = 104.4°, using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected at 100 K and the phases were determined using the molecular-replacement method. The initial maps revealed electron density for the spacer peptide. PMID:23908045

  4. Efficient enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin by mutant Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase.

    PubMed

    Deng, Senwen; Su, Erzheng; Ma, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Shengli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-04-10

    Semi-synthetic β-lactam antibiotics (SSBAs) are one of the most important antibiotic families in the world market. Their enzymatic synthesis can be catalyzed by penicillin G acylases (PGAs). In this study, to improve enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin, site-saturating mutagenesis was performed on three conserved amino acid residues: βF24, αR146, and αF147 of thermo-stable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af PGA). Four mutants βF24G, βF24A, βF24S, and βF24P were recovered by screening the mutant bank. Kinetic analysis of them showed up to 800-fold increased kcat/Km value for activated acyl donor D-phenylglycine methyl ester (D-PGME). When βF24G was used for ampicillin synthesis under kinetic control at industrially relevant conditions, 95% of nucleophile 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) was converted to ampicillin in aqueous medium at room temperature while 12% process time is needed to reach maximum product accumulation at 25% enzyme concentration compared with the wild-type Af PGA. Consequently, process productivity of enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin catalyzed by Af PGA was improved by more than 130 times, which indicated an enzyme viable for efficient SSBAs synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved activity and pH stability of E. coli ATCC 11105 penicillin acylase by error-prone PCR.

    PubMed

    Balci, Huseyin; Ozturk, Merve Tuzlakoglu; Pijning, Tjaard; Ozturk, Saliha Issever; Gumusel, Fusun

    2014-05-01

    Penicillin G acylase is the key enzyme used in the industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics. This enzyme hydrolyzes penicillin G and related β-lactam antibiotics releasing 6-aminopenicillanic acid, which is an intermediate in the production of semisynthetic penicillins. To improve the enzymatic activity of Escherichia coli penicillin acylase, sequential rounds of error-prone polymerase chain reaction were applied to the E. coli pac gene. After the second round of evolution, the best mutant M2234 with enhanced activity was selected and analyzed. DNA sequence analyses of M2234 revealed that one amino acid residue (K297I), located far from the center of the catalytic pocket, was changed. This mutant (M2234) has a specific activity 4.0 times higher than the parent enzyme and also displayed higher stability at pH 10.

  6. Activation and stabilization of penicillin V acylase from streptomyces lavendulae in the presence of glycerol and glycols.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, M; Torres-Guzmán, R; de La Mata, I; Castillón, M P; Acebal, C

    2000-01-01

    Penicillin V acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) from Streptomyces lavendulae showed both enhanced activity and stability in mixed water/glycerol and water/glycols solvents. The catalytic activity was increased up to a critical concentration of these cosolvents, but further addition of the latter led to a gradual protein deactivation. The highest stabilizing effect was achieved in the presence of glycerol. Thermal stability was increased proportionally to the concentration of glycerol and glycols in the reaction mixture only if the amount added is below the threshold concentration. Reaction conditions that allow simultaneously enhanced activity and stability in the hydrolysis of penicillin V catalyzed by penicillin V acylase from S. lavendulae could be established.

  7. Overexpression of Penicillin V Acylase from Streptomyces lavendulae and Elucidation of Its Catalytic Residues

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Bacete, Jesús; Hormigo, Daniel; Torres-Gúzman, Raquel; Arroyo, Miguel; Castillón, María Pilar; García, José Luis; Acebal, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The pva gene from Streptomyces lavendulae ATCC 13664, encoding a novel penicillin V acylase (SlPVA), has been isolated and characterized. The gene encodes an inactive precursor protein containing a secretion signal peptide that is activated by two internal autoproteolytic cleavages that release a 25-amino-acid linker peptide and two large domains of 18.79 kDa (α-subunit) and 60.09 kDa (β-subunit). Based on sequence alignments and the three-dimensional model of SlPVA, the enzyme contains a hydrophobic pocket involved in catalytic activity, including Serβ1, Hisβ23, Valβ70, and Asnβ272, which were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis studies. The heterologous expression of pva in S. lividans led to the production of an extracellularly homogeneous heterodimeric enzyme at a 5-fold higher concentration (959 IU/liter) than in the original host and in a considerably shorter time. According to the catalytic properties of SlPVA, the enzyme must be classified as a new member of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily, which belongs to a novel subfamily of acylases that recognize substrates with long hydrophobic acyl chains and have biotechnological applications in semisynthetic antifungal production. PMID:25501472

  8. Overexpression of penicillin V acylase from Streptomyces lavendulae and elucidation of its catalytic residues.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bacete, Jesús; Hormigo, Daniel; Torres-Gúzman, Raquel; Arroyo, Miguel; Castillón, María Pilar; García, Luis José; Acebal, Carmen; de la Mata, Isabel

    2015-02-01

    The pva gene from Streptomyces lavendulae ATCC 13664, encoding a novel penicillin V acylase (SlPVA), has been isolated and characterized. The gene encodes an inactive precursor protein containing a secretion signal peptide that is activated by two internal autoproteolytic cleavages that release a 25-amino-acid linker peptide and two large domains of 18.79 kDa (alpha-subunit) and 60.09 kDA (beta-subunit). Based on sequence alignments and the three-dimensional model of SlPVA, the enzyme contains a hydrophobicpocket involved in catalytic activity, including Serbeta1, Hisbeta23, Valbeta70, and Asnbeta272, which were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis studies. The heterologous expression of pva in S. lividans led to the production of an extracellularly homogeneous heterodimeric enzyme at a 5-fold higher concentration (959 IU/liter) than in the original host and in a considerably shorter time. According to the catalytic properties of SlPVA, the enzyme must be classified as a new member of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily, which belongs to a novel subfamily of acylases that recognize substrates with long hydrophobic acyl chains and have biotechnological applications in semisynthetic antifungal production.

  9. Changing the substrate specificity of penicillin G acylase from Kluyvera citrophila through selective pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Roa, A; Garcia, J L; Salto, F; Cortes, E

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli (muT, mutD, Leu-) cells transformed with plasmid pYKD59 harbouring the pac gene encoding penicillin acylase (PA) from Kluyvera citrophila ATCC 21285 were exposed to environmental conditions that made expression of this enzyme essential for growth. Under these conditions, spontaneous mutants were isolated that used adipyl-L-leucine as the sole source of L-leucine. DNA sequencing of the mutant pac genes identified a transversion mutation of thymine to guanine at position 1163. This mutation was located in the beta-subunit of the enzyme and resulted in conversion of Phe-360 to valine. The assignment of this mutation to the shift in substrate specificity was further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Secondary-structure prediction of the region surrounding Phe-360 suggests that this mutation should not produce any significant structural change. The purified mutant acylase was able to hydrolyse adipyl-, glutaryl-, valeryl-, caproyl-, heptanoyl- and phenoxyacetyl-L-leucine at pH 5 with greater efficiency than the wild-type enzyme. However, the mutant enzyme was not able to hydrolyse glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid and had lost 90% and 50% of activity on penicillin G and phenylacetyl-L-leucine respectively. Nevertheless, mutant PA retained its original activity on 6-nitro-3-phenylacetamidobenzoate and p-nitrophenylphenylacetate, suggesting that the binding specificity of PA by the acyl and amine moieties of the substrate are not independent phenomena. The small differences observed between the c.d. spectra of the mutant enzyme recorded at pH 5 and 8 suggest the existence of different conformational states at the two pH values, but these differences were indistinguishable from those observed in the native enzyme and cannot be correlated with the shift in substrate specificity. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of PA by laboratory evolution and use it to identify the amino acids involved in substrate recognition

  10. Inoculum studies in production of penicillin G acylase by Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14945.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, Laura M; Silva, Rosineide G; Giordano, Roberto C; Giordano, Raquel L C

    2002-01-01

    This article reports studies concerning the production of penicillin G acylase (PGA) by Bacillus megaterium. This enzyme has industrial use in the hydrolysis of penicillin G to obtain 6-aminopenicillanic acid, an essential intermediate for the production of semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. Although most microorganisms produce the enzyme intracellularly, B. megaterium provides extracellular PGA. The enzyme production by microorganisms involves several steps, resulting in a many operational variables to be studied. The study of the inoculum is an important step to be accomplished, before addressing other issues such as culture optimization and downstream processing. In this study, using a standard inoculum as reference, several runs were performed aiming at the definition of operational conditions in the PGA production. Cell concentration and PGA activity in the production medium were measured after 24, 48, and 72 h of the beginning of the production phase. This study encompasses the duration of the inoculum germination phase and the concentration of cells used to startup the germination. Based on these results, PGA productivity during the production phase was maximized. The selected values for these variables were 1.5 x 10(7) spores/mL of germination medium, germination during 24 h, and 72 h for the production phase.

  11. [The pH-dependent catalytic reaction of penicillin G acylase and its mutants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Bo; Yang, Sheng; Wu, Xing-Jia; Li, Shi-Yun; Yuan, Zhong-Yi

    2002-11-01

    The pH-dependence in the catalytic reaction of recombinant penicillin G acylase and its mutants from B.megaterium has been studied by using kinetic methods. pK(1) and pK(2)of the residues of the wild type penicillin G a cylase, involved in the catalyzed reaction, were 5.50-5.87 and 10.73, respectively, from the curves of logV(m) and log(V(m)/K(m)) versus pH. Results showed tha t the pK(1) and pK(2) values of these residues of the mutants were similar to that of the wild type. pK(1) of 5.64-5.86 for mutant A and 5.69-6.96 for mutant B were obtained, while pK(2) was 10.61 and 10.48 for mutant A and B, respectively. At the same time, pK values at different temperatures were investigated. The ionization enthalpies(deltaH) were 44.38-59.03 kJ/mol and 147.37 kJ/mol, respectively, from th e curve of pK versus temperature. It was presumed according to the results mentioned above that the ionizing residues, involved in the reaction, wer e histidine and lysine that are localized around the active site.

  12. Kinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics synthesis by penicillin G acylase (PGA) from the viewpoint of the industrial enzymatic reactor optimization.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Roberto C; Ribeiro, Marcelo P A; Giordano, Raquel L C

    2006-01-01

    Competition with well-established, fine-tuned chemical processes is a major challenge for the industrial implementation of the enzymatic synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. Enzyme-based routes are acknowledged as an environmental-friendly approach, avoiding organochloride solvents and working at room temperatures. Among different alternatives, the kinetically controlled synthesis, using immobilized penicillin G acylase (PGA) in aqueous environment, with the simultaneous crystallization of the product, is the most promising one. However, PGA may act either as a transferase or as a hydrolase, catalyzing two undesired side reactions: the hydrolysis of the acyl side-chain precursor (an ester or amide, a parallel reaction) and the hydrolysis of the antibiotic itself (a consecutive reaction). This review focuses specially on aspects of the reactions' kinetics that may affect the performance of the enzymatic reactor.

  13. Purification and characterization of Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase expressed in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; Zhou, Li-Ping; Chen, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Yan-Liang; Li, Ren-Bao; Yang, Sheng; Yuan, Zhong-Yi

    2003-05-01

    The Alcaligenes faecalis PGA gene encoding heterodimeric penicillin G acylase (PGA) was cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis respectively. In contrast to E.coli hosts where the enzymes were retained in the periplasm, B. subtilis cell secreted the recombinant enzyme into the medium. Contrary to limited expression yield of E. coli (pETAPGA), PGA extracellularly expressed by B. subtilis (pBAPGA) and B. subtilis (pMAPGA) reached the highest yield of 653 u/L. This yield increased 109-fold higher than the native expression of A. faecalis CICC AS1.767. The enzyme was fractionated with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and purified by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B with a yield of 81%. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 1.469 u/mg. Furthermore, some enzyme characteristics, such as the pH and temperature optimum, the stability against organic solvent and the ratio of cepholexin synthesis to hydrolysis were determined. By overexpressing A. faecalis PGA in B. subtilis and purifying secreted enzyme from culture medium one could readily obtain a large amount of an alternative source of PGA.

  14. Catalytic activity of refolded penicillin acylase subunits in aqueous solution and aerosol ot reversed micelles in octane.

    PubMed

    Kabakov, V E; Klyachko, N L; Levashov, A V

    1994-08-01

    Refolded alpha and beta subunits of penicillin acylase were produced by gel-filtration under denaturing conditions followed by removal of urea through dialysis. Preparations of both renatured subunits hidrolysed specific substrate--phenylacetic acid p-nitroanilide in buffer and in the system of Aerosol OT reversed micelles, the alpha subunit being most catalytically active at Wo = 11.9, while the beta subunit--at Wo = 17.5. There was a good correlation between the position of the found maxima, the theoretically calculated optimal hydration degrees as well as the earlier reported profile of enzymatic activity for native enzyme in reversed micelles.

  15. Penicillin V acylases from gram-negative bacteria degrade N-acylhomoserine lactones and attenuate virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Avinash Vellore; Utari, Putri Dwi; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; van Merkerk, Ronald; Quax, Wim; Pundle, Archana

    2017-03-01

    Virulence pathways in gram-negative pathogenic bacteria are regulated by quorum sensing mechanisms, through the production and sensing of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs leading to attenuation of virulence (quorum quenching) could pave the way for the development of new antibacterials. Penicillin V acylases (PVAs) belong to the Ntn hydrolase superfamily, together with AHL acylases. PVAs are exploited widely in the pharmaceutical industry, but their role in the natural physiology of their native microbes is not clearly understood. This report details the characterization of AHL degradation activity by homotetrameric PVAs from two gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, Pectobacterium atrosepticum (PaPVA) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AtPVA). Both the PVAs exhibited substrate specificity for degrading long-chain AHLs. Exogenous addition of these enzymes into Pseudomonas aeruginosa greatly diminished the production of elastase and pyocyanin and biofilm formation and increased the survival rate in an insect model of acute infection. Subtle structural differences in the PVA active site that regulate specificity for acyl chain length have been characterized, which could reflect the evolution of AHL-degrading acylases in relation to the environment of the bacteria that produce them and also provide strategies for enzyme engineering. The potential for using these enzymes as therapeutic agents in clinical applications and a few ideas about their possible significance in microbial physiology have also been discussed.

  16. Dynamic reaction design of enzymic biotransformations in organic media: equilibrium-controlled synthesis of antibiotics by penicillin G acylase.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lafuente, R; Rosell, C M; Guisan, J M

    1996-10-01

    Parameters relevant to the thermodynamically controlled synthesis of cephalothin utilizing highly active stabilized penicillin G acylase derivatives were studied. These included solubility/stability of substrates, enzyme derivative activity/stability, reaction course and synthetic yields. These parameters were altered by varying the pH, dimethylformamide concentration and temperature. Simultaneous optimization of the selected parameters could not be achieved with a single set of conditions. However, continuous adjustment of conditions throughout the reaction course allowed each parameter to be optimized (dynamic reaction design). This strategy works by optimizing those parameters that are critical to the overall reaction at a given point, whilst leaving others sub-optimal when their contribution to the total is minimal. This strategy has achieved a 90% transformation of antibiotic nucleus to cephalothin at a final concentration of 20 g/l, high enzyme and reactant stability, with a reaction period of 3 h (using 1 ml of derivative/40 ml of reaction solution).

  17. Functional expression of a penicillin acylase from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB27 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Penicillin acylases (PACs) are enzymes of industrial relevance in the manufacture of β-lactam antibiotics. Development of a PAC with a longer half-life under the reaction conditions used is essential for the improvement of the operational stability of the process. A gene encoding a homologue to Escherichia coli PAC was found in the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (Tth) HB27. Because of the nature of this PAC and its complex maturation that is crucial to reach its functional heterodimeric final conformation, the overexpression of this enzyme in a heterologous mesophilic host was a challenge. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the PAC protein from Tth HB27 overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Results Fusions to a superfolder green fluorescent protein and differential membrane solubilization assays indicated that the native enzyme remains attached through its amino-terminal end to the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane of Tth cells. In order to overexpress this PAC in E. coli cells, a variant of the protein devoid of its membrane anchoring segment was constructed. The effect of the co-expression of chaperones and calcium supplementation of the culture medium was investigated. The total production of PAC was enhanced by the presence of DnaK/J and GrpE and even more by trigger factor and GroEL/ES. In addition, 10 mM calcium markedly improved both PAC specific and volumetric activities. Recombinant PAC was affinity-purified and proper maturation of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis of the subunits. The recombinant protein was tested for activity towards several penicillins, cephalosporins and homoserine lactones. Hydrophobic acyl-chain penicillins were preferred over the rest of the substrates. Penicillin K (octanoyl penicillin) was the best substrate, with the highest specificity constant value (16.12 mM-1.seg-1). The optimum pH was aprox. 4 and the optimum temperature was 75

  18. Functional expression of a penicillin acylase from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB27 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Torres, Leticia L; Ferreras, Eloy R; Cantero, Angel; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Berenguer, José

    2012-08-09

    Penicillin acylases (PACs) are enzymes of industrial relevance in the manufacture of β-lactam antibiotics. Development of a PAC with a longer half-life under the reaction conditions used is essential for the improvement of the operational stability of the process. A gene encoding a homologue to Escherichia coli PAC was found in the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (Tth) HB27. Because of the nature of this PAC and its complex maturation that is crucial to reach its functional heterodimeric final conformation, the overexpression of this enzyme in a heterologous mesophilic host was a challenge. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the PAC protein from Tth HB27 overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Fusions to a superfolder green fluorescent protein and differential membrane solubilization assays indicated that the native enzyme remains attached through its amino-terminal end to the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane of Tth cells. In order to overexpress this PAC in E. coli cells, a variant of the protein devoid of its membrane anchoring segment was constructed. The effect of the co-expression of chaperones and calcium supplementation of the culture medium was investigated. The total production of PAC was enhanced by the presence of DnaK/J and GrpE and even more by trigger factor and GroEL/ES. In addition, 10 mM calcium markedly improved both PAC specific and volumetric activities. Recombinant PAC was affinity-purified and proper maturation of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis of the subunits. The recombinant protein was tested for activity towards several penicillins, cephalosporins and homoserine lactones. Hydrophobic acyl-chain penicillins were preferred over the rest of the substrates. Penicillin K (octanoyl penicillin) was the best substrate, with the highest specificity constant value (16.12 mM-1.seg-1). The optimum pH was aprox. 4 and the optimum temperature was 75 °C. The half-life of

  19. Computational design of a pH stable enzyme: understanding molecular mechanism of penicillin acylase's adaptation to alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Panin, Nikolay; Kirilin, Evgeny; Shcherbakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Pavel; Svedas, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    Protein stability provides advantageous development of novel properties and can be crucial in affording tolerance to mutations that introduce functionally preferential phenotypes. Consequently, understanding the determining factors for protein stability is important for the study of structure-function relationship and design of novel protein functions. Thermal stability has been extensively studied in connection with practical application of biocatalysts. However, little work has been done to explore the mechanism of pH-dependent inactivation. In this study, bioinformatic analysis of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily was performed to identify functionally important subfamily-specific positions in protein structures. Furthermore, the involvement of these positions in pH-induced inactivation was studied. The conformational mobility of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli was analyzed through molecular modeling in neutral and alkaline conditions. Two functionally important subfamily-specific residues, Gluβ482 and Aspβ484, were found. Ionization of these residues at alkaline pH promoted the collapse of a buried network of stabilizing interactions that consequently disrupted the functional protein conformation. The subfamily-specific position Aspβ484 was selected as a hotspot for mutation to engineer enzyme variant tolerant to alkaline medium. The corresponding Dβ484N mutant was produced and showed 9-fold increase in stability at alkaline conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of subfamily-specific positions can be further explored to study mechanisms of protein inactivation and to design more stable variants for the engineering of homologous Ntn-hydrolases with improved catalytic properties.

  20. Computational Design of a pH Stable Enzyme: Understanding Molecular Mechanism of Penicillin Acylase's Adaptation to Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Panin, Nikolay; Kirilin, Evgeny; Shcherbakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Pavel; Švedas, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    Protein stability provides advantageous development of novel properties and can be crucial in affording tolerance to mutations that introduce functionally preferential phenotypes. Consequently, understanding the determining factors for protein stability is important for the study of structure-function relationship and design of novel protein functions. Thermal stability has been extensively studied in connection with practical application of biocatalysts. However, little work has been done to explore the mechanism of pH-dependent inactivation. In this study, bioinformatic analysis of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily was performed to identify functionally important subfamily-specific positions in protein structures. Furthermore, the involvement of these positions in pH-induced inactivation was studied. The conformational mobility of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli was analyzed through molecular modeling in neutral and alkaline conditions. Two functionally important subfamily-specific residues, Gluβ482 and Aspβ484, were found. Ionization of these residues at alkaline pH promoted the collapse of a buried network of stabilizing interactions that consequently disrupted the functional protein conformation. The subfamily-specific position Aspβ484 was selected as a hotspot for mutation to engineer enzyme variant tolerant to alkaline medium. The corresponding Dβ484N mutant was produced and showed 9-fold increase in stability at alkaline conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of subfamily-specific positions can be further explored to study mechanisms of protein inactivation and to design more stable variants for the engineering of homologous Ntn-hydrolases with improved catalytic properties. PMID:24959852

  1. Enantioselective acylation of β-phenylalanine acid and its derivatives catalyzed by penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengchao; Ji, Lilian; Wang, Xinfeng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a simple, efficient method for producing racemic β-phenylalanine acid (BPA) and its derivatives via the enantioselective acylation catalyzed by the penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af-PGA). When the reaction was run at 25°C and pH 10 in an aqueous medium containing phenylacetamide and BPA in a molar ratio of 2:1, 8 U/mL enzyme and 0.1 M BPA, the maximum BPA conversion efficiency at 40 min only reached 36.1%, which, however, increased to 42.9% as the pH value and the molar ratio of phenylacetamide to BPA were elevated to 11 and 3:1, respectively. Under the relatively optimum reaction conditions, the maximum conversion efficiencies of BPA derivatives all reached about 50% in a relatively short reaction time (45-90 min). The enantiomeric excess value of product (ee(p)) and enantiomeric excess value of substrate (ee(s)) were all above 98% and 95%, respectively. These results suggest that the method established in this study is practical, effective, and environmentally benign and may be applied to industrial production of enantiomerically pure BPA and its derivatives.

  2. Purification and partial characterization of novel penicillin V acylase from Acinetobacter sp. AP24 isolated from Loktak Lake, an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Philem, Pushparani Devi; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Dharne, Mahesh S; Prabhune, Asmita A

    2016-07-03

    Members of the bacterial genus Acinetobacter have attracted great attention over the past few decades, on account of their various biotechnological applications and clinical implications. In this study, we are reporting the first experimental penicillin V acylase (PVA) activity from this genus. Penicillin acylases are pharmaceutically important enzymes widely used in the synthesis of semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. The bacterium, identified as Acinetobacter sp. AP24, was isolated from the water of Loktak Lake (Manipur, India), an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. PVA production was increased threefold in an optimized medium with 0.2% sodium glutamate and 1% glucose as nitrogen and carbon sources respectively, after 24 hr of fermentation at 28°C and pH 7.0 with shaking at 180 rpm. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by cation-exchange chromatography using SP-sepharose resin. The PVA is a homotetramer with subunit molecular mass of 34 kD. The enzyme was highly specific toward penicillin V with optimal hydrolytic activity at 40°C and pH 7.5. The enzyme was stable from pH 5.0 to 9.0 at 25 °C for 2 hr. The enzyme retained 75% activity after 1 hr of incubation at 40°C at pH 7.5.

  3. The PaaX Repressor, a Link between Penicillin G Acylase and the Phenylacetyl-Coenzyme A Catabolon of Escherichia coli W

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Beatriz; García, José L.; Prieto, María A.

    2004-01-01

    The pac gene, encoding the penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli W, is regulated by the PaaX repressor of the phenylacetate catabolic pathway. pac expression depends on the synthesis of phenylacetyl-coenzyme A. PaaX and the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) bind in vitro to the Ppac promoter region. A palindromic sequence proposed as the PaaX operator is located upstream of the −35 box overlapping a CRP binding site, an unusual position that suggests a novel regulatory mechanism. PMID:15028709

  4. Prediction of penicillin V acylase stability in water-organic co-solvent monophasic systems as a function of solvent composition.

    PubMed

    Arroyo; Torres-Guzmán; de la Mata I; Castillón; Acebal

    2000-07-01

    Hydrolytic activity of penicillin V acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) can be improved by using organic cosolvents in monophasic systems. However, the addition of these solvents may result in loss of stability of the enzyme. The thermal stability of penicillin V acylase from Streptomyces lavendulae in water-organic cosolvent monophasic systems depends on the nature of the organic solvent and its concentration in the media. The threshold solvent concentration (at which half enzymatic activity is displayed) is related to the denaturing capacity of the solvent. We found out linear correlations between the free energy of denaturation at 40 degrees C and the concentration of the solvent in the media. On one hand, those solvents with logP values lower than -1.8 have a protective effect that is enhanced when its concentration is increased in the medium. On the other hand, those solvents with logP values higher than -1.8 have a denaturing effect: the higher this value and concentration, the more deleterious. Deactivation constants of PVA at 40 degrees C can be predicted in any monophasic system containing a water-miscible solvent.

  5. [Constitutive expression and purification of Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Jian; Cai, Jin; Sun, Jian; Yuan, Zhong-Yi

    2004-09-01

    Considering Alcaligenes faecalis pencillin G acylase(AfPGA), which possesses the attractive characteristics for beta-lactam antibiotics conversions, the gene of PGA was cloned into an expressing vector pKKFPGA. The recombinant plasmid contained multicopy replicon(COLE 1), trc promoter, AfPGA gene, rrnB transcript terminator and ampicillin marker transformed Escherichia coli DH5alpha. As both the recombinant plasmid and the host DH5alpha had no laclq gene, the trc promoter was always active and the AfPGA could be constitutively expressed without IPTG induction in the host DH5alpha. In the shaking flask, the recombinant cell was inoculated into the fermentation medium (tryptone 10g/L, yeast extract 5g/L, MgSO4 x 7 H2O 1g, KH2 PO4 2g/L, K2HPO4 x 3H2O 5g/L, Na2HPO4 x 12H2O 7g/L, (NH4)2SO4 1.2g/L, NH4Cl 0.2 g/L, NaCl 0.1g/L, dextrin 30g/L) and cultured at 28 degrees C for 20h. The production of AfPGA reached 2,590u/L(NIPAB method), with a cell-density-specific activity of more than 300(u/L)/A600, this yield increased 432 fold higher than the native expression of Alcaligenes faecalis . Without ammonium sulphate fractionation and dialysis, the supernatant of crude extract was directly loaded on DEAE-Sepharose CL 6B column equilibrated by phosphate buffer (50mmol/L, pH7.8), and the enzyme fraction was not absorbed on the column but impurities were absorbed. Subsequently the effluent was added ammonium sulphate to 1mol/L and loaded on Butyl-Sepharose CL 4B column equilibrated by 50mmol/L phosphate buffer pH7.8-1mol/L ammonium sulphate. The enzyme was eluted as concentration of ammonium sulphate in phosphate buffer decreased to 0, PGA was eluted. After these two column chromatography, the enzyme was enriched 20 times with a 91% activity recovery. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 68.6u/mg protein. However, the overproduction of PGA was often limited by translocation and/or periplasmic processing steps, subsequently resulted in intracellular accumulation of

  6. Role of alphaArg145 and betaArg263 in the active site of penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand B L; Prins, Antoon K; de Vries, Erik; Janssen, Dick B

    2002-01-01

    The active site of penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli contains two conserved arginine residues. The function of these arginines, alphaArg145 and betaArg263, was studied by site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis of the mutant enzymes. The mutants alphaArg145-->Leu (alphaArg145Leu), alphaArg145Cys and alphaArg145Lys were normally processed and exported to the periplasm, whereas expression of the mutants betaArg263Leu, betaArg263Asn and betaArg263Lys yielded large amounts of precursor protein in the periplasm, indicating that betaArg263 is crucial for efficient processing of the enzyme. Either modification of both arginine residues by 2,3-butanedione or replacement by site-directed mutagenesis yielded enzymes with a decreased specificity (kcat/K(m)) for 2-nitro-5-[(phenylacetyl)amino]benzoic acid, indicating that both residues are important in catalysis. Compared with the wild type, the alphaArg145 mutants exhibited a 3-6-fold-increased preference for 6-aminopenicillanic acid as the deacylating nucleophile compared with water. Analysis of the steady-state parameters of these mutants for the hydrolysis of penicillin G and phenylacetamide indicated that destabilization of the Michaelis-Menten complex accounts for the improved activity with beta-lactam substrates. Analysis of pH-activity profiles of wild-type enzyme and the betaArg263Lys mutant showed that betaArg263 has to be positively charged for catalysis, but is not involved in substrate binding. The results provide an insight into the catalytic mechanism of penicillin acylase, in which alphaArg145 is involved in binding of beta-lactam substrates and betaArg263 is important both for stabilizing the transition state in the reaction and for correct processing of the precursor protein. PMID:12071857

  7. Modulating the synthetase activity of penicillin G acylase in organic media by addition of N-methylimidazole: using vinyl acetate as activated acyl donor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bokai; Wu, Qi; Lv, Deshui; Lin, Xianfu

    2011-05-20

    This paper reported the modulation of enzyme activity by organic small molecule. The esterification activity of Penicillin G acylase (PGA) was improved more than 70-fold by the addition of 10% N-methylimidazole. Some control experiments have been designed to demonstrate the catalytic specificity of PGA. The structure and the amount of additive were optimized to improve the product yield. The influence of N-methylimidazole on the PGA conformation was investigated by FTIR and autodock simulation. Seven substrates were used to evaluate the effect of structure on the PGA-catalyzed transesterification. A series of products were successfully synthesized with the yield ranged from 56% to 84% and PGA showed specific recognition on the substrate with phenyl group in the presence of 10% N-methylimidazole.

  8. Polymer immobilized enzyme optrodes for the detection of penicillin

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, T.J.; Camins, I.; Angel, S.M.; Munkholm, C.; Walt, D.R.

    1987-12-15

    The preparation and performance of two enzyme-based fiber-optic sensors (optrodes) capable of detecting penicillin are described. Each sensor consists of a polymer membrane that is covalently attached to the tip of a glass optical fiber. The membrane contains the enzyme penicillinase and a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. A signal is produced when the enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of the ..beta..-lactam ring of penicillin to produce penicilloic acid and, consequently, a pH change in the microenvironment of the membrane. The sensors differ in the way the polymer membrane is constructed and in the type of pH indicator dye used. Both optrodes exhibit response times (40-60 s) significantly lower than those of the corresponding enzyme electrodes (2 min). Each gives a linear response over the concentration range of 0.00025 to 0.01 M penicillin G, when measured in a 0.005 M phosphate buffer. The data indicate that these immobilization strategies produce similar results and may be considered complementary alternatives in future enzyme optrode applications.

  9. Immobilization and stabilization of cephalosporin C acylase on aminated support by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde and further modifying with aminated macromolecules.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Wei, Yanmei; Luo, Hui; Li, Xi; Wang, Xiaona; Liang, Chen; Chang, Yanhong; Yu, Huimin; Shen, Zhongyao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, cephalosporin C acylase (CA), a heterodimeric enzyme of industrial potential in direct hydrolysis of cephalosporin C (CPC) to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), was covalently immobilized on the aminated support LX1000-HA (HA) with two different protocols. The stability of CA adsorbed onto the HA support followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (HA-CA-glut) was better than that of the CA covalently immobilized on the glutaraldehyde preactivated HA support (HA-glut-CA). The thermostabilization factors (compared with the free enzyme) of these two immobilized enzymes were 11.2-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. In order to improve the stability of HA-CA-glut, a novel strategy based on postimmobilization modifying with aminated molecules was developed to take advantage of the glutaraldehyde moieties left on the enzyme and support. The macromolecules, such as polyethyleneimine (PEI) and chitosan, had larger effects than small molecules on the thermal stability of the immobilized enzyme perhaps due to crosslinking of the enzymes and support with each other. The quaternary structure of the CA could be much stabilized by this novel approach including physical adsorption on aminated support, glutaraldehyde treatment, and macromolecule modification. The HA-CA-glut-PEI20000 (the HA-CA-glut postmodified with PEI Mw = 20,000) had a thermostabilization factor of 20-fold, and its substrate affinity (Km = 14.3 mM) was better than that of HA-CA-glut (Km = 33.4 mM). The half-life of the immobilized enzymes HA-CA-glut-PEI20000 under the CPC-catalyzing conditions could reach 28 cycles, a higher value than that of HA-CA-glut (21 cycles). © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Structural analysis of a penicillin V acylase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum confirms the importance of two Trp residues for activity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Avinash, Vellore Sunder; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Chand, Deepak; Pundle, Archana; Suresh, Cheravakattu Gopalan; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar

    2016-02-01

    Penicillin V acylases (PVA) catalyze the deacylation of the beta-lactam antibiotic phenoxymethylpenicillin (Pen V). They are members of the Ntn hydrolase family and possess an N-terminal cysteine as the main catalytic nucleophile residue. They form the evolutionarily related cholylglycine hydrolase (CGH) group which includes bile salt hydrolases (BSH) responsible for bile deconjugation. Even though a few PVA and BSH structures have been reported, no structure of a functional PVA from Gram-negative bacteria is available. Here, we report the crystal structure of a highly active PVA from Gram-negative Pectobacterium atrosepticum (PaPVA) at 2.5Å resolution. Structural comparison with PVAs from Gram-positive bacteria revealed that PaPVA had a distinctive tetrameric structure and active site organization. In addition, mutagenesis of key active site residues and biochemical characterization of the resultant variants elucidated the role of these residues in substrate binding and catalysis. The importance of residue Trp23 and Trp87 side chains in binding and correct positioning of Pen V by PVAs was confirmed using mutagenesis and substrate docking with a 15ns molecular dynamics simulation. These results establish the unique nature of Gram-negative CGHs and necessitate further research about their substrate spectrum.

  11. Simultaneous clarification of Escherichia coli culture and purification of extracellularly produced penicillin G acylase using tangential flow filtration and anion-exchange membrane chromatography (TFF-AEMC).

    PubMed

    Orr, Valerie; Scharer, Jeno; Moo-Young, Murray; Honeyman, C Howie; Fenner, Drew; Crossley, Lisa; Suen, Shing-Yi; Chou, C Perry

    2012-07-01

    Downstream purification often represents the most cost-intensive step in the manufacturing of recombinant proteins since conventional purification processes are lengthy, technically complicated, and time-consuming. To address this issue, herein we demonstrated the simultaneous clarification and purification of the extracellularly produced recombinant protein by Escherichia coli using an integrated system of tangential flow filtration and anion exchange membrane chromatography (TFF-AEMC). After cultivation in a bench-top bioreactor with 1L working volume using the developed host/vector system for high-level expression and effective secretion of recombinant penicillin G acylase (PAC), the whole culture broth was applied directly to the established system. One-step purification of recombinant PAC was achieved based on the dual nature of membrane chromatography (i.e. microfiltration-sized pores and anion-exchange chemistry) and cross-flow operations. Most contaminant proteins in the extracellular medium were captured by the anion-exchange membrane and cells remained in the retentate, whereas extracellular PAC was purified and collected in the filtrate. The batch time for both cultivation and purification was less than 24h and recombinant PAC with high purity (19 U/mg), yield (72% recovery), and productivity (41 mg of purified PAC per liter of culture) was obtained. Due to the nature of the non-selective protein secretion system and the versatility of ion-exchange membrane chromatography, the developed system can be widely applied for effective production and purification of recombinant proteins.

  12. Inactivation of penicillin acylase from Kluyvera citrophila by N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline: a case of time-dependent non-covalent enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, J; Mancheño, J M; Arche, R

    1993-01-01

    Penicillin acylase (PA) from Kluyvera citrophila was inhibited by N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ), a specific carboxy-group-reactive reagent. Enzyme activity progressively decreased to a residual value depending on EEDQ concentration. Neither enzymic nor non-enzymic decomposition of EEDQ is concomitant with PA inactivation. Moreover, enzyme re-activation is achieved by chromatographic removal of EEDQ, pH increase or displacement of the reagent with penicillin G. It was then concluded that PA inactivation is due to an equilibrium reaction. The kinetics of enzyme inactivation was analysed by fitting data to theoretical equations derived in accordance with this mechanism. Corrections for re-activation during the enzyme assay were a necessary introduction. The pH-dependence of the rate constant for EEDQ hydrolysis either alone or in the presence of enzyme was studied by u.v. spectroscopy. It turned out to be coincident with the pH-dependence of the forward and reverse rate constants for the inactivation process. It is suggested that previous protonation of the EEDQ molecule is required for these reactions to occur. The thermodynamic values associated with the overall reaction showed little change. Finally it is proposed that the inactivation of PA by EEDQ proceeds through a two-step reaction. The initial and rapid reversible binding is followed by a slow, time-dependent, non-covalent, reversible inactivating step. The expected behaviour in the case of enzyme modification by covalent activation of carboxy residues is also reviewed. PMID:8489517

  13. The kinetics of acylation and deacylation of penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli ATCC 11105: evidence for lowered pKa values of groups near the catalytic centre.

    PubMed Central

    Morillas, M; Goble, M L; Virden, R

    1999-01-01

    Penicillin G acylase catalysed the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate with a kcat of 0.8 s-1 and a Km of 10 microM at pH 7.5 and 20 degreesC. Results from stopped-flow experiments fitted a dissociation constant of 0.16 mM for the Michaelis complex, formation of an acetyl enzyme with a rate constant of 32 s-1 and a subsequent deacylation step with a rate constant of 0.81 s-1. Non-linear Van't Hoff and Arrhenius plots for these parameters, measured at pH 7.5, may be partly explained by a conformational transition affecting catalytic groups, but a linear Arrhenius plot for the ratio of the rate constant for acylation relative to KS was consistent with energy-compensation between the binding of the substrate and catalysis of the formation of the transition state. At 20 degreesC, the pH-dependence of kcat was similar to that of kcat/Km, indicating that formation of the acyl-enzyme did not affect the pKa values (6.5 and 9.0) of an acidic and basic group in the active enzyme. The heats of ionization deduced from values of pKa for kcat, which measures the rate of deacylation, are consistent with alpha-amino and guanidinium groups whose pKa values are decreased in a non-polar environment. It is proposed that, for catalytic activity, the alpha-amino group of the catalytic SerB1 and the guanidinium group of ArgB263 are required in neutral and protonated states respectively. PMID:9931321

  14. Determination of Penicillin Using an Immobilized Enzyme Electrode: An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifflin, Theodore E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for an experiment in which students: (1) construct an immobilized penicillinase electrode; (2) evaluate electron response as a function of penicillin concentration; and (3) study effects of solvent compositions, ionic strength, and equilibrium time upon electrode response. (JN)

  15. Determination of Penicillin Using an Immobilized Enzyme Electrode: An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifflin, Theodore E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for an experiment in which students: (1) construct an immobilized penicillinase electrode; (2) evaluate electron response as a function of penicillin concentration; and (3) study effects of solvent compositions, ionic strength, and equilibrium time upon electrode response. (JN)

  16. Improving enzyme immobilization in mesocellular siliceous foams by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anming; Liu, Mingqing; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Cheng; Du, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Shemin; Shen, Shubao; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2008-09-01

    Microwave irradiation was used to immobilize papain and penicillin acylase in mesocellular siliceous foams (MCFs) at low temperature. The maximum loading of papain reached 984.1 mg/g, 1.26 times that obtained using the conventional, non-microwave-assisted method. The half-life (t(0.5)) of papain immobilized in MCFs by microwave irradiation at 80 degrees C was 17 h, 5.21 times that of papain immobilized by conventional means. The activities of papain and penicillin acylase immobilized with the microwave-assisted method were 779.6 U/mg and 141.8 U/mg respectively, 1.86 and 1.39 times of those obtained without microwave immobilization. Using microwave irradiation it only took 140 s for penicillin acylase, an enzyme of large dimensions, to be immobilized in MCFs. In contrast, it took 15 h to do the same using the conventional method. The results showed that microwave irradiation improved the adsorption and immobilization of enzymes in mesocellular siliceous foams.

  17. Purification and immobilization of recombinant variants of Brevundimonas diminuta glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid acylase expressed in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Khatuntseva, S A; Eldarov, M A; Redo, V A; Skryabin, K G

    2008-01-01

    Modified chitin-binding domain (ChBD) from Bacillus circulans chitinase A1 with W42F mutation in chitin-binding site was genetically fused to different positions within alpha-subunit of glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid acylase (GLA) gene. Hybrid proteins were efficiently expressed in E. coli cells as soluble, enzymatically active and correctly processed holoenzymes. ChBD-GLA fusions were easily affinity purified on chitin column by changing the salt concentration of binding and elution buffer. The developed one-step affinity purification procedure is thus a promising approach for scaled-up isolation of GLA variants for preparation of industrial biocatalysts as well as for structure-functional studies.

  18. A breakthrough in enzyme technology to fight penicillin resistance-industrial application of penicillin amidase.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic penicillin hydrolysis by penicillin amidase (also penicillin acylase, PA) represents a Landmark: the first industrially and economically highly important process using an immobilized biocatalyst. Resistance of infective bacteria to antibiotics had become a major topic of research and industrial activities. Solutions to this problem, the antibiotics resistance of infective microorganisms, required the search for new antibiotics, but also the development of derivatives, notably penicillin derivatives, that overcame resistance. An obvious route was to hydrolyse penicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), as a first step, for the introduction via chemical synthesis of various different side chains. Hydrolysis via chemical reaction sequences was tedious requiring large amounts of toxic chemicals, and they were cost intensive. Enzymatic hydrolysis using penicillin amidase represented a much more elegant route. The basis for such a solution was the development of techniques for enzyme immobilization, a highly difficult task with respect to industrial application. Two pioneer groups started to develop solutions to this problem in the late 1960s and 1970s: that of Günter Schmidt-Kastner at Bayer AG (Germany) and that of Malcolm Lilly of Imperial College London. Here, one example of this development, that at Bayer, will be presented in more detail since it illustrates well the achievement of a solution to the problems of industrial application of enzymatic processes, notably development of an immobilization method for penicillin amidase suitable for scale up to application in industrial reactors under economic conditions. A range of bottlenecks and technical problems of large-scale application had to be overcome. Data giving an inside view of this pioneer achievement in the early phase of the new field of biocatalysis are presented. The development finally resulted in a highly innovative and commercially important enzymatic process to produce 6-APA that

  19. Acylase-containing polyurethane coatings with anti-biofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Grover, Navdeep; Plaks, Joseph G; Summers, Samantha R; Chado, Garrett R; Schurr, Michael J; Kaar, Joel L

    2016-12-01

    Due to the prevalence of biofilm-related infections, which are mediated by bacterial quorum sensing, there is a critical need for materials and coatings that resist biofilm formation. We have developed novel anti-biofilm coatings that disrupt quorum sensing in surface-associated bacteria via the immobilization of acylase in polyurethane films. Specifically, acylase from Aspergillus melleus was covalently immobilized in biomedical grade polyurethane coatings via multipoint covalent immobilization. Coatings containing acylase were enzymatically active and catalyzed the hydrolysis of the quorum sensing (QS) molecules N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-LHL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-LHL), and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-LHL). In biofilm inhibition assays, immobilization of acylase led to an approximately 60% reduction in biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 and PAO1. Inhibition of biofilm formation was consistent with a reduction in the secretion of pyocyanin, indicating the disruption of quorum sensing as the mechanism of the coating activity. Scanning electron microscopy further showed that acylase-containing coatings contained far fewer bacterial cells than control coatings that lacked acylase. Moreover, acylase-containing coatings retained 90% activity when stored dry at 37°C for 7 days and were more stable than the free enzyme in physiological conditions, including artificial urine. Ultimately, such coatings hold considerable promise for the clinical management of catheter-related infections as well as the prevention of infections in orthopedic applications (i.e., on hip and knee prostheses) and on contact lenses. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2535-2543. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Biochemical characterization of a glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid acylase from Pseudomonas strain BL072.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, R; Brown, J; Romancik, G

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas strain BL072 produces an acylase enzyme active in hydrolyzing glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. This acylase was purified by column chromatography and gel electrophoresis. The native acylase was composed of two subunits of approximately 65 and 24 kDa, though some heterogeneity was seen in both the native acylase and its small subunit. The isoelectric point of the acylase is approximately 8.5, and it has Km of 1.6 mM for glutaryl desacetoxy aminocephalosporanic acid. The acylase hydrolyzes the desacetoxy and desacetyl derivatives of glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid at rates similar to that of glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Cephalosporin C was hydrolyzed at a reduced rate. The pH optimum was found to be 8.0, and an activation energy of 9 kcal/mol (ca. 38 kJ/mol) was observed. The acylase has transacylase activity 10 times that of its hydrolytic activity. Eupergit C-immobilized acylase had a half-life of greater than 400 h. Images PMID:8031081

  1. Protein-based inverse opals: A novel support for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Sun, Wenya; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Lihui; Zhou, Liya; Gao, Jing; He, Ying; Ma, Li; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, protein-based inverse opals were prepared for the first time by using the colloidal crystal templating method. The preparation process involved three steps including filling the templates with protein molecules, crosslinking, and template removal. The obtained inverse opals were used to immobilize Penicillin G acylase (PGA) because of its intrinsic biocompatible property. The immobilization process was optimized and the properties of the immobilized PGA (PGA@IO) were investigated. PGA@IO exhibited improved thermal and pH stability compared with its free counterpart. After reusing nine times, it retained 70% of the initial activity. Besides, the PGA@IO retained high activity during the hydrolysis reactions in continuous catalysis in packed-bed reactor (PBR) after 15 days.

  2. Mathematical model for internal pH control in immobilized enzyme particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, J.K.; Rousseau, I.

    1986-10-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for the internal pH control in immobilized enzyme particles. This model describes the kinetics of a coupled system of two enzymes, immobilized in particles of either planar, cylindrical, or spherical shape. The enzyme kinetics are assumed to be of a mixed type, including Michaelis-Menten kinetics, uncompetitive substrate inhibition, and competitive and noncompetitive product inhibition. In a case study we have considered the enzyme combination urease and penicillin acylase, whose kinetics are coupled through the pH dependence of the kinetic parameters. The hydrolysis of urea by urease yields ammonia and carbon dioxide, whereas benzylpenicillin (Pen-G) is converted to 6-animo penicillanic acid and phenyl acetic acid by penicillin acylase. The production of acids by the latter enzyme will cause a decrease in pH. Because of the presence of the ammonia-carbon dioxide system, however, the pH may be kept under control. In order to obtain information about the optimum performance of this enzymatic pH controller, we have computed the effectiveness factor and the conversion in a CSTR at different enzyme loadings. The results of the computer simulations indicate that a high conversion of Pen-G may be achieved (80-90%) at bulk pH values of about 7.5 - 8. 27 references.

  3. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography for simultaneous detection of bacterial beta-lactam acylases and beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K C

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and specific procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of bacterial acylases and beta-lactamases, using ampicillin and cephalexin as substrates. Bacterial suspensions from agar plates were incubated separately with each beta-lactam substrate for 1 h at 37 degrees C. The supernatant of the reaction mixture was dansylated, and the dansyl derivatives were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on polyamide sheets. The end products resulting from acylase hydrolysis, including the intact beta-lactam nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid or 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid, and the acyl side chain acid, D-(-)-alpha-aminophenylacetic acid, and the end product resulting from beta-lactamase hydrolysis (D-phenylglycylpenicilloic acid or D-phenylglycyldeacetoxycephalosporoic acid) were separated from each unhydrolyzed substrate and amino acids by this procedure. The presence of the intact beta-lactam nucleus in the reaction mixture is the indication of acylase activity. This method is sensitive and reproducible and has been successfully applied to screening for acylase activity in a variety of bacteria. It may be pharmaceutically useful for identifying organisms capable of removing the acyl side chain from naturally occurring beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, penicillin V, and cephalosporin C for production of the beta-lactam nuclei which serve as the starting materials for semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. Images PMID:3539008

  4. Hydrogel coated monoliths for enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G

    PubMed Central

    Smeltink, M. W.; Straathof, A. J. J.; Paasman, M. A.; van de Sandt, E. J. A. X.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a hydrogel-coated monolith for the entrapment of penicillin G acylase (E. coli, PGA). After screening of different hydrogels, chitosan was chosen as the carrier material for the preparation of monolithic biocatalysts. This protocol leads to active immobilized biocatalysts for the enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G (PenG). The monolithic biocatalyst was tested in a monolith loop reactor (MLR) and compared with conventional reactor systems using free PGA, and a commercially available immobilized PGA. The optimal immobilization protocol was found to be 5 g l−1 PGA, 1% chitosan, 1.1% glutaraldehyde and pH 7. Final PGA loading on glass plates was 29 mg ml−1 gel. For 400 cpsi monoliths, the final PGA loading on functionalized monoliths was 36 mg ml−1 gel. The observed volumetric reaction rate in the MLR was 0.79 mol s−1 m−3monolith. Apart from an initial drop in activity due to wash out of PGA at higher ionic strength, no decrease in activity was observed after five subsequent activity test runs. The storage stability of the biocatalysts is at least a month without loss of activity. Although the monolithic biocatalyst as used in the MLR is still outperformed by the current industrial catalyst (immobilized preparation of PGA, 4.5 mol s−1 m−3catalyst), the rate per gel volume is slightly higher for monolithic catalysts. Good activity and improved mechanical strength make the monolithic bioreactor an interesting alternative that deserves further investigation for this application. Although moderate internal diffusion limitations have been observed inside the gel beads and in the gel layer on the monolith channel, this is not the main reason for the large differences in reactor performance that were observed. The pH drop over the reactor as a result of the chosen method for pH control results in a decreased performance of both the MLR and the packed bed reactor compared to the batch system. A different

  5. Hitler's penicillin.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Milton

    2004-01-01

    During the Second World War, the Germans and their Axis partners could only produce relatively small amounts of penicillin, certainly never enough to meet their military needs; as a result, they had to rely upon the far less effective sulfonamides. One physician who put penicillin to effective use was Hitler's doctor, Theodore Morell. Morell treated the Führer with penicillin on a number of occasions, most notably following the failed assassination attempt in July 1944. Some of this penicillin appears to have been captured from, or inadvertently supplied by, the Allies, raising the intriguing possibility that Allied penicillin saved Hitler's life.

  6. Characterization and study of the orientation of immobilized enzymes by tryptic digestion and HPLC-MS: design of an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Temporini, Caterina; Bonomi, Paolo; Serra, Immacolata; Tagliani, Auro; Bavaro, Teodora; Ubiali, Daniela; Massolini, Gabriella; Terreni, Marco

    2010-06-14

    An innovative approach to determine the orientation of penicillin G acylase (PGA) from Escherichia coli covalently immobilized onto solid supports has been developed. This method is based on tryptic digestion of immobilized PGA followed by HPLC-MS analysis of the released peptides which are supposed to be only those exposed toward the reaction medium and not directly bound to the solid support. To this purpose, PGA was immobilized on Eupergit C (acrylic hydrophobic resin) and glyoxyl-agarose (hydrophilic resin) functionalized with epoxy and aldehyde groups, respectively, both involving the Lys residues of the protein. The peptide maps obtained were analyzed to derive the orientation of immobilized PGA, as the position of the detected Lys gave indication concerning the accessibility of the different areas of the protein. The results indicate that PGA immobilization on both supports involves mainly Lys located near the binding pocket (70%). Some differences in the enzyme orientation on the two supports can be deduced by the presence of different unbound Lys residues in the released peptides, specific to each support (Lys 117alpha for PGA-Eupergit C; Lys 163alpha and Lys 165alpha for PGA-glyoxyl-agarose). These results have been correlated with the data obtained in the kinetically controlled synthesis and indicate that the orientation of PGA on both supports is partially unfavorable, driving the active site near the support surface. This type of orientation of the enzyme enhances the effect of the nature of the support and of the binding chemistry on the catalytic properties. The information obtained indicated the most suitable support and activation strategy to design an immobilized acylase with good synthetic properties for preparative processes. The glyoxyl-Eupergit C support with enhanced porosity synergically combines the mechanical stability and synthetic performances of immobilized PGA and was successfully used in the synthesis of several cephalosporins.

  7. Penicillin anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, M R; Smith, M S

    1986-05-01

    A case of oral penicillin anaphylaxis is described, and the terminology, occurrence, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of anaphylaxis are reviewed. Emergency physicians should be aware of oral penicillin anaphylaxis in order to prevent its occurrence by prescribing the antibiotic judiciously and knowledgeably and to offer optimal medical therapy once this life-threatening reaction has begun.

  8. Penicillin Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions cannot be detected by skin tests. Graded challenge If the diagnosis of a penicillin allergy is ... he or she may recommend a graded drug challenge. With this procedure, you receive four to five ...

  9. Deciphering Physiological Functions of AHL Quorum Quenching Acylases

    PubMed Central

    Utari, Putri D.; Vogel, Jan; Quax, Wim J.

    2017-01-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-acylase (also known as amidase or amidohydrolase) is a class of enzyme that belongs to the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily. As the name implies, AHL-acylases are capable of hydrolysing AHLs, the most studied signaling molecules for quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs can be beneficial in attenuating bacterial virulence, which can be exploited as a novel approach to fight infection of human pathogens, phytopathogens or aquaculture-related contaminations. Numerous acylases from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources have been characterized and tested for the interference of quorum sensing-regulated functions. The existence of AHL-acylases in a multitude of organisms from various ecological niches, raises the question of what the physiological roles of AHL-acylases actually are. In this review, we attempt to bring together recent studies to extend our understanding of the biological functions of these enzymes in nature. PMID:28674525

  10. Improved specific productivity in cephalexin synthesis by immobilized PGA in silica magnetic micro-particles.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Susana M S A; Fernandes, Pedro; Fonseca, Luís P

    2010-12-01

    There is a marked trend in pharmaceutical industry towards the replacement of classical organic methods by "green" alternatives that minimize or eliminate the generation of waste and avoid, where possible, the use of toxic and/or hazardous reagents and solvents. In this work the kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin by soluble and penicillin G acylase immobilized in sol-gel micro-particles with magnetic properties was performed in aqueous media with PGME and 7-ADCA as substrates, at different concentrations of substrate, temperature, pH, enzyme to substrate ratio and acyl donor to nucleophile ratio. Excess acyl donor had a strong effect on cephalexin productivity. A PGME/7-ADCA ratio of 3 was considered optimum. A maximum specific productivity of 5.9 mmol h(-1), gbiocatalyst(-1) at 160 mM 7-ADCA, 480 mM PGME and low enzyme to substrate ratio at 32.5 U mmol(-1) 7-ADCA was obtained with immobilized PGA in full aqueous medium, suggesting that diffusional limitations were minimized when compared with other commercial biocatalysts. A half-life of 133 h for the immobilized biocatalyst was estimated during cephalexin synthesis in the presence of 100 mM 7-ADCA and 300 mM PGME, in 50 mM Tris/HCl at pH 7.2 and 14°C. These results compare quite favorably with those previously reported for the kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin.

  11. Enzyme-immobilized nanofiltration membrane to mitigate biofouling based on quorum quenching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Dong-Chan; Yeon, Kyung-Min; Kim, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Chung-Hak

    2011-02-15

    Recently, enzymatic quorum quenching (in the form of a free enzyme or an immobilized form on a bead) was successfully applied to a submerged membrane bioreactor with a microfiltration membrane for wastewater treatment as a novel approach to control membrane biofouling. In this study, a quorum quenching enzyme (acylase) was directly immobilized onto a nanofiltration membrane to mitigate biofouling in a nanofiltration process. In a flow cell experiment, the acylase-immobilized membrane with quorum quenching activity prohibited the formation of mushroom-shaped mature biofilm due to the reduced secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The acylase-immobilized membrane maintained more than 90% of its initial enzyme activity for more than 20 iterative cycles of reaction and washing procedure. In the lab-scale continuous crossflow nanofiltration system operated at a constant pressure of 2 bar, the flux with the acylase-immobilized nanofiltration (NF) membrane was maintained at more than 90% of its initial flux after a 38-h operation, whereas that with the raw NF membrane decreased to 60% accompanied with severe biofouling. The quorum quenching activity of the acylase-immobilized membrane was also confirmed by visualizing the spatial distribution of cells and polysaccharides on the surface of each membrane using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) image analysis technique.

  12. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  13. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  14. The newer penicillins.

    PubMed

    SIMON, H J

    1962-09-01

    The newer penicillins give high promise of overcoming some of the few disadvantages of penicillin-G. THEY FALL INTO THREE GROUPS: The alpha-phenoxy-penicillins; the penicillinase resistant penicillins; and the penicillins with enhanced activity against gram-negative bacteria. The newer alpha-phenoxy-penicillins offer little over alpha-phenoxy methyl penicillin (penicillin-V). As the length of the side chain is increased, absorption and attainable serum concentration is also increased, but these are questionable benefits and probably not significant for therapeusis. The penicillinase-resistant penicillins have once more brought almost all severe staphylococcal infections within therapeutic range. One of them, methicillin, must be administered parenterally. It is the agent of choice for the treatment of severe, penicillin-G resistant staphylococcal infections, and this is its only clinical indication. Another, oxacillin, which may be administered orally, is partially resistant to gastric acid degradation, but must be given on an empty stomach. It is most useful as prolonged therapy following methicillin, in the treatment of mixed hemolytic streptococcal-penicillin-G resistant staphylococcal infections, and as primary therapy for moderately severe penicillin-G resistant staphylococcal infections. The third group is still mostly in the experimental stage, but some strains of Proteus, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella are highly vulnerable to their action. Toxic and allergic reactions to the newer penicillins, and crossed allergic reactions with penicillin-G, present unsolved problems.

  15. THE NEWER PENICILLINS

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Harold J.

    1962-01-01

    The newer penicillins give high promise of overcoming some of the few disadvantages of penicillin-G. They fall into three groups: The alpha-phenoxy-penicillins; the penicillinase resistant penicillins; and the penicillins with enhanced activity against gram-negative bacteria. The newer alpha-phenoxy-penicillins offer little over alpha-phenoxy methyl penicillin (penicillin-V). As the length of the side chain is increased, absorption and attainable serum concentration is also increased, but these are questionable benefits and probably not significant for therapeusis. The penicillinase-resistant penicillins have once more brought almost all severe staphylococcal infections within therapeutic range. One of them, methicillin, must be administered parenterally. It is the agent of choice for the treatment of severe, penicillin-G resistant staphylococcal infections, and this is its only clinical indication. Another, oxacillin, which may be administered orally, is partially resistant to gastric acid degradation, but must be given on an empty stomach. It is most useful as prolonged therapy following methicillin, in the treatment of mixed hemolytic streptococcal-penicillin-G resistant staphylococcal infections, and as primary therapy for moderately severe penicillin-G resistant staphylococcal infections. The third group is still mostly in the experimental stage, but some strains of Proteus, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella are highly vulnerable to their action. Toxic and allergic reactions to the newer penicillins, and crossed allergic reactions with penicillin-G, present unsolved problems. PMID:13913108

  16. Penicillin G Benzathine and Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine injection ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  17. Multifunctional epoxy supports: a new tool to improve the covalent immobilization of proteins. The promotion of physical adsorptions of proteins on the supports before their covalent linkage.

    PubMed

    Mateo, C; Fernández-Lorente, G; Abian, O; Fernández-Lafuente, R; Guisán, J M

    2000-01-01

    has been immobilized on different supports, orientated through different structural features and very likely involving different areas of its surface. For example, three industrial enzymes (penicillin G acylase, lipase, and beta-galactosidase) could be immobilized through different strategies yielding immobilized derivatives with very different activities. The best derivatives preserved 75-100% of activity corresponding to the soluble enzymes used for immobilization, while in some cases a particular immobilization protocol promoted the full inactivation of the enzyme.

  18. Improved fiber-optic chemical sensor for penicillin

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, B.G.; Walt, D.R.

    1995-12-15

    An optical penicillin biosensor is described, based on the enzyme penicillinase. The sensor is fabricated by selective photodeposition of analyte-sensitive polymer matrices on optical imaging fibers. The penicillin-sensitive matrices are fabricated by immobilizing the enzyme as micrometer-sized particles in a polymer hydrogel with a covalently bound pH indicator. An array of penicillin-sensitive and pH-sensitive matrices are fabricated on the same fiber. This array allows for the simultaneous, independent measurement of pH and penicillin. Independent measurement of the two analytes allows penicillin to be quantitated in the presence of a concurrent pH change. An analysis was conducted of enzyme kinetic parameters in order to model the penicillin response of the sensor at all pH values. This analysis accounts for the varying activity of the immobilized penicillinase at different pH values. The sensor detects penicillin in the range 0.25-10.0 mM in the pH range 6.2-7.5. The sensor was used to quantify penicillin concentration produced during a Penicillium chrysogenum fermentation. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  20. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    MedlinePlus

    Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, and ear, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ...

  1. Overview of penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher; Mahmood, Mubashar M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2012-08-01

    Allergy to penicillin is the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy. However, most patients who report a positive history of a prior reaction to penicillin are not found to be allergic to penicillin upon skin testing. Often, this history is vague or based on a parent's recollection of an event that occurred in the distant past. Avoidance of penicillin based on self-reported allergic history alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. Patients with a negative skin test to both major and minor determinants may generally be given penicillin, with a statistical risk of developing an allergic reaction similar to that observed in the general population. A more cautious approach in these cases where the degree of suspicion is low, an allergic etiology is unproven, or there is a negative skin test, is to do a graded challenge. If the skin test is positive, an alternate antibiotic should be used. If, however, an alternate antibiotic is not available, then desensitization may be performed, but there are limitations to desensitization as well, and tolerance is not permanent. Avoidance of cephalosporins may be recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, but newer generation cephalosporins have demonstrate less cross-reactivity to penicillin than earlier generation ones. Desensitization protocols for cephalosporins are available but not standardized. The mechanisms of antibiotic sensitization are not clearly understood.

  2. Untoward penicillin reactions

    PubMed Central

    Guthe, T.; Idsöe, O.; Willcox, R. R.

    1958-01-01

    The literature on untoward reactions following the administration of penicillin is reviewed. These reactions, including a certain number of deaths which have been reported, are of particular interest to health administrations and to WHO in view of the large-scale programmes for controlling the treponematoses which are now under way—programmes affecting millions of people in many parts of the world. The most serious problems are anaphylactic sensitivity phenomena and superinfection or cross-infection with penicillin-resistant organisms, and the reactions involved range in intensity from the mildest to the fatal; the incidence of the latter is estimated at 0.1-0.3 per million injections. The authors point out that with increasing use of penicillin, more persons are likely to become sensitized and the number of reactions can therefore be expected to rise. The best prevention against such an increase is the restriction of the unnecessary use of penicillin. PMID:13596877

  3. J1 acylase, a glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid acylase from Bacillus laterosporus J1, is a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily.

    PubMed

    Yau, Ming-Hon; Wang, Jun; Tsang, Paul W K; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2006-02-20

    J1 acylase, a glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid acylase (GCA) isolated from Bacillus laterosporus J1, has been conventionally grouped as the only member of class V GCA, although its amino acid sequence shares less than 10% identity with members of other classes of GCA. Instead, it shows higher sequence similarities with Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1 cocaine esterase (RhCocE) and Acetobacter turbidans alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase (AtAEH), members of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily. Homology modeling and secondary structure prediction indicate that the N-terminal region of J1 acylase has an alpha/beta-hydrolase folding pattern. The catalytic triads in RhCocE and AtAEH were identified in J1 acylase as S125, D264 and H309. Mutations to alanine at these positions were found to completely inactivate the enzyme. These results suggest that J1 acylase is a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily with a serine-histidine-aspartate catalytic triad.

  4. Two-step immobilized enzyme conversion of cephalosporin C to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.

    PubMed

    Conlon, H D; Baqai, J; Baker, K; Shen, Y Q; Wong, B L; Noiles, R; Rausch, C W

    1995-06-20

    The first large-scale production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7ACA) from cephalosporin C (CPC) using a wholly enzymatic synthesis method is reported here. We produced 7ACA from CPC in as high a molar yield as 85% using the immobilized enzymes D-amino acid oxidase (D-AOD) and glutaryl-7-ACA acylase (GL-acylase). In the first reactor, CPC is converted to keto-adipyl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (keto-7ACA) using an immobilized D-AOD isolated from a yeast, Trigonopsis variabilis. The keto-7ACA is then spontaneously converted to glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (GL-7ACA) via a chemical reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide is also a product of the D-AOD reaction. Near quantitative conversion of the keto-7ACA to GL-7ACA was observed. The second reactor converts GL-7ACA to 7ACA using an immobilized GL-acylase, which was isolated from a recombinant Escherichia coli. The final 7ACA crystalline product is a high quality product. The reactions are conducted under very mild aqueous conditions: pH 8.0 and 20 degrees to 25 degrees C. The production of desacetyl side products is minimal. This process is currently being implemented on an industrial scale to produce 7ACA.

  5. 21 CFR 558.460 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin. 558.460 Section 558.460 Food and Drugs... Animal Feeds § 558.460 Penicillin. (a) Specifications. As penicillin procaine G or feed grade penicillin.... (1) It is used as follows: Penicillin in grams per ton Combination in grams per ton Indications for...

  6. 21 CFR 558.460 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin. 558.460 Section 558.460 Food and Drugs... Animal Feeds § 558.460 Penicillin. (a) Specifications. As penicillin procaine G or feed grade penicillin.... (1) It is used as follows: Penicillin in grams per ton Combination in grams per ton Indications for...

  7. 21 CFR 558.460 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin. 558.460 Section 558.460 Food and Drugs... Animal Feeds § 558.460 Penicillin. (a) Specifications. As penicillin procaine G or feed grade penicillin.... (1) It is used as follows: Penicillin in grams per ton Combination in grams per ton Indications for...

  8. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for the...

  9. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for the...

  10. 21 CFR 558.460 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin. 558.460 Section 558.460 Food and Drugs... Animal Feeds § 558.460 Penicillin. (a) Specifications. As penicillin procaine G or feed grade penicillin.... (1) It is used as follows: Penicillin in grams per ton Combination in grams per ton Indications for...

  11. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for the...

  12. 21 CFR 558.460 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin. 558.460 Section 558.460 Food and Drugs... Animal Feeds § 558.460 Penicillin. (a) Specifications. As penicillin procaine G or feed grade penicillin.... (1) It is used as follows: Penicillin in grams per ton Combination in grams per ton Indications...

  13. Cloning and expression of propionyl acylase gene of Streptomyces mycarofaciens mutant.

    PubMed

    Li, Y A; Sun, Y P; Shi, L Y; Li, X P; Li, H L

    1991-01-01

    The midecamycin producer, S. mycarofaciens mutant, which has propionyl acylase activity, can convert spiramycin into propionyl spiramycin. Plasmid pIJ702 was used as a vector for the cloning of propionyl acylase gene. After shot-gun cloning, the DNA fragments of the mutant were cloned in S. lividans TK54. The results of TLC and HPLC showed that No.9 transformant can convert spiramycin into propionyl spiramycin. It demonstrated that the propionyl acylase gene was cloned and expressed in S. lividans TK54. The insert fragment of No.9 recombinant plasmid is about 4.16 kb. Southern hybridization showed that the fragment originated from S. mycarofaciens mutant. The restriction endonuclease map of No.9 recombinant plasmid was constructed.

  14. Quorum quenching by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Sio, Charles F; Otten, Linda G; Cool, Robbert H; Diggle, Stephen P; Braun, Peter G; Bos, Rein; Daykin, Mavis; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Quax, Wim J

    2006-03-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is controlled by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing system. During functional analysis of putative acylase genes in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, the PA2385 gene was found to encode an acylase that removes the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone (HSL) nucleus of AHL-dependent quorum-sensing signal molecules. Analysis showed that the posttranslational processing of the acylase and the hydrolysis reaction type are similar to those of the beta-lactam acylases, strongly suggesting that the PA2385 protein is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. In a bioassay, the purified acylase was shown to degrade AHLs with side chains ranging in length from 11 to 14 carbons at physiologically relevant low concentrations. The substituent at the 3' position of the side chain did not affect activity, indicating broad-range AHL quorum-quenching activity. Of the two main AHL signal molecules of P. aeruginosa PAO1, N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL), only 3-oxo-C12-HSL is degraded by the enzyme. Addition of the purified protein to P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures completely inhibited accumulation of 3-oxo-C12-HSL and production of the signal molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone and reduced production of the virulence factors elastase and pyocyanin. Similar results were obtained when the PA2385 gene was overexpressed in P. aeruginosa. These results demonstrate that the protein has in situ quorum-quenching activity. The quorum-quenching AHL acylase may enable P. aeruginosa PAO1 to modulate its own quorum-sensing-dependent pathogenic potential and, moreover, offers possibilities for novel antipseudomonal therapies.

  15. Quorum Quenching by an N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Acylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sio, Charles F.; Otten, Linda G.; Cool, Robbert H.; Diggle, Stephen P.; Braun, Peter G.; Bos, Rein; Daykin, Mavis; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Quax, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is controlled by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing system. During functional analysis of putative acylase genes in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, the PA2385 gene was found to encode an acylase that removes the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone (HSL) nucleus of AHL-dependent quorum-sensing signal molecules. Analysis showed that the posttranslational processing of the acylase and the hydrolysis reaction type are similar to those of the beta-lactam acylases, strongly suggesting that the PA2385 protein is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. In a bioassay, the purified acylase was shown to degrade AHLs with side chains ranging in length from 11 to 14 carbons at physiologically relevant low concentrations. The substituent at the 3′ position of the side chain did not affect activity, indicating broad-range AHL quorum-quenching activity. Of the two main AHL signal molecules of P. aeruginosa PAO1, N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL), only 3-oxo-C12-HSL is degraded by the enzyme. Addition of the purified protein to P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures completely inhibited accumulation of 3-oxo-C12-HSL and production of the signal molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone and reduced production of the virulence factors elastase and pyocyanin. Similar results were obtained when the PA2385 gene was overexpressed in P. aeruginosa. These results demonstrate that the protein has in situ quorum-quenching activity. The quorum-quenching AHL acylase may enable P. aeruginosa PAO1 to modulate its own quorum-sensing-dependent pathogenic potential and, moreover, offers possibilities for novel antipseudomonal therapies. PMID:16495538

  16. A probable aculeacin A acylase from the Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 is N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase with quorum-quenching activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Nung; Chen, Chii-Jaan; Liao, Chen-Ting; Lee, Chia-Yin

    2009-05-09

    The infection and virulence functions of diverse plant and animal pathogens that possess quorum sensing systems are regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) acting as signal molecules. AHL-acylase is a quorum quenching enzyme and degrades AHLs by removing the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone ring of AHLs. This blocks AHL accumulation and pathogenic phenotypes in quorum sensing bacteria. An aac gene of undemonstrated function from Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli; it inactivated four AHLs that were tested. The sequence of the 795 amino acid polypeptide was considerably similar to the AHL-acylase from Ralstonia sp. XJ12B with 83% identity match and shared 39% identity with an aculeacin A acylase precursor from the gram-positive actinomycete Actinoplanes utahensis. Aculeacin A is a neutral lipopeptide antibiotic and an antifungal drug. An electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis verified that Aac hydrolysed the amide bond of AHL, releasing homoserine lactone and the corresponding fatty acids. However, ESI-MS analysis demonstrated that the Aac could not catalyze the hydrolysis of the palmitoyl moiety of the aculeacin A. Moreover, the results of MIC test of aculeacin A suggest that Aac could not deacylate aculeacin A. The specificity of Aac for AHLs showed a greater preference for long acyl chains than for short acyl chains. Heterologous expression of the aac gene in Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 effectively inhibited violacein and chitinase activity, both of which were regulated by the quorum-sensing mechanism. These results indicated that Aac could control AHL-dependent pathogenicity. This is the first study to find an AHL-acylase in a phytopathogen. Our data provide direct evidence that the functioning of the aac gene (NP520668) of R. solanacearum GMI1000 is via AHL-acylase and not via aculeacin A acylase. Since Aac is a therapeutic potential quorum-quenching agent, its further

  17. Fatty acid hydrolysis of acyl marinobactin siderophores by Marinobacter acylases.

    PubMed

    Kem, Michelle P; Naka, Hiroaki; Iinishi, Akira; Haygood, Margo G; Butler, Alison

    2015-01-27

    The marine bacteria Marinobacter sp. DS40M6 and Marinobacter nanhaiticus D15-8W produce a suite of acyl peptidic marinobactin siderophores to acquire iron under iron-limiting conditions. During late-log phase growth, the marinobactins are hydrolyzed to form the marinobactin headgroup with release of the corresponding fatty acid tail. The bntA gene, a homologue of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyoverdine acylase gene, pvdQ, was identified from Marinobacter sp. DS40M6. A bntA knockout mutant of Marinobacter sp. DS40M6 produced the suite of acyl marinobactins A-E, without the usual formation of the marinobactin headgroup. Another marinobactin-producing species, M. nanhaiticus D15-8W, is predicted to have two pvdQ homologues, mhtA and mhtB. MhtA and MhtB have 67% identical amino acid sequences. MhtA catalyzes hydrolysis of the apo-marinobactin siderophores as well as the quorum sensing signaling molecule, dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone. In contrast to hydrolysis of the suite of apo-marinobactins by MhtA, hydrolysis of the iron(III)-bound marinobactins was not observed.

  18. Identifying the functional contribution of the defatty-acylase activity of SIRT6

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Khan, Saba; Jiang, Hong; Antonyak, Marc A.; Chen, Xiao; Spiegelman, Nicole A.; Shrimp, Jonathan H.; Cerione, Richard A.; Lin, Hening

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) exhibits many pivotal functions and multiple enzymatic activities, but the contribution of each activity to the various functions is unclear. We identified a SIRT6 G60A mutant that possesses efficient defatty-acylase activity, but has significantly decreased deacetylase activity in vitro and no detectable deacetylase activity in cells. The G60A mutant has decreased ability to bind NAD+, but the presence of fatty-acyl lysine peptides restores NAD+ binding, explaining the retention of the defatty-acylase activity. Using this mutant, we found that SIRT6’s defatty-acylase activity regulates the secretion of numerous proteins. Interestingly, many ribosomal proteins were secreted via exosomes from Sirt6 KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and these exosomes increased NIH 3T3 cell proliferation compared with control exosomes. Our data supports that distinct activities of SIRT6 regulate different pathways, and that the G60A mutant is a useful tool to study the contribution of the defatty-acylase activity to SIRT6’s various functions. PMID:27322069

  19. The Molecular Structure of Penicillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Ronald

    2004-10-01

    The chemical structure of penicillin was determined between 1942 and 1945 under conditions of secrecy established by the U.S. and U.K. governments. The evidence was not published in the open literature but as a monograph. This complex volume does not present a structure proof that can be readily comprehended by a student. In this article, a basic structural proof for the penicillin molecule is provided, emphasizing the chemical work. The stereochemistry of penicillin is also described, and various rearrangements are considered on the basis of the accepted β-lactam structure.

  20. 21 CFR 556.510 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin. 556.510 Section 556.510 Food and Drugs... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.510 Penicillin. Tolerances are established for residues of penicillin and the salts of penicillin in food as follows: (a) 0.05 part per million (negligible residue) in...

  1. The use of penicillins in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A

    1984-11-01

    The main use of the penicillins in orthopedic surgery is in the treatment of infections due to Hemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Group D streptococci (enterococci). Penicillins have antimicrobial activity and have a characteristic pharmacodynamic action, including side effects. The tissue penetration characteristics of the penicillins into synovial fluid and human bone are significant. Semisynthetic penicillins, antistaphylococcal penicillins, and the antipseudomonal penicillins are used for treatment of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Oral penicillin therapy can be useful in treatment of osteomyelitis.

  2. Bifunctional quorum-quenching and antibiotic-acylase MacQ forms a 170-kDa capsule-shaped molecule containing spacer polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Yoshiaki; Kusada, Hiroyuki; Ebuchi, Teppei; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tamura, Tomohiro; Kimura, Nobutada

    2017-08-21

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance will help prepare against further emergence of multi-drug resistant strains. MacQ is an enzyme responsible for the multi-drug resistance of Acidovorax sp. strain MR-S7. MacQ has acylase activity against both N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), a class of signalling compounds involved in quorum sensing, and β-lactam antibiotics. Thus, MacQ is crucial as a quencher of quorum sensing as well as in conferring antibiotic resistance in Acidovorax. Here, we report the X-ray structures of MacQ in ligand-free and reaction product complexes. MacQ forms a 170-kDa capsule-shaped molecule via face-to-face interaction with two heterodimers consisting of an α-chain and a β-chain, generated by the self-cleaving activity of a precursor polypeptide. The electron density of the spacer polypeptide in the hollow of the molecule revealed the close orientation of the peptide-bond atoms of Val20SP-Gly21SP to the active-site, implying a role of the residues in substrate binding. In mutational analyses, uncleaved MacQ retained degradation activity against both AHLs and penicillin G. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism of self-cleaving maturation and enzymatic function of N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases.

  3. The Molecular Structure of Penicillin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Overviews of the observations that constitute a structure proof for penicillin, specifically aimed at the general student population, are presented. Melting points and boiling points were criteria of purity and a crucial tool was microanalysis leading to empirical formulas.

  4. The Molecular Structure of Penicillin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Overviews of the observations that constitute a structure proof for penicillin, specifically aimed at the general student population, are presented. Melting points and boiling points were criteria of purity and a crucial tool was microanalysis leading to empirical formulas.

  5. Pickles, pectin, and penicillin.

    PubMed

    Demain, Arnold L

    2004-01-01

    My professional life has been devoted to the study of microbial products and their biosynthesis, regulation, and overproduction. These have included primary metabolites (glutamic acid, tryptophan, inosinic acid, guanylic acid, vitamin B(12), riboflavin, pantothenic acid, ethanol, and lactic acid) and secondary metabolites (penicillin, cephalosporins, streptomycin, fosfomycin, gramicidin S, rapamycin, indolmycin, microcin B17, fumagillin, mycotoxins, Monascus pigments, and tetramethylpyrazine). Other areas included microbial nutrition, strain improvement, bioconversions of statins and beta-lactams, sporulation and germination, plasmid stability, gel microdroplets, and the production of double-stranded RNA, the polymer xanthan, and enzymes (polygalacturonase, protease, cellulase). Most of the studies were carried out with me by devoted and hardworking industrial scientists for 15 years at Merck & Co. and by similarly characterized students, postdoctorals, and visiting scientists during my 32 years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I owe much of my success to my mentors from academia and industry. My recent research activities with undergraduate students at the Charles A. Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti (R.I.S.E.) at Drew University have been very rewarding and are allowing me to continue my career.

  6. The International Reference Preparation of Penicillin K

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.

    1954-01-01

    The International Reference Preparation of Penicillin K was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization at its fifth session, held in Geneva in 1951. Since the preparation is likely to be used for research only, no unit has been defined. The composition of the preparation, in terms of its activity against a strain of Bacillus subtilis, is penicillin K 89.9%, penicillin dihydro F 9.6%, and penicillin F 0.5%. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13199652

  7. Immobilization of whole cells using polymeric coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.W.; Klei, H.E.; Sunstrom, D.V.; Voronka, P.J.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    A cell immobilization procedure was developed using latex coatings on solid particles. The method's widespread applicability has been demonstrated by successfully immobilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ethanol production), Bacillus subtilis (tryptophan production). Penicillium chrysogenum (penicillin G production), and Escherichia coli (aspartic acid production). In contrast to other immobilization methods, this procedure produces a pellicular particle that is porous, allowing rapid substrate and gas transfer, has a hard core to avoid compression in large beds, and is dense to allow use in fluidized beds. The immobilization procedure was optimized with S. cerevisiae. Kinetic constants obtained were used to calculate effectiveness factors to show that there was minimal intraparticle diffusion resistance. Reactors utilizing the optimized particles were run for 300 hours to evaluate immobilized particle half-life which was 250 hours.

  8. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  9. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  10. Penicillin allergy: A practical guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrada, Alexei; Radojicic, Cristine

    2015-05-01

    Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy in the United States. However, after undergoing a complete evaluation by a board-certified allergist, including skin testing, 90% of patients labeled as 'penicillin-allergic' are able to tolerate penicillin. Clinical presentation is key in classifying reactions as either mediated by or not mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE), and in determining which patients may benefit from penicillin skin testing, graded-dose challenge, or desensitization. Cross-reactivity between penicillin and other beta-lactams is less common than previously thought.

  11. The facts about penicillin allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions are the major problem in the use of penicillins. True penicillin allergy is rare with the estimated frequency of anaphylaxis at 1-5 per 10 000 cases of penicillin therapy. Hypersensitivity is however, its most important adverse reaction resulting in nausea, vomiting, pruritus, urticaria, wheezing, laryngeal oedema and ultimately, cardiovascular collapse. Identification of patients who erroneously carry ß-lactam allergy leads to improved utilization of antibiotics and slows the spread of multiple drug-resistant bacteria. Cross-reactivity between penicillin and second and third generation cephalosporin is low and may be lower than the cross-reactivity between penicillin and unrelated antibiotics.

  12. Penicillin allergy: a practical approach to management.

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, G L; Davis, K; Kohler, P F

    1986-01-01

    Although penicillin is nontoxic, it is highly immunogenic and is the most common drug that causes allergic reactions. A previous reaction to penicillin has been shown to be unreliable in predicting sensitivity in 75% to 90% of patients. To more accurately test for penicillin allergy, diagnostic skin test reagents have been developed; these include the major determinant (benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine) and the minor determinant mixture (penicillin G potassium, benzylpenicilloate sodium and benzylpenicilloyl-N-propylamine). Penicillin skin testing has been shown to be safe and useful in predicting immediate IgE-mediated reactions (overall predictive value 99%). Reactions that occur when patients are challenged with penicillin are mild or accelerated urticarial reactions. We outline a practical and rational therapeutic approach based on the current understanding of penicillin allergy. PMID:3518897

  13. Piezoelectric immunosensors for the detection of individual antibiotics and the total content of penicillin antibiotics in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Karaseva, N A; Ermolaeva, T N

    2014-03-01

    Piezoelectric immunosensors on the basis of homologous and group-specificantibodies have been developed for detecting penicillin G, ampicillin, and the total content of penicillin antibiotics. The receptor coating of the sensor was obtained by the immobilization of penicillin G or ampicillin hapten-protein conjugates on the polypyrrole film obtained by electropolymerization and activated by glutaraldehyde. The affinity constants and the cross reactivity coefficients have been calculated. This made it possible to estimate the affinity and specificity of the polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies used. The calibration curves are linear in the range of concentrations 2.5-250.0 ng ml(-1) (penicillin G), 2.5-500.0 ng ml(-1) (ampicillin), and 1-500 ng ml(-1) (group of penicillin). The limits of detection are 0.8 ng ml(-1), 3.9 ng ml(-1), which are lower than MRL, established for penicillin antibiotics. The sensors were tested in detecting penicillins in milk, pork, beef, liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic Analysis Reveals Versatile Organisms for Quorum Quenching Enzymes: Acyl-Homoserine Lactone-Acylase and -Lactonase

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Raju, Sajan C; Purohit, Hemant J

    2011-01-01

    Microbial virulence and their resistance to multiple drugs have obliged researchers to look for novel drug targets. Virulence of pathogenic microbes is regulated by signal molecules such as acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) produced during a cell density dependent phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS). In contrast, certain microbes produce AHL-lactonases and -acylases to degrade QS signals, also termed as quorum quenching. Mining sequenced genome databases has revealed organisms possessing conserved domains for AHL-lactonases and –acylases: i) Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), ii) Deinococcus (Deinococcus-Thermus), iii) Hyphomonas (α-Proteobacteria), iv) Ralstonia (β-Proteobacteria), v) Photorhabdus (γ-Proteobacteria), and certain marine gamma proteobacterium. Presence of genes for both the enzymes within an organism was observed in the following: i) Deinococcus radiodurans R1, ii) Hyphomonas neptunium ATCC 15444 and iii) Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TTO1. These observations are supported by the presence motifs for lactonase and acylase in these strains. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment of the gene sequences for AHL-lactonases and –acylases have revealed consensus sequences which can be used to design primers for amplifying these genes even among mixed cultures and metagenomes. Quorum quenching can be exploited to prevent food spoilage, bacterial infections and bioremediation. PMID:21660112

  15. Heteroresistance to penicillin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Morand, Brigitte; Mühlemann, Kathrin

    2007-08-28

    Heteroresistance to beta-lactam antibiotics has been mainly described for staphylococci, for which it complicates diagnostic procedures and therapeutic success. This study investigated whether heteroresistance to penicillin exists in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Population analysis profile (PAP) showed the presence of subpopulations with higher penicillin resistance in four of nine clinical pneumococcal strains obtained from a local surveillance program (representing the multiresistant clones ST179, ST276, and ST344) and in seven of 16 reference strains (representing the international clones Spain(23F)-1, Spain(9V)-3, Spain(14)-5, Hungary(19A)-6, South Africa(19A)-13, Taiwan(23F)-15, and Finland(6B)-12). Heteroresistant strains had penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (for the majority of cells) in the intermediate- to high-level range (0.19-2.0 mug/ml). PAP curves suggested the presence of subpopulations also for the highly penicillin-resistant strains Taiwan(19F)-14, Poland(23F)-16, CSR(19A)-11, and CSR(14)-10. PAP of bacterial subpopulations with higher penicillin resistance showed a shift toward higher penicillin-resistance levels, which reverted upon multiple passages on antibiotic-free media. Convergence to a homotypic resistance phenotype did not occur. Comparison of two strains of clone ST179 showed a correlation between the heteroresistant phenotype and a higher-penicillin MIC and a greater number of altered penicillin-binding proteins (PBP1a, -2b, and -2x), respectively. Therefore, heteroresistance to penicillin occurs in international multiresistant clones of S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci may use heteroresistance to penicillin as a tool during their evolution to high penicillin resistance, because it gives the bacteria an opportunity to explore growth in the presence of antibiotics before acquisition of resistance genes.

  16. Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors Using Immobilized Bioreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walt, David R.; Luo, Shufang; Munkholm, Christiane

    1988-06-01

    Optrodes employing immobilized enzymes were developed using covalent attachment of sensor reagents. This development is an extension of the original application of this sensor technology in which a pH sensor was constructed with the pH sensitive dye fluorescein incorporated into a polymer covalently attached to the fiber tip. This sensor displayed significantly improved response times over previous fiber optic sensors because of reduced diffusion limitations. In addition, the signal intensities were greatly enhanced by the high concentration of fluorescent dye localized at the fiber tip. With the anticipation that these qualities would be preserved, a class of sensors based on the immobilization of biomolecules in the polymer matrix became the next goal. This paper will first describe a fiber optic probe prepared by immobilizing esterase in a crosslinked polyacrylamide matrix. The immobilized esterase converts the nonfluorescent fluoresceindiacetate into fluorescein. Both the steady state level and kinetic generation of fluorescence can be related to the concentration of fluoresceindiacetate. A fiber optic sensor for penicillin has been made by coimmobili zing penicillinase with a pH sensitive fluorescent dye. Penicillinase converts penicillin to penicilloic acid which produces a microenvironmental pH change in the dye-containing polymer matrix resulting in a concommitant change in fluorescence. The change in fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of penicillin and a 95% response is reached in 40-60 seconds. The sensor has a detection limit of 2.5 x 10-4 M. Another class of sensors using immobilized bioreceptors will be based on the principles of fluoroimmunoassay. This paper will discuss some basic principles and problems of 1) fluorescence quenching immunoassays, 2) fluorescence excitation transfer immunoassays, and 3) energy transfer immunoassays for digoxin. Both advantages and inherent problems for these sensor preparations will be addressed.

  17. 21 CFR 556.510 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.510 Penicillin. Tolerances are established for residues of penicillin...

  18. 21 CFR 556.510 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.510 Penicillin. Tolerances are established for residues of penicillin...

  19. 21 CFR 556.510 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.510 Penicillin. Tolerances are established for residues of penicillin...

  20. 21 CFR 556.510 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.510 Penicillin. Tolerances are established for residues of penicillin...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin. ...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin. ...

  3. What if Fleming had not discovered penicillin?

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Wainwright, Milton; Alahmadi, Tahani Awad; Salleeh, Hashim Bin; Faden, Asmaa A.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    What would have happened had Alexander Fleming not discovered penicillin in 1928? Perhaps the obvious answer is that, someone else would have discovered penicillin during 1930s and the Oxford group, would still have purified it sometime in the early 1940s. Here, however, in this counterfactual account of the penicillin story, it is argued that without Fleming, penicillin might still be undiscovered and the antibiotic age would never have dawned. As a result, many of the recent developments in medicine, such as organ transplantation, might have been delayed or, at best, made more hazardous. Penicillin might have come onto the scene a few years later but, had Fleming overlooked the discovery, it seems certain that penicillin would not have saved countless Allied lives, during and after D-Day. Instead of having enjoyed fifty and more years of the antibiotic age, it is argued here, that we would have had to rely upon highly developed sulphonamides, so-called “supasulfas”, and other chemically-derived antibacterial drugs. Indeed, it might be the case that, even well into this new millennium, the antibiotic age has yet to dawn, and medicine is still waiting for someone to chance upon penicillin. Here we discuss what might have happened had Fleming not discovered penicillin and come to the conclusion that the medical armoury available today would have been far different and might have relied solely upon highly developed varieties of sulphonamides or similar, synthetic, non-antibiotic antibacterial agents. PMID:25183937

  4. Penicillin-resistant Variants of Pneumococci

    PubMed Central

    Gunnison, Janet B.; Fraher, Margaret A.; Pelcher, Elisabeth A.; Jawetz, Ernest

    1968-01-01

    All of the 74 strains of pneumococci isolated from human infections from 1963 to 1964 proved to be uniformly and highly susceptible to penicillin. Of these strains, 15 were identified by capsule-swelling reactions and were submitted to serial transfer in the presence of increasing concentrations of penicillin. Highly penicillin-resistant mutants were selected from 14 of the 15 strains, whereas one strain was moderately resistant. Of these mutants, 11 could still react with specific antiserum, and all of the mutants could be identified by fermentation reactions and optochin inhibition. The in vitro development of penicillin resistance in these mutants did not result in a change in cell-wall composition sufficient to diminish bile solubility. The possibility of encountering rising penicillin resistance among pneumococci, as well as the possibility that such mutants may react atypically, should be kept in mind. PMID:4384590

  5. Microorganism immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  6. Alkali-treated penicillin G solution is a better option than penicillin G as an alternative source of minor determinants for penicillin skin test.

    PubMed

    Wangrattanasopon, Pongsak; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong

    2012-01-01

    Both benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) and minor determinant mixture (MDM) are the recommended standard reagents for penicillin skin testing. However, penicillin G is commonly suggested as an alternative source of minor determinants. This study evaluated the accuracy of penicillin G and alkali-treated penicillin G compared with the standardized MDM for skin testing. Sixty-eight patients with histories of allergies to penicillin or semisynthetic penicillins were skin tested with commercial Kit penicillin allergenic determinants (DAP) (PPL and DAP-MDM; Diater Laboratorios, Madrid, Spain). The in-house MDM (IH-MDM), prepared by alkali-treated aged penicillin, and fresh penicillin G sodium (PGs) were tested alongside DAP-MDM. Positive penicillin skin test results were identified in 22 patients (32.4%) using commercial reagents (PPL+ DAP-MDM) and 19 of them reacted to DAP-MDM alone or together with PPL. The accuracy of IH-MDM and PGs compared with DAP-MDM was 89.7 and 76.5%, respectively. Our study shows that alkali-treated penicillin G is a better option than penicillin G as an alternative source of MDM for skin testing in case the commercialized MDM is not available. Minor determinants play a significant role for penicillin allergy in Thailand and should be included in the penicillin skin test panel to verify suspected cases of penicillin allergy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00789217).

  7. Penicillin allergy-getting the label right.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    Penicillin(i) allergy is a potentially serious adverse reaction that impacts on antibacterial treatment options. Although it is commonly reported and recorded in medical records, only a minority of patients with a label of penicillin allergy actually have the condition confirmed. The term 'allergy' may be incorrectly applied to adverse reactions that do not have an immunological basis and inappropriate labelling of penicillin allergy can lead to the unnecessary avoidance of penicillins and other beta-lactam antibacterials. Here, we discuss key features that help to distinguish patients at low or high risk of having a true penicillin allergy, summarise what is known about the risk of allergic reactions to other beta-lactam antibacterials in patients with penicillin allergy and discuss the steps to consider when assessing a label of penicillin allergy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Immobilized cell technologies for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Champagne, C P; Lacroix, C; Sodini-Gallot, I

    1994-01-01

    The potential applications of immobilized cell technology (ICT) to the dairy industry are examined. Immobilization modifies the physiology of cells, and the consequences of ICT on lactose as well as citrate metabolism are reviewed. Immobilization also affects the sensitivity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to salt and penicillin. ICT can be used to produce starters for the dairy industry, and aspects of biomass production in beads, continuous cell release from beads, and continuous fermentations with filtration cell recycle are examined. Potential applications of ICT to the dairy industry include acidification of raw milk prior to ultrafiltration, inhibition of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk, yogurt production, cheese manufacture, and cream fermentations. Impacts of yeast, bacterial, or bacteriophage contaminations in ICT processes as well as their control are discussed.

  9. Multiple changes of penicillin-binding proteins in penicillin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Hakenbeck, R; Tarpay, M; Tomasz, A

    1980-01-01

    Penicillin-binding properties and characteristics of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) were investigated in several clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae differing in their susceptibilities to penicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC], 0.03 to 0.5 microgram/ml) and compared with the penicillin-susceptible strain R36A (MIC, 0.07 microgram/ml). Several changes accompanied the development of resistance: the relative affinity to penicillin of whole cells, isolated membranes, and two major PBPs after in vivo or in vitro labeling decreased (with increasing resistance). Furthermore, one additional PBP (2') appeared in four of five relatively resistant strains with an MIC of 0.25 microgram/ml and higher. PBP 3 maintained the same high affinity toward penicillin in all strains under all labeling conditions. Images PMID:7425601

  10. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding for...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding for...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding for...

  13. Identification and characterization of N-acylhomoserine lactone-acylase from the fish intestinal Shewanella sp. strain MIB015.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Nakazawa, Shigehisa; Ebata, Atsushi; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2008-07-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are used as quorum-sensing signal molecules by many gram-negative bacteria. We have reported that Shewanella sp. strain MIB015 degrades AHLs. In the present study, we cloned the aac gene from MIB015 by PCR with specific primers based on the aac gene in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, which showed high homology with the known AHL-acylases. Escherichia coli expressing Aac showed high degrading activity of AHLs with long acyl chains. HPLC analysis revealed that Aac worked as AHL-acylase, which hydrolyzed the amide bond of AHL. In addition, expression of Aac in fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum markedly reduced AHL production and biofilm formation. In conclusion, this study indicates that Aac might be effective in quenching quorum sensing of fish pathogens.

  14. Effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on penicillin fermentations: mycelial growth and penicillin production. [Penicillium chrysogenum

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; Smith, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate of Penicillium chrysogenum was examined experimentally. The dissolved carbon dioxide was found to inhibit the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate when the aerated submerged penicillin fermentation was exposed to influent gases of 12.6 and 20% carbon dioxide, respectively. Upon exposure to influent gases of 3 and 5% carbon dioxide, no pronounced metabolic inhibition was noted.

  15. Safely diagnosing clinically significant penicillin allergy using only penicilloyl-poly-lysine, penicillin, and oral amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    Macy, Eric; Ngor, Eunis W

    2013-01-01

    Penicillin skin testing is rarely used to undiagnose penicillin "allergy" in the United States, partially because of concern that commercially available materials are inadequate. We determined whether skin testing with only commercially available penicilloyl-poly-lysine and penicillin followed by an oral amoxicillin challenge, if skin test-negative, can safely identify clinically significant penicillin allergy. Five hundred sequential persons with positive history of penicillin "allergy" were evaluated by skin testing with penicilloyl-poly-lysine and penicillin between June 8, 2010, and March 29, 2012. All persons with negative skin tests were given an oral amoxicillin challenge and observed for 1 hour. Persons undergoing penicillin allergy testing were representative of all health plan members with penicillin allergy. Only 4 persons (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.32%-2.03%) had a positive skin test result. Only 4 persons (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.32%-2.03%) had an acute objective oral amoxicillin challenge reaction. Fifteen persons (3.0%; 95% CI, 1.83%-4.98%) had subjective oral challenge reactions, either acute transient itching or dizziness. All were women and 11 (73.3%) had multiple drug intolerance syndrome. None had severe reactions or objective signs. These were not considered to be positive challenge reactions. Sixty-eight subjects (13.6%) who were negative on testing were exposed to 88 courses of penicillins during 90 days of follow-up. New reactions were reported after 4 courses (4.5%), 3 (75%) occurring in subjects with multiple drug intolerance syndrome. Penicillin skin testing, using only penicilloyl-poly-lysine and penicillin, followed by oral amoxicillin challenge, if negative, can safely identify clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy in patients who use health care in the United States at this time. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Evaluation of penicillin expandase mutants and complex substrate inhibition characteristics at high concentrations of penicillin G].

    PubMed

    Wu, Linjun; Fan, Keqiang; Ji, Junjie; Yang, Keqian

    2015-12-01

    Penicillin expandase, also known as deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS), is an essential enzyme involved in cephalosporin C biosynthesis. To evaluate the catalytic behaviors of penicillin expandase under high penicillin G concentration and to identify mutants suitable for industrial applications, the specific activities of wild-type DAOCS and several mutants with increased activities toward penicillin G were determined by HPLC under high penicillin G concentrations. Their specific activity profiles were compared with theoretical predictions by different catalytic dynamics models. We evaluated the specific activities of wild-type DAOCS and previous reported high-activity mutants H4, H5, H6 and H7 at concentrations ranging from 5.6 to 500 mmol/L penicillin G. The specific activities of wild-type DAOCS and mutant H4 increased as penicillin G concentration increased, but decreased when concentrations of substrate go above 200 mmol/L. Other mutants H5, H6 and H7 showed more complex behaviors under high concentration of penicillin G. Among all tested enzymes, mutant H6 showed the highest activity when concentration of penicillin G is above 100 mmol/L. Our results revealed that the substrate inhibition to wild-type DAOCS' by penicillin G is noncompetitive. Other DAOCS mutants showed more complex trends in their specific activities at high concentration of penicillin G (>100 mmol/L), indicating more complex substrate inhibition mechanism might exist. The substrate inhibition and activity of DAOCS mutants at high penicillin G concentration provide important insight to help select proper mutants for industrial application.

  17. Is Your Child's 'Penicillin Allergy' Real?

    MedlinePlus

    ... During my pediatric residency and fellowship, we constantly saw families reporting a penicillin allergy and were questioning the validity" of the claim, Vyles said. Two of his three young children have also been ...

  18. Pharmacokinetics of the penicillins in man.

    PubMed

    Barza, M; Weinstein, L

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and summarise those aspects of the pharmacokinetic behaviour of the penicillins that may be of particular interest to the clinician. While these antibiotics differ markedly in their acid stability and oral absorption, misleading inferences may be drawn from simple inspection of the maximal serum concentrations produced by a given dose administered orally. A more accurate picture emerges when serum protein binding and intrinsic activity of the drugs are taken into account. All of the penicillins are readily and actively secreted by the renal tubles and most are eliminated, almost completely unchanged, in the urine. The majority are excreted in small quantities in the bile, but this is a major route for elimination of nafcillin from the body. Distribution of the penicillins in 'non-specialised' sites is excellent. In contrast, penetration of the central nevous system and eye are poor, and of the prostate, minimal. Inflammation reduces the barries to penetration of these areas. However, quantitative data related to this phenomenon in man are few. Probenecid actively competes with the 'export' pump of the meninges and renal tubular cells. This results in an increase in concentrations of the penicillins in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The effect of this agent on active secretion of these antibiotics from the eye and biliary tract is minimal. While elimination of the penicillins from the body takes place largely via renal excretion, penicillin V and oxacillin are extensively degraded as well. In contrast to the situation with respect to 'natural' and 'broad-spectrum' penicillins, the serum half-life of the isoxazolyl congeners and nafcillin is only minimally prolonged in the presence of renal failure. These agents are only weakly haemodialyzable, while the other penicillins are rapidly removed from the circulation by this procedure.

  19. Penicillin skin testing is a safe and effective tool for evaluating penicillin allergy in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Fox, Stephanie J; Park, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin skin testing has been validated in the evaluation of adult patients with penicillin allergy. However, the commercially available benzylpenicilloyl polylysine (Pre-Pen) is not indicated in the pediatric population. Moreover, the safety and validity of penicillin skin testing in the pediatric population has not been well studied. We describe the safety and validity of penicillin skin testing in the evaluation of children with a history of penicillin allergy. Children (<18 years) with a history of penicillin allergy were evaluated with penicillin skin tests and were reviewed for basic demographics, penicillin skin test results, adverse drug reaction to penicillin after penicillin skin test, and adverse reaction to penicillin skin test. By using the χ(2) test, we compared the differences in the proportion of children and adults with a positive penicillin skin test. P value (<.05) was considered statistically significant. The institutional review board approved the study, and all the subjects signed written informed consents. A total of 778 children underwent penicillin skin testing; 703 of 778 patients had a negative penicillin skin test (90.4%), 66 had a positive test (8.5%), and 9 had an equivocal test (1.1%). Children were more likely to have a positive penicillin skin test (P < .0001) compared with adults (64 of 1759 [3.6%]); 369 of 703 patients with negative penicillin skin test (52%) were challenged with penicillin, and 14 of 369 patients (3.8%) had an adverse drug reaction. No adverse reactions to penicillin skin testing were observed. Penicillin skin testing was safe and effective in the evaluation of children with a history of penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative study of 6-APA production by free and agar immobilized bacteria in nutrient broth culture.

    PubMed

    Dolui, A K; Das, S

    2011-04-01

    In the present study different bacterial samples were isolated from soil of different places of Dibrugarh and screened for biotransformation ability to produce 6-Aminopenicillanic acid. Among ten isolated bacterial samples, three gram positive bacterial samples designated as AKDD-2, AKDD-4 and AKDD-6 showed the production of 6-APA from penicillin G. Assessment of production of 6-APA after incubation in penicillin G (2 mg/ml) by three different samples separately in free and agar immobilization state was done by HPLC analysis. Reusability of immobilized cells was found successful up to 14 days.

  1. Benzathine penicillin G after thirty years.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, M

    1980-01-01

    Many new antibiotics and countless formulations of old ones have been introduced during the past three decades. None has supplanted BPG. It remains the only drug that can provide antibiotic blood levels for several weeks following a single intramuscular injection. This property makes BPG the ideal preparation for treponematoses and group A streptococcal infections in patients who are not allergic to penicillin and for whom single-session therapy is desirable or necessary. Sensitivity reactions from BPG are less frequent and less severe than those from aqueous or procaine penicillin G. In certain situations, such as the prevention of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, the fear of a reaction in a patient with a negative past history of penicillin allergy is no justification for withholding BPG when it is clearly the drug of choice.

  2. Synergy between penicillin and gentamicin against enterococci.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, T G; Hastings, J G

    1990-04-01

    The role of active uptake in aminoglycoside activity against penicillin-treated enterococci was studied by viable counts and ATP determinations. Penicillin and gentamicin gave synergistic bactericidal and post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) which were partially reduced by sodium azide, an electron transport inhibitor, and totally blocked in the presence of both sodium azide and EDTA, which chelates divalent cations. EDTA and gentamicin showed marked synergy in both 'killing curve' and PAE experiments. This synergy was completely inhibited by sodium azide. The data indicate that the activity of gentamicin against enterococci that have been damaged by penicillin or EDTA is energy-dependent. This is consistent with present theories of gentamicin uptake via transportation drive by a protonmotive force.

  3. Breast abscess caused by penicillin resistant Pneumococci

    PubMed Central

    Appalaraju, Boppe; Mathews, Anila A.; Bhaskaran, Appolo C.; Arunachalam, Pavai

    2011-01-01

    Breast abscess is mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. A 26-year-old immunocompetent lady was admitted with breast abscess. Incision and drainage (I/D) was done and Pneumococci were isolated from the drained pus. The patient was earlier treated with Augmentin which was later changed to linezolid after testing for antibiotic susceptibility. This strain showed a high level of resistance to penicillin. It had been noticed that there was a slow increase in the number of penicillin resistant Pneumococci isolated in our hospitals. The increase in penicillin-resistant Pneumococci correlates with the intensive use of beta-lactam antibiotics. Hence, antibiotics should be used judiciously, avoiding their use particularly in mild self-limiting upper respiratory infections. Attention therefore, should focus on monitoring resistance in Pneumococci to prevent mortality and morbidity associated with this organism, which continues to take a heavy toll on children and the elderly. PMID:21897917

  4. One-week oral challenge with penicillin in diagnosis of penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Hjortlund, Janni; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Skov, Per Stahl; Eller, Esben; Poulsen, Johan Milling; Borch, Jakob Eli; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Many patients experience reactions during penicillin treatment. The diagnosis may be difficult and is mainly based on short-term tests. The European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) guidelines proposed for diagnosing penicillin allergy do not include long-term challenge. In this study a total of 405 patients were evaluated. The ENDA guidelines were extended, to include a 7-day oral treatment (p.o.7) with penicillin for all patients who were negative in the ENDA programme. Among the 405 patients; 85 had an immediate reaction to penicillin, and a further 13 reacted during p.o.7. Among the 307 patients with a negative outcome, 88 had a case history of reaction to other β-lactam antibiotics and were subsequently tested with the culprit drug. Thirteen patients had a positive outcome: 3 on single-dose challenge and 10 during p.o.7. The extended penicillin diagnostic work-up was positive in 111 patients, 30.0% showed immediate reactions and 5.7% reacted during p.o.7. Approximately 20% of all patients with positive outcome during penicillin challenge are detected by adding p.o.7 with penicillin to the original ENDA guidelines.

  5. Relative penicillin G resistance in Neisseria meningitidis and reduced affinity of penicillin-binding protein 3.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelman, P M; Campos, J; Chaffin, D O; Serfass, D A; Smith, A L; Sáez-Nieto, J A

    1988-01-01

    We examined clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis relatively resistant to penicillin G (mean MIC, 0.3 micrograms/ml; range, 0.1 to 0.7 micrograms/ml), which were isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid for resistance mechanisms, by using susceptible isolates (mean MIC, less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml) for comparison. The resistant strains did not produce detectable beta-lactamase activity, otherwise modify penicillin G, or bind less total penicillin. Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 3 of the six resistant isolates tested uniformly bound less penicillin G in comparison to the same PBP of four susceptible isolates. Reflecting the reduced binding affinity of PBP 3 of the two resistant strains tested, the amount of 3H-labeled penicillin G required for half-maximal binding was increased in comparison with that of PBP 3 of the two susceptible isolates. We conclude that the mechanism of resistance in these meningococci relatively resistant to penicillin G was decreased affinity of PBP 3. Images PMID:3134848

  6. Think You're Allergic to Penicillin? Check Again

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers, 90 percent of people who have a penicillin allergy listed in their medical records didn't actually ... an allergy test. Doctors can test for a penicillin allergy in a two-step process. First, they do ...

  7. Depletion of penicillin G residues in sows after intramuscular injection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A penicillin G procaine residue depletion study was conducted in heavy sows to estimate the pre-slaughter withdrawal periods necessary to clear penicillin from kidney and muscle. Heavy sows (n = 126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intra...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000...

  9. Depletion of penicillin G residues in sows after intramuscular injection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US-FDA CVM has not established a tolerance for penicillin residues in swine tissues, but across much of Europe and Asia a tolerance of 50 ppb penicillin G is in effect. In the US, heavy sows are often treated with extra-label doses of penicillin G, however appropriate pre-slaughter withdrawal p...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin G powder. 520.1696b Section 520.1696b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696b Penicillin G powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains penicillin G potassium equivalent to 1.54 million units...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin G powder. 520.1696b Section 520.1696b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696b Penicillin G powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains penicillin G potassium equivalent to 1.54 million units...

  13. Systemic toxic reactions to procaine penicillin G.

    PubMed

    Downham, T F; Cawley, R A; Salley, S O; Dal Santo, G

    1978-01-01

    Systemic toxic were encountered in eight of 10,469 patients during or immediately following the intramuscular injection of 4,800,000 units of procaine penicillin G for the treatment of gonorrhea. Fear of imminent death, visual and auditory disturbances, violent combativeness, confusion, disorientation, and restlessness, disturbance in taste, cardiovascular changes, and grand mal seizures are the principal manifestations; these usually subside in two to 10 minutes spontaneously or after treatment. Symptoms and signs closely parallel systemic toxic reactions to local anesthetics. Pharmacokinetic analysis in dogs using 14C-procaine and 14C-procaine penicillin G showed rapid distribution of labeled drugs from plasma to cerebrospinal fluid for the intravenous as compared to the intramuscular route of administration. The animal studies were consistent with the hypothesis that the inadvertent intravenous administration of procaine penicillin G is responsible for the systemic toxic reactions. Plasma procainesterase (pseudocholinesterase) activity was assayed with an ultraviolet spectroscopic method. Substrates were procaine and procaine penicillin G. The plasma procainesterase activity of patients who had experienced systemic toxic reactions was significantly decreased as compared to that of controls, an observation not previously reported.

  14. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Laboratory Controls § 211.176...

  15. Inactivation of Penicillins by Thiol Broth

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Patrick R.; Niles, Ann C.

    1982-01-01

    Thiol broth with sodium polyanetholesulfonate inactivated penicillin G, carbenicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, and gentamicin, but had no effect on cephalothin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Only Thiol broth was capable of this inactivation, which was not influenced by the presence of blood. PMID:7153352

  16. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Testing (HFD-470), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...

  17. Factors Associated with Loss of Penicillin G Concentrations in Serum After Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G Injection: A Meta-analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Naval Health Research Center Factors Associated With Loss of Penicillin G Concentrations in Serum After Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G... Serum After Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G Injection: A Meta-analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Concentrations in  Serum  After Intramuscular Benzathine  Penicillin  G Injection:  A Meta-analysis Michael P. Broderick, PhD,* Christian J. Hansen, BS,* and Dennis

  18. Penicillin to prevent recurrent leg cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kim S; Crook, Angela M; Nunn, Andrew J; Foster, Katharine A; Mason, James M; Chalmers, Joanne R; Nasr, Ibrahim S; Brindle, Richard J; English, John; Meredith, Sarah K; Reynolds, Nicholas J; de Berker, David; Mortimer, Peter S; Williams, Hywel C

    2013-05-02

    Cellulitis of the leg is a common bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue. We compared prophylactic low-dose penicillin with placebo for the prevention of recurrent cellulitis. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with two or more episodes of cellulitis of the leg who were recruited in 28 hospitals in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Randomization was performed according to a computer-generated code, and study medications (penicillin [250 mg twice a day] or placebo for 12 months) were dispensed by a central pharmacy. The primary outcome was the time to a first recurrence. Participants were followed for up to 3 years. Because the risk of recurrence was not constant over the 3-year period, the primary hypothesis was tested during prophylaxis only. A total of 274 patients were recruited. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The median time to a first recurrence of cellulitis was 626 days in the penicillin group and 532 days in the placebo group. During the prophylaxis phase, 30 of 136 participants in the penicillin group (22%) had a recurrence, as compared with 51 of 138 participants in the placebo group (37%) (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.86; P=0.01), yielding a number needed to treat to prevent one recurrent cellulitis episode of 5 (95% CI, 4 to 9). During the no-intervention follow-up period, there was no difference between groups in the rate of a first recurrence (27% in both groups). Overall, participants in the penicillin group had fewer repeat episodes than those in the placebo group (119 vs. 164, P=0.02 for trend). There was no significant between-group difference in the number of participants with adverse events (37 in the penicillin group and 48 in the placebo group, P=0.50). In patients with recurrent cellulitis of the leg, penicillin was effective in preventing subsequent attacks during prophylaxis, but the protective effect diminished progressively once

  19. Risk of redocumenting penicillin allergy in a cohort of patients with negative penicillin skin tests.

    PubMed

    Rimawi, Ramzy H; Shah, Kaushal B; Cook, Paul P

    2013-11-01

    Even though electronic documentation of allergies is critical to patient safety, inaccuracies in documentation can potentiate serious problems. Prior studies have not evaluated factors associated with redocumenting penicillin allergy in the medical record despite a proven tolerance with a penicillin skin test (PST). Assess the prevalence of reinstating inaccurate allergy information and associated factors thereof. We conducted a retrospective observational study from August 1, 2012 to July 31, 2013 of patients who previously had a negative PST. We reviewed records from the hospital, long-term care facilities (LTCF), and primary doctors' offices. Vidant Health, a system of 10 hospitals in North Carolina. Patients with proven penicillin tolerance rehospitalized within a year period from the PST. We gauged hospital reappearances, penicillin allergy redocumentation, residence, antimicrobial use, and presence of dementia or altered mentation. Of the 150 patients with negative PST, 55 (37%) revisited a Vidant system hospital within a 1-year period, of whom 21 were LTCF residents. Twenty (36%) of the 55 patients had penicillin allergy redocumented without apparent reason. Factors associated with penicillin allergy redocumentation included age >65 years (P = 0.011), LTCF residence (P = 0.0001), acutely altered mentation (P < 0.0001), and dementia (P < 0.0001). Penicillin allergy was still listed in all 21 (100%) of the LTCF records. At our hospital system, penicillin allergies are often redocumented into the medical record despite proven tolerance. The benefits of PST may be limited by inadequately removing the allergy from different electronic/paper hospital, LTCF, primary physician, and community pharmacy records. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  20. 75 FR 54017 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Penicillin G Benzathine and Penicillin G Procaine Suspension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... CFR Parts 510 and 522 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Penicillin G Benzathine and Penicillin G Procaine Suspension; Penicillin G Procaine Aqueous Suspension AGENCY: Food and... drug applications (NADAs) from G. C. Hanford Manufacturing Co. to Norbrook Laboratories, Ltd. DATES...

  1. [Evaluation of penicillin-binding protein genotypes in penicillin susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates].

    PubMed

    Aslan, Gönül; Tezcan, Seda; Delialioğlu, Nuran; Aydın, Fatma Esin; Kuyucu, Necdet; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2012-04-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are the natural targets of beta-lactam antibiotics and mutations in pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x genes, which encode PBPs, are responsible for resistance to beta-lactams in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the present study, we intended to determine how often the common mutation patterns occurred within the pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x PBP gene regions and evaluate the PBP genotype mutations which were associated with penicillin resistance in several penicillin-susceptible and - resistant S.pneumoniae isolates in Mersin, Turkey. A total of 62 S.pneumoniae strains isolated from different clinical specimens (32 nasopharyngeal swab, 16 sputum, 3 blood, 3 wound, 2 cerebrospinal fluids and one of each urine, abscess, bronchoalveolar lavage, conjunctival swab, tracheal aspirate, middle ear effusion) were included in the study. Penicillin susceptibilities of the isolates were searched by disc diffusion and E-test methods, and 23 of them were identified as susceptible, 31 were intermediate susceptible, and eight were resistant to penicillin. A rapid DNA extraction procedure was performed for the isolation of nucleic acids from the strains. Distribution of PBP gene mutations in pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x gene regions related to penicillin resistance was determined by using a wild-type specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique. PBP gene alterations of those isolates were also evaluated in relation to penicillin susceptibility and resistance patterns. Twenty two (95.7%) of 23 penicillin-susceptible S.pneumoniae isolates exhibited no mutation in the three PBP genes (pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp 2b), while 1 (4.3%) of these harbored mutations in all of the three PBP genes. The penicillin-intermediate susceptible S.pneumoniae isolates exhibited various combinations of mutations. One (3.2%) of 31 penicillin-intermediate susceptible isolates exhibited no mutation in the three PBP genes, while 22 (71%) of them yielded mutations in all of the three PBP

  2. Quorum-Quenching Acylase Reduces the Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Evelina; Wahjudi, Mariana; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Koch, Gudrun; Setroikromo, Rita; Quax, Wim J.

    2009-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 gene pvdQ encodes an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) acylase capable of degrading N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone by cleaving the AHL amide. PvdQ has been proven to function as a quorum quencher in vitro in a number of phenotypic assays. To address the question of whether PvdQ also shows quorum-quenching properties in vivo, an infection model based on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was explored. In a fast-acting paralysis assay, strain PAO1(pMEpvdQ), which overproduces PvdQ, was shown to be less virulent than the wild-type strain. More than 75% of the nematodes exposed to PAO1(pMEpvdQ) survived and continued to grow when using this strain as a food source. Interestingly, in a slow-killing assay monitoring the survival of the nematodes throughout a 4-day course, strain PAO1-ΔpvdQ was shown to be more virulent than the wild-type strain, confirming the role of PvdQ as a virulence-reducing agent. It was observed that larval stage 1 (L1) to L3-stage larvae benefit much more from protection by PvdQ than L4 worms. Finally, purified PvdQ protein was added to C. elegans worms infected with wild-type PAO1, and this resulted in reduced pathogenicity and increased the life span of the nematodes. From our observations we can conclude that PvdQ might be a strong candidate for antibacterial therapy against Pseudomonas infections. PMID:19721066

  3. Affinities of penicillins and cephalosporins for the penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli K-12 and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, N A; Orr, D; Ross, G W; Boulton, M G

    1979-01-01

    The affinities of a range of penicillins and cephalosporins for ther penicillin-binding proteins of Escherichia coli K-12 have been studied, and the results were compared with the antibacterial activity of the compounds against E. coli K-12 and an isogenic permeability mutant. Different penicillins and cephalosporins exhibited different affinities for the "essential" penicillin-binding proteins of E. coli K-12, in a manner which directly correlated with their observed effects upon bacterial morphology. Furthermore, the affinities of the compounds for their "primary" lethal penicillin-binding protein targets showed close agreement with their antibacterial activities against the permeability mutant. Images PMID:393164

  4. Cephalosporin and penicillin cross-reactivity in patients allergic to penicillins.

    PubMed

    Liu, X-D; Gao, N; Qiao, H-L

    2011-03-01

    Bata-lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used antibiotics which usually cause serious IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Of all bata-lactam antibiotics, penicillins have so far been the best-studied, but the studies of cephalosporins and their cross-reactivity with penicillins are rare. We sought to evaluate the IgE response in vitro and estimate cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins in patients allergic to penicillins. We studied 87 control subjects and 420 subjects allergic to penicillins. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was performed to detect eight types of specific-penicillin IgE and eleven types of specific-cephalosporin IgE. The cross-reactivity and different molecules recognition by IgE were studied with a radioallergosorbent inhibition test. Of 420 patients allergic to penicillins, 95 patients (22.62%) showed specific-cephalosporin IgE positive, 73 patients (17.38%) showed IgEs positive to both penicillins and cephalosporins. In specific-penicillin IgE positive group, the positive rate of specific-cephalosporin IgE was significantly higher than in specific-penicillin IgE negative group (27.14% vs. 14.57%, p < 0.01). In urticaria group, the positive rate of specific-cephalosporin IgE was significantly higher than in other symptoms group (30.65% vs. 8.11%, p < 0.05). The analysis of drugs which have the same or similar side-chains showed that benzylpenicillanyl-IgE (BPA-IgE), ampicillanyl-IgE (APA-IgE), amoxicillanyl-IgE (AXA-IgE) were respectively related to cephalothanyl-IgE (CLA-IgE), cephalexanyl-IgE (CEXA-IgE), cephalexanyl-IgE (CEXA-IgE)in sera of penicillin-allergic patients we studied, and compared with patients who had negative amoxicillin-IgE, the positive rates of specific-ampicillin IgE and specific-cephalexin IgE were significantly higher in patients who had positive amoxicillin-IgE (14.43% vs. 3.72%, 14.00% vs. 2.96%, p < 0.01). Radioallergosorbent test and radioallergosorbent inhibition test confirmed that both nuclear

  5. Association between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of venereal disease in the penicillin-allergic patient: administration of penicillin following testing with major and minor determinants.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, P A; Phair, J P

    1985-01-01

    We describe the administration of penicillin for venereal disease in three penicillin-allergic patients for whom alternative antibiotics were not considered suitable. Each patient was skin test negative to the major penicillin determinant benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine and a minor determinant mixture of potassium penicillin, benzylpenicilloate and benzylpenicilloyl-n-propylamine provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Therapeutic doses of penicillin were administered without anaphylaxis, but one patient developed serum sickness on day five following benzylpenicillin. The skin testing results were determined within 30 minutes such that penicillin or its derivatives could be administered safely and rapidly to seriously ill patients, i.e. disseminated gonococcemia. When treating neurosyphilis or disseminated gonococcal infection for which non-penicillin therapy is unacceptable, use of the current skin test reagents provides a level of safety in avoiding anaphylaxis not previously attainable.

  7. Metabolism of Penicillins to Penicilloic Acids and 6-Aminopenicillanic Acid in Man and Its Significance in Assessing Penicillin Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M.; Kenig, M. D.; Hewitt, Valerie A.

    1973-01-01

    Penicillins can be metabolized to penicilloic acids in man, the extent being dependent on the penicillin structure. In the phenoxy penicillin series, phenoxymethyl penicillin was found to be particularly unstable, but the higher homologues were more stable. In the isoxazolyl series, oxacillin was unstable, and progressive insertion of halogen in the phenyl ring increased stability. Ampicillin and amoxycillin showed some instability, ampicillin possibly being the more stable. After intramuscular administration, carbenicillin was very stable in the body, ampicillin was fairly stable, and benzyl penicillin was unstable. It is important to take into account the penicilloic acid content of urine when estimating total absorption of a penicillin. Increased stability in the body as well as slower renal clearance can lead to high concentrations in the serum. Penicilloic acids seemed to be more slowly cleared from the body than penicillins. The liver is probably the site of inactivation. PMID:4364176

  8. Acute and chronic desensitization of penicillin-allergic patients using oral penicillin.

    PubMed

    Stark, B J; Earl, H S; Gross, G N; Lumry, W R; Goodman, E L; Sullivan, T J

    1987-03-01

    The efficacy, safety and mechanisms of penicillin desensitization were studied in 24 adults and two children with serious infections that required therapy with a beta-lactam drug. Indications for desensitization included debilitating as well as life-endangering infections. Increasing oral doses of phenoxymethyl penicillin were administered at 15-minute intervals to a cumulative dose of 1.3 million units. Parenteral therapy with the beta-lactam drug of choice was instituted at that point. Immunologic complications of desensitization or therapy, ranging from pruritus to serum sickness, occurred in 12 patients. The appearance of gradually worsening wheezing led to abandonment of the procedure in one subject with cystic fibrosis and severe pulmonary disease. The remaining 25 patients were successfully desensitized and received full-dose parenteral therapy. Chronic desensitization was maintained in seven individuals with twice daily oral penicillins for 3 weeks to more than 2 years. No allergic complications of chronic desensitization or recurrent full-dose parenteral therapy were detected. Skin test reactions to one or all penicillin determinants became negative in 11 of 15 patients retested after acute desensitization. Two desensitized patients became skin test negative, remained skin test negative after cessation of desensitization, and tolerated subsequent beta-lactam therapy without allergic reactions or resensitization. The results of this study provide new evidence that acute and chronic penicillin desensitization is useful and an acceptably safe approach and suggest that antigen-specific mast cell desensitization contributes to the protection against anaphylaxis.

  9. [Determination of penicillin intermediate and three penicillins in milk by high performance capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunqiu; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Shen, Huqin; Qi, Kezong

    2011-11-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of penicillin intermediate and penicillins in milk, including 6-amino-penicillanic acid (6-APA), penicillin G (PEN), ampicillin (AMP) and amoxicillin (AMO). The main parameters including the ion concentration and pH value of running buffer, separation voltage and column temperature were optimized systematically by orthogonal test. The four penicillins (PENs) were baseline separated within 4.5 min with the running buffer of 40 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate-20 mmol/L borax solution (pH 7.8), separation voltage of 28 kV and column temperature of 30 degrees C. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1.56 - 100 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r2) were between 0.9979 and 0.9998. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 84.91% - 96.72% with acceptable relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.11% - 9.11%. The method is simple, fast, accurate and suitable for the determination of penicillins in real samples.

  10. Penicillin and beta-lactam allergy: epidemiology and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Macy, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Penicillin is the most common beta-lactam antibiotic allergy and the most common drug class allergy, reported in about 8% of individuals using health care in the USA. Only about 1% of individuals using health care in the USA have a cephalosporin allergy noted in their medical record, and other specific non-penicillin, non-cephalosporin beta-lactam allergies are even rarer. Most reported penicillin allergy is not associated with clinically significant IgE-mediated reactions after penicillin rechallenge. Un-verified penicillin allergy is a significant and growing public health problem. Clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy can be safely confirmed or refuted using skin testing with penicilloyl-poly-lysine and native penicillin G and, if skin test is negative, an oral amoxicillin challenge. Acute tolerance of an oral therapeutic dose of a penicillin class antibiotic is the current gold standard test for a lack of clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy. Cephalosporins and other non-penicillin beta-lactams are widely, safely, and appropriately used in individuals, even with confirmed penicillin allergy. There is little, if any, clinically significant immunologic cross-reactivity between penicillins and other beta-lactams. Routine cephalosporin skin testing should be restricted to research settings. It is rarely needed clinically to safely manage patients and has unclear predictive value at this time. The use of alternative cephalosporins, with different side chains, is acceptable in the setting of a specific cephalosporin allergy. Carbapenems and monobactams are also safely used in individuals with confirmed penicillin allergy. A certain predictable, but low, rate of adverse reactions will occur with all beta-lactam antibiotic use both pre- and post-beta-lactam allergy evaluations.

  11. Elective penicillin skin testing in a pediatric outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Jost, Barbara Capes; Wedner, H James; Bloomberg, Gordon R

    2006-12-01

    Adverse reactions associated with penicillin-type antibiotics are common in pediatric practice, leading to the subsequent unnecessary use of alternative antibiotics. IgE-mediated penicillin allergy represents only a fraction of these adverse reactions. To examine (1) the trend of penicillin skin test reactivity during a recent 10-year interval, (2) the relative distribution of specific reagents related to a positive skin test result, and (3) skin test reactivity as a function of reaction history. Penicillin testing using 3 reagents--benzylpenicilloyl polylysine, penicillin G, and sodium penicilloate (penicillin A)--was conducted in a prospective study of 359 consecutive patients referred to an outpatient pediatric allergy clinic between January 1, 1993, and May 31, 2003. We also retrospectively reviewed penicillin skin test results for 562 children previously tested between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1992. Between 1993 and 2003, the prevalence of penicillin skin test sensitivity markedly declined. Of all the positive skin test results between 1979 and 2002, either penicillin G or sodium penicilloate or both identified 34%, with sodium penicilloate alone responsible for 8.5%. The rate of positive skin test reactions was not significantly different between patients with vs without a history of suggestive IgE-mediated reactions. A marked decline in penicillin skin test sensitivity in the pediatric age group is identified. The minor determinant reagents penicillin G and sodium penicilloate are both necessary for determining potential penicillin allergy. Relating history alone to potential penicillin sensitivity is unreliable in predicting the presence or absence of a positive skin test result.

  12. Bacterial resistance to penicillin G by decreased affinity of penicillin-binding proteins: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Temime, L; Boëlle, P Y; Courvalin, P; Guillemot, D

    2003-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis have very similar mechanisms of resistance to penicillin G. Although penicillin resistance is now common in S. pneumoniae, it is still rare in N. meningitidis. Using a mathematical model, we studied determinants of this difference and attempted to anticipate trends in meningococcal resistance to penicillin G. The model predicted that pneumococcal resistance in a population similar to that of France might emerge after 20 years of widespread use of beta-lactam antibiotics; this period may vary from 10 to 30 years. The distribution of resistance levels became bimodal with time, a pattern that has been observed worldwide. The model suggests that simple differences in the natural history of colonization, interhuman contact, and exposure to beta-lactam antibiotics explain major differences in the epidemiology of resistance of S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis.

  13. Action and interaction of penicillin and gentamicin on enterococci.

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, F; Greenwood, D

    1979-01-01

    The action and interaction of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin on Streptococcus faecalis was studied using mainly turbidimetric methods. The minimum antibacterial concentration (MAC) of each antibiotic lay considerably below the conventionally determined minimum inhibitory concentration, and levels of the two agents exceeding the MAC were necessary in order to obtain a synergic interaction. Evidence was obtained that gentamicin interfered with bacterial lysis induced by penicillin, and this suggests that the aminoglycoside is responsible for the bactericidal activity of the combination, the role of the penicillin being solely to facilitate access of the aminoglycoside to its target site. Our findings do not, however, fully support the generally held view that the increased permeability of enterococci to aminoglycosides is due to penicillin-induced cell wall damage. 'Persisters'--cells surviving prolonged exposure to the optimum lethal concentration of penicillin--were not killed by subsequent exposure to gentamicin if the penicillin was removed but were killed if the penicillin remained present. PMID:117025

  14. Interference of Quorum Sensing by Delftia sp. VM4 Depends on the Activity of a Novel N-Acylhomoserine Lactone-Acylase

    PubMed Central

    Maisuria, Vimal B.; Nerurkar, Anuradha S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Turf soil bacterial isolate Delftia sp. VM4 can degrade exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), hence it effectively attenuates the virulence of bacterial soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain BR1 (Pcc BR1) as a consequence of quorum sensing inhibition. Methodology/Principal Findings Isolated Delftia sp. VM4 can grow in minimal medium supplemented with AHL as a sole source of carbon and energy. It also possesses the ability to degrade various AHL molecules in a short time interval. Delftia sp. VM4 suppresses AHL accumulation and the production of virulence determinant enzymes by Pcc BR1 without interference of the growth during co-culture cultivation. The quorum quenching activity was lost after the treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein with quorum quenching activity was purified by three step process. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and Mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis revealed that the AHL degrading enzyme (82 kDa) demonstrates homology with the NCBI database hypothetical protein (Daci_4366) of D. acidovorans SPH-1. The purified AHL acylase of Delftia sp. VM4 demonstrated optimum activity at 20–40°C and pH 6.2 as well as AHL acylase type mode of action. It possesses similarity with an α/β-hydrolase fold protein, which makes it unique among the known AHL acylases with domains of the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolase superfamily. In addition, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for hydrolysis of the different AHL substrates by purified AHL-acylase were estimated. Here we present the studies that investigate the mode of action and kinetics of AHL-degradation by purified AHL acylase from Delftia sp. VM4. Significance We characterized an AHL-inactivating enzyme from Delftia sp. VM4, identified as AHL acylase showing distinctive similarity with α/β-hydrolase fold protein, described its biochemical and thermodynamic properties for the first time and

  15. Potential Cross-Reactivity Between Penicillin Derivatives and Cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Putland, Stacey J; Soulsby, Natalie R; Ward, Sue M; Alderman, Christopher P

    2015-12-01

    Allergic reactions to both penicillins and cephalosporins are relatively common. Patients who have had a previous allergic reaction to a penicillin derivative may also be prone to a further reaction if treated with cephalosporins. This case illustrates several important points about potential cross-reactivity between penicillin derivatives and cephalosporins, as well as the benefits of an extended-hours pharmacy service in a longterm care facility.

  16. Sensitivity of Amoxicillin-Resistant Helicobacter pylori to Other Penicillins

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Maria P.; Graham, David Y.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Realdi, Giuseppe; Osato, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivities to penicillins and to a penicillin and β-lactamase inhibitor combination agent were determined for Helicobacter pylori strains that were sensitive, moderately resistant, or highly resistant to amoxicillin. All strains were resistant to nafcillin and oxacillin. Moderately resistant strains showed an intermediate zone of inhibition to ticarcillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. High-level resistance was associated with the smallest zone size for all penicillins tested. PMID:10390249

  17. Tackling inpatient penicillin allergies: Assessing tools for antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Wickner, Paige G; Hurwitz, Shelley; Pricco, Nicholas; Nee, Alexandra E; Laskowski, Karl; Shenoy, Erica S; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2017-07-01

    Reported penicillin allergy rarely reflects penicillin intolerance. Failure to address inpatient penicillin allergies results in more broad-spectrum antibiotic use, treatment failures, and adverse drug events. We aimed to determine the optimal approach to penicillin allergies among medical inpatients. We evaluated internal medicine inpatients reporting penicillin allergy in 3 periods: (1) standard of care (SOC), (2) penicillin skin testing (ST), and (3) computerized guideline application with decision support (APP). The primary outcome was use of a penicillin or cephalosporin, comparing interventions to SOC using multivariable logistic regression. There were 625 patients: SOC, 148; ST, 278; and APP, 199. Of 278 ST patients, 179 (64%) were skin test eligible; 43 (24%) received testing and none were allergic. In the APP period, there were 292 unique Web site views; 112 users (38%) completed clinical decision support. Although ST period patients did not have increased odds of penicillin or cephalosporin use overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.3; 95% CI, 0.8-2.0), we observed significant increased odds of penicillin or cephalosporin use overall in the APP period (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9) and in a per-protocol analysis of the skin tested subset (aOR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.6-12.5). Both APP and ST-when completed-increased the use of penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics among inpatients reporting penicillin allergy. While the skin tested subset showed an almost 6-fold impact, the computerized guideline significantly increased penicillin or cephalosporin use overall nearly 2-fold and was readily implemented. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Back to the Future: Penicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Matthew P; René, Pierre; Cheng, Alexandre P; Lee, Todd C

    2016-12-01

    Widespread penicillin usage rapidly resulted in the emergence of penicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. However, new data suggest that penicillin susceptibility may be in a period of renaissance. The objective of our study was to quantify penicillin resistance in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. We retrospectively reviewed all adult MSSA bacteremia from April 2010 to April 2015 at the McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, QC, Canada). Susceptibility to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was determined in accordance with the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. There were 324 unique episodes of MSSA bacteremia. Ninety (28%) isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 229 (71%) to erythromycin, 239 (74%) to clindamycin, and 317 (98%) to TMP-SMX. Isolates that were penicillin resistant were more likely to also be resistant to other antibiotics, but a statistically significant association was apparent only for erythromycin resistance (76/234, 32.2% vs 19/90, 21.1%, P = .04). The median age of patients was 67.5 years (interquartile range 52-78) and overall in-hospital 30-day mortality was 16.3% (53 deaths). After adjustment for patient age, there was no association between penicillin resistance and either intensive care unit admission or death. More than one-quarter of patients with MSSA bacteremia potentially could be treated with parenteral penicillin, which may offer pharmacokinetic advantages over other beta-lactam drugs and potentially improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 522.1696a - Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Repeat dosage in 48 hours. (ii) Conditions of use. Treatment of bacterial infections susceptible to penicillin G. (iii) Limitations. In beef cattle, treatment should be limited to two.... (ii) Conditions of use. (A) Treatment of bacterial pneumonia (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces pyogenes...

  20. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Noaparast, Morteza; Mirsharifi, Rasoul; Elyasinia, Fezzeh; Parsaei, Reza; Kondori, Hessam; Farifteh, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. Fasciotomy was carried out due to the resultant compartment syndrome and medical therapy with heparin, corticosteroid, and pentoxifyllin was initiated. PMID:25429182

  1. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  2. Importance of product inhibition in the kinetics of the acylase hydrolysis reaction by differential stopped flow microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Stödeman, Magnus; Schwarz, Frederick P

    2002-09-15

    The hydrolysis of N-acetyl-L-methionine, N-acetylglycine, N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine, and N-acetyl-L-alanine at 298.35K by porcine kidney acylase I (EC 3.5.1.14) was monitored by the heat released upon mixing of the substrate and enzyme in a differential stopped flow microcalorimeter. Values for the Michaelis constant (K(m)) and the catalytic constant (k(cat)) were determined from the progress of the reaction curve employing the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation for each reaction mixture. When neglecting acetate product inhibition of the acylase, values for k(cat) were up to a factor of 2.3 larger than those values determined from reciprocal initial velocity-initial substrate concentration plots for at least four different reaction mixtures. In addition, values for K(m) were observed to increase linearly with an increase in the initial substrate concentration. When an acetate product inhibition constant of 600+/-31M(-1), determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, was used in the progress curve analysis, values for K(m) and k(cat) were in closer agreement with their values determined from the reciprocal initial velocity versus initial substrate concentration plots. The reaction enthalpies, Delta(r)H(cal), which were determined from the integrated heat pulse per amount of substrate in the reaction mixture, ranged from -4.69+/-0.09kJmol(-1) for N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine to -1.87+/-0.23kJmol(-1) for N-acetyl-L-methionine.

  3. Affinity of ceftobiprole for penicillin-binding protein 2b in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with various susceptibilities to penicillin.

    PubMed

    Davies, Todd A; He, Wenping; Bush, Karen; Flamm, Robert K

    2010-10-01

    Wild-type penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2b from penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae had high affinity for ceftobiprole and penicillin (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC(50)s] of ≤0.15 μg/ml) but not ceftriaxone (IC(50) of >8 μg/ml). In clinical isolates, ceftobiprole and PBP 2b affinities were reduced 15- to 30-fold with a Thr-446-Ala substitution and further still with an additional Ala-619-Gly PBP 2b substitution. Ceftobiprole remained active (MICs of ≤1 μg/ml) against all strains tested and behaved more like penicillin than ceftriaxone with respect to PBP 2b binding.

  4. Penicillin allergy: anti-penicillin IgE antibodies and immediate hypersensitivity skin reactions employing major and minor determinants of penicillin.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R K; Joglekar, S A; Tomas, E

    1980-11-01

    300 children considered to have had adverse reactions to penicillin were examined. Informed consent was obtained from the parents. Skin tests were conducted by the scratch/prick and intradermal techniques, using benzylpenicilloyl polylysine conjugate and a mixture of minor determinants of penicillin. Specific anti-penicillin IgE antibodies were estimated by the radioallergosorbent test. There was a good correlation between the two methods. The overall frequency of positive tests was 19%. 11 children showed cutaneous reactivity only to the minor determinants mixture. Positive results were found more often in those with accelerated adverse reactions, particularly anaphylaxis, serum sickness, angio-oedema, or urticaria. The validity of penicillin-negative results was confirmed by drug challenge in 56 subjects, only 2 of whom showed a slight skin rash. Of 5 patients with positive tests, inadvertent administration of penicillin produced accelerated urticaria in all. 14 of 42 children with positive tests had lost hypersensitivity to penicillin one year later. In a separate group of 50 children with a history of adverse response to ampicillin, the overall frequency of positive tests was 12%; 38% showed evidence of recent E-B virus infection. It was concluded that penicillin allergy is often overdiagnosed. The diagnosis can be reliably confirmed by skin tests using major and minor determinants of benzylpenicillin and by the radioallergosorbent test; such hypersensitivity is not permanent.

  5. Combined in vivo and in vitro approach for the characterization of penicillin-specific polyclonal lymphocyte reactivity: tolerance tests with safe penicillins instead of challenge with culprit drugs.

    PubMed

    Sachs, B; Al Masaoudi, T; Merk, H F; Erdmann, S

    2004-10-01

    Amino-penicillins are a major cause of delayed-type reactions to penicillins. The aim of this study was to establish a diagnostic approach for the characterization of the individual penicillin-specific polyclonal lymphocyte reactivity in order to detect side chain-specific sensitization to amino-penicillins. Patients can then be advised to undergo a tolerance test with safe penicillins instead of provocation with culprit penicillins for confirmation of penicillin allergy. We investigated penicillin-specific polyclonal lymphocyte reactivity in nine patients with delayed-type reactions to amino-penicillins by a combined in vivo (patch, prick and intracutaneous tests with delayed readings) and in vitro (lymphocyte transformation test, LTT) approach. A combination of LTT and skin tests improved the sensitivity for the characterization of penicillin-specific polyclonal lymphocyte reactivity and allowed the detection of three different patterns of lymphocyte reactivity. Four patients showed a side chain-specific sensitization to amino-penicillins in vivo and in vitro and were advised to undergo tolerance tests with safe penicillins. Two patients agreed and were exposed to parenteral benzyl-penicillin and oral phenoxymethyl-penicillin which they tolerated without complications. These data suggest that a combined in vivo and in vitro approach is helpful for the detection of side chain-specific sensitization to amino-penicillins. Patients with such sensitization are very likely to tolerate safe penicillins, thereby expanding their therapeutic options when antibiotic treatment is required.

  6. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    SciTech Connect

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry . E-mail: thierry.giardina@univ.u-3mrs.fr

    2005-05-06

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure.

  7. Penicillin inhibitors of purple acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Faridoon; Hussein, Waleed M; Ul Islam, Nazar; Guddat, Luke W; Schenk, Gerhard; McGeary, Ross P

    2012-04-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are binuclear metallohydrolases that have a multitude of biological functions and are found in fungi, bacteria, plants and animals. In mammals, PAP activity is linked with bone resorption and over-expression can lead to bone disorders such as osteoporosis. PAP is therefore an attractive target for the development of drugs to treat this disease. A series of penicillin conjugates, in which 6-aminopenicillanic acid was acylated with aromatic acid chlorides, has been prepared and assayed against pig PAP. The binding mode of most of these conjugates is purely competitive, and some members of this class have potencies comparable to the best PAP inhibitors yet reported. The structurally related penicillin G was shown to be neither an inhibitor nor a substrate for pig PAP. Molecular modelling has been used to examine the binding modes of these compounds in the active site of the enzyme and to rationalise their activities. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of a novel 7 beta-(4-carboxybutanamido)cephalosporanic acid acylase gene of Bacillus laterosporus and its expression in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Aramori, I; Fukagawa, M; Tsumura, M; Iwami, M; Ono, H; Kojo, H; Kohsaka, M; Ueda, Y; Imanaka, H

    1991-12-01

    A strain of Bacillus species which produced an enzyme named glutaryl 7-ACA acylase which converts 7 beta-(4-carboxybutanamido)cephalosporanic acid (glutaryl 7-ACA) to 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) was isolated from soil. The gene for the glutaryl 7-ACA acylase was cloned with pHSG298 in Escherichia coli JM109, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by the M13 dideoxy chain termination method. The DNA sequence revealed only one large open reading frame composed of 1,902 bp corresponding to 634 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a potential signal sequence in its amino-terminal region. Expression of the gene for glutaryl 7-ACA acylase was performed in both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme preparations purified from either recombinant strain of E. coli or B. subtilis were shown to be identical with each other as regards the profile of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and were composed of a single peptide with the molecular size of 70 kDa. Determination of the amino-terminal sequence of the two enzyme preparations revealed that both amino-terminal sequences (the first nine amino acids) were identical and completely coincided with residues 28 to 36 of the open reading frame. Extracellular excretion of the enzyme was observed in a recombinant strain of B. subtilis.

  9. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of a novel 7 beta-(4-carboxybutanamido)cephalosporanic acid acylase gene of Bacillus laterosporus and its expression in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Aramori, I; Fukagawa, M; Tsumura, M; Iwami, M; Ono, H; Kojo, H; Kohsaka, M; Ueda, Y; Imanaka, H

    1991-01-01

    A strain of Bacillus species which produced an enzyme named glutaryl 7-ACA acylase which converts 7 beta-(4-carboxybutanamido)cephalosporanic acid (glutaryl 7-ACA) to 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) was isolated from soil. The gene for the glutaryl 7-ACA acylase was cloned with pHSG298 in Escherichia coli JM109, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by the M13 dideoxy chain termination method. The DNA sequence revealed only one large open reading frame composed of 1,902 bp corresponding to 634 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a potential signal sequence in its amino-terminal region. Expression of the gene for glutaryl 7-ACA acylase was performed in both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme preparations purified from either recombinant strain of E. coli or B. subtilis were shown to be identical with each other as regards the profile of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and were composed of a single peptide with the molecular size of 70 kDa. Determination of the amino-terminal sequence of the two enzyme preparations revealed that both amino-terminal sequences (the first nine amino acids) were identical and completely coincided with residues 28 to 36 of the open reading frame. Extracellular excretion of the enzyme was observed in a recombinant strain of B. subtilis. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1744041

  10. Penicillin Hydrolysis: A Kinetic Study of a Multistep, Multiproduct Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Thomas A.; McLafferty, Fred W.

    1984-01-01

    Background, procedures used, and typical results are provided for an experiment in which students carry out the necessary measurements on the acid-catalysis of penicillin in two hours. By applying kinetic theory to the data obtained, the reaction pathways for the hydrolysis of potassium benzyl penicillin are elucidated. (JN)

  11. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696c Penicillin V powder. (a...) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use. Dogs and cats—(1... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding for...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696c Penicillin V powder. (a...) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use. Dogs and cats—(1... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding for...

  13. Depletion of penicillin G residues in sows after intramuscular injection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2011, the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) switched from using the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test (FAST) for screening animal tissues for penicillin to using the Charm-Kidney Inhibition Swab test (KIS). The switch provided a quicker test and lower detection limits for penicillin when used o...

  14. Cell envelope of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: penicillin enhancement of peptidoglycan hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, W S; Hebeler, B H; Morse, S A

    1977-01-01

    The addition of 10 microgram of penicillin G per ml to log-phase cultures of Neisseria gonorrhoeae JW-31 (minimum inhibitory concentration for penicillin G, less than 0.007 microgram/ml) resulted in cellular lysis after a lag of 30 min. Penicillin markedly decreased the rate of peptidoglycan synthesis and enhanced the rate of hydrolysis of existing peptidoglycan. Hydrolysis was initiated immediately after addition of penicillin; cellular lysis did not occur until a considerable percentage of the peptidoglycan had been degraded. Cellular lysis was not due to penicillin per se but resulted from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. When cells were grown in media buffered with N-2-hydroxyethyl piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid at pH 6, penicillin did not cause lysis; however, at this pH, peptidoglycan hydrolysis occurred and cells lost viability at the same rate as in the control (pH 7.2). We suggest that the stability of gonococci grown at pH 6 is related to increased stability of the outer membrane. The penicillin-enhanced rate of peptidoglycan hydrolysis decreased approximately 50% at pH 6.0. Penicillin-enhanced lysis, peptidoglycan hydrolysis, and loss of viability were also markedly reduced in cells grown at 28 degrees C. PMID:22492

  15. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. ...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin oral dosage forms. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin oral...

  17. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. ...

  18. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.1696 Penicillin...

  19. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. ...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin oral dosage forms. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin oral...

  1. Penicillin: the medicine with the greatest impact on therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2011-11-01

    The principal point of this paper is that the discovery of penicillin and the development of the supporting technologies in microbiology and chemical engineering leading to its commercial scale production represent it as the medicine with the greatest impact on therapeutic outcomes. Our nomination of penicillin for the top therapeutic molecule rests on two lines of evidence concerning the impact of this event: (1) the magnitude of the therapeutic outcomes resulting from the clinical application of penicillin and the subsequent widespread use of antibiotics and (2) the technologies developed for production of penicillin, including both microbial strain selection and improvement plus chemical engineering methods responsible for successful submerged fermentation production. These became the basis for production of all subsequent antibiotics in use today. These same technologies became the model for the development and production of new types of bioproducts (i.e., anticancer agents, monoclonal antibodies, and industrial enzymes). The clinical impact of penicillin was large and immediate. By ushering in the widespread clinical use of antibiotics, penicillin was responsible for enabling the control of many infectious diseases that had previously burdened mankind, with subsequent impact on global population demographics. Moreover, the large cumulative public effect of the many new antibiotics and new bioproducts that were developed and commercialized on the basis of the science and technology after penicillin demonstrates that penicillin had the greatest therapeutic impact event of all times. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  2. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. ...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin oral dosage forms. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin oral...

  4. Long term treatment of chronic Lyme arthritis with benzathine penicillin.

    PubMed Central

    Cimmino, M A; Accardo, S

    1992-01-01

    The cases are reported of two patients with chronic Lyme arthritis resistant to the recommended antibiotic regimens who were cured by long term treatment with benzathine penicillin. It is suggested that the sustained therapeutic levels of penicillin were effective either by the inhibition of germ replication or by lysis of the spirochaetes when they were leaving their sanctuaries. PMID:1417107

  5. Penicillin Hydrolysis: A Kinetic Study of a Multistep, Multiproduct Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Thomas A.; McLafferty, Fred W.

    1984-01-01

    Background, procedures used, and typical results are provided for an experiment in which students carry out the necessary measurements on the acid-catalysis of penicillin in two hours. By applying kinetic theory to the data obtained, the reaction pathways for the hydrolysis of potassium benzyl penicillin are elucidated. (JN)

  6. Penicillin skin testing: potential implications for antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Unger, Nathan R; Gauthier, Timothy P; Cheung, Linda W

    2013-08-01

    As the progression of multidrug-resistant organisms and lack of novel antibiotics move us closer toward a potential postantibiotic era, it is paramount to preserve the longevity of current therapeutic agents. Moreover, novel interventions for antimicrobial stewardship programs are integral to combating antimicrobial resistance worldwide. One unique method that may decrease the use of second-line antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones, vancomycin) while facilitating access to a preferred β-lactam regimen in numerous health care settings is a penicillin skin test. Provided that up to 10% of patients have a reported penicillin allergy, of whom ~10% have true IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, significant potential exists to utilize a penicillin skin test to safely identify those who may receive penicillin or a β-lactam antibiotic. In this article, we provide information on the background, associated costs, currently available literature, pharmacists' role, antimicrobial stewardship implications, potential barriers, and misconceptions, as well as future directions associated with the penicillin skin test.

  7. Does this child really have a penicillin allergy?

    PubMed

    Murphy, K; Scanlan, B; Coghlan, D

    2015-04-01

    Penicillins, the most prescribed paediatric medications worldwide, are also the most commonly reported cause of medication allergy, although this is rarely confirmed. An oral penicillin challenge is considered the gold standard in assessing children with suspected allergy but is seldom performed due to lack of appropriately trained staff and insufficient facilities. We introduced a standardised nurse-led protocol to evaluate children with suspected penicillin allergy fulfilling low risk criteria. In total, 40 children participated, including 22 girls and 18 boys, of which 38 met study criteria. There were 36 (95%) negative challenges completed, allowing these children to be safely prescribed oral penicillin in the future. There were 2 (5%) positive challenges developing similar signs to their initial reaction. This standardised protocol appears to be safe for use and efficient in the evaluation of low risk children with suspected penicillin allergy.

  8. Penicillin's Discovery and Antibiotic Resistance: Lessons for the Future?

    PubMed

    Lobanovska, Mariya; Pilla, Giulia

    2017-03-01

    Undoubtedly, the discovery of penicillin is one of the greatest milestones in modern medicine. 2016 marks the 75th anniversary of the first systemic administration of penicillin in humans, and is therefore an occasion to reflect upon the extraordinary impact that penicillin has had on the lives of millions of people since. This perspective presents a historical account of the discovery of the wonder drug, describes the biological nature of penicillin, and considers lessons that can be learned from the golden era of antibiotic research, which took place between the 1940s and 1960s. Looking back at the history of penicillin might help us to relive this journey to find new treatments and antimicrobial agents. This is particularly relevant today as the emergence of multiple drug resistant bacteria poses a global threat, and joint efforts are needed to combat the rise and spread of resistance.

  9. Penicillin production by wild isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sajjad-Ur-Rahman; Rasool, Muhammad Hidayat; Rafi, Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed at exploring the native wild isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum series in terms of their penicillin production potential. Apart from the standard medium, the efforts were made to utilize suitable agro-industrial wastes for the maximum yield of penicillin. Two series of P. chrysogenum were isolated from local sources and named as P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2. The native series were found to possess better penicillin production potential than the already reported series of P. chrysogenum. However, P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 was found to be the best candidate for high yield of penicillin starting at 100 hour as compared to P. chrysogenum series UAF R2 which produced the highest yield of penicillin at 150 hours for a shorter period of time. Addition of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) to the fermentation medium resulted in the production of 1.20g/L penicillin by P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2. The fermentation medium in which Sugar Cane Bagasse (SCB) was replaced with CSL resulted in the highest yield of penicillin (1.92g/L) by both native series of P. chrysogenum. The penicillin production was increased by 62.5% in medium with SCB as compared to that with CSL. The penicillin yield of medium containing lactose and phenyl acetate was higher than that of control medium. Overall results revealed that P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2 may be recommended for better yield of natural penicillin and this efficiency may be further enhanced by utilizing SCB as substrate in the growth medium.

  10. [Influence of penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration in the synergy between penicillin and gentamicin in viridans-group streptococci].

    PubMed

    Vigliarolo, L; Ramírez, M S; Centrón, D; Lopardo, H

    2007-01-01

    Penicillin resistance rates higher than 60% have been recorded in viridans group streptococci by some authors during the 90's and recently such resistance was associated with higher levels of mortality in bacteremia. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of penicillin for which synergy with aminoglycosides is not yet possible is still unknown. In order to try to dilucidate this puzzle, a study on the susceptibility to penicillin of 28 strains of viridans group streptococci isolated from significant samples in the Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" was carried out. Seven mitis group isolates presenting different susceptibility patterns were selected for performing time-killing curves with penicillin, gentamicin, and penicillin plus gentamicin, using higher and lower penicillin concentrations than their minimal inhibitory concentrations. Synergy was not observed when the penicillin concentration was lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration, at least in these strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin > or = 16 microg/ml. When using penicillin in higher concentrations than the minimum inhibitory concentration, synergy was found in five of the seven strains. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes were found in the two other streptococci.

  11. Meningitis Due to Mixed Infection with Penicillin-Resistant and Penicillin-Susceptible Strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Fernando; Campelo, Carolina; Sanz, Francisca; Otero, Joaquin R.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of bacterial meningitis. We report a case of meningitis due to a mixed infection with two distinct strains of S. pneumoniae: one penicillin-resistant strain of serotype 9V and one penicillin-susceptible strain of serotype 7. The two strains exhibited different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. PMID:12517910

  12. Thin-film antimony-antimony-oxide enzyme electrode for penicillin determination.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, M T; Carroll, N J

    1986-07-01

    A potentiometric penicillinase electrode is reported in which the base pH transducer is a thin-film antimony-antimony-oxide electrode deposited by vacuum evaporation. Several enzyme immobilization procedures have been examined and a crosslinked protein film found to be the most appropriate to this type of sensor. The use of an adjacent antimony-antimony-oxide track as a pseudoreference electrode was successfully demonstrated. The overall response was shown to be independent of the stirring rate above 100 rpm, but the kinetics of the response were found to depend markedly on the stirring rate. The intrinsic linear response range was 3 x 10(-4)M to 7 x 10(-3)M penicillin G. Linearizing transforms that extend the useful range were examined.

  13. Clarithromycin versus penicillin in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Levenstein, J H

    1991-02-01

    The safety and efficacy of oral clarithromycin 250 mg every 12 h treatment and of oral penicillin VK (the potassium salt of phenoxymethylpenicillin) 250 mg every 6 h were compared in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in an eight centre in-vivo study. A total of 243 patients were enrolled in the study and 125 patients were evaluated for efficacy; evaluable patients included 67 patients in the clarithromycin treatment group and 58 patients in the penicillin VK group. Both antibiotic regimens were effective in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. The clinical cure rate during the initial post-treatment period (between two and ten days post-treatment) for the penicillin VK treated group was 98% (57/58) and for the clarithromycin treated group was 96% (64/67). The bacteriological cure rate during the initial post-treatment period for the penicillin VK treated group was 97% (56/58) and for the clarithromycin treated group was 100% (67/67). A total of 17 patients reported adverse events; seven patients were in the clarithromycin treatment group and ten patients in the penicillin VK treatment group. One patient in the penicillin VK group was withdrawn because of the severity of the adverse advent (balanitis). No clinically significant differences were reported between the two treatment groups for haematology, blood chemistry, or urinalysis evaluations. Oral clarithromycin 250 mg 12-hourly treatment was as safe and effective as penicillin VK 250 mg 6-hourly in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis.

  14. Biochemical properties of penicillin amidohydrolase from Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed Central

    Nam, D H; Ryu, D D

    1979-01-01

    Some biochemical properties of whole-cell penicillin amidohydrolase from Micrococcus luteus have been studied. This whole-cell enzyme showed its maximal activity at 36 degrees C at pH 7.5. It was found that the activation energy of this enzyme was 8.03 kcal (ca. 33.6 kJ) per mol, and this amidohydrolase showed first-order decay at 36 degrees C. The penicillin amidohydrolase was deactivated rapidly at temperatures above 50 degrees C during storage or preincubation for 24 h. The Michaelis constant, Km, for penicillin G was determined as 2.26 mM, and the substrate inhibition constant, Kis, was 155 mM. The whole-cell penicillin amidohydrolase from M. luteus was capable of hydrolyzing penicillin G, penicillin V, ampicillin, and cephalexin, but not cephalosporin C and cloxacillin. This whole-cell enzyme also had synthetic activity for semisynthetic penicillins or cephalosporins from D-(--)-alpha-phenylglycine methyl ester and 6-alpha-aminopenicillanic acid or 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. PMID:39505

  15. Penicillin-binding site on the Escherichia coli cell envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, L.; Lee, Y.; Schwarz, U.; Lorian, V.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 35/S-labeled penicillin to distinct penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of the cell envelope obtained from the sonication of Escherichia coli was studied at different pHs ranging from 4 to 11. Experiments distinguishing the effect of pH on penicillin binding by PBP 5/6 from its effect on beta-lactamase activity indicated that although substantial binding occurred at the lowest pH, the amount of binding increased with pH, reaching a maximum at pH 10. Based on earlier studies, it is proposed that the binding at high pH involves the formation of a covalent bond between the C-7 of penicillin and free epsilon amino groups of the PBPs. At pHs ranging from 4 to 8, position 1 of penicillin, occupied by sulfur, is considered to be the site that establishes a covalent bond with the sulfhydryl groups of PBP 5. The use of specific blockers of free epsilon amino groups or sulfhydryl groups indicated that wherever the presence of each had little or no effect on the binding of penicillin by PBP 5, the presence of both completely prevented binding. The specific blocker of the hydroxyl group of serine did not affect the binding of penicillin.

  16. Effect of media composition on the penicillin production.

    PubMed

    El-Marsafy, M; Abdel-Akher, M; El-Saied, H

    1977-01-01

    The conventional penicillin fermentation medium is composed of corn steep liquor, glucose, lactose, minerals, oil, and precursor. The penicillin activity was not affected, due to the addition of carbonate 0-1% or whale oil 0.5% instead of 1%. Also the omission of cupric, magnesium, manganese, zinc sulphates, and acetic acid did not affect the penicillin activity, while the omission of ammonium nitrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate decreased the penicillin activity in the medium. The penicillin activity of a medium containing 2% calcium superphosphate was higher than that of the control medium, containing 0.4% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 1% calcium carbonate. Instead of adding the precursor twice, after 0 and 48 hrs, the addition of phenylacetamide in the amount of 0.2%, at the start, did not affect the activity, while addition of phenylacetic acid (0.2%), at the start, decreased the penicillin activity. The omission of the precursors in the medium decreased the penicillin activity measured microbiologically, however, 6-aminopenicillanic acid content was relatively higher as compared with that of the control medium, containing precursor. These results were confirmed, using iodometric assay and paper chromatographic analysis.

  17. Proteome Analysis of the Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Barreiro, Carlos; García-Estrada, Carlos; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms causing the production of high penicillin titers by industrial strains of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum as the result of strain improvement programs. Penicillin biosynthesis is an excellent model system for many other bioactive microbial metabolites. The recent publication of the P. chrysogenum genome has established the basis to understand the molecular processes underlying penicillin overproduction. We report here the proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (the genome project reference strain) together with an in-depth study of the changes produced in three different strains of this filamentous fungus during industrial strain improvement. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprinting, and tandem mass spectrometry were used for protein identification. Around 1000 spots were visualized by “blue silver” colloidal Coomassie staining in a non-linear pI range from 3 to 10 with high resolution, which allowed the identification of 950 proteins (549 different proteins and isoforms). Comparison among the cytosolic proteomes of the wild-type NRRL 1951, Wisconsin 54-1255 (an improved, moderate penicillin producer), and AS-P-78 (a penicillin high producer) strains indicated that global metabolic reorganizations occurred during the strain improvement program. The main changes observed in the high producer strains were increases of cysteine biosynthesis (a penicillin precursor), enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, and stress response proteins together with a reduction in virulence and in the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites different from penicillin (pigments and isoflavonoids). In the wild-type strain, we identified enzymes to utilize cellulose, sorbitol, and other carbon sources that have been lost in the high penicillin producer strains. Changes in the levels of a few specific proteins correlated well with the improved penicillin

  18. [Quantitative determination of penicillins by iodometry using potassium hydrogen peroxymonosulfate].

    PubMed

    Blazhevskiĭ, N E; Karpova, S P; Kabachyĭ, V I

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics and stoichiometry of S-oxidation of semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin trihydrate, ampicillin trihydrate, sodium salt of oxacillin and ticarcillin disodium salt) by potassium hydrogen peroxymonosulfate in aqueous solutions at pH 3-6 was studied by iodometric titration: 1 mol of KNSO5 per 1 mol of penicillin, the quantitative interaction is achieved in 1 min (time of observation). A unified method was developed and the possibility of quantification of penicillins by the iodometric method using potassium hydrogen peroxymonosulfate as an analytical reagent was shown.

  19. 21 CFR 522.1696c - Penicillin G procaine in oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine in oil. 522.1696c Section... § 522.1696c Penicillin G procaine in oil. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent to 300,000 units of penicillin G. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1696c - Penicillin G procaine in oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine in oil. 522.1696c Section... § 522.1696c Penicillin G procaine in oil. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent to 300,000 units of penicillin G. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1696c - Penicillin G procaine in oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine in oil. 522.1696c Section... § 522.1696c Penicillin G procaine in oil. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent to 300,000 units of penicillin G. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1696c - Penicillin G procaine in oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine in oil. 522.1696c Section... § 522.1696c Penicillin G procaine in oil. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent to 300,000 units of penicillin G. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  3. [Pathophysiology of immobilization osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Menuki, Kunitaka; Sakai, Akinori

    Enhancement of bone resorption and suppression of bone formation in response to reduced mechanical stress cause rapid bone loss. pharmacotherapy for immobilization osteoporosis in motor paralysis and long-term bedrest is effective therapy. Early intervention for rapid bone loss is important for immobilization osteoporosis.

  4. Osmotic Pressure, Bacterial Cell Walls, and Penicillin: A Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John E.

    1984-01-01

    An easily constructed apparatus that models the effect of penicillin on the structure of bacterial cells is described. Background information and procedures for using the apparatus during a classroom demonstration are included. (JN)

  5. Osmotic Pressure, Bacterial Cell Walls, and Penicillin: A Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John E.

    1984-01-01

    An easily constructed apparatus that models the effect of penicillin on the structure of bacterial cells is described. Background information and procedures for using the apparatus during a classroom demonstration are included. (JN)

  6. Penicillin and cephalosporin drug allergies: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Medication hypersensitivity is a constant variable that podiatric physicians face during their professional day. To avoid potential patient harm, an understanding of penicillin and cephalosporin hypersensitivities as it pertains to podiatric medicine needs to be achieved. To accomplish this, a narrative describing the signs, symptoms, and immunologic mechanisms for the basis of penicillin and cephalosporin drug hypersensitivities is presented. Second, specific medical literature serving as clinical-based evidence to support the prescribing of cephalosporins in patients with documented penicillin allergy is presented. Finally, a review of the medical and legal literature describing health-care provider liability regarding subsequent drug hypersensitivity is presented. The information contained in this review allows for the evolving paradigm that permits the prescribing of selective cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy as long as the allergic symptoms were not serious or life-threatening.

  7. Compartmentalization in penicillin G biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum PQ-96.

    PubMed

    Kurzątkowski, Wiesław; Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Gębska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of organelles in the sub-apical productive non-growing vacuolated hyphal cells of the high- and the low-penicillin-pro- ducing strains Penicillium chrysogenum was compared using transmission electron microscopy. In the productive cells of the high-yielding strain the endoplasmic reticulum and the polyribosomes with associated peroxisomes are frequently arranged at the periphery of the cytoplasm and around the vacuoles. At the high activity of penicillin G biosynthesis the immuno-label of the cytosolic isopenicillin N synthase is concentrated at the polyribosomes arranged in the peripheral cytoplasm and along the tonoplast as well as around the peroxisomes. On the basis of the obtained results the compartmentalization of the pathway of penicillin G biosymthesis is discussed. The obtained results support the phenylacetic acid detoxification hypothesis of penicillin G biosynthesis.

  8. [Proper antibiotic therapy. From penicillin to pharmacogenomic].

    PubMed

    Caramia, G; Ruffini, E

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics have always been considered one of the wonder discoveries of the 20th century. The use of penicillin by Flaming, opened up the golden era of antibiotics and now is hard to imagine the practice of medicine without antibiotics. Life-threatening infections, such as meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremic pneumonia sepsis, would again prove fatal. Also aggressive chemotherapy and transplant procedures would prove impossible. Another real wonder has been the rise of antibiotic resistance soon after the clinical use of penicillin in hospitals and communities. Several study demonstrated an excessive amount of antibiotic prescribing for communities patients and inpatients and in some hospital up to 50% of antibiotic usage is inappropriate: the benefits of antibiotic treatment come with the risk of antibiotic resistance development. In hospitals, infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are associated with higher mortality, morbidity and prolonged hospital stay compared with infections caused by antibiotic-susceptible bacteria. A variety of strategies has been proposed to reduce the cost and improve the quality of medication use. Education, guidelines and evidence based recommendations are considered to be essential elements of any program designed to influence prescribing behavior and can provide a foundation of knowledge that will enhance and increase the acceptance of stewardship strategies. Evidence-based recommendations, an approach to clinical practice helping to make decisions based on clinical expertise and on intimate knowledge of the individual patient's situations, beliefs, and priorities, enhance antimicrobial stewardship, that include appropriate selection, dosing, route, and duration of antimicrobial therapy can maximize clinical cure or prevention of infection while limiting the unintended consequences, such as the emergence of resistance, adverse drug events, and cost. These evidence-based guidelines are not a substitute for clinical

  9. Catalytic activity of enzymes immobilized on AlGaN /GaN solution gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, B.; Howgate, J.; von Ribbeck, H.-G.; Gawlina, Y.; Bandalo, V.; Steinhoff, G.; Stutzmann, M.; Eickhoff, M.

    2006-10-01

    Enzyme-modified field-effect transistors (EnFETs) were prepared by immobilization of penicillinase on AlGaN /GaN solution gate field-effect transistors. The influence of the immobilization process on enzyme functionality was analyzed by comparing covalent immobilization and physisorption. Covalent immobilization by Schiff base formation on GaN surfaces modified with an aminopropyltriethoxysilane monolayer exhibits high reproducibility with respect to the enzyme/substrate affinity. Reductive amination of the Schiff base bonds to secondary amines significantly increases the stability of the enzyme layer. Electronic characterization of the EnFET response to penicillin G indicates that covalent immobilization leads to the formation of an enzyme (sub)monolayer.

  10. Seasonal variation in penicillin susceptibility and invasive pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Madoff, Lawrence C; O'Connell, Michael; Pelton, Stephen I

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated prospectively laboratory surveillance data from Massachusetts to investigate whether seasonal variation in invasive pneumococcal disease is associated with the proportion of penicillin-susceptible isolates. The proportion of penicillin-susceptible isolates associated with invasive pneumococcal disease varied by season, with proportions highest in the winter and lowest in the summer, and rates of invasive disease were highest in the autumn and winter seasons and lowest in the summer.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Penicillin Susceptibility and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Pui-Ying Iroh; Madoff, Lawrence C.; O'Connell, Michael; Pelton, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively laboratory surveillance data from Massachusetts to investigate whether seasonal variation in invasive pneumococcal disease is associated with the proportion of penicillin susceptible isolates. The proportion of penicillin susceptible isolates associated with invasive pneumococcal disease varied by season, with proportions highest in the winter and lowest in the summer, and rates of invasive disease were highest in the autumn and winter seasons and lowest in the summer. PMID:25379834

  12. Deinococcus radiodurans can interfere with quorum sensing by producing an AHL-acylase and an AHL-lactonase.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gudrun; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Cool, Robbert H; Quax, Wim J

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial communication via the secretion of small diffusible compounds allows microorganisms to regulate gene expression in a coordinated manner. As many virulence traits are regulated in this fashion, disruption of chemical communication has been proposed as novel antimicrobial therapy. Quorum-quenching enzymes have been a promising discovery in this field as they interfere with the communication of Gram-negative bacteria. AHL-lactonases and AHL-acylases have been described in a variety of bacterial strains; however, usually only one of these two groups of enzymes has been described in a single species. We report here the presence of a member of each group of enzymes in the extremophile bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Co-occurrence of both enzymes in a single species increases the chance of inactivating foreign AHL signals under different conditions. We demonstrate that both enzymes are able to degrade the quorum-sensing molecules of various pathogens subsequently affecting virulence gene expression. These studies add the quorum-quenching enzymes of D. radiodurans to the list of potent quorum-quenchers and highlight the idea that quorum quenching could have evolved in some bacteria as a strategy to gain a competitive advantage by altering gene expression in other species.

  13. Diagnosis of penicillin allergy by skin testing: the Manitoba experience.

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, R. J.; Simons, F. E.; Ho, H. W.; Gorski, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    The reliability of skin testing in the diagnosis of penicillin allergy was studied in 86 adults and 167 children with a history of possible hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin. Skin testing was done with the major antigenic determinant of benzylpenicillin and minor determinants of benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, methicillin and cephalothin. The overall frequency of positive skin reactions was 11.5%. Among the patients with positive skin reactions about half had a history of immediate or accelerated reactions to penicillins, but 2 of 11 adults and 50% of the children in this group had a history of maculopapular rash of delayed onset. There was a low frequency of positive skin reactions when there was a long interval between the times of clinical reaction and skin testing. Of 169 patients reacting negatively to skin testing who received a specific drug challenge only 2 manifested mild urticaria; this indicates the reliability of the skin tests in predicting penicillin allergy. The major and minor determinants of benzylpenicillin were the most useful reagents. One fifth of the patients with penicillin hypersensitivity would have been missed if the major determinant of benzylpenicillin alone had been used for skin testing. The additional use of the minor determinants of other penicillin derivatives, however, did not increase substantially the clinical reliability of the skin testing procedure. PMID:638909

  14. INACTIVATION OF SOME SEMISYNTHETIC PENICILLINS BY GRAM-NEGATIVE BACILLI

    PubMed Central

    Sabath, Leon; Finland, Maxwell

    1963-01-01

    Sabath, Leon (Boston City Hospital, Boston, Mass.) and Maxwell Finland. Inactivation of some semisynthetic penicillins by gram-negative bacilli. J. Bacteriol. 85:314–321. 1963.—An agar diffusion method was used to test 55 strains of gram-negative bacilli for their ability to inactivate penicillin G, methicillin, biphenylpenicillin, oxacillin, and ampicillin; 26 strains inactivated one or more of them. All strains of Klebsiella-Aerobacter, nearly all of Escherichia coli, and some of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not those of Proteus or Salmonella, were active by this method. Penicillin G was inactivated by the largest number of strains, biphenylpenicillin and ampicillin by somewhat fewer, and oxacillin and methicillin by about half as many. When the five penicillins were incubated with four strains of different bacteria in broth at 37 C, all were inactivated to a considerable extent by all the strains, each penicillin to a different degree, but to about the same extent by all the strains. Adsorption alone did not account for the loss of activity. The results suggest that there are qualitative, as well as quantitative, differences among species or even strains of gram-negative bacilli in their ability to inactivate the various penicillins. Images PMID:13975857

  15. Why did the Fleming strain fail in penicillin industry?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; Díez, Bruno; Barredo, José Luis

    2005-05-01

    Penicillin, discovered 75 years ago by Sir Alexander Fleming in Penicillium notatum, laid the foundations of modern antibiotic chemotherapy. Early work was carried out on the original Fleming strain, but it was later replaced by overproducing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, which became the industrial penicillin producers. We show how a C(1357)-->T (A394V) change in the gene encoding PahA in P. chrysogenum may help to explain the drawback of P. notatum. PahA is a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the catabolism of phenylacetic acid (PA; a precursor of penicillin G). We expressed the pahA gene from P. notatum in P. chrysogenum obtaining transformants able to metabolize PA (P. chrysogenum does not), and observing penicillin production levels about fivefold lower than that of the parental strain. Our data thus show that a loss of function in P. chrysogenum PahA is directly related to penicillin overproduction, and support the historic choice of P. chrysogenum as the industrial producer of penicillin.

  16. Penicillin-binding proteins in Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Because some Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are β-lactam-producing bacteria, they have to have some self-resistant mechanism. The β-lactam biosynthetic gene clusters include genes for β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), suggesting that these are involved in self-resistance. However, direct evidence for the involvement of β-lactamases does not exist at the present time. Instead, phylogenetic analysis revealed that PBPs in Streptomyces are distinct in that Streptomyces species have much more PBPs than other Actinobacteria, and that two to three pairs of similar PBPs are present in most Streptomyces species examined. Some of these PBPs bind benzylpenicillin with very low affinity and are highly similar in their amino-acid sequences. Furthermore, other low-affinity PBPs such as SCLAV_4179 in Streptomyces clavuligerus, a β-lactam-producing Actinobacterium, may strengthen further the self-resistance against β-lactams. This review discusses the role of PBPs in resistance to benzylpenicillin in Streptomyces belonging to Actinobacteria.

  17. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-03-07

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D&T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D&T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D&T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency.

  18. Daily penicillin serum concentrations following injection of 1.2 mega-units of ”all-purpose” penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Tinkler, A. E.; Hedges, A. J.; Shannon, R.

    1965-01-01

    In view of evidence suggesting that 1.2 mega-units of ”all-purpose” penicillin (300 000 IU potassium penicillin G, 300 000 IU procaine penicillin G and 600 000 IU benzathine penicillin) did not maintain treponemicidal serum concentrations during the week following injection—which if true, might necessitate a reappraisal of prophylactic and treatment schedules in wide use against syphilis—daily assays were performed to determine the penicillinaemia levels in ambulant adult males for one week following intramuscular injection with this dosage of two ”all-purpose” products (168 assays in all, 24 each day). Statistical evaluation of the results showed that the mean daily serum concentrations were, in fact, treponemicidal during the whole week after injection. The means of groups of 24 assays fell within narrow daily ranges on each of the seven post-injection days, suggesting that the long-acting component (benzathine penicillin) gives reliable and predictable daily levels in a high proportion of cases. This is in contrast to those penicillins which rely for their long-acting property on the oily gel in which they are suspended. On the other hand, the extremes of penicillinaemia for any individual in a large group were shown to cover a very wide range, demonstrating that a particular patient's failure to respond to standard treatment or prophylaxis can be due to factors quite unrelated to the quality or specificity of the product or to the sensitivity of the organism causing disease. PMID:5294592

  19. Kinetic study of serum penicillin concentrations after single doses of benzathine and benethamine penicillins in young and old people.

    PubMed Central

    Collart, P; Poitevin, M; Milovanovic, A; Herlin, A; Durel, J

    1980-01-01

    In a comparative kinetic study of the serum concentrations of two penicillin complexes--medium-long-acting (benethamine penicillin) and long-acting (benzathine bipenicillin)--after a single injection in young adults and elderly people, the following results were confirmed statistically: (a) age was a major factor in the variations in serum penicillin concentrations and in their persistence in the serum; (b) the penicillin was absorbed faster in young than in elderly subjects even when a long-acting complex was used; (c) serum concentrations below the level regarded as lethal for treponemes appeared much earlier and more frequently in young than in old people; and (d) the bioequivalence between penicillin preparations could not be estimated solely for the number of units of the agent used but from the bioavailability of the chosen formulation. Thus a uniform and standard penicillin dosage allowing no safety margin may help in the superficial healing of a syphilitic chancre or the resolution of a roseola but it will certainly be insufficient to kill Treponema pallidum. It seems essential therefore to provide an antibiotic cover at high dosage over a long period of time. PMID:7448577

  20. An Engineered Yeast Efficiently Secreting Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Gidijala, Loknath; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Douma, Rutger D.; Seifar, Reza M.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN). As yet, the industrial production of this β-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) in H. polymorpha, resulted in the production of active ACVS enzyme, when co-expressed with the Bacillus subtilis sfp gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activated ACVS. This represents the first example of the functional expression of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase in yeast. Co-expression with the P. chrysogenum genes encoding the cytosolic enzyme isopenicillin N synthase as well as the two peroxisomal enzymes isopenicillin N acyl transferase (IAT) and phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL) resulted in production of biologically active PEN, which was efficiently secreted. The amount of secreted PEN was similar to that produced by the original P. chrysogenum NRRL1951 strain (approx. 1 mg/L). PEN production was decreased over two-fold in a yeast strain lacking peroxisomes, indicating that the peroxisomal localization of IAT and PCL is important for efficient PEN production. The breakthroughs of this work enable exploration of new yeast-based cell factories for the production of (novel) β-lactam antibiotics as well as other natural and semi-synthetic peptides (e.g. immunosuppressive and cytostatic agents), whose production involves NRPS's. PMID:20016817

  1. An engineered yeast efficiently secreting penicillin.

    PubMed

    Gidijala, Loknath; Kiel, Jan A K W; Douma, Rutger D; Seifar, Reza M; van Gulik, Walter M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN). As yet, the industrial production of this beta-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) in H. polymorpha, resulted in the production of active ACVS enzyme, when co-expressed with the Bacillus subtilis sfp gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activated ACVS. This represents the first example of the functional expression of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase in yeast. Co-expression with the P. chrysogenum genes encoding the cytosolic enzyme isopenicillin N synthase as well as the two peroxisomal enzymes isopenicillin N acyl transferase (IAT) and phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL) resulted in production of biologically active PEN, which was efficiently secreted. The amount of secreted PEN was similar to that produced by the original P. chrysogenum NRRL1951 strain (approx. 1 mg/L). PEN production was decreased over two-fold in a yeast strain lacking peroxisomes, indicating that the peroxisomal localization of IAT and PCL is important for efficient PEN production. The breakthroughs of this work enable exploration of new yeast-based cell factories for the production of (novel) beta-lactam antibiotics as well as other natural and semi-synthetic peptides (e.g. immunosuppressive and cytostatic agents), whose production involves NRPS's.

  2. Immobilization induced hypercalcemia

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Torres, Edgar Alonso; González-Cantú, Arnulfo; Hinojosa-Garza, Gabriela; Castilleja-Leal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Summary Immobilization hypercalcemia is an uncommon diagnosis associated with increased bone remodeling disorders and conditions associated with limited movement such as medullar lesions or vascular events. Diagnosis requires an extensive evaluation to rule out other causes of hypercalcemia. This is a report of a woman with prolonged immobilization who presented with severe hypercalcemia. This case contributes to identification of severe hypercalcemia as a result of immobility and the description of bone metabolism during this state. PMID:27252745

  3. Development of a penicillin biosensor using a single optical imaging fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, Brian G.; Walt, David R.

    1995-05-01

    A penicillin biosensor has been fabricated by photodepositing penicillin-sensitive polymer matrices and pH-sensitive polymer matrices on different regions of an optical imaging fiber. Penicillin is detected by coupling the enzymatic activity of penicillinase with the pH sensitivity of fluorescein. Penicillin concentration is correlated to the pH change in the microenvironment of the penicillin-sensitive matrix relative to the pH of the sample solution. This dual sensor removes the need to maintain a constant solution pH when measuring penicillin and should enhance greatly the application of biosensors.

  4. Electronic structure and physicochemical properties of selected penicillins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Ruiz, Juan F. Sánchez; Raya, A.; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    Traditionally, penicillins have been used as antibacterial agents due to their characteristics and widespread applications with few collateral effects, which have motivated several theoretical and experimental studies. Despite the latter, their mechanism of biological action has not been completely elucidated. We present a theoretical study at the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) levels of theory of a selected group of penicillins such as the penicillin-G, amoxicillin, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, and carbenicillin molecules, to systematically determine the electron structure of full ?-lactam antibiotics. Our results allow us to analyze the electronic properties of the pharmacophore group, the aminoacyl side-chain, and the influence of the substituents (R and X) attached to the aminoacyl side-chain at 6? (in contrast with previous studies focused at the 3? substituents), and to corroborate the results of previous studies performed at the semiempirical level, solely on the ?-lactam ring of penicillins. Besides, several density descriptors are determined with the purpose of analyzing their link to the antibacterial activity of these penicillin compounds. Our results for the atomic charges (fitted to the electrostatic potential), the bond orders, and several global reactivity descriptors, such as the dipole moments, ionization potential, hardness, and the electrophilicity index, led us to characterize: the active sites, the effect of the electron-attracting substituent properties and their physicochemical features, which altogether, might be important to understand the biological activity of these type of molecules.

  5. Recent advances in the understanding of the penicillin urticarias.

    PubMed

    Jillson, O F; Porter, P S

    1965-08-01

    The three major groups of immunoglobulins (gamma G, gamma A, and gamma M) associated with this disease are reviewed. The presence or absence of atopic disease may account for percentage variability of gamma A because reagins (skin-sensitizing antibodies) are found in this immunoglobulin. The gamma A is the antibody usually responsible for anaphylaxis, rather than the gamma G precipitins, so stressed in the past. All three immunoglobulins may be found in serum sickness, which could account for the complex nature of this type of penicillin urticaria. The merits of the immunological tests (penicilloyl-polylysine, benzyl penicillin, hemagglutination, basophil degranulation) for the detection of penicillin sensitivity are analyzed, particularly as each applies to the various types of penicillin urticaria (serum sickness, anaphylactic, dermographic, delayed dermographic, and simple chronic urticaria and the lupus diathesis). The penicilloyl-polylysine test is greatly overrated as a means of predicting possible anaphylaxis. The benzyl penicillin skin test properly performed is an excellent means of indicating this.

  6. Chromatography of Penicillins, Penicilloates, and Penicilloylamides on Dextran Gels

    PubMed Central

    Hyslop, Newton E.; Milligan, Richard J.

    1974-01-01

    The factors influencing the chromatographic behavior on dextran gels of penicillins and their derivatives were investigated by comparing elution profiles and partition coefficients (KD and KAV) of penicillins differing in side-chain structure and among penicillin derivatives of identical side-chain but different nuclear structure. Under the conditions of pH and ionic strength employed (pH 7.4, 0.145 M NaCl, 0.05 M PO4), side-chain adsorptive effects best explained the anomalous behavior of benzylpenicillin and of oxacillin and its chlorine-substituted analogues. Polar side-chain substituents, such as the amino group of ampicillin and the carboxyl group of carbenicillin, and cleavage of the β-lactam ring, exemplified by penicilloates and penicilloylamines, both appeared to interfere with side-chain-directed adsorption. The differential adsorption of penicillins and their derivatives to dextran gels is not only of theoretical interest relative to the mechanism of chromatography but of practical application to analytical and preparative procedures in penicillin chemistry. PMID:15825415

  7. Cloning, expression and purification of penicillin-binding protein 3 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC 10104.

    PubMed

    An, Yan Dong; Du, Qi Zhen; Tong, Li Yan; Yu, Zhao Wu; Gong, Xing Wen

    2015-06-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary target of β-lactams used to treat pseudomonas infections. Meanwhile, structure change and overproduction of PBP3 play important roles in the drug resistance of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, studies on the gene and structure of PBP3 are urgently needed. P. aeruginosa CMCC 10104 is a type culture strain common used in China. However, there is no report on its genomic and proteomic profiles. In this study, based on ftsI of P. aeruginosa PAO1, the gene encoding PBP3 was cloned from CMCC 10104. A truncated version of the ftsI gene, omitting the bases encoding the hydrophobic leader peptide (amino acids 1-34), was amplified by PCR. The cloned DNA shared 99.76% identity with ftsI from PAO1. Only four bases were different (66 C-A, 1020 T-C, 1233 T-C, and 1527 T-C). However, there were no differences between their deduced amino acid sequences. The recombinant PBP3 (rPBP3), containing a 6-histidine tag, was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Ni(2+)-NTA agarose was used for its purification. The purified rPBP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis, and showed a single band at about 60kDa with purity higher than 95%. The penicillin-binding assay indicated that the obtained rPBP3 was functional and not hindered by the presence of the C-terminal His-tag. The protocol described in this study offers a method for obtaining purified recombinant PBP3 from P. aeruginosa CMCC 10104. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. AmiE, a novel N-acylhomoserine lactone acylase belonging to the amidase family, from the activated-sludge isolate Acinetobacter sp. strain Ooi24.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Seiji; Yasumoto, Sera; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum-sensing signal molecules. We have reported that Acinetobacter strains isolated from activated sludge have AHL-degrading activity. In this study, we cloned the amiE gene as an AHL-degradative gene from the genomic library of Acinetobacter sp. strain Ooi24. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that AmiE functions as an AHL acylase, which hydrolyzes the amide bond of AHL. AmiE showed a high level of degrading activity against AHLs with long acyl chains but no activity against AHLs with acyl chains shorter than eight carbons. AmiE showed homology with a member of the amidases (EC 3.5.1.4) but not with any known AHL acylase enzymes. An amino acid sequence of AmiE from Ooi24 showed greater than 99% identities with uncharacterized proteins from Acinetobacter ursingii CIP 107286 and Acinetobacter sp. strain CIP 102129, but it was not found in the draft or complete genome sequences of other Acinetobacter strains. The presence of transposase-like genes around the amiE genes of these three Acinetobacter strains suggests that amiE is transferred by a putative transposon. Furthermore, the expression of AmiE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 reduced AHL accumulation and elastase activity, which were regulated by AHL-mediated quorum sensing.

  9. Documenting Penicillin Allergy: The Impact of Inconsistency

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirav S.; Ridgway, Jessica P.; Pettit, Natasha; Fahrenbach, John; Robicsek, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergy documentation is frequently inconsistent and incomplete. The impact of this variability on subsequent treatment is not well described. Objective To determine how allergy documentation affects subsequent antibiotic choice. Design Retrospective, cohort study. Participants 232,616 adult patients seen by 199 primary care providers (PCPs) between January 1, 2009 and January 1, 2014 at an academic medical system. Main Measures Inter-physician variation in beta-lactam allergy documentation; antibiotic treatment following beta-lactam allergy documentation. Key Results 15.6% of patients had a reported beta-lactam allergy. Of those patients, 39.8% had a specific allergen identified and 22.7% had allergic reaction characteristics documented. Variation between PCPs was greater than would be expected by chance (all p<0.001) in the percentage of their patients with a documented beta-lactam allergy (7.9% to 24.8%), identification of a specific allergen (e.g. amoxicillin as opposed to “penicillins”) (24.0% to 58.2%) and documentation of the reaction characteristics (5.4% to 51.9%). After beta-lactam allergy documentation, patients were less likely to receive penicillins (Relative Risk [RR] 0.16 [95% Confidence Interval: 0.15–0.17]) and cephalosporins (RR 0.28 [95% CI 0.27–0.30]) and more likely to receive fluoroquinolones (RR 1.5 [95% CI 1.5–1.6]), clindamycin (RR 3.8 [95% CI 3.6–4.0]) and vancomycin (RR 5.0 [95% CI 4.3–5.8]). Among patients with beta-lactam allergy, rechallenge was more likely when a specific allergen was identified (RR 1.6 [95% CI 1.5–1.8]) and when reaction characteristics were documented (RR 2.0 [95% CI 1.8–2.2]). Conclusions Provider documentation of beta-lactam allergy is highly variable, and details of the allergy are infrequently documented. Classification of a patient as beta-lactam allergic and incomplete documentation regarding the details of the allergy lead to beta-lactam avoidance and use of other antimicrobial

  10. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  11. Severe serum sickness reaction to oral and intramuscular penicillin.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brychan M; Kotti, George H; Shah, Anand D; Conger, Nicholas G

    2006-05-01

    Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immune complex deposition with subsequent complement activation, small-vessel vasculitis, and tissue inflammation. Although the overall incidence of serum sickness is declining because of decreased use of heterologous sera and improved vaccinations, rare sporadic cases of serum sickness from nonprotein drugs such as penicillins continue to occur. Drug-induced serum sickness is usually self-limited, with symptoms lasting only 1-2 weeks before resolving. We report an unusual case of a severe and prolonged serum sickness reaction that occurred after exposure to an intramuscular penicillin depot injection (probable relationship by Naranjo score) and discuss how pharmacokinetics may have played a role. Clinicians should be familiar with serum sickness reactions particularly as they relate to long-acting penicillin preparations. Accurate diagnosis in conjunction with cessation of drug exposure and prompt initiation of antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids can produce complete recovery

  12. Improving penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum by glyoxalase overproduction.

    PubMed

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2013-07-01

    Genetic engineering of fungal cell factories mainly focuses on manipulating enzymes of the product pathway or primary metabolism. However, despite the use of strong promoters or strains containing the genes of interest in multiple copies, the desired strongly enhanced enzyme levels are often not obtained. Here we present a novel strategy to improve penicillin biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum by reducing reactive and toxic metabolic by-products, 2-oxoaldehydes. This was achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding glyoxalase I and II, which resulted in a 10% increase in penicillin titers relative to the control strain. The protein levels of two key enzymes of penicillin biosynthesis, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase, were increased in the glyoxalase transformants, whereas their transcript levels remained unaltered. These results suggest that directed intracellular reduction of 2-oxoaldehydes prolongs the functional lifetime of these enzymes.

  13. Penicillin-induced immunohemolytic anemia associated with circulating immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Funicella, T; Weinger, R S; Moake, J L; Spruell, M; Rossen, R D

    1977-01-01

    Eleven days after administration of multiple penicillin analogs, a 55-year-old female developed a Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. The patient's erythrocytes were coated with IgG, complement components (C4/C3) and her serum contained elevated 125I-Clq binding activity (a measure of the presence of immune complexes). Her serum, in the presence of fresh complement and penicillin, induced complement sensitization of normal erythrocytes. Immune complex-mediated complement activation and the haptene type of erythrocyte sensitization accounted for accelerated red blood cell destruction in this patient.

  14. Successful treatment of Aerococcus viridans endocarditis in a patient allergic to penicillin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Yu, Wen-Chung; Huang, Suang-Hao; Lin, Mei-Lin; Chen, Te-Li; Fung, Chang-Phone; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2012-04-01

    Aerococcus viridans is a rare human pathogen that occasionally causes endocarditis. Most of the reported cases of endocarditis have been treated with penicillin. Here we describe a patient who was allergic to penicillin and was successfully treated with cefotaxime.

  15. Immobilized enzymes in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mosbach, K

    1985-01-01

    The immobilization of enzymes and cells by different methods and the possible stabilization of immobilized preparations are discussed. An outlook on 'second generation enzyme technology', which involves immobilized multi-enzyme systems and coenzymes, is given with examples: the immobilization of dehydrogenases with their active sites facing one another, and systems containing NAD(H) coenzymes immobilized by coupling to dextran (in an enzyme electrode), to polyethylene glycol (in a membrane reactor), or to enzymes themselves. The use of immobilized enzymes to synthesize peptides and disaccharides is described.

  16. Production of Penicillin by Fungi Growing on Food Products: Identification of a Complete Penicillin Gene Cluster in Penicillium griseofulvum and a Truncated Cluster in Penicillium verrucosum

    PubMed Central

    Laich, Federico; Fierro, Francisco; Martín, Juan F.

    2002-01-01

    Mycobiota growing on food is often beneficial for the ripening and development of the specific flavor characteristics of the product, but it can also be harmful due to the production of undesirable compounds such as mycotoxins or antibiotics. Some of the fungi most frequently isolated from fermented and cured meat products such as Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium nalgiovense are known penicillin producers; the latter has been shown to be able to produce penicillin when growing on the surface of meat products and secrete it to the medium. The presence of penicillin in food must be avoided, since it can lead to allergic reactions and the arising of penicillin resistance in human-pathogenic bacteria. In this article we describe a study of the penicillin production ability among fungi of the genus Penicillium that are used as starters for cheese and meat products or that are frequently isolated from food products. Penicillium griseofulvum was found to be a new penicillin producer and to have a penicillin gene cluster similar to that of Penicillium chrysogenum. No other species among the studied fungi were found to produce penicillin or to possess the penicillin biosynthetic genes, except P. verrucosum, which contains the pcbAB gene (as shown by hybridization and PCR cloning of fragments of the gene) but lacks pcbC and penDE. Antibacterial activities due to the production of secondary metabolites other than penicillin were observed in some fungi. PMID:11872470

  17. Production of penicillin by fungi growing on food products: identification of a complete penicillin gene cluster in Penicillium griseofulvum and a truncated cluster in Penicillium verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Laich, Federico; Fierro, Francisco; Martín, Juan F

    2002-03-01

    Mycobiota growing on food is often beneficial for the ripening and development of the specific flavor characteristics of the product, but it can also be harmful due to the production of undesirable compounds such as mycotoxins or antibiotics. Some of the fungi most frequently isolated from fermented and cured meat products such as Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium nalgiovense are known penicillin producers; the latter has been shown to be able to produce penicillin when growing on the surface of meat products and secrete it to the medium. The presence of penicillin in food must be avoided, since it can lead to allergic reactions and the arising of penicillin resistance in human-pathogenic bacteria. In this article we describe a study of the penicillin production ability among fungi of the genus Penicillium that are used as starters for cheese and meat products or that are frequently isolated from food products. Penicillium griseofulvum was found to be a new penicillin producer and to have a penicillin gene cluster similar to that of Penicillium chrysogenum. No other species among the studied fungi were found to produce penicillin or to possess the penicillin biosynthetic genes, except P. verrucosum, which contains the pcbAB gene (as shown by hybridization and PCR cloning of fragments of the gene) but lacks pcbC and penDE. Antibacterial activities due to the production of secondary metabolites other than penicillin were observed in some fungi.

  18. A re-appraisal of the conventional history of antibiosis and Penicillin.

    PubMed

    Arseculeratne, S N; Arseculeratne, G

    2017-02-01

    The popular perception of the history of antibiosis and penicillin is that Alexander Fleming was the sole researcher on penicillin. The literature, however, has documentation of preceding persons who reported definitively on these topics, from the late 19(th) century. Divergent reports on "firsts" in the discovery of antimicrobial activity of Penicillium and on the use of penicillin as a therapeutic agent, are present. This review adds knowledge from diverse sources, and restores historical priorities to the conventional story of Penicillin.

  19. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations...

  2. Heat-shock protein ClpL/HSP100 increases penicillin tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao Dang-Hien; Kwon, Hyog-Young; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ki-Woo; Briles, David E; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Penicillin resistance and tolerance has been an increasing threat to the treatment of pneumococcal pneumoniae. However, no penicillin tolerance-related genes have been claimed. Here we show that a major heat shock protein ClpL/HSP100 could modulate the expression of a cell wall synthesis enzyme PBP2x, and subsequently increase cell wall thickness and penicillin tolerance in Streptococus pneumoniae.

  3. Different roads to discovery; Prontosil (hence sulfa drugs) and penicillin (hence beta-lactams).

    PubMed

    Bentley, Ronald

    2009-06-01

    The important chemotherapeutic agents, Prontosil and pentenylpenicillin (penicillin F), were investigated initially by two men, Domagk and Fleming, who had been influenced by the horrendous wound infections of World War I. The very different pathways leading to their development and to that of the successor antibacterials (sulfa drugs, further penicillins, semi-synthetic penicillins), including the role played by patents, are discussed.

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484h Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension. (a... milligrams of neomycin, 10,000 international units of penicillin G procaine, 5,000 international units of...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484h Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension. (a... milligrams of neomycin, 10,000 international units of penicillin G procaine, 5,000 international units of...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484h Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension. (a... milligrams of neomycin, 10,000 international units of penicillin G procaine, 5,000 international units of...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484h Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension. (a... milligrams of neomycin, 10,000 international units of penicillin G procaine, 5,000 international units of...

  8. Feasibility, Benefits, and Limitations of a Penicillin Allergy Skin Testing Service.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Prasanna P; Jeffres, Meghan N

    2017-06-01

    To critically examine the feasibility, benefits, and limitations of an inpatient penicillin skin testing service and how pharmacists can be utilized. A PubMed search was performed from July 2016 through September 2016 using the following search terms: penicillin skin testing, penicillin allergy, β-lactam allergy. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. All English-language studies assessing the use of penicillin skin testing as well as management and clinical outcomes of patients with a β-lactam allergy were evaluated. The prevalence of people self-identifying as penicillin allergic ranges from 10% to 20% in the United States. Being improperly labeled as penicillin allergic is associated with higher health care costs, worse clinical outcomes, and an increased prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections. Penicillin skin testing can be a tool used to clarify penicillin allergies and has been demonstrated to be a successful addition to antimicrobial stewardship programs in multiple health care settings. Prior to implementing a penicillin skin testing service, institutions will need to perform a feasibility analysis of who will supply labor and accept the financial burden as well as identify if the positive benefits of a penicillin skin testing service overcome the limitations of this diagnostic test. We conclude that institutions with high percentages of patients receiving non-β-lactams because of penicillin allergy labels would likely benefit the most from a penicillin skin testing service.

  9. 21 CFR 526.1696d - Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary... DRUGS § 526.1696d Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. For lactating cattle: each 10-milliliter dose contains 100,000 units of penicillin G procaine and 150...

  10. 21 CFR 526.1696d - Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary... DRUGS § 526.1696d Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. For lactating cattle: each 10-milliliter dose contains 100,000 units of penicillin G procaine and 150...

  11. 21 CFR 526.1696d - Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary infusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary... DRUGS § 526.1696d Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary infusion. (a) Specifications. For lactating cattle: each 10-milliliter dose contains 100,000 units of penicillin G procaine and 150...

  12. Management of allergy to penicillins and other beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Mirakian, R; Leech, S C; Krishna, M T; Richter, A G; Huber, P A J; Farooque, S; Khan, N; Pirmohamed, M; Clark, A T; Nasser, S M

    2015-02-01

    The Standards of Care Committee of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and an expert panel have prepared this guidance for the management of immediate and non-immediate allergic reactions to penicillins and other beta-lactams. The guideline is intended for UK specialists in both adult and paediatric allergy and for other clinicians practising allergy in secondary and tertiary care. The recommendations are evidence based, but where evidence is lacking, the panel reached consensus. During the development of the guideline, all BSACI members were consulted using a Web-based process and all comments carefully considered. Included in the guideline are epidemiology of allergic reactions to beta-lactams, molecular structure, formulations available in the UK and a description of known beta-lactam antigenic determinants. Sections on the value and limitations of clinical history, skin testing and laboratory investigations for both penicillins and cephalosporins are included. Cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins is discussed in detail. Recommendations on oral provocation and desensitization procedures have been made. Guidance for beta-lactam allergy in children is given in a separate section. An algorithm to help the clinician in the diagnosis of patients with a history of penicillin allergy has also been included.

  13. The effect of penicillin on Chlamydia trachomatis DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lambden, Paul R; Pickett, Mark A; Clarke, Ian N

    2006-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis L2 was used to infect BGMK cells at an m.o.i. of 1.0, and the developmental cycle was followed by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative PCR (QPCR) for both chromosomal and plasmid DNA. Samples were taken at sequential 6 h time points. Subsequent analysis by QPCR showed that there was an initial slow replication period (0-18 h), followed by a rapid phase (18-36 h) coinciding with exponential division when the DNA doubling time was 4.6 h. Chromosomal DNA was amplified 100-200-fold corresponding to 7-8 generations for the complete developmental cycle. Penicillin (10 and 100 units ml(-1)) was added to cultures at 20 h post-infection (p.i.). This blocked binary fission and also prevented reticulate body (RB) to elementary body transition. However, exposure to penicillin did not prevent chromosomal or plasmid DNA replication. After a short lag period, following the addition of penicillin, chlamydial chromosomal DNA replication resumed at the same rate as in control C. trachomatis-infected cells. C. trachomatis-infected host cells exposed to penicillin did not lyse, but instead harboured large, aberrant RBs in massive inclusions that completely filled the cell cytoplasm. In these RBs, the DNA continued to replicate well beyond the end of the normal developmental cycle. At 60 h p.i. each aberrant RB contained a minimum of 16 chromosomal copies.

  14. Scale-down of penicillin production in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Lodewijk P; Buijs, Nicolaas A A; ten Pierick, Angela; Deshmukh, Amit; Zhao, Zheng; Kiel, Jan A K W; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2011-08-01

    In large-scale production reactors the combination of high broth viscosity and large broth volume leads to insufficient liquid-phase mixing, resulting in gradients in, for example, the concentrations of substrate and oxygen. This often leads to differences in productivity of the full-scale process compared with laboratory scale. In this scale-down study of penicillin production, the influence of substrate gradients on process performance and cell physiology was investigated by imposing an intermittent feeding regime on a laboratory-scale culture of a high yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. It was found that penicillin production was reduced by a factor of two in the intermittently fed cultures relative to constant feed cultivations fed with the same amount of glucose per hour, while the biomass yield was the same. Measurement of the levels of the intermediates of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway, along with the enzyme levels, suggested that the reduction of the flux through the penicillin pathway is mainly the result of a lower influx into the pathway, possibly due to inhibitory levels of adenosine monophosphate and pyrophosphate and lower activating levels of adenosine triphosphate during the zero-substrate phase of each cycle of intermittent feeding.

  15. Improving the Effectiveness of Penicillin Allergy De-labeling.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jack; Pavlos, Rebecca; James, Ian; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10-20% of hospitalized patients are labeled as penicillin allergic, and this is associated with significant health and economic costs. We looked at the effectiveness of penicillin allergy de-labeling in clinical practice with the aim of deriving risk stratification models to guide testing strategies. Consecutive patients aged 15 years or more, referred to a Western Australian public hospital drug allergy service between 2008 and 2013 for beta-lactam allergy, were included. Follow-up surveys were conducted. Results of skin prick testing and intradermal testing (SPT/IDT) and oral challenge (OC), and follow-up of post testing antibiotic usage were the main outcomes. SPT/IDT was performed in 401 consecutive patients with immediate (IMM) (≤ 1 hour) (n = 151) and nonimmediate (NIM) (>1 hour) (n = 250) reactions. Of 341 patients, 42 (12.3%) were SPT/IDT+ to ≥ 1 penicillin reagents, including 35/114 (30.4%) in the IMM group and 7/227 (3.1%) in the NIM group (P < .0001). Of 355 SPT/IDT patients, 3 (0.8%), all in the IMM group, had nonserious positive OC reactions to single dose penicillin VK (SPT/IDT negative predictive value [NPV] 99.2%). Selective or unrestricted beta-lactam was recommended in almost 90% overall, including 238/250 (95.2%) in the NIM group and 126/151 (83.4%) in the IMM group (P = .0001). Of 182 patients, 137 (75.3%) were following the allergy label modifications (ALM) at the time of follow-up. Penicillin SPT/IDT/OC safely de-labels penicillin-allergic patients and identifies selective beta-lactam allergies; however, incomplete adherence to ALM recommendations impairs effectiveness. Infrequent SPT/IDT+ and absent OC reactions in patients with NIM reactions suggest OC alone to be a safe and cost-effective de-labeling strategy that could improve the coverage of penicillin allergy de-labeling in lower risk populations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New device for interdental immobilization.

    PubMed

    Divis, B O

    1992-09-01

    The immobilization of a simple fractured jaw with arch bars is a time-consuming, laborious procedure. The alternative method of immobilization described here uses a precisely threaded, 22-gauge, malleable stainless steel wire and a threaded nylon nut. It affords the surgeon relative safety from accidental puncture trauma and makes the interdental immobilization a precise and speedy procedure.

  17. Characterization of an autoinducer of penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Martín, Jorge; García-Estrada, Carlos; Rumbero, Angel; Recio, Eliseo; Albillos, Silvia M; Ullán, Ricardo V; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2011-08-15

    Filamentous fungi produce an impressive variety of secondary metabolites; many of them have important biological activities. The biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites is frequently induced by plant-derived external elicitors and appears to also be regulated by internal inducers, which may work in a way similar to that of bacterial autoinducers. The biosynthesis of penicillin in Penicillium chrysogenum is an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms of control of gene expression due to a good knowledge of the biochemistry and molecular genetics of β-lactam antibiotics and to the availability of its genome sequence and proteome. In this work, we first developed a plate bioassay that allows direct testing of inducers of penicillin biosynthesis using single colonies of P. chrysogenum. Using this bioassay, we have found an inducer substance in the conditioned culture broths of P. chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum. No inducing effect was exerted by γ-butyrolactones, jasmonic acid, or the penicillin precursor δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine. The conditioned broth induced penicillin biosynthesis and transcription of the pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE genes when added at inoculation time, but its effect was smaller if added at 12 h and it had no effect when added at 24 h, as shown by Northern analysis and lacZ reporter studies. The inducer molecule was purified and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as 1,3-diaminopropane. Addition of pure 1,3-diaminopropane stimulated the production of penicillin by about 100% compared to results for the control cultures. Genes for the biosynthesis of 1,3-diaminopropane have been identified in the P. chrysogenum genome.

  18. Free radicals properties of gamma-irradiated penicillin-derived antibiotics: piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Pilawa, Barbara; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations and properties of free radicals in piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin after gamma irradiation. The radicals were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using an X-band spectrometer (9.3 GHz). Gamma irradiation was performed at a dose of 25 kGy. One- and two-exponential functions were fitted to the experimental data, in order to assess the influence of the antibiotics' storage time on the measured EPR lines. After gamma irradiation, complex EPR lines were recorded confirming the presence of a large number of free radicals formed during the irradiation. For all tested antibiotics, concentrations of free radicals and parameters of EPR spectra changed with storage time. The results obtained demonstrate that concentration of free radicals and other spectroscopic parameters can be used to select the optimal parameters of radiation sterilization of β-lactam antibiotics. The most important parameters are the constants τ (τ (1(A),(I)) and τ (2(A),(I))) and K (K (0(A),(I)), K (1(A),(I)), K (2(A),(I))) of the exponential functions that describe free radicals decay during samples storage.

  19. Involvement of Histamine and RhoA/ROCK in Penicillin Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiayin; Yi, Yan; Li, Chunying; Zhang, Yushi; Wang, Lianmei; Zhao, Yong; Pan, Chen; Liang, Aihua

    2016-09-13

    The mechanism of penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions has not been completely elucidated. These reactions are generally considered to be mediated by IgE, but penicillin-specific IgE could not be detected in most cases. This study demonstrated that penicillin was able to cause vascular hyperpermeability in a mouse model mimicking clinical symptoms of penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions. The first exposure to penicillin also induced immediate edema and exudative reactions in ears and lungs of mice in a dose-dependent manner. Vasodilation was noted in microvessels in ears. These reactions were unlikely to be immune-mediated reactions, because no penicillin-specific IgE was produced. Furthermore, penicillin treatment directly elicited rapid histamine release. Penicillin also led to F-actin reorganization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and increased the permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway was observed in ears and lungs of mice and in endothelial cells after treatment with penicillin. Both an anti-histamine agent and a ROCK inhibitor attenuated penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions in mice. This study presents a novel mechanism of penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions and suggests a potential preventive approach against these reactions.

  20. Involvement of Histamine and RhoA/ROCK in Penicillin Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiayin; Yi, Yan; Li, Chunying; Zhang, Yushi; Wang, Lianmei; Zhao, Yong; Pan, Chen; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions has not been completely elucidated. These reactions are generally considered to be mediated by IgE, but penicillin-specific IgE could not be detected in most cases. This study demonstrated that penicillin was able to cause vascular hyperpermeability in a mouse model mimicking clinical symptoms of penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions. The first exposure to penicillin also induced immediate edema and exudative reactions in ears and lungs of mice in a dose-dependent manner. Vasodilation was noted in microvessels in ears. These reactions were unlikely to be immune-mediated reactions, because no penicillin-specific IgE was produced. Furthermore, penicillin treatment directly elicited rapid histamine release. Penicillin also led to F-actin reorganization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and increased the permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway was observed in ears and lungs of mice and in endothelial cells after treatment with penicillin. Both an anti-histamine agent and a ROCK inhibitor attenuated penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions in mice. This study presents a novel mechanism of penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions and suggests a potential preventive approach against these reactions. PMID:27619816

  1. Failure of penicillin to eradicate group A beta-hemolytic streptococci tonsillitis: causes and management.

    PubMed

    Brook, I

    2001-12-01

    Despite the fact that group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) is always susceptible to penicillin, bacteriologic failure occurs in up to 20% of the patients treated with penicillin, and half of these cases are also a clinical failure. Various theories have been offered to explain this phenomenon. One explanation is that beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) "shield" GABHS by inactivating penicillin. Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria were recovered from over 75% of the tonsils of patients who had tonsillectomy for recurrent infection. The absence of interfering aerobic and anaerobic organisms in many patients may also lead to failure of penicillin therapy in these individuals. Other explanations include noncompliance with a 10-day course of therapy, carrier state, re-infection, bacterial interference, GABHS intracellular internalization, and penicillin tolerance. Penicillin is still considered the antibiotic of choice for the therapy of GABHS tonsillitis. However, antibiotics other than penicillin were found to be more effective in eradicating the infection. These included cephalosporins (of all generations), clindamycin, macrolides, and amoxicillin-clavulanate. These agents were more effective than penicillin, especially in treating patients who failed previous penicillin therapy. Treatment of tonsillitis in patients who failed penicillin therapy is aimed at the eradication of the the BLPB that protect GABHS from penicillin, while preserving the oropharyngeal "protective" organisms. This review will describe the scientific and clinical data that demonstrate and explain the phenomena of beta-lactamase production and bacterial interference.

  2. Penicillin allergy: optimizing diagnostic protocols, public health implications, and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Macy, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Unverified penicillin allergy is being increasingly recognized as a public health concern. The ideal protocol for verifying true clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy needs to use only commercially available materials, be well tolerated and easy to perform in both the inpatient and outpatient settings, and minimize false-positive determinations. This review concentrates on articles published in 2013 and 2014 that present new data relating to the diagnosis and management of penicillin allergy. Penicillin allergy can be safely evaluated at this time, in patients with an appropriate clinical history of penicillin allergy, using only penicilloyl-poly-lysine and native penicillin G as skin test reagents, if an oral challenge with amoxicillin 250 mg, followed by 1 h of observation, is given to all skin test negative individuals. Millions of individuals falsely labeled with penicillin allergy need to be evaluated to safely allow them to use penicillin-class antibiotics and avoid morbidity associated with penicillin avoidance. Further research is needed to determine optimal protocol(s). There will still be a 1-2% rate of adverse reactions reported with all future therapeutic penicillin-class antibiotic use, even with optimal methods used to determine acute penicillin tolerance. Only a small minority of these new reactions will be IgE-mediated.

  3. Industrial use of immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    DiCosimo, Robert; McAuliffe, Joseph; Poulose, Ayrookaran J; Bohlmann, Gregory

    2013-08-07

    Although many methods for enzyme immobilization have been described in patents and publications, relatively few processes employing immobilized enzymes have been successfully commercialized. The cost of most industrial enzymes is often only a minor component in overall process economics, and in these instances, the additional costs associated with enzyme immobilization are often not justified. More commonly the benefit realized from enzyme immobilization relates to the process advantages that an immobilized catalyst offers, for example, enabling continuous production, improved stability and the absence of the biocatalyst in the product stream. The development and attributes of several established and emerging industrial applications for immobilized enzymes, including high-fructose corn syrup production, pectin hydrolysis, debittering of fruit juices, interesterification of food fats and oils, biodiesel production, and carbon dioxide capture are reviewed herein, highlighting factors that define the advantages of enzyme immobilization.

  4. Immobilized Cell Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-31

    beads, the plasmid is twice as stable as in cells In a process where immobilized cells produce material grown in continuous culture over 200...carrageenan) or chemically cross-linked, or- Penicillium chrysogenum than in washed freely suspended ganic polymer (Ca-alginate, polyacrylamide, and mycelium ...these materials are formed into the freely suspended cells stopped after 6 days. If the beads of several millimeters in diameter by allowing the

  5. Staphylococci in community-acquired infections: Increased resistance to penicillin.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, G B; Chidi, C C; Macon, W L

    1976-01-01

    One hundred patients with community-acquired staphylococcal infections of the skin and soft tissues were treated in the Emergency Ward of Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital from June to October of 1974. Each staphylococcal infection was considered community-acquired if, within two weeks prior to being treated for the first time, the patient had not received antibiotics, had not been hospitalized, and had not been in contact with other recently hospitalized persons. Of 100 community-acquired staphylococcal infections, 85 were resistant to penicillin. Almost no resistance to other tested antibiotics was observed. Unless indicated otherwise by bacteriologic testing, penicillin is a poor drug of choice in those skin and soft tissue infections suspected of harboring staphylococci. PMID:1267491

  6. Thermodynamics of Association of Structurally Related Amphiphilic Penicillins.

    PubMed

    Taboada; Attwood; García; Jones; Ruso; Mosquera; Sarmiento

    2000-01-15

    Critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of the penicillins cloxacillin and dicloxacillin in water were determined by conductivity measurements over the temperature range 288.15 to 313.15 K. Both penicillins showed minimum CMCs at temperatures close to 298.15 K. Thermodynamic parameters of aggregate formation were derived from the variation of the CMC with temperature using a modified form of the mass action model applicable to systems of low aggregation number. Values for the enthalpy of aggregate formation, DeltaH(0)(m), calculated by this method showed that the aggregation of both cloxacillin and dicloxacillin became increasingly exothermic with increase in temperature. The predicted DeltaH(0)(m) at 298.15 K was in good agreement with the value determined experimentally by calorimetry for each drug. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Merlin Pryce (1902-1976) and penicillin: an abiding mystery.

    PubMed

    Wyn Jones, Emyr; Wyn Jones, R Gareth

    2002-12-01

    In the scientific and medical pantheon few have received more adulation and honour than Sir Alexander Fleming. Even so it is abundantly clear that his triumphant discovery of penicillin owed much to the work of others, especially Florey and Chain, who accomplished the difficult task of taking penicillin from the test tube to patient. This essay does not attempt a detailed re-examination of that discovery. Rather the present study suggests that even the initial observation on that critical day in September 1928 and its subsequent ramifications were even more complex and perplexing than the accepted version. It is likely that Professor Daniel Merlin Pryce, a somewhat unconventional but gifted son of the Welsh mining valleys played an important, quite possibly a crucial, role in the original observation. However one which, except for a very few occasions, he himself sought to downplay, even virtually to deny.

  8. Isomaltulose production using immobilized cells.

    PubMed

    Chhetham, P S; Garrett, C; Clark, J

    1985-04-01

    Three strains of Erwinia rhapontici especially suitable for use in the form of nongrowing immobilized cells were selected by screening strains of cells for high activity and operational stability in an immobilized form. Immobilization in calcium alginate gel pellets was easily the best method of immobilizing E. rhapontici. Much greater operational stabilities were obtained than when other immobilization methods were used. Conditions of operation which optimize the activity, stability, and yield and the ease of operation of the immobilized cell columns working in a steady state are described. These include the effects of substrate concentration, diffusional restrictions and water activity, the concentration of cells immobilized, and the type of reactor used. Thus, the immobilized cells produce about 1500 times their own weight of isomaltulose during one half-life of use (ca. 1 year). Loss of activity was most closely correlated with the volume of substrate processed and so presumably is due to the presence of low concentrations of a cummulative inhibitor in the substrate. Methods for regenerating the activity of the immobilized cells by the periodic administration of nutrients, of forming isomaltulose by continuously supplying nutrients to growing immobilized cells, and of crystallizing isomaltulose from the column eluate are also described.

  9. The prevalence of suspected and challenge-verified penicillin allergy in a university hospital population.

    PubMed

    Borch, Jakob E; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2006-04-01

    Suspected penicillin allergy is common among hospitalised patients, but the quality of the information given by the patient is often doubtful. Alleged penicillin allergic are likely to be treated with more toxic, broad-spectrum, and more expensive antibiotics, with effects on microbial resistance patterns and public economy as a consequence. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study with two visits to all clinical departments of a large university hospital in order to find in-patients with medical files labelled "penicillin allergy" or who reported penicillin allergy upon admission. Patient histories were obtained via a questionnaire, and they were offered investigation for penicillin allergy with specific IgE, basophil histamine release, skin prick tests, intradermal tests and drug challenge tests. Finally, the pharmaco-economical consequences of the penicillin allergy were estimated. In a cohort of 3642 patients, 96 fulfilled the inclusion criteria giving a point-prevalence of alleged penicillin allergy of 5% in a hospital in-patient population. Mean time elapsed since the alleged first reaction to penicillin was 20 years. The skin was the most frequently affected organ (82.2%), maculo-papular exanthema (35.4%) and urticaria (10.4%) being the most frequently reported reactions. 25% did not recall the time of their reaction. 82.2% did not remember the name of the penicillin they reacted to. 34.8% had been treated with penicillins after suspicion of penicillin allergy had been raised. None of these reacted to penicillins. 33.3% of the patients receiving antibiotics during their current hospitalisation were prescribed penicillins. 2% developed non-severe exanthema. The average acquisition costs for antibiotics to penicillin allergic patients were euro 278, compared to euro 119 had they been non-allergic. The prevalence of suspected penicillin allergy was lower than reported elsewhere. A substantial number of patients failed to recall basic information about

  10. Effectiveness of penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime for penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: a retrospective, propensity-score-adjusted case-control and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jette Lindbjerg; Skov, Robert; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Benfield, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates account for a fifth of cases of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in Denmark, but little is known about treatment outcomes with penicillins or other antimicrobials. Here we compare penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime as definitive treatments in relation to 30 day mortality. A retrospective chart review of 588 penicillin-susceptible S. aureus cases at five centres from January 1995 to December 2010. Data on demographics, antimicrobial treatment, clinical signs and symptoms, and mortality at day 30 were collected. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs associated with mortality were modelled using propensity-score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Propensity-score-matched case-control studies were carried out. Definitive therapy with cefuroxime was associated with an increased risk of 30 day mortality compared with penicillin (adjusted HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.49-4.32). Other variables that were statistically significantly associated with 30 day mortality included increasing age, disease severity and a primary respiratory focus. Osteomyelitis/arthritis was associated with a lower risk of death than were other secondary manifestations. Propensity-score-matched case-control studies confirmed an increased risk of 30 day mortality: cefuroxime treatment (39%) versus penicillin treatment (20%), P = 0.037; and cefuroxime treatment (38%) versus dicloxacillin treatment (10%), P = 0.004. Definitive therapy for penicillin-susceptible SAB with cefuroxime was associated with a significantly higher mortality than was seen with therapy with penicillin or dicloxacillin.

  11. Affinity of cefoperazone for penicillin-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, N; Minami, S; Matsuhashi, M; Takaoka, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1980-01-01

    Cefoperazone (T-1551, CFP) a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. We investigated the affinity of CFP to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and the inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis by CFP. CFP had high affinities for Escherichia coli PBP-3, -1Bs, -2, and -1A, in descending order, and low affinities for PBP-4, -5, and -6. Similarly, CFP showed high affinity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBP-3, -1A, -1B, -2, and -4, in descending order. It is known that E. coli PBP-3 and P. aeruginosa PBP-3 participate in cell division. These results are in good agreement with the formation of filamentous cells of E. coli and P. aeruginosa treated with CFP. CFP had lower inhibitory activities on D-alanine carboxypeptidase IA and IB of E. coli than that of penicillin G, but its inhibitory activities on the cross-link formation in peptidoglycan synthesis were the same as those of penicillin G and higher than those of ampicillin. Images PMID:6448021

  12. Studies of migration inhibition tests in penicillin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, R J; Sauder, P J; Rutherford, W J

    1979-01-01

    The release of the migration inhibition factors, leucocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) and macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF) from stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes has been compared in patients with immediate (IgE-mediated) penicillin allergy and in patients with delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin PPD. It has been shown that in these two groups of subjects, a comparable specific proliferative response can occur following stimulation with the appropriate drug (benzylpenicillin) or antigen (PPD). By cell fractionation studies, the proliferation was found to occur in the isolated T cell population in both subject groups. However, the lymphocyte response to benzylpenicillin was rarely associated with the release of LIF or MIF, in contrast to the situation in tuberculin sensitivity where a concomitant release of LIF and MIF was found. In about one third of penicillin allergic subjects, culture supernatants from specifically stimulated lymphocyte cultures induced migration inhibition in the indirect leucocyte migration test, but the inhibitory activity apparently resulted from the presence of penicillin-specific antibody and not from LIF. PMID:393437

  13. Effect of aeration rate on composting of penicillin mycelial dreg.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Shihua; Wen, Qinxue; Zheng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Pilot scale experiments with forced aeration were conducted to estimate effects of aeration rates on the performance of composting penicillin mycelial dreg using sewage sludge as inoculation. Three aeration rates of 0.15, 0.50 and 0.90L/(min·kg) organic matter (OM) were examined. The principal physicochemical parameters were monitored during the 32day composting period. Results showed that the higher aeration rate of 0.90L/(min·kg) did not corresponded to a longer thermophilic duration and higher rates of OM degradation; but the lower aeration rate of 0.15L/(min·kg) did induce an accumulation of NH4(+)-N contents due to the inhibition of nitrification. On the other hand, aeration rate has little effect on degradation of penicillin. The results show that the longest phase of thermophilic temperatures≥55°C, the maximum NO3(-)-N content and seed germination, and the minimum C/N ratio were obtained with 0.50L/(min·kg) OM. Therefore, aeration rates of 0.50L/(min·kg) OM can be recommended for composting penicillin mycelial dreg. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Elucidation of conditions allowing conversion of penicillin G and other penicillins to deacetoxycephalosporins by resting cells and extracts of Streptomyces clavuligerus NP1

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hiroshi; Adrio, José L.; Luengo, José M.; Wolfe, Saul; Ocran, Simeon; Hintermann, Gilberto; Piret, Jacqueline M.; Demain, Arnold L.

    1998-01-01

    Using resting cells and extracts of Streptomyces clavuligerus NP1, we have been able to convert penicillin G (benzylpenicillin) to deacetoxycephalosporin G. Conversion was achieved by increasing by 45× the concentration of FeSO4 (1.8 mM) and doubling the concentration of α-ketoglutarate (1.28 mM) as compared with standard conditions used for the normal cell-free conversion of penicillin N to deacetoxycephalosporin C. ATP, MgSO4, KCl, and DTT, important in cell-free expansion of penicillin N, did not play a significant role in the ring expansion of penicillin G by resting cells or cell-free extracts. When these conditions were used with 14 other penicillins, ring expansion was achieved in all cases. PMID:9751702

  15. In Vitro Activity of p-Hydroxybenzyl Penicillin (Penicillin X) and Five Other Penicillins Against Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Comparisons of Strains from Patients with Uncomplicated Infections and from Women with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sackel, Stephen G.; Alpert, Susan; Rosner, Bernard; McCormack, William M.; Finland, Maxwell

    1977-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of six penicillins against 95 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from patients with uncomplicated anogenital infections and 22 strains from women with pelvic inflammatory disease were determined by an agar plate dilution method, using an inocula replicator. Against all 117 strains, the order of activity observed was: BL-P1654 > penicillin X > penicillin G > ampicillin > amoxicillin = carbenicillin. MICs against strains isolated from women with gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease were significantly higher than those against isolates from uncomplicated infections: BL-P1654, P < 0.001; penicillin X, P < 0.001; penicillin G, P < 0.001; ampicillin, P < 0.001; and amoxicillin, P < 0.05. MICs of penicillin G were ≥0.125 μg/ml against 33 (36%) of the 92 strains from patients with uncomplicated infections, as contrasted with 15 (68%) of the 22 isolates from women with pelvic inflammatory disease (P < 0.01). The means of the MICs of penicillin G were 0.06 μg/ml for the former and 0.14 μg/ml for the latter. PMID:407840

  16. Effects of immobilization on spermiogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of immobilization stress on spermiogenesis in rats was investigated. After 96 hour immobilization, histological changes began to manifest themselves in the form of practically complete disappearance of cell population of the wall of seminiferous tubule as well as a markedly increased number of cells with pathologic mitoses. Enzymological investigations showed various changes of activity (of acid and alkaline phosphatase and nonspecific esterase) in the 24, 48, and 96 hour immobilization groups.

  17. Clinical importance of carbapenem hypersensitivity in patients with self-reported and documented penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Prescott, William A; Kusmierski, Kristen A

    2007-01-01

    The risk of carbapenem hypersensitivity in patients with self-reported or documented penicillin allergy needs to be determined so that practitioners can make better-informed decisions regarding antibiotic therapy for this patient population. The risk of cross-reactivity between penicillin and carbapenem antibiotics initially was reported to approach 50%. Recent retrospective studies have suggested that the clinical risk of cross-hypersensitivity between these two drug classes is 9.2-11%, which is significantly lower than initially reported. Patients whose history of penicillin allergy is self-reported and is not type 1 may be at moderate risk for hypersensitivity when treated with a carbapenem antibiotic. The risk of hypersensitivity appears to be higher in patients whose penicillin allergy was documented by a health care provider, those with several antibiotic allergies, and those with a positive penicillin skin test result or a history of type 1 penicillin hypersensitivity.

  18. Identification of Penicillin G Metabolites under Various Environmental Conditions Using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Aldeek, Fadi; Canzani, Daniele; Standland, Matthew; Crosswhite, Mark R; Hammack, Walter; Gerard, Ghislain; Cook, Jo-Marie

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we investigate the stability of penicillin G in various conditions including acidic, alkaline, natural acidic matrices and after treatment of citrus trees that are infected with citrus greening disease. The identification, confirmation, and quantitation of penicillin G and its various metabolites were evaluated using two UHPLC-MS/MS systems with variable capabilities (i.e., Thermo Q Exactive Orbitrap and Sciex 6500 QTrap). Our data show that under acidic and alkaline conditions, penicillin G at 100 ng/mL degrades quickly, with a determined half-life time of approximately 2 h. Penillic acid, penicilloic acid, and penilloic acid are found to be the most abundant metabolites of penicillin G. These major metabolites, along with isopenillic acid, are found when penicillin G is used for treatment of citrus greening infected trees. The findings of this study will provide insight regarding penicillin G residues in agricultural and biological applications.

  19. A New Method to Determine the Half-Life for Penicillin Using Microcalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Zhao, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution process of penicillin in normal saline and isotonic glucose solution was reported using a microcalorimeter. Both the integral and differential heats of solution were measured. The quantitative relationships between the amount of heat released and the quantity of dissolved penicillin were established. Meanwhile, the kinetics and the half-life of the dissolution processes as well as the enthalpy of solution, the entropy of dissolution, and the free energy of dissolution were determined. The results showed that a change of the solvent from normal saline to isotonic glucose solution had little effect on the half-life of penicillin in the dissolution process, and there was no significant difference between the stabilities of penicillin in isotonic glucose solution and normal saline. Moreover, the dissolution process of penicillin in isotonic glucose solution followed the first-order kinetics. These results could provide a theoretical basis for the clinical applications of penicillin.

  20. Safety of meropenem in patients reporting penicillin allergy: lack of allergic cross reactions.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Hamid, N S; Krol, V; Eisenstein, L

    2008-04-01

    Over the years, meropenem has become the mainstay of empiric therapy for serious systemic infections in critically ill patients. Although we have had extensive clinical experience since 1996 using meropenem safely in treating hundreds of patients with reported allergic reactions to penicillin without any adverse events, we have not published our experience. This study was conducted to document our clinical practice experience. Accordingly, over a 12-month period we prospectively monitored 110 patients treated with meropenem reporting penicillin allergic reactions for that 12-month period. Since early empiric therapy in such patients is essential, there is often no time for penicillin skin testing. Penicillin skin testing was not done in this "real world" clinical study. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the nature of their penicillin allergic reactions. During a 12-month period, 110 patients with non-anaphylactic (59) and anaphylactic (51) penicillin allergic reactions tolerated prolonged meropenem therapy (1-4 weeks) safely without any allergic reactions. Based on these data and our previous clinical experience, there appears to be little/no potential cross reactivity between meropenem and penicillins even in patients with a definite history of anaphylactic reactions to penicillins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective clinical study demonstrating that meropenem may be safely given to patients with known/unknown allergic reactions to penicillin, including those with anaphylactic reactions, without penicillin skin testing. We conclude that meropenem may be given safely to patients reporting a history of non-anaphylactic or anaphylactic allergic reactions to penicillins without penicillin skin testing.

  1. Penicillin hypersensitivity: value of clinical history and skin testing in daily practice.

    PubMed

    Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Gregoriou, Stamatios; Papaioannou, Dimitrios; Mousatou, Vassiliki; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Penicillin often is excluded as a treatment option based on patients' self-reported history of an adverse reaction to penicillin. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the likelihood of true penicillin allergy in patients with vague and convincing histories of penicillin allergy and to evaluate the diagnostic value added by appropriate skin testing. Six hundred thirty-eight patients with prior beta-lactam intake had a current indication for penicillin therapy and were referred for testing with the major (benzylpenicilloyl polylysine) and minor (minor determinant mixture) penicillin determinants from the inpatient and outpatient service of Athens University Dermatological hospital from January 2000 to December 2002. The prevalence of positive skin tests in the total group and in those patients with vague and convincing histories of penicillin allergy was determined. Positive skin tests were observed in 19/638 (3%) of the total group, 5 out of 542 (0.9%) patients without any history of penicillin allergy, 14 out of 96 (14.6%) patients with vague history (confidence interval [CI] 95% = 5.95-59.92), and 13 out of 18 (72.2%) patients with a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity reaction (chi2 = 286.3: odds ratio = 281.3: CI 95% = 62.19-1440.8). Patients with a vague history of penicillin allergy are 18 times more likely to have a positive penicillin skin test, and a convincing reaction history increases the likelihood by 281-fold compared with patients without a history of penicillin allergy. However, the fact that 5 of 18 (27.8%) patients with a convincing history were negative when skin tested points out that skin testing is helpful if the need for penicillin administration is compelling.

  2. Penicillin-induced hemolytic anemia and acute hepatic failure following treatment of tetanus in a horse.

    PubMed

    Step, D L; Blue, J T; Dill, S G

    1991-01-01

    Acute, severe hemolytic anemia occurred in a horse being treated for tetanus with intravenous penicillin and tetanus antitoxin. During treatment, the horse developed a positive direct antiglobulin test and a high titer (maximum 1:1024) of IgG anti-penicillin antibody. The horse recovered from the tetanus and penicillin induced hemolytic anemia, but later developed acute hepatic failure, probably resulting from the administration of equine origin tetanus antitoxin.

  3. Reappearance and treatment of penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary medical centre.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Matthew R; Stefan, Mihaela S; Friderici, Jennifer; Schimmel, Jennifer; Larioza, Julius

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe trends in the prevalence and treatment patterns of penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections. This was a cross-sectional study of MSSA isolates from blood cultures at a tertiary-care centre between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2012. All blood cultures positive for MSSA drawn during the study period were used to calculate the prevalence of penicillin-susceptible SA. Repeat cultures were excluded if they were isolated within 6 weeks of the index culture. The analysis was then restricted to inpatient blood cultures to assess treatment patterns. Antibiotics administered 48-96 h after the culture were analysed. A total of 446 blood cultures positive for MSSA were included in the analysis. There was a distinct trend showing an increase in the percentage of penicillin-susceptible SA over 10 years from 13.2% (95% CI 4.1%-22.3%) in 2003 to 32.4% (95% CI 17.3%-47.5%) in 2012 (P trend <0.001). During the study period, penicillin use for penicillin-susceptible SA bacteraemia increased from 0.0% in 2003-04 to 50.0% in 2011-12 (P trend = 0.007). Over a decade, there was an ∼3-fold increase in penicillin susceptibility among MSSA blood cultures at a large tertiary-care facility. Although treatment with penicillin increased over the study period, only 50% of penicillin-susceptible SA was treated with penicillin in the final study period. This study suggests that while susceptibility to penicillin appears to be returning in SA, the use of penicillin for penicillin-susceptible SA bacteraemia is low. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: susceptibility testing, resistance rates and outcome of infection.

    PubMed

    Hagstrand Aldman, Malin; Skovby, Annette; I Påhlman, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important human pathogen that causes both superficial and invasive infections. Penicillin is now rarely used in the treatment of SA infections due to widespread resistance and a concern about the accuracy of existing methods for penicillin susceptibility testing. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of penicillin-susceptible SA isolates from blood and wound cultures in Lund, Sweden, and to evaluate methods for penicillin testing in SA. We also wanted to investigate if penicillin-susceptible isolates are associated with higher mortality. Hundred blood culture isolates collected 2008/2009, 140 blood culture isolates from 2014/2015, and 141 superficial wound culture strains from 2015 were examined. Penicillin susceptibility was tested with disk diffusion according to EUCAST guidelines, and results were confirmed with a cloverleaf assay and PCR amplification of the BlaZ gene. Patient data for all bacteraemia cases were extracted from medical records. The disk diffusion method with assessment of both zone size and zone edge appearance had high accuracy in our study. About 57% of bacteraemia isolates from 2008/2009 were sensitive to penicillin compared to 29% in 2014/2015 (p < .0001). In superficial wound cultures, 21% were penicillin susceptible. There was no difference in co-morbidity or mortality rates between patients with penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive SA bacteraemia. Disk-diffusion is a simple and reliable method to detect penicillin resistance in SA, and susceptibility rates are significant. Penicillin has many theoretical advantages and should be considered in the treatment of SA bacteraemia when susceptible.

  5. Oral penicillin-associated acute kidney injury in an infant with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Zieg, Jakub; Hacek, Jaromir

    2015-04-01

    Beta-lactam-associated acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is a rare condition in childhood. We report the case of an infant with penicillin-associated ATIN and concomitant acute pyelonephritis resulting in the development of severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The treatment consisted of penicillin suspension and appropriate AKI management, which required a short period of dialysis. Finally, full recovery and normalization of laboratory parameters occurred. We present here the first case of oral penicillin-associated ATIN in childhood.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population.

    PubMed

    Albin, Stephanie; Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p < 0.0001), and there were significantly fewer Asians with penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance.

  7. Genomic analyses of DNA transformation and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Fani, Fereshteh; Leprohon, Philippe; Zhanel, George G; Bergeron, Michel G; Ouellette, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in penicillin-binding proteins, the target enzymes for β-lactam antibiotics, are recognized as primary penicillin resistance mechanisms in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Few studies have analyzed penicillin resistance at the genome scale, however, and we report the sequencing of S. pneumoniae R6 transformants generated while reconstructing the penicillin resistance phenotypes from three penicillin-resistant clinical isolates by serial genome transformation. The genome sequences of the three last-level transformants T2-18209, T5-1983, and T3-55938 revealed that 16.2 kb, 82.7 kb, and 137.2 kb of their genomes had been replaced with 5, 20, and 37 recombinant sequence segments derived from their respective parental clinical isolates, documenting the extent of DNA transformation between strains. A role in penicillin resistance was confirmed for some of the mutations identified in the transformants. Several multiple recombination events were also found to have happened at single loci coding for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that increase resistance. Sequencing of the transformants with MICs for penicillin similar to those of the parent clinical strains confirmed the importance of mosaic PBP2x, -2b, and -1a as a driving force in penicillin resistance. A role in resistance for mosaic PBP2a was also observed for two of the resistant clinical isolates.

  8. Antibiotic resistance and penicillin tolerance in clinical isolates of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Betriu, C; Gomez, M; Sanchez, A; Cruceyra, A; Romero, J; Picazo, J J

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility patterns of 100 group B streptococcal strains isolated in our hospital and to ascertain tolerance to penicillin by determining quantitative killing curves. We found two strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin and eight strains to ampicillin. Seventeen isolates were tolerant to penicillin, with bacterial counts decreasing 2 to 3 log during the first 8 h but still above 10(2) CFU/ml after 24 h. The kinetic study shows that penicillin tolerance is not rare among group B streptococci isolated in our hospital. PMID:7811042

  9. Identification of a penicillin-sensitive carboxypeptidase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Hiro; Kuroita, Toshihiro; Tamura, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    2003-07-01

    Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidases catalyzing the terminal stages of bacterial cell wall assembly. We identified a Dictyostelium discoideum gene that encodes a protein of 522 amino acids showing similarity to Escherichia coli PBP4. The D. discoideum protein conserves three consensus sequences (SXXK, SXN and KTG) that are responsible for the catalytic activities of PBPs. The gene product prepared in the cell-free translation system showed carboxypeptidase activity but the activity was not detected in the presence of penicillin G. These results demonstrate that the D. discoideum gene encodes a eukaryotic form of penicillin-sensitive carboxypeptidase.

  10. Engineering deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase as a catalyst for the bioconversion of penicillins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Keqiang; Lin, Baixue; Tao, Yong; Yang, Keqian

    2017-05-01

    7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) is a key intermediate of many clinically useful semisynthetic cephalosporins that were traditionally prepared by processes involving chemical ring expansion of penicillin G. Bioconversion of penicillins to cephalosporins using deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) is an alternative and environmentally friendly process for 7-ADCA production. Arnold Demain and co-workers pioneered such a process. Later, protein engineering efforts to improve the substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of DAOCS for penicillins have been made by many groups, and a whole cell process using Escherichia coli for bioconversion of penicillins has been developed.

  11. Penicillin-resistant isolates of Neisseria lactamica produce altered forms of penicillin-binding protein 2 that arose by interspecies horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, R; Zhang, Q Y; Sáez Nieto, J A; Jones, D M; Spratt, B G

    1991-01-01

    Isolates of Neisseria lactamica that have increased resistance to penicillin have emerged in recent years. Resistance to penicillin was shown to be due to the production of altered forms of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) that have reduced affinity for the antibiotic. The sequences of the PBP 2 genes (penA) from two penicillin-resistant isolates were almost identical (less than or equal to 1% sequence divergence) to that of a penicillin-susceptible isolate, except in a 175-bp region where the resistant and susceptible isolates differed by 27%. The nucleotide sequences of these divergent regions were identical (or almost identical) to the sequence of the corresponding region of the penA gene of N. flavescens NCTC 8263. Altered forms of PBP 2 with decreased affinity for penicillin in the two penicillin-resistant isolates of N. lactamica appear, therefore, to have arisen by the replacement of part of the N. lactamica penA gene with the corresponding region from the penA gene of N. flavescens. Images PMID:2024965

  12. Penicillin-resistant isolates of Neisseria lactamica produce altered forms of penicillin-binding protein 2 that arose by interspecies horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Lujan, R; Zhang, Q Y; Sáez Nieto, J A; Jones, D M; Spratt, B G

    1991-02-01

    Isolates of Neisseria lactamica that have increased resistance to penicillin have emerged in recent years. Resistance to penicillin was shown to be due to the production of altered forms of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) that have reduced affinity for the antibiotic. The sequences of the PBP 2 genes (penA) from two penicillin-resistant isolates were almost identical (less than or equal to 1% sequence divergence) to that of a penicillin-susceptible isolate, except in a 175-bp region where the resistant and susceptible isolates differed by 27%. The nucleotide sequences of these divergent regions were identical (or almost identical) to the sequence of the corresponding region of the penA gene of N. flavescens NCTC 8263. Altered forms of PBP 2 with decreased affinity for penicillin in the two penicillin-resistant isolates of N. lactamica appear, therefore, to have arisen by the replacement of part of the N. lactamica penA gene with the corresponding region from the penA gene of N. flavescens.

  13. In vitro activities of 22 beta-lactam antibiotics against penicillin-resistant and penicillin-susceptible viridans group streptococci isolated from blood.

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, F; Liñares, J; Pallares, R; Carratala, J; Benitez, M A; Gudiol, F; Martin, R

    1995-01-01

    A total of 410 strains of viridans group streptococci isolated consecutively from blood were tested by the microdilution method for in vitro susceptibility to 22 beta-lactam antibiotics. One hundred thirty-eight strains (33.6%) were resistant to penicillin with a MIC range of 0.25 to 8 micrograms/ml. MICs of all beta-lactam agents tested were higher for penicillin-resistant strains than for susceptible strains. These antibiotics were classified into three groups according to their in vitro activities (MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates are inhibited). Beta-Lactams of the first group (these included imipenem, cefpirome, FK-037, cefditoren, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime) showed activities higher than or similar to that of penicillin against penicillin-resistant viridans group streptococci. However, 80% of highly penicillin-resistant Streptococcus mitis organisms required cefotaxime and ceftriaxone MICs of > or = 2 micrograms/ml (range, 2 to 16 micrograms/ml). Beta-Lactams of the second group (cefpodoxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin, and cefuroxime) showed lower activities than penicillin. Finally, antibiotics of the third group (cephalothin, oxacillin, ceftazidime, cefixime, cefaclor, cefetamet, cefadroxil, cephalexin, and ceftibuten) showed poor in vitro activities. Therefore, some of the beta-lactam agents included in the first group could be an acceptable alternative in the treatment of serious infections due to strains highly resistant to penicillin, although clinical experience is needed. PMID:8619576

  14. Efficacy of Targeted 5-day Combined Parenteral and Intramammary Treatment of Clinical Mastitis Caused by Penicillin-Susceptible or Penicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Taponen, S; Jantunen, A; Pyörälä, E; Pyörälä, S

    2003-01-01

    Combined parenteral and intramammary treatment of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was compared to parenteral treatment only. Cows with clinical mastitis (166 mastitic quarters) caused by S. aureus treated by veterinarians of the Ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine during routine farm calls were included. Treatment was based on in vitro susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolate. Procaine penicillin G (86 cases due to β-lactamase negative strains) or amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (24 cases due to β-lactamase positive strains) was administered parenterally and intramammarily for 5 days. Efficacy of treatments was assessed 2 and 4 weeks later by physical examination, bacteriological culture, determination of CMT, somatic cell count and NAGase activity in milk. Quarters with growth of S. aureus in at least one post-treatment sample were classified as non-cured. As controls we used 41 clinical mastitis cases caused by penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates treated with procaine penicillin G parenterally for 5 days and 15 cases due to penicillin-resistant isolates treated with spiramycin parenterally for 5 days from the same practice area. Bacteriological cure rate after the combination treatment was 75.6% for quarters infected with penicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, and 29.2% for quarters infected with penicillin-resistant isolates. Cure rate for quarters treated only parenterally with procaine penicillin G was 56.1% and that for quarters treated with spiramycin 33.3%. The difference in cure rates between mastitis due to penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. aureus was highly significant. Combined treatment was superior over systemic treatment only in the β-lactamase negative group. PMID:14650544

  15. [Immobilized microorganisms and water purification].

    PubMed

    Mogilevich, N F

    1995-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of cells of aerobic microorganisms immobilized by the type of adhesion and incorporation into the gel beads, the amount of retained biomass, limitations of diffusion of oxygen and nutrients, viability, morphology, biochemical properties are described. Immobilized biocatalysts are discussed in the aspect of their use in purification of sewage waters.

  16. Penicillin: promise, problems and practice in wartime Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, S

    2016-09-01

    While medical historians have paid ample attention to the introduction of antibiotics and their impact on hospital-based practice during and after the Second World War, the multiple issues surrounding their use in Scottish hospitalsare sorely lacking in current discussions. Drawing on an extensive yet underused range of materials including patient treatment records, oral histories and medical correspondence, this paper explores the introduction of penicillin for civilian treatment at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh during the closing stages of the War. It highlights the success of the drug in clinical treatment as well as its shortcomings, offering an alternative view of its initial impact on surgical practice.

  17. Quantum chemical study of penicillin: Reactions after acylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Feng, Dacheng; Zhu, Feng

    The density functional theory methods were used on the model molecules of penicillin to determine the possible reactions after their acylation on ?-lactamase, and the results were compared with sulbactam we have studied. The results show that, the acylated-enzyme tetrahedral intermediate can evolves with opening of ?-lactam ring as well as the thiazole ring; the thiazole ring-open products may be formed via ?-lactam ring-open product or from tetrahedral intermediate directly. Those products, in imine or enamine form, can tautomerize via hydrogen migration. In virtue of the water-assisted, their energy barriers are obviously reduced.

  18. Novel penicillins synthesized by biotransformation using laccase from Trametes spec.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Niedermeyer, Timo Horst Johannes; Lalk, Michael; Witt, Sabine; Seefeldt, Simone; Hammer, Elke; Schauer, Frieder; Gesell, Manuela; Hessel, Susanne; Jülich, Wolf-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2006-05-01

    Eight novel penicillins were synthesized by heteromolecular reaction of ampicillin or amoxicillin with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid derivatives using a laccase from Trametes spec. All products inhibited the growth of several gram positive bacterial strains in the agar diffusion assay, among them methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. The products protected mice against an infection with Staphylococcus aureus lethal to the untreated animals. Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of the new compounds were neglectable. The results show the usefulness of laccase for the synthesis of potential new antibiotics. The biological activity of the new compounds stimulates intensified pharmacological tests.

  19. Susceptibility of Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae to Seven Penicillins

    PubMed Central

    Thornsberry, C.; Baker, C. N.; Kirven, L. A.; Swenson, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-seven clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from various sections of the United States, England, and Germany were tested for susceptibility to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, epicillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and methicillin. Fifty-three of the strains had previously been judged to be ampicillin resistant and 14 had been determined to be ampicillin susceptible. Fifty-two of the 53 resistant strains produced β-lactamase, but none of the susceptible strains produced it. On the basis of minimal inhibitory concentrations, the most active compounds were ticarcillin and carbenicillin. Whether this greater activity is useful clinically has not been established. PMID:1083202

  20. Physician approaches to beta-lactam use in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Prematta, Tracy; Shah, Shenil; Ishmael, Faoud T

    2012-01-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics are widely used, but hypersensitivity reactions are common and difficult to manage. This study was designed to identify lack of knowledge regarding the safe use of alternative beta-lactams in penicillin-allergic patients and assess management differences between allergists and nonallergists. An electronic physician survey was sent to 623 providers in allergy, internal medicine, pediatrics, and family medicine, querying beta-lactam use in patients with a history of penicillin allergy. A total of 110 (17.7%) surveys were completed. For patients with a prior maculopapular rash to penicillin, most providers were uncomfortable prescribing penicillins again, although they would use other beta-lactams. In patients with an exfoliative dermatitis to penicillin, 46% of responders would not prescribe any beta-lactam again. For patients with a positive skin test to penicillin, only 45.1% of nonallergists were comfortable prescribing monobactams versus 62.5% of allergists; 30.3% of all responders would give a carbapenem. In patients with urticaria to penicillin, pediatricians were the most comfortable prescribing third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Providers (both allergists and nonallergists) were unfamiliar with the safety of prescribing penicillin in patients with history of maculopapular rash, the safety of monobactams, and low cross-reactivity with carbapenems in penicillin-allergic individuals. Nonallergists were also unfamiliar with the usefulness of penicillin skin testing. Improved education is needed to address these areas. Additionally, we found variability in responses regarding exfoliative dermatitis and comfort prescribing cephalosporins in patients with suspected IgE-mediated drug allergy to penicillin, highlighting the need for additional research in these areas.

  1. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G induce biofilm formation by field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, S; Fontaine-Gosselin, S-È; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M

    2015-09-30

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. This is a highly contagious disease that causes important economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Penicillins are extensively used in swine production and these antibiotics are associated with high systemic clearance and low oral bioavailability. This may expose A. pleuropneumoniae to sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G when the antibiotic is administered orally. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin G on the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Biofilm production of 13 field isolates from serotypes 1, 5a, 7 and 15 was tested in the presence of sub-MIC of penicillin G using a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Using microscopy techniques and enzymatic digestion, biofilm architecture and composition were also characterized after exposure to sub-MIC of penicillin G. Sub-MIC of penicillin G significantly induced biofilm formation of nine isolates. The penicillin G-induced biofilms contained more poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), extracellular DNA and proteins when compared to control biofilms grown without penicillin G. Additionally, penicillin G-induced biofilms were sensitive to DNase which was not observed with the untreated controls. Furthermore, sub-MIC of penicillin G up-regulated the expression of pgaA, which encodes a protein involved in PGA synthesis, and the genes encoding the envelope-stress sensing two-component regulatory system CpxRA. In conclusion, sub-MICs of penicillin G significantly induce biofilm formation and this is likely the result of a cell envelope stress sensed by the CpxRA system resulting in an increased production of PGA and other matrix components.

  2. Morbidity in Pregnant Women Associated with Unverified Penicillin Allergies, Antibiotic Use, and Group B Streptococcus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Shilpa H; Kaplan, Michael S; Chen, Qiaoling; Macy, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Context: The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. Objective: To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. Design: Retrospective. All pregnant women who delivered live infants in Kaiser Permanente Southern California between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, were identified. Main Outcome Measures: Penicillin allergy status at delivery, delivery method, maternal and infant hospital utilization, peripartum antibiotic exposures, new antibiotic-associated adverse drug reactions, and new Clostridium difficile infections. Results: There were 170,379 unique women who had 201,316 pregnancies during the study period. There were 16,084 pregnancies in women with an active, but unverified, penicillin allergy at delivery. There were 42,524 pregnancies in GBS-positive women, and 3500 also had a penicillin allergy. Women with a penicillin allergy, with or without GBS, had significantly (about 10%) higher cesarean section rates and spent significantly more (about 0.1) days in the hospital after delivery. Among GBS-positive women, those with an unverified penicillin allergy were exposed to significantly more cefazolin, clindamycin, vancomycin, and gentamicin and had significantly higher rates of adverse drug reactions associated with all antibiotic use. Conclusions: Unverified penicillin allergy is associated with more hospital utilization and additional morbidity. Penicillin allergy testing of pregnant women with a history of penicillin allergy may help reduce these unwanted outcomes. PMID:28333608

  3. Allergy Testing in Children With Low-Risk Penicillin Allergy Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vyles, David; Adams, Juan; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Brousseau, David C

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy is commonly reported in the pediatric emergency department (ED). True penicillin allergy is rare, yet the diagnosis results from the denial of first-line antibiotics. We hypothesize that all children presenting to the pediatric ED with symptoms deemed to be low-risk for immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity will return negative results for true penicillin allergy. Parents of children aged 4 to 18 years old presenting to the pediatric ED with a history of parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. A prespecified 100 children categorized as low-risk on the basis of reported symptoms completed penicillin allergy testing by using a standard 3-tier testing process. The percent of children with negative allergy testing results was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Five hundred ninety-seven parents completed the questionnaire describing their child's reported allergy symptoms. Three hundred two (51%) children had low-risk symptoms and were eligible for testing. Of those, 100 children were tested for penicillin allergy. The median (interquartile range) age at testing was 9 years (5-12). The median (interquartile range) age at allergy diagnosis was 1 year (9 months-3 years). Rash (97 [97%]) and itching (63 [63%]) were the most commonly reported allergy symptoms. Overall, 100 children (100%; 95% confidence interval 96.4%-100%) were found to have negative results for penicillin allergy and had their labeled penicillin allergy removed from their medical record. All children categorized as low-risk by our penicillin allergy questionnaire were found to have negative results for true penicillin allergy. The utilization of this questionnaire in the pediatric ED may facilitate increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Intrapartum antibiotic exposure for group B Streptococcus treatment did not increase penicillin allergy in children.

    PubMed

    May, Sara M; Hartz, Martha F; Joshi, Avni Y; Park, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading infectious cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Intrapartum administration of antibiotics to mothers with positivity to GBS is performed for prevention, with penicillin being the drug of choice. Previous studies have noted an increase in atopic diseases other than drug allergy associated with intrapartum antibiotic exposure. To determine whether intrapartum exposure to penicillin for GBS increases the likelihood of penicillin allergy in children. Retrospective chart review was performed for patients from a birth cohort. The birth cohort included children born in 2007 at a tertiary care hospital and had local addresses. Information on GBS status of the mother, intrapartum antibiotic exposure, delivery mode, and birth order was collected and analyzed. Of 927 children identified, 804 were included in the cohort. Eighty children (10%) had a reported penicillin allergy; most were white (79%) and boys (61%). Intrapartum exposure to penicillin (odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.45-1.57, P = .59) or to amoxicillin or ampicillin (odds ratio 0.22, 95% confidence interval 0.01-3.71, P = .29) did not increase the risk of penicillin allergy in children. In addition, all other factors evaluated did not affect the risk of penicillin allergy in children. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate intrapartum exposure to penicillin for GBS treatment and subsequent development of penicillin allergy in the child. In contrast to other atopic diseases, intrapartum antibiotic exposure does not alter the risk of penicillin allergy. Parents and obstetricians should be reassured when using penicillin for prevention of neonatal GBS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): outpatient penicillin use in Europe (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Versporten, Ann; Coenen, Samuel; Adriaenssens, Niels; Muller, Arno; Minalu, Girma; Faes, Christel; Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Aerts, Marc; Hens, Niel; Molenberghs, Geert; Goossens, Herman

    2011-12-01

    Data on 13 years (1997-2009) of outpatient penicillin use were collected from 33 European countries within the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project and analysed in detail. For the period 1997-2009, data on outpatient use of systemic penicillins aggregated at the level of the active substance were collected using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/defined daily dose (DDD) method (WHO, version 2011) and expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). For detailed analysis of trends over time, seasonal variation and composition of outpatient penicillin use in 33 European countries, we distinguished between narrow-spectrum penicillins (NSP), broad-spectrum penicillins (BSP), penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRP) and combinations with β-lactamase inhibitors (COP). Total outpatient penicillin (ATC group J01C) use in 2009 varied by a factor of 3.8 between the countries with the highest (16.08 DID in France) and lowest (4.23 DID in the Russian Federation) use. COP represented 45.8%, BSP 40.7%, NSP 10.8% and PRP 2.6% of total European outpatient penicillin use. Total outpatient penicillin use significantly increased over time by 1.53 (SD 0.71) DID between 1997 and 2009. COP (mainly co-amoxiclav) increased by 2.17 (SD 0.40) DID, which was the result of its absolute increase as well as the observed shift from NSP and BSP towards COP. This increase exceeded 10% in 20 countries, where it coincided with a similar decrease in either BSP (15 countries) or NSP (5 countries). Penicillins represented the most widely used antibiotic subgroup in all 33 participating countries, albeit with considerable variation in their use patterns. For Europe, a continuous increase in overall penicillin use and of COP use was observed during the period 1997-2009.

  6. Morbidity in Pregnant Women Associated with Unverified Penicillin Allergies, Antibiotic Use, and Group B Streptococcus Infections.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shilpa H; Kaplan, Michael S; Chen, Qiaoling; Macy, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. Retrospective. All pregnant women who delivered live infants in Kaiser Permanente Southern California between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, were identified. Penicillin allergy status at delivery, delivery method, maternal and infant hospital utilization, peripartum antibiotic exposures, new antibiotic-associated adverse drug reactions, and new Clostridium difficile infections. There were 170,379 unique women who had 201,316 pregnancies during the study period. There were 16,084 pregnancies in women with an active, but unverified, penicillin allergy at delivery. There were 42,524 pregnancies in GBS-positive women, and 3500 also had a penicillin allergy. Women with a penicillin allergy, with or without GBS, had significantly (about 10%) higher cesarean section rates and spent significantly more (about 0.1) days in the hospital after delivery. Among GBS-positive women, those with an unverified penicillin allergy were exposed to significantly more cefazolin, clindamycin, vancomycin, and gentamicin and had significantly higher rates of adverse drug reactions associated with all antibiotic use. Unverified penicillin allergy is associated with more hospital utilization and additional morbidity. Penicillin allergy testing of pregnant women with a history of penicillin allergy may help reduce these unwanted outcomes.

  7. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  8. Wastewater treatment by immobilized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, R.D.; Vembu, K.

    1990-01-01

    Immobilized cell processes for wastewater treatment have only recently been intensively studied and applied. Essential information on the feasibility of various immobilization methods has been reviewed and examined with special reference to wastewater treatment. Included are the suitability of various supports, techniques used for microbial attachment factors affecting affinity for the support, strength of fixation, nature of polymers, role of radical groups, properties of attached microorganisms, effects of carriers on settling properties of biomass, characteristics of biofilm on carriers, and changes in cell metabolism as a result of immobilization. The morphologies for identification of immobilized cells, the methods of identification of structure and composition of microbial aggregates, and analytical methods for the estimate of biomass in the presence of carriers are discussed. Applications of immobilized cells to toxic wasted, anaerobic and aerobic systems, and operational criteria for different wastes are specified. The results of immobilized microalgae and cyanobacteria for wastewater treatment are reported and their future prospects are highlighted. Various immobilized cell bioreactor configurations have been critically reviewed with respect to design and granulation process including the topics of: biomass retention, resistance to washout, diffusional resistances, response to toxic shocks, theoretical aspects of hydrodynamic characteristics, start-up and steady-state processes, selection of support particles, particle size and active biomass, head loss considerations, surface area, reactor liquid velocity, hydraulic retention time aerobic versus anaerobic systems, temperature and substrate concentration effects, metabolic interspecies transfer, stability, suspended solids and microbial film interactions, solids residence time requirements, and operational issues.

  9. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins and other betalactams.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, C; Martín, E; Cornejo-García, J A; Blanca-Lopez, N; R-Pena, R; Mayorga, C; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2006-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams are IgE mediated and constitute the most frequent allergic reactions mediated by specific immunological mechanisms. IgE responses to benzyl penicillin (BP), the first antibiotic producing the benzyl penicilloyl structure (BPO), are characterized by a quick release of inflammatory mediators, resulting in anaphylactic shock, urticaria and angioedema. With the progressive appearance of other structures, comprising cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams and clavulanic acid, IgE selective responses and cross-reactivity reactions were observed. The diagnosis of betalactam hypersensitivity, classically based on skin testing with major and minor determinants of benzyl penicillin or in vitro IgE antibodies to BP, has been modified by the inclusion of different determinants generated from these compounds, for which amoxicillin (AX) is the most relevant, followed by cephalosporins. Some subjects develop positive responses to several betalactams, mostly within the same family, but others develop a selective response. These are relevant for the appropriate selection of antimicrobial drugs in patients who have immediate hypersensitivity to betalactams.

  10. Penicillin-induced liver injury during treatment for ocular neurosyphilis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Janelle; Zainal, Abir; Naqvi, Syed Yaseen

    2016-07-07

    A 51-year-old man, homosexual, recently diagnosed with ocular neurosyphilis, presented to the emergency room with a 1-day history of fevers and chills. His vital signs were significant for a temperature of 102.8°F and tachycardia of 125 bpm. The patient had experienced blurred vision in his left eye and was diagnosed with ocular neurosyphilis 10 days prior to the current presentation. He was treated with a 14-day course of high-dose intravenous penicillin and oral prednisone. His laboratory studies were significant for transaminitis, with an aspartate aminotransferase of 1826 U/L, alanine aminotransferase of 1743 U/L, total bilirubin of 1.2 mg/dL and alkaline phosphatase of 68 U/L. After ruling out viral aetiologies and toxin-induced hepatic injury, penicillin was discontinued on the day following admission and transaminases promptly improved with resolution of symptoms. The patient's vision returned to normal within 2 weeks after discharge from hospital.

  11. Penicillin resistance and serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Paulo; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Mocelin, Helena; Dias, Cícero; Ruvinsky, Raúl

    2006-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Strep. pneumoniae) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia in children less than 5 years of age, with high mortality rates in developing countries. In 1993, the Regional System for Vaccines Group (SIREVA) of the pan-American Health Organisation (PAHO) began a study involving six Latin American countries to identify serotypes and their representativity in the new conjugated vaccines, and to determine the degree of resistance to penicillin. Serotypes 14 (highest resistance level), 5, 1, 6A/B, 23F, 7F, 9V, 19F, 18C, 19A, 9N, were prevalent in the region, with some differences among countries. Although resistance to penicillin ranged from 2% (Brazil) to 21.1% (Mexico), studies have shown that pneumonia caused by Strep. pneumoniae with diminished sensitivity to penillin can be treated with this antibiotic. Only 58% of the serotypes isolated in the region studied were represented in the seven-valent vaccine. Continual surveillance is essential to determine which formulation of conjugated vaccine will be suitable for use in Latin America.

  12. Kinetic Measurements for Enzyme Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten were advancing their work by studying the kinetics of an enzyme saccharase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. They published their analysis and ever since the Michaelis-Menten equation has been used as the standard to describe the kinetics of many enzymes. Unfortunately, soluble enzymes must generally be immobilized to be reused for long times in industrial reactors. In addition, other critical enzyme properties have to be improved like stability, activity, inhibition by reaction products, and selectivity towards nonnatural substrates. Immobilization is by far the chosen process to achieve these goals.Although the Michaelis-Menten approach has been regularly adapted to the analysis of immobilized enzyme activity, its applicability to the immobilized state is limited by the barriers the immobilization matrix places upon the measurement of compounds that are used to model enzyme kinetics. That being said, the estimated value of the Michaelis-Menten coefficients (e.g., V max, K M) can be used to evaluate effects of immobilization on enzyme activity in the immobilized state when applied in a controlled manner. In this review enzyme activity and kinetics are discussed in the context of the immobilized state, and a few novel protocols are presented that address some of the unique constraints imposed by the immobilization barrier.

  13. Kinetic measurements for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten had advanced this work by studying the kinetics of the enzyme saccharase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. They published their analysis, and ever since, the Michaelis-Menten equation has been used as the standard to describe the kinetics of many enzymes. Unfortunately, soluble enzymes must generally be immobilized to be reused for long times in industrial reactors. In addition, other critical enzyme properties have to be improved like stability, activity, inhibition by reaction products, selectivity toward nonnatural substrates. Immobilization is by far the chosen process to achieve these goals.Although the Michaelis-Menten approach has been regularly adopted for the analysis of immobilized enzyme activity, its applicability to the immobilized state is limited by the barriers the immobilization matrix places upon the measurement of compounds that are used to model enzyme kinetics. That being said, the estimated value of the Michaelis-Menten coefficients (e.g., V(max), K(M)) can be used to evaluate effects of immobilization on enzyme activity in the immobilized state when applied in a controlled manner. In this review, enzyme activity and kinetics are discussed in the context of the immobilized state, and a few novel protocols are presented that address some of the unique constraints imposed by the immobilization barrier.

  14. Pneumococcal septicemia despite pneumococcal vaccine and prescription of penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, G R; Smith, S J

    1986-05-01

    Although polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine and prophylactic penicillin are used to prevent overwhelming Streptococcus pneumoniae septicemia in infants and young children with sickle cell anemia, infection rates remain high. We have reviewed our seven-year experience with a regimen of twice daily oral penicillin V potassium prophylaxis in 88 affected children. The median age at the start of prophylaxis was 10 months, and the median duration of prophylaxis was 29 months (range, three months to seven years). The total period of observation of patients who were prescribed penicillin was 248 person-years. Most patients also received one or two doses of polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine. Despite penicillin prophylaxis and pneumococcal vaccine, eight episodes of S pneumoniae septicemia have occurred and three have been fatal. Four episodes were in children older than 3 years. Suboptimal compliance with the prescribed oral penicillin regimen was usually apparent. With one possible exception, the infections occurred when penicillin had not been taken during the previous 24 hours. The S pneumoniae septicemia rate in this patient population, 3.2 per 100 person-years, is somewhat less than that described in previous reports of children not receiving penicillin but is still unacceptably high. Vigorous advocacy of a penicillin prophylaxis regimen does not eliminate the risk of pneumococcal septicema in this patient population.

  15. Events leading to cell death and lysis of Neisseria meningitidis in low concentrations of penicillin G.

    PubMed Central

    Neirinck, L G; DeVoe, I W; Ingram, J M

    1980-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis SD1C exhibited a low tolerance to penicillin G (0.03 microgram/ml). Loss of viability in the absence of polyvinylpyrrolidone-40 and horse serum was independent of the concentration of antibiotic above the minimum inhibitory concentration, whereas the rate of bacteriolysis was concentration dependent. Penicillin-induced lysis was a secondary event in this organism. At low levels of penicillin G, growth characteristics, i.e., absorbancy changes, respiratory rate, and uptake of Mg2+, appeared normal during the first 90 min in penicillin; however, viability dropped dramatically. Additionally, total cell numbers remained constant while cell mass continued to increase at a rate normal for the population. The increase in cellular mass in the absence of cell division could be observed microscopically. Only one ultrastructural change induced by penicillin correlated with the loss in viability: the loss in continuity of the outer membrane with the peptidoglycan but only at the site of septum formation. This lesion did not occur when cells were grown in media supplemented with the protective agents polyvinylpyrrolidone-40 and horse serum. Under these conditions of growth and with relatively high levels of penicillin, constant viability was maintained, but cell division no longer occurred. Cell populations treated with penicillin in the presence of the protective agents became increasingly more dependent on the presence of these agents for total viability even in the absence of penicillin in the culture. Images PMID:6772094

  16. 21 CFR 522.1696b - Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. 522.1696b Section 522.1696b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696b Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1696b - Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. 522.1696b Section 522.1696b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696b Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1696b - Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. 522.1696b Section 522.1696b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696b Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1696b - Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. 522.1696b Section 522.1696b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696b Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1696b - Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. 522.1696b Section 522.1696b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696b Penicillin G procaine aqueous suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G potassium in drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. 520....1696b Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. Turkeys—(1) Amount. 1,500,000 units per gallon drinking water for...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G potassium in drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. 520....1696b Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. Turkeys—(1) Amount. 1,500,000 units per gallon drinking water for...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G potassium in drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. 520....1696b Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. Turkeys—(1) Amount. 1,500,000 units per gallon drinking water for...

  4. Determination of penicillin G in heavy sow urine using immunochromatographic assay and microbial inhibition swab tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Penicillin is a commonly used antibiotic in food animals. Unfortunately, violative penicillin residues in animal carcasses are sometimes identified by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. Ante-mortem matrices such as urine could prove valuable for predicting possible violativ...

  5. Suppression of intrinsic resistance to penicillins in Staphylococcus aureus by polidocanol, a dodecyl polyethyleneoxid ether.

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, W; Keppeler, H; Baucks, R

    1985-01-01

    With polidocanol, it was possible to reduce the MIC as well as the MBC of methicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, and ampicillin against resistant staphylococci. The strongest effects were obtained with methicillin and oxacillin. All strains tested could be resensitized to these penicillins independent of the original resistance levels. Polidocanol was not inhibitory by itself for Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, it did not inhibit the activity of staphylococcal beta-lactamase. This permits the conclusion that an intrinsic resistance mechanism is affected by this substance. Its action cannot be simply explained by an improved accessibility of the penicillin targets as uptake, and binding of methicillin and penicillin G in resistant cells was not changed by polidocanol. On the other hand, the lysis induced by combinations of this substance with small amounts of a penicillin was antagonized by chloramphenicol. This suggests that autolytic enzymes are involved in the polidocanol effect and possibly in the intrinsic resistance mechanism itself. Before polidocanol can trigger lysis, the penicillin must act first in some way. As could be seen with a susceptible strain, the resulting lysis did not exceed that obtained with penicillins alone. Thus, polidocanol does not exhibit an independent lytic mechanism but obviously is able to substitute penicillins in their lytic action. Images PMID:3873904

  6. 21 CFR 522.1696 - Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. 522.1696 Section 522.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696 Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. ...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1696 - Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. 522.1696 Section 522.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696 Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. ...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1696 - Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. 522.1696 Section 522.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696 Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. ...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1696 - Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. 522.1696 Section 522.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696 Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. ...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1696 - Penicillin G procaine injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine injectable dosage forms. 522.1696 Section 522.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696 Penicillin G procaine injectable dosage forms. ...

  11. Correlation Between Growth Inhibition and the Binding of Various Penicillins and Cephalosporins to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John R.; Park, James T.

    1969-01-01

    The concentration of penicillin (or cephalosporin) required to achieve a given rate of binding to Staphylococcus aureus H correlates well with that required for inhibition of growth. This result suggests that the irreversible binding of penicillins and cephalosporins to cells is responsible for their biological activity. PMID:5808073

  12. Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone as Treatment Alternatives to Penicillin for Maternal Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Katanami, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Takaya, Saho; Yamamoto, Kei; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-05-01

    There is no proven alternative to penicillin for treatment of maternal syphilis. We report 2 case-patients with maternal syphilis who were successfully treated without penicillin. We used amoxicillin and probenecid for the first case-patient and amoxicillin, probenecid, and ceftriaxone for the second case-patient.

  13. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vitro Activity of Ticarcillin Against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared with That of Carbenicillin and Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ira; Bach, Vinh; Thadepalli, Haragopal

    1977-01-01

    A total of 334 clinical anaerobic isolates were tested in an anaerobic glove box by the agar dilution technique for susceptibility to clinically achievable levels of ticarcillin, carbenicillin, and penicillin. Thirty-two micrograms or less of penicillin per milliliter inhibited 91% of all strains, whereas 100 μg of carbenicillin and ticarcillin per ml inhibited 95 and 98%, respectively. A total of 82% (85 strains) of Bacteroides were inhibited by penicillin, and 93 and 96% were inhibited by carbenicillin and ticarcillin, respectively. Thirteen (24%) of 55 strains of Bacteroides fragilis tested were resistant to 32 μg of penicillin per ml, and 6 (11%) and 3 (5%) were resistant to 100 μg of carbenicillin and ticarcillin per ml, respectively. Within the therapeutic range, ticarcillin was the most effective of the three penicillins tested against B. fragilis subsp. fragilis. PMID:848931

  15. Penicillin decreases chloride conductance in crustacean muscle: a model for the epileptic neuron.

    PubMed

    Hochner, B; Spira, M E; Werman, R

    1976-04-30

    The effects of penicillin were studied on the neuromuscular preparation of the ghost crab, Ocypoda cursor. Penicillin in doses lower than 2 mM reduced both the amplitude of inhibitory junction potentials and conductance increases induced by external application of GABA. The nature of the latter effect appears to be 2-fold, a weaker competitive inhibition and a more powerful non-competitive effech which may be ionophore blockade. Penicillin in concentrations above 2 mM diminished resting conductance, especially that of chloride. The action of penicillin is, in general, to decrease chloride conductance in this preparation. The crustacean neuromuscular preparation may provide a useful analogue for understanding penicillin evoked epilepsy. The reduced chloride conductance could explain decreased inhibition, increased excitation and depolarization shifts in cortical neurons.

  16. Synergy between baicalein and penicillins against penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Qian, Minyi; Tang, Shusheng; Wu, Congming; Wang, Yang; He, Tao; Chen, Tingting; Xiao, Xilong

    2015-09-01

    The combination of baicalein (the active constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis) with penicillin G/amoxicillin showed potent synergy against 20 clinical penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains including 10 isolates that were additionally methicillin-resistant (MRSA). The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices of penicillins+baiclein ranged from 0.14 to 0.38. Baicalein protected penicillins (penicillin G and amoxicillin) from penicillinase and increased the susceptibility of penicillinase-supplemented S. aureus ATCC 29213 in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of penicillinase activity by baicalein should be responsible for the synergism and protective effect. These findings offer us good evidence that the penicillins combined with baicalein showed potent synergistic activity against penicillinase-producing S. aureus and penicillinase-producing MRSA in vitro and might provide promising implications for clinical treatment of these bacterial infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x and Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase activities by ceftaroline.

    PubMed

    Zervosen, Astrid; Zapun, André; Frère, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Although the rate of acylation of a penicillin-resistant form of Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) by ceftaroline is 80-fold lower than that of its penicillin-sensitive counterpart, it remains sufficiently high (k(2)/K = 12,600 M(-1) s(-1)) to explain the sensitivity of the penicillin-resistant strain to this new cephalosporin. Surprisingly, the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase is not very sensitive to ceftaroline.

  18. Synergy of Penicillin-Netilmicin Combinations Against Enterococci Including Strains Highly Resistant to Streptomycin or Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Christine C.

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro activity of combinations of penicillin and netilimicin was determined against 20 clinical isolates of enterococci and compared with that obtained in simultaneous tests with penicillin/sisomicin, penicillin/streptomycin, and penicillin/kanamycin. Synergy between the two drugs in each combination was determined by the use of quantitative kill curves and was defined as a killing by the combination at least 100-fold greater than that produced by the most effective drug alone. Penicillin/netilmicin and penicillin/sisomicin combinations were found to be synergistic against the majority of isolates tested, including strains resistant to penicillin/streptomycin or penicillin/kanamycin combinations. This synergy with penicillin could be demonstrated at a concentration of ≤7 μg/ml for either netilmicin or sisomicin. Studies on the kinetics of killing produced by these combinations showed the rate and extent of killing to be directly dependent upon the organism's relative susceptibility to the aminoglycoside alone and the aminoglycoside concentration in the combination. Results also indicated that the interaction between penicillin and netilmicin was true synergy; i.e., rapid and complete killing was produced by combinations containing each drug at concentrations insufficient to produce any killing alone, and the killing observed could not be produced by either drug alone at a concentration equivalent to the total drug concentration in the combination. The potential clinical application of this synergistic interaction should be investigated further, especially in view of recent reports showing netilmicin to be considerably less toxic than gentamicin in experimental animals. PMID:242509

  19. Photochemically Initiated Single Polymer Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This Concept article surveys methods for attaching single polymer molecules on solid substrates. A general approach to single polymer immobilization based on the photochemistry of perfluorophenylazides is elaborated. PMID:17444538

  20. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  1. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  2. 76 FR 14024 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam Risk Assessment: A CGMP Framework...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam... guidance for industry entitled ``Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam Risk Assessment: A CGMP Framework.'' This... non- penicillin beta-lactam antibiotics. The draft guidance is intended to assist manufacturers...

  3. 75 FR 35044 - Notice of Approval of a Supplemental New Animal Drug Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... for a revised formulation of penicillin G procaine injectable suspension that includes lecithin as a... 6JP, Northern Ireland, filed a supplement to NADA 065-010 for use of NOROCILLIN (penicillin G...

  4. Identification of a group of Haemophilus influenzae penicillin-binding proteins that may have complementary physiological roles

    SciTech Connect

    Malouin, F.; Parr, T.R. Jr.; Bryan, L.E. )

    1990-02-01

    (35S)penicillin bound to different Haemophilus influenzae proteins in assays performed at 20, 37, or 42{degrees}C. Penicillin-binding proteins 3a, 3b, 4, and 4' formed a group characterized by their affinity for moxalactam, cefotaxime, and piperacillin. Penicillin-binding protein 4' showed specific properties that may reflect its complementary role in septation.

  5. Utilization of side-chain precursors for penicillin biosynthesis in a high-producing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, S H; Jensen, B; Schneider, I; Kaasgaard, S; Olsen, J

    1994-02-01

    Utilization of the side-chain precursors phenoxyacetic acid (POA) and phenylacetic acid (PA) for penicillin biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum was studied in shake flasks. Precursor uptake and penicillin production were followed by HPLC analysis of precursors and products in the medium and in the cells. P. chrysogenum used both POA and PA as precursors, producing phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V) and benzylpenicillin (penicillin G), respectively. If both precursors were present simultaneously, the formation of penicillin V was blocked and only penicillin G was produced. When PA was added at different times to cells that were induced initially for POA utilization and were producing penicillin V, the POA utilization and penicillin V formation were blocked, whereas the cells started utilizing PA and produced penicillin G. The blocking of the POA turnover lasted for as long as PA was present in the medium. If POA was added to cultures induced initially for PA utilization and producing penicillin G, this continued irrespective of the presence of POA. Utilization of POA increased concomitant with depletion of PA from the medium. Analysis of cellular pools from a growing cell system with POA as precursor to which PA was added after 48 h showed that the cellular concentration of POA was kept high without production of penicillin V and at a concentration comparable to the concentration in the medium. The cellular concentration of POA was higher than the concentration of PA that was utilized for penicillin G production.

  6. (Immobilization of radioactive wastes)

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.

    1986-12-18

    The traveler participated as the co-chairman of the France/US Workshop in Cadarache, France, on the immobilization of radioactive wastes in cement-based materials. These meetings and site visits were conducted under the bilateral exchange agreement between the US-DOE and the Commissariate a l'Energie Atomique (CEA-France). Visits in France included the Cadarache, Valduc, Saclay, and Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centers. As a result of these discussions, an exchange of scientists between Saclay and ORNL was proposed. The traveler continued on to the FRG to visit a hazardous waste site remedial action project in Sprendlingen and the nuclear research and production facilities at the Karlsruhe Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) and the Alkem/Nukem/Transnuklear facilities at Hanau. Visits in the FRG were under the bilateral exchange agreement between the US-DOE and the Bundes Ministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (BMFT). The FRG supplied the traveler data on studies of super-compaction volume reduction efficiencies by KfK and Nukem. Also, Transnuklear is considering contributing two of their larger Konrad-certified packages to the MDU studies at ORNL. 1 tab.

  7. [Efficacy observation of acupuncture bloodletting and penicillin on treatment of children acute tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Su-Rong; Zhong, Li-Yang; Wang, Nai-Fei; Lao, Jian-Jun; Yao, Qun

    2013-12-01

    To observe differences of therapeutic effects among acupuncture bloodletting, penicillin and acupuncture bloodletting combined with penicillin for children acute tonsillitis and providea better treatment method in cli nic. Seventy-five mild cases were selected into section of mild symptoms while seventy-five severe cases were selected into section of severe symptoms. Cases in the two sections then were divided into, an acupuncture bloodletting group, a penicillin group and a comprehensive group by random digital table method separately, 25 cases in each one. Qu-chi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Dazhui (GV 14), Shaoshang (LU 11) and Erjian (EX 11) were selected in the acupuncture bloodletting group, intravenous injection of penicillin sodium was applied in the penicillin group and acupuncture bloodletting combined with penicillin was applied in the comprehensive group. Efficacy assessment was conducted after 3 days in the section of mild symptoms and after 5 days in the section of severe symptoms. For the section of mild symptoms, the total effective rate was 96.0% (24/25) in the comprehensive group and 92.0% (23/25) in the acupuncture bloodletting group, which were both superior to 68. 0% (17/25) in the penicillin group (P<0.05), but no statistical significance was seen between the comprehensive group and acupuncture bloodletting group (P>0.05). For the section of severe symptoms, the total effective rate was 96.0% (24/25) in the comprehensive group, which was obviously superior to 60.0% (15/25) in the acupuncture bloodletting group (P<0.01) and 68.0% (17/25) in the penicillin group (P<0. 05), and no statistical significance was seen between the acupuncture bloodletting group and penicillin group (P>0.05). The efficacy of acupuncture bloodletting combined with penicillin is little different from that of acupuncture bloodletting for treatment of children acute tonsillitis with mild accompanied symptoms, which were both superior to intravenous injection of penicillin sodium

  8. Heteroresistance to Cephalosporins and Penicillins in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Kuei-Hsiang; Wang, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Ay-Huey; Yan, Jing-Jou

    2012-01-01

    Heteroresistance to antimicrobial agents may affect susceptibility test results and therapeutic success. In this study, we investigated heteroresistance to cephalosporins and penicillins in Acinetobacter baumannii, a major pathogen causing nosocomial infections. Two A. baumannii isolates exhibited heteroresistance to ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefepime, and cefpirome, showing a distinct colony morphology of circular rings within the inhibition halos. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and outer membrane protein (OMP) analysis demonstrated that subpopulations around the disks/Etest strips and the original strains all belonged to the same PFGE type and OMP profile. Population analysis profile (PAP) showed the presence of heteroresistant subpopulations with high cefepime resistance levels in two isolates (008 and 328). Interestingly, A. baumannii 008 contained two peaks: one was grown in the presence of up to 1 μg of cefepime/ml, the other apparently occurred when the concentration of cefepime was raised to 256 μg/ml. After serial passages without exposure to cefepime, the PAP curve maintained the same trend observed for the original strain of A. baumannii 008. However, the PAP curve showed a shift to relatively lower cefepime resistance (from 256 to 64 μg/ml) in A. baumannii 328 after 10 passages in antibiotic-free Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Convergence to a monotypic resistance phenotype did not occur. Growth rate analysis revealed that slower growth in resistant subpopulations may provide a strategy against antibiotic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first report of heteroresistance to cephalosporins and penicillins in A. baumannii. PMID:22189112

  9. Site-Specific Immobilization of the Peptidoglycan Synthase PBP1B on a Surface Plasmon Resonance Chip Surface.

    PubMed

    Van't Veer, Inge L; Leloup, Nadia O L; Egan, Alexander J F; Janssen, Bert J C; Martin, Nathaniel I; Vollmer, Waldemar; Breukink, Eefjan

    2016-12-02

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is one of the most powerful label-free methods to determine the kinetic parameters of molecular interactions in real time and in a highly sensitive way. Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are peptidoglycan synthesis enzymes present in most bacteria. Established protocols to analyze interactions of PBPs by SPR involve immobilization to an ampicillin-coated chip surface (a β-lactam antibiotic mimicking its substrate), thereby forming a covalent complex with the PBPs transpeptidase (TP) active site. However, PBP interactions measured with a substrate-bound TP domain potentially affect interactions near the TPase active site. Furthermore, in vivo PBPs are anchored in the inner membrane by an N-terminal transmembrane helix, and hence immobilization at the C-terminal TPase domain gives an orientation contrary to the in vivo situation. We designed a new procedure: immobilization of PBP by copper-free click chemistry at an azide incorporated in the N terminus. In a proof-of-principle study, we immobilized Escherichia coli PBP1B on an SPR chip surface and used this for the analysis of the well-characterized interaction of PBP1B with LpoB. The site-specific incorporation of the azide affords control over protein orientation, thereby resulting in a homogeneous immobilization on the chip surface. This method can be used to study topology-dependent interactions of any (membrane) protein.

  10. Impact of penicillin nonsusceptibility on clinical outcomes of patients with nonmeningeal Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia in the era of the 2008 clinical and laboratory standards institute penicillin breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Chung, Jin-Won; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Choi, Sang-Ho

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the impact of penicillin nonsusceptibility on clinical outcomes of patients with nonmeningeal Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB), a retrospective cohort study was performed. The characteristics of 39 patients with penicillin-nonsusceptible SPB (PNSPB) were compared to those of a group of age- and sex-matched patients (n = 78) with penicillin-susceptible SPB (PSSPB). Susceptibility to penicillin was redetermined by using the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) penicillin breakpoints in CLSI document M100-S18. Although the PNSPB group tended to have more serious initial manifestations than the PSSPB group, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of their 30-day mortality rates (30.8% versus 23.1%; P = 0.37) or the duration of hospital stay (median number of days, 14 versus 12; P = 0.89). Broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, such as extended-spectrum cephalosporins, vancomycin, and carbapenem, were frequently used in both the PNSPB and PSSPB groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07 to 22.27; P = 0.041) was one of the independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Thus, when the 2008 CLSI penicillin breakpoints are applied and the current clinical practice of using wide-spectrum empirical antimicrobial agents is pursued, fatal outcomes in patients with nonmeningeal SPB that can be attributed to penicillin nonsusceptibility are likely to be rare. Further studies that examine the clinical impact of ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility in nonmningeal SPB may be warranted.

  11. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Cory Ann; Dewez, Frederic; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate). Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence) and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis. PMID:26997956

  12. Use of Cefazolin for Group B Streptococci Prophylaxis in Women Reporting a Penicillin Allergy Without Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Briody, Victoria A; Albright, Catherine M; Has, Phinnara; Hughes, Brenna L

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of group B streptococci (GBS)-colonized women with a reported penicillin allergy without anaphylaxis receiving appropriate intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. We performed a retrospective cohort study of GBS-colonized, penicillin-allergic women delivering at term receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor. Scheduled cesarean deliveries were excluded. The primary outcome was the proportion of women who received appropriate antibiotic coverage, defined as penicillin or cefazolin. Secondary outcomes included neonatal outcomes such as Apgar score, blood draws, antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, and composite morbidity. Of 165 women reporting a penicillin allergy without anaphylaxis, 73 (44.2%) received an appropriate antibiotic and 92 (55.8%) received an inappropriate antibiotic. Of those receiving an inappropriate antibiotic, 56 (60.9%) were given clindamycin, 1 (1.1%) erythromycin, and 35 (38.0%) vancomycin. Women reporting rash as a penicillin reaction were more likely to receive cefazolin than another antibiotic (44 [60.3%] compared with 24 [26.1%], respectively; P<.001), whereas women whose reaction was not documented were less likely to receive cefazolin (18 [24.7%] compared with 63 [68.5%], respectively; P<.001). Among neonates whose mothers received appropriate compared with inappropriate antibiotics, there were no differences in Apgar score, number of blood draws, antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, or composite morbidity. More than half of women allergic to penicillin without anaphylaxis received an antibiotic other than penicillin or cefazolin as prophylaxis, indicating poor adherence to national guidelines.

  13. Loracarbef (LY163892) vs. penicillin VK in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Disney, F A; Hanfling, M J; Hausinger, S A

    1992-08-01

    A double blind, randomized clinical trial compared loracarbef (LY163892) with penicillin VK. Two hundred thirty-three pediatric patients (less than or equal to 12 years) with a diagnosis of pharyngitis or tonsillitis resulting from Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were randomized to treatment. Patients in the loracarbef group (n = 120) received loracarbef as a 15-mg/kg/day oral suspension or 200-mg capsule taken twice daily for 10 days. Patients in the penicillin group (n = 113) received penicillin VK as a 20-mg/kg/day oral suspension or 250-mg capsule taken four times daily for 10 days. Successful clinical responses were demonstrated in 101 of the 104 (97.1%) evaluable patients treated with loracarbef compared with 83 of 88 (94.3%) of evaluable patients treated with penicillin. The clinical relapse rate for the loracarbef group was 2.9% vs. 5.7% for the penicillin group. Bacteriologic response data approximated the clinical response data, as eradication of Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci was found in 86.5 and 81.8% of the loracarbef group and the penicillin group, respectively. No statistically significant difference in the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse reactions was noted between the two groups. The results indicate that loracarbef taken twice daily was comparable in safety and efficacy to penicillin VK taken four times daily in the treatment of Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus-associated pharyngitis and tonsillitis in children.

  14. In vitro selective antibiotic concentrations of beta-lactams for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae populations.

    PubMed Central

    Negri, M C; Morosini, M I; Loza, E; Baquero, F

    1994-01-01

    Therapeutic regimens containing beta-lactam antibiotics are selecting penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae populations all over the world. The selective pressure after 4 h of exposure to different concentrations of amoxicillin, cefixime, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime for low-level or high-level penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae was evaluated in an in vitro model with mixed populations with penicillin susceptibilities of 0.015, 0.5, 1, and 2 micrograms/ml. The antibiotic concentration selecting for low-level resistance strongly reduced the susceptible population. Increasing antibiotic concentrations tended to decrease the total proportion of penicillin-resistant bacteria because of reduced numbers of the low-level-resistant population. The antibiotic concentration selecting for high-level resistance produced fewer resistant populations, but most of the organisms selected represented high-level resistance. In general, amoxicillin was a good selector for the low-level-resistant population and a poor selector for high-level resistance; cefuroxime and cefotaxime were poor selectors for low-level resistance and better selectors than amoxicillin for high-level penicillin resistance. Cefixime was the best selector of low-level penicillin resistance. When only resistant populations were mixed, the strains with high-level resistance were selected even at low antibiotic concentrations. Determination of the effects of selective antibiotic concentrations on mixed cultures of bacteria expressing different antibiotic resistance levels may help researchers to understand the ecology and epidemiology of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae populations. PMID:8141563

  15. PENICILLIN RESISTANCE OF COMPETENT CELLS IN DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID TRANSFORMATION OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS.

    PubMed

    NESTER, E W

    1964-04-01

    Nester, E. W. (University of Washington, Seattle). Penicillin resistance of competent cells in deoxyribonucleic acid transformation of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 87:867-875. 1964.-Transformants are resistant to penicillin killing for several hours after deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) addition. The present study indicates that this resistance is a consequence of such cells still remaining competent and is not the result of any interaction of donor DNA with the recipient cell. The following data support this conclusion: (i) the frequency of transformation can be increased five- to tenfold if penicillin acts on a competent culture prior to DNA addition; (ii) the percentage of competent cells in such a penicillin-treated culture calculated on the basis of a random coincidence of DNA molecules entering the same cell increases some 25-fold over that of a penicillin-nontreated population; (iii) the kinetics of penicillin killing of a recipient culture are identical whether or not transforming DNA has been added; (iv) the extent of killing by penicillin is related to the level of competence of the recipient culture; and (v) the kinetics of appearance and disappearance of competence in a population as well as in individual cells indicate that a cell may remain competent for 3 to 4 hr.

  16. Susceptibility of Respiratory Tract Anaerobes to Orally Administered Penicillins and Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Busch, David F.; Kureshi, Lubna Afzal; Sutter, Vera L.; Finegold, Sydney M.

    1976-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria recovered from airway-related infections were tested by agar dilution against selected penicillins and cephalosporins available for oral administration. Against 136 isolates, penicillins G and V showed comparable activity, particularly when pharmacological differences were considered. Although many isolates were exquisitely susceptible to the penicillins, only 55% of the Bacteroides species and 72% of all isolates were inhibited at 0.5 μg of penicillin G per ml. Results for penicillin V at 1 μg/ml were similar (59 and 73%). The two cephalosporins were more active at achievable levels, inhibiting 94 to 95% of Bacteroides and 95 to 96% of all isolates at 8 μg/ml. These levels represent approximately 50% of the reported peak serum levels after oral administration of 625 mg of the penicillins and 500 mg of the cephalosporins. Dicloxacillin and nafcillin were tested against 50 isolates. The two were comparably active on a weight basis; dicloxacillin was more active when pharmacological differences were considered, but did not match the other penicillins or the cephalosporins. PMID:984805

  17. Lethal Effect of a Heterologous Murein Hydrolase on Penicillin-Treated Streptococcus sanguis

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Diane; Tomasz, Alexander

    1980-01-01

    Nine strains of Streptococcus sanguis exhibited tolerance to benzylpenicillin: the growth of each strain was susceptible to penicillin with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 μg/ml or lower, but the bacteriolytic and bactericidal effects were limited in each case. The tolerance of these bacteria was also reflected in the large discrepancies between the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations for benzylpenicillin. The hypothesis that a natural deficiency of endogenous murein hydrolase (autolysin) in this species accounts for the penicillin tolerance was tested by using a heterologous murein hydrolase, the C-phage-associated lysin. In seven of the strains, addition of the lysin to the culture together with penicillin or other cell wall inhibitors resulted in lysis and rapid loss of viability. The enzyme alone did not appreciably affect normally growing cultures. The irreversible effects of penicillin plus lysin were drastically reduced in the presence of the bacteriostatic agents chloramphenicol and cerulenin. Speculations based on experiments are presented for the mechanisms by which penicillin treatment sensitizes these bacteria to an exogenous lytic enzyme. Similar phenomena requiring cooperation of host factors and penicillin may occur during infection, since somewhat similar although less pronounced results were obtained by addition of human lysozyme to penicillin-treated S. sanguis. PMID:6104471

  18. In vivo kinetic analysis of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway using PAA stimulus response experiments.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amit T; Verheijen, Peter J T; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2015-11-01

    In this study we combined experimentation with mathematical modeling to unravel the in vivo kinetic properties of the enzymes and transporters of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway in a high yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strain. The experiment consisted of a step response experiment with the side chain precursor phenyl acetic acid (PAA) in a glucose-limited chemostat. The metabolite data showed that in the absence of PAA all penicillin pathway enzymes were expressed, leading to the production of a significant amount of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA) as end product. After the stepwise perturbation with PAA, the pathway produced PenG within seconds. From the extra- and intracellular metabolite measurements, hypotheses for the secretion mechanisms of penicillin pathway metabolites were derived. A dynamic model of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway was then constructed that included the formation and transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of pathway intermediates, PAA and the product penicillin-G (PenG). The model parameters and changes in the enzyme levels of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway under in vivo conditions were simultaneously estimated using experimental data obtained at three different timescales (seconds, minutes, hours). The model was applied to determine changes in the penicillin pathway enzymes in time, calculate fluxes and analyze the flux control of the pathway. This led to a reassessment of the in vivo behavior of the pathway enzymes and in particular Acyl-CoA:Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase (AT). Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonlinear biosynthetic gene cluster dose effect on penicillin production by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Nijland, Jeroen G; Ebbendorf, Bjorg; Woszczynska, Marta; Boer, Rémon; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2010-11-01

    Industrial penicillin production levels by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum increased dramatically by classical strain improvement. High-yielding strains contain multiple copies of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster that encodes three key enzymes of the β-lactam biosynthetic pathway. We have analyzed the gene cluster dose effect on penicillin production using the high-yielding P. chrysogenum strain DS17690 that was cured from its native clusters. The amount of penicillin V produced increased with the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster number but was saturated at high copy numbers. Likewise, transcript levels of the biosynthetic genes pcbAB [δ-(l-α-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine synthetase], pcbC (isopenicillin N synthase), and penDE (acyltransferase) correlated with the cluster copy number. Remarkably, the protein level of acyltransferase, which localizes to peroxisomes, was saturated already at low cluster copy numbers. At higher copy numbers, intracellular levels of isopenicillin N increased, suggesting that the acyltransferase reaction presents a limiting step at a high gene dose. Since the number and appearance of the peroxisomes did not change significantly with the gene cluster copy number, we conclude that the acyltransferase activity is limiting for penicillin biosynthesis at high biosynthetic gene cluster copy numbers. These results suggest that at a high penicillin production level, productivity is limited by the peroxisomal acyltransferase import activity and/or the availability of coenzyme A (CoA)-activated side chains.

  20. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A.

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  1. Preliminary study of tissue concentrations of penicillin after local administration into the guttural pouches in four healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Kendall, A; Mayhew, I G; Petrovski, K

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin. Tissues were harvested for analysis either 12 or 24 h later. Results indicate that local treatment may be effective, but more research on optimal drug formulations in a larger sample size is warranted. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil against penicillin-sensitive and -resistant streptococcus pneumoniae in an experimental rabbit meningitis model.

    PubMed

    Cottagnoud, P; Cottagnoud, M; Acosta, F; Stucki, A

    2013-10-01

    Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against resistant Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. This study tested the prodrug, ceftaroline fosamil, against a penicillin-sensitive and a penicillin-resistant strain of S. pneumoniae in an experimental rabbit meningitis model. The penetration of ceftaroline into inflamed meninges was approximately 14%. Ceftaroline fosamil was slightly superior to ceftriaxone against the penicillin-sensitive strain and significantly superior to the combination of ceftriaxone and vancomycin against the penicillin-resistant strain.

  3. What do hospital staff in the UK think are the causes of penicillin medication errors?

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Michael; Harding, Geoff; Moore, Lorraine; Nicholls, Ian; Powell, Neil; Stratton, Jon

    2013-02-01

    Medication errors are a potential major threat to patient's health, and allergic reactions occurring in patients with known allergies are an important preventable form of adverse drug event. The use of penicillin antibiotics in patients who are allergic to penicillin, in particular, is a major concern. To survey staff attitudes and beliefs to incidents involving penicillin allergic patients who are prescribed and administered penicillin antibiotics. A 650 bed teaching hospital in England. Using individual and (focus) group interview proceedings with a purposive sample of doctors, nurses and pharmacists, an electronic questionnaire was administered hospital wide to all clinical staff. No reminders were issued. Clinical staff's views on the causes of penicillin medication errors. The electronic survey was completed by 235 members of the clinical staff. Half the respondents definitely considered themselves knowledgeable about which antibiotics contain penicillin medicines, though approximately 90 % of respondents considered that misinformation or lack of knowledge on which antibiotics contain penicillin medicines was an issue for some or most colleagues. Various organisational issues such as the use of red wrist bands, the wearing of red tabards by the nurse during the medicines round, and a busy work environment were recurrently highlighted as systems factors that could be improved upon. Our study elucidated concerns amongst clinical staff relating to the scenario of a penicillin allergic patient receiving a penicillin antibiotic. The resulting local learning and feedback about staff beliefs pertaining to this one specific type of error will be used to consider the nature and type of local action to be taken to help improve patient safety.

  4. Biological characterization of a new radioactive labeling reagent for bacterial penicillin-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.A.; Wu, C.Y.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Seitz, D.E.; Halligan, N.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Radiolabeled penicillin G is widely used as the imaging agent in penicillin-binding protein (PBP) assays. The disadvantages of most forms of labeled penicillin G are instability on storage and the long exposure times usually required for autoradiography or fluorography of electrophoretic gels. We investigated the utility of radioiodinated penicillin V as an alternative reagent. Radioiodination of p-(trimethylstannyl)penicillin V with ({sup 125}I)Na, using a modification of the chloramine-T method, is simple, high yielding, and site specific. We demonstrated the general equivalence of commercially obtained ({sup 3}H)penicillin G and locally synthesized ({sup 125}I)penicillin V (IPV) in their recognition of bacterial PBPs. Profiles of PBPs in membranes from Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Providencia rettgeri, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium labeled with IPV or (3H)penicillin G were virtually identical. Use of IPV as the imaging agent in competition experiments for determination of the affinities of various beta-lactam antibiotics for the PBPs of E. coli yielded results similar to those obtained in experiments with ({sup 3}H)penicillin G. Dried electrophoretic gels from typical PBP experiments, using IPV at 37.3 Ci/mmol and 30 micrograms/ml, exposed X-ray film in 8 to 24 h. The stability of IPV on storage at 4{degrees}C was inversely proportional to specific activity. At 37.3 Ci/mmol and 60 micrograms/ml, IPV retained useful activity for at least 60 days at 4{degrees}C. IPV represents a practical and stable reagent for rapid PBP assays.

  5. Comparative study on production, purification of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil and citrus samples.

    PubMed

    Dayalan, S Anto Jeya; Darwin, Pramod; Prakash, S

    2011-01-01

    To explore various unexplored locations where Penicillium spp. would be available and study the production of penicillin from the isolated Penicillium spp. in different media with altered carbohydrate source. The collected soil samples were screened for the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum) by soil dilution plate. The isolated Penicillium species were further grown in different production media with changes in the carbohydrate source. The extracted penicillin from various isolates was analyzed by HPLC for the efficacy of the product. Further the products were screened with various bacterial species including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). And the work was extended to find the possible action on MRSA, along with characterization using other pathogens. From the various soil and citrus samples used for analysis, only the soil sample from Government General Hospital of Bangalore, India, and Sanjay Gandhi Hospital, Bangalore, India, showed some potential growth of the desired fungi P. chrysogenum. Different production media showed varied range of growth of Penicillium. Optimum production of penicillin was obtained in maltose which proved maximum zone of inhibition during assay. Characterization of penicillin on pathogens, like wild Escherichia coli strain, Klebsiella spp., and MRSA, gave quite interesting results such as no activity on the later strain as it is resistant. HPLC data provided the analytical and confirmation details of the penicillin produced. Accordingly, the penicillin produced from the soil sample of Government General Hospital had the high milli absorbance unit of 441.5 mAu compared with that of the penicillin produced from Sanjay Gandhi Hospital sample, 85.52 mAu. Therefore, there was a considerable change in quantity of the penicillin produced from both the samples. The Penicillium spp. could be possibly rich in hospital contaminants and its environments. This research focuses on various unexplored sources of

  6. Clinical retrospective study of self-reported penicillin allergy on dental implant failures and infections.

    PubMed

    French, David; Noroozi, Mehdi; Shariati, Batoul; Larjava, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether self-reported allergy to penicillin may contribute to a higher rate of postsurgical infection and implant failure. This retrospective, non-interventional, open cohort study reports on implant survival and infection complications of 5,576 implants placed in private practice by one periodontist, and includes 4,132 implants that were followed for at least 1 year. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported allergy to penicillin and implant survival, while controlling for potential confounders such as smoking, implant site, bone augmentation, loading protocol, immediate implantation, and bone level at baseline. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was calculated according to the life table method and the Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to data. Out of 5,106 implants placed in patients taking penicillin it was found that 0.8% failed, while 2.1% failed of the 470 implants placed for patients with self-reported allergy to penicillin (P = .002). Odds of failure for implants placed in penicillin-allergic patients were 3.1 times higher than in non-allergic patients. For immediate implant placement, penicillin-allergic patients had a failure rate 10-times higher than the non-allergic cohort. Timing of implant failure occurring within 6 months following implantation was 80% in the penicillin-allergic group versus 54% in the non-allergic group. From the 48 implant sites showing postoperative infection: penicillin-allergic patients had an infection rate of 3.4% (n = 16/470) versus 0.6% in the non-allergic group (n = 32/5,106) (P < .05). Self-reported penicillin allergy was associated with a higher rate of infection, and primarily affected early implant failure.

  7. Improvement of Aspergillus nidulans penicillin production by targeting AcvA to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Herr, Andreas; Fischer, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is able to synthesize penicillin and serves as a model to study the regulation of its biosynthesis. Only three enzymes are required to form the beta lactam ring tripeptide, which is comprised of l-cysteine, l-valine and l-aminoadipic acid. Whereas two enzymes, AcvA and IpnA localize to the cytoplasm, AatA resides in peroxisomes. Here, we tested a novel strategy to improve penicillin production, namely the change of the residence of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis. We tested if targeting of AcvA or IpnA (or both) to peroxisomes would increase the penicillin yield. Indeed, AcvA peroxisomal targeting led to a 3.2-fold increase. In contrast, targeting IpnA to peroxisomes caused a complete loss of penicillin production. Overexpression of acvA, ipnA or aatA resulted in 1.4, 2.8 and 3.1-fold more penicillin, respectively in comparison to wildtype. Simultaneous overexpression of all three enzymes resulted even in 6-fold more penicillin. Combination of acvA peroxisomal targeting and overexpression of the gene led to 5-fold increase of the penicillin titer. At last, the number of peroxisomes was increased through overexpression of pexK. A strain with the double number of peroxisomes produced 2.3 times more penicillin. These results show that penicillin production can be triggered at several levels of regulation, one of which is the subcellular localization of the enzymes. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p < 0.0001), and there were significantly fewer Asians with penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance. PMID:25584917

  9. Is Penicillin Plus Gentamicin Synergistic against Clinical Group B Streptococcus isolates?: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Ruppen, Corinne; Lupo, Agnese; Decosterd, Laurent; Sendi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is increasingly causing invasive infections in non-pregnant adults. Elderly patients and those with comorbidities are at increased risk. On the basis of previous studies focusing on neonatal infections, penicillin plus gentamicin is recommended for infective endocarditis (IE) and periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a synergism with penicillin and gentamicin is present in GBS isolates that caused IE and PJI. We used 5 GBS isolates, two clinical strains and three control strains, including one displaying high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR). The results from the checkerboard and time-kill assays (TKAs) were compared. For TKAs, antibiotic concentrations for penicillin were 0.048 and 0.2 mg/L, and for gentamicin 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L. In the checkerboard assay, the median fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) of all isolates indicated indifference. TKAs for all isolates failed to demonstrate synergism with penicillin 0.048 or 0.2 mg/L, irrespective of gentamicin concentrations used. Rapid killing was seen with penicillin 0.048 mg/L plus either 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L gentamicin, from 2 h up to 8 h hours after antibiotic exposure. TKAs with penicillin 0.2 mg/L decreased the starting inoculum below the limit of quantification within 4-6 h, irrespective of the addition of gentamicin. Fast killing was seen with penicillin 0.2 mg/L plus 12.5 mg/L gentamicin within the first 2 h. Our in vitro results indicate that the addition of gentamicin to penicillin contributes to faster killing at low penicillin concentrations, but only within the first few hours. Twenty-four hours after antibiotic exposure, PEN alone was bactericidal and synergism was not seen.

  10. Is Penicillin Plus Gentamicin Synergistic against Clinical Group B Streptococcus isolates?: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruppen, Corinne; Lupo, Agnese; Decosterd, Laurent; Sendi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is increasingly causing invasive infections in non-pregnant adults. Elderly patients and those with comorbidities are at increased risk. On the basis of previous studies focusing on neonatal infections, penicillin plus gentamicin is recommended for infective endocarditis (IE) and periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a synergism with penicillin and gentamicin is present in GBS isolates that caused IE and PJI. We used 5 GBS isolates, two clinical strains and three control strains, including one displaying high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR). The results from the checkerboard and time-kill assays (TKAs) were compared. For TKAs, antibiotic concentrations for penicillin were 0.048 and 0.2 mg/L, and for gentamicin 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L. In the checkerboard assay, the median fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) of all isolates indicated indifference. TKAs for all isolates failed to demonstrate synergism with penicillin 0.048 or 0.2 mg/L, irrespective of gentamicin concentrations used. Rapid killing was seen with penicillin 0.048 mg/L plus either 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L gentamicin, from 2 h up to 8 h hours after antibiotic exposure. TKAs with penicillin 0.2 mg/L decreased the starting inoculum below the limit of quantification within 4–6 h, irrespective of the addition of gentamicin. Fast killing was seen with penicillin 0.2 mg/L plus 12.5 mg/L gentamicin within the first 2 h. Our in vitro results indicate that the addition of gentamicin to penicillin contributes to faster killing at low penicillin concentrations, but only within the first few hours. Twenty-four hours after antibiotic exposure, PEN alone was bactericidal and synergism was not seen. PMID:27818657

  11. Susceptibility of pneumococci to 14 beta-lactam agents: comparison of strains resistant, intermediate-resistant, and susceptible to penicillin.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J I; Moellering, R C

    1981-01-01

    To measure the susceptibility of penicillin-resistant pneumococci to newer beta-lactam agents, we evaluated 54 selected strains recovered from patients with bacteremia or meningitis. Three groups of pneumococci were tested: penicillin-susceptible strains, strains with intermediate penicillin resistance, and penicillin-resistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of benzyl penicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, moxalactam (LY127935), cefotaxime (HR756), piperacillin, pirbenicillin, N-formimidoyl thienamycin (MK0787), cefoperazone (T1551), mezlocillin, azlocillin, and mecillinam were determined. For all groups of pneumococci tested, cefotaxime, and particularly thienamycin, had the greatest activity. Piperacillin, mezlocillin, and azlocillin had activity similar to that of benzyl penicillin. Cefoperazone had less activity than penicillin against strains with penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations of less than 1 microgram/ml but greater activity than penicillin against strains with greater resistance. Oxacillin, cephalothin, cefamandole, and pirbenicillin all had less activity for each group of pneumococci tested; moxalactam, cefoxitin, and mecillinam had the least activity. The relative differences in susceptibility to penicillin of each group of pneumococci tested were similar for each of the beta-lactam agents tested. The clinical effectiveness of cefotaxime and thienamycin for therapy of disease due to penicillin-resistant pneumococci needs further evaluation, and of particular interest will be the levels of these drugs which can be achieved in cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:6912777

  12. Beta-lactam-fosfomycin antagonism involving modification of penicillin-binding protein 3 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, J A; Baquero, F; Berenguer, J; Martinez-Ferrer, M; Martinez, J L

    1990-01-01

    Antagonism between fosfomycin and antipseudomonal penicillins, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone was observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa RYC212. Fosfomycin, a non-beta-lactam antibiotic that acts on bacterial cell wall synthesis, decreased the expression of penicillin-binding protein 3 and induced beta-lactamase. The antagonistic effect was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam or in fosfomycin-resistant mutants. We suggest that products resulting from fosfomycin cell wall damage could interact with a system that regulates penicillin-binding protein and beta-lactamase production. Images PMID:2127343

  13. [Progress in Proteomic Study of the Penicillin Producer---Penicillium Chrysogenum].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun; Wang, Peihong; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Ruichang

    2015-12-01

    Penicillin is a kind of β-lactam drug which has been applied in the clinical treatment firstly in the world, and it has still been widely used at present. The synthesis and regulation mechanism of Penicillium chrysogenum, which is used to produce penicillin, has been studied quite maturely, but its proteomics research started relatively late and fewer reports were published. This paper reviews the synthesis and application of penicillin, transformation of Penicillium chrysogenum, and the research progress of its proteomics. On this basis, the study highlights the advantages of proteomics in the research of protein expression.

  14. The efficacy of high-dose penicillin for community-acquired pneumonia diagnosed by pneumococcal urine antigen test.

    PubMed

    Oka, Hideaki; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Watanuki, Yuji; Tsukiji, Jun; Kuroda, Hideyo; Akashi, Syunsuke; Hirai, Yoshihiro; Fuyuki, Toshiharu; Kaneko, Takeshi; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed the efficacy of both the Streptococcus pneumoniae urine antigen test as a quick diagnostic tool and the administration of high-dose penicillin in response to a positive S. pneumoniae urine antigen test. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 48 cases of pneumococcal pneumonia, in which the patients were treated with high-dose penicillin. All the cases were diagnosed by a positive urine antigen test. Treatment with high-dose penicillin was effective in 43 of the 48 patients. This treatment was also effective in 12 of 16 culture-confirmed cases with low susceptibility to penicillin. Eleven patients who were positive for the S. pneumoniae urine antigen test but culture-negative showed clinical improvement with high-dose penicillin. Pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae appeared to be treated safely and effectively with high-dose penicillin based on positive results of the urine antigen test, as penicillin resistance was unlikely to be a problem.

  15. Mutants blocked in penicillin biosynthesis show a deletion of the entire penicillin gene cluster at a specific site within a conserved hexanucleotide sequence.

    PubMed

    Fierro, F; Montenegro, E; Gutiérrez, S; Martín, J F

    1996-01-01

    The organization of the genes of the penicillin cluster has been studied in three different mutants of P. chrysogenum impaired in penicillin biosynthesis. The three blocked mutants (derived from the parental strain P. chrysogenum Bb-1) lacked the genes pcbAB, pcbC and penDE of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway and were unable to form isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase. All strains were identified as P. chrysogenum derivatives by fingerprinting analysis with (GTG)n as a probe. The borders of the deleted region were cloned and sequenced, showing the same junction point in the three mutants. The deleted DNA region was found to be identical to that described in P. chrysogenum npe10. The frequent deletion of the pen gene cluster at this point may indicate that this cluster is located in an unstable genetic region, flanked by hot spots of recombination, that is easily lost by mutagen-induced recombination.

  16. 21 CFR 522.1696c - Penicillin G procaine in oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Dogs and cats—10,000 units per pound of body weight once daily... of dogs, cats, and horses caused by penicillin-susceptible organisms such as Streptococci...

  17. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline and penicillin G in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    McLelland, D J; Barker, I K; Crawshaw, G; Hinds, L A; Spilsbury, L; Johnson, R

    2011-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline and penicillin G was investigated in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). Groups of eight healthy tammar wallabies were administered i.v. oxytetracycline hydrochloride (40 mg/kg), i.m. long-acting-oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg), i.v. sodium penicillin G (30 mg/kg), or i.m. procaine/benzathine penicillin G (30 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those reported for eutherians of equivalent size and suggest that the practice of adjusting allometrically scaled doses to account for the lower metabolic rate of marsupials may not be valid. Long-acting oxytetracycline and penicillin G both demonstrated depot effects. However, the plasma concentrations achieved question the therapeutic efficacy of the long-acting preparations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus peptidoglycan transglycosylases that are not penicillin-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Park, W; Matsuhashi, M

    1984-01-01

    Major peptidoglycan transglycosylase activities, which synthesize uncross-linked peptidoglycan from lipid-linked precursors, were solubilized from the membranes of Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus and were partially purified. The transglycosylase activities were separated from penicillin-binding proteins by solubilization and by purification steps. Therefore, we concluded that these activities were not activities of the penicillin-binding proteins, which are the presumptive peptidoglycan transpeptidases in these gram-positive cocci. Unlike Escherichia coli, in which the network structure of peptidoglycan is synthesized by multiple two-headed penicillin-binding proteins with both transpeptidase and transglycosylase activities, these gram-positive cocci have cell wall peptidoglycan which seems to be synthesized by penicillin-binding protein transpeptidases and a separate transglycosylase. Images PMID:6693351

  19. In Vitro Activity of Cephalothin and Three Penicillins Against Escherichia coli and Proteus Species

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Arthur L.; Hoeprich, Paul D.

    1973-01-01

    The susceptibility of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (67) and Proteus species (58) to cephalothin, ampicillin, benzyl penicillin, and phenoxymethyl penicillin was determined in vitro by using broth dilution and disk diffusion tests. The data were correlated by using a four-category scheme for interpreting minimal inhibitory concentrations (groups 1 to 4) as recommended by a subcommittee of an international collaborative study of susceptibility testing. With cephalothin and ampicillin, groups 1 (susceptible) and 2 (moderately susceptible) were susceptible by the disk test, and with benzyl penicillin, similar results were observed when the interpretive zone standards were changed. Strains categorized as group 4 (very resistant) were resistant by the disk method, but group 3 (moderately resistant) strains were not adequately distinguished by disk testing. Group 3 susceptibility to benzyl and phenoxymethyl penicillins can be predicted by extrapolating results from tests with ampicillin disks. PMID:4202343

  20. Microbiological Activities of Lysostaphin and Penicillins Against Bacteriophage 80/81 Strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Zygmunt, Walter A.; Harrison, Edward F.; Browder, Henry P.

    1965-01-01

    Using 20 clinical isolates of S. aureus (all bacteriophage 80/81 type), we found that lysostaphin inhibits the growth of all cultures at concentrations significantly lower than those observed with any of eight penicillins, a penicillin-like compound (cephalothin), or fusidic acid (a steroid antibiotic). All test cultures were shown to be resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, and propicillin. Of the remaining penicillins (all penicillinase-insensitive), oxacillin, nafcillin, cloxacillin, and cephalothin were approximately equal in antimicrobial activity. Ancillin was slightly less active, and methicillin was even lower in potency. Cultures varied more widely in susceptibility to fusidic acid. None of the clinical isolates tested was found to be resistant to lysostaphin. PMID:14325294

  1. Effect of Protein Binding on the Activity of Penicillins in Combination with Gentamicin Against Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Glew, Richard H.; Moellering, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the effect of protein binding by human serum on the synergistic interaction of penicillins with gentamicin, time-kill curves were determined for four penicillins alone and in combination with gentamicin against 10 blood isolates of enterococci. Killing curves demonstrated synergism with penicillin G plus gentamicin against all 10 strains in either broth or 50% human serum. In broth the combinations of nafcillin plus gentamicin and oxacillin plus gentamicin were synergistic against 10 of 10 strains and 4 of 10 strains, respectively. However, in serum, nafcillin plus gentamicin was synergistically bactericidal against only two strains and oxacillin plus gentamicin against none. Methicillin plus gentamicin was synergistic against none of the enterococci in either medium. Thus, the semisynthetic, penicillinase-resistant penicillins are unlikely to be effective in the therapy of patients with enterococcal endocarditis. PMID:426508

  2. Fleming's penicillin producing strain is not Penicillium chrysogenum but P. rubens.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a commonly occurring mould in indoor environments and foods, and has gained much attention for its use in the production of the antibiotic penicillin. Phylogenetic analysis of the most important penicillin producing P. chrysogenum isolates revealed the presence of two highly supported clades, and we show here that these two clades represent two species, P. chrysogenum and P. rubens. These species are phenotypically similar, but extrolite analysis shows that P. chrysogenum produces secalonic acid D and F and/or a metabolite related to lumpidin, while P. rubens does not produce these metabolites. Fleming's original penicillin producing strain and the full genome sequenced strain of P. chrysogenum are re-identified as P. rubens. Furthermore, the well-known claim that Alexander Fleming misidentified the original penicillin producing strain as P. rubrum is discussed.

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., atopic dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin... caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B. (3) Limitations. For use in dogs...

  4. Bioluminescent Reaction by Immobilized Luciferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ryuta; Takahama, Eriko; Iinuma, Masataka; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kadoya, Yutaka; Kuroda, Akio

    We have investigated an effect of immobilization of luciferase molecules at the optical fiber end on a bioluminescent reaction. The time dependence of measured count rates of emitted photons has been analyzed by fitting with numerical solution of differential equations including the effect of the product-inhibitor and the deactivation of the luciferase. Through the analysis, we have successfully extracted kinetic constants such as, reaction rate, number of active luciferase molecules, etc. Ratio of active molecules to total luciferase molecules in immobilization was one order of magnitude lower than that in solution. The reaction rate of the bioluminescent process was also different from the one of free luciferase in solution.

  5. Mutations in ponA, the gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 1, and a novel locus, penC, are required for high-level chromosomally mediated penicillin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Ropp, Patricia A; Hu, Mei; Olesky, Melanie; Nicholas, Robert A

    2002-03-01

    Chromosomally mediated penicillin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae occurs in part through alterations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and a decrease in outer membrane permeability. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of transformation of a penicillin-susceptible strain of N. gonorrhoeae to high-level penicillin resistance have not been clearly elucidated. Previous studies suggested that alterations in PBP 1 were involved in high-level penicillin resistance. In this study, we identified a single amino acid mutation in PBP 1 located 40 amino acids N terminal to the active-site serine residue that was present in all chromosomally mediated resistant N. gonorrhoeae (CMRNG) strains for which MICs of penicillin were > or = 1 microg/ml. PBP 1 harboring this point mutation (PBP 1*) had a three- to fourfold lower rate of acylation (k2/K') than wild-type PBP 1 with a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. Consistent with its involvement in high-level penicillin resistance, replacement of the altered ponA gene (ponA1) in several CMRNG strains with the wild-type ponA gene resulted in a twofold decrease in the MICs of penicillin. Surprisingly, transformation of an intermediate-level penicillin-resistant strain (PR100; FA19 penA4 mtr penB5) with the ponA1 gene did not increase the MIC of penicillin for this strain. However, we identified an additional resistance locus, termed penC, which was required along with ponA1 to increase penicillin resistance of PR100 to a high level (MIC = 4 microg/ml). The penC locus by itself, when present in PR100, increases the MICs of penicillin and tetracycline twofold each. These data indicate that an additional locus, penC, is required along with ponA1 to achieve high-level penicillin resistance.

  6. Treatment of experimental pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in immunocompetent rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà, J; Capdevila, J A; Almirante, B; Otero, J; Ruiz, I; Laguarda, M; Allende, H; Crespo, E; Pigrau, C; Pahissa, A

    1997-01-01

    A model of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin was developed in immunocompetent Wistar rats and was used to evaluate the efficacies of different doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin. Adult Wistar rats were challenged by intratracheal inoculation with 3 x 10(9) CFU of one strain of S. pneumoniae resistant to penicillin (MICs of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) suspended in brain heart broth supplemented with 0.7% agar. The rats experienced a fatal pneumonia, dying within 5 days and with peak mortality (70 to 80%) occurring 48 to 72 h after infection, and the bacterial counts in the lungs persisted from 8.87 +/- 0.3 log10 CFU/g of lung at 24 h of the infection to 9.1 +/- 0.3 log10 CFU/g at 72 h. Four hours after infection the animals were randomized into the following treatment groups: (i) control without treatment, (ii) penicillin G at 100,000 IU/kg of body weight every 2 h, (iii) penicillin G at 250,000 IU/kg every 2 h, (iv) cefotaxime at 100 mg/kg every 2 h, (v) cefpirome at 200 mg/kg every 2 h, and (vi) vancomycin at 50 mg/kg every 8 h. Two different protocols were used for the therapeutic efficacy studies: four doses of beta-lactams and one dose of vancomycin or eight doses of beta-lactams and two doses of vancomycin. Results of the therapy for experimental pneumonia caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae showed that initially, all the antimicrobial agents tested had similar efficacies, but when we prolonged the treatment, higher doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, and cefpirome were more effective than penicillin at lower doses in decreasing the residual bacterial titers in the lungs. Also, when we extended the treatment, vancomycin was more efficacious than penicillin at lower doses but was less efficacious than higher doses of penicillin or cefpirome. The model that we have developed is simple and amenable for inducing pneumonia in

  7. Loracarbef versus penicillin VK in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis in adults.

    PubMed

    McCarty, J; Hernon, Y; Linn, L; Therasse, D G; Molina, A; Bleile, N

    1992-01-01

    Loracarbef, a member of a unique class of beta-lactam compounds (carbacephems), has excellent chemical and beta-lactamase stability, as well as documented clinical effectiveness against a broad spectrum of bacteria. Ten-day treatment regimens of loracarbef (200-mg capsule BID or 15 mg/kg/day suspension) and penicillin VK (250-mg capsule QID or 20 mg/kg/day suspension) were compared in the treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Adults (greater than or equal to 12 years of age) were administered loracarbef (n = 58) or penicillin (n = 58) in a double-blind, randomized, parallel study of clinical and bacteriologic response to treatment. Favorable clinical responses among qualified (evaluable) patients in the loracarbef-treated group (46/47; 97.9%) were similar to those for evaluable patients in the penicillin-treated group (43/43; 100%). Forty-one of 47 (87.2%) of the evaluable loracarbef-treated patients and 100% (43/43) of the evaluable penicillin-treated patients had negative posttherapy throat cultures for GABHS. Thirty-nine evaluable patients in each treatment group were assessed 28 to 35 days after completion of therapy: 2.6% of patients in each group experienced relapse of symptoms; and 7.7% of loracarbef-treated patients had positive cultures, compared to 12.8% of penicillin-treated patients. Two (1.9%) loracarbef-treated patients with rashes and one (0.9%) penicillin-treated patient with diarrhea withdrew from the study due to these adverse events. Diarrhea, the most frequently occurring adverse event during therapy in the loracarbef group, was reported by 8.6% of the loracarbef group and by 5.2% of the penicillin group. These data support the conclusion that loracarbef is comparable in safety and efficacy to penicillin VK for the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis in adults.

  8. Oxacillin disk diffusion testing for the prediction of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Horna, Gertrudis; Molero, María L; Benites, Liliana; Roman, Sigri; Carbajal, Luz; Mercado, Erik; Castillo, María E; Zerpa, Rito; Chaparro, Eduardo; Hernandez, Roger; Silva, Wilda; Campos, Francisco; Saenz, Andy; Reyes, Isabel; Villalobos, Alex; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-08-01

    Objective To 1) describe the correlation between the zones of inhibition in 1-µg oxacillin disk diffusion (ODD) tests and penicillin and ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of meningeal and non-meningeal strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 2) evaluate the usefulness of the ODD test as a predictor of susceptibility to penicillin in S. pneumoniae and as a quick and cost-effective method easily implemented in a routine clinical laboratory setting. Methods S. pneumoniae isolates from healthy nasopharyngeal carriers less than 2 years old, obtained in a multicentric cross-sectional study conducted in various Peruvian hospitals and health centers from 2007 to 2009, were analyzed. Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints, the correlation between the zones of inhibition of the ODD test and the MICs of penicillin and ceftriaxone was determined. Results Of the 571 S. pneumoniae isolates, 314 (55%) showed resistance to penicillin (MIC ≥ 0.12 µg/mL) and 124 (21.7%) showed resistance to ceftriaxone (MIC ≥ 1 µg/mL). Comparison of the ODD test zones of inhibition and the penicillin MICs, using the CLSI meningeal breakpoints, showed good correlation (Cohen's kappa coefficient = 0.8239). Conclusions There was good correlation between ODD zones of inhibition and penicillin meningeal breakpoints but weak correlation between the ODD results and non-meningeal breakpoints for both penicillin and ceftriaxone. Therefore, the ODD test appears to be a useful tool for predicting penicillin resistance in cases of meningeal strains of S. pneumoniae, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, where MIC determination is not routinely available.

  9. Isolation of moderately penicillin-susceptible strains of Neisseria meningitidis in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Lopardo, H A; Santander, C; Ceinos, M C; Rubeglio, E A

    1993-01-01

    Four strains that were moderately susceptible to penicillin and/or ampicillin were found among 54 consecutive isolates of meningococci recovered from patients in one pediatric hospital in Argentina from October 1991 to December 1992. Disk diffusion tests performed with 2 U of penicillin failed to detect one strain. These findings suggest that attention should be paid to changes in the susceptibility patterns of meningococci in order to anticipate therapeutic failures in the future. PMID:8215295

  10. Mechanism of Penicillin-Erythromycin Synergy on Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Norris E.; Epp, Janet K.

    1978-01-01

    Clinically isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus that are inducibly resistant to both erythromycin and penicillin were susceptible to a combination of the two antibiotics. The synergistic effect of the combination results from an inhibition of penicillinase induction by erythromycin, sparing penicillin and allowing this drug to inhibit growth. When resistance to erythromycin is constitutive rather than inducible, the combination is no longer synergistic. PMID:248271

  11. A survey of inpatient practitioner knowledge of penicillin allergy at 2 community teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Staicu, Mary L; Soni, Dipekka; Conn, Kelly M; Ramsey, Allison

    2017-07-01

    The negative effect of the penicillin allergy label on antibiotic use and patient outcomes has brought to light the need for thorough penicillin allergy assessments and heightened practitioner education. To evaluate practitioner knowledge of penicillin allergy and the clinical approach to the patients with penicillin allergy. An electronic survey was distributed to attending physicians, residents, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants practicing adult inpatient medicine at 2 community-based teaching hospitals from February to April 2016. A total of 276 (39%) of 716 practitioners completed surveys were analyzed. Most respondents were attending physicians (45%) with more than 10 years of experience (53%). Approximately half of the respondents indicated that they were unfamiliar with the rate of cross-reactivity between penicillin and cephalosporin (46%), carbapenem (42%), and monobactam (48%) antibiotics. When evaluating the role of penicillin skin testing and temporary induction of drug tolerance in the case vignettes, only 41% and 19% of respondents appropriately considered these options as the leading antibiotic management plan, respectively. Despite acknowledging the need for allergy/immunology consultation in clinical scenarios, 86% of respondents indicated that they never consult an allergist or immunologist or do so only once per year. Overall, pharmacists had a better understanding of the natural history of penicillin allergy and antibiotic cross-reactivity (P < .05). There is an overall limited understanding of the management of patients with a history of penicillin allergy in the hospital setting, where collaborative efforts between allergy and nonallergy health care practitioners are sparse. The expansion of a multidisciplinary approach may optimize antimicrobial prescribing in this subset of patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [The origin and treatment of accidents after the injection of penicillin].

    PubMed

    Meyer, F U; Becker, I

    1978-02-01

    In case of unintentional intravascular uptake, the injection of repository penicillin may produce severe embolic obturations. Several batches of respository penicillin were tested for their crystal size in ready-for-injection suspensions. The greatest crystals were found in preparations with a high proportion of benzylpenicillin-procaine. To avoid untoward reactions (Hoigné syndrome, Nicolau syndrome), the recommendations of the Central Expert Committe on Drugs must be considered. Furthermore, the measures required in case of anaphylactic shock are dealt with.

  13. Optimal milk penicillin levels for the treatment of experimentally induced mastitis in cows.

    PubMed Central

    Haley, K; Black, W D; Barnum, D A

    1981-01-01

    Infection of the mammary gland (mastitis) was produced by infusing ten quarters 2/cow x 5 cows) with Staphylococcus aureus strain 305. Mastitic and normal quarters were then infused with a preparation containing two levels of penicillin G (100,000 and 200,000 IU) in 10 mL of 3% aluminum monostearate and peanut oil. Milk penicillin levels were determined prior to treatment and twice daily for eight milkings after treatment. Normal and mastitic quarters infused with 200,000 IU had higher peak levels than those infused with 100,000 IU. Milk penicillin levels were similar in mastitic and normal quarters for the first three milkings after treatment. However, residues persisted for a longer time in milk from mastitic quarters. Penicillin was not detected in milk from the untreated control quarters nor in serum samples assayed during the experiment. The in vitro penicillin G sensitivity of the udder pathogen (MIC=0.039 and MBC=0.078 IU) was well below the milk penicillin levels for the first five milkings in all cases. However, infection recurred in two of the ten quarters (one receiving 100,000 IU and one receiving 200,000 IU). PMID:7340909

  14. Parenteral penicillin for children with meningococcal disease before hospital admission: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Harnden, Anthony; Ninis, Nelly; Thompson, Matthew; Perera, Rafael; Levin, Michael; Mant, David; Mayon-White, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact on mortality and morbidity of parenteral penicillin given to children before admission to hospital with suspected meningococcal disease. Design Retrospective comparison of fatal and non-fatal cases. Setting England, Wales, and Northern Ireland; December 1997 to February 1999. Participants 158 children aged 0-16 years (26 died, 132 survived) in whom a general practitioner had made the diagnosis of meningococcal disease before hospital admission. Results Administration of parenteral penicillin by general practitioners was associated with increased odds ratios for death (7.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 37.7) and complications in survivors (5.0, 1.7 to 15.0). Children who received penicillin had more severe disease on admission (median Glasgow meningococcal septicaemia prognostic score (GMSPS) 6.5 v 4.0, P = 0.002). Severity on admission did not differ significantly with time taken to reach hospital. Conclusions Children who were given parenteral penicillin by a general practitioner had more severe disease on reaching hospital than those who were not given penicillin before admission. The association with poor outcome may be because children who are more severely ill are being given penicillin before admission. PMID:16554335

  15. Penicillin allergy and surgical prophylaxis: Cephalosporin cross-reactivity risk in a pediatric tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Ralph J; Kako, Hiromi; Chovanec, Thomas; Ramesh, Archana; Bissonnette, Bruno; Tobias, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    First generation cephalosporins are commonly used as antibiotic prophylaxis prior to surgery. Patients labeled as penicillin-allergic are often precluded from receiving cephalosporins because of an allergic cross-reactivity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical practice for surgical prophylaxis at Nationwide Children's Hospital and to determine the incidence of adverse effects and allergic reactions when using cephalosporins in patients labeled as penicillin-allergic. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who were allergic to penicillin, penicillin antibiotic family, who required surgical treatment for an existing medical condition, and received an antibiotic to prevent surgical site infection. Five hundred thirteen penicillin-allergic patients were identified, encompassing 624 surgical cases. Cephalosporins were administered in 153 cases (24.5%) with cefazolin used 83% of the time. Only one documented case of nonanaphylactic reaction was reported. Clindamycin was the most common cephalosporin substitute (n=387), and the reported adverse reaction rate was 1.5%. No cases of anaphylaxis were documented. Our data suggest that the administration of cephalosporins for surgical prophylaxis following induction of anesthesia in a patient with a known or reported penicillin-allergy appears appropriate and results in a lower adverse event rate that when clindamycin is administered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of nifedipine on hippocampal neuron number in penicillin-induced epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ismail; Akdogan, Ilgaz; Kaya, Ertugrul; Yonguc, Goksin Nilufer

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizures lead to neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Experimental epilepsy can be induced by direct application of various chemicals to cerebral cortex. Nifedipine is an L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker. In spite of several studies that show the seizure-suppressing effects of nifedipine, it has been shown that nifedipine does not suppress but conversely increases epileptic seizures. Similarly, contradictory effects of nifedipine have been reported, such as neuroprotection, failed neuroprotection and neurotoxicity. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of nifedipine on hippocampal neuronal loss in penicillin induced epileptic rats in this study. The effect of nifedipine on total hippocampal neuron number was estimated by using the optical fractionator method (an unbiased stereological method) in penicillin-G induced epileptic rats. The total number of hippocampal neurons in the control group was 183687 ± 3184. In the penicillin-induced group, the total neuron number significantly decreased to 146318 ± 3042 compared to the control group. In the nifedipine group, the neuron number significantly decreased to 128873 ± 1157 compared to both control and penicillin-induced groups. Nifedipine increased neuronal loss and did not suppress epileptic seizures in penicillin-induced epileptic rats. Nifedipine could not protect against hippocampal neuronal loss in penicillin-induced epileptic rats.

  17. The role of the media in influencing public attitudes to penicillin during World War II.

    PubMed

    Shama, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin's trajectory towards becoming an effective antibacterial chemotherapeutic agent took place during World War II. Its strategic military value was immediately recognised by the Allies, and mass production was undertaken with the prime objective of meeting the needs of the armed forces. News of its development came to be widely reported on in the media and is examined here. These reports frequently combined accounts of penicillin's prodigious clinical effectiveness with the fact that it was to remain unavailable to the civilian population essentially until the war had ended. More penicillin was to be made available to the civilian population in the United States than in Britain, but the sense that it was severely rationed remained as high. It was in response to this that the idea of "homemade penicillin" was hatched. News of this was also widely promulgated by both the British and American media. Although the numbers treated with penicillin produced in this way was never to be significant, knowledge of the existence of such endeavours may have served to assuage in some measure the feelings of frustration felt by the civilian population at penicillin's non-availability.

  18. Effects of penicillin G on morphology and certain physiological parameters of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, M; Kasra Kermanshahi, R; Zarkesh-Esfahani, S H

    2011-08-01

    Evidence shows that probiotic bacteria can undergo substantial structural and morphological changes in response to environmental stresses, including antibiotics. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of penicillin G (0.015, 0.03, and 0.06 mg/l) on the morphology and adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, including the colony morphotype, biofilm production, hydrophobicity, H₂O₂ formation, S-layer structure, and slpA gene expression. Whereas only smooth colonies grew in the presence of penicillin, rough and smooth colony types were observed in the control group. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was found to be hydrophobic under normal conditions, yet its hydrophobicity decreased in the presence of the antibiotic. No biofilm was produced by the bacterium, despite testing a variety of different culture conditions; however, treatment with penicillin G (0.015-0.06 mg/l) significantly decreased its production of H₂O₂ formation and altered the S-layer protein structure and slpA gene expression. The S-protein expression decreased with 0.015 mg/l penicillin G, yet increased with 0.03 and 0.06 mg/l penicillin G. In addition, the slpA gene expression decreased in the presence of 0.015 mg/l of the antibiotic. In conclusion, penicillin G was able to alter the S-layer protein production, slpA gene expression, and certain physicochemical properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

  19. Tolerability of aztreonam and carbapenems in patients with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Francesco; Valluzzi, Rocco Luigi; Alonzi, Cristiana; Maggioletti, Michela; Caruso, Cristiano; Romano, Antonino

    2015-04-01

    Studies performed on samples larger than 100 subjects with a documented IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins have demonstrated a cross-reactivity rate of approximately 1% between penicillins and both imipenem and meropenem, whereas a single study found a cross-reactivity rate of 6.2% with aztreonam in 16 such subjects. To assess the cross-reactivity and tolerability of aztreonam and 3 carbapenems (imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, and ertapenem) in patients with documented IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins. A total of 212 consecutive subjects with immediate reactions to penicillins and positive results on skin tests to at least 1 penicillin reagent underwent skin tests with aztreonam and carbapenems; subjects with negative results were challenged with escalating doses of aztreonam and carbapenems. All subjects displayed negative skin test results to both aztreonam and carbapenems; 211 accepted challenges and tolerated them. Challenges were not followed by full therapeutic courses. These data indicate the tolerability of both aztreonam and carbapenems in penicillin-allergic subjects. In those who especially require these alternative β-lactams, however, we recommend pretreatment skin tests, both because rare cases of cross-reactivity have been reported and because negative results indicate tolerability. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    PASTA domains (penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains) have been identified in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They are believed to bind β-lactam antibiotics, and be involved in peptidoglycan metabolism, although their biological function is not definitively clarified. Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are distinct in that they undergo complex cellular differentiation and produce various antibiotics including β-lactams. This review focuses on the distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases in Actinobacteria. In Actinobacteria, PASTA domains are detectable exclusively in class A but not in class B penicillin-binding proteins, in sharp contrast to the cases in other bacteria. In penicillin-binding proteins, PASTA domains distribute independently from taxonomy with some distribution bias. Particularly interesting thing is that no Streptomyces species have penicillin-binding protein with PASTA domains. Protein kinases in Actinobacteria possess 0 to 5 PASTA domains in their molecules. Protein kinases in Streptomyces can be classified into three groups: no PASTA domain, 1 PASTA domain and 4 PASTA domain-containing groups. The 4 PASTA domain-containing groups can be further divided into two subgroups. The serine/threonine kinases in different groups may perform different functions. The pocket region in one of these subgroup is more dense and extended, thus it may be involved in binding of ligands like β-lactams more efficiently.

  1. Removal of Penicillin G and Erythromycin with Ionizing Radiation Followed by Biological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Issam; Mezni, Mohamed; Boulila, Abdennacer; Hamdi, Mokhtar; Saidi, Mouldi

    2016-10-01

    The decomposition of penicillin G and erythromycin antibiotics at concentration of 0.2 mg ml(-1) by gamma irradiation at 50 kGy followed by biological treatment with Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 was evaluated. Degradation of penicillin G and erythromycin was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (NMR), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The exposure to the absorbed dose of 50 kGy caused degradation of penicillin G and erythromycin in the aqueous solution. The complete disappearance of NMR and FTIR peaks following irradiation confirmed the breakage of the β-lactam ring in penicillin G, and the decarboxylation and cleavage of the thiazolidine ring and for erythromycin, the complete destruction of the three aromatic rings. Irradiation alone removed 52.8 and 65.5 % of penicillin G and erythromycin, respectively. Further reduction to 12.6 and 14 % of the original penicillin G and erythromycin COD, respectively, was achieved using treatment of the irradiation products with C. metallidurans.

  2. Immobilization of proteins on boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Chunyi; Bando, Yoshio; Tang, Chengchun; Golberg, Dmitri

    2005-12-14

    We report for the first time that proteins are immobilized on boron nitride nanotubes. It is found that there is a natural affinity of a protein to BNNT; this means that it can be immobilized on BNNT directly, without usage of an additional coupling reagent. For the most effective immobilization, noncovalently functionalized BNNTs should be used. The effect of immobilization was studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy.

  3. Radiation immobilization of catalase and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanghui, Wang; Hongfei, Ha; Xia, Wang; Jilan, Wu

    Catalase was immobilized by chemical method on porous polyacrylamide particles which produced through radiation polymerization of acrylamide monomer at low temperature (-78°C). Activity of immobilized catalase was enhanced distinctly by joining a chemical "arm" to the support. The method of recovery of catalase activity on immobilized polymer was found by soaking it in certain buffer. The treatment of H 2O 2 both in aqueous solution and alcoholic solution by using the immobilized catalase was performed.

  4. Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre, Luz; Ardanuy, Carmen; Fenoll, Asunción; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Liñares, Josefina

    2004-01-01

    Among 2,882 Streptococcus pneumoniae sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory during 2002, 75 (2.6%) were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Resistance was associated with older patients (3.9% in adults and 7.2% in patients >65 years of age), with isolation from noninvasive sites (4.3% vs. 1.0%), and with penicillin and macrolide resistance. Among 14 low-level resistant (MIC 4–8 µg/mL) strains, 1 had a fluoroquinolone efflux phenotype, and 13 showed single ParC changes. The 61 high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC >16 µg/mL) strains showed either two or three changes at ParC, ParE, and GyrA. Resistance was acquired either by point mutation (70 strains) or by recombination with viridans streptococci (4 strains) at the topoisomerase II genes. Although 36 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed, 5 international multiresistant clones (Spain23F-1, Spain6B-2, Spain9V-3, Spain14-5 and Sweden15A-25) accounted for 35 (46.7%) of the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Continuous surveillance is needed to prevent the dissemination of these clones. PMID:15504260

  5. Fluoroquinolone resistance in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clones, Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Campa, Adela G; Balsalobre, Luz; Ardanuy, Carmen; Fenoll, Asunción; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Liñares, Josefina

    2004-10-01

    Among 2,882 Streptococcus pneumoniae sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory during 2002, 75 (2.6%) were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Resistance was associated with older patients (3.9% in adults and 7.2% in patients > or =65 years of age), with isolation from noninvasive sites (4.3% vs. 1.0%), and with penicillin and macrolide resistance. Among 14 low-level resistant (MIC 4-8 microg/mL) strains, 1 had a fluoroquinolone efflux phenotype, and 13 showed single ParC changes. The 61 high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC > or =16 microg/mL) strains showed either two or three changes at ParC, ParE, and GyrA. Resistance was acquired either by point mutation (70 strains) or by recombination with viridans streptococci (4 strains) at the topoisomerase II genes. Although 36 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed, 5 international multiresistant clones (Spain23F-1, Spain6B-2, Spain9V-3, Spain14-5 and Sweden15A-25) accounted for 35 (46.7%) of the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Continuous surveillance is needed to prevent the dissemination of these clones.

  6. Peroxisomes are required for efficient penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Wiebe H; Gidijala, Loknath; Fekken, Susan; Kiel, Jan A K W; van den Berg, Marco A; Lascaris, Romeo; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van der Klei, Ida J

    2010-09-01

    In the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, penicillin (PEN) production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. Here we show that intact peroxisomes that contain the two final enzymes of PEN biosynthesis, acyl coenzyme A (CoA):6-amino penicillanic acid acyltransferase (AT) as well as the side-chain precursor activation enzyme phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL), are crucial for efficient PEN synthesis. Moreover, increasing PEN titers are associated with increasing peroxisome numbers. However, not all conditions that result in enhanced peroxisome numbers simultaneously stimulate PEN production. We find that conditions that lead to peroxisome proliferation but simultaneously interfere with the normal physiology of the cell may be detrimental to antibiotic production. We furthermore show that peroxisomes develop in germinating conidiospores from reticule-like structures. During subsequent hyphal growth, peroxisome proliferation occurs at the tip of the growing hyphae, after which the organelles are distributed over newly formed subapical cells. We observed that the organelle proliferation machinery requires the dynamin-like protein Dnm1.

  7. Studies on the immunological mechanisms of penicillin allergy

    PubMed Central

    Levine, B. B.; Price, Vera H.

    1964-01-01

    Forty-one patients with acceptable past histories of allergic reactions to benzylpenicillin (PG), eleven patients with questionable histories to PG and thirty patients without past histories of allergic reactions to PG were skin tested with various multivalent haptenic conjugates and with simple chemicals derived from PG in order to determine the antigenic specificities of penicillin hypersensitivity of the wheal-and-flare type. The benzylpenicilloyl (BPO) group was found to be the major haptenic determinant of wheal-and-flare type PG hypersensitivity. Twenty-nine per cent of patients with acceptable histories of PG allergy and 3 per cent of patients without histories of PG allergy gave positive wheal-and-flare reactions to multivalent BPO-conjugates. Three patients who had unusual clinical forms of PG allergic reactions demonstrated patterns of wheal-and-flare reactivity indicating D-penicillamine or D-benzylpenamaldic acid disulphide haptenic specificity. No unequivocal wheal-and-flare reactivity specific for the benzylpenicillenic acid haptenic group was observed in this study. Data were obtained which indicate that BPO-specific wheal-and-flare skin reactivity demonstrates specificity for the entire large BPO haptenic group, and also for structural areas of the immunizing autologous hapten-carrier protein (i.e. carrier specificity). PMID:14210764

  8. Evaluation of immobilized enzymes for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Liese, Andreas; Hilterhaus, Lutz

    2013-08-07

    In contrast to the application of soluble enzymes in industry, immobilized enzymes often offer advantages in view of stability, volume specific biocatalyst loading, recyclability as well as simplified downstream processing. In this tutorial review the focus is set on the evaluation of immobilized enzymes in respect to mass transport limitations, immobilization yield and stability, to enable industrial applications.

  9. [Gel immobilization of human genome].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yingqiu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    To develop a solid phase PCR method by covalent single point immobilization for recycle utilization of human genome. Polymethacrylamide gel was selected as a solid PCR carrier based on DNA-hydrogel copolymer chemistry presented by Mirzabekov. (CH2)6NH2 amino-modified PCR product and randomly fractured formic acid-modified plasmid pGEM-T-HLA-G were used as templates. The specificity of the attachment chemistry was characterized by acrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the thermal stability of method was demonstrated by PCR. This method was applied for the recycle utilization of human genome. Sequencing was used to exclude the possibility of introduced mutations during modification and immobilization procedures. The PCR detections of plasmid DNA and human genome DNA immobilized by polymethacrylamide gel was successful. The thermal stability of method was successfully demonstrated by performing PCR after 16 rounds of standard 36 PCR cycles. And the sequencing was found no mutation. The DNA immobilization method with polymethacrylamide gel as a solid phase carrier is stable and specific, which can be a possible approach for realizing recycle utilization of human genome for whole-genome sequencing and SNP detection.

  10. Immobilized yeast for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-03

    Construction of a pilot alcohol plant has been completed in Japan to test a new idea in fermentation that could cut the time required from three or four days to several hours. According to developers, the key is an unidentified radiation-cured polymer that is used to immobilize yeast, permitting the process to run continuously.

  11. THE INACTIVATION OF PENICILLINS F, G, K, AND X BY HUMAN AND RABBIT SERUM

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Harry

    1947-01-01

    1. Penicillins F, G, K, and X were all inactivated by human and rabbit serum, but two qualitatively distinct mechanisms were apparently involved. 2. One was a slow inactivation of all four penicillins by a relatively thermostable serum component which was not demonstrably affected by heating for 60 minutes at 56°C. (a) In both human and rabbit serum this general inactivation of penicillin behaved like a pseudo first order reaction, with a velocity constant of 0.05–0.07 for penicillin X, and 0.09–0.11 for penicillins F and G. (b) The percentage of penicillins F, G, and X inactivated per hour was independent of their concentration over the range 0.4 to 50 micrograms per cc., averaging 9.5, 10, and 6.5 per cent, respectively, in human serum, and 9,8.5, and 5 per cent in rabbit serum. (c) The rate of inactivation varied linearly with the concentration of the serum factor. (d) Penicillin X was consistently and significantly less susceptible to inactivation than any of the other penicillins. Although minor differences were observed between F and G, these were not consistent, and are of questionable significance. 3. Superimposed on this slow inactivation of penicillins F, G, K, and X by a thermostable serum component was a much faster inactivation observed only with penicillin K. (a) In both rabbit and human serum, the serum factor responsible for this inactivation was highly thermolabile, and was almost completely destroyed within 5 minutes at 56°C., leaving only a thermostable component, not affected by further heating. (b) The inactivation of K by this thermolabile component was not a first order reaction, but varied with the concentration of both serum and penicillin. At high concentrations of K, the rate of inactivation due to the thermolabile factor was negligible, and penicillin K was destroyed no more rapidly than F, G, or X. The rate of inactivation increased as the concentration of penicillin was reduced. At penicillin K concentrations of 50, 10, 2, and 0

  12. Leptospirosis-associated acute kidney injury: penicillin at the late stage is still controversial.

    PubMed

    Daher, E F; Silva, G B; de Abreu, K L S; Mota, R M S; Batista, D V; Rocha, N A; Araújo, S M H A; Libório, A B

    2012-08-01

    Some antimicrobial agents are active in vitro against Leptospiras. The use of penicillins at the late stage of leptospirosis is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the use of penicillin in patients with leptospirosis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI). A retrospective study was conducted of patients with leptospirosis admitted to two hospitals in Fortaleza city, Brazil, between 1985 and 2008. AKI was defined according to the RIFLE and AKIN classifications. Patients were divided in two groups according to whether they were treated with a penicillin or not. Two hundred and eighty-seven patients were included, with an average age of 36·8±15·6 years and mostly male (80·8%). One hundred and twelve patients (39%) received a penicillin. Patients treated with a penicillin were younger (32±14 years vs. 39±16 years, P=0·0002) and had a shorter hospital stay (8·4±5·0 vs. 11±7·7 days, P<0·0001). There was no difference in the onset of symptoms before hospital admission between the two groups (6·5±3·0 vs. 7·7±4·7, P=0·33). Systolic blood pressure was lower in the penicillin group (111±21 vs. 119±22 mmHg, P=0·04). AKI, need of dialysis and renal recovery at the time of hospital discharge were more frequent in patients who did not use a penicillin (P<0·05). Mortality was similar in both groups (11·6% vs. 13·7%, P=0·60). Treatment of leptospirosis with antibiotics, including the penicillin, remains controversial. The main benefit of using penicillin in the present study was a reduction in the length of hospital stay and fewer complications, such as AKI, but its use was not associated with a decrease in mortality. On balance of risks and benefits, we recommend the use of penicillin in late-stage leptospirosis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Immobilization of laccase for biotechnology applications.

    PubMed

    Sanlıer, Senay Hamarat; Gider, Simge; Köprülü, Alper

    2013-08-01

    Laccase played an important role in the decolorization of wide spectrum dyes as a low-cost and environmentally friendly technology. Laccase was immobilized in alginate beads and immobilization conditions were identified. 25 mg/ml laccase enzyme encapsulation efficiencies of using the prepared bead was calculated as approximately 94%. At the end of the 10 days of storage, the free laccase and immobilized laccase retained about 8.08% and 80.83%, respectively. The decolorization of the dye (Direct Blue 2) was around 86% for immobilized enzyme at 45°C. In the study, compared to the free enzyme, high activity, stable, reusable immobilized enzyme preparation was prepared.

  14. Recent developments and applications of immobilized laccase.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Moldes, Diego

    2013-12-01

    Laccase is a promising biocatalyst with many possible applications, including bioremediation, chemical synthesis, biobleaching of paper pulp, biosensing, textile finishing and wine stabilization. The immobilization of enzymes offers several improvements for enzyme applications because the storage and operational stabilities are frequently enhanced. Moreover, the reusability of immobilized enzymes represents a great advantage compared with free enzymes. In this work, we discuss the different methodologies of enzyme immobilization that have been reported for laccases, such as adsorption, entrapment, encapsulation, covalent binding and self-immobilization. The applications of laccase immobilized by the aforementioned methodologies are presented, paying special attention to recent approaches regarding environmental applications and electrobiochemistry.

  15. [The enlarged diagnosis of the fatal penicillin accident. Immunehistologic demonstration of antigen-antibody complexes and of antibodies against the tubular basement membrane after administraiton of depot penicillin].

    PubMed

    Dirnhofer, R; Sonnabend, W; Sigrist, T

    1978-05-20

    In a case of fatal penicillin allergy it proved possible at autopsy to demonstrate (by immunohistological examination of basal membranes of proximal renal tubuli) antigen-antibody complexes belonging to the penicillin (BPO) group and to an anti-penicilloyl antibody of the IgG type. In addition, complement C3 was detected. Antibodies against the basal membranes or renal tubuli were also demonstrated in material eluted from the kidney, although an inflammatory reaction ot the immunoligical changes had not yet been observed in light microscopy. It is undecided whether this discrepancy is due to the low dose of penicillin administered or the relatively short time lag between first injection and time of fatality. It is assumed that, pathogenetically, a reaction of the serum sickness type is probably involved. For etiological clarification the use of immunohistological methods in addition to serological procedures provides further indices for an antecedent sensitization to penicillin, because assay effectiveness does not decrease even after a lengthy postmortal time-lapse. On the other hand, tissues and serum for examination should be frozen at low temperatures immediately after autopsy.

  16. Molecular epidemiology survey of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from patients with meningitis in France.

    PubMed

    Doit, C; Picard, B; Loukil, C; Geslin, P; Bingen, E

    2000-06-01

    The genetic diversity of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n=291) recovered from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis in France was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the ribosomal RNA gene regions and of the pbp2b and 2x genes. Statistical analysis of the data by factorial analysis of correspondence established the following: penicillin-susceptible isolates had a high level of genetic diversity, especially those belonging to serogroups frequently associated with carriage; capsular serotype switches could occur among penicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates; and the mechanisms of acquired penicillin resistance were clearly distinct in isolates with penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values <1 mg/L and isolates with penicillin MIC values >/=1 mg/L. Thus, an increase in the penicillin MIC for a given strain, from intermediate to high-level resistance would be a rare event.

  17. The long postwar and the politics of penicillin: early circulation and smuggling in Spain, 1944-1954.

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I explore the early circulation of penicillin. I review the early distribution in Spain of a scarce product, reflect on the available sources about the illegal penicillin trade and discuss some cases of smuggling. I argue the early distribution of penicillin involved time and geography, a particular chronology of post Second World War geopolitics. Penicillin practices and experiences belong to this period, in a dictatorship that tolerated smuggling and illegal trade of other products, some, like penicillin, produced in neighbouring countries. As a commodity that crossed borders, penicillin, transiting between the law and hidden trade, between countries and social domains--between war fronts and from a war front to an urban site to be sold--reveals practices of the early years of prosperity in the 1950s. These transits were permanent tests of a society based on taxes and exchanges, law and bureaucracy, control, discipline and the creation of standards.

  18. Production of phenolics by immobilized cells of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: the role of epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blanch, M; Blanco, Y; Fontaniella, B; Legaz, M E; Vicente, C

    2001-06-01

    Immobilized lichen cells from the thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, supplied with acetate as the only source of carbon, continuously produced phenolic substances, atranorin and physodic acid, over 23 days. Epiphytic bacteria associated with the lichen thallus grew actively, probably using both acetate and reduced compounds supplied by lichen cells, since their active growth was avoided by including 10 microM 3,3'-dichlorophenyl-1,1'dimethylurea in the bath solution. Penicillin largely impeded the growth of epiphytic bacteria and decreased phenolic production, which was recovered only at the end of the experimental period, just when the bacteria started a slow, but active growth. We suggest the cooperation of epiphytic bacteria in the biosynthesis of both atranotrin and physodic acid.

  19. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored.

  20. Use of cephalosporins in patients with immediate penicillin hypersensitivity: cross-reactivity revisited.

    PubMed

    Lee, Q U

    2014-10-01

    A 10% cross-reactivity rate is commonly cited between penicillins and cephalosporins. However, this figure originated from studies in the 1960s and 1970s which included first-generation cephalosporins with similar side-chains to penicillins. Cephalosporins were frequently contaminated by trace amount of penicillins at that time. The side-chain hypothesis for beta-lactam hypersensitivity is supported by abundant scientific evidence. Newer generations of cephalosporins possess side-chains that are dissimilar to those of penicillins, leading to low cross-reactivity. In the assessment of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins, one has to take into account the background beta-lactam hypersensitivity, which occurs in up to 10% of patients. Cross-reactivity based on skin testing or in-vitro test occurs in up to 50% and 69% of cases, respectively. Clinical reactivity and drug challenge test suggest an average cross-reactivity rate of only 4.3%. For third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the rate is probably less than 1%. Recent international guidelines are in keeping with a low cross-reactivity rate. Despite that, the medical community in Hong Kong remains unnecessarily skeptical. Use of cephalosporins in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity begins with detailed history and physical examination. Clinicians can choose a cephalosporin with a different side-chain. Skin test for penicillin is not predictive of cephalosporin hypersensitivity, while cephalosporin skin test is not sensitive. Drug provocation test by experienced personnel remains the best way to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity and to find a safe alternative for future use. A personalised approach to cross-reactivity is advocated.

  1. Loracarbef versus penicillin VK in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis in an adult population.

    PubMed

    McCarty, J

    1992-06-22

    Loracarbef, a member of the carbacephem class of beta-lactam antibiotics, is a potent anti-bacterial agent. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of loracarbef in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis, 107 adult patients were treated with loracarbef (200 mg capsules twice a day or 15 mg/kg/day suspension) and 111 patients were treated with penicillin VK (250 mg capsules four times a day or 20 mg/kg/day suspension) for 10 days. In the loracarbef treatment group, 96.6% of the evaluable patients had a favorable clinical response 3-5 days after therapy, a result that compared favorably with the 93.9% response rate achieved in the penicillin group. The clinical failure/relapse rates were 3.4% for loracarbef-treated patients and 6.1% for patients receiving penicillin. Bacteriologic response data approximated the clinical results, with a successful response in 89.9% of the loracarbef-treated patients and 91.5% of the penicillin recipients. Two (1.9%) loracarbef-treated patients with rash and one (0.9%) penicillin-treated patient with diarrhea discontinued the study early because of these adverse events. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in the two treatment groups except for increased cough, which was reported by 3.7% of the loracarbef-treated patients and none of the penicillin recipients. These data support the conclusion that loracarbef is comparable to penicillin VK in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis in adults.

  2. Interspecies mixed-effect pharmacokinetic modeling of penicillin G in cattle and swine.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjie; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa; Baynes, Ronald; Huang, Qingbiao; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-08-01

    Extralabel drug use of penicillin G in food-producing animals may cause an excess of residues in tissue which will have the potential to damage human health. Of all the antibiotics, penicillin G may have the greatest potential for producing allergic responses to the consumer of food animal products. There are, however, no population pharmacokinetic studies of penicillin G for food animals. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to describe the time-concentration data profile of penicillin G across two species. Data were collected from previously published pharmacokinetic studies in which several formulations of penicillin G were administered to diverse populations of cattle and swine. Liver, kidney, and muscle residue data were also used in this study. Compartmental models with first-order absorption and elimination were fit to plasma and tissue concentrations using a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling approach. A 3-compartment model with extra tissue compartments was selected to describe the pharmacokinetics of penicillin G. Typical population parameter estimates (interindividual variability) were central volumes of distribution of 3.45 liters (12%) and 3.05 liters (8.8%) and central clearance of 105 liters/h (32%) and 16.9 liters/h (14%) for cattle and swine, respectively, with peripheral clearance of 24.8 liters/h (13%) and 9.65 liters/h (23%) for cattle and 13.7 liters/h (85%) and 0.52 liters/h (40%) for swine. Body weight and age were the covariates in the final pharmacokinetic models. This study established a robust model of penicillin for a large and diverse population of food-producing animals which could be applied to other antibiotics and species in future analyses.

  3. Interspecies Mixed-Effect Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Penicillin G in Cattle and Swine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengjie; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa; Baynes, Ronald; Huang, Qingbiao

    2014-01-01

    Extralabel drug use of penicillin G in food-producing animals may cause an excess of residues in tissue which will have the potential to damage human health. Of all the antibiotics, penicillin G may have the greatest potential for producing allergic responses to the consumer of food animal products. There are, however, no population pharmacokinetic studies of penicillin G for food animals. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to describe the time-concentration data profile of penicillin G across two species. Data were collected from previously published pharmacokinetic studies in which several formulations of penicillin G were administered to diverse populations of cattle and swine. Liver, kidney, and muscle residue data were also used in this study. Compartmental models with first-order absorption and elimination were fit to plasma and tissue concentrations using a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling approach. A 3-compartment model with extra tissue compartments was selected to describe the pharmacokinetics of penicillin G. Typical population parameter estimates (interindividual variability) were central volumes of distribution of 3.45 liters (12%) and 3.05 liters (8.8%) and central clearance of 105 liters/h (32%) and 16.9 liters/h (14%) for cattle and swine, respectively, with peripheral clearance of 24.8 liters/h (13%) and 9.65 liters/h (23%) for cattle and 13.7 liters/h (85%) and 0.52 liters/h (40%) for swine. Body weight and age were the covariates in the final pharmacokinetic models. This study established a robust model of penicillin for a large and diverse population of food-producing animals which could be applied to other antibiotics and species in future analyses. PMID:24867969

  4. Biochemical characterization and molecular genetics of nine mutants of Penicillium chrysogenum impaired in penicillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cantoral, J M; Gutiérrez, S; Fierro, F; Gil-Espinosa, S; van Liempt, H; Martín, J F

    1993-01-05

    Nine mutants of Penicillium chrysogenum (npe1 to npe8 and npe10) impaired in penicillin biosynthesis were screened after nitrosoguanidine mutation. Mutants npe1, npe4, npe5, npe6, npe7, npe8, and npe10 failed to synthesize significant levels of penicillin, whereas strains npe2 and npe3 synthesized about 20% of the penicillin level produced by the parental strain. Mutants npe5 and npe10 did not show alpha-aminoadipylcysteinyl-valine (ACV) synthetase activity in vitro and did not form ACV in vivo. Immunoblotting analysis of the different mutants using antibodies raised against Aspergillus nidulans ACV-synthetase showed that mutants npe5 and npe10 lacked this multienzyme protein, which in the parental strain had a molecular mass of about 420 kDa, and mutants npe2 and npe3 formed reduced level of this protein. All mutants showed normal levels of isopenicillin N synthase, as shown by Western blot analysis and enzyme assays (except npe10 that lacked this enzyme and npe2 and npe3 that formed reduced levels); npe1, npe4, npe6, npe7, npe8, and npe10 lacked isopenicillin N acyltransferase. Southern hybridizations of total DNA of the parental strain and mutants npe5, npe6, npe8, and npe10 with probes internal to the pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE genes showed that mutants npe5, npe6, and npe8 had the same arrangement of the penicillin gene cluster carrying probably point mutations, but mutant npe10 lacked the three penicillin biosynthetic genes, suggesting that it had suffered a deletion of the entire penicillin cluster. Southern hybridization with a pyrG probe as control and fingerprinting analysis of total DNA of npe10 as compared to several P.chrysogenum strains and other Penicillium and Aspergillus species, confirmed that npe10 is a deletion mutant of P. chrysogenum that had lost the penicillin biosynthetic genes.

  5. THE VARYING BLOOD LEVELS AFFORDED BY PENICILLINS F, G, K, AND X IN RABBITS AND MAN

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Harry

    1947-01-01

    1. In both man and rabbit, penicillin X provided higher and more sustained blood levels than did penicillins F or G similarly administered in equal dosage (0.6 mg. per kg.); while penicillin K gave lower and evanescent levels. (a) One hour after intramuscular injection, the blood levels in rabbits averaged 0.11, 0.18, 0.02, and 0.33 for F, G, K, and X, respectively; and levels of 0.1 mg. per kg. were sustained for 1, 1.4,0.5, and 2.1 hours, respectively. (b) In man, the blood levels of G, K, and X averaged 0.23, 0.16, and 0.37 mg. per kg. 1 hour after intramuscular injections at 0.6 mg. per kg., and 0.11, 0.02, and 0.15 mg. per kg. 1 hour after intravenous injection. (c) In man, a level of 0.1 microgram per cc. was sustained for 1.6, 1.2, and 2.3 hours after the intramuscular injection of G, K, and X, respectively, and for 1, 0.5, and 1.3 hours after their intravenous injection. 2. The total urinary recovery of penicillins F, G, and X varied between 68 and 100 per cent, averaging 61, 87, and 74 per cent, respectively, in rabbits. In man, the urinary recovery of G and X averaged 86 and 93 per cent, respectively. In sharp contrast, the urinary recovery of penicillin K averaged 33 per cent in seven rabbits and 28 per cent in six human volunteers. The major portion of the penicillin appeared in the first 30 to 60 minutes. This suggests a rapid inactivation of penicillin K in vivo. 3. The therapeutic significance of these data is discussed in the text, and in greater detail in the following paper. PMID:19871605

  6. What is the effect of penicillin dosing interval on outcomes in streptococcal infective endocarditis?

    PubMed

    Sandoe, J A T; Patel, P A; Baig, M W; West, R

    2013-11-01

    Penicillin is an important treatment option for streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE), but its short half-life requires frequent re-dosing (4- or 6-hourly). There is a variation between the dosing regimens in different guidelines and consequent differences in the dosing interval. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the penicillin dosing interval and outcomes in streptococcal IE. A retrospective study of cases of streptococcal IE was undertaken using the Leeds Endocarditis Service database. Cases were included if the first-line therapy had been penicillin and excluded if patients had received less than 72 h of therapy. Details of antimicrobial therapy and outcomes were collated using strict definitions. Various parameters were considered as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis of categorical data was carried out using a χ(2) test, and analysis of continuous data using an unpaired t-test. Two hundred and twelve cases were included in the final analysis. Of the parameters considered, a 4-hourly dosing interval [unadjusted OR = 2.79 (95% CI 1.43-5.62)] and initial echocardiographic evidence of abscess or severe valve regurgitation [unadjusted OR = 0.30 (95% CI 0.13-0.66)] were the only statistically significant factors associated with the success or failure of penicillin therapy. The odds of a successful outcome were almost three times greater with a 4-hourly regimen than with a 6-hourly regimen. Failure of penicillin therapy had no correlation with the MIC of penicillin or the concurrent administration of gentamicin. Penicillin continues to be an effective therapy for IE. This study suggests that a 4-hourly dosing interval may be relevant in predicting the success of initial medical therapy. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate relationships in more detail.

  7. Hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins: studies in a group of patients with negative benzylpenicillin G skin test.

    PubMed

    Qiao, H-L; Li, Z; Yang, J; Tian, X; Gao, N; Jia, L-J

    2009-06-01

    Although skin tests are usually employed to evaluate current penicillin allergy status, a negative result does not exclude hypersensitivity. There is a need for accurate in vitro tests to exclude hypersensitivity. A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a potentially good supplementary approach, but there is little information on the suitability of this method to diagnose penicillin hypersensitivity in subjects with a negative skin test to benzylpenicillin. A total of 133 patients with a negative skin test to benzylpenicillin G (PG) and all of whom developed allergic reactions to PG were studied. RAST was used to detect eight kinds of specific IgE antibodies to penicillins in serum, which included four kinds of major and minor antigenic determinants to four penicillin drugs. The combination sites for the specific IgE antibodies were studied by RAST inhibition test. The rate of positive reactions for the specific IgE antibodies was 59.40% (79/133). Of the eight kinds of antigenic determinants, the positive rates for specific IgE against the major and minor determinants were 39.10% (52) and 42.86% (57) respectively. Of the four drugs, positive cases only to PG were 10 (7.5%), were significantly fewer than the cross-reacting positive cases (36) to PG (P < 0.01). In the RAST inhibition studies all drugs exhibited good inhibitory potencies, and in some instances the side-chain of the penicillins could induce specific responses with a variable degree of cross-reactivity among the different penicillins. Radioallergosorbent test is a good complementary test in persons who are skin-test negative with PG, and the sensitivity of RAST increases with increasing specificity of IgE antibodies to be detected. 6-APA and the groups, making part of the different side-chains on penicillins, all contributed to the cross-reactivity.

  8. Role of penA polymorphisms for penicillin susceptibility in Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Karch, André; Vogel, Ulrich; Claus, Heike

    2015-10-01

    In meningococci, reduced penicillin susceptibility is associated with five specific mutations in the transpeptidase region of penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP2). We showed that the same set of mutations was present in 64 of 123 Neisseria lactamica strains obtained from a carriage study (MIC range: 0.125-2.0mg/L). The PBP2 encoding penA alleles in these strains were genetically similar to those found in intermediate resistant meningococci suggesting frequent interspecies genetic exchange. Fifty-six N. lactamica isolates with mostly lower penicillin MICs (range: 0.064-0.38mg/L) exhibited only three of the five mutations. The corresponding penA alleles were unique to N. lactamica and formed a distinct genetic clade. PenA alleles with no mutations on the other hand were unique to meningococci. Under penicillin selective pressure, genetic transformation of N. lactamica penA alleles in meningococci was only possible for alleles encoding five mutations, but not for those encoding three mutations; the transfer resulted in MICs comparable to those of meningococci harboring penA alleles that encoded PBP2 with five mutations, but considerably lower than those of the corresponding N. lactamica donor strains. Due to a transformation barrier the complete N. lactamica penA could not be transformed into N. meningitidis. In summary, penicillin MICs in N. lactamica were associated with the number of mutations in the transpeptidase region of PBP2. Evidence for interspecific genetic transfer was only observed for penA alleles associated with higher MICs, suggesting that alleles encoding only three mutations in the transpeptidase region are biologically not effective in N. meningitidis. Factors other than PBP2 seem to be responsible for the high levels of penicillin resistance in N. lactamica. A reduction of penicillin susceptibility in N. meningitidis by horizontal gene transfer from N. lactamica is unlikely to happen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Do antimicrobials increase the carriage rate of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children? Cross sectional prevalence study.

    PubMed Central

    Arason, V. A.; Kristinsson, K. G.; Sigurdsson, J. A.; Stefánsdóttir, G.; Mölstad, S.; Gudmundsson, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of antimicrobial consumption with the carriage rate of penicillin resistant and multiresistant pneumococci in children. DESIGN: Cross sectional and analytical prevalence study. SETTING: Five different communities in Iceland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children aged under 7 years in relation to antibiotic use as determined by information from parents, patient's records, and total sales of antimicrobials from local pharmacies in four study areas. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial sales for children (6223 prescriptions) among the four areas for which data were available ranged from 9.6 to 23.2 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily (1.1 to 2.6 courses yearly per child). Children under 2 consumed twice as much as 2-6 year olds (20.5 v 10.9 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily). Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained from 919 children, representing 15-38% of the peer population groups in the different areas. Pneumococci were carried by 484 (52.7%) of the children, 47 (9.7%) of the isolates being resistant to penicillin or multiresistant. By multivariate analysis age (< 2 years), area (highest antimicrobial consumption), and individual use of antimicrobials significantly influenced the odds of carrying penicillin resistant pneumococci. By univariate analysis, recent antimicrobial use (two to seven weeks) and use of co-trimoxazole were also significantly associated with carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci. CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial use, with regard to both individual use and total antimicrobial consumption in the community, is strongly associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children. Control measures to reduce the prevalence of penicillin resistant pneumococci should include reducing the use of antimicrobials in community health care. PMID:8761224

  10. Functional characterization of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster of Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Marco A; Westerlaken, Ilja; Leeflang, Chris; Kerkman, Richard; Bovenberg, Roel A L

    2007-09-01

    Industrial strain improvement via classical mutagenesis is a black box approach. In an attempt to learn from and understand the mutations introduced, we cloned and characterized the amplified region of industrial penicillin production strains. Upon amplification of this region Penicillium chrysogenum is capable of producing an increased amount of antibiotics, as was previously reported [Barredo, J.L., Diez, B., Alvarez, E., Martín, J.F., 1989a. Large amplification of a 35-kb DNA fragment carrying two penicillin biosynthetic genes in high yielding strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. Curr. Genet. 16, 453-459; Newbert, R.W., Barton, B., Greaves, P., Harper, J., Turner, G., 1997. Analysis of a commercially improved Penicillium chrysogenum strain series, involvement of recombinogenic regions in amplification and deletion of the penicillin gene cluster. J. Ind. Microbiol. 19, 18-27]. Bioinformatic analysis of the central 56.9kb, present as six direct repeats in the strains analyzed in this study, predicted 15 Open Reading Frames (ORFs). Besides the three penicillin biosynthetic genes (pcbAB, pcbC and penDE) only one ORF has an orthologue of known function in the database: the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene ERG25. Surprisingly, many genes known to encode direct or indirect steps beta-lactam biosynthesis like phenyl acetic acid CoA ligase and transporters are not present. Detailed analyses reveal a detectable transcript for most of the predicted ORFs under the conditions tested. We have studied the role of these in relation to penicillin production and amplification of the biosynthetic gene cluster. In contrast to what was expected, the genes encoding the three penicillin biosynthetic enzymes alone are sufficient to restore full beta-lactam synthesis in a mutant lacking the complete region. Therefore, the role of the other 12 ORFs in this region seems irrelevant for penicillin biosynthesis.

  11. Crystal Structures of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 From Penicillin-Susceptible And -Resistant Strains of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Reveal An Unexpectedly Subtle Mechanism for Antibiotic Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, A.J.; Tomberg, J.; Deacon, A.M.; Nicholas, R.A.; Davies, C.

    2009-05-21

    Penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) from N. gonorrhoeae is the major molecular target for {beta}-lactam antibiotics used to treat gonococcal infections. PBP2 from penicillin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae harbors an aspartate insertion after position 345 (Asp-345a) and 4-8 additional mutations, but how these alter the architecture of the protein is unknown. We have determined the crystal structure of PBP2 derived from the penicillin-susceptible strain FA19, which shows that the likely effect of Asp-345a is to alter a hydrogen-bonding network involving Asp-346 and the SXN triad at the active site. We have also solved the crystal structure of PBP2 derived from the penicillin-resistant strain FA6140 that contains four mutations near the C terminus of the protein. Although these mutations lower the second order rate of acylation for penicillin by 5-fold relative to wild type, comparison of the two structures shows only minor structural differences, with the positions of the conserved residues in the active site essentially the same in both. Kinetic analyses indicate that two mutations, P551S and F504L, are mainly responsible for the decrease in acylation rate. Melting curves show that the four mutations lower the thermal stability of the enzyme. Overall, these data suggest that the molecular mechanism underlying antibiotic resistance contributed by the four mutations is subtle and involves a small but measurable disordering of residues in the active site region that either restricts the binding of antibiotic or impedes conformational changes that are required for acylation by {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of pneumococci: determination of Kirby-Bauer breakpoints for penicillin G, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and rifampin.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M R; Mithal, Y; Robins-Browne, R M; Gaspar, M N; Koornhof, H J

    1979-08-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of pneumococci is now essential to monitor for the presence of resistance to agents such as the penicillins, macrolides, lincomycins, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. In this study, clinical isolates of a selection of resistant South African strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination and by a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, using Mueller-Hinton medium supplemented with 5% horse blood. Disk diffusion breakpoints were determined for penicillin G, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and rifampin. Reliable results were obtained on disk diffusion for all these agents except for penicillin G. With 6-mug penicillin G disks, zones of strains with intermediate penicillin susceptibility overlapped those of sensitive and resistant strains. With 5-mug methicillin disks, clearer separation of strains based on susceptibility to penicillin G occurred. Strains with zones of <35 mm around penicillin G disks and <25 mm around methicillin disks should have penicillin G MICs determined to confirm their resistance to penicillin G. In view of the potential for pneumococci to be resistant to the agents used in this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of all clinically significant isolates should be determined.

  13. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  14. Allergy test outcomes in patients self-reported as having penicillin allergy: Two-year experience.

    PubMed

    Meng, Juan; Thursfield, David; Lukawska, Joanna J

    2016-09-01

    Penicillin allergy is associated with increased antibiotic resistance and health care costs. However, most patients with self-reported penicillin allergy are not truly allergic. To summarize our experience with allergy tests in patients with a history of penicillin allergy and to compare them with the results of other groups. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a suspected clinical history of penicillin allergy referred to the Drug Allergy Unit at University College London Hospital between March 2013 and June 2015. In total, 84 patients were reviewed. The index drugs included: unidentified penicillin (n = 44), amoxicillin (n = 17), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 13), flucloxacillin (n = 4), and other penicillins (ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam; n = 7). Allergy diagnoses were confirmed in 24 patients (28.6%) (16 to penicillin, 3 to flucloxacillin, 5 to clavulanic acid). Twenty-two patients (91.7%) had allergy diagnosed by positive skin test results. Two patients (8.3%) developed IgE-mediated allergic symptoms during oral challenge (although the skin test results were negative). In vitro specific IgE test results for penicilloyl V, penicilloyl G, and amoxicilloyl were positive in 3 of 16 patients (18.8%). Moreover, reactions to cefuroxime were observed in 3 of 15 patients with penicillin allergy (20%). Selective clavulanic acid and flucloxacillin responders tolerated amoxicillin challenge. The interval between the index reaction and evaluation was shorter (P < .001), and the proportion of patients who could recall the name of the culprit drug was higher (P = .009) in the allergic group. Furthermore, histories of anaphylaxis (33.3%), urticaria, and/or angioedema (58.3%) were more common in the allergic group. Unspecified rashes (35.0%) and nonspecific symptoms (28.3%) predominated in the nonallergic group. Only 28.6% of patients with self-reported penicillin allergy were confirmed to be allergic. Importantly, when the index

  15. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain Silica-IMERs 10 and is the mode of action of drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen .[61] Serotonin...supports and using the enantiomeric selectivity of the enzyme to resolve racemic mixtures.[100] Immobilization onto supports with various pore sizes and...activity (~37%) and used as a packed- bed IMER to catalyze the racemic resolution of (S)-ketoprofen from its constituent enantiomers . The optically pure (S

  16. Immobilized Enzymes for Automated Analyses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    by others. Reaction velocity was found to increase with temperature at a rate of about 5%/’C. Three distinct types of immobilization processes were...trifunctional silane ........... 10 2 Linearity of protein assay ............................. 14 3 Reaction rate for native and oxygenated enzyme solu...in a clinical chemistry analyzer enables catalysis of the analyzer reactions with retention of active enzyme by the system for subsequent reuse. When a

  17. Fast multipoint immobilized MOF bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Wu, Cheng-You; Chen, Chien-Yu; Singco, Brenda; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2014-07-14

    An enzyme-NBD@MOF bioreactor with exemplary proteolytic performance, even after successive reuse and storage, was produced through a novel, rapid and simple multipoint immobilization technique without chemical modification of the solid support. Enzyme loading and distribution could be directly monitored from the fluorescence emission of the bioreactor. The dye molecular dimension plays a role in its overall performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Industrial applications of immobilized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Linko, P.; Linko, Y.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Although the application of the natural attraction of many microorganisms to surfaces has been applied in vinegar production since the early 1980s, and has long been utilized in waste water purification, the development of microbial cell immobilization techniques for special applications dates back only to the early 1960s. The immobilization may involve whole cells, cell fragments, or lysed cells. Whole cells may retain their metabolic activity with their complex multienzyme systems and cofactor regeneration mechanisms intact, or they may be killed in the process with only a few desired enzymes remaining active in the final biocatalyst. Cells may also be coimmobilized with an enzyme to carry out special reactions. Although relatively few industrial scale applications exist today, some are of very large scale. Current applications vary from relatively small scale steroid conversions to amino acid production and high fructose syrup manufacture. A vast number of potential applications are already known, and one of the most interesting applications may be in continuous fermentation such as ethanol production by immobilized living microorganisms. 373 references.

  19. Photo induced surface heparin immobilization.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Matsuda, T

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method providing durable layering of heparin immobilized hydrogels on fabricated devices. The preparation method is based on photochemistry of a dithiocarbamate group that is dissociated into a highly reactive radical pair upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. By taking advantage of characteristics of the photo generated radicals, hydrogel formation and its fixation onto a substrate surface were attained. The immobilization of heparin onto poly(ethylene terephtalate) was demonstrated. First, a mixed aqueous solution containing a photoreactive water soluble poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-covinylbenzyl N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate) and heparin was coated on the substrate. Subsequent UV irradiation resulted in the simultaneous formation of a heparin immobilized hydrogel and its chemical fixation onto the substrate. No delamination was found after vigorous washing with water. Significant inhibition of platelet adhesion and markedly prolonged blood coagulation times were observed, which are apparently derived from the surface hydrogel, and from released and chemically fixed surface heparin. Thus, it is expected that the photochemical method developed here provides potent antithrombogenicity to artificial organs.

  20. Absence of cross-reactivity to carbapenems in patients with delayed hypersensitivity to penicillins.

    PubMed

    Romano, A; Gaeta, F; Valluzzi, R L; Alonzi, C; Maggioletti, M; Zaffiro, A; Caruso, C; Quaratino, D

    2013-12-01

    Studies performed on subjects with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins have demonstrated a 1% rate of cross-reactivity between penicillins and both imipenem and meropenem, while a single study found a 5.5% rate of cross-reactivity with imipenem/cilastatin in subjects with T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to β-lactams, mostly penicillins. We studied 204 consecutive subjects with a well-demonstrated T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to assess the cross-reactivity with carbapenems and the tolerability of such alternative β-lactams. All 204 subjects underwent skin tests with imipenem/cilastatin and meropenem; 130 of them were skin-tested also with ertapenem. Subjects with negative test results were challenged with these carbapenems. All subjects displayed negative skin tests to carbapenems and tolerated challenges. These data demonstrate the absence of clinically significant T-cell-mediated cross-reactivity between penicillins and carbapenems. Negative delayed-reading skin testing with carbapenems in individuals with documented T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins correlates well with subsequent clinical tolerance of therapeutic doses of carbapenems.

  1. Outpatient penicillin use after negative skin testing and drug challenge in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Picard, Matthieu; Paradis, Louis; Nguyen, Mélanie; Bégin, Philippe; Paradis, Jean; Des Roches, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The practice of elective penicillin skin testing could be compromised by the fact that patients, their parents, or their physicians remain reluctant to reuse penicillin-class antibiotics (PCAs) despite a negative evaluation by an allergist. This study addresses reuse of PCAs in a pediatric population after negative penicillin skin testing and drug challenge and factors associated with its reluctance. All children evaluated for a history of penicillin allergy at the CHU Sainte-Justine Allergy Clinic between January 1998 and June 2000 with negative skin testing and drug challenge were included in the study. A telephone survey was conducted between May and October 2002 to assess the perception of the initial reaction by the parents, subsequent use of antibiotics, and antibiotic-related adverse reactions. Among the 200 children selected, parents of 170 (85%) children completed the survey. Since the allergist evaluation, 130 (76%) children had received antibiotics. PCA was used in 59 (45%) children. Parents of 24 (18%) children refused PCAs because they still feared an adverse reaction. They were more likely to have been very frightened by their child's allergic reaction than other parents whose children had used PCAs (p = 0.008). Although elective penicillin skin testing is useful and safe in the pediatric population, a significant proportion of parents still refuse PCAs even though they are needed. Identification of parents that were very frightened by their children's allergic reactions and additional reassurance could improve this situation.

  2. Monte carlo method-based QSAR modeling of penicillins binding to human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Jovana B; Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Nikolić, Goran M; Veselinović, Aleksandar M

    2015-01-01

    The binding of penicillins to human serum proteins was modeled with optimal descriptors based on the Simplified Molecular Input-Line Entry System (SMILES). The concentrations of protein-bound drug for 87 penicillins expressed as percentage of the total plasma concentration were used as experimental data. The Monte Carlo method was used as a computational tool to build up the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for penicillins binding to plasma proteins. One random data split into training, test and validation set was examined. The calculated QSAR model had the following statistical parameters: r(2)  = 0.8760, q(2)  = 0.8665, s = 8.94 for the training set and r(2)  = 0.9812, q(2)  = 0.9753, s = 7.31 for the test set. For the validation set, the statistical parameters were r(2)  = 0.727 and s = 12.52, but after removing the three worst outliers, the statistical parameters improved to r(2)  = 0.921 and s = 7.18. SMILES-based molecular fragments (structural indicators) responsible for the increase and decrease of penicillins binding to plasma proteins were identified. The possibility of using these results for the computer-aided design of new penicillins with desired binding properties is presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Quantification of sub-nanomolar levels of Penicillin G by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, S; Khodarahmian, K; Farmany, A

    2012-02-01

    A novel selective and sensitive method is developed for determination of Penicillin G by Differential Pulse Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (DPAdSV). Penicillin G gave well-resolved diffusion-controlled cathodic peaks at -0.42 and -0.584 V, respectively (vs Ag/AgCl) in pH 7.50 of borate buffer. Optimal conditions were obtained as pH 7.50, accumulation potential of -0.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl), accumulation time of 120 s, and scan rate of 100 mV/s. Under the optimized conditions, a linear calibration curve was established for the concentration of Penicillin G in the range of 0.007-2.13 µg/ml with a detection limit of 0.000717 µg/ml. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of Penicillin G in various medicine and biological samples. The relative standard deviation of the method at 0.05 and 0.5 µg/ml Penicillin G, for 10 runs, was 2.55% and 2.06%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Fabrication of a highly sensitive penicillin sensor based on charge transfer techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ro; Rahman, M M; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2009-03-15

    A highly sensitive penicillin biosensor based on a charge-transfer technique (CTTPS) has been fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. CTTPS comprised a charge accumulation technique for penicilloic acid and H(+) ions perception system. With the proposed CTTPS, it is possible to amplify the sensing signals without external amplifier by using the charge accumulation cycles. The fabricated CTTPS exhibits excellent performance for penicillin detection and exhibit a high-sensitivity (47.852 mV/mM), high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), large span (1445 mV), wide linear range (0-25 mM), fast response time (<3s), and very good reproducibility. A very lower detection limit of about 0.01 mM was observed from the proposed sensor. Under optimum conditions, the proposed CTTPS outstripped the performance of the widely used ISFET penicillin sensor and exhibited almost eight times greater sensitivity as compared to ISFET (6.56 mV/mM). The sensor system is implemented for the measurement of the penicillin concentration in penicillin fermentation broth.

  5. Penicillin susceptibility of non-serotypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae from ophthalmic specimens.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Fumiko; Nakagami, Yoshiko; Takemori, Koichi; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    Nontypeable (NT) Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from eyes were examined for both penicillin susceptibility by E-test and penicillin-binding protein (PBP) gene alterations using PCR. Of the 25 ophthalmic isolates, 15 proved to be sensitive (PSSP, MIC < or = 0.06 microg/ml) and 10 were shown as intermediately resistant to penicillin (PISP, MIC = 0.1-1 microg/ml). No penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP, MIC > or = 2 microg/ml) were found. PBP gene (pbp1a and pbp2b) alteration PCR indicated that 12 (80.0%) of the 15 ophthalmic PSSPs had unaltered pbp genes and that 3 (20.0%) had alterations in either pbp1a or pbp2b, whereas 8 (80.0%) of the 10 PISPs had unaltered pbp genes and 2 (20.0%) had alterations in both pbp1a and pbp2b. These data suggest that penicillin resistance is spread among NT pneumococci typically associated with ophthalmic infections.

  6. Lectin characterization of gonococci from an outbreak caused by penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Schalla, W O; Rice, R J; Biddle, J W; Jeanlouis, Y; Larsen, S A; Whittington, W L

    1985-01-01

    A total of 40 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates, representing 19 penicillin-resistant isolates (from 8 heterosexual patients and 11 homosexual patients) and 21 penicillin-susceptible isolates (from 15 heterosexual patients and 6 homosexual patients) and obtained from the same geographic area, were examined. Lectin agglutination patterns were based on the reactivity of the isolates with the following 14 lectins: concanavalin A, Lens culinaris, Trichosanthes kinlowii, Griffonia simplicifolia I, Arachis hypogeae (peanut agglutinin), Glycine max (soybean agglutinin), Dolichos bifloris, Griffonia simplicifolia II, Solanum tuberosum (potato starch agglutinin), Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin), Limax flavus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Ulex europaeus I, and Lotus tetragonolobus. All isolates were serotyped with monoclonal antibodies specific for gonococcal outer membrane protein I and auxotyped, and the plasmid content was determined. Resistant patient isolates were selected for their decreased penicillin susceptibility, and control isolates were selected for their penicillin susceptibility. Even though the patient isolates demonstrated resistance to penicillin, no phenotypic differences in lectin-grouping patterns were demonstrated between the two study groups; i.e., two predominant lectin groups were observed. No resistance-associated plasmids were detected. All patient isolates were serogroup IB (serovars IB-1, IB-2, and IB-4), whereas 12 of 21 control isolates were serogroup IA (P less than 0.05). Isolates obtained from different anatomical sites in the same patient (cervical and rectal) agreed with regard to lectin patterns and serovars but not auxotypes. PMID:3935658

  7. Fragments of pro-peptide activate mature penicillin amidase of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Kasche, Volker; Galunsky, Boris; Ignatova, Zoya

    2003-12-01

    Penicillin amidase from Alcaligenes faecalis is a recently identified N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase, which possesses the highest specificity constant (kcat/Km) for the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin compared with penicillin amidases from other sources. Similar to the Escherichia coli penicillin amidase, the A. faecalis penicillin amidase is maturated in vivo from an inactive precursor into the catalytically active enzyme, containing one tightly bound Ca2+ ion, via a complex post-translational autocatalytic processing with a multi-step excision of a small internal pro-peptide. The function of the pro-region is so far unknown. In vitro addition of chemically synthesized fragments of the pro-peptide to purified mature A. faecalis penicillin amidase increased its specific activity up to 2.3-fold. Mutations were used to block various steps in the proteolytic processing of the pro-peptide to obtain stable mutants with covalently attached fragments of the pro-region to their A-chains. These extensions of the A-chain raised the activity up to 2.3-fold and increased the specificity constants for benzylpenicillin hydrolysis mainly by an increase of the turnover number (kcat).

  8. [Clinical and immunological analysis of 1,047 allergic reactions to penicillin].

    PubMed

    Girard, J P; Cuevas, M

    1975-07-26

    Of 1047 patients who had had an allergic reaction to penicillin established by clinical and laboratory findings, 224 were given penicillin therapy again later. One third of these patients developed a second allergic reaction to penicillin. In patients experiencing a second allergic reaction the most striking feature is a dramatic increase in the immediate reactions and especially of the anaphylactic type, and less markedly, an increase in the serum-sickness type of reaction. All the patients were skin tested with penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) and benzylpenicillin (BPO). Circulating hemagglutinating antibodies were determined and in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed in all cases. Skin tests show little change for several years. In contrast, circulating hemagglutinating antibodies disappear in half the cases within 6 months. Finally, lymphocyte stimulation with penicillin was positive in only 50% three months after onset of the allergic reaction, whereas one year later there was a 73% positive response. The best test for prediction of an allergic reaction to penicillin appears to be determination of the (high) and (low) reactors among patients with a positive skin test to PPL and BPO.

  9. A multidimensional antimicrobial stewardship intervention targeting aztreonam use in patients with a reported penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Swearingen, Sara M; White, Cyle; Weidert, Sara; Hinds, Melisande; Narro, John P; Guarascio, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns should be considered for antimicrobial therapy decisions. Antibiogram data can guide beta-lactam antibiotic use in the presence of a penicillin allergy, particularly when allergic cross-reactivity among antibiotic agents is unlikely. To evaluate the effect of a multidimensional antimicrobial stewardship intervention to improve antibiogram-driven antibiotic selection for patients with a reported penicillin allergy receiving aztreonam. This historically controlled, quasi-experimental study compared historical aztreonam use with prospective antibiotic selection following a pharmacist-led intervention in patients with a penicillin allergy. The impact of this intervention on aztreonam use, antimicrobial selection, patient allergy profile updates, length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and antibiotic cost savings was assessed. A significant reduction in median days of aztreonam therapy (4.0 vs. 2.0; p = 0.0001) and median days of therapy per 1000 patient days (14.5 vs. 9.3; p = 0.0001) was found in the intervention group. A pharmacist-led antimicrobial stewardship intervention facilitated antibiogram-driven antibiotic therapy while reducing aztreonam use in patients without an anaphylactic penicillin allergy. Further trials are needed to assess the utility of similar antimicrobial stewardship interventions for patients with penicillin allergy.

  10. The effect of penicillin therapy on cognitive outcomes in neurosyphilis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Calum D; Koychev, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Neurosyphilis commonly presents with cognitive impairment, and penicillin remains the treatment of choice. However, despite a rapid increase in syphilis incidence, the effect of penicillin on long-term cognitive outcomes has not previously been evaluated. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of penicillin on cognitive function in neurosyphilis. We performed a systematic review of all studies of neurosyphilis, where cognitive function was assessed objectively both before and after penicillin therapy for at least one patient. Where Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were taken, we performed a paired-samples t test to assess the change in cognitive function and aimed to correlate this with change in serological titers. Nine studies met inclusion criteria. The one cohort study reported a nonsignificant overall improvement in MMSE, while amalgamation of case reports produced a significant improvement (P=.02) in MMSE after treatment. However, follow-up duration was inadequate, and data were insufficient to correlate changes in cognitive function with serological markers. Despite evidence of short-term improvement, there are insufficient data to support the long-term benefit of penicillin therapy on cognitive function in neurosyphilis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein immobilization techniques for microfluidic assays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohyun; Herr, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic systems have shown unequivocal performance improvements over conventional bench-top assays across a range of performance metrics. For example, specific advances have been made in reagent consumption, throughput, integration of multiple assay steps, assay automation, and multiplexing capability. For heterogeneous systems, controlled immobilization of reactants is essential for reliable, sensitive detection of analytes. In most cases, protein immobilization densities are maximized, while native activity and conformation are maintained. Immobilization methods and chemistries vary significantly depending on immobilization surface, protein properties, and specific assay goals. In this review, we present trade-offs considerations for common immobilization surface materials. We overview immobilization methods and chemistries, and discuss studies exemplar of key approaches—here with a specific emphasis on immunoassays and enzymatic reactors. Recent “smart immobilization” methods including the use of light, electrochemical, thermal, and chemical stimuli to attach and detach proteins on demand with precise spatial control are highlighted. Spatially encoded protein immobilization using DNA hybridization for multiplexed assays and reversible protein immobilization surfaces for repeatable assay are introduced as immobilization methods. We also describe multifunctional surface coatings that can perform tasks that were, until recently, relegated to multiple functional coatings. We consider the microfluidics literature from 1997 to present and close with a perspective on future approaches to protein immobilization. PMID:24003344

  12. Development of a direct ELISA based on carboxy-terminal of penicillin-binding protein BlaR for the detection of β-lactam antibiotics in foods.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Cheng, Guyue; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Hao, Haihong; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-11-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporins, are commonly used in veterinary medicine. Illegal use and abuse of β-lactams could cause allergy and selected bacterial resistance. BlaR-CTD, the carboxy-terminal of penicillin-recognizing protein BlaR from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580, was utilized in this study to develop a receptor-based ELISA for detection and determination of β-lactam antibiotics in milk, beef, and chicken. This assay was based on directly competitive inhibition of binding of horseradish peroxidase-labeled ampicillin to the immobilized BlaR-CTD by β-lactams. The assay was developed as screening test with the option as semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of residual β-lactam was known. The IC50 values of 15 β-lactam antibiotics, including benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, cefapirin, cefoperazone, cefalotin, cefazolin, cefquinome, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefalexin, ceftiofur and its metabolite desfuroylceftiofur were evaluated and ranged from 0.18 to 170.81 μg L(-1). Simple sample extraction method was carried out with only phosphate-buffered saline, and the recoveries of selected β-lactam antibiotics in milk, beef, and chicken were in the range of 53.27 to 128.29 %, most ranging from 60 to 120 %. The inter-assay variability was below 30 %. Limits of detection in milk, beef, and chicken muscles with cefquinome matrix calibration were 2.10, 30.68, and 31.13 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study firstly established a rapid, simple, and accurate method for simultaneous detection of 15 β-lactams in edible tissues, among which 11 β-lactams controlled by European Union could be detected below maximum residue limits.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of a combination of amikacin sulfate and penicillin G sodium for intravenous regional limb perfusion in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Jorge E; Trela, Jan; Stanley, Scott D; Yamout, Sawsan; Snyder, Jack R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of amikacin and penicillin G sodium when administered in combination as an intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) to horses. Seven healthy adult horses underwent an IVRLP in the cephalic vein with 2 g of amikacin sulfate and 10 mill IU of penicillin G sodium diluted to 60 mL in 0.9% saline. A pneumatic tourniquet set at 450 mmHg was left in place for 30 min. Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpophalangeal joint 35 min and 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after infusion of the antimicrobials. Concentrations of amikacin and penicillin in synovial fluid were quantitated by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry analysis. Therapeutic concentrations of amikacin and penicillin for equine-susceptible pathogens were achieved in the synovial fluid. Maximum synovial concentrations (Cmax) (mean ± SE) for amikacin and penicillin were 132 ± 33 μg/mL and 8474 ± 5710 ng/mL, respectively. Only 3 horses had detectable levels of penicillin at 6 h and 1 at the 12 h sample. The combination of amikacin with penicillin G sodium via IVDLP resulted in reported therapeutic concentrations of both antibiotics in the synovial fluid. The Cmax:MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) ratio for amikacin was 8:1 and Time > MIC for penicillin was 6 h. At 24 h, the mean concentration of amikacin was still above 4 μg/mL. Terminal elimination rate constants (T1/2 lambdaz) were 13.6 h and 2.8 h for amikacin and penicillin, respectively. The use of IVDLP with penicillin may therefore not be practical as rapid clearance of penicillin from the synovial fluid requires frequent perfusions to maintain acceptable therapeutic concentrations.

  14. What do we measure with luminol-, lucigenin- and penicillin-amplified chemiluminescence? 1. Investigations with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Rost, M; Karge, E; Klinger, W

    1998-01-01

    Evidence is provided that the amplifiers luminol and lucigenin react with different reactive oxygen species (ROS), depending on the ROS-generating system used. H2O2 is used to produce calibration curves for luminol- and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence. With this chemiluminescence generator we characterized the specificity and sensitivity of luminol- and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence and also studied penicillin G, a known enhancer of luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The combination of luminol and lucigenin in reciprocally changing concentrations is effective in an additive manner, but the weak amplifier penicillin increases luminol-amplified chemiluminescence distinctly more than in an additive manner in different combinations. Lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence is increased by penicillin at about 1% of the optimum concentration of penicillin; increasing concentrations of penicillin are less and less effective. On the other hand, low lucigenin concentrations enhance penicillin-amplified chemiluminescence at optimum penicillin concentrations more than in an additive manner. Fe2+ does not alter luminol-, lucigenin- or penicillin-amplified chemiluminescence. Co2+ increases luminol-amplified chemiluminescence by a factor of 100. Lucigenin- and penicillin-amplified chemiluminescence are minimally enhanced by Co2+. Cu2+ enhances luminol-amplified chemiluminescence with increasing concentrations by a factor of 1000. Lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence increases also by the factor of 1000, but the concentration-reaction curve is not as steep. NaOCl enhances H2O2/Fe(2+)-driven luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in a concentration-dependent manner by a factor of 10(4) (in the highest concentration of 10 mmol/L) and lucigenin amplified chemiluminescence only by a factor of about 25. Catalase (CAT) abolishes luminol-, lucigenin- and penicillin-amplified chemiluminescence completely, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) has no effect on luminol- or

  15. Pharmacokinetics of a combination of amikacin sulfate and penicillin G sodium for intravenous regional limb perfusion in adult horses

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Jorge E.; Trela, Jan; Stanley, Scott D.; Yamout, Sawsan; Snyder, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of amikacin and penicillin G sodium when administered in combination as an intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) to horses. Seven healthy adult horses underwent an IVRLP in the cephalic vein with 2 g of amikacin sulfate and 10 mill IU of penicillin G sodium diluted to 60 mL in 0.9% saline. A pneumatic tourniquet set at 450 mmHg was left in place for 30 min. Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpophalangeal joint 35 min and 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after infusion of the antimicrobials. Concentrations of amikacin and penicillin in synovial fluid were quantitated by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry analysis. Therapeutic concentrations of amikacin and penicillin for equine-susceptible pathogens were achieved in the synovial fluid. Maximum synovial concentrations (Cmax) (mean ± SE) for amikacin and penicillin were 132 ± 33 μg/mL and 8474 ± 5710 ng/mL, respectively. Only 3 horses had detectable levels of penicillin at 6 h and 1 at the 12 h sample. The combination of amikacin with penicillin G sodium via IVDLP resulted in reported therapeutic concentrations of both antibiotics in the synovial fluid. The Cmax:MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) ratio for amikacin was 8:1 and Time > MIC for penicillin was 6 h. At 24 h, the mean concentration of amikacin was still above 4 μg/mL. Terminal elimination rate constants (T1/2 lambdaz) were 13.6 h and 2.8 h for amikacin and penicillin, respectively. The use of IVDLP with penicillin may therefore not be practical as rapid clearance of penicillin from the synovial fluid requires frequent perfusions to maintain acceptable therapeutic concentrations. PMID:27408337

  16. THE THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF PENICILLINS F, G, K, AND X IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS WITH PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE I AND STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Harry

    1947-01-01

    1. The relative bactericidal activities of penicillins F, G, K, and X against Type I pneumococcus in vitro were 60, 100, 180, and 135. The corresponding activities against Streptococcus pyogenes, strain C-203, were 75, 100, 115, and 145, respectively. 2. The total curative doses (CD50) of penicillins F, G, K, and X in pneumococcal infections of white mice (ten injections at 3 hour intervals) were 4.6, 3.8, 20, and 2.4 mg. per kg., respectively, or relative activities of 83, 100, 19, and 160, referred to G as 100. 3. The corresponding curative doses in streptococcal infections of white mice were 2.6, 1.3, 14.0, and 0.5 mg. per kg., or relative activities of 50, 100, 9, and 260. 4. Penicillin K was therefore one-tenth as active in vivo as would be implied by its bactericidal activity in vitro. This probably reflects its rapid inactivation in vivo, evidenced by the low and evanescent blood levels observed in both rabbits and man, and the low urinary recovery of this species of penicillin. 5. Penicillin X was significantly more active therapeutically than its bactericidal activity in vitro would imply. This probably reflects its slower inactivation in vivo, evidenced by the somewhat higher and more prolonged blood levels afforded by this penicillin in comparison with penicillin G. Judged by the mouse infections with the strains here used, penicillin X is the penicillin of choice in the treatment of infections with pneumococcus Type I and hemolytic streptococci. 6. The curative dose of penicillin in streptococcal and pneumococcal infections paralleled the varying susceptibility of these organisms to penicillin in vitro. PMID:19871606

  17. Penicillin's catalytic mechanism revealed by inelastic neutrons and quantum chemical theory.

    PubMed

    Mucsi, Zoltán; Chass, Gregory A; Ábrányi-Balogh, Péter; Jójárt, Balázs; Fang, De-Cai; Ramirez-Cuesta, Annibal J; Viskolcz, Béla; Csizmadia, Imre G

    2013-12-21

    Penicillin, travels through bodily fluids, targeting and acylatively inactivating enzymes responsible for cell-wall synthesis in gram-positive bacteria. Somehow, it avoids metabolic degradation remaining inactive en route. To resolve this ability to switch from a non-active, to a highly reactive form, we investigated the dynamic structure-activity relationship of penicillin by inelastic neutron spectroscopy, reaction kinetics, NMR and multi-scale theoretical modelling (QM/MM and post-HF ab initio). Results show that by a self-activating physiological pH-dependent two-step proton-mediated process, penicillin changes geometry to activate its irreversibly reactive acylation, facilitated by systemic intramolecular energy management and cooperative vibrations. This dynamic mechanism is confirmed by the first ever reported characterisation of an antibiotic by neutrons, achieved on the TOSCA instrument (ISIS facility, RAL, UK).

  18. Preliminary consultation on preferred product characteristics of benzathine penicillin G for secondary prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Wyber, Rosemary; Boyd, Ben J; Colquhoun, Samantha; Currie, Bart J; Engel, Mark; Kado, Joseph; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sullivan, Mark; Saxena, Anita; Sheel, Meru; Steer, Andrew; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Zühlke, Liesl; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatic fever is caused by an abnormal immune reaction to group A streptococcal infection. Secondary prophylaxis with antibiotics is recommended for people after their initial episode of rheumatic fever to prevent recurrent group A streptococcal infections, recurrences of rheumatic fever and progression to rheumatic heart disease. This secondary prophylaxis must be maintained for at least a decade after the last episode of rheumatic fever. Benzathine penicillin G is the first line antibiotic for secondary prophylaxis, delivered intramuscularly every 2 to 4 weeks. However, adherence to recommended secondary prophylaxis regimens is a global challenge. This paper outlines a consultation with global experts in rheumatic heart disease on the characteristics of benzathine penicillin G formulations which could be changed to improve adherence with secondary prophylaxis. Characteristics included dose interval, pain, administration mechanism, cold chain independence and cost. A sample target product profile for reformulated benzathine penicillin G is presented.

  19. Increased Use of Medical Services and Antibiotics by Children Who Claim a Prior Penicillin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Michael J.; Caprye-Boos, Hope; Berman, Henry S.

    1987-01-01

    On surveying 3,467 children (ages 0 to 19 years) who were members of a health maintenance organization in Spokane, Washington, we found that 95 of 1,497 respondents (6.3%) claimed a past intolerance to penicillin-like agents. We investigated the costs of providing medical care for these 95 children and a random sample of 187 children who did not claim prior penicillin sensitivity. During a two-year period of observation, the children who claimed prior penicillin reactions had a significant increase in the average number of medical visits, the average number of antibiotic prescriptions, the average wholesale cost of antibiotic prescriptions and the average antibiotic cost per patient per month of observation. These children have an increased exposure to antibiotics that may increase their risk for adverse drug reactions. PMID:3617714

  20. Flucloxacillin, a New Isoxazolyl Penicillin, Compared with Oxacillin, Cloxacillin, and Dicloxacillin

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, R.; Croydon, E. A. P.; Rolinson, G. N.

    1970-01-01

    Flucloxacillin, a new isoxazole penicillin, is active against penicillinase-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus and is well absorbed in man after oral and intramuscular administration. Compared with isoxazole penicillins in current clinical use—namely, oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin—flucloxacillin has proved as active against Gram-positive cocci, including penicillin-resistant staphylococci. The extent of binding of flucloxacillin to the protein of human serum was similar to that of oxacillin and cloxacillin and less than that of dicloxacillin. In man flucloxacillin given orally produced total and free serum levels higher than those obtained with oxacillin and cloxacillin; total serum levels similar to those of dicloxacillin, and free levels greater than those of dicloxacillin. Similarly, after intramuscular injection the free serum levels of flucloxacillin were higher than those of oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin. PMID:5481218