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Sample records for immunocompetent child caused

  1. Acute osteomyelitis caused by Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Sujatha; Karthikeyan, Sivasangeetha; Biswas, Rakhi; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Patro, Dilip Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an unusual pathogen causing infections mostly in immunocompromised patients, particularly in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has rarely been reported to affect immunocompetent hosts, where it usually presents as an isolated extrapulmonary lesion. We report a case of osteomyelitis caused by this organism in an immunocompetent host.

  2. Bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Shyur, Shyh Dar; Chu, Szu Hung; Wu, Yi Lei; Chang, Kuo Ming; Lee, Huei Chung

    2009-12-01

    This report is of a healthy 3-year-old boy with bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae. He was treated with antibiotics, but the symptoms did not improve. The biopsy pathology report revealed chronic caseating granulomatous inflammation. After 2 weeks, Mycobacterium chelonae was identified from the biopsy specimen culture. The antibiotics were changed to amikacin and clarithromycin, according to the susceptibility test. Two weeks later, he underwent debridement surgery. Only partial excision of the infected tissue was performed because of the possibility of facial nerve injury. After another 2 weeks of treatment with amikacin and clarithromycin, parotidectomy was performed. The patient then received a 6-month course of oral clarithromycin. At the 1-year follow up, he was well and without residual mass. His immunologic examinations were all within normal limits. This is the first report of bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae in an immunocompetent boy in the English-language literature.

  3. Scedosporium apiospermum causing otomycosis in an immunocompetent child with tympanostomy tubes: Management of this rare entity.

    PubMed

    Salamat, A A; Archer, C; Basarab, A; Eren, E; Batty, V; Patel, S; Salib, R J; Burgess, A; Ismail-Koch, H

    2015-10-01

    Infection following a tympanostomy tube insertion is a common occurrence. Scedosporium apiospermum is a filamentous fungus mainly isolated in water and soil. There have been no reported cases of S. apiospermum infection of an immunocompetent individual with a tympanostomy tube in situ. A child was referred with unilateral otorrhoea failing to respond to conventional treatment in the community. S. apiospermum was identified following specialist testing. An extended course of anti-fungal treatment led to complete resolution. Due to the rare occurrence of aural S. apiospermum and unreported nature, it should be managed in a multidisciplinary setting.

  4. Chromoblastomycosis Associated with Bone and Central Nervous Involvement System in an Immunocompetent Child Caused by Exophiala Spinifera

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Mahantesh, S; Mannapur, Rajeshwari; Shivappa, Sanjay K

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera. Child showed good improvement with voriconazole and itraconazole after 1 year of treatment. Skin lesions healed with minimal scarring and his power improved. PMID:27293256

  5. Primary tooth abscess caused by Mycobacterium bovis in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Maragou, Chrysoula; Theologie-Lygidakis, Nadia; Ioannidis, Panayotis; Stenou, Antonia; Kanavaki, Sophia; Iatrou, Ioannis; Tsolia, Maria N

    2010-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease, and although its incidence has dramatically decreased in developed countries where effective control measures are applied, it still remains a potential health hazard in the developing world. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is extremely rare and is usually secondary to pulmonary involvement. We present the unusual case of an immunocompetent 6-year-old child residing in an urban area with primary oral tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, which was confirmed by the application of a molecular genetic approach. M. bovis belongs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which comprises species with close genetic relationship, and for this reason, the use of new molecular techniques is a useful tool for the differentiation at species level of the closely related members of this complex.

  6. Cerebellar mutism caused by primary varicella infection in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Erol, Ilknur; Özkale, Yasemin; Saygi, Semra; Alehan, Füsun

    2014-06-01

    Varicella (chickenpox) is a common childhood infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which is often self-limiting and usually benign. Although uncommon, neurologic complications of varicella have been documented that include postinfectious cerebellar ataxia, meningoencephalitis, Reye syndrome, myelitis, optic neuritis, stroke, Guillain-Barré syndrome, seventh cranial nerve palsy, and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. In this case study, the authors describe a 7-year-old girl who presented with varicella skin rash with unsteady gait and anarthria on day 2, and her condition was attributed to cerebellar mutism. To date, this complication has never been reported in a child with primary varicella infection. Therefore, this case study documents a rare but serious complication of childhood chickenpox.

  7. Abdominal Lymphonodular Cryptococcosis in an Immunocompetent Child

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Mehjabeen; Qureshi, Sonia; Shakoor, Sadia; Fatima, Saira; Mir, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience with an apparently immunocompetent child presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin without focal signs. Investigations revealed lymphadenopathy at lung hila, mesentery, and porta hepatis. The child had received at least two months of empiric antituberculous therapy (ATT) before she came to us. A CT-guided biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation. PAS stain showed yeasts which stained blue with Alcian blue, suggesting C. neoformans. PMID:26649217

  8. Myocarditis Caused by Human Parainfluenza Virus in an Immunocompetent Child Initially Associated with 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Gómez, María P.; Guereta, Luis; Pareja-Grande, Julia; Martínez-Alarcón, José; Casas, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Carrascoso, Guillermo; de Ory, Fernando; Pozo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The association between respiratory viruses and myocarditis has hardly ever been described. We report a case of acute myocarditis in an immunocompetent child associated with the presence of parainfluenza virus type 3 infection, in a context of recent influenza illness, confirmed by molecular and serological studies. PMID:21411596

  9. Varicella gastritis in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Ugras, Meltem; Vitrinel, Ayca; Yilmaz, Gulden; Midilli, Kenan; Ozkan, Ferda

    2013-02-01

    The varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a very rare cause of gastritis. Gastritis caused by VZV can be presented as abdominal pain, vomiting. Most of the cases reported with varicella gastritis in the literature are immunocompromised patients with various kinds of malignancy, and most of these patients are adults. Here we report an adolescent girl with acute abdominal pain. The girl was immunocompetent. Her endoscopically taken biopsy material revealed varicella, and her gastritis was healed with acyclovir therapy. This is a very rare condition and not frequently reported in the literature. The authors want to drive attention to the fact that varicella gastritis can be seen in immunocompetent children, the presentation can be nausea, vomiting and/or (severe) abdominal pain. Serological studies may be less helpful than tissue studies, so interventional procedures should be done.

  10. Brevundimonas vesicularis septic arthritis in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Yael; Zmira, Samra; Amir, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Septic arthritis is a rapidly destructive form of joint disease. The most common causative agents in children are Staphylococcus aureus and Kingella kingae, followed by group A Streptococcus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and in neonates, enterobacteracea and group B Streptococcus. In this paper, we describe a previously healthy toddler with septic arthritis of the shoulder joint caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis. Prompt treatment with cefuroxime resulted in a full recovery. This is the first report of septic arthritis in humans caused by this microorganism, and the first description of B. vesicularis infection in an immunocompetent child.

  11. Fatal cryptococcosis involving multiple sites in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Kaur, H; Zaman, K; Thapa, B R; Rudramurthy, S M

    2015-02-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is less common in immunocompetent individuals. Herein, we report a fatal case of cryptococcosis in apparently immunocompetent child with multiple site involvement. The yeast isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, blood, endotracheal, gastric and lymph node aspirate was identified by molecular method as Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii.

  12. Pulmonary nodules in an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anuja; Burrage, Lindsay C; Gonzalez, Blanca E

    2013-12-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease and pulmonary nodules as part of her initial presentation. Although pulmonary manifestations have been reported with cat scratch disease, nodules are rare in the normal host.

  13. Tuberculous liver abscess in an immunocompetent child with pulmonary tuberculosis as a cause of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Bahar; Somer, Ayper; Hatipoğlu, Nevin; Keser, Melike; Yekeler, Ensar; Gün, Feryal; Güllüoğlu, Mine; Salman, Tansu; Salman, Nuran

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of FUO. A case of prolonged fever with hepatic and pulmonary tuberculosis as a final diagnosis is herein presented. A 4-year-old, otherwise healthy boy presented with an axillary temperature of up to 39.5ºC for the previous 3 weeks. His medical history revealed an occasional increase in body temperature up to 38.5ºC for the last 6 months. Physical examination revealed coarse breath sounds on the basal lung area. Chest X-ray showed mediastinal lymphadenomegaly and computed tomography revealed paratracheal conglomerated lymph nodes and a groundglass appearance on the right lung. There were multiple contrast-enhanced, hypoechoic nodules with central necrosis in the liver parenchyma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Open liver biopsy yielded chronic granulomatous inflammation compatible with pathological findings of tuberculosis infection. The culture specimen was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient improved rapidly after antituberculous therapy was initiated. Tuberculosis, especially in its disseminated form, poses a distinct diagnostic challenge in cases of prolonged fever with unproven etiology, and thus persistence should be exercised in disclosing the cause of such fevers.

  14. Unexpected postmortem diagnosis of acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent child

    PubMed Central

    Binesh, Fariba; Karimi, Mehran; Navabii, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Meningoencephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba spp. is a rare opportunistic infection, difficult to diagnose and treat, which causes death in almost all cases. Here, the authors report a 5-year-old Iranian immunocompetent girl who died of fulminant acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis in Iran. PMID:22679147

  15. Scedosporium prolificans Osteomyelitis in an Immunocompetent Child Treated with Voriconazole and Caspofungin, as Well as Locally Applied Polyhexamethylene Biguanide

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, William J.; Schell, Wiley A.; Miller, Jackie L.; Perfect, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Scedosporium species are increasingly isolated from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Unfortunately, Scedosporium infections are generally resistant to amphotericin B, and Scedosporium prolificans strains are particularly resistant to the antifungal agents now in use. We report here on an immunocompetent child with S. prolificans-associated osteomyelitis successfully treated with debridement, local irrigation with polyhexamethylene biguanide, and the systemic administration of voriconazole and caspofungin despite poor in vitro activity of voriconazole alone against the isolate. We also review the treatments and outcomes of 28 reported cases of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis caused by Scedosporium species in immunocompetent patients. PMID:12904435

  16. Central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bentur, HN; Dalzell, AM; Riordan, FAI

    2007-01-01

    Background Bacillus organisms are common laboratory contaminants. The majority of Bacillus bacteraemias are transient and not clinically significant. Clinically significant infection due to Bacillus species is rare and mostly due to Bacillus cereus infections in immuno-compromised hosts. Case presentation We report a case of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child with tufting enteropathy on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). There were three episodes of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in three months. Despite adequate and appropriate use of intravenous antibiotics, the infection failed to clear resulting in the need for removal of the catheter for complete cure. Conclusion Bacillus species can cause clinically significant central venous catheter infection, even in an immunocompetent host. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the central venous catheter may need removal for complete cure. PMID:17967173

  17. Central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bentur, H N; Dalzell, A M; Riordan, F A I

    2007-10-29

    Bacillus organisms are common laboratory contaminants. The majority of Bacillus bacteraemias are transient and not clinically significant. Clinically significant infection due to Bacillus species is rare and mostly due to Bacillus cereus infections in immuno-compromised hosts. We report a case of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child with tufting enteropathy on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). There were three episodes of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in three months. Despite adequate and appropriate use of intravenous antibiotics, the infection failed to clear resulting in the need for removal of the catheter for complete cure. Bacillus species can cause clinically significant central venous catheter infection, even in an immunocompetent host. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the central venous catheter may need removal for complete cure.

  18. Pleural effusion in an immunocompetent woman caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum.

    PubMed

    Fabbian, Fabio; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Pala, M; Fratti, Daniela; Contini, Carlo

    2011-09-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium that can cause pneumonia, abscess and empyema in subjects with predisposing lung diseases. However, pleurisy with effusion is rare. Herein, we report the case of a 74-year-old immunocompetent female patient without apparent risk factors, who suffered haemorrhagic pleural effusion as the main clinical manifestation. Pleural nodules were detected by computed tomography scan, and microbiological analysis revealed M. fortuitum in the absence of other pathogens. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin, and full recovery ensued in 4 weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of haemorrhagic pleural effusion in an immunocompetent patient without underlying diseases. Although non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections are rarely accompanied by pleural involvement, M. fortuitum should be considered in such cases, especially when microbiology fails to detect the usual pathogens, and when the clinical picture is unclear.

  19. Is Sinusitis Innocent?--Unilateral Subdural Empyema in an Immunocompetent Child.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Sevim; Yazar, Uğur; Cansu, Ali; Kul, Sibel; Kaya, Selçuk; Özdoğan, Elif Bahat

    2015-11-01

    Subdural empyema related to Streptococcus constellatus is extremely rare in an immunocompetent child, and also there is no reported case along with Staphylococcus lugdunensis infection. Although Streptococcus constellatus has been determined as a co-pathogen with anerobic bacteria in many infections, it has not been reported in combination with Staphylococcus lugdunensis. The authors describe a case of previously healthy 16-y-old child with unilateral subdural empyema due to these bacteria. Sinusitis was the only predisposing factor in the index case. The authors propose that some cases of culture-negative intracranial infections may be due to these infectious agents. Therefore, these agents should be considered as causes of intracranial infection in persistent complaints such as fever and headache after sinusitis in children. It is important to treat them with effective antibiotics and early surgical intervention for favorable outcome, because fatal cases were reported due to Streptococcus constellatus infections.

  20. Cytomegalovirus-associated colitis causing diarrhea in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan; Olchovsky, David; Pokroy, Russell; Ezra, David

    2006-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disabling and life threatening diarrhea in an immunocompetent elderly woman due to CMV colitis. The diagnosis of CMV was based on histological examination of tissues biopsied at colonoscopy, positive CMV antigen and high CMV-IgM titer in peripheral blood samples and a good response to systemic gancyclovir treatment. We conclude that CMV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of colitis in elderly immunocompetent patients. PMID:17106945

  1. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Complicating Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Immunocompetent Child.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takuma; Kawano, Akiko; Araki, Mayumi; Hamahata, Yuko; Usui, Machiko; Shimoyamada, Motoko; Tamame, Takuya; Akashi, Masayuki; Sato, Seiji

    2017-04-07

    Listeria monocytogenes only occasionally causes bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent children. We report a case of L. monocytogenes meningitis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. The patient was a previously healthy 20-month-old girl who was admitted because of sustained fever and lethargy after suffering from gastroenteritis for 6 days. The patient's peripheral white blood cell count was 18,600/µL and the C-reactive protein level was 2.44 mg/dL. A stool sample tested positive for rotavirus antigen. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample showed pleocytosis. Cultures of the CSF and stool samples revealed the presence of L. monocytogenes. The patient was successfully treated with ampicillin and gentamicin. We speculate that translocation of enteric flora across the intestinal epithelium that had been damaged by rotavirus gastroenteritis might have caused bacteremia that disseminated into the CSF. Both listeriosis and secondary systemic infection after rotavirus gastroenteritis are rare but not unknown. Initiation of appropriate treatment as soon as possible is important for all types of bacterial meningitis. This rare but serious complication should be taken into consideration even if the patient does not have any medical history of immune-related problems.

  2. Cerebellar cysticercosis caused by larval Taenia crassiceps tapeworm in immunocompetent woman, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela; Holzmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing.

  3. Cerebellar Cysticercosis Caused by Larval Taenia crassiceps Tapeworm in Immunocompetent Woman, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing. PMID:24274258

  4. Successful Management of a Unique Condition of Isolated Intracranial Mucormycosis in an Immunocompetent Child.

    PubMed

    Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Allouh, Mohammed Z

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a unique case of isolated intracranial mucormycosis of a slowly progressive nature in a healthy immunocompetent child. A 4-year-old girl with a clear medical and surgical history presented with complaints of right side facial asymmetry and unsteady gait for a period of 10 months. Clinical and radiographic investigations revealed right-sided lower motor neuron facial palsy caused by an infiltrative lesion on the right cerebellopontine angle. Initial surgical debulking was performed, a biopsy was sent for histopathological examination, and a course of prophylactic antibiotic and antifungal drugs was prescribed. The pathological report confirmed the mucormycosis fungal infection, and intravenous amphotericin B was administered for 3 weeks. One month after admission, the patient left the hospital with complete recovery. Follow-ups after 4, 8 and 12 weeks revealed no sensory or motor neurological deficits. In conclusion, this is a unique case of mucormycosis with regard to the nature and location of the infection, along with the host being a healthy child. Initial surgical exploration is a very critical step in the early diagnosis and treatment of such rare conditions.

  5. Osteomyelitis caused by Sporothrix schenckii in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Laura Cunha; Barroso, Paulo Feijo; Tonomura, Elise; Akiti, Tiyomi; Rodrigues, Káris Maria de Pinho

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis in South America and its association with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The disease most commonly presents as subacute or chronic cutaneous lesions, although dissemination to various organs and systems occurs in rare cases, mainly in immunosuppressed individuals. This report describes a case of sporotrichosis with severe bone and subcutaneous damage in an immunocompetent patient who did not exhibit the characteristic skin lesions of sporotrichosis, including ulcers, nodules, and lymphangitis.

  6. Atypical Presentation of Cat-Scratch Disease in an Immunocompetent Child with Serological and Pathological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Atıcı, Serkan; Kadayıfcı, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ayşe; Toper, Muhammed Hasan; Celikel, Cigdem Ataizi; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakır, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Typical cat-scratch disease (CSD) is characterized by local lymphadenopathy following the scratch or bite from a cat or kitten. An atypical presentation which includes liver and/or spleen lesions is rarely reported in an immunocompetent child. Systemic CSD may mimic more serious disorders like malignancy or tuberculosis. Although a diagnosis is difficult to establish in systemic CSD, an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications. Bartonella henselae is difficult to culture, and culture is not routinely recommended. Clinical, serological, radiological, and pathological findings are used for the diagnosis of CSD. Herein we present a case of systemic CSD presenting with hepatic mass in an immunocompetent child. The differential diagnosis is made by serological and pathological evidence. He was successfully treated with gentamicin (7.5 mg/kg) and rifampin (15 mg/kg) for six weeks. PMID:25610689

  7. Intractable hiccups caused by esophageal diverticular candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yahata, Shinsuke; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kushida, Saeko; Nishisaki, Hogara; Akita, Hozuka

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Various causes of intractable hiccups have been reported; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of either intractable hiccups due to esophageal candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult or improvement following antifungal therapy. Case presentation An 87-year-old man presented with intractable hiccups. Although the patient was immunocompetent, he used proton pump inhibitors. An esophagogastroduodenos-copy revealed several white deposits throughout the esophagus and extensive white deposits in the midesophageal diverticulum. A mucosal culture showed candidiasis, which was suspected to be the cause of the intractable hiccups. After oral fluconazole had been prescribed, the candidiasis resolved and the hiccups improved. Therefore, we concluded that esophageal diverticular candidiasis was the cause of his intractable hiccups. Conclusion Physicians should consider esophageal candidiasis as one of the differential diagnoses for intractable hiccups, even in immunocompetent adults. PMID:28243153

  8. A Case of Transverse Myelitis Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus in an Immunocompetent Older Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shinwon; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Jang, Hee Ryeong; Park, Young Joo; Kang, Jin Suk; Han, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox (varicella) in children. VZV reactivation may lead to neurological complications, including transverse myelitis. However, transverse myelitis caused by VZV reactivation is rare in immunocompetent patients. Herein, we report a case of transverse myelitis caused by VZV in an immunocompetent older patient, and confirmed this case by polymerase chain reaction. A 79-year-old woman visited our service with complaints of weakness in the right lower leg, generalized vesicular eruptions, and throbbing pain in the right flank for ten days. Spine MRI showed transverse myelitis in the thoracic spine at level T4–T11. The patient was treated with acyclovir and her neurological functions improved, except for sensory impairment below level T10. For older patients, early and aggressive antiviral treatment against VZV may be necessary even though these patients are immunocompetent. PMID:27883372

  9. Native valve endocarditis caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in an immunocompetent individual.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Selçuk; Gençalioğlu, Eda; Yildirim, Seval Sönmez; Altun, Gökalp; Yilmaz, Gürdal; Köksal, Iftihar

    2013-12-01

    Infective endocarditis is a very rare clinical form caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is rarely seen in immunocompetent individuals. Even after surgery it may entail mortality rates as high as 30-40 %. This report describes a case of native valve endocarditis caused by E. rhusiopathiae and cured with crystallized penicillin G and surgery.

  10. Kingella kingae Causing Septic Arthritis of the Knee in an Immunocompetent Adult.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, J; Rehmatullah, N N T; Sutton, P

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Kingella kingae is a species of Gram-negative coccobacillus usually found in the oropharynx. This is an emerging pathogen reported to cause bacteraemia, endocarditis, and osteoarticular infections in children and endocarditis in the immunocompromised adult. However, there are few cases of isolated joint infections reported in the immunocompetent adult. Due to specific isolation techniques required, delay in diagnosis can compromise patient outcome. We report a rare case of septic arthritis of the knee in an immunocompetent adult caused by K. kingae.

  11. Kingella kingae Causing Septic Arthritis of the Knee in an Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, J.; Rehmatullah, N. N. T.; Sutton, P.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Kingella kingae is a species of Gram-negative coccobacillus usually found in the oropharynx. This is an emerging pathogen reported to cause bacteraemia, endocarditis, and osteoarticular infections in children and endocarditis in the immunocompromised adult. However, there are few cases of isolated joint infections reported in the immunocompetent adult. Due to specific isolation techniques required, delay in diagnosis can compromise patient outcome. We report a rare case of septic arthritis of the knee in an immunocompetent adult caused by K. kingae. PMID:26199777

  12. Intractable diarrhoea caused by cytomegalovirus enterocolitis in an immunocompetent term neonate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Maria, Arti; Goyal, Deepak; Verma, Arushi

    2013-12-01

    Symptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection mainly affects preterm and immunocompromised infants and usually manifest as rash, pneumonia, hepatospleenomegaly or encephalitis. To our knowledge intractable diarrhoea at two weeks of age caused by postnatally acquired CMV in immunocompetent term neonate is not reported. An unusual case of postnatally acquired CMV enterocolitis manifesting as protracted diarrhoea in an immunocompetent baby in neonatal period is reported. We conclude that CMV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intractable diarrhoea in neonatal period and treatment with intravenous ganciclovir for CMV enterocolitis is not only indicated but is therapeutic.

  13. [Necrotizing fasciitis in an immunocompetent patient caused by Apophysomyces elegans].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Carmen Elena; Arango, Myrtha; Correa, Ana Lucía; López, Luz Saider; Restrepo, Angela

    2004-09-01

    A case study is presented of a 7-year-old boy, seriously injured in a car accident, who developed a fatal infection due to Aphophysomyces elegans--a mold of the Mucoracea family. Fungal invasion was initially manifested by a spotted wound in the left lumbar region which developed into a necrotizing fasciitis. Later this progressed to the right lumbar area, including the gluteus and the corresponding flank. Antimycotic treatment proved ineffective, and the child died 8 weeks after the accident. Other cases due to this fungus are reviewed.

  14. Infectious diseases causing diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in immunocompetent patients: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    von Ranke, Felipe Mussi; Zanetti, Gláucia; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2013-02-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) represents a syndrome that can complicate many clinical conditions and may be life-threatening, requiring prompt treatment. It is recognized by the signs of acute- or subacute-onset cough, hemoptysis, diffuse radiographic pulmonary infiltrates, anemia, and hypoxemic respiratory distress. DAH is characterized by the accumulation of intra-alveolar red blood cells originating most frequently from the alveolar capillaries. It must be distinguished from localized pulmonary hemorrhage, which is most commonly due to chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, tumor, or localized infection. Hemoptysis, the major sign of DAH, may develop suddenly or over a period of days to weeks; this sign may also be initially absent, in which case diagnostic suspicion is established after sequential bronchoalveolar lavage reveals worsening red blood cell counts. The causes of DAH can be divided into infectious and noninfectious, the latter of which may affect immunocompetent or immunodeficient patients. Pulmonary infections are rarely reported in association with DAH, but they should be considered in the diagnostic workup because of the obvious therapeutic implications. In immunocompromised patients, the main infectious diseases that cause DAH are cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, invasive aspergillosis, Mycoplasma, Legionella, and Strongyloides. In immunocompetent patients, the infectious diseases that most frequently cause DAH are influenza A (H1N1), dengue, leptospirosis, malaria, and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Based on a search of the PubMed and Scopus databases, we review the infectious diseases that may cause DAH in immunocompetent patients.

  15. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii, in an immunocompetent patient, following intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Anita, K B; Fernandez, V; Rao, R

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for anterior endophthalmitis following an intraocular lens implantation. He had developed a fluffy growth resembling a fungal mass on the iris of the right eye. The mass was removed and sent for fungal studies to our department. Direct microscopy revealed hyphae. Further studies helped identify the fungus to belong to genus Paecilomyces. This is a rare case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii in an immunocompetent person.

  16. Brain abscess caused by Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2009-05-01

    We describe a previously healthy patient with chronic otitis media complicated with cerebellar abscess caused by Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens. The organism was identified based on conventional biochemical identification methods, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the hsp65 gene, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was treated successfully with debridements and prolonged antibiotic therapy.

  17. Brain Abscess Caused by Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens in an Immunocompetent Patient▿

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We describe a previously healthy patient with chronic otitis media complicated with cerebellar abscess caused by Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens. The organism was identified based on conventional biochemical identification methods, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the hsp65 gene, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was treated successfully with debridements and prolonged antibiotic therapy. PMID:19297591

  18. Bacteremic meningitis caused by Parvimonas micra in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Kang, Cheol-In; Lee, Woo Joo; Lee, Ji Yong; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Kim, So Hyun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A 61-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B and dyslipidemia visited the emergency department with a fever and severe headache. He was diagnosed with bacterial meningitis after a lumbar puncture, and blood culture revealed Parvimonas micra bacteremia. Although he had a history of extraction of a molar two weeks before symptom onset, there was no evidence of abscess formation on physical examination or imaging studies. He was successfully treated with oral metronidazole for 12 days after 9 days of treatment with IV ceftriaxone and vancomcycin. This is the first report of primary bacterial meningitis caused by this organism, which indicates that this organism is capable of being a bacterial meningitis pathogen.

  19. Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent host: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanwen; Huang, Aiben; Fang, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in order to improve the knowledge of nocardiosis. A case of dissemination nocardiosis caused by N. otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent host is reported and the associated literature reviewed. Informed consent for publication of this case report was provided by the patient. The present patient was a young immunocompetent man suffering from disseminated nocardiosis induced by infection with N. otitidiscaviarum. Following a poor response to β-lactam antibiotic, a combination of sulfonamide with minocycline was administered, which successfully ameliorated the symptoms. Previous studies published in English were retrieved from PubMed with ‘Nocardia otitidiscaviarum’ used as the search keyword. A total of 23 articles were retrieved from the PubMed database, supporting the assertion that N. otitidiscaviarum is a rare Nocardia species. Among these 23 cases, there were 11 cases of lymphocutaneous (48%), 5 of pulmonary (22%), 2 of brain (9%) and 1 of pyothorax (4%) infection, and 4 cases of disseminated infections (17%). Analysis of the immune state of these patients demonstrated that 9 were immunocompetent (39%), 7 of whom had cutaneous infections (30%) with a predominant history of trauma (6/7), and 14 were immunosuppressed, 9 of whom were treated with prednisolone. Microbiology and histopathology were necessary in all cases for definite diagnosis. Among the 13 cases who underwent drug susceptibility testing, 10 cases were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and 12 cases were sensitive to aminoglycoside. In conclusion, although N. otitidiscaviarum is one of the less commonly isolated species of Nocardia, it is capable of inducing localized or disseminated infection, even in an immunocompetent host. The majority of cases respond well to TMP-SMX and aminoglycoside, but the therapeutic action of cephalosporin is weak

  20. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Empyema Caused by Citrobacter koseri in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; García-Clemente, Marta; Fernández, Ramón; Casan, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter species, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, are environmental organisms commonly found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts. The infections caused by Citrobacter are difficult to treat with usual broad spectrum antibiotics owing to rapid generation of mutants and have been associated with high death rates in the past. We believe this is the first case described in the literature of a community-acquired pneumonia and empyema caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult patient.

  1. Immunocompetent young man with cerebral abscess and cortical venous infarction mimicking cerebritis caused by Gemella morbillorum

    PubMed Central

    Milnik, Annette; Gazis, Angelos; Tammer, Ina; Bartels, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Gemella morbillorum is an anaerobic gram-positive diplococcus and in most cases a harmless commensal, which occasionally causes infections in the central nervous system. We report on an immunocompetent young man with focal neurological symptoms and cephalgia caused by a cerebral abscess. Although successful treatment was done with neurosurgical intervention and antibiotic therapy, he suffered from a venous infarction 5 weeks after first diagnosis, which mimicked cerebritis as an early stage of relapsing abscess. Imaging and investigation of cerebrospinal fluid was necessary for sufficient differential diagnosis and antibiotic therapy could be stopped after altogether 8 weeks of treatment. In summary, G morbillorum causes not only biphasic infections, but also can be accompanied by infarction in the central nervous system despite sufficient antibiotic therapy. PMID:23355562

  2. Immunocompetent young man with cerebral abscess and cortical venous infarction mimicking cerebritis caused by Gemella morbillorum.

    PubMed

    Milnik, Annette; Gazis, Angelos; Tammer, Ina; Bartels, Claudius

    2013-01-25

    Gemella morbillorum is an anaerobic gram-positive diplococcus and in most cases a harmless commensal, which occasionally causes infections in the central nervous system. We report on an immunocompetent young man with focal neurological symptoms and cephalgia caused by a cerebral abscess. Although successful treatment was done with neurosurgical intervention and antibiotic therapy, he suffered from a venous infarction 5 weeks after first diagnosis, which mimicked cerebritis as an early stage of relapsing abscess. Imaging and investigation of cerebrospinal fluid was necessary for sufficient differential diagnosis and antibiotic therapy could be stopped after altogether 8 weeks of treatment. In summary, G morbillorum causes not only biphasic infections, but also can be accompanied by infarction in the central nervous system despite sufficient antibiotic therapy.

  3. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Empyema Caused by Citrobacter koseri in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; García-Clemente, Marta; Fernández, Ramón; Casan, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter species, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, are environmental organisms commonly found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts. The infections caused by Citrobacter are difficult to treat with usual broad spectrum antibiotics owing to rapid generation of mutants and have been associated with high death rates in the past. We believe this is the first case described in the literature of a community-acquired pneumonia and empyema caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult patient. PMID:26634165

  4. [Necrotising fasciitis caused by Saksenaea vasiformis in an immunocompetent patient after a car accident].

    PubMed

    Mayayo, Emilio; Stchigel, Alberto M; Cano, José F; Bernal-Escoté, Xana; Guarro, Josep

    2013-01-03

    Cutaneous mucormycosis (zygomycosis), with subcutaneous spreading and dissemination, in immunocompetent patients is an uncommon disease caused by species belonging to the fungal genera Apophysomyces, Rhizopus and Saksenaea, among others. A case of necrotising fasciitis by Saksenaea vasiformis in an immunocompetent woman is described. The infection was acquired through a car accident resulting in multiple injuries affecting mainly her right arm. After the surgical reduction of fractures, skin lesions worsened and led to necrosis. The patient quickly developed a severe necrotising fasciitis with negative cultures at first. Despite the extensive surgical debridement and the aggressive antifungal treatment, the patient died. The histopathological study showed a fungal infection due to a fungus belonging to the Mucorales order, which was confirmed by culturing the clinical sample on Sabouraud agar, and identifying the species by cultures on Czapek-Dox agar, and sequencing of the ITS region of the ribosomal DNA. This case confirm the presence of this fungus in Spain, the value of histopathology for the mucormycosis diagnosis, as well as the need to perform special cultures to facilitate their isolation and identification to the species level by the combined use of Czapek-Dox agar and sequencing of the ITS region. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Pyogenic liver abscess caused by Fusobacterium in a 21-year-old immunocompetent male

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zohair; Bansal, Saurabh K; Dhillon, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old male with no significant past medical history, presented with right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain along with fevers and chills. Lab work revealed leukocytosis, anemia, and slightly elevated alkaline phosphatase. Viral serology for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus were negative and he was immunocompetent. Computed tomography imaging revealed hepatic abscesses, the largest measuring 9.5 cm. Empiric antibiotics were started and percutaneous drains were placed in the abscesses. Anaerobic cultures from the abscesses grew Fusobacterium nucleatum. This is a gram negative anaerobic bacteria; a normal flora of the oral cavity. Fusobacterium is most commonly seen in Lemiere’s disease, which is translocation of oral bacteria to the internal jugular vein causing a thrombophlebitis and subsequent spread of abscesses. Our patient did not have Lemiere’s, and is the first case described of fusobacterium pyogenic liver abscess in a young immunocompetent male with good oral hygiene. This case was complicated by sepsis, empyema, and subsequent abscesses located outside the liver. These abscesses’ have the propensity to flare abruptly and can be fatal. This case not only illustrates fusobacterium as a rare entity for pyogenic liver abscess, but also the need for urgent diagnosis and treatment. It is incumbent on physicians to diagnose and drain any suspicious hepatic lesions. While uncommon, such infections may develop without any overt source and can progress rapidly. Prompt drainage with antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of therapy. PMID:25834342

  6. Pyogenic liver abscess caused by Fusobacterium in a 21-year-old immunocompetent male.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zohair; Bansal, Saurabh K; Dhillon, Sonu

    2015-03-28

    A 21-year-old male with no significant past medical history, presented with right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain along with fevers and chills. Lab work revealed leukocytosis, anemia, and slightly elevated alkaline phosphatase. Viral serology for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus were negative and he was immunocompetent. Computed tomography imaging revealed hepatic abscesses, the largest measuring 9.5 cm. Empiric antibiotics were started and percutaneous drains were placed in the abscesses. Anaerobic cultures from the abscesses grew Fusobacterium nucleatum. This is a gram negative anaerobic bacteria; a normal flora of the oral cavity. Fusobacterium is most commonly seen in Lemiere's disease, which is translocation of oral bacteria to the internal jugular vein causing a thrombophlebitis and subsequent spread of abscesses. Our patient did not have Lemiere's, and is the first case described of fusobacterium pyogenic liver abscess in a young immunocompetent male with good oral hygiene. This case was complicated by sepsis, empyema, and subsequent abscesses located outside the liver. These abscesses' have the propensity to flare abruptly and can be fatal. This case not only illustrates fusobacterium as a rare entity for pyogenic liver abscess, but also the need for urgent diagnosis and treatment. It is incumbent on physicians to diagnose and drain any suspicious hepatic lesions. While uncommon, such infections may develop without any overt source and can progress rapidly. Prompt drainage with antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of therapy.

  7. Brain abscess caused by Lactococcus lactis cremoris in a child.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Yasemin; Akıncı, Gülçin; Bayram, Erhan; Hız, Semra; Türkmen, Mehmet

    2011-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis cremoris infections are very rare in humans. It is recognized as a commensal organism of mucocutaneous surfaces of cattle, and is occasionally isolated from human mucocutaneous surfaces. We report a brain abscess caused by L. lactis cremoris in an immunocompetent child. A 19-month-old female patient was admitted with fever and vomiting. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed brain abscess. L. lactis cremoris was isolated from culture of the abscess material. The patient was treated with pus drainage from brain abscess and antibiotics including vancomycin and meropenem. The patient recovered completely. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a L. lactis cremoris infection in children.

  8. Chronic Active Herpes Simplex Type 2 Encephalitis in an Asymptomatic Immunocompetent Child

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William D.; Bearer, Elaine L.; Donahue, John E.

    2010-01-01

    A unique form of chronic, active, granulomatous herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis is described in an asymptomatic, immunocompetent 8-year-old girl who acquired the virus as a neonate. The extensive, bilateral cerebral parenchymal involvement was discovered incidentally. Diagnosis was confirmed by a combination of serial neuroimaging, brain biopsy, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeted to DNA sequences in the glycoprotein G gene, allowing differentiation between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. The clinical course over a 5-year period, treatment with intermittent intravenous steroids, and daily valacyclovir, diagnostic imaging, and laboratory studies are reviewed in detail. This form of herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis hasn’t been described previously and is significant because of its prolonged indolent course, absence of neurological findings or suggestive history, and benign behavior in this child, who is now 14 years old. The authors believe this entity can be unsuspected and underdiagnosed in the general pediatric population, especially in those with a prior maternal history of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. PMID:20179002

  9. Chronic active herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis in an asymptomatic immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Brown, William D; Bearer, Elaine L; Donahue, John E

    2010-07-01

    A unique form of chronic, active, granulomatous herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis is described in an asymptomatic, immunocompetent 8-year-old girl who acquired the virus as a neonate. The extensive, bilateral cerebral parenchymal involvement was discovered incidentally. Diagnosis was confirmed by a combination of serial neuroimaging, brain biopsy, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeted to DNA sequences in the glycoprotein G gene, allowing differentiation between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. The clinical course over a 5-year period, treatment with intermittent intravenous steroids, and daily valacyclovir, diagnostic imaging, and laboratory studies are reviewed in detail. This form of herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis hasn't been described previously and is significant because of its prolonged indolent course, absence of neurological findings or suggestive history, and benign behavior in this child, who is now 14 years old. The authors believe this entity can be unsuspected and underdiagnosed in the general pediatric population, especially in those with a prior maternal history of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

  10. Encephalitis with convulsive status in an immunocompetent pediatric patient caused by Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Cerpa Polar, Rosario; Orellana, Gabriela; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Sánchez Carbonel, José; Santisteban, Javier; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Santisteban, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Cat scratch's disease caused by Bartonella henselae, is known to be a self-limited benign process in immunocompetent children. The association with neurologic manifestations is very uncommon especially in patient with no immunologic defects and in cases without specific treatment. A 7 years old male patient, without any immunocompromised defect, presented an atypic presentation of the cat scratch disease. The patient came to the hospital in two opportunities in a status epilepticus, in both cases the diagnosis was encephalitis by Bartonella henselae and the evolution with treatment was monitored with PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in cerebrospinal fluid and blood, as well as IFI (IgM, IgG) serology (indirect immunofluorescence). The patient had a favorable clinical and laboratory evolution for 6 months showing no recurrence of the disease.

  11. Kingella kingae endocardial abscess and cerebral infarction in a previously well immunocompetent child

    PubMed Central

    Gelbart, Ben; Connell, Tom G; Konstantinov, Igor E; Phillips, Rachel; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Kingella kingae is an emerging paediatric pathogen that most commonly is associated with relatively benign osteoarticular disease in children. This report concerns a 1-year-old child with Kingella kingae endocarditis and perivalvular abscess complicated by septic cerebral emboli and osteomyelitis leading to long-term neurological sequelae, highlighting the capacity of this organism to cause severe invasive disease in children. PMID:22190987

  12. Infectious Spondylitis with Bacteremia Caused by Roseomonas mucosa in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong-Young; Hur, Jaehyung; Jo, Wonyong; Hong, Jeongmin; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Roseomonas are a gram-negative bacteria species that have been isolated from environmental sources. Human Roseomonas infections typically occur in immunocompromised patients, most commonly as catheter-related bloodstream infections. However, Roseomonas infections are rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. We report what we believe to be the first case in Korea of infectious spondylitis with bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in an immunocompetent patient who had undergone vertebroplasty for compression fractures of his thoracic and lumbar spine. PMID:26483995

  13. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis in an eight-year-old immunocompetent child: how to treat?

    PubMed

    Lenz, D; Held, J; Goerke, S; Wagner, D; Tintelnot, K; Henneke, P; Hufnagel, M

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on a case of primary cryptococcal skin infection in an immunocompetent 8-year-old boy. The infection first manifested itself as a subcutaneous abscess around the proximal joint of his right thumb after a minor injury from contact with a thorny shrub. After surgical incision and drainage was performed, Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans was the only pathogen cultured from the lesion. An agglutination test for the capsular antigen in serum displayed negative results and the immunological work-up revealed no underlying immunodeficiency. A "watch and wait" strategy - one without systemic antifungal treatment - was adopted and this resulted in uneventful healing. In summary, primary cryptococcal skin infections in immunocompetent hosts may be managed successfully by surgical treatment in combination with careful clinical follow-up. This approach may help avoid unnecessary antimicrobial treatments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Brevibacterium casei as a cause of brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Anil; Augustine, Deepthi; Panikar, Dilip; Nandakumar, Aswathy; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Karim, Shamsul; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-12-01

    Coryneform bacteria belonging to the genus Brevibacterium have emerged as opportunistic pathogens. Of the nine known species of Brevibacterium isolated from human clinical samples, Brevibacterium casei is the most frequently reported species from clinical specimens. We report the first case of B. casei brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by surgery and antimicrobial therapy.

  15. Brevibacterium casei as a Cause of Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Patient ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V. Anil; Augustine, Deepthi; Panikar, Dilip; Nandakumar, Aswathy; Dinesh, Kavitha R.; Karim, Shamsul; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    Coryneform bacteria belonging to the genus Brevibacterium have emerged as opportunistic pathogens. Of the nine known species of Brevibacterium isolated from human clinical samples, Brevibacterium casei is the most frequently reported species from clinical specimens. We report the first case of B. casei brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by surgery and antimicrobial therapy. PMID:22012007

  16. Common and new acyclovir resistant herpes simplex virus-1 mutants causing bilateral recurrent herpetic keratitis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dongli; Kaye, Stephen B; Hopkins, Mark; Kirwan, Ruaidhri; Hart, Ian J; Coen, Donald M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated thymidine kinase (tk) mutants isolated during multiple episodes of recurrent bilateral acyclovir resistant herpes simplex keratitis in an immunocompetent patient. From one eye, we found a single guanine insertion, previously shown to greatly reduce TK expression, and from the other, a previously unidentified substitution, which genetic experiments confirmed confers drug resistance. The substitution, although distant from substrate binding sites, reduced thymidine phosphorylation 10-20-fold, and acyclovir phosphorylation >100-fold. This phenotype should permit reactivation from latency to cause recurrent disease. The results may have implications for the prevalence and prevention of acyclovir resistance in patients with herpes simplex keratitis.

  17. Herpes zoster caused by vaccine-strain varicella zoster virus in an immunocompetent recipient of zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Schmid, D Scott; Harpaz, Rafael; LaRussa, Philip; Jensen, Nancy J; Rivailler, Pierre; Radford, Kay; Folster, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    We report the first laboratory-documented case of herpes zoster caused by the attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) contained in Zostavax in a 68-year-old immunocompetent adult with strong evidence of prior wild-type VZV infection. The complete genome sequence of the isolate revealed that the strain carried 15 of 42 (36%) recognized varicella vaccine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including all 5 of the fixed vaccine markers present in nearly all of the strains in the vaccine. The case of herpes zoster was relatively mild and resolved without complications.

  18. Pneumocystis carinii causes a distinctive interstitial pneumonia in immunocompetent laboratory rats that had been attributed to "rat respiratory virus".

    PubMed

    Henderson, K S; Dole, V; Parker, N J; Momtsios, P; Banu, L; Brouillette, R; Simon, M A; Albers, T M; Pritchett-Corning, K R; Clifford, C B; Shek, W R

    2012-05-01

    A prevalent and distinctive infectious interstitial pneumonia (IIP) of immunocompetent laboratory rats was suspected to be caused by a putative virus, termed rat respiratory virus, but this was never substantiated. To study this disease, 2 isolators were independently populated with rats from colonies with endemic disease, which was perpetuated by the regular addition of naive rats. After Pneumocystis was demonstrated by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the lungs of rats from both isolators and an earlier bedding transmission study, the relationship between Pneumocystis and IIP was explored further by analyzing specimens from 3 contact transmission experiments, diagnostic submissions, and barrier room breeding colonies, including 1 with and 49 without IIP. Quantitative (q) PCR and immunofluorescence assay only detected Pneumocystis infection and serum antibodies in rats from experiments or colonies in which IIP was diagnosed by histopathology. In immunocompetent hosts, the Pneumocystis concentration in lungs corresponded to the severity and prevalence of IIP; seroconversion occurred when IIP developed and was followed by the concurrent clearance of Pneumocystis from lungs and resolution of disease. Experimentally infected immunodeficient RNU rats, by contrast, did not seroconvert to Pneumocystis or recover from infection. qPCR found Pneumocystis at significantly higher concentrations and much more often in lungs than in bronchial and nasal washes and failed to detect Pneumocystis in oral swabs. The sequences of a mitochondrial ribosomal large-subunit gene region for Pneumocystis from 11 distinct IIP sources were all identical to that of P. carinii. These data provide substantial evidence that P. carinii causes IIP in immunocompetent rats.

  19. Cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent child: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Othman, Norlijah; Abdullah, Nor Atiqah Ng; Wahab, Zubaidah Abdul

    2004-12-01

    An immunocompetent 5 year-old girl presented with pyrexia of unknown origin associated with headache. Initial investigations showed leukocytosis and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A Widal-Weil Felix test, blood film for malarial parasites, mycoplasma IgM antibody, cultures from blood and urine, full blood picture, Mantoux test, and chest x-ray were all negative. A lumbar puncture was done as part of a work-up for pyrexia of unknown origin. Cryptococcus neoformans was seen on India ink examination and confirmed on culture. She was treated with 10 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 weeks of fluconazole. Further immunological tests did not reveal any defect in the cell-mediated immune system. C. neoformans meningitis may present with non-specific symptoms and should be considered in a work-up for pyrexia of unknown origin.

  20. Emergent severe acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by adenovirus type 55 in immunocompetent adults in 2013: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; He, Hangyong; Wang, Zheng; Qu, Jiuxin; Li, Xuyan; Ban, Chengjun; Wan, Jun; Cao, Bin; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Chen

    2014-08-12

    Since 2008, severe cases of emerging human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) in immunocompetent adults have been reported sporadically in China. The clinical features and outcomes of the most critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by HAdV-55 requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are lacking. We conducted a prospective, single-center observational study of pneumonia with ARDS in immunocompetent adults admitted to our respiratory ICU. We prospectively collected and analyzed clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, sequential tests of viral load in respiratory tract and blood, treatments and outcomes. The results for a total of five consecutive patients with severe ARDS with confirmed HAdV-55 infection were included. All five patients were immunocompetent young men with a median age of 32 years. The mean time from onset to dyspnea was 5 days. Arterial blood gas analysis at ICU admission revealed profound hypoxia. Mean partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen was 58.1. Mean durations from onset to a single-lobe consolidation shown on chest X-rays (CXRs) and, from the first positive CXR to bilateral multilobar lung infiltrates, were 2 days and 4.8 days, respectively. The viral load was higher than 1 × 108 copies in three patients and was 1 × 104 in one patient. It was negative in the only patient who survived. The mean duration for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure and IMV failure were 30.8 hours and 6.2 days, respectively. Four patients received venovenous ECMO. Four (80%) of the five patients died despite receiving appropriate respiratory support. HAdV-55 may cause severe ARDS in immunocompetent young men. Persistent high fever, dyspnea and rapid progression to respiratory failure within 2 weeks, together with bilateral consolidations and infiltrates, are the most frequent clinical manifestations of HAdV-55

  1. [Atypical mycobacteriosis of the skin caused by Mycobacterium abscessus in an immunocompetent woman].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Uhlemann, R; Grünewald, T; Nenning, H; Grunewald, S; Paasch, U

    2007-12-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic of the fast-growing mycobacteria, and it is resistant to most of the antimicrobial and tuberculostatic drugs available. This non-tuberculous mycobacterium is significant in medicine because it can contaminate post-traumatic wounds and be a causative agent in chronic skin and soft tissue infection after surgical procedures.A 60-year-old immunocompetent woman was suffering from chronic ulcers and abscesses on the heels and malleoli of both feet. Histological examination revealed a granulomatous inflammation with detection of acid-fast rods, albeit without fibrinoid necrosis. The repeated detection of atypical mycobacteria, which were ultimately identified as Mycobacterium abscessus, allowed the diagnosis of an atypical mycobacteriosis of the skin. This was successfully treated first with clarithromycin and rifabutin and later with a combination of ethambutol, minocycline, clofazimine and azithromycin.

  2. Severe disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent patient caused by Veronaea botryosa.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Davoudi, Mehrnaz Mohammad; de Hoog, G S; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Navarrete, Gisela; Meis, Jacques F; Badali, Hamid

    2013-06-01

    We present a severe case of disseminated phaeohyphomycosis due to Veronaea botryosa. A 32-year-old female, native from Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico, presented a chronic dermatosis which started 10 years earlier with multiple exophytic, multilobulated, soft, and pedunculated or sessile neoformations of diverse sizes from 2 to 10 cm in diameter, which became verrucose and increased in size. The patient was immunocompetent, and no hereditary or familiar precedents of importance were known. No treatment was given, and the dermatosis remained relatively stable until the patient became pregnant in 2001 and 2003. The infection then exacerbated and worsened, leading to dissemination to the extremities, trunk, and face. The initial diagnosis was chromoblastomycosis which was treated with terbinafine and itraconazole but without visible improvement. Histopathology revealed pigmented, irregular, unbranched, and septate hyphae. Veronaea botryosa was isolated (CBS 127264 = JX566723), and its identity was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. Therapy with posaconazole (800 mg/day) was started showing a gradual improvement of lesions with a reduction in size and flattening of the eruptions.

  3. Primary extrapulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in an immunocompetent child presenting with pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    The developing countries are having a number of public health issues. The situation in these resource-limited countries is scary due to the huge burden of infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB). The latest reports from the WHO shows a high number of drug resistant cases even in the pediatric age groups. Also, the lack of suspicion of drug resistant TB (DR-TB) in the pediatric cases, especially in the absence of a past or family history may lead to delay in diagnosis and flaring-up of the disease. We herein present the very first case of the primary multidrug-resistant TB in an HIV negative child who presented with the left sided pleural effusion. PMID:28164036

  4. Primary cellulitis and cutaneous abscess caused by Yersinia enterocolitica in an immunocompetent host: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Shugo; Sekiya, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Primary extraintestinal complications caused by Yersinia enterocolitica are extremely rare, especially in the form of skin and soft-tissue manifestations, and little is known about their clinical characteristics and treatments. We presented our case and reviewed past cases of primary skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Y enterocolitica. We report a case of primary cellulitis and cutaneous abscess caused by Y enterocolitica in an immunocompetent 70-year-old woman with keratodermia tylodes palmaris progressiva. She presented to an outpatient clinic with redness, swelling, and pain of the left ring finger and left upper arm without fever or gastrointestinal symptoms 3 days before admission. One day later, ulceration of the skin with exposed bone of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left ring finger developed, and cefditoren pivoxil was described. However, she was admitted to our hospital due to deterioration of symptoms involving the left finger and upper arm. Cefazolin was initiated on admission, then changed to sulbactam/ampicillin and vancomycin with debridement of the left ring finger and drainage of the left upper arm abscess. Wound culture grew Y enterocolitica serotype O:8 and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Blood cultures were negative and osteomyelitis was ruled out. Vancomycin was switched to ciprofloxacin, then skin and soft-tissue manifestations showed clear improvement within a few days. The patient received 14 days of ciprofloxacin and oral amoxicillin/clavulanate and has since shown no recurrence. We reviewed 12 cases of primary skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Y enterocolitica from the literature. In several past cases, portal entry involved failure of the skin barrier on distal body parts. Thereafter, infection might have spread to the regional lymph nodes from the ruptured skin. Y enterocolitica is typically resistant to aminopenicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. In most cases, these inefficient

  5. An unusual presentation of alveolar echinococcosis in a 12-yr-old immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Oral, Akgun; Ozturk, Gurkan; Aydinli, Bülent; Kantarci, Mecit; Salman, Ahmet Bedii

    2012-12-01

    AE is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis (E.m.). AE is a rare form of echinococcosis and mostly seen in 50- to 70-yr-old patients. Its asymptomatic invasive tumor-like lesion development period, which lasts as much as 20 yr, is too long. Hence, this disease is very rare in children. Herein, we report an AE in a 12-yr-old girl who was not eligible for surgical treatment because of a radiological evaluation of non-resectable lesion and was scheduled for a LT.

  6. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takaya, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Go; Shinzato, Isaku; Takafuta, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  7. Atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease: isolated epigastric pain in an immunocompetent, 12-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Kayemba-Kay's, Simon; Kovács, Tamas; Rakotoharinandrasana, Iarolalao; Benosman, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    We present a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl with hepato splenic cat-scratch disease (CSD). Her sole inaugural complaint was isolated epigastric pain. She fully recovered, with normalized abdominal CT scan following 2 weeks course of Azythromycin®. CSD should be included in differential diagnosis in children with epigastric pain, especially in those with domestic pets.

  8. Isolated sinusitis sphenoidalis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum in an immunocompetent patient with headache.

    PubMed

    Molnár-Gábor, Etelka; Dóczi, Ilona; Hatvani, Lóránt; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kredics, László

    2013-08-01

    We present a case of isolated sinusitis sphenoidalis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an emerging causal agent of fungal infections with an often fatal outcome. A Trichoderma strain was isolated from secretion obtained from the sinus sphenoidalis of a rhinosinusitis patient and identified by sequence analysis of two loci as Trichoderma longibrachiatum from the Longibrachiatum Clade of the genus Trichoderma. T. longibrachiatum can trigger a fatal pathomechanism in immunodeficient patients, but only rarely causes disease in healthy people. The case presented is unique because the patient was not immunocompromised.

  9. Lactobacillemia: an emerging cause of infection in both the immunocompromised and the immunocompetent host.

    PubMed Central

    Antony, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The bacterium, lactobacillus, is found in the mucosal surfaces of the mouth and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. There have been increasing reports of the micro-organism being a cause of serious infection in immunocompromised individuals. This article reviews the clinical presentation, laboratory characteristics and treatment of patients with lactobacillemia. PMID:10800296

  10. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Leão, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Mora, Delio Jose; da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Machado, Anna Silva; Neves, Priscila Freitas Das; Pena, Giovana Silva; Teixeira, Luciana Silva de Almeida; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the case of a 75-year-old Brazilian man who developed inflammatory skin lesions with nodules and ulcerations on the right forearm after an injury caused by handling barbed-wire and Eucalyptus spp. logs. Histopathological assessment of the lesions showed granulomatous processes with yeasts similar to Cryptococcus spp. Tissue fragments yielded yeasts when cultured that were identified as Cryptococcus gattii VGII through biochemical reactions and URA5-RFLP genotype. No evidence of systemic involvement or any underlying immunosuppressive diseases were identified, which supported the diagnosis of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis. After 5 months on therapy with high fluconazole doses, the skin lesions had fully healed.

  11. Keratitis caused by Absidia corymbifera in an immunocompetent male with no corneal injuries.

    PubMed

    Mesa Varona, D; Celis Sánchez, J; Alfaya Muñoz, L; Avendaño Cantos, E M; Romero Moraleda, L

    2015-03-01

    Case Report A healthy 55-years-old male went to emergency due to a white infiltrate in the left eye without corneal trauma which partially responds to antibiotic treatment. The infiltrate worsened by the use of topical steroids. Direct microscopic evaluation and Gram stain are a valuable diagnostic tool for the detection of Absidia filaments. There is a successful treatment with anphotericin and posaconazole. Discussion Keratitis caused by Zygomicetes are unusual. This is a rare condition in healthy patients with no corneal trauma. The treatment with amphotericin and posaconazole are synergistic against filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyogenic Spondylitis and Diskitis Caused by Helicobacter cinaedi in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Yuto; Hagiya, Hideharu; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Takayoshi; Murase, Tomoko; Matsuo, Akane; Sugiyama, Tetsuhiro; Kondo, Sachiyo

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe the first reported case of pyogenic spondylitis and diskitis caused by Helicobacter cinaedi. The results of magnetic resonance imaging and the histology of biopsied tissue were suggestive of acute infection at the lumbar spine. The pathogen was obtained by a blood culture examination and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Eight weeks of antibiotics therapy resulted in a good clinical course. H. cinaedi infections have been increasingly reported in recent years, but the pathogen's epidemiological and pathological characteristics are still unclear. One of the difficulties in understanding the pathogenesis of H. cinaedi has been the challenges in cultivating the pathogen. Novel strategies for the diagnosis of H. cinaedi must be developed.

  13. Expressive aphasia caused by Streptococcus intermedius brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Khaja, Misbahuddin; Adler, Darryl; Lominadze, George

    2017-01-01

    Background Brain abscess is an uncommon but life-threatening infection. It involves a focal, intracerebral infection that begins in a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus, surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Brain abscess still poses a significant problem in developing countries but rarely in developed countries. Predisposing factors vary in different parts of the world. With the introduction of antibiotics and imaging studies, the mortality rate has decreased between 5% and 15%. If left untreated it may lead to serious neurologic sequelae. The temporal lobe abscess can be caused by conditions like sinusitis, otitis media, dental infections, and mastoiditis if left untreated or partially treated. Additionally, in neurosurgical procedures like craniotomy, the external ventricular drain can get infected, leading to abscess formation. Case presentation We present the case study of an elderly female patient who presented with expressive aphasia caused by brain abscess, secondary to Streptococcus intermedius infection. The 72-year-old female with a medical history of hypertension came to hospital for evaluation with word-finding difficulty, an expressive aphasia that began a few days prior to presentation. Computed tomography of the head showed a left temporal lobe mass-like lesion, with surrounding vasogenic edema. The patient was empirically started on courses of antibiotics. The next day, she was subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, which showed a left temporal lobe septated rim-enhancing mass lesion, with bright restricted diffusion and diffuse surrounding vasogenic edema consistent with abscess. The patient was also seen by the neurosurgery department and underwent stereotactic, left temporal craniotomy, with drainage, and resection of abscess. Tissue culture grew S. intermedius sensitive to ampicillin sulbactam. Subsequently her expressive aphasia improved. Conclusion Brain abscess has a high mortality, however

  14. Expressive aphasia caused by Streptococcus intermedius brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Khaja, Misbahuddin; Adler, Darryl; Lominadze, George

    2017-01-01

    Brain abscess is an uncommon but life-threatening infection. It involves a focal, intracerebral infection that begins in a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus, surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Brain abscess still poses a significant problem in developing countries but rarely in developed countries. Predisposing factors vary in different parts of the world. With the introduction of antibiotics and imaging studies, the mortality rate has decreased between 5% and 15%. If left untreated it may lead to serious neurologic sequelae. The temporal lobe abscess can be caused by conditions like sinusitis, otitis media, dental infections, and mastoiditis if left untreated or partially treated. Additionally, in neurosurgical procedures like craniotomy, the external ventricular drain can get infected, leading to abscess formation. We present the case study of an elderly female patient who presented with expressive aphasia caused by brain abscess, secondary to Streptococcus intermedius infection. The 72-year-old female with a medical history of hypertension came to hospital for evaluation with word-finding difficulty, an expressive aphasia that began a few days prior to presentation. Computed tomography of the head showed a left temporal lobe mass-like lesion, with surrounding vasogenic edema. The patient was empirically started on courses of antibiotics. The next day, she was subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, which showed a left temporal lobe septated rim-enhancing mass lesion, with bright restricted diffusion and diffuse surrounding vasogenic edema consistent with abscess. The patient was also seen by the neurosurgery department and underwent stereotactic, left temporal craniotomy, with drainage, and resection of abscess. Tissue culture grew S. intermedius sensitive to ampicillin sulbactam. Subsequently her expressive aphasia improved. Brain abscess has a high mortality, however a significant proportion of patients

  15. Atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease: isolated epigastric pain in an immunocompetent, 12-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Kovács, Tamas; Rakotoharinandrasana, Iarolalao; Benosman, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl with hepato splenic cat-scratch disease (CSD). Her sole inaugural complaint was isolated epigastric pain. She fully recovered, with normalized abdominal CT scan following 2 weeks course of Azythromycin®. CSD should be included in differential diagnosis in children with epigastric pain, especially in those with domestic pets. PMID:26273467

  16. An Unusual Presentation of Disseminated Histoplasmosis: Case Report and Review of Pediatric Immunocompetent Patients from India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Poojan; Capoor, Malini R; Singh, Mukul; Gupta, Arpita; Chhakchhuak, Arini; Debatta, Pradeep

    2015-12-01

    Histoplasmosis is a progressive disease caused by dimorphic intracellular fungi and can prove fatal. Usually, it is present in immunocompromised individuals and immunocompetent individuals in the endemic zones. We report an unusual presentation of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. The patient in the present case report was immunocompetent child and had fever, bone pains, gradual weight loss, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) was diagnosed on microscopic examination and fungal culture of bone marrow, blood, skin biopsy and lymph node aspirate. The patient died on seventh day of amphotericin B. In the absence of predisposing factors and classical clinical presentation of febrile neutropenia, lung, adrenal and oropharyngeal lesions, the disease posed a diagnostic challenge. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in children can be fatal despite timely diagnosis and therapy. In India, disseminated histoplasmosis is seen in immunocompetent hosts. All the pediatrics immunocompetent cases from India are also reviewed.

  17. A Case of Septic Shock caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans in an Immunocompetent Female Patient after Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for a Ureteral Stone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Yon; Park, In Young; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Jin Seo; Kang, Goeun; Kim, Jae Seok

    2016-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans can cause various types of infections, but its infection in humans is rare. A. xylosoxidans has been reported as a rare etiological agent of infections including primary bacteremia, catheter-related bloodstream infection, endocarditis, otitis, and pneumonia, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. We encountered a case of septic shock caused by A. xylosoxidans in a 52-year-old, immunocompetent woman with no underlying disease, who received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to remove a left upper ureteral stone. She was treated with antibiotics to which the organism was susceptible but died as a result of septic shock. PMID:27104016

  18. A Case of Septic Shock caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans in an Immunocompetent Female Patient after Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for a Ureteral Stone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, So Yon; Park, In Young; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Jin Seo; Kang, Goeun; Kim, Jae Seok; Eom, Joong Sik

    2016-03-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans can cause various types of infections, but its infection in humans is rare. A. xylosoxidans has been reported as a rare etiological agent of infections including primary bacteremia, catheter-related bloodstream infection, endocarditis, otitis, and pneumonia, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. We encountered a case of septic shock caused by A. xylosoxidans in a 52-year-old, immunocompetent woman with no underlying disease, who received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to remove a left upper ureteral stone. She was treated with antibiotics to which the organism was susceptible but died as a result of septic shock.

  19. Latent Microsporidiosis Caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Immunocompetent Hosts: A Murine Model Demonstrating the Ineffectiveness of the Immune System and Treatment with Albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Kotkova, Michaela; Sak, Bohumil; Kvetonova, Dana; Kvac, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites causing severe infections with lethal outcome in immunocompromised hosts. However, these pathogens are more frequently reported as latent infections in immunocompetent individuals and raises questions about the potential risk of reactivation following induced immunosuppression. Aims To evaluate the possibility latent microsporidiosis, efficacy or albendazole, and reactivation, the authors monitored the course of E. cuniculi infection in immunocompetent BALB/c mice and immunodeficient SCID mice using molecular methods. Methods Mice were per orally infected with 107 spores of E. cuniculi. Selected groups were treated with albendazole, re-infected or chemically immunosuppressed by dexamethasone. The presence of microsporidia in the host’s organs and feces were determined using PCR methods. Changes in numbers of lymphocytes in blood and in spleen after induction of immunosuppression were confirmed using flow cytometry analysis. Results Whereas E. cuniculi caused lethal microsporidiosis in SCID mice, the infection in BABL/c mice remained asymptomatic despite parasite dissemination into many organs during the acute infection phase. Albendazole treatment led to microsporidia elimination from organs in BALB/c mice. In SCID mice, however, only a temporary reduction in number of affected organs was observed and infection re-established post-treatment. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in a chronic microsporidia infection disseminating into most organs in BALB/c mice. Although the presence of E. cuniculi in organs of albendazole- treated mice was undetectable by PCR, it was striking that infection was reactivated by immunosuppression treatment. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that microsporidia can successfully survive in organs of immunocompetent hosts and are able to reactivate from undetectable levels and spread within these hosts after induction of immunosuppression. These findings stress the danger of

  20. Aggressive cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces variabilis in an immunocompetent child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zaydani, Ibrahim A.; Al-Hakami, Ahmed M.; Joseph, Martin R.P.; Kassem, Walid M.; Almaghrabi, Mohamed K.; Nageeb, Abdalla; Hamid, Mohamed E.

    2015-01-01

    A zygomycetous fungus was observed in a biopsy of a 9-year-old male. The patient was presented with severe cutaneous lesions subsequent to a traumatic car accident. Following fungal detection, antifungal treatment was prescribed but condition deteriorated rapidly and above knee amputation was done as lifesaving and to control fungal infection. Analysis of the 28 S rRNA gene (accession KT149770) aligned the isolate with members of the genus Apophysomyces and the pathogen was identified as Apophysomces variabilis. PMID:26858932

  1. Cervical lymphadenitis caused by a fastidious mycobacterium closely related to Mycobacterium genavense in an apparently immunocompetent woman: diagnosis by culture-free microbiological methods.

    PubMed

    Bosquée, L; Böttger, E C; De Beenhouwer, H; Fonteyne, P A; Hirschel, B; Larsson, L; Meyers, W M; Palomino, J C; Realini, L; Rigouts, L

    1995-10-01

    Fastidious mycobacteria usually infect immunocompromised hosts (human immunodeficiency virus-infected or otherwise immunosuppressed patients). We here describe severe lymphadenitis, caused by a fastidious mycobacterium closely related to Mycobacterium genavense, in an apparently immunocompetent woman, whose brother had died from an unidentified mycobacterial infection in 1969. A variety of techniques, including inoculation of nude mice, histopathology, electron microscopy, lipid analysis, ATP measurements, and molecular biology, were used to characterize this mycobacterium. All attempts to culture the etiological agent on many different media failed. The organism multiplied only in congenitally athymic nude mice. Although phenotypically similar to M. genavense, the mycobacterium differs from M. genavense by three nucleotides of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Various antimycobacterial drugs were administered, including gamma interferon, but multiple relapses occurred. Finally, therapy with a combined regimen of clarithromycin, clofazimine, rifabutin, and ethambutol was curative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lymphadenitis in an apparently immunocompetent patient, caused by a noncultivable Mycobacterium sp. closely related to M. genavense. This study emphasizes the importance of employing a variety of diagnostic approaches such as the inoculation of laboratory animals, histopathology, electron microscopy, lipid analysis, ATP measurements, and molecular biology to characterize novel microorganisms that cannot be cultured in vitro.

  2. Multiple brain abscesses caused by Rhinocladiella mackenziei in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yusupov, Natan; Merve, Ashirwad; Warrell, Clare E; Johnson, Elizabeth; Curtis, Carmel; Samandouras, George

    2017-04-01

    Primary cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Rhinocladiella mackenziei is an extremely rare infection carrying more than 80% mortality, with most cases reported from the Middle East region. This darkly pigmented black yeast is highly neurotropic, aggressive and refractory to most antifungal agents. Here we present an immunocompetent elderly male, presenting with multiple brain abscesses, with R. mackenziei confirmed by nuclear ribosomal repeat region sequencing, who was successfully treated by surgical debridement and intravenous voriconazole. To our knowledge this is the first case reported from the United Kingdom. We also present a review of all such cases so far reported in the English literature world-wide, which we believe is a step further to understanding the pathogenesis and establishing effective treatment of this rare, yet often fatal disease.

  3. [Histoplasmosis of the central nervous system in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Osorio, Natalia; López, Yúrika; Jaramillo, Juan Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a multifaceted condition caused by the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum whose infective spores are inhaled and reach the lungs, the primary organ of infection. The meningeal form, considered one of the most serious manifestations of this mycosis, is usually seen in individuals with impaired cellular immunity such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous or solid organ transplantation, and infants given their immunological immaturity. The most common presentation is self-limited and occurs in immunocompetent individuals who have been exposed to high concentrations of conidia and mycelia fragments of the fungi. In those people, the condition is manifested by pulmonary disorders and late dissemination to other organs and systems. We report a case of central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent child.

  4. An unusual cause of sudden child death.

    PubMed

    van der Heyde, Yolande; van As, Arjan Bastiaan Sebastian

    2008-09-01

    Since the rise of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, there has been a massive promotion of condom use. Unfortunately, this promotion has not always been accompanied with instructions for safe use. In this case report, we describe a small child who aspirated a condom and subsequently died.

  5. Polyarticular Septic Arthritis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f in an 8-Month-Old Immunocompetent Infant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Raheel Ahmed; Kaplan, Sheldon L.; Rosenfeld, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The standard use of vaccinations against pathogens has resulted in a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal infections caused by these previously common bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the incidence of infections caused by atypical bacteria is rising. This report presents a case of septic arthritis caused by non-type b H. influenzae in a pediatric patient. Methods. We report a case of an infant with polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f. A literature review was conducted with the inclusion criteria of case reports and studies published between 2004 and 2013 addressing musculoskeletal H. influenzae infections. Results. An 8-month-old female presented with pain and swelling in her right ankle and left elbow. The patient was diagnosed with septic arthritis and underwent incision and drainage. Wound and blood cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. In addition to treatment with IV antibiotics, the patient underwent immunocompetency studies, which were normal. Subsequent follow-up revealed eradication of the infection. Conclusions. Haemophilus influenzae non-type b may cause serious invasive infections such as sepsis or septic arthritis in children with or without predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency or asplenia. Optimal treatment includes surgical management, culture driven IV antibiotics, and an immunologic workup. PMID:26064739

  6. Tigecycline salvage therapy for necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus: Case report in a child.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-San; Hung, Min-Hsiang; Chen, Chi-Chung; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tang, Hung-Jen

    2016-02-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus is rarely reported in children. We describe a 12-year-old immunocompetent boy with necrotizing fasciitis caused by V. vulnificus. He was cured by radical and serial debridement and salvage therapy with intravenous cefpirome plus tigecycline. The in vitro antibacterial activity of combination regimens and a literature review of pediatric V. vulnificus infection are described.

  7. An immunocompetent child with chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6B accidentally identified during the care of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Junko; Tanaka, Junko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Morita, Yoshinori; Hishiki, Haruka; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Ohye, Tamae; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Kohno, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the only virus known to integrate into human chromosomes and be transmitted from parents to offspring. Less than 1% of the population carries integrated HHV-6 in their genomes. Here, we report the case of a 9-year-old Japanese girl with an extraordinarily high copy number of HHV-6B in her genome. The integrated virus genome was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid and serum during the treatment of meningoencephalitis and pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, the HHV-6B genome was detected in hair follicle, plasma, and whole blood in the patient and her mother, but not in the patient's father. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the viral genome was integrated into chromosome 22. Therefore, these results emphasize the importance of screening for chromosomally integrated HHV-6 prior to starting unnecessary antiviral therapies, particularly for patients harboring HHV-6 with a high copy number.

  8. Primary central nervous system lymphoma with lymphomatosis cerebri in an immunocompetent child: MRI and 18F-FDG PET-CT findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun K; Sharma, Punit; Suman, Sudhir K C; Faizi, Nauroze A; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is extremely rare in immunocompetent children. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings of such a case in a 14-year old immunocompetent boy. In this patient, PCNSL was associated with lymphomatosis cerebri. Familiarity with the findings of this rare condition will improve the diagnostic confidence of the nuclear radiologist and avoid misdiagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Disseminated Cryptococcosis in an Immunocompetent Toddler.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neeraj; Sachdev, Anil; Gupta, Dhiren; Radhakrishnan, Nita

    2017-02-15

    Immunodeficient children are more prone for invasive cryptococcal infections. A 2-year-old boy with disseminated cryptococcosis was evaluated for underlying immunodeficiency without success. Child was managed successfully. Immunocompetent children with disseminated cryptococcosis can present diagnostic or therapeutic challenge in resource-limited settings.

  10. Intussusception caused by heterotopic pancreatic tissue in a child.

    PubMed

    Mills, Robert W; McCrudden, Kimberly; Gupta, Vineet K; Britton, Andrew; Al Qahtani, Mashael; Hasan, Rashed A

    2011-01-01

    Intussusception is the leading cause of intestinal obstruction in children and is almost invariably idiopathic. Occasionally, there is a lead point for the intussusception. Intussusception caused by heterotopic pancreas (HPT) as the lead point is exceedingly rare. We report a case of intussusception caused by HPT in a child. Clinical and pathologic features and the successful medical and surgical management of the case are discussed.

  11. Severe parainfluenza virus type 2 supraglottitis in an immunocompetent adult host: an unusual cause of a paramyxoviridae viral infection.

    PubMed

    Vigil, K J; Mulanovich, V E; Chemaly, R F; Tarrand, J; Raad, I I; Adachi, J A

    2009-03-01

    Parainfluenza virus is a major cause of respiratory illness in humans, manifesting from mild upper respiratory tract infection to bronchiolitis and pneumonia, especially in children. We report - to our knowledge - the first case of a nonimmunocompromised adult patient with human parainfluenza type 2 supraglottitis immediately after returning from China.

  12. Rare Purulent Cardiac Tamponade Caused by Streptococcus Constellatus in a Young Immunocompetent Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 19 Final Diagnosis: Cardiac tamponade Symptoms: Chest pain • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Purulent pericardial tamponade is a very rare occurrence in the current era of widespread antibiotic use. It is even rarer when caused by Streptococcus constellatus: a microorganism usually classified among the normal flora of the human body. It is occasionally diagnosed with certain predisposing factors. Case Report: We present the third case of Streptococcus constellatus cardiac tamponade reported in the current medical literature, occurring in a previously healthy young man who was initially admitted and treated for possible community-acquired pneumonia. The patient required immediate subxyphoid pericardiocentesis. He was also treated successfully with a lengthy course of both intravenous and oral antibiotics. Two months post-hospitalization, he was confirmed clinically stable with complete resolution of his purulent effusion. We also conducted a review of the literature for all Streptococcus milleri group purulent pericardial infections between 1984 and 2015. Conclusions: Purulent cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcus constellatus is extremely rare. It can be life threatening, however. Early appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention are critical for a good outcome. PMID:27847383

  13. Rare Purulent Cardiac Tamponade Caused by Streptococcus Constellatus in a Young Immunocompetent Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Zakaria

    2016-11-16

    BACKGROUND Purulent pericardial tamponade is a very rare occurrence in the current era of widespread antibiotic use. It is even rarer when caused by Streptococcus constellatus: a microorganism usually classified among the normal flora of the human body. It is occasionally diagnosed with certain predisposing factors. CASE REPORT We present the third case of Streptococcus constellatus cardiac tamponade reported in the current medical literature, occurring in a previously healthy young man who was initially admitted and treated for possible community-acquired pneumonia. The patient required immediate subxyphoid pericardiocentesis. He was also treated successfully with a lengthy course of both intravenous and oral antibiotics. Two months post-hospitalization, he was confirmed clinically stable with complete resolution of his purulent effusion. We also conducted a review of the literature for all Streptococcus milleri group purulent pericardial infections between 1984 and 2015. CONCLUSIONS Purulent cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcus constellatus is extremely rare. It can be life threatening, however. Early appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention are critical for a good outcome.

  14. Is Child Maltreatment a Leading Cause of Delinquency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ira M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the now popular assumption that delinquency is primarily caused by child abuse and neglect. Notes that existing studies are inconclusive or provide weak connections at best. In light of public concern over juvenile crime, calls for more funding to explore strategies to prevent and control serious juvenile crimes, especially violence. (TJQ)

  15. Fatal brain infection caused by Aspergillus glaucus in an immunocompetent patient identified by sequencing of the ribosomal 18S-28S internal transcribed spacer.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, R S; Kattar, M M; Dbouni, O; Araj, G F; Kanj, S S

    2007-10-01

    Cerebral aspergillosis has rarely been reported in immunocompetent patients. We herein describe a unique case of cerebral aspergillosis in a healthy adult that led to his death despite aggressive antifungal therapy. Sequencing of ribosomal 18S-28S internal transcribed spacer identified the organism as Eurotium herbariorum, the teleomorph of Aspergillus glaucus.

  16. Does clutch size evolve in response to parasites and immunocompetence?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Moller, A.P.; Merino, S.; Clobert, J.

    2001-01-01

    Parasites have been argued to influence clutch size evolution, but past work and theory has largely focused on within-species optimization solutions rather than clearly addressing among-species variation. The effects of parasites on clutch size variation among species can be complex, however, because different parasites can induce age-specific differences in mortality that can cause clutch size to evolve in different directions. We provide a conceptual argument that differences in immunocompetence among species should integrate differences in overall levels of parasite-induced mortality to which a species is exposed. We test this assumption and show that mortality caused by parasites is positively correlated with immunocompetence measured by cell-mediated measures. Under life history theory, clutch size should increase with increased adult mortality and decrease with increased juvenile mortality. Using immunocompetence as a general assay of parasite-induced mortality, we tested these predictions by using data for 25 species. We found that clutch size increased strongly with adult immunocompetence. In contrast, clutch size decreased weakly with increased juvenile immunocompetence. But, immunocompetence of juveniles may be constrained by selection on adults, and, when we controlled for adult immunocompetence, clutch size decreased with juvenile immunocompetence. Thus, immunocompetence seems to reflect evolutionary differences in parasite virulence experienced by species, and differences in age-specific parasite virulence appears to exert opposite selection on clutch size evolution.

  17. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in Immunocompetent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Tasleem, Syed H; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus colitis is common in immunocompromised patients, but rare in immunocompetent patients. The present study not only represents the colonoscopy and pathological findings, but also applies the method of diagnosing and treating cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27980888

  18. Visceral basidiobolomycosis: An overlooked infection in immunocompetent children

    PubMed Central

    Mandhan, Parkash; Hassan, Kamal Osman; Samaan, Sandra Moustafa; Ali, Mansour J

    2015-01-01

    Visceral basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal infection of viscera caused by saprophyte Basidiobolus ranarum. It is very rare in healthy children and poses a diagnostic challenge due to the non-specific clinical presentation and the absence of predisposing factors. We report a case of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a 4-year-old healthy girl who presented with a short history of abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum, fever, and weight loss. The diagnosis was based on high eosinophilic count, classical histopathology findings of fungal hyphae (the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon), and positive fungal culture from a tissue biopsy. Fungal infection was successfully eradicated with a combined approach of surgical resection of the infected tissue and a well-monitored course of antifungal therapy. The atypical clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, and the role of surgery in the management of a rare and lethal fungal disease in an immunocompetent child are discussed. PMID:26612126

  19. Gastroenteritis caused by Aeromonas trota in a child.

    PubMed Central

    Reina, J; Lopez, A

    1996-01-01

    A case of acute diarrhoea caused by Aeromonas trota (formerly HG 13 group) in a Spanish child is reported. The strain was isolated in the faeces using the CIN agar (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin) culture media. The strain was initially identified as A sobria by the commercial GNI card and API 20E biochemical systems. The strain was, however, VogesProskauer and sucrose negative, so complementary tests of cellobiose fermentation and gluconate oxidation were performed. These tests, together with the strain susceptibility to ampicillin (MIC 1 microgram/ml) and carbenicillin (MIC < 16 micrograms/ml) led to the final identification of A trota. The microbiological characteristics of this new species and the principal tests required for its identification are presented. The isolation, for the first time, of A trota in the Mediterranean area confirms the suspected worldwide distribution of this species. PMID:8655689

  20. Group C Streptococcus Causing Rheumatic Heart Disease in a Child.

    PubMed

    Chandnani, Harsha K; Jain, Renu; Patamasucon, Pisespong

    2015-07-01

    Human infection with group C Streptococcus is extremely rare and a select number of cases have been reported to cause acute pharyngitis, acute glomerulonephritis, skin and soft tissue infections, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, pneumonitis, and bacteremia. In pediatrics, this bacteria is known to cause epidemic food-borne pharyngitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, and meningitis, and has reportedly been isolated in the blood, meninges, sinuses, fingernail, peritonsillar abscess, and thyroglossal duct cyst, among others. Our patient was a 7-year-old previously healthy female who presented with abnormal movements of her upper body and grimaces of her face that progressively worsened over time. Initial laboratory resulted revealed 3+ protein on urinalysis and elevated antistreptolysin-O and anti-DNAse antibody levels, and echocardiogram showed mild-to-moderate mitral regurgitation. We describe a rare case of group C Streptococcus resulting in rheumatic heart disease in a child, with a detailed review of the literature pertaining to the diagnosis and management of this infection. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Early recognition of rheumatic heart disease is crucial in the overall outcome of the condition and therefore knowledge of the symptoms associated with condition is also imperative. Group C Streptococcus is rarely associated with rheumatic heart disease and most children exhibiting acute onset of common symptoms, such as chorea, fever, carditis, and rash (erythema marginatum) will present to the emergency department first. Increased awareness and prompt recognition, as done with this child, will result in proper follow-up and adequate management of this condition in all patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in an Immunocompetent Host

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Pratibha Balasaheb; Chandak, Sachet Vijay; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-01-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a devastating syndrome due to uninhibited immune activation. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a rare cause of HLH. There have been few case reports and series demonstrating a relation between the two disease entities in immunosuppressed hosts. HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis is even rarer in an immunocompetant host. We report a rare case of HLH triggered by disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetant patient. PMID:27134914

  2. [Varicella zoster myopericarditis in an immunocompetent adult].

    PubMed

    Biocić, Stanko; Durasević, Zeljko; Starcević, Boris; Udovicić, Mario

    2009-10-01

    More than 20 viruses have been reported to cause myopericarditis, a rare but potentially dangerous complication. To our best knowledge only a few dozen cases of myopericarditis caused by varicella zoster virus have been reported, most frequently in children, seldom in immunocompetent adults. We report on a case of a myopericarditis caused by varicella zoster virus in a previously healthy young man, with a typical development and a fast and complete recovery. A 27-years-old male was admitted to our hospital with chest pain and signs of acute cardiac injury. He had no medical history of serious previous illnesses. Four weeks earlier, the patient was in contact with a child having chickenpox. Two days prior to admission patient became suddenly febrile up to 40 degrees C along with dry cough, and the following day intense chest pain set in. At the admission we found in the patient diffuse vesiculous exanthema on the whole body and capillitium. Heart beat was rhythmical with no audible murmurs or pericardial friction rub, 100 beats per minute, blood pressure RR 130/90 mm Hg, body temperature 37.4 degrees C, and ST segment elevation in lateral leads along with elevated cardiac markers were found. All parameters of complete blood count were within normal range. Chest X-ray showed somewhat enlarged heart with incipient signs of cardiac decompensation. Echocardiogram was normal, apart from a mild dyskinesis of the apical third of intraventricular septum, with ejection fraction slightly reduced to 50% and no valvular defect. Clinical diagnosis of acute infection with varicella zoster virus was confirmed serologically by a positive ELISA test. Patient received conservative therapy (isosorbide mononitrate, low molecular weight heparin, acetylsalicylic acid and bisoprolol), while he remained hemodinamically, and apart from one non sustained ventricular tachycardia immediately after admission, also rhythmically stable. During his stay in hospital we observed the typical

  3. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent individual.

    PubMed

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2011-10-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by the ubiquitous fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is an uncommon entity and is usually present in the immunosuppressed. Here, a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This 70-year-old healthy woman presented with multiple painful ulcerated nodules on her face and upper and lower extremities of 6-month duration, associated with low-grade fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed epidermal hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with budding yeast. Fungal culture identified S. schenckii. She had total resolution of the lesions after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 months of oral itraconazole. All investigations for underlying immunosuppression and internal organ involvement were negative. This case reiterates that disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis, although common in the immunosuppressed, can also be seen in immunocompetent patients.

  4. Bronchitis caused by Bordetella holmesii in a child with asthma misdiagnosed as mycoplasmal infection.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Chihiro; Kushibiki, Chieko; Nishito, Atsumi; Nishida, Rikou; Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Kawahara, Ryuji; Otsuka, Nao; Miyaji, Yusuke; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of a bronchitis caused by Bordetella holmesii in a 2-year-old girl with asthma. The patient had a moderate fever and productive cough, and her condition was initially diagnosed as mycoplasmal bronchitis on the basis of her clinical symptoms and rapid serodiagnosis of mycoplasmal infection. She was treated with a bronchodilator and clarithromycin, which resulted in complete recovery. However, after the initial diagnosis, nucleic acid amplification tests of her sputum showed the absence of both Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Bordetella pertussis infections. Sputum culture showed the presence of a slow-growing, gram-negative bacillus in pure culture on Bordetella agar plates; the bacillus was later identified as B. holmesii. B. holmesii infection is rare in immunocompetent children; however, the organism is a true pathogen that can cause bronchitis in young children with asthma.

  5. A rare case of community acquired Burkholderia cepacia infection presenting as pyopneumothorax in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Karanth, Suman S; Regunath, Hariharan; Chawla, Kiran; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) infection is rarely reported in an immunocompetent host. It is a well known occurence in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease where it increases both morbidity and mortality. It has also been included in the list of organisms causing nosocomial infections in an immunocompetent host, most of them transmitted from the immunocompromised patient in which this organism harbors. We report a rare case of isolation of B. cepacia from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of an immunocompetent agriculturist who presented with productive cough and fever associated with a pyopneumothorax. This is the first case of community acquired infection reported in an immunocompetent person in India. PMID:23569891

  6. [Burns in children: child abuse or another cause?].

    PubMed

    van Ewijk, Roelof; op de Coul, Moniek E; Teeuw, A H Rian; Wolf, Bart H M

    2012-01-01

    Burns are common in children but it is not always clear whether the burn is accidental or not. Child abuse should always be considered. We present two children in which the diagnosis only became clear after admission and further investigation. Patient A, a 15-month-old boy, had a burn on his left shoulder. The burn was assumed suspect in view of the unclear history given by the parents and a possible delay in their seeking help. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with impetigo bullosa and successfully treated with antibiotics. Patient B, a 24-month-old girl, had burns on both feet and her right hand, which were infected as a result of the delay in seeking help. The burns were identified as abuse-related. The child was removed from her mother's care and sent to a foster home. A well-defined work-up should be followed in case of burns in children.

  7. A child's sleeping habit as a cause of nursing caries.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S S; Rosivack, R G; Michelotti, P

    1993-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the relationship between infant bottle drinking patterns and "nursing caries". The sleeping habits of the child, the contents of the bottle, the age at which the child was weaned from the bottle, and the age at which toothbrushing commenced were evaluated. Information was obtained through a parental questionnaire and a clinical examination. The results indicate that children who fell asleep while feeding from the bottle had significantly more cases of "nursing caries" than did children who discarded the bottle before falling asleep. Children who discarded the bottle before falling asleep, however, had significantly more cases of "nursing caries" than did children who were not given the bottle at all at bedtime. All other factors were not significant in increasing or decreasing the incidence of "nursing caries".

  8. Soft tissue infection caused by Kingella kingae in a child.

    PubMed

    Rolle, U; Schille, R; Hörmann, D; Friedrich, T; Handrick, W

    2001-06-01

    During the last years an increasing number of reports concerning Kingella kingae infections in children has been published. Most cases were osteoarticular infections. The authors report the clinical and laboratory findings from a 3-year-old child with a presternal soft tissue infection due to K kingae. After surgical excochleation and antibiotic treatment there was an uneventful recovery. J Pediatr Surg 36:946-947.

  9. 'Stranger' child-murder: issues relating to causes and controls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P R

    1988-02-01

    Most industrialised countries are concerned with a perceived increase in the killing of children and adolescents by strangers. Though reliable statistics are lacking, the growth of serial murder suggests that more young persons may be at risk than ever before. Explanations, either of a psychological or sociological kind, of child murder by strangers are inadequately developed. Despite the tendency to see such killers as psychiatrically ill a number of studies suggest that the majority of offenders do not differ significantly, at least in psychological traits, from non-offenders. Subcultural and other sociological perspectives stressing "social disadvantage" have low levels of exploratory power and do not assist greatly in understanding child killings. Despite sketchy and contradictory evidence on the effects of the media on sexual and violent crime case study material supports the view that pornography, including popular music, may increase the propensity of individuals to commit atrocities. Counter-measures to control stranger child killing lie in more sophisticated law enforcement (profiling and computer links between police forces) long periods of incarceration of the offender and more sophisticated analyses of the crimes.

  10. Necrotizing mycosis due to Verruconis gallopava in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Geltner, Christian; Sorschag, Sieglinde; Willinger, Birgit; Jaritz, Thomas; Saric, Zoran; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2015-12-01

    Verruconis gallopava is a dematiaceous mould usually causing saprophytic infection in immunosuppressed host. Only a few cases have been published even in immunocompromised states. We present a rare case of pulmonary involvement in an immunocompetent patient with recurrent disease. The mid-aged woman had no evidence of any disease causing impaired immune response. Recurrent disease shows pulmonary infiltrates and symptoms of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis. We describe an emerging pathogen that has been found in an immunocompetent host. Eradication was not possible despite the use of several different antifungal drugs. Further recurrence of infection in the described patient is probable.

  11. Preseptal cellulitis in a child caused by Megacopta centrosignatum.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert Chak Ming; Mak, Shiu Ting

    2012-12-01

    Preseptal cellulitis in children can be caused by a reaction to embedded insects, their body parts, or secretions. We report the case of a 2-year-old girl who presented with preseptal cellulitis caused by an insect identified as Megacopta centrosignatum in her superior fornix. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Disseminated mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients: A disease that also exists].

    PubMed

    Pozo Laderas, Juan Carlos; Pontes Moreno, Antonio; Pozo Salido, Carmen; Robles Arista, Juan Carlos; Linares Sicilia, María José

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis is usually an acute angioinvasive infections, which leads to non-suppurative necrosis and significant tissue damage. It represents 1.6% of all the invasive fungal infections and predominates in immunosuppressed patients with risk factors. Incidence has been significantly increased even in immunocompetent patients. Due to finding a case of disseminated mucormycosis caused by Rhizomucor pusillus in a young immunocompetent patient, a systematic review was carried out of reported cases in PubMed of mucormycosis in immunocompetent adults according to the main anatomic locations, and especially in disseminated cases. A review of the main risk factors and pathogenicity, clinical manifestations, techniques of early diagnosis, current treatment options, and prognosis is presented. Taxonomy and classification of the genus Mucor has also been reviewed.

  13. Bacillary Angiomatosis in Immunocompetent Patient with Atypical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Meidani, Mohsen; Rajabi, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis is an infectious disease caused by two Gram-negative bacilli; this disease usually affects immunosuppressed hosts with a history of cat scratch. We report a rare case of bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompetent 26-year-old woman with no history of exposure to cats, and with atypical clinical features (very pruritic vascular papules and nodules with ulceration and hemorrhage on the right arm and fingers). She was successfully treated with clarithromycin for 3 months. Bacillary angiomatosis must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of any papules and nodules in cases of unknown etiology and also in immunocompetent patients and HIV-negative individual. PMID:26538736

  14. Histoplasmosis Presenting as a Laryngeal Ulcer in an Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    John, Mary; Koshy, Jency Maria; Mohan, Sangeetha; Paul, Preethi

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease of worldwide distribution caused by a dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Majority of primary infections in immunocompetent hosts are asymptomatic or may present with flu-like illness. Histoplasmosis may occur in three forms: (i) Primary acute pulmonary form, (ii) chronic pulmonary and (iii) disseminated form. The manifestations of disseminated form of histoplasmosis are fever, weakness, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and mucocutaneous lesions. The mucosal involvement could be oropharyngeal or laryngeal involvement. We report an unusual case of histoplasmosis presenting as a laryngeal ulcer in an immunocompetent host.

  15. Child obesity 1: analysing its prevalence and causes.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Fiona

    This is a two-part unit on childhood obesity, which is a major public health concern. With rising levels of the condition it is increasingly obvious that early intervention is key to halting this trend. This first part outlines the prevalence and definition of obesity, and also explores its causes and possible interventions.

  16. Chronic Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis by Prototheca Wickerhamii in an Immunocompetent Boy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ari; Choe, Yong-Joon; Chang, Jeonghyun; Kim, Duckhee; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Hong, Seok Ho; Lee, Jina; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2017-07-01

    Human protothecosis is mainly a cutaneous infection caused by the Prototheca species. Prototheca wickerhamii is an established pathogen of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in dogs, but no eosinophilic pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid has been reported in human cases of meningitis. Herein, we report a case of chronic protothecosis manifesting eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent boy.

  17. Disseminated folliculitis by Mycobacterium fortuitum in an immunocompetent woman*

    PubMed Central

    Macente, Sara; Helbel, Cesar; Souza, Simone Felizardo Rocha; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Padua, Rubia Andreia Falleiros; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous fast-growing mycobacterium which is frequently acquired from environmental sources such as soil and water. Since it is an opportunist pathogen, it is associated with trauma, surgery or immunodeficiency. The current report describes a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum-caused disseminated lesions on the skin of an immunocompetent patient. PMID:23539012

  18. Disseminated folliculitis by Mycobacterium fortuitum in an immunocompetent woman.

    PubMed

    Macente, Sara; Helbel, Cesar; Souza, Simone Felizardo Rocha; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Padua, Rubia Andreia Falleiros; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous fast-growing mycobacterium which is frequently acquired from environmental sources such as soil and water. Since it is an opportunist pathogen, it is associated with trauma, surgery or immunodeficiency. The current report describes a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum-caused disseminated lesions on the skin of an immunocompetent patient.

  19. Does Pure Oralism Cause Atrophy of the Hearing-Impaired Child's Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Paul

    1983-01-01

    The question of whether the exclusive use of spoken English (i.e., oralism) causes brain atrophy for the hearing impaired child is examined in light of data presented by R. Conrad and other researchers. It is concluded that deafness itself is the fundamental cause of performance deficits. (SEW)

  20. Intestinal histoplasmosis in immunocompetent adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin-Lin; Wang, Jin; Wang, Zi-Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping; Yang, Jin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To present a retrospective analysis of clinical and endoscopic features of 4 cases of immunocompetent hosts with intestinal histoplasmosis (IH). METHODS: Four immunocompetent adults were diagnosed with IH between October 2005 and March 2015 at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were summarized and analyzed retrospectively. GMS (Gomori methenamine silver), PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) and Giemsa staining technique were used to confirm Histoplasma capsulatum(H. capsulatum). The symptoms, signs, endoscopic presentations, radiographic imaging, pathological stain results and follow-up are presented as tables and illustrations. RESULTS: The cases were male patients, ranging from 33 to 61 years old, and primarily presented with non-specific symptoms such as irregular fever, weight loss, abdominal pain and distention. Hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were the most common signs. Endoscopic manifestations were localized or diffuse congestion, edema, ulcers, and polypoid nodules with central erosion involving the terminal ileum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum, similar to intestinal tuberculosis, tumor, and inflammatory bowel disease. Numerous yeast-like pathogens testing positive for PAS and GMS stains but negative for Giemsa were detected in the cytoplasm of the histiocytes, which were highly suggestive of H. capsulatum. CONCLUSION: Immunocompetent individuals suffering from histoplasmosis are rarely reported. It is necessary that gastroenterologists and endoscopists consider histoplasmosis as a differential diagnosis, even in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27099446

  1. Intestinal histoplasmosis in immunocompetent adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin-Lin; Wang, Jin; Wang, Zi-Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping; Yang, Jin-Lin

    2016-04-21

    To present a retrospective analysis of clinical and endoscopic features of 4 cases of immunocompetent hosts with intestinal histoplasmosis (IH). Four immunocompetent adults were diagnosed with IH between October 2005 and March 2015 at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were summarized and analyzed retrospectively. GMS (Gomori methenamine silver), PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) and Giemsa staining technique were used to confirm Histoplasma capsulatum(H. capsulatum). The symptoms, signs, endoscopic presentations, radiographic imaging, pathological stain results and follow-up are presented as tables and illustrations. The cases were male patients, ranging from 33 to 61 years old, and primarily presented with non-specific symptoms such as irregular fever, weight loss, abdominal pain and distention. Hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were the most common signs. Endoscopic manifestations were localized or diffuse congestion, edema, ulcers, and polypoid nodules with central erosion involving the terminal ileum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum, similar to intestinal tuberculosis, tumor, and inflammatory bowel disease. Numerous yeast-like pathogens testing positive for PAS and GMS stains but negative for Giemsa were detected in the cytoplasm of the histiocytes, which were highly suggestive of H. capsulatum. Immunocompetent individuals suffering from histoplasmosis are rarely reported. It is necessary that gastroenterologists and endoscopists consider histoplasmosis as a differential diagnosis, even in immunocompetent patients.

  2. Pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol in a child.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Ali Ihsan; Albayrak, Hulya; Uslu, Esma; Başkan, Elife; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2015-03-01

    Pustular irritant contact dermatitis is rare and unusual clinic form of contact dermatitis. Dexpanthenol is the stable alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid. It is widely used in cosmetics and topical medical products for several purposes. We present the case of 8-year-old girl with pustules over erythematous and eczematous areas on the face and neck. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported that is diagnosed as pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol.

  3. [Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Elkhihal, B; Hasnaoui, A; Ghfir, I; Moustachi, A; Aoufi, S; Lyagoubi, M

    2015-09-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is a serious opportunistic fungal infection caused by a yeast-encapsulated fungus of the genus Cryptococcus neoformans. It occurs most often in patients with a significant deficit of cellular immunity and preferentially affects the central nervous system. The skin and the lungs are the most commonly affected sites outside the neuro-subarachnoid location. We report the case of a patient apparently immunocompetent who had a disseminated cryptococcosis. The disease started with the multiple purplish skin lesions, large umbilicated on the face, groin, forearm and leg with progressively increasing volume. This symptomatology had evolved in the context of weight loss and poor general condition. The diagnosis was established by the presence of cryptococcal at the skin biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid. Research of immunosuppression common pathologies were negative. Treatment was initiated based on amphotericin B for 40 days. The patient's condition deteriorates onset of paraplegia and swallowing disorders causing death in an array of cachexia. This observation points out that disseminated cryptococcosis can occur in an immunocompetent patient. The skin lesions may be the first sign of the disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Primary renal aspergillosis and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in an immuno-competent toddler.

    PubMed

    Shohab, Durre; Hussain, Ijaz; Khawaja, Athar; Jamil, Imran; Raja, Nazar Ullah; Ahmed, Faizan; Akhter, Saeed

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillosis is primarily a pulmonary disease so that renal aspergillosis is usually secondary to hematogenous spread from lungs. Primary renal aspergillosis, though a rare entity, is still seen in immuno-compromised individuals. Renal aspergillosis may lead to formation of focal abscesses, fungal bezoars and may cause ureteric obstruction. Treatment involves stabilization of patient and removal of fungal bezoars along with administration of anti-fungal agents. This report describes the case of localized primary renal aspergillosis with fungal bezoar formation in 2 years old immuno-competent child who presented in sepsis and acute renal failure and was successfully managed by nephroscopic removal of fungal bezoar and intravenous voriconazole. The other kidney required nephrectomy for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

  5. Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Kunstadter, S L; Leepreecha, P; Podhisita, C; Laoyang, M; Thao, C S; Thao, R S; Yang, W S

    1992-12-01

    The Hmong "hill tribe" minority in Thailand has much higher exposure to factors usually associated with risk of child mortality (high fertility, low status of women, low education, less use of modern medical care for births, exposure to warfare, economic and physical disruption, and poor hygienic conditions) than the rural ethnic Thai population. Nonetheless, infant mortality has declined from over 120 per 1000 to under 50 per 1000 live births among both these populations in the past 30 years. The reason for the rapid increase in child survival among the Hmong appears to be better access to and more use of modern curative and preventive medical care associated with road construction rather than major changes in social or hygienic conditions. Conventional wisdom suggests that high fertility is both a cause and a consequence of high infant and child mortality and that parents will not reduce fertility until they see that mortality has declined. Most Hmong parents recognize the decline in child mortality and attribute it to better access to modern medical care. Most Hmong parents also say that, if they were starting to have children now, they would want to have fewer children. Fear of child death is infrequently mentioned as a motive for having more children, and the perceived decline in child mortality is rarely mentioned as a reason for reduced fertility. Most Hmong parents explain their desired family size in terms of economic conditions rather than perceived risk of child mortality. Results of this study suggest that fertility and child mortality can vary independently of one another and that major reductions in child mortality can be accomplished without waiting for major social changes (e.g., improved education or status of women) or major reductions in fertility.

  6. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E; Cousens, Simon; Johnson, Hope L; Lawn, Joy E; Rudan, Igor; Bassani, Diego G; Jha, Prabhat; Campbell, Harry; Walker, Christa Fischer; Cibulskis, Richard; Eisele, Thomas; Liu, Li; Mathers, Colin

    2010-06-05

    Up-to-date information on the causes of child deaths is crucial to guide global efforts to improve child survival. We report new estimates for 2008 of the major causes of death in children younger than 5 years. We used multicause proportionate mortality models to estimate deaths in neonates aged 0-27 days and children aged 1-59 months, and selected single-cause disease models and analysis of vital registration data when available to estimate causes of child deaths. New data from China and India permitted national data to be used for these countries instead of predictions based on global statistical models, as was done previously. We estimated proportional causes of death for 193 countries, and by application of these proportions to the country-specific mortality rates in children younger than 5 years and birth rates, the numbers of deaths by cause were calculated for countries, regions, and the world. Of the estimated 8.795 million deaths in children younger than 5 years worldwide in 2008, infectious diseases caused 68% (5.970 million), with the largest percentages due to pneumonia (18%, 1.575 million, uncertainty range [UR] 1.046 million-1.874 million), diarrhoea (15%, 1.336 million, 0.822 million-2.004 million), and malaria (8%, 0.732 million, 0.601 million-0.851 million). 41% (3.575 million) of deaths occurred in neonates, and the most important single causes were preterm birth complications (12%, 1.033 million, UR 0.717 million-1.216 million), birth asphyxia (9%, 0.814 million, 0.563 million-0.997 million), sepsis (6%, 0.521 million, 0.356 million-0.735 million), and pneumonia (4%, 0.386 million, 0.264 million-0.545 million). 49% (4.294 million) of child deaths occurred in five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, and China. These country-specific estimates of the major causes of child deaths should help to focus national programmes and donor assistance. Achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality by

  7. Rothia mucilaginosa pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Baeza Martínez, Carlos; Zamora Molina, Lucia; García Sevila, Raquel; Gil Carbonell, Joan; Ramos Rincon, José Manuel; Martín Serrano, Concepción

    2014-11-01

    Rothia mucilaginosa is a gram-postive coccus that occurs as part of the normal flora of the oropharynx and upper respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infections caused by this organism are rare and usually occur in immunocompromised patients. This is the case of an immunocompetent 47-year-old woman with right upper lobe pneumonia in which R.mucilaginosa was isolated in sputum and bronchial aspirate. Infections caused by this agent in the last four years in our hospital were reviewed. The most common predisposing factor was COPD with bronchiectasis. R.mucilaginosa was identified as the causative agent for pneumonia in only two cases, of which one was our case and the other was a patient with lung cancer.

  8. [Transverse myelitis in immunocompetent children].

    PubMed

    Oñate Vergara, E; Sota Busselo, I; García-Santiago, J; Gaztañaga Expósito, R; Nogués Pérez, A; Ruiz Benito, M A

    2004-08-01

    Acute transverse myelitis is an acute inflammatory medullar disease characterized by acute or subacute motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. The incidence is low and is estimated at 1-4 cases/10(6) inhabitants per year. In Spain, the disorder is exceptional and most reported cases have occurred in immunodepressed patients. We describe two new cases of transverse myelitis in immunocompetent children and review the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and outcome of this disorder.

  9. The Cause of Child Abuse and Neglect and Their Effects on the Development of Children in Samaru Zaria, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdi, Veronica

    1990-01-01

    Initial discussion of the definition, types, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect is followed by a description of a study of child abuse in Samaru Village of Nigeria and the effects of such abuse on the development of the child. (BG)

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent children.

    PubMed

    Yuanjie, Zhu; Jianghan, Chen; Nan, Xu; Xiaojun, Wang; Hai, Wen; Wanqing, Liao; Julin, Gu

    2012-03-01

    To describe clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent children. Immunocompetent children with cryptococcal meningitis who attended Changzheng Hospital between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. During the 10 years reviewed, 11 children with cryptococcal meningitis were admitted to Changzheng hospital and identified as immunocompetent. The 11 children had a median age of 7.25 years. Headache (100%), fever (81.8%), nausea or vomiting (63.6%) and visual or hearing damage or loss (36.4%) were the most common symptoms before treatment. There is no evidence for other site infection of cryptococcus although all the cryptococcal antigen titre is high in blood. All the patients received amphotericin B or AmB liposome with 5-flucytosine for at least 6 weeks followed by fluconazole or itraconazole as consolidation treatment for at least 12 weeks. Nine patients were cured mycologically; however, sequela of visual damage was showed in one patient. Cryptococcal meningitis seems to be uncharacteristic of symptoms, and central nervous system may be the only common site for infection. Amphotericin B with 5-flucytosine should be the choice of induction treatment in this group of patients.

  11. Intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by Abiotrophia defectiva in a neutropenic child.

    PubMed

    Phulpin-Weibel, A; Gaspar, N; Emirian, A; Chachaty, E; Valteau-Couanet, D; Gachot, B

    2013-05-01

    Bacteraemia and endocarditis are the most frequently reported clinical infections due to Abiotrophia defectiva species. This species has been rarely implicated in infections in neutropenic patients. We report a rare case of long-term venous catheter-related infection caused by A. defectiva that occurred in a febrile child who had neutropenia and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis.

  12. Recurrent malignant juxtaglomerular cell tumor: A rare cause of malignant hypertension in a child

    PubMed Central

    Shera, Altaf H.; Baba, Aejaz A.; Bakshi, Iftikhar H.; Lone, Iqbal A.

    2011-01-01

    A juxtaglomerular cell tumor or reninoma is a very rare renin-secreting tumor of the kidney and can be an unusual cause of secondary hypertension. We report a case of recurrence of this uncommon tumor at the hilum of left kidney in an 8-year-old male child. PMID:22121315

  13. Burn injuries caused by a hair-dryer--an unusual case of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Darok, M; Reischle, S

    2001-01-01

    About 1.4-26% burn injuries in children appear to be abusive in origin. A 2.5-year-old girl was referred to our institute because of suspected child abuse. Clinical examination and later interrogation of the mother revealed non-recent deep second degree burn injuries on both gluteal regions, caused by the partner of the mother by pressing a hand-held hair-dryer against the skin. The authors present the findings of this unusual method of child abuse.

  14. Adenovirus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are an important cause of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, and they continue to provide clinical challenges pertaining to diagnostics and treatment. The growing number of HAdV types identified by genomic analysis, as well as the improved understanding of the sites of viral persistence and reactivation, requires continuous adaptions of diagnostic approaches to facilitate timely detection and monitoring of HAdV infections. In view of the clinical relevance of life-threatening HAdV diseases in the immunocompromised setting, there is an urgent need for highly effective treatment modalities lacking major side effects. The present review summarizes the recent progress in the understanding and management of HAdV infections. PMID:24982316

  15. Treatment of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis with voriconazole and miltefosine in an immunocompetent soldier.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan; Umar, Imran; Umar, Imram; Kolyvas, George; Bilbao, Juan; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Duplisea, Kevin; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2012-10-01

    A 38-year-old male immunocompetent soldier developed generalized seizures. He underwent surgical debulking and a progressive demyelinating pseudotumor was identified. Serology and molecular testing confirmed a diagnosis of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba sp. in this immunocompetent male. The patient was treated with oral voriconazole and miltefosine with Acanthamoeba titers returning to control levels and serial imaging demonstrating resolution of the residual lesion.

  16. Treatment of Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis with Voriconazole and Miltefosine in an Immunocompetent Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Duncan; Umar, Imram; Kolyvas, George; Bilbao, Juan; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Duplisea, Kevin; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old male immunocompetent soldier developed generalized seizures. He underwent surgical debulking and a progressive demyelinating pseudotumor was identified. Serology and molecular testing confirmed a diagnosis of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba sp. in this immunocompetent male. The patient was treated with oral voriconazole and miltefosine with Acanthamoeba titers returning to control levels and serial imaging demonstrating resolution of the residual lesion. PMID:22869634

  17. Scytalidium dimidiatum associated invasive fungal sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Hariri, A; Choudhury, N; Saleh, H A

    2014-11-01

    Scytalidium dimidiatum is a soil and plant pathogen that frequently affects fruit trees, but can also cause human infection. There are only two reported cases of invasive fungal sinusitis involving this rare micro-organism. This paper reports the first case of invasive fungal sinusitis caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum occurring in a young immunocompetent patient from a non-endemic region, and discusses potential sources of exposure and relevance of local factors. Case report. The patient was treated successfully with a combination of functional endoscopic sinus surgery, and antifungal and corticosteroid treatment. This paper describes the first reported case of invasive fungal sinusitis secondary to Scytalidium dimidiatum in a young immunocompetent patient from a non-endemic region. Importance is placed on following a systematic process of investigation and management, and adhering to well-defined basic surgical principles.

  18. Causes, spectrum and effects of surgical child abuse and neglect in a Nigerian city.

    PubMed

    Osifo, O D; Oku, O R

    2009-01-01

    Children are dependent on parents and care givers for the quality of health care services received and in developing countries, where they are not protected against child abuse; many die as a result of denial of appropriate treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the causes, spectrum and effects of abuse and neglect on surgical children. Analysis of cases of surgical child abuse and neglect between January, 1998 and December, 2007 at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, was done. A total of 281 children aged two days and 12 years comprising 113 males and 168 females with male to female ratio 1:1.4, mainly with congenital malformation, suffered surgical child abuse and neglect ranging from delayed presentation, to child abandonment which was perpetuated by ignorance, poverty, superstitious beliefs, customs as well as non availability of free medical services for children. Counselling and home visits in addition to surgeries were done and 198 (70.5%) children were successfully treated with those abandoned happily reunited with their families, while 56 (19.9%) mortality was recorded due to complications of the primary surgical pathology, and this was statistically significant compared with other children with similar lesions but without abuse or neglect during the period (p=0.0102). Whereas 27 (9.6%) among those discharged against medical advice were lost to follow-up, of the 198 children that survived, 22 suffered psychological trauma and were co-managed with psychologists while seven were transferred to orphanage homes. Surgical child abuse/neglect is rampant, hence, it is hoped that these findings will influence policy makers in this sub-region to formulate policies that will protect children against this form of child abuse.

  19. Multidrug-resistant Achromobacter animicus causing wound infection in a street child in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Moremi, Nyambura; Claus, Heike; Hingi, Marko; Vogel, Ulrich; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-02-10

    Achromobacter animicus (A. animicus) is an aerobic, motile, gram-negative, non-fermenting small bacillus that can also grow anaerobically with potassium nitrate. It has been isolated from sputum of humans suffering from respiratory infections. Literature regarding the role of A. animicus in wound infections is limited. We report a first case of a chronic post-traumatic wound infection caused by a multidrug-resistant A. animicus in a street child from Africa and accompanied diagnostic challenges.

  20. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Egido, S. Hernández; Ruiz, M. Siller; Inés Revuelta, S.; García, I. García; Bellido, J.L. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Small colony variants (SCV) are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:26862434

  1. Rare Elizabethkingia meningosepticum meningitis case in an immunocompetent adult

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Salim S; Abd, Thura T; Cribbs, Sushma K; Anderson, Albert M; Melendez, Andre; Kobayashi, Miwako; Polito, Carmen; (Wayne) Wang, Yun F

    2013-01-01

    Though Elizabethkingia meningosepticum typically causes meningitis in neonates, its occurrence in adult is rare, with sixteen cases described worldwide. We report a case of E. meningosepticum meningitis in an immunocompetent adult. Bacterial identification was made a day earlier than conventional method by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek mass spectrometry RUO (VMS), which resulted in successful treatment with rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin and minocycline. PMID:26038458

  2. Disseminated Aspergillosis in the Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Shinhye; Yang, Min Kyu; Kim, Chung-Jong; Kim, Taek Soo; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Woo, Se Joon; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Kyoung Un; Kim, Hong Bin

    2015-10-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis is very rare in immunocompetent hosts and is typically associated with a poor prognosis. We describe the case of a 66-year-old, immunocompetent man who developed pneumonia, endophthalmitis and probable spondylitis caused by Aspergillus species. The patient was successfully treated with antifungal drugs. We reviewed the English-language literature between 1980 and 2012 for disseminated aspergillosis cases in immunocompetent hosts, using the keywords "dissemin*" and "aspergillo*." Disseminated aspergillosis in immunocompetent hosts is very rare in the literature. However, awareness of possible dissemination of Aspergillus spp. is necessary in patients who have a probable lung lesion and in cases with unusual presentation of a disseminated infection, even if the patient has no risk factors.

  3. Mitochondrial function, ornamentation, and immunocompetence.

    PubMed

    Koch, Rebecca E; Josefson, Chloe C; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2016-07-25

    Understanding the mechanisms that link ornamental displays and individual condition is key to understanding the evolution and function of ornaments. Immune function is an aspect of individual quality that is often associated with the expression of ornamentation, but a general explanation for why the expression of some ornaments seems to be consistently linked to immunocompetence remains elusive. We propose that condition-dependent ornaments may be linked to key aspects of immunocompetence through co-dependence on mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial involvement in immune function is rarely considered outside of the biomedical literature, but the role of mitochondria as the primary energy producers of the cell and the centres of biosynthesis, the oxidative stress response, and cellular signalling place them at the hub of a variety of immune pathways. A promising new mechanistic explanation for correlations between a wide range of ornamental traits and the properties of individual quality is that mitochondrial function may be the 'shared pathway' responsible for links between ornament production and individual condition. Herein, we first review the role of mitochondria as both signal transducers and metabolic regulators of immune function. We then describe connections between hormonal pathways and mitochondria, with implications for both immune function and the expression of ornamentation. Finally, we explore the possibility that ornament expression may link directly to mitochondrial function. Considering condition-dependent traits within the framework of mitochondrial function has the potential to unify central tenets within the study of sexual selection, eco-immunology, oxidative stress ecology, stress and reproductive hormone biology, and animal physiology.

  4. Pleiotropic effects of juvenile hormone in ant queens and the escape from the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off.

    PubMed

    Pamminger, Tobias; Treanor, David; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-13

    The ubiquitous trade-off between survival and costly reproduction is one of the most fundamental constraints governing life-history evolution. In numerous animals, gonadotropic hormones antagonistically suppressing immunocompetence cause this trade-off. The queens of many social insects defy the reproduction-survival trade-off, achieving both an extraordinarily long life and high reproductive output, but how they achieve this is unknown. Here we show experimentally, by integrating quantification of gene expression, physiology and behaviour, that the long-lived queens of the ant Lasius niger have escaped the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off by decoupling the effects of a key endocrine regulator of fertility and immunocompetence in solitary insects, juvenile hormone (JH). This modification of the regulatory architecture enables queens to sustain a high reproductive output without elevated JH titres and suppressed immunocompetence, providing an escape from the reproduction-immunocompetence trade-off that may contribute to the extraordinary lifespan of many social insect queens.

  5. [Fever and lymphadenopathy: acute toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Kaparos, Nikolaos; Favrat, Bernard; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2014-11-26

    Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In Switzerland about a third of the population has antibodies against this pathogen and has thus already been in contact with the parasite or has contracted the disease. Immunocompetent patients are usually asymptomatic (80-90%) during primary infection. The most common symptom is neck or occipital lymphadenopathy. Serology is the diagnostic gold standard in immunocompetent individuals. The presence of IgM antibodies is however not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. Distinction between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis requires additional serological tests (IgG avidity test). If required, the most used and probably most effective treatment is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, with folinic acid.

  6. Little Evidence That Time in Child Care Causes Externalizing Problems During Early Childhood in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric; Lekhal, Ratib; Toppelberg, Claudio O.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between maternal reports of hours in child care and children’s externalizing problems at 18 and 36 months of age were examined in a population-based Norwegian sample (n = 75,271). Within a sociopolitical context of homogenously high-quality child care, there was little evidence that high quantity of care causes externalizing problems. Using conventional approaches to handling selection bias and listwise deletion for substantial attrition in this sample, more hours in care predicted higher problem levels, yet with small effect sizes. The finding, however, was not robust to using multiple imputation for missing values. Moreover, when sibling and individual fixed-effects models for handling selection bias were used, no relation between hours and problems was evident. PMID:23311645

  7. Changing Cause of Death Profile in Morocco: The Impact of Child-survival Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Garenne, Michel; Darkaoui, Nada; Braikat, Mhamed; Azelmat, Mustapha

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the trends in cause-specific mortality and the impact of child-survival programmes in Morocco. Two national surveys on causes and circumstances of child deaths were conducted in Morocco in 1988 and 1998 (ECCD-1 and ECCD-2 respectively). These surveys were based on a representative sample of deaths of children aged less than five years (432 and 866 respectively). Causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsy and were validated on a subsample of 94 cases. Data on causes of deaths were matched with death rates from demographic surveys (Enquête Nationale Démographique à Passages Répétés and Demographic and Health Survey) to compute cause-specific death rates. Morocco underwent a dramatic mortality decline since independence, and the decline in mortality among children aged less than five years was particularly rapid over the 1988-1997 period, at an average rate of −6% a year, and faster for children (aged 1-4 year(s)) than for infants. The decline in mortality varied markedly by causes of death and was most pronounced for causes due to vaccine-preventable diseases, such as neonatal tetanus, measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis, for diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition, and for selected infectious diseases. However, mortality due to acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) outside the neonatal period did not change significantly as was the case for some neonatal conditions (birth trauma and prematurity) and for accidents. The decline in cause-specific mortality could be attributed to the success of public-health programmes: the Expanded Programme on Immunization, the management of diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition, and the use of antibiotics for selected infectious diseases. It is likely that improvements in living conditions, child-feeding practices, hygiene, and sanitation also contributed to the decline in mortality, although these could not explain the magnitude of the changes for target diseases. In contrast, the

  8. [A cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in a child: primary carnitine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Baragou, S; Pio, M; Di Bernardo, S; Ksontini, T Boulos; Dommange, S Jiekak; Bonafe, L; Meijboom, E; Sekarski, N

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this case report was to show the importance to research metabolic etiology, especially a carnitine deficiency in dilated cardiomyopathy of children. A three years old Togolese child presented muscular hypotonia, dyspnea. Examination showed left galop murmur and systolic murmur 2/6. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly (CTI: 0.66), electrocardiogram, a sinusal rythm, left ventricle hypertrophy and T wave abnormalities. Echocardiogram showed a markedly dilated left ventricle with reduced systolic function (EF: 0.43; reference range 0.55-0.80) and moderate mitral regurgitation. The inflammatory signs where negatives. Magnetic resonance imaging don't show signs of ischemic or myocarditis. The levels of free and total plasmatic carnitine decreased: 3μmol/L (N: 18-48μmol/L) and 5μmol/l (N: 29-70μmol/L) respectively. Mutation analysis of the gene SLC22A5 confirms the diagnosis of primary systemic carnitine deficiency. Treatment with oral carnitine was started at 200mg/kg per day. Within three weeks of treatment, we observed the decrease of all symptoms and the left ventricular size and function normalized (EF: 0.62). He has now been on oral carnitine for live. Primary carnitine deficiency is a cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in child. It must systematically be suspected when a child presents a primitive cardiomyopathy. The treatment with oral carnitine for live is simple, with excellent prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Generalised stunting of roots in an epileptic child: is long-term phenytoin therapy the cause?

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Garima; Pandey, Ramesh K; Kumar, Dipanshu

    2012-01-01

    Long-term phenytoin therapy is known to cause disturbance in calcium and bone homeostasis. Dental tissues being calcified tissues can also be affected by this derangement of mineral metabolism, especially during developmental phases. This report describes a case of an epileptic child who presented with short roots, enlarged pulp chambers, blunt apices and delayed eruption of permanent dentition, which might be attributed to long-term phenytoin therapy. The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness among the clinicians about its possible dental implications and emphasise upon the need of regular dental check-ups in epileptic children. PMID:22761220

  10. Generalised stunting of roots in an epileptic child: is long-term phenytoin therapy the cause?

    PubMed

    Jindal, Garima; Pandey, Ramesh K; Kumar, Dipanshu

    2012-07-03

    Long-term phenytoin therapy is known to cause disturbance in calcium and bone homeostasis. Dental tissues being calcified tissues can also be affected by this derangement of mineral metabolism, especially during developmental phases. This report describes a case of an epileptic child who presented with short roots, enlarged pulp chambers, blunt apices and delayed eruption of permanent dentition, which might be attributed to long-term phenytoin therapy. The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness among the clinicians about its possible dental implications and emphasise upon the need of regular dental check-ups in epileptic children.

  11. A novel immunocompetent murine model for replicating oncolytic adenoviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Hedjran, F; Larson, C; Perez, G L; Reid, T

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses are under investigation as a promising novel strategy for cancer immunotherapeutics. Unfortunately, there is no immunocompetent mouse cancer model to test oncolytic adenovirus because murine cancer cells are generally unable to produce infectious viral progeny from human adenoviruses. We find that the murine K-ras-induced lung adenocarcinoma cell line ADS-12 supports adenoviral infection and generates infectious viral progeny. ADS-12 cells express the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor and infected ADS-12 cells express the viral protein E1A. We find that our previously described oncolytic virus, adenovirus TAV-255 (AdTAV-255), kills ADS-12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We investigated ADS-12 cells as an in-vivo model system for replicating oncolytic adenoviruses. Subcutaneous injection of ADS-12 cells into immunocompetent 129 mice led to tumor formation in all injected mice. Intratumoral injection of AdTAV-255 in established tumors causes a significant reduction in tumor growth. This model system represents the first fully immunocompetent mouse model for cancer treatment with replicating oncolytic adenoviruses, and therefore will be useful to study the therapeutic effect of oncolytic adenoviruses in general and particularly immunostimulatory viruses designed to evoke an antitumor immune response. PMID:25525035

  12. Primary mucocutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Kash, Natalie; Jahan-Tigh, Richard Reza; Efron-Everett, Melissa; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2014-12-14

    We report a case of primary mucocutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual. The patient, a 61-year-old woman, presented with a non-healing ulcer on the lateral border of her tongue. Excisional biopsy of the lesion was consistent with histoplasmosis and no evidence of pulmonary or disseminated infection was found. Although mucocutaneous infection has been well-described as a manifestation of disseminated disease, especially in immunocompromised individuals, oral infections in immunocompetent patients are rare.

  13. Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action. Methods A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of “grey literature.” A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed. Results More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity. Conclusions The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations. PMID:22883138

  14. Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Thomsen, Sarah

    2012-08-11

    Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action. A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of "grey literature." A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed. More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity. The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations.

  15. Intra-cranial Toxoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Female.

    PubMed

    Hoti, Yaser Ud Din; Aziz, Amir; Ishaque, Khurram; Abbas, Sadia; Ud Din, Tariq Salah

    2016-06-01

    Intra-cranial toxoplasmosis is a rare entity occurring mostly in immunosuppressed individuals. It is extremely rare in an immune competent patient. Toxoplasmosis is the third leading cause of food borne illness. Depending upon the site, degree of inflammation and local damage, toxoplasmosis encephalitis and cranial abscess can cause long lasting neurologic sequel. With modern imaging techniques, toxoplasmosis antibody titers, slit lamp examination and brain biopsy, there is improvement in diagnosis along with reduction in the mortality rate. We present a case illustrating the radiological manifestations, complications, potential pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment of intra-cranial toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patient.

  16. Fine and Gray competing risk regression model to study the cause-specific under-five child mortality in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Khandoker Akib; Fatima-Tuz-Zahura, Most; Bari, Wasimul

    2017-01-28

    The cause-specific under-five mortality of Bangladesh has been studied by fitting cumulative incidence function (CIF) based Fine and Gray competing risk regression model (1999). For the purpose of analysis, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011 data set was used. Three types of mode of mortality for the under-five children are considered. These are disease, non-disease and other causes. Product-Limit survival probabilities for the under-five child mortality with log-rank test were used to select a set of covariates for the regression model. The covariates found to have significant association in bivariate analysis were only considered in the regression analysis. Potential determinants of under-five child mortality due to disease is size of child at birth, while gender of child, NGO (non-government organization) membership of mother, mother's education level, and size of child at birth are due to non-disease and age of mother at birth, NGO membership of mother, and mother's education level are for the mortality due to other causes. Female participation in the education programs needs to be increased because of the improvement of child health and government should arrange family and social awareness programs as well as health related programs for women so that they are aware of their child health.

  17. [Multifocal tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients].

    PubMed

    Rezgui, Amel; Fredj, Fatma Ben; Mzabi, Anis; Karmani, Monia; Laouani, Chadia

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal tuberculosis is defined as the presence of lesions affecting at least two extrapulmonary sites, with or without pulmonary involvement. This retrospective study of 10 cases aims to investigate the clinical and evolutionary characteristics of multifocal tuberculosis. It included 41 cases with tuberculosis collected between 1999 and 2013. Ten patients had multifocal tuberculosis (24%): 9 women and 1 man, the average age was 50 years (30-68 years). Our patients were correctly BCG vaccinated. The evaluation of immunodepression was negative in all patients. 7 cases had lymph node tuberculosis, 3 cases digestive tuberculosis, 2 cases pericardial tuberculosis, 2 cases osteoarticular tuberculosis, 1 case brain tuberculosis, 2 cases urinary tuberculosis, 4 cases urogenital tuberculosis, 1 case adrenal tuberculosis, 1 case cutaneous and 1 case muscle tuberculosis. All patients received anti-tuberculosis treatment for a mean duration of 10 months, with good evolution. Multifocal tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose. It can affect immunocompetent patients but often has good prognosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy must be initiated as soon as possible to avoid sequelae.

  18. Sepsis Caused by Achromobacter Xylosoxidans in a Child with Cystic Fibrosis and Severe Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stobbelaar, Kim; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Lequesne, Monique; De Dooy, Jozef; Ho, Erwin; Vlieghe, Erika; Ieven, Margaretha; Verhulst, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 10 Final Diagnosis: Sepsis Symptoms: Fever • hypotension • not tollerating enteral feeds • respiratory deterioration Medication: — Clinical Procedure: IV antibiotics • lungtransplantion Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can be responsible for various severe nosocomial and community-acquired infections. It has been found in immunocompromised patients and patients with several other underlying conditions, but the clinical role of this microorganism in cystic fibrosis is unclear. Case Report: We describe a case of septic shock caused by A. xylosoxidans in a 10-year-old child with cystic fibrosis and severe lung disease. Conclusions: As the prevalence of A. xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis patients is rising and patient-to-patient transmission is highly probable, further studies are warranted to determine its role and to document the appropriate treatment strategy for eradication and long-term treatment of this organism. PMID:27498677

  19. Sepsis Caused by Achromobacter Xylosoxidans in a Child with Cystic Fibrosis and Severe Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Stobbelaar, Kim; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Lequesne, Monique; De Dooy, Jozef; Ho, Erwin; Vlieghe, Erika; Ieven, Margaretha; Verhulst, Stijn

    2016-08-08

    BACKGROUND Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can be responsible for various severe nosocomial and community-acquired infections. It has been found in immunocompromised patients and patients with several other underlying conditions, but the clinical role of this microorganism in cystic fibrosis is unclear. CASE REPORT We describe a case of septic shock caused by A. xylosoxidans in a 10-year-old child with cystic fibrosis and severe lung disease. CONCLUSIONS As the prevalence of A. xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis patients is rising and patient-to-patient transmission is highly probable, further studies are warranted to determine its role and to document the appropriate treatment strategy for eradication and long-term treatment of this organism.

  20. Infective endocarditis due to Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Dzeing-Ella, A; Szwebel, T A; Loubinoux, J; Coignard, S; Bouvet, A; Le Jeunne, C; Aslangul, E

    2009-12-01

    Citrobacter koseri (formerly Citrobacter diversus) is a motile gram-negative bacillus usually arising from urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. C. koseri rarely causes infection in immunocompetent patients and, thus far, has been considered an opportunistic pathogen. We report on a 30-year-old man, with no medical past, hospitalized for infective aortic endocarditis due to C. koseri. Four weeks of antibiotherapy led to a full recovery for this patient. However, this case is unusual, as previous history and 1 year of follow-up showed no features of intercurrent immunosuppression. Microbiological diagnosis was based on using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  1. Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Salam, Badar; Camilleri, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Nasal septal abscess is an uncommon condition. Most commonly it is secondary to nasal trauma, which leads to haematoma, and subsequent abscess formation. There are other less common causes like sinusitis, dental infections and furunculosis. Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess has also been reported in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of non-traumatic, spontaneous nasal septal abscess, in a healthy immunocompetent patient with no evidence of sinusitis or other localized infections. Using Medline and Google.co.uk search applications, there has been one previous report of such a condition. We stress the importance of excluding nasal septal abscess in patients presenting with nasal obstruction especially with signs of toxaemia.

  2. Fatal Delftia acidovorans infection in an immunocompetent patient with empyema

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sadia; Sistla, Sujatha; Dhodapkar, Rahul; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Delftia acidovorans (earlier known as Comamonas acidovorans) is an aerobic, non-fermentative, Gram negative rod, classified in the Pseudomonas rRNA homology Group III. Reports of isolation of the organism from serious infections like central venous catheter associated bacteremia, corneal ulcers, otitis media exist. The microbiologists can identify this organism based on an orange indole reaction. This reaction demonstrates the organism's ability to produce anthranilic acid from tryptophan on addition of Kovac's reagent; which gives the media its characteristic “pumpkin orange” colour. Here we report the isolation of this organism from the Endotracheal tube aspirate of a 4 year old child. With the increasing use of invasive devices, it has become important to recognize these non fermentative gram negative bacilli as emerging source of infection even in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:23569872

  3. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system in immunocompetent hosts

    PubMed Central

    Gundavda, Manit K; Patil, Hitendra G; Agashe, Vikas M; Soman, Rajeev; Rodriques, Camilla; Deshpande, Ramesh B

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were considered saprophytic organisms for many years but now are recognized as human pathogens. Although humans are routinely exposed to NTM, the rate of clinical infection is low. Such infections usually occur in the elderly and in patients who are immunocompromised. However, there has been an increasing incidence in recent years of infections in immunocompetent hosts. NTM infections in immunocompetent individuals are secondary to direct inoculation either contamination from surgical procedures or penetrating injuries rather than hematogenous dissemination. Clinically and on histopathology, musculoskeletal infections caused by NTM resemble those caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but are mostly resistant to routine antituberculosis medicines. Materials and Methods: Six cases of NTM infection in immunocompetent hosts presenting to the department from 2004 to 2015 were included in study. Of which two cases (one patella and one humerus) of infection were following an open wound due to trauma while two cases (one hip and one shoulder) of infection were by inoculation following an intraarticular injection for arthrogram of the joint, one case was infection following arthroscopy of knee joint and one case (calcaneum) was infection following local injection for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. All patients underwent inaging and tissue diagnosis with samples being sent for culture, staining, and histopathology. Results: Clinical suspicion of NTM inoculation led to the correct diagnosis (four cases with culture positive and two cases with histopathological diagnosis). There treatment protocol for extrapulmonary NTM infection was radical surgical debridement and medical management based on drug sensitivity testing in culture positive cases. At a mean follow up of 3 years (range1–9 years) all patients had total remission and excellent results. Conclusions: Whenever a case of chronic granulomatous infection is encountered

  4. Research opportunities on immunocompetence in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beisel, W. R. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The most significant of the available data on the effects of space flight on immunocompetences and the potential operational and clinical significance of reported changes are as follows: (1) reduced postflight blastogenic response of peripheral lymphocytes from space crew members; (2) postflight neutrophilia persisting up to 7 days; (3) gingival inflammation of the Skylab astronauts; (4) postflight lymphocytopenia, eosinopenia, and monocytopenia; (5) modifications and shifts in the microflora of space crews and spacecraft; and (6) microbial contamination of cabin air and drinking water. These responses and data disclose numerous gaps in the knowledge that is essential for an adequate understanding of space-related changes in immunocompetence.

  5. Toxoplasma Infection in an Immunocompetent Host: Possible Risk of Living with Multiple Cats

    PubMed Central

    Sotello, David; Ameri, Allen; Abuzaid, Ahmed S; Rivas, Ana Marcella; Vashisht, Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    A 32-year-old man presented with agitation, headache, and confusion. He was immunocompetent and had been living with multiple cats for many years. His vital signs were stable. He was afebrile. Multiple blood tests did not show any serious problem. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple ring-enhancing white matter lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not show any signs of infection. Based on a presumptive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, high-dose corticosteroid treatment was started. However, this caused worsening of the symptoms and increased the size of the lesions. Corticosteroids were discontinued and biopsy was done. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed Toxoplasma gondii infection, and treatment with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine was initiated. Treatment decreased the size of the lesions dramatically. Toxoplasma infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is rare in immunocompetent hosts. Living with multiple cats is believed to be a risk factor for Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent hosts. PMID:28435763

  6. [Herpes simplex hepatitis with macrophage activation syndrome in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Mihalcea-Danciu, M; Ellero, B; Gandoin, M; Harlay, M-L; Schneider, F; Bilbault, P

    2014-12-01

    Herpes simplex hepatitis is a rare cause of acute hepatitis in immunocompetent patients. The triad of fever, increase in liver enzymes and leucopenia is suggestive of herpes simplex hepatitis. Delayed diagnosis without antiviral therapy contributes significantly to an unfavorable outcome. We report a 50-year old immunocompetent male patient, who presented with acute severe hepatitis due to a reactivation of a herpes simplex infection with a complicated course including macrophage activation syndrome and severe coagulopathy. Outcome was finally favorable with early acyclovir therapy. Despite its relatively low occurrence rate, diagnosis of herpetic hepatitis should be discussed in immunocompetent patients with acute liver failure. The benefit of an early acyclovir treatment should lead clinicians to consider this uncommon diagnosis in unexplained cases of hepatitis and to test rapidly HSV DNA levels by PCR in plasma. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Causes of child mortality (1 to 4 years of age) from 1983 to 2012 in the Republic of Korea: national vital data.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seung Ah; Cho, Sung-Il

    2014-11-01

    Child mortality remains a critical problem even in developed countries due to low fertility. To plan effective interventions, investigation into the trends and causes of child mortality is necessary. Therefore, we analyzed these trends and causes of child deaths over the last 30 years in Korea. Causes of death data were obtained from a nationwide vital registration managed by the Korean Statistical Information Service. The mortality rate among all children aged between one and four years and the causes of deaths were reviewed. Data from 1983-2012 and 1993-2012 were analyzed separately because the proportion of unspecified causes of death during 1983-1992 varied substantially from that during 1993-2012. The child (1-4 years) mortality rates substantially decreased during the past three decades. The trend analysis revealed that all the five major causes of death (infectious, neoplastic, neurologic, congenital, and external origins) have decreased significantly. However, the sex ratio of child mortality (boys to girls) slightly increased during the last 30 years. External causes of death remain the most frequent origin of child mortality, and the proportion of mortality due to child assault has significantly increased (from 1.02 in 1983 to 1.38 in 2012). In Korea, the major causes and rate of child mortality have changed and the sex ratio of child mortality has slightly increased since the early 1980s. Child mortality, especially due to preventable causes, requires public health intervention.

  8. 'It was caused by the carelessness of the parents': cultural models of child malnutrition in southern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L

    2015-01-01

    Parents' conceptions of child growth, health and malnutrition are culturally bound, making information about local understandings of malnutrition and its causes necessary for designing effective nutrition programmes. This study used ethnographic methods to elucidate cultural models of child care and malnutrition among the Yao of southern Malawi. Data were collected in six rural villages from 28 key informant interviews with village chiefs and traditional healers among others and 18 focus group discussions with parents and grandmothers of young children. For the Yao, lack of parental care is a key cause of poor child health and can lead to thinness (kunyililika) or swelling (kuimbangana). Parents are said to be careless if they are not attentive to the child's needs, are unable to provide adequate quality or quantity of food, or fail to follow sexual abstinence rules. Maintaining abstinence protects the family and failure to do so causes the transfer of 'heat' from a sexually active parent to a 'cold' child and results in child health problems, including signs and symptoms of malnutrition. These findings indicate that the Yao understanding of care is much broader than the concept of care during feeding described in the nutrition literature. In addition, the Yao note the importance of several key feeding practices supported by international agencies and understand the influence of illness on child nutritional status. These congruencies with the public health frame should be used together with information about the cultural context to design more socially and emotionally relevant care and nutrition programmes among the Yao. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Post-tsunami primary Scedosporium apiospermum osteomyelitis of the knee in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Andrea; Drago, Gabriele; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2013-08-01

    Scedosporium apiospermum is a filamentous fungus present in soil and polluted waters that may cause infection by direct inoculation. Osteomyelitis represents a challenge both for diagnosis and treatment. We report a case of post-tsunami primary S. apiospermum osteomyelitis of the knee in an immunocompetent patient. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatitis E Virus Infection after Platelet Transfusion in an Immunocompetent Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Trouve-Buisson, Thibaut; Pouzol, Patricia; Larrat, Sylvie; Decaens, Thomas; Payen, Jean-Francois

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes acute liver disease, but severe infections are rare in immunocompetent patients. We describe a case of HEV infection in a previously healthy male trauma patient in France who received massive transfusions. Genotyping confirmed HEV in a transfused platelet pool and the donor. PMID:27983485

  11. Psoas abscess in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Mannino, Courtney M; Salhab, Mohammed; Schmidhofer, Sarah; Pop-Vicas, Aurora

    2014-08-01

    We present a case of iliopsoas abscess in an immunocompetent patient. She experienced three weeks of worsening right hip pain, which was initially misdiagnosed as degenerative joint disease. This led to admission to the Intensive Care Unit for severe sepsis. The patient improved with intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous abscess drainage.

  12. Cytomegalovirus appendicitis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Canterino, Joseph E; McCormack, Michael; Gurung, Ananta; Passarelli, James; Landry, Marie L; Golden, Marjorie

    2016-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common viral pathogen. Asymptomatic infection or a mononucleosis syndrome are the most common manifestations in otherwise healthy individuals. End-organ disease is rare in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we describe a case of CMV appendicitis in a patient without an immune-compromising condition.

  13. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in an Immunocompetent Traveler

    PubMed Central

    Mikals, Kyle; Masel, Jennifer; Gleeson, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts. PMID:25071002

  14. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  15. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Brito, Arival Cardoso de; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques.

  16. [Multiple facial nodules revealing disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Rachadi, H; Senouci, K; Lyagoubi, M; Benzekri, A; Mansouri, S; Ramli, I; Ismaili, N; Hassam, B; Benzekri, L

    2016-04-01

    Cryptococcosis is a potentially severe infection that usually occurs in a setting of immunosuppression. Its occurrence outside of this context is rare. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcosis revealed by a spectacular skin disease in an immunocompetent patient. A 40-year-old male patient had been presenting multiple nodules and tumors on his face for one month in a context of asthenia and intermittent fever. Histological examination of a skin biopsy revealed encapsulated yeasts strongly suggestive of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycological examination of the skin biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid isolated Cryptococcus gattii. The blood cultures were positive. Brain MRI demonstrated cryptococcal parenchymal involvement. Screening for primary or secondary immunodeficiency was negative. The patient received amphotericin B 1mg/kg/day and fluconazole 600mg/day but died 2months after diagnosis. Cryptococcosis is a potentially severe infection caused by C. neoformans. This rare condition occurs most commonly in patients with profound deficiency in terms of cellular immunity. Although rare, the occurrence of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients is possible, and in this event the signs are highly polymorphic, which usually makes it very difficult to diagnose. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis is based on the identification by direct examination and after staining with India ink of encapsulated yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus. Culture on Sabouraud medium is essential for identification of the species. Treatment for disseminated cryptococcosis involves amphotericin B, often associated with flucytosine IV. In the event of meningitis infection in non-HIV patients, mortality continues to be around 15%, despite adequate medical treatment. Although rare, cryptococcosis can occur in immunocompetent subjects. The prognosis is severe even after treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Adrenal Histoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Patients Presenting as Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Gajendra, Smeeta; Sharma, Rashi; Goel, Shalini; Goel, Ruchika; Lipi, Lipika; Sarin, Hemanti; Guleria, Mridula; Sachdev, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, endemic in central and eastern states of United States, South America and Africa. India is considered to be non-endemic area for histoplasmosis. Disseminated histoplasmosis may affect almost all systems. Disseminated histoplasmosis with asymptomatic adrenal involvement has been described in immunocompromised patients; whereas isolated adrenal involvement with adrenal insufficiency as the presenting manifestation of the disease is rare. Twelve patients from a non-endemic area with adrenal histoplasmosis, who were immunocompetent and diagnosed as adrenal histoplasmosis by cytology/histopathology between January 2012 to December 2014 were studied. 18F-FDG PET/CT (fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) was used to assess the extent of involvement. There were a total of 12 immunocompetent males (mean age: 56.9 years). Ten patients had bilateral adrenal involvement and two had a unilateral left adrenal mass. All the patients had histopathologically/cytologically proven adrenal histoplasmosis. Two patients had simultaneous histoplasmosis of other sites, one in the epiglottis and the other in the alveolus. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 10 patients showing high FDG uptake in the adrenals. All these patients received Amphotericin B and/or Itraconazole treatment that led to symptomatic improvement. A diagnosis of invasive fungal infection requires a high index of suspicion, especially in immunocompetent patients who present with nonspecific symptoms, clinical signs, laboratory and radiological features that can resemble adrenal neoplasms. Clinical specimens must be sent for cytopathology/histopathology together with fungal culture for a definite diagnosis and appropriate management.

  18. Brain tuberculoma, an unusual cause of stroke in a child with trisomy 21: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kheir, Abdelmoneim E M; Ibrahim, Salah A; Hamed, Ahlam A; Yousif, Badreldin M; Hamid, Farouk A

    2017-04-18

    Tuberculosis remains a public health problem in developing countries and is associated with lethal central nervous system complications. Intracranial tuberculomas occur in 13% of children with neurotuberculosis. Patients with trisomy 21 have an increased risk for stroke, which usually stems from cardiovascular defects. We report a case of a 12-year-old Sudanese boy with trisomy 21 who was presented to our hospital with focal convulsions and right-sided weakness. The results of neuroimaging and histopathological examinations were consistent with cerebral tuberculoma. The patient had a good initial response to antituberculosis drugs and steroids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of multiple brain tuberculomas described in a child with trisomy 21. Patients with trisomy 21 have an increased risk for stroke. Our patient had an exceptional case of stroke caused by tuberculoma. The present case emphasizes the need to consider tuberculomas in the differential diagnosis of children with neurological symptoms living in areas of high tuberculosis incidence.

  19. Atypical cause of forearm skin ulceration in a leukaemic child: mucormycosis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Zirak, C; Brutus, J P; De Mey, A

    2005-01-01

    Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is an uncommon, deep and aggressive fungal infection occurring mainly in immunosuppressed or diabetic patients. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are necessary to prevent a fatal outcome. An eight-year-old leukaemic child presented with a dark necrotic ulcer on the volar-ulnar aspect of the left forehand. The lesion had developed over seven days, beginning as a vasculo-haemorrhagic erythematous plaque. There was no known history of trauma to the area, but skin necrosis from external compression caused by an intravenous line could not be completely ruled out. The lesion rapidly progressed to a 5 x 8 cm painful necrotic ulcer with an erythematous border. Treatment with ichthyol dressing and intra-venous antibiotherapy failed to improve the condition. Wide debridement was performed and specimens were sent for microbiology and pathology examinations. Microscopic examination demonstrated broad, irregularly walled, non-septate fungal hyphae that were consistent with Mucor. Amphotericin B was administrated intravenously (1 mg/kg/day) and hydrogel and hydrophile adhesive polyurethane foam dressings were applied. After 12 days, the soft tissue defect was covered with a split-thickness skin graft, harvested from the lateral aspect of the thigh. Diagnosis of this infection is based on complete histopathological and microbiological studies. Awareness, and a high index of suspicion are required because of the potential fulminant and fatal course.

  20. Understanding the Use of Psychotropic Medications in the Child Welfare System: Causes, Consequences, and Proposed Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Zakia; Calleja, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the progressively increasing number of children prescribed psychotropic medication, while findings have illustrated significantly greater usage among child welfare-involved children. These findings have raised serious concerns among mental health and child welfare professionals as well as the general public. To…

  1. [Fatal poisoning caused by puffer fish (Tetrodontidae): report of a case involving a child].

    PubMed

    Santana Neto, Pedro de Lima; Aquino, Elisabeth Cristina Moreira de; Silva, José Afrânio da; Amorim, Maria Lucineide Porto; Oliveira Júnior, Américo Ernesto de; Haddad Júnior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    A case of poisoning resulting from ingestion of viscera from a spotted puffer fish (Sphoeroides testudineus) by a two-year-old child is described. The child presented cold sweating, progressive muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory arrest and death. The risks of consuming the meat and viscera of puffer fish, which is a common occurrence in certain regions of Brazil, are discussed.

  2. Little Evidence That Time in Child Care Causes Externalizing Problems during Early Childhood in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric; Lekhal, Ratib; Toppelberg, Claudio O.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between maternal reports of hours in child care and children's externalizing problems at 18 and 36 months of age were examined in a population-based Norwegian sample ("n" = 75,271). Within a sociopolitical context of homogenously high-quality child care, there was little evidence that high quantity of care causes…

  3. Understanding the Use of Psychotropic Medications in the Child Welfare System: Causes, Consequences, and Proposed Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Zakia; Calleja, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the progressively increasing number of children prescribed psychotropic medication, while findings have illustrated significantly greater usage among child welfare-involved children. These findings have raised serious concerns among mental health and child welfare professionals as well as the general public. To…

  4. Parental beliefs about cause and course of their child's autism and outcomes of their beliefs: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus; Koulouglioti, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of the literature on beliefs that parents of children with autism hold, with a focus on their beliefs on the cause and course of the disorder. Research on the outcomes of their beliefs also was reviewed. Medline, PsychInfo, Nursing@Ovid and PubMed were searched from 1995 through 2009 using the keywords autism, autistic disorder, beliefs, culture, parents, attitudes, and perceptions. Additional articles were identified through Google Scholar and from references in related articles. Thirteen articles were retrieved and reviewed. It was found in the review that parents hold a wide variety of beliefs about the cause of their child's autism, including genetic factors, events surrounding the child's birth, and environmental influences in the early childhood period. Some parents continue to attribute their child's autism to immunizations, although more recent studies suggest the frequency may be decreasing. Some parents are pessimistic about their child's future while others are hopeful that new strategies will be developed. Some trust that society will become more accepting of their child's idiosyncrasies. Parents' beliefs about the cause of their child's autism have been found to have an impact on decisions regarding future health care, family planning, and maternal mental health. The link between parental beliefs and their choices for interventions has not yet been empirically explored. Research on the impact of cultural beliefs specific to autism is very limited, although studies focusing on other developmental disorders suggest that it is influential. The importance of exploring parental beliefs during the process of treatment planning is discussed.

  5. Coexisting cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent patients with Clostridium difficile colitis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Khee-Siang; Lee, Wen-Ying; Yu, Wen-Liang

    2016-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and malignancy receiving chemotherapy or ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive agents. However, CMV colitis is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent hosts. Notably, CMV colitis coexisting with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in apparently healthy individuals has been published in recent years, which could result in high morbidity and mortality. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients with abdominal pain, watery, or especially bloody diarrhea, which could be refractory to standard treatment for CDI. As a characteristic of CDI, however, pseudomembranous colitis may be only caused by CMV infection. Real-time CMV-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for blood and stool samples may be a useful and noninvasive diagnostic strategy to identify CMV infection when treatment of CDI eventually fails to show significant benefits. Quantitative CMV-PCR in mucosal biopsies may increase the diagnostic yield of traditional histopathology. CMV colitis is potentially life-threatening if severe complications occur, such as sepsis secondary to colitis, massive colorectal bleeding, toxic megacolon, and colonic perforation, so that may necessitate pre-emptive antiviral treatment for those who are positive for CMV-PCR in blood and/or stool samples while pending histological diagnosis.

  6. Cryptococcal meningitis with secondary cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Saadia; Rahman, Atiya; Herekar, Fivzia; Masood, Sadia

    2013-09-16

    Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by variants of Cryptococcus neoformans species.  The respiratory tract is the usual portal of entry, with a peculiar predilection to invade the central nervous system.  The skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation.  The disease is mostly seen in immunodeficiency states.  The diagnosis is frequently unsuspected in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent young adult. The cutaneous eruption prompted the accurate diagnosis.  The patient, a 20-year-old female, had fever, cough, headache and intractable vomiting for the past two months and was being managed as a case of tuberculous meningitis. Two weeks after starting antituberculous treatment she developed umbilicated papules on the head and neck region. Necessary laboratory workup identified C. neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and skin specimens.  The titers of cryptococcal antigen were measured in CSF and serum for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.  Anti-fungal treatment resulted in regression of the cutaneous lesions and resolution of systemic complaints. The case highlights the need for high degree of suspicion, especially in healthy young adults, in the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. The cutaneous eruptions can be the first manifestation or a diagnostic clue of enormous significance.

  7. Urethral duplication: a rare cause of urinary incontinence in a female child

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay; Tiwari, Rajesh; Kumar, Vijoy; Singh, Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Female urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of complete urethral duplication along with horseshoe kidney in a four-years-old female child presenting with incontinence since childhood. PMID:24578937

  8. Gastric duplication cyst: A cause of rectal bleeding in a young child.

    PubMed

    Surridge, Clare A; Goodier, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon congenital anomaly and rectal bleeding is a rare presentation of a complicated gastric duplication cyst. This case report describes the radiological findings in a child with a complicated gastric duplication cyst.

  9. Atypical form of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Kojić, Miroslav; Mikić, Dragan; Nozić, Darko; Zolotarevski, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.

  10. Tuberculosis of the Thyroid in a Child: A Rare cause of Thyromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sugandha; Girhotra, Manish; Zafar, Naushad

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of thyroid gland is extremely rare in children. We describe the case of a 6-year girl child, presenting with a multinodular thyroid swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed extensive necrosis with few epithelioid cell granulomas and occasional acid-fast bacilli, suggesting a diagnosis of tuberculosis. The child was put on anti-tuberculous drugs with significant improvement. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland, although rare, should be considered in differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling, especially in endemic areas. PMID:26816678

  11. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  12. Chronic cutaneus mucormycosis in an immunocompetent female.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Ali Akbar; Fata, Abdolhamid; Mojtabavi, Maryam

    2013-03-01

    Cutaneous infection is an uncommon presentation of mucormycosis, usually seen after trauma, at the site of surgical drains or after occlusive dressings. The involved area is erythematous and painful, with varying degree of central necrosis. We report the case of chronic coetaneous infection of one year duration and without apparent necrosis in an immunocompetant patient. A 32-year-old immunocompetent woman presented with a large unilateral firm infiltrative plaque resembling cancer lesions, disfiguring the eyelids, nose and lips. The punch biopsy and then surgical debridement was done and the diagnosis of cutaneous mucormycosis was confirmed on histologic examinations with granulomatous reaction and characteristic broad, nonseptate, pale-staining hyphae. Mucomycosis should be in differncial diagnosis of any chronic infiltrative lesions even without visible necrosis and normal immune status of the patient.

  13. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient*

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  14. Lophomonas blattarum infection in immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Anand, Kavita Bala; Teple, Kishore; Negi, Rajkumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Lophomonas blattarum (L. blattarum) is a protozoan parasite living in intestinal tracts of termites and cockroaches. Chen and Meng from China repoted first case of pulmonary L. blattarum infection in 1993. 137 cases have only been reported in literature between 1993 to 2013. Majority of these infections occur in immunocompromised patients and have been reported from China. We report a case of this rare entity in an immunocompetent young Indian male.

  15. Lophomonas blattarum infection in immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Anand, Kavita Bala; Teple, Kishore; Negi, Rajkumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Lophomonas blattarum (L. blattarum) is a protozoan parasite living in intestinal tracts of termites and cockroaches. Chen and Meng from China repoted first case of pulmonary L. blattarum infection in 1993. 137 cases have only been reported in literature between 1993 to 2013. Majority of these infections occur in immunocompromised patients and have been reported from China. We report a case of this rare entity in an immunocompetent young Indian male. PMID:27890999

  16. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia in an immunocompetent traveler.

    PubMed

    Mikals, Kyle; Masel, Jennifer; Gleeson, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. First Human Case of Meningitis and Sepsis in a Child Caused by Actinobacillus suis or Actinobacillus equuli

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Pecile, Patrizia; Moriondo, Maria; Petricci, Patrizia; Becciani, Sabrina; Chiappini, Elena; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Rossolini, Gian Maria; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We report the first human case of meningitis and sepsis caused in a child by Actinobacillus suis or A. equuli, a common opportunistic pathogen of swine or horses, respectively. Identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry and real-time PCR assay. A previous visit to a farm was suspected as the source of infection. PMID:25878346

  18. Chronic cholecystitis with Cystoisospora belli in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideo; Falk, Gavin A; Cruise, Michael; Morris-Stiff, Gareth

    2015-06-11

    A 47-year-old woman presented with a history of vague abdominal pain for several years, which worsened over the past 2 months, with pain more prominent in the right upper quadrant. She also had a history of peptic ulcer disease. The ultrasound scan of right upper quadrant revealed normal gallbladder and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was unremarkable. A (99m)technetium labelled hepato iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan with cholecystokinin provocation demonstrated a decreased gallbladder ejection fraction (EF) of 32%. On this basis, the patient was diagnosed with biliary dyskinesia and underwent an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Histopathological analysis revealed chronic cholecystitis with Cystoisospora belli identified in the gallbladder wall. Cystoisospora has been identified to cause an opportunistic acalculous cholecystitis among immunocompromised hosts, especially those with AIDS. This is the first case report of chronic cholecystitis due to C. belli in an immunocompetent patient.

  19. Wandering spleen torsion causing acute abdominal pain in a child: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Llorens Marina, Carlos I; Cedeño, Alex; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Chapel, Cristel; Rivera, Glorimar; Diaz, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare occurrence where the spleen normal fixation to the abdominal wall is lost and thus allowed to change in position. We report a case of a child who presented with acute abdominal pain secondary to a wandering spleen complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle. The diagnosis was promptly made using computed tomography and managed with splenectomy.

  20. Cutaneous infection caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in a child with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ashok; Wickes, Brian L; Romanelli, Anna M; Debelenko, Larisa; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Fothergill, Annette W; Rinaldi, Michael G; Hayden, Randall T; Shenep, Jerry L

    2009-06-01

    We report a case of Macrophomina phaseolina skin infection in an immunocompromised child with acute myeloid leukemia, which was treated successfully with posaconazole without recurrence after a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The fungus was identified by DNA sequencing using both the internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA gene.

  1. Cutaneous Infection Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in a Child with Acute Myeloid Leukemia▿

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ashok; Wickes, Brian L.; Romanelli, Anna M.; Debelenko, Larisa; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Hayden, Randall T.; Shenep, Jerry L.

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of Macrophomina phaseolina skin infection in an immunocompromised child with acute myeloid leukemia, which was treated successfully with posaconazole without recurrence after a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The fungus was identified by DNA sequencing using both the internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA gene. PMID:19386841

  2. What Happened to My Child? Unknown Causes of Developmental Disability and Research in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    At one time or the other, virtually every parent has gone to the doctor concerned about his or her child. Thanks to the advances of modern medicine, the doctor can diagnose the problem most of the time and treat it successfully. Many potential problems, some life-threatening like diphtheria and neural tube defects, can even be prevented altogether…

  3. Setting Limits: The Child Who Complains--How to Understand the Causes and Stop the Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Polly

    2005-01-01

    Following sample question and answer dialogues, this article provides suggestions on how to deal with a child who never stops complaining. The author investigates the impetus behind children who seem to make whining a habit, by asking several children why they do it. The dialogues demonstrate: (1) that young children may not know the meaning of…

  4. What Happened to My Child? Unknown Causes of Developmental Disability and Research in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    At one time or the other, virtually every parent has gone to the doctor concerned about his or her child. Thanks to the advances of modern medicine, the doctor can diagnose the problem most of the time and treat it successfully. Many potential problems, some life-threatening like diphtheria and neural tube defects, can even be prevented altogether…

  5. Child mortality in the Netherlands in the past decades: an overview of external causes and the role of public health policy.

    PubMed

    Gijzen, Sandra; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; L'Hoir, Monique P; Need, Ariana

    2014-02-01

    Among European countries, the Netherlands has the second lowest child mortality rate from external causes. We present an overview, discuss possible explanations, and suggest prevention measures. We analyzed mortality data from all deceased children aged 0-19 years for the period 1969-2011. Child mortality declined in the past decades, largely from decreases in road traffic accidents that followed government action on traffic safety. Accidental drowning also showed a downward trend. Although intentional self-harm showed a significant increase, other external causes of mortality, including assault and fatal child abuse, remained constant. Securing existing preventive measures and analyzing the circumstances of each child's death systematically through Child Death Review may guide further reduction in child mortality.

  6. Causes of maternal and child mortality among Cambodian sex workers and their children: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian; Onda, Saki; Stoklosa, Hanni Marie

    2016-11-21

    To reach global and national goals for maternal and child mortality, countries must identify vulnerable populations, which includes sex workers and their children. The objective of this study was to identify and describe maternal deaths of female sex workers in Cambodia and causes of death among their children. A convenience sample of female sex workers were recruited by local NGOs that provide support to sex workers. We modified the maternal mortality section of the 2010 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey and collected reports of all deaths of female sex workers. For each death we ask the 'sisterhood' methodology questions to identify maternal deaths. For child deaths we asked each mother who reported the death of a child about the cause of death. We also asked all participants about the cause of deaths of children of other female sex workers. We interviewed 271 female sex workers in the four largest Cambodian cities between May and September 2013. Participants reported 32 deaths of other female sex workers that met criteria for maternal death. The most common reported causes of maternal deaths were abortion (n = 13;40%) and HIV (n = 5;16%). Participants report deaths of 8 of their children and 50 deaths of children of other female sex workers. HIV was the reported cause of death for 13 (36%) children under age five. This is the first report of maternal deaths of sex workers in Cambodia or any other country. This modification of the sisterhood methodology has not been validated and did not allow us to calculate maternal mortality rates so the results are not generalizable, however these deaths may represent unrecognized maternal deaths in Cambodia. The results also indicate that children of sex workers in Cambodia are at risk of HIV and may not be accessing treatment. These issues require additional studies but in the meantime we must assure that sex workers in Cambodia and their children have access to quality health services.

  7. Disseminated Histoplasmosis in an Immunocompetent Patient Diagnosed on Bone Marrow Aspirate – A Rare Presentation from a Non-Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetika; Phansalkar, Manjiri Dilip; Varghese, Renug’Boy

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis causing systemic fungal infection is commonly seen in endemic areas. In India, disease prevalence is more in eastern part of the country and there have been very few reports from southern part of India. The occurrence of disseminated histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individual is rare. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual with no underlying risk factors. The disease was not suspected clinically and was diagnosed by bone marrow aspirate incidentally. PMID:26816901

  8. Primary Varicella in an Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Lilly

    2009-01-01

    Primary varicella zoster infection in adults and immunocompromised persons may result in serious complications. For this reason, a speedy and accurate diagnosis is essential to prevent life-threatening sequelae. Primary varicella presents as a vesicular exanthem with fevers and other constitutional symptoms. The differential diagnosis of primary varicella zoster infection comprises several other important entities, including smallpox infection, which should be considered before definitive diagnosis of varicella is made. Here, the authors describe an immunocompetent adult with primary varicella infection and review the literature on its clinical presentation and treatment. PMID:20729954

  9. [Oral Burkitt lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Chbicheb, S; Hakkou, F; El Wady, W

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of Burkitt lymphoma of the jaws in an immunocompetent adolescent, revealed by intraoral swelling. An orthopantomogram showed multiple osteolytic lesions. Biopsy revealed Burkitt lymphoma. The disease was treated with chemotherapy. Complete remission was attained 15 months after the end of treatment. Burkitt lymphomas accounts for 30-40% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in children, with diagnosis confirmed by histology. Immunophenotyping completes the diagnosis by identifying the presence of B markers. Chemotherapy is currently the main treatment of BL, because of the high chemosensitivity of the tumor and its low radiosensitivity. Overall survival in localized stages is close to 100%.

  10. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients: HRCT characteristics.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Sadayuki; Sakai, Shuji; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Masuda, Kouji; Inoue, Hiromasa; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Matsuo, Yoshitomo

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. The predominant manifestations were multiple nodules (n=6) and a single nodule (n=7). Regarding the pattern of multiple nodules, two cases of cavities or necrosis, four cases of surrounding centrilobular micronodules and five cases of "acinar" nodules were seen. No "tree-in-bud" appearance was detected. Five of seven cases of a single nodule were classified as polygonal, and two of them were round. Two cases accompanied micronodules and one case cavitation. Although no "tree-in-bud" appearance was observed, pulmonary cryptococcosis mimics tuberculosis.

  11. Mycobacterium avium Complex Cervical Lymphadenitis in an Immunocompetent Adult▿

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua B.; Koeppe, John

    2010-01-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis is a relatively common disease in immunocompetent children but a rare disease in immunocompetent adults. We report the diagnosis and treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex cervical lymphadenitis in an adult female. Our evaluation of immune competence, including gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) signaling, found no evidence of deficiency. PMID:20668140

  12. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  13. Pleiotropic effects of juvenile hormone in ant queens and the escape from the reproduction–immunocompetence trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Pamminger, Tobias; Treanor, David; Hughes, William O. H.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous trade-off between survival and costly reproduction is one of the most fundamental constraints governing life-history evolution. In numerous animals, gonadotropic hormones antagonistically suppressing immunocompetence cause this trade-off. The queens of many social insects defy the reproduction–survival trade-off, achieving both an extraordinarily long life and high reproductive output, but how they achieve this is unknown. Here we show experimentally, by integrating quantification of gene expression, physiology and behaviour, that the long-lived queens of the ant Lasius niger have escaped the reproduction–immunocompetence trade-off by decoupling the effects of a key endocrine regulator of fertility and immunocompetence in solitary insects, juvenile hormone (JH). This modification of the regulatory architecture enables queens to sustain a high reproductive output without elevated JH titres and suppressed immunocompetence, providing an escape from the reproduction–immunocompetence trade-off that may contribute to the extraordinary lifespan of many social insect queens. PMID:26763704

  14. Roseolovirus-associated encephalitis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.

    PubMed

    Ongrádi, Joseph; Ablashi, Dharam V; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Stercz, Balázs; Ogata, Masao

    2017-02-01

    The roseoloviruses, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, can cause severe encephalitis or encephalopathy. In immunocompetent children, primary HHV-6B infection is occasionally accompanied by diverse clinical forms of encephalitis. Roseolovirus coinfections with heterologous viruses and delayed primary HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults result in very severe neurological and generalized symptoms. Recovery from neurological sequelae is slow and sometimes incomplete. In immunocompromised patients with underlying hematological malignancies and transplantation, frequent single or simultaneous reactivation of roseoloviruses elicit severe, lethal organ dysfunctions, including damages in the limbic system, brain stem, and hippocampus. Most cases have been due to HHV-6B with HHV-6A accounting for 2-3%. The most severe manifestation of HHV-6B reactivation is post-transplantation limbic encephalitis. Seizures, cognitive problems, and abnormal EEG are common. Major risk factors for HHV-6B-associated encephalitis include unrelated cord blood cell transplantation and repeated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Rare genetic disorders, male gender, certain HLA constellation, and immune tolerance to replicating HHV-6 in persons carrying chromosomally integrated HHV-6 might also predispose an individual to roseolovirus-associated brain damage. At this time, little is known about the risk factors for HHV-7-associated encephalitis. Intrathecal glial cell destruction due to virus replication, overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, and viral mimicry of chemokines all contribute to brain dysfunction. High virus load in the cerebrospinal fluid, hippocampal astrogliosis, and viral protein expression in HHV-6B-associated cases and multiple microscopic neuronal degeneration in HHV-7-associated cases are typical laboratory findings. Early empirical therapy with ganciclovir or foscarnet might save the life of a patient with roseolovirus-associated encephalitis.

  15. [Osteomyelitis due to Yokenella regensburgei following craniotomy in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Penagos, Sara Catalina; Gómez, Sebastián; Villa, Pablo; Estrada, Santiago; Agudelo, Carlos Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The gram-negative bacillus Yokenella regensburgei (of the Enterobacteriaceae family) can be found in groundwater and foodstuffs, as well as the digestive tracts of insects and reptiles. Although it has been isolated from humans since its original description, it has rarely been reported as a cause of infection, and then, only in immunosuppressed patients. We report the first case of post-surgical secondary osteomyelitis due to Y. regensburgei in an immunocompetent woman who had undergone a craniotomy.

  16. C. dubliniensis in an immunocompetent patient with metal lingual frenulum piercing.

    PubMed

    Ventolini, Gary; Tsai, Peihsuan; Moore, Lee David

    2016-12-01

    Candida spp. are opportunistic unicellular fungi, known to cause oral, vaginal, lung and occasionally systemic infections. Characteristically, they colonize the oral cavity, the mucosal surfaces of the cheek, palate, and tongue. Usually harmless, oral Candidas may become pathogenic under immunosuppressive conditions, dentures presence, or salivary flow impairment. Accurate species identification is important because C. dubliniensis can rapidly develop fluconazole resistance. We report C. dubliniensis in an immunocompetent patient with a metal lingual frenulum piercing.

  17. Acute pancreatitis: rare complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Jain, A P; Pandit, A K

    2007-01-01

    Chicken pox is a highly contagious infection, caused by the varicella zoster virus. Although generally a benign, self-limited disease, varicella may be associated with serious complications especially in adults. We present acute pancreatitis- a rare complication, in otherwise healthy patients suffering from chicken pox. The presence of pancreatitis in association with chickenpox in immunocompetent patients can influence the outcome of the latter. This interesting case will hopefully increase awareness about this complication and its fatality in chicken pox.

  18. The First Report of an Intraperitoneal Free-Floating Mass (an Autoamputated Ovary) Causing an Acute Abdomen in a Child.

    PubMed

    Uygun, Ibrahim; Aydogdu, Bahattin; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Otcu, Selcuk

    2012-01-01

    A free-floating intraperitoneal mass is extremely rare, and almost all originate from an ovary. Here, we present the first case with an intraperitoneal free-floating autoamputated ovary that caused an acute abdomen in a child and also review the literature. A 4-year-old girl was admitted with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. At surgery, the patient had no right ovary and the right tube ended in a thin band that pressed on the terminal ileum causing partial small intestine obstruction and acute abdomen. A calcified mass was found floating in the abdomen and was removed. The pathological examination showed necrotic tissue debris with calcifications. An autoamputated ovary is thought to result from ovarian torsion and is usually detected incidentally. However, it can cause an acute abdomen.

  19. Colonic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Zubieta-O’Farrill, Gregorio; Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan de Dios del; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Carlos; Villanueva-Saenz, Eduardo; Donoghue, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION One-third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis (TB), with intestinal TB representing the sixth most common presentation of extrapulmonary TB. The diagnosis of intestinal TB is a challenge for physicians due to its diverse clinical manifestations that mimic other infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders, and is thus rarely considered as the causative agent of disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a 55-year-old male with no relevant familial history, who presented due to a loss of 10 kg of weight in 2 months accompanied by nocturnal diaphoresis and continuous abdominal distension. DISCUSSION The incidence and the severity of intestinal TB are increased in immunosuppressed patients and more rapidly progress due to deficient immune response. However, our immunocompetent had severe progression resulting in surgery less than a month after the diagnosis was made. CONCLUSION While the diagnosis of intestinal TB, and specifically colonic TB, is difficult and is almost never the first diagnosis entertained outside the immunocompromised population, we present a rare case in which the disease presents in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:23466683

  20. Illusory ownership of a virtual child body causes overestimation of object sizes and implicit attitude changes

    PubMed Central

    Banakou, Domna; Groten, Raphaela; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    An illusory sensation of ownership over a surrogate limb or whole body can be induced through specific forms of multisensory stimulation, such as synchronous visuotactile tapping on the hidden real and visible rubber hand in the rubber hand illusion. Such methods have been used to induce ownership over a manikin and a virtual body that substitute the real body, as seen from first-person perspective, through a head-mounted display. However, the perceptual and behavioral consequences of such transformed body ownership have hardly been explored. In Exp. 1, immersive virtual reality was used to embody 30 adults as a 4-y-old child (condition C), and as an adult body scaled to the same height as the child (condition A), experienced from the first-person perspective, and with virtual and real body movements synchronized. The result was a strong body-ownership illusion equally for C and A. Moreover there was an overestimation of the sizes of objects compared with a nonembodied baseline, which was significantly greater for C compared with A. An implicit association test showed that C resulted in significantly faster reaction times for the classification of self with child-like compared with adult-like attributes. Exp. 2 with an additional 16 participants extinguished the ownership illusion by using visuomotor asynchrony, with all else equal. The size-estimation and implicit association test differences between C and A were also extinguished. We conclude that there are perceptual and probably behavioral correlates of body-ownership illusions that occur as a function of the type of body in which embodiment occurs. PMID:23858436

  1. Illusory ownership of a virtual child body causes overestimation of object sizes and implicit attitude changes.

    PubMed

    Banakou, Domna; Groten, Raphaela; Slater, Mel

    2013-07-30

    An illusory sensation of ownership over a surrogate limb or whole body can be induced through specific forms of multisensory stimulation, such as synchronous visuotactile tapping on the hidden real and visible rubber hand in the rubber hand illusion. Such methods have been used to induce ownership over a manikin and a virtual body that substitute the real body, as seen from first-person perspective, through a head-mounted display. However, the perceptual and behavioral consequences of such transformed body ownership have hardly been explored. In Exp. 1, immersive virtual reality was used to embody 30 adults as a 4-y-old child (condition C), and as an adult body scaled to the same height as the child (condition A), experienced from the first-person perspective, and with virtual and real body movements synchronized. The result was a strong body-ownership illusion equally for C and A. Moreover there was an overestimation of the sizes of objects compared with a nonembodied baseline, which was significantly greater for C compared with A. An implicit association test showed that C resulted in significantly faster reaction times for the classification of self with child-like compared with adult-like attributes. Exp. 2 with an additional 16 participants extinguished the ownership illusion by using visuomotor asynchrony, with all else equal. The size-estimation and implicit association test differences between C and A were also extinguished. We conclude that there are perceptual and probably behavioral correlates of body-ownership illusions that occur as a function of the type of body in which embodiment occurs.

  2. [Fractured tracheostomy tube: a rare cause of respiratory distress in the tracheotomized child. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Martínez, Juan C; Pena, Roberto; Razetti, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Fracture and migration of the tracheotomy tube in the tracheobronchial tree is an uncommon complication of tracheotomy. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are essential because of the potential risk of fatal respiratory obstruction. Diagnosis should be suspected in all tracheotomized children undergoing breathing difficulties. It is confirmed by chest x-ray and endoscopic examination. The recommended treatment includes the endoscopic removal of the aspirated cannula through the tracheal stoma. We describe the clinical presentation and the management of a broken tracheotomy tube which was presented as a foreign body in the airway of a 18-month-old child. Recommendations for tracheostomy care are listed.

  3. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    PubMed Central

    Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  4. A very rare cause of chronic foot pain in a child: metatarsal tubercular osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jatin; Agnihotri, Akhil; Jaiswal, Yashwardhan; Mehtani, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Pure tubercular osteomyelitis without joint involvement is rare and easily missed. Moreover the lesion is common in spine and large joints like hip and knee. The involvement of isolated metatarsal has been described rarely, only as few sporadic case reports. We present one such case of isolated first metatarsal involvement in an 8-year-old child who presented with chronic pain in left foot for over 6 months. The X-rays suggested a lytic lesion and lesion was confirmed on histopathology and acid-fast bacteria staining. The patient was treated with multidrug antitubercular chemotherapy. The results were excellent with complete healing of the lesion. PMID:25038501

  5. Secondary Myelitis in Dermal Sinus Causing Paraplegia in a Child with Previously Normal Neurological Function

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Sakina; Kinabo, Grace; Kellogg, Marissa; Howlett, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects result from failure of neural tube fusion during early embryogenesis, the fourth week after conception. The spectrum of severity is not uniform across the various forms of this congenital anomaly as certain presentations are not compatible with extrauterine life (anencephaly) while, on the other hand, other defects may remain undiagnosed as they are entirely asymptomatic (occult spina bifida). We report a child with previously normal neurological development, a devastating clinical course following superinfection of a subtle spina bifida defect which resulted in a flaccid paralysis below the level of the lesion and permanent neurological deficits following resolution of the acute infection and a back closure surgery. PMID:28050293

  6. Reversible operculum syndrome caused by progressive epilepsia partialis continua in a child with left hemimegalencephaly.

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, L; Vigevano, F

    1991-01-01

    In a child with left hemimegalencephaly and seizures, a reversible operculum syndrome developed when continuous epileptic discharges spread from the left hemisphere to the contralateral central regions. The operculum syndrome lasted for three months until left hemispherectomy was performed. Soon after surgery the seizures and the operculum syndrome resolved. The operculum syndrome is a facio-pharyngo-glosso-masticatory diplegia usually due to structural lesions in both opercular regions. The reversibility of the syndrome in the reported case demonstrates that the operculum syndrome is sometimes functional rather than lesional. Images PMID:1908890

  7. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Tip as a Rare Cause for Recurrent Pain Episodes in a Child: Think Irritable Peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Poryo, Martin; Eymann, Regina; Meyer, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is an established treatment to regulate the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Several complications (e.g. blockage of CSF shunting, overdrainage, but also catheter-related perforation of abdominal organs, etc.) may occur and may lead to painful episodes, mostly headache, in these children. Here, we report on a 7-year-old child with recurrent painful episodes after revision of a VP shunt that subsided only after repositioning of the abdominal tip of the VP shunt. Visceral irritation by a malpositioned VP shunt should be considered as a cause for recurrent pain in non-verbal children without other relevant clinical findings.

  8. Isolated Endobronchial Mycobacterium avium Disease Associated with Lobar Atelectasis in an Immunocompetent Young Adult: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye In; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Jin Hae; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Chung, Myung Jin; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of lung diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing worldwide. Unlike pulmonary tuberculosis, endobronchial NTM diseases are very rare with the majority of cases reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We reported a rare case of endobronchial Mycobacterium avium disease associated with lobar atelectasis in a young immunocompetent patient and reviewed the relevant iterature.

  9. A Rare Cause of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis in a Child: Isovaleric Acidemia with Novel Mutation.

    PubMed

    Sag, Elif; Cebi, Alper Han; Kaya, Gulay; Karaguzel, Gulay; Cakir, Murat

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent acute pancreatic attacks is a rare clinical condition (2-5% of all acute pancreatis) in children and is mainly idiopathic in most cases. Sometimes it may be associated with congenital anomalies, metabolic diseases or hereditary conditions. Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is a rare autosomal recessive amino acid metabolism disorder associated with isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency presenting the clinical findings such metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap, hyperammonemia, ketonemia, hypoglycemia, "the odor of sweaty feet," abdominal pain, vomiting, feeding intolerance, shock and coma. Recurrent acute pancreatitis associated with IVA have been rarely reported. Herein; we report a child who admitted with recurrent acute pancreatic attacks and had the final diagnosis of IVA. Mutation analysis revealed a novel homozygous mutation of (p.E117K [c.349G>A]) in the IVA gene. Organic acidemias must kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatic attacks in children.

  10. A Rare Cause of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis in a Child: Isovaleric Acidemia with Novel Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Sag, Elif; Cebi, Alper Han; Kaya, Gulay; Karaguzel, Gulay

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent acute pancreatic attacks is a rare clinical condition (2-5% of all acute pancreatis) in children and is mainly idiopathic in most cases. Sometimes it may be associated with congenital anomalies, metabolic diseases or hereditary conditions. Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is a rare autosomal recessive amino acid metabolism disorder associated with isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency presenting the clinical findings such metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap, hyperammonemia, ketonemia, hypoglycemia, “the odor of sweaty feet,” abdominal pain, vomiting, feeding intolerance, shock and coma. Recurrent acute pancreatitis associated with IVA have been rarely reported. Herein; we report a child who admitted with recurrent acute pancreatic attacks and had the final diagnosis of IVA. Mutation analysis revealed a novel homozygous mutation of (p.E117K [c.349G>A]) in the IVA gene. Organic acidemias must kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatic attacks in children. PMID:28401058

  11. A rare cause of tonsil mass in a child: Lymphoid polyp

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongzhao; Ulualp, Seckin O; Sengupta, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Solitary mass lesions of the palatine tonsils are rare in children. While a tonsillar mass can be concerning for a neoplasm, benign conditions may present with a mass arising from the surface of the palatine tonsils in children. We describe clinical and histopathological characteristics of a lymphoid polyp in a child with unilateral tonsillar mass. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 6-year-old girl presented for evaluation of recurrent acute tonsillitis and a mass on the left palatine tonsil. A pedunculated mass with the base attached to the left palatine tonsil was observed. The mass was completely removed by tonsillectomy. The final diagnosis was lymphoid polyp. Conclusion: Pediatricians, otolaryngologists, and pathologists should be aware of the occurrence of tonsillar lymphoid polyp in the pediatric age group. PMID:28228963

  12. Cryptococcus gattii in an Immunocompetent Patient in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph H.; Ditty, Benjamin J.; Vande Lune, Patrick; Muhammad, Shaaf; Fisher, Winfield S.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal infections are seen throughout the United States in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common form is C. neoformans. In the Northwestern United States, C. gattii has received considerable attention secondary to increased virulence resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There are no cases in the extant literature describing a patient with C. gattii requiring neurosurgical intervention in Alabama. A middle-aged immunocompetent male with no recent travel or identifiable exposure presented with meningitis secondary to C. gattii. The patient underwent 12 lumbar punctures and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and required 83 days of inpatient therapy with 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B. The patient was found to have multiple intracranial lesions and a large intramedullary spinal cryptococcoma within his conus. Following an almost 3-month hospitalization the patient required treatment with oral voriconazole for one year. In the United States meningitis caused by C. gattii infection is not isolated to the Northwestern region. PMID:28018689

  13. Dasatinib-Induced CMV Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Rare Complication of a Common Drug.

    PubMed

    Davalos, Fidencio; Chaucer, Benjamin; Zafar, Wahib; Salman, Shamim; Nfonoyim, Jay

    2016-06-01

    Dasatinib is a common anticancer drug used in the treatment of leukemia. Several side effects have been reported, the most common being myelosuppression, diarrhea, edema, and nausea. Three papers have been published reporting hepatic side effects of dasatinib treatment. A rare side effect of dasatinib treatment is reactivation of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Never before has dasatinib therapy shown to be the cause of CMV hepatitis in an immunocompetent patient. We present a case of an immunocompetent patient who was treated with the standard dose of dasatinib therapy and subsequently developed CMV hepatitis. Well-known side effects of dasatinib therapy are understood and documented; unknown adverse drug reactions can occur and should be monitored for. This is a significant finding given the high rate of CMV seropositivity in the general population.

  14. Posaconazole responsive cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Jonathan Richard; Waqar, Mueez; Denning, David W; Cooke, Richard P D; Skinner, Derek W; Lesser, Tristram; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2014-10-01

    Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis that usually affects immunocompromised patients. There are few treatment options for recurrent disease and experiences with immunocompetent patients are lacking. We report the clinical course of an immunocompetent patient with recurrent cerebral aspergillosis, following initial treatment with burr hole aspiration and voriconazole, who showed remarkable response to posaconazole. The patient remains clinically well with no evidence of recurrence on MRI 7 years following diagnosis. To our knowledge this is the first reported experience with posaconazole in an immunocompetent patient with cerebral aspergillosis.

  15. Fatal infection caused by Cupriavidus gilardii in a child with aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Karafin, Matthew; Romagnoli, Mark; Fink, Doran L; Howard, Tracy; Rau, Rachel; Milstone, Aaron M; Carroll, Karen C

    2010-03-01

    Cupriavidus gilardii is a Gram-negative bacterium that has rarely been associated with human infections. We report a fatal case of sepsis caused by C. gilardii in a previously healthy 12-year-old female.

  16. Fatal Infection Caused by Cupriavidus gilardii in a Child with Aplastic Anemia▿

    PubMed Central

    Karafin, Matthew; Romagnoli, Mark; Fink, Doran L.; Howard, Tracy; Rau, Rachel; Milstone, Aaron M.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus gilardii is a Gram-negative bacterium that has rarely been associated with human infections. We report a fatal case of sepsis caused by C. gilardii in a previously healthy 12-year-old female. PMID:20071544

  17. Endoscopic treatment of a large colonic polyp as a cause of colocolonic intussusception in a child.

    PubMed

    Suksamanapun, Nutnicha; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Ruangtrakool, Ravit; Akaraviputh, Thawatchai

    2010-07-16

    Colocolonic intussusception is an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction in children. The most common type is idiopathic ileocolic intussusception. However, pathologic lead points occur approximately in 5% of cases. In pediatric patients, Meckel's diverticulum is the most common lead point, followed by polyps and duplication. We present a case of recurrent colocolonic intussusception which caused colonic obstruction in a 10-year-old boy. A barium enema revealed a large polypoid mass at the transverse colon. Colonoscopy showed a colonic polyp, 3.5 centimeters in diameter, which was successfully removed by endoscopic polypectomy.

  18. Guidelines for assessing immunocompetency in clinical trials for autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Looney, R. John; Diamond, Betty; Holers, Mike; Levesque, Marc; Moreland, Larry; Nahm, Moon; Clair, William St.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of immunosuppressive agents for the treatment of autoimmune diseases should also be designed to evaluate immunocompetency. The most clinically relevant outcome for assessing immunocompetency is the infection rate. Therefore, a systematic approach to screening, monitoring, and reporting infections, modeled after the recommendations of the American Society of Transplantation, is presented. However, because the baseline infection rate in most autoimmune diseases is low, additional tests for immunocompetency should be considered. Evaluation of vaccine responses, an alternative clinically relevant approach, may be particularly useful. Other adjunctive approaches to evaluation of immunocompetency are discussed including immunization with non-vaccine neoantigens, surveillance of chronic viral infections, in vivo or in vitro assessment of cellular immunity, and analysis of innate immunity. Banking genetic material to allow genotyping should be considered particularly if a central repository for samples from different trials can be established. PMID:17329169

  19. Cause of Death and the Quest for Meaning after the Loss of a Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Currier, Joseph M.; Roberts, Kailey; Jordan, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns of making meaning among 155 parents whose children died from a variety of violent and non-violent causes. Findings indicated 53% of violent loss survivors could not make sense of their loss, as compared to 32% of non-violent loss survivors. Overall, there was overlap in sense-making strategies across different causes…

  20. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome causing blindness in a child.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jamie B; Butrus, Salim; Bazemore, Marlet G

    2011-02-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome, the result of a mutation in the gene encoding tumor protein p63, causes ocular surface disease. It is typically progressive, with vision loss in adulthood. We present a case of severe corneal disease, glaucoma, and blindness related to ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome in a 3-year-old female patient.

  1. Parental Beliefs about the Causes of Child Problems: Exploring Racial/ethnic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, May; Hough, Richard L.; McCabe, Kristen; Lau, Anna; Garland, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine racial/ethnic patterns of parental beliefs about etiological explanations for youth problems. Method: The parents of 1,338 youths with identified mental health problems were asked about their beliefs about the causes for their children's problems from a questionnaire with 11 etiological categories. Results: Parents of African…

  2. Parental Beliefs about the Causes of Child Problems: Exploring Racial/ethnic Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, May; Hough, Richard L.; McCabe, Kristen; Lau, Anna; Garland, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine racial/ethnic patterns of parental beliefs about etiological explanations for youth problems. Method: The parents of 1,338 youths with identified mental health problems were asked about their beliefs about the causes for their children's problems from a questionnaire with 11 etiological categories. Results: Parents of African…

  3. Cause of Death and the Quest for Meaning after the Loss of a Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Currier, Joseph M.; Roberts, Kailey; Jordan, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns of making meaning among 155 parents whose children died from a variety of violent and non-violent causes. Findings indicated 53% of violent loss survivors could not make sense of their loss, as compared to 32% of non-violent loss survivors. Overall, there was overlap in sense-making strategies across different causes…

  4. Trends in external causes of child and adolescent mortality in Poland, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Grajda, Aneta; Kułaga, Zbigniew; Gurzkowska, Beata; Góźdź, Magdalena; Wojtyło, Małgorzata; Litwin, Mieczysław

    2017-01-01

    To examine the pattern and trend of deaths due to external causes among Polish children and adolescents in 1999-2012, and to compare trends in Poland's neighboring countries. Death records were obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. External causes mortality rates (MR) with 95 % confidence interval were calculated. The annual percentage change of MR was examined using linear regression. To compare MR with Belarus, Ukraine, Czech Republic and Germany, data from the European Mortality Database were used. MR were the highest in the age 15-19 years (33.7/100,000) and among boys (22.7/100,000). Unintentional injuries including transport accidents, drowning, and suicides (especially in children over 10 years old), were the main cause of death in the analyzed groups. Between 1999 and 2012 annual MR for unintentional injuries declined substantially. MR due to injuries and poisoning in Poland were higher compared with Czech Republic and Germany and lower in comparison with Belarus and Ukraine. Deaths due to unintentional injuries are still the leading cause of death among Polish children and adolescents. There are differences in death rates between Poland and neighboring countries.

  5. Child's dental fear: cause related factors and the influence of audiovisual modeling.

    PubMed

    Mungara, Jayanthi; Injeti, Madhulika; Joseph, Elizabeth; Elangovan, Arun; Sakthivel, Rajendran; Selvaraju, Girija

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of effective dental treatment to a child patient requires thorough knowledge to recognize dental fear and its management by the application of behavioral management techniques. Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) helps in identification of specific stimuli which provoke fear in children with regard to dental situation. Audiovisual modeling can be successfully used in pediatric dental practice. To assess the degree of fear provoked by various stimuli in the dental office and to evaluate the effect of audiovisual modeling on dental fear of children using CFSS-DS. Ninety children were divided equally into experimental (group I) and control (group II) groups and were assessed in two visits for their degree of fear and the effect of audiovisual modeling, with the help of CFSS-DS. The most fear-provoking stimulus for children was injection and the least was to open the mouth and having somebody look at them. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall mean CFSS-DS scores between the two groups during the initial session (P > 0.05). However, in the final session, a statistically significant difference was observed in the overall mean fear scores between the groups (P < 0.01). Significant improvement was seen in group I, while no significant change was noted in case of group II. Audiovisual modeling resulted in a significant reduction of overall fear as well as specific fear in relation to most of the items. A significant reduction of fear toward dentists, doctors in general, injections, being looked at, the sight, sounds, and act of the dentist drilling, and having the nurse clean their teeth was observed.

  6. Childhood scurvy: an unusual cause of refusal to walk in a child.

    PubMed

    Alqanatish, J T; Alqahtani, F; Alsewairi, W M; Al-kenaizan, S

    2015-06-11

    Scurvy, or vitamin C deficiency, is rarely presented to a rheumatology clinic. It can mimic several rheumatologic disorders. Although uncommon, it may present as pseudovasculitis or chronic arthritis. Scurvy still exists today within certain populations, particularly in patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities, psychiatric illness or unusual dietary habits.Scurvy presentation to the rheumatologist varies from aches and mild pains to excruciating bone pain or arthritis. Musculoskeletal and mucocutaneous features of scurvy are often what prompts referrals to pediatric rheumatology clinics. Unless health care providers inquire about nutritional habits and keep in mind the risk of nutritional deficiency, it will be easy to miss the diagnosis of scurvy. Rarity of occurrence as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, combined with a lack of understanding about modern-day risk factors for nutritional deficiency, frequently leads to delayed recognition of vitamin C deficiency. We report a case of scurvy in a mentally handicapped Saudi child, who presented with new onset inability to walk with diffuse swelling and pain in the left leg. Skin examination revealed extensive ecchymoses, hyperkeratosis and follicular purpura with corkscrew hairs, in addition to gingival swelling with bleeding. Clinical diagnosis of scurvy was rendered and confirmed by low serum vitamin C level. The patient did extremely well with proper nutritional support and vitamin C supplementation. It has been noticed lately that there is increased awareness about scurvy in rheumatology literature. A high index of suspicion, together with taking a thorough history and physical examination, is required for diagnosis of scurvy in patient who presents with musculoskeletal symptoms. Nutritional deficiency should also be considered by the rheumatologist formulating differential diagnosis for musculoskeletal or mucocutaneous complaints in children, particularly those at risk.

  7. Prevalence of microsporidia in healthy individuals and immunocompetent patients with acute and chronic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Cetin, Feyza; Dogruman Al, Funda; Oguz, Ilkiz; Aksu, Neriman

    2016-02-01

    Previously published studies of microsporidial infections have primarily focused on immunodeficient or immunocompromised patients. Data regarding infections caused by this microorganism in immunocompetent subjects are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of microsporidia in healthy individuals and immunocompetent patients with acute and chronic diarrhea. The study included stool samples from 74 patients with acute diarrhea, 41 patients with chronic diarrhea, and 88 healthy volunteers. Slides were prepared after concentration with a formalin-ethyl acetate technique and were stained with modified trichrome, calcofluor white, and Uvitex 2B stains. The number of spores observed in each magnification field (×1000) was scored as follows: 1+, 1-10; 2+, 11-20; 3+, > 20. The prevalence of microsporidia was 27.0% in patients with acute diarrhea, 34.1% in patients with chronic diarrhea, and 45.5% in healthy volunteers. The parasite score was 1 + in all positive samples. The rate of microsporidia positivity was higher in solid stools (51.4%), and the rate of positivity increased with advancing age. Unexpectedly, a high prevalence of microsporidia was found in immunocompetent individuals in our region. There was no relationship between positivity for microsporidia and the presence of symptoms, due to higher rates both in solid stools and in healthy subjects. The parasite score was the same in all groups. Our results indicate that there is high exposure to microsporidia in immunocompetent subjects in our region. Natural reservoirs and environmental sources of microsporidia should be determined to design strategies for effective prevention of transmission.

  8. Neuroblastoma: a rare cause of a limping child. How to avoid a delayed diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Parmar, Rishee; Wadia, Farokh; Yassa, Rafik; Zenios, Michalis

    2013-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extracranial tumor of childhood. Even though >25% of presentations are orthopaedic in nature, ranging from a limp to lower limb paralysis, neuroblastoma is a rare cause of limping in childhood and can therefore be easily missed by the admitting orthopaedic surgeon. Four cases of metastatic neuroblastoma are reported who all presented with hip pain within the last 3 years at Royal Manchester Children's Hospital. They all posed a diagnostic dilemma and an alternative diagnosis was initially made. A simple screening examination of the abdomen after ultrasonographic hip examination for sepsis would have led to an earlier diagnosis in all 4 cases. We suggest that including the abdomen in children undergoing a hip sonographic examination in those who are slightly atypical in nature or have indications of malignancy may lead to an early diagnosis of this rare cause of hip pain. IV.

  9. Extradural Giant Multiloculated Arachnoid Cyst Causing Spinal Cord Compression in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Serdar; Anik, Ihsan; Gocmen, Selcuk; Sirin, Sait

    2008-01-01

    Background: Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts are rare expanding lesions in the spinal canal. Enlargement may cause progressive signs and symptoms caused by spinal cord compression. They are associated with trauma, surgery, arachnoiditis, and neural tube defects. Most nontraumatic spinal extradural arachnoid cysts are thought to be congenital. Design: Case report and literature review. Findings: A 9-year-old boy with mild paraparesis was found to have an extradural multiloculated arachnoid cyst with fibrous septa at T4-L3 levels and anterior compression and displacement of the spinal cord. Conclusions: Definitive treatment of arachnoid cyst entails radical cyst removal and dura cleft repair. Formation of a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid fistula may require external lumbar drainage. PMID:18795482

  10. A case of child death caused by intestinal volvulus following magnetic toy ingestion.

    PubMed

    Olczak, Mieszko; Skrzypek, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    An 8-year boy was admitted to the ER of one of Warsaw's pediatric hospitals with a history of having bloody vomiting the day before. During admission the boy collapsed and lost consciousness. CPR was unsuccessful. On medico-legal autopsy, two foreign objects (small magnetic spheres--0.5 cm in diameter) were found in two different places in the small and large intestines and were notably attracted magnetically one to another. A loop of approximately 1-m length with features of small intestinal hemorrhagic necrosis and small intestinal mechanical obstruction was found. The cause of death was intestinal volvulus and small intestinal mechanical obstruction caused by ingestion of foreign objects (two neodymium magnets). Most likely these small magnetic spheres were part of a popular toy, the safety of which, lately, has been widely discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple Magnetic Foreign Bodies Causing Severe Digestive Tract Injuries in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xinmin; Du, Baofeng; Huang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common emergency as well as a major cause of accidental injury and represents a severe public health problem in childhood, especially in infants. Most cases of FB ingestion reported in children aged between 6 months and 3 years depend primarily on the fact that young children are more likely to explore objects using their mouth and are not able to distinguish edible objects from nonedible ones, their teeth are physiologically lacking, and they have poor swallowing coordination. Although, sometimes it can cause serious complications, FB ingestion generally has a low mortality rate. However, accidental ingestion of magnetic toys, as a rare kind of FB mostly encountered in children, has now become more common due to the increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of magnetic FB traverse the gastrointestinal (GI) system spontaneously without complication, but in rare cases may cause severe damages to the GI tract due to its special pathogenesis [Kay and Wyllie: Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2005;7: 212-218]. Ingestion of multiple magnets may be related to increased morbidity resulting in a delay of recognition of FB injury that can lead to serious complications and require surgical resolution. PMID:28100992

  12. Unresolved drooling in a previously healthy child caused by a brainstem malignancy.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Fenella; Sproson, Eleanor; Van der Veen, Jana; Evans, Hazel; Burgess, Andrea; Ismail-Koch, Hasnaa

    2017-03-01

    Drooling occurs commonly in children below the age of two. In a small group of children this persists and an otorhinolaryngology consultation is sought. In children with no neurological abnormality or comorbidity, reassurance and behavioural management is often suggested. We present a case where drooling was the presenting feature of brain stem malignancy. Diagnosis was suggested following a sleep study demonstrating central apnoeas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intra-axial brainstem tumour. This case highlights the importance of multidisciplinary team (MDT) management of children with persistent drooling of unknown cause.

  13. Fracture of the occipital condyle caused by minor trauma in child.

    PubMed

    Kapapa, Thomas; Tschan, Christoph A; König, Kathrin; Schlesinger, Arkadius; Haubitz, Bernd; Becker, Hartmut; Zumkeller, Matthias; Eckhard, Rickels

    2006-10-01

    We report a case of fractured occipital condyle caused by minor trauma accompanied by light pain on palpation at the lateral cervical trigonum. A 15-year-old boy complained of nuchal pain, particularly pain on palpation at the left lateral cervical trigonum in the absence of neurologic deficits after head deceleration trauma. Computed tomography demonstrated a unilateral nonluxated fracture of the occipital condyle. Owing to consequent immobilization by means of cervical orthosis, pain disappeared after the first 48 hours. Follow-up examination 4 weeks later showed no neurologic deficits. The boy had no severe impairment of movements at the cervical spine.

  14. Infection of immunocompetent mice with acid-water-pretreated Cryptosporidium parvum results in weight loss, and intestinal (structural and physiological) alterations.

    PubMed

    Garza, Armandina; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Castenallos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Griffiths, Jeffrey; Robinson, Prema

    2008-02-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, causes self-limited diarrhea in normal hosts but may cause life-threatening diarrhea in immunocompromised persons. Cryptosporidium-induced manifestations, including weight-loss and intestinal physiological alterations are not noted in adult immunocompetent mice. So far, studies that have been used to test the therapeutic efficacy of drugs have been performed using various immunocompromised animal models. There is an urgent need of an immunocompetent small animal model that portrays Cryptosporidium-induced manifestations. In the current studies, we have compared two Cryptosporidium parvum pretreatment methods, we have hence used sodium hypochlorite or acidic water to treat Cryptosporidium parvum, followed by infection by oral gavage in adult immunocompetent C57BL6 mice. We demonstrated manifestations such as weight loss, intestinal structural and physiological alterations such as intestinal, villi blunting, and glucose malabsorption (as studied by the Ussing chamber technique) only in response to infection with C. parvum that has been treated with acidic water and not with sodium hypochlorite. These novel studies reveal that acidic water treatment of C. parvum results in manifestations of cryptosporidiosis in otherwise resistant immunocompetent mice. The current studies open up possibilities of using the normal immunocompetent mice model to test therapeutic drugs against cryptosporidiosis.

  15. Asian-Indian Parents' Attributions about the Causes of Child Behavior: A Replication and Extension with Parents from Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency,…

  16. Asian-Indian Parents' Attributions about the Causes of Child Behavior: A Replication and Extension with Parents from Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency,…

  17. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy caused by violent motor tics in a child with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ko, Da-Young; Kim, Seung-Ki; Chae, Jong-Hee; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with Tourette syndrome (TS) who developed progressive quadriparesis that was more severe in the upper extremities. He had experienced frequent and violent motor tics consisting of hyperflexion and hyperextension for years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a focal high-signal intensity cord lesion and adjacent cervical spondylotic changes. Initially, the patient was observed for several months because of diagnostic uncertainty; his neurological status had improved and later worsened again. Anterior cervical discectomy of C3-4 and fusion immediately followed by posterior fixation were performed. After surgery, the neck collar was applied for 6 months. His neurological signs and symptoms improved dramatically. TS with violent neck motion may cause cervical spondylotic myelopathy at an early age. The optimal management is still unclear and attempts to control tics should be paramount. Circumferential fusion with neck bracing represents a viable treatment option.

  18. Chronic Invasive Nongranulomatous Fungal Rhinosinusitis in Immunocompetent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Ozge; Ozbudak, Irem Hicran; Turhan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Chronic invasive nongranulomatous fungal rhinosinusitis is a well-described but uncommon type of fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). While the prevalence of chronic FRS is 0.11% in healthy individuals, only 1.3% of them are in nongranulomatous invasive nature. The majority of the cases in the literature have been reported from developing countries mostly located in the tropical regions, as typically occurring in the background of diabetes mellitus or corticosteroid treatment. The current paper reports four consecutive cases, who were diagnosed within a short period of six months at a single center of a country located outside the tropical climate zone. None of the patients had a comorbid disease that may cause immune suppression or a history of drug use. The only risk factor that may have a role in development of chronic invasive nongranulomatous FRS was that all of our patients were people working in greenhouse farming. Three cases underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, and one case underwent surgery with both endoscopic and external approaches. Systemic antifungal therapy was initiated in all cases in the postoperative period with voriconazole 200 mg orally twice a day. All patients achieved a complete clinical remission. Chronic invasive nongranulomatous FRS should be kept in mind in the presence of long-standing nonspecific sinonasal symptoms in immunocompetent individuals, particularly with a history of working in greenhouse farming. PMID:27703827

  19. [Chronic central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, F J; Venturini, M; Gomes, E; de Mello, M T

    2008-05-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is an endemic fungus in America that may present as a lung self-limiting infection or be asymptomatic. Disseminated histoplasmosis can occur in cell-mediated immunity disorders and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Isolated central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis is uncommon, furthermore in immunocompetent patients. A 34 year old inmunocompetent male is reported. He presented with several pathogenic forms of neurohistoplasmosis: chronic meningitis, meningovascular histoplasmosis with stroke, acute myelopathy and chronic recurrent hydrocephalus. Other causes of chronic infectious meningitis were ruled out. Cerebrospinal flow (CSF) analysis showed an increased white cell count, hyperproteinorraquia and decrease of glucose levels. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hydrocephalus and gadolinium enhancement of the meninges; a spinal cord MRI detected a cervical and thoracic myelopathy. A chronic unspecific inflammatory process and absence of granulomata were observed in a meninge biopsy. Electronic microscopy showed the presence of yeasts in the CSF. Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated in a specific culture from two consecutive CSF samples. The patient was treated with ev amphotericin B and fluconazol, plus 6 months of oral itraconazole. Isolated chronic CNS histoplasmosis may present as recurrent episodes of stroke, meningitis, myelopathy and hydrocephalus. CSF specific culture can help in the diagnosis.

  20. A case of Kaposi sarcoma in an immunocompetent, heterosexual Irish man: a discussion of etiology and viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Florek, Aleksandra G; Eilers, David; Armstrong, April W

    2015-10-16

    Four types of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) have been described, all of which are caused by human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8).  The incidence of KS in the United States is highest among HIV-positive homosexual men and elderly men of Eastern European, Jewish, or Mediterranean descent. However, few reports describe KS in HIV-negative, immunocompetent heterosexual men in the United States. HHV-8 is transmitted largely via saliva and close sexual contact, whereas there are only a handful of reports of transmission via blood and blood products. We report a case of an HIV-negative, immunocompetent heterosexual man who acquired KS via blood transfusion. A 77-year-old immunocompetent, monogamously heterosexual, HIV-negative Irish man presented with a biopsy-proven KS lesion on the right thigh. Past surgical history included a coronary artery bypass graft, during which he received a blood transfusion from an unknown donor source.  His ecchymotic KS lesions progressed while on doxycycline, intralesional vinblastine, and topical anti-angiogenic medications.  The patient eventually achieved stabilization of KS lesions with acitretin. Our case report emphasizes the need to characterize the phenotype and transmission route of HHV-8 in heterosexual, immunocompetent patients in geographic regions with low HHV-8 seroprevalence.

  1. Chronic hepatitis without hepatic steatosis caused by citrin deficiency in a child.

    PubMed

    Inui, Ayano; Hashimoto, Takuji; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Haruki; Saheki, Takeyori; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2016-04-01

    Citrin deficiency manifests as both neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) during early infancy and adult-onset type II citrullinemia during adulthood. Hepatic steatosis is most frequently observed in patients with citrin deficiency. Thus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that is unrelated to being overweight is considered one of the clinical features of citrin deficiency in children and adults. However, it remains unknown whether citrin deficiency is a cause of chronic hepatitis in the absence of fatty changes to the liver that occur during childhood. We encountered an 8-year-old girl who showed no clinical features of NICCD during infancy and had persistently elevated transaminase levels for several years. Liver biopsy showed widening of the portal tracts with intense mononuclear cell infiltration and mild fibrosis but no fatty changes. However, she had peculiar dietary habits similar to those that have been observed in many patients with citrin deficiency. In addition, a slightly elevated plasma citrulline level and a high pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor level were detected by blood examination, and she was diagnosed with citrin deficiency. Analysis of the SLC25A13 gene revealed the presence of the compound heterozygous mutations 851del4 and IVS13 + 1G > A. Thus, citrin deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic hepatitis in children, even in the absence of hepatic steatosis. © 2015 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  2. Meningitis Caused by Salmonella Newport in a Five-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    De Malet, Ana; Ingerto, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Newport is a Gram-negative bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteria family and the nontyphi Salmonella (NTS), usually related to gastroenteritis. Main difference between NTS and Salmonella typhi is that the last one evolves to an invasive disease easier than NTS. These can progress to bacteremias in around 5% of cases and secondary focuses can appear occasionally, as in meningitis. An infection of the central nervous system is uncommon, considering its incidence in 0.6–8% of the cases; most of them are described in developing countries and mainly in childhood, especially neonates. Bacterial meningitis by NTS mostly affects immunosuppressed people in Europe. Prognosis is adverse, with a 50% mortality rate, mainly due to complications of infection: hydrocephalus, ventriculitis, abscesses, subdural empyema, or stroke. Choice antibiotic treatments are cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or ceftazidime. The aim of this paper is to present a case of meningitis caused by Salmonella Newport diagnosed in a five-year-old girl living in a rural area of the province of Ourense (Spain), with favorable evolution and without neurological disorders. PMID:28058121

  3. Hypocalcemia and tetany caused by vitamin D deficiency in a child with intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Yi; Wu, Jia-Feng; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Peng, Steven Shinn-Forng; Shun, Chia-Tung; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2009-10-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease of children, which is characterized by chronic diarrhea and complicated with malnutrition, including fat-soluble vitamin deficiency. We report a girl aged 4 years and 8 months who was diagnosed with the disease by endoscopic duodenal biopsy at 8 months of age. She presented initially with chronic diarrhea at 4 months of age. Generalized edema with hypoalbuminemia frequently occurred despite regular albumin supplements. Multiple vitamins initially were not supplied regularly. Episodes of tetany caused by hypocalcemia developed 4 years after the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Imaging study (long-bone X-ray and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) revealed low bone density. Complicated vitamin D deficiency [low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration (< 12.48 mmol/L, the detection limit)] and secondary hyperparathyroidism were confirmed via blood testing. Vitamin D supplementation for 3 months improved her bone density, secondary hyperparathyroidism and frequent tetany. Vitamin D status should be monitored in patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  4. Isolated superior mesenteric artery thrombosis: a rare cause for recurrent abdominal pain in a child.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Ahmed; Donovan, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy was evaluated for recurrent abdominal pain and failure to thrive over a 1-year period in a pediatric subspecialty clinic. Results of the extensive workup mostly were unremarkable. Eventually, imaging studies of the abdominal aorta revealed an isolated thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery trunk and compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior mesenteric artery. He had been having abdominal angina symptoms and fear of eating. A detailed family history suggested a possible hypercoagulable state. However, an extensive hematologic evaluation did not reveal a recognizable defect that could produce thrombotic events. He was treated by arterial graft bypass surgery and started on conventional anticoagulants. Several months later, he developed repeat, near-total thrombosis of the graft with recurrence of his symptoms. After balloon dilation of the graft and starting him on appropriate anticoagulant maintenance regimen, he had good symptom relief, and the graft remained patent. This presentation was unusually prolonged for the type of vascular problem identified. The possibility of vascular problems in children, therefore, should be considered. Unidentified cause of hereditary clotting tendency is another challenging aspect of this case.

  5. Macro creatine kinase type 1: a cause of spuriously elevated serum creatine kinase associated with leukoencephalopathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, John B

    2014-07-01

    Macro creatine kinase type 1 is a complex formed by the creatine kinase isoenzyme BB and monoclonal IgG and occurs in about 1% of patients studied. First identified as a cause of spurious elevation of the total serum creatine kinase in patients suspected of myocardial infarction, the test has been largely replaced by the measurement of troponin levels. We present a child with delayed milestones and persistently elevated total serum creatine kinase measurements (∼ 1000-4000 IU) normal electromyogram and brisk myotatic reflexes. Creatine kinase isoenzymes and brain imaging showed the presence of macro creatine kinase type 1 and extensive signal abnormality of the cerebral white matter. Macro creatine kinase type 1 has been associated with several conditions though it has not been described in association with leukoencephalopathy or in patients this young. Macro creatine kinase type 1 can be a cause of elevated total creatine kinase in patients without primary muscle disease. The significance of the relationship of the macro creatine kinase to the leukoencephalopathy in this patient is unknown.

  6. Time to focus child survival programmes on the newborn: assessment of levels and causes of infant mortality in rural Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fikree, Fariyal F; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Berendes, Heinz W

    2002-01-01

    Population-based surveys were conducted in selected clusters of Pakistan's least developed provinces, Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), to assess levels and causes of neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Interviews were conducted in a total of 54 834 households: Balochistan, 20 486; NWFP, 26 175; and FATA, 8173. Trained interviewers administered questionnaires after obtaining verbal informed consent from the respondents. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for infant deaths reported for the previous year. The infant mortality rate based on combined data from the different sites was 99.7 per 1000 live births (range 129.0-70.1). The contribution of neonatal deaths to all infant deaths was much higher for NWFP (67.2%), where the overall rate was lowest, than for Balochistan (50.8%) and FATA (56.8%). Around 70% of all neonatal deaths occurred in the early neonatal period. The three main clinical causes of infant deaths were diarrhoea syndrome (21.6%), tetanus (11.7%) and acute respiratory infections (11.6%). In the neonatal period, however, tetanus (18.3%), small size for gestational age or low birth weight (15.3%), and birth injury (12.0%) accounted for nearly half (45.6%) of all deaths, while the contributions of diarrhoea syndrome (5.1%) and acute respiratory infections (6.0%) were less significant (11.1%). Tetanus was the cause of death for 21.7% and 17.1% of all infant deaths in FATA and NWFP respectively. The results suggest that there should be a shift in child survival programmes to give greater emphasis to maternal and neonatal health, in particular to maternal tetanus immunization, safe delivery and cord care.

  7. Time to focus child survival programmes on the newborn: assessment of levels and causes of infant mortality in rural Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Fikree, Fariyal F.; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Berendes, Heinz W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Population-based surveys were conducted in selected clusters of Pakistan's least developed provinces, Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), to assess levels and causes of neonatal and postneonatal mortality. METHODS: Interviews were conducted in a total of 54 834 households: Balochistan, 20 486; NWFP, 26 175; and FATA, 8173. Trained interviewers administered questionnaires after obtaining verbal informed consent from the respondents. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for infant deaths reported for the previous year. FINDINGS: The infant mortality rate based on combined data from the different sites was 99.7 per 1000 live births (range 129.0-70.1). The contribution of neonatal deaths to all infant deaths was much higher for NWFP (67.2%), where the overall rate was lowest, than for Balochistan (50.8%) and FATA (56.8%). Around 70% of all neonatal deaths occurred in the early neonatal period. The three main clinical causes of infant deaths were diarrhoea syndrome (21.6%), tetanus (11.7%) and acute respiratory infections (11.6%). In the neonatal period, however, tetanus (18.3%), small size for gestational age or low birth weight (15.3%), and birth injury (12.0%) accounted for nearly half (45.6%) of all deaths, while the contributions of diarrhoea syndrome (5.1%) and acute respiratory infections (6.0%) were less significant (11.1%). Tetanus was the cause of death for 21.7% and 17.1% of all infant deaths in FATA and NWFP respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there should be a shift in child survival programmes to give greater emphasis to maternal and neonatal health, in particular to maternal tetanus immunization, safe delivery and cord care. PMID:12075362

  8. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  9. Isolated Mycobacterium kansasii wound infection and Osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Tarek; Almahmoud, Mohamed Faher; Raslan, Khulood

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium kansasii is a slow growing acid-fast non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. It most commonly causes pulmonary disease with tuberculosis-like manifestations. Mycobacterium kansasii-induced skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are very uncommon, especially in the absence of obvious risk factors. In this report, we present a rare case of M. kansasii-associated SSTI complicated by tendonitis and osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient. This case highlights the importance of considering non-tuberculosis mycobacteria while investigating chronic, relapsing, non-healing SSTIs and osteomyelitis. Proper pharmacotherapy, along with surgical debridement, is the optimal management to avoid relapse and the production of resistant species. PMID:28031850

  10. Bug on the back: vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella typhi in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Pragya; Mohan, Sachin; Roy, Satyajeet

    2015-11-27

    Although Salmonella osteomyelitis is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients, it may occasionally affect an immunocompetent host. Symptoms are usually non-specific, such as fever, abdominal or back pain; hence it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of travel to endemic regions. Fluoroquinolone resistance is rising and non-responsive patients should be treated with ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ceftriaxone. We present a case of acute T8-T11 osteomyelitis with cord compression caused by a fluoroquinolone resistant strain of Salmonella typhi.

  11. Atypical Cutaneous Sporotrichosis in an Immunocompetent Adult: Response to Potassium Iodide

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nikita; Chander, Ram; Jain, Arpita; Sanke, Sarita; Garg, Taru

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous sporotrichosis, also known as “Rose Gardener's disease,” caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenkii, is usually characterized by indolent nodular or nodulo-ulcerative lesions arranged in a linear pattern. We report bizarre nonlinear presentation of Sporotrichosis, in an immunocompetent adult occurring after a visit to Amazon rain forest, speculating infection with more virulent species of Sporothrix. The diagnosis was reached with the help of periodic acid-Schiff positive yeast cells and cigar shaped bodies seen in skin biopsy along with the therapeutic response to potassium iodide. PMID:27057047

  12. Atypical Cutaneous Sporotrichosis in an Immunocompetent Adult: Response to Potassium Iodide.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nikita; Chander, Ram; Jain, Arpita; Sanke, Sarita; Garg, Taru

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous sporotrichosis, also known as "Rose Gardener's disease," caused by dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenkii, is usually characterized by indolent nodular or nodulo-ulcerative lesions arranged in a linear pattern. We report bizarre nonlinear presentation of Sporotrichosis, in an immunocompetent adult occurring after a visit to Amazon rain forest, speculating infection with more virulent species of Sporothrix. The diagnosis was reached with the help of periodic acid-Schiff positive yeast cells and cigar shaped bodies seen in skin biopsy along with the therapeutic response to potassium iodide.

  13. Pleural empyema due to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in an immunocompetent elderly patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Karachalios, Kostis; Siagris, Dimitrios; Lekkou, Alexandra; Anastassiou, Evangelos D.; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Gogos, Charalambos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pleural empyema as a focal infection due to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is rare and most commonly described among immunosuppressed patients or patients who suffer from sickle cell anaemia and lung malignancies. Case presentation: Here, we present an 81-year-old immunocompetent Greek woman with bacteraemia and pleural empyema due to Salmonella Enteritidis without any gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion: In our case, we suggest that patient’s pleural effusion secondary to heart failure was complicated by empyema and that focal intravascular infection was the cause of bacteraemia. PMID:28348773

  14. Nosocomial Urinary Tract Aspergilloma in an Immunocompetent Host: An Unusual Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Archana; Grover, Chander; Pandhi, Deepika; Das, Shukla; Jain, Bhupinder Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections of the urinary tract are usually encountered following prolonged antibiotic use, instrumentation and indwelling urinary catheters. Candida is the most frequent causative fungus. However, infections with Aspergillus flavus have been reported previously in immune-compromised hosts. We, hereby, report a 32-year-old immunocompetent man diagnosed to have urinary tract infection caused by Aspergillus flavus following instrumentation for the removal of a ureteric stone. The infection was symptomatic, associated with abdominal pain and subsequent passage of fungal masses per urethra. Patient was treated successfully with a prolonged course of broad spectrum antifungal agent itraconazole. PMID:24082213

  15. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as diabetic keto-acidosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Niknam, Negin; Malhotra, Prashant; Kim, Angela; Koenig, Seth

    2017-01-06

    Histoplasma capsulatum causes a spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic to fatal disseminated disease. Disseminated histoplasmosis is mostly seen in endemic areas among immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Here, we present a patient living in a non-endemic area with previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, who presented with septic shock and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and was ultimately diagnosed with disseminated histoplasmosis. The patient rapidly recovered on administration of intravenous liposomal amphotericin followed by oral itraconazole. Uncontrolled diabetes may be a risk factor for disseminated or severe histoplasmosis in otherwise immunocompetent patients.

  16. Adrenal and hepatic aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyu; Liu, Yanbin; Wang, Weiya; Liu, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Invasive aspergillosis, an infection most frequently induced by Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, typically occurs in immunocompromised patients and is usually transmitted through inhalation of Aspergillus spores. As the lungs are by far the most common site involved in invasive aspergillosis and invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent hosts is very rare, there have been a few case reports of extra-pulmonary, disseminated invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent persons. Herein, we report a case of an adult, male, immunocompetent patient with disseminated invasive aspergillosis that successively spread from the right adrenal gland to the left hepatic lobe. The patient was successfully treated through surgical excisions of his adrenal and hepatic masses followed by voriconazole therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of invasive aspergillosis affecting the adrenal glands.

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Effective Communication of Spouse and Father-Child Relationship (Test Pattern Causes to Education Parents)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ataeifar, Robabeh; Amiri, Sholeh; Ali Nadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research is targeted with the plan of father-child model or effective relationship mediating of spouses or investigating attachment style, personality traits, communication skills, and spouses' sexual satisfaction. Based on this, 260 people (father and child) were selected through random sampling method based on share. Participants were…

  18. [Trochanteric bursitis due to tuberculosis in an immunocompetent young woman].

    PubMed

    Soro Marín, Sandra; Sánchez Trenado, María Asunción; Mínguez Sánchez, María Dolores; Paulino Huertas, Marcos; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Salas Manzanedo, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can affect muscle, tendons, fascia, bursa and synovial tissue. Tuberculous trochanteric bursitis is a rare entity that usually affects immunocompromised patients. Manifestations usually occur insidiously, which delays diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of an immunocompetent young woman who came to our department for chronic left hip pain. The study confirms the diagnosis of tuberculous trochanteric bursitis. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a possible infectious origin of bursitis in immunocompetent patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Perdomo, Yuri Chiarelli; Boigues, Rafaela Suguimoto; Takita, Luiz Carlos; Hans Filho, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided. PMID:28099613

  20. Disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; Lima, Alexandre Moretti de; Perdomo, Yuri Chiarelli; Boigues, Rafaela Suguimoto; Takita, Luiz Carlos; Hans, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided.

  1. Nature and severity of physical harm caused by child abuse and neglect: results from the Canadian Incidence Study

    PubMed Central

    Trocmé, Nico; MacMillan, Harriet; Fallon, Barbara; Marco, Richard De

    2003-01-01

    Background Despite growing public concern about child maltreatment, the scope and severity of this significant public health issue remains poorly understood. This article examines the nature and severity of the physical harm associated with reports of child maltreatment documented in the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). Methods The CIS collected information directly from child welfare investigators about cases of reported child abuse or neglect. A multistage sampling design was used to track child-maltreatment investigations conducted at selected sites from October to December 1998. The analyses were based on the sample of 3780 cases in which child maltreatment was substantiated. Results Some type of physical harm was documented in 18% of substantiated cases; most of these involved bruises, cuts and scrapes. In 4% of substantiated cases, harm was severe enough to require medical attention, and in less than 1% of substantiated cases, medical attention was sought for broken bones or head trauma. Harm was noted most often in cases of physical abuse compared to other forms of maltreatment. Interpretation Rates of physical harm were lower than expected. Current emphasis on mandatory reporting, abuse investigations and risk assessment may need to be tempered for cases in which physical harm is not the central concern. PMID:14581308

  2. Odontogenic keratocyst in a 5-year-old child: a rare cause of maxillary swelling in children.

    PubMed

    Smith, I M; Harvey, N; Logan, R M; David, D J; Anderson, P J

    2008-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts in children are uncommon. They are cysts of the jaws that have a tendency for recurrence and are usually seen in adults. We report an exceptionally rare case in a young child and discuss its management.

  3. Asian-Indian parents' attributions about the causes of child behavior: a replication and extension with parents from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency, intensity, and cross-situational consistency of the behavior. Parents attributed the positive behaviors of all children to the personality of the child and to parenting. Parents attributed negative behavior of their own children to situational influences and nonparenting effects, but attributed the negative behavior of other children to their personality and to parenting, a pattern that enhances and reinforces parent self-esteem. Results were discussed in terms of the self-serving bias and the actor-observer bias, cognitive distortions that protect and enhance parents' views of themselves and their children.

  4. Babesia microti infection and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Go, Shanette A; Phuoc, Vania H; Eichenberg, Sarah E; Temesgen, Zelalem; Beckman, Thomas J

    2017-10-06

    Babesiosis is a rare and potentially severe tick-borne illness endemic to the Northeastern and upper Midwestern regions of the United States. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is an uncommon condition resulting from over-activation of the immune system. We report the first known case of babesiosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in an immunocompetent patient. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Ofuji's disease in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated with dapsone

    PubMed Central

    Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Manne, Sindhura; Panicker, Vinitha Varghese; Eapen, Malini

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis or Ofuji's disease is a non-infectious eosinophilic infiltration of hair follicles, which usually presents with itchy papules and pustules in a circinate configuration. We report this case of an immunocompetent patient with erythematous papules and plaques without macropustules diagnosed as eosinophilic pustular folliculitis—a rarely reported entity outside Japan. He was successfully treated with oral dapsone. PMID:27730038

  6. Do men’s faces really signal heritable immunocompetence?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the literature on human mate choice, masculine facial morphology is often proposed to be an intersexual signal of heritable immunocompetence, and hence an important component of men’s attractiveness. This hypothesis has received considerable research attention, and is increasingly treated as plausible and well supported. In this article, we propose that the strength of the evidence for the immunocompetence hypothesis is somewhat overstated, and that a number of difficulties have been under-acknowledged. Such difficulties include (1) the tentative nature of the evidence regarding masculinity and disease in humans, (2) the complex and uncertain picture emerging from the animal literature on sexual ornaments and immunity, (3) the absence of consistent, cross-cultural support for the predictions of the immunocompetence hypothesis regarding preferences for masculinized stimuli, and (4) evidence that facial masculinity contributes very little, if anything, to overall attractiveness in real men. Furthermore, alternative explanations for patterns of preferences, in particular the proposal that masculinity is primarily an intrasexual signal, have been neglected. We suggest that immunocompetence perspectives on masculinity, whilst appealing in many ways, should still be regarded as speculative, and that other perspectives–and other traits–should be the subject of greater attention for researchers studying human mate preferences. PMID:23555177

  7. Helicobacter cinaedi septic arthritis and bacteremia in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Lasry, S; Simon, J; Marais, A; Pouchot, J; Vinceneux, P; Boussougant, Y

    2000-07-01

    We report on the first case of documented Helicobacter cinaedi septic arthritis in an immunocompetent heterosexual young man. The patient presented no identified risk factor except for contact with animals that have been incriminated as a possible source of infection, particularly for these patients. Despite prolonged bacteremia, the response to long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin and rifampin was excellent.

  8. Immediate dietary effects on migrating Mormon cricket immunocompetence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mormon crickets form bands and walk over rangeland in the western United States seeking salt and protein. Radio-tracking adult members of a Mormon cricket band in a high Sonoran desert of Utah, we investigated a potential trade-off between immunocompetence and migratory velocity. We asked: does acce...

  9. Clinical and radiologic manifestations of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients and their outcomes after treatment.

    PubMed

    Suwatanapongched, Thitiporn; Sangsatra, Wasinan; Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Watcharananan, Siriorn P; Incharoen, Pimpin

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate clinical and radiologic manifestations of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients and their outcomes after treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, initial and follow-up chest computed tomography scans and/or radiographs for initial clinical and radiologic manifestations and outcomes following antifungal treatment of 12 immunocompetent patients diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis between 1990 and 2012. Twelve patients (age range, 21-62 years; males, eight patients [66.7%]) were included. Nine (75%) patients were symptomatic, eight of whom had disseminated infection with central nervous system involvement. Initial pulmonary abnormalities consisted of single nodules/masses (n=5), single segmental or lobar mass-like consolidation (n=3), multiple cavitary and noncavitary nodules (n=1), and multifocal consolidation plus nodules (n=3). These lesions ranged from less than 1 cm to 15 cm in greatest diameter. Distinct subpleural and lower lung predominance was observed. Seven patients (58.3%) had one or more atypical/aggressive findings, namely endobronchial obstruction (n=4), calcified (n=1) or enlarged (n=4) mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes, vascular compression (n=1), pericardial involvement (n=1), and pleural involvement (n=2). Following antifungal therapy, radiologic resolution was variable within the first six months of eight nonsurgical cases. Substantial (>75%) improvement with some residual abnormalities, bronchiectasis, cavitation, and/or fibrotic changes were frequently observed after 12-24 months of treatment (n=6). Pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients frequently causes disseminated infection with atypical/aggressive radiologic findings that are gradually and/or incompletely resolved after treatment. The presence of nonenhanced low-attenuation areas within subpleural consolidation or mass and the absence of tree-in-bud appearance should raise concern for pulmonary cryptococcosis

  10. Risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in immunocompetent patients with pneumonia: Evaluation of PES pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tadashi; Ito, Akihiro; Washio, Yasuyoshi; Yamazaki, Akio; Noyama, Maki; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Arita, Machiko

    2017-01-01

    The new acronym, PES pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), was recently proposed to identify drug-resistant pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia. To evaluate the risk factors for antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in immunocompetent patients with pneumonia and to validate the role of PES pathogens. A retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study of immunocompetent patients with pneumonia between March 2009 and June 2015 was conducted. We clarified the risk factors for PES pathogens. Of the total 1559 patients, an etiological diagnosis was made in 705 (45.2%) patients. PES pathogens were identified in 51 (7.2%) patients, with 53 PES pathogens (P. aeruginosa, 34; ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae, 6; and MRSA, 13). Patients with PES pathogens had tendencies toward initial treatment failure, readmission within 30 days, and a prolonged hospital stay. Using multivariate analysis, female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.998, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.047-3.810), admission within 90 days (AOR 2.827, 95% CI 1.250-6.397), poor performance status (AOR 2.380, 95% CI 1.047-5.413), and enteral feeding (AOR 5.808, 95% CI 1.813-18.613) were independent risk factors for infection with PES pathogens. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the risk factors was 0.66 (95% CI 0.577-0.744). We believe the definition of PES pathogens is an appropriate description of drug-resistant pathogens associated with pneumonia in immunocompetent patients. The frequency of PES pathogens is quite low. However, recognition is critical because they can cause refractory pneumonia and different antimicrobial treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence of immunocompetence reduction induced by cadmium exposure in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Polykretis, P; Delfino, G; Petrocelli, I; Cervo, R; Tanteri, G; Montori, G; Perito, B; Branca, J J V; Morucci, G; Gulisano, M

    2016-11-01

    In the last decades a dramatic loss of Apis mellifera hives has been reported in both Europe and USA. Research in this field is oriented towards identifying a synergy of contributing factors, i.e. pathogens, pesticides, habitat loss and pollution to the weakening of the hive. Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous anthropogenic pollutant whose effects are proving to be increasingly lethal. Among the multiple damages related to Cd contamination, some studies report that it causes immunosuppression in various animal species. The aim of this paper is to determine whether contamination by Cd, may have a similar effect on the honey bees' immunocompetence. Our results, obtained by immune challenge experiments and confirmed by structural and ultrastructural observations show that such metal causes a reduction in immunocompetence in 3 days Cd exposed bees. As further evidence of honey bee response to Cd treatment, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (X-EDS) has revealed the presence of zinc (Zn) in peculiar electron-dense granules in fat body cells. Zn is a characteristic component of metallothioneins (MTs), which are usually synthesized as anti-oxidant and scavenger tools against Cd contamination. Our findings suggest that honey bee colonies may have a weakened immune system in Cd polluted areas, resulting in a decreased ability in dealing with pathogens.

  12. Acute appendicitis due to Cytomegalovirus in an apparently immunocompetent patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In healthy subjects, Cytomegalovirus infection can be asymptomatic or manifest as mononucleosis syndrome, but organ disease has also been reported. However, in immunocompromised patients this infection can lead to its most significant and severe disease and even mortality. When Cytomegalovirus causes a gastrointestinal tract infection, it more commonly manifests with luminal tract disease and is usually characterized by ulcerative lesions. Appendicitis is a rare manifestation, and has been reported mainly in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients or patients with other causes of immunocompromise. Case presentation The authors report on a case of acute primary Cytomegalovirus infection complicated with acute appendicitis due to Cytomegalovirus in an apparently immunocompetent 24-year-old Caucasian man also suffering from primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations, serology results, as well as microbiological and histological findings. Treatment consisted of surgery and anti-Cytomegalovirus therapy. Conclusions Cytomegalovirus should be included among the etiologic agents of acute appendicitis in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. Currently, there are no definitive data regarding the frequency of Cytomegalovirus appendicitis and the role of anti-Cytomegalovirus treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-negative and apparently immunocompetent subjects. PMID:24612821

  13. Acute Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection Associated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in an Immunocompetent Host Meeting All Eight HLH 2004 Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Willeford, Wesley G; Lichstein, Peter; Ohar, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and often deadly syndrome characterized by severe inflammation and cytokine dysregulation. The disease is defined by the HLH-2004 criteria, requiring five of eight findings, and is further differentiated into either primary or secondary causes. Primary HLH tends to be of genetic etiology, while secondary HLH results from other insults such as infection. Secondary HLH is most commonly associated with viral infections in immunocompromised patients. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) associated HLH in the immunocompetent host is exceedingly rare and only documented in four case reports to date. We describe the fifth documented case of CMV-associated HLH in an immunocompetent patient, and furthermore, we demonstrate that this patient is the first published case of its type to satisfy all eight of HLH-2004 criteria. PMID:28409071

  14. Meningitis with polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster positivity in cerebrospinal flid of a young immunocompetent adult

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja; Ranjan, Rajeev; Agrawal, C. S.; Muralikrishnan, K; Dave, Nikhil; Rana, Davinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) is quite rare among young immunocompetent adults though immunocompromised patients are often seen to be affected by reactivation of VZV presenting with primary clinical features of dermatomal rashes and neurological sequelae. Here, we report the clinical scenario of a young, healthy male who had presented with fever, headache, and onset of dermatomal rashes later than the fever and was eventually diagnosed to be a case of VZV meningitis. We would like to highlight the fact that even young immunocompetent patients though rarely, might contract VZV meningitis and clinicians should have a high index of suspicion and keen eyes to catch the more obvious features of VZV infection on complete physical examination and must not harbor any reservations in ordering polymerase chain reaction for VZV DNA or initiating aggressive antiviral therapy. PMID:27695246

  15. Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection among immunocompromised and immunocompetent humans in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    ABU-AKKADA, Somaia Saif; EL KERDANY, Eman Dorry Hussein; MADY, Rasha Fadly; DIAB, Radwa Galal; KHEDR, Gehan Abd Elatti; ASHMAWY, Karam Imam; LOTFY, Wael Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalitozoon cuniculi infects a wide range of homoeothermic animals, including man. Complications due to this microsporidian have been reported only in immunocompromised patients. Reports on E. cuniculi in immunocompetent humans are lacking, most probably, because it is not linked to any clinical manifestations in such hosts. The present work was carried out with the aim of studying, for the first time in Egypt, the prevalence of E. cuniculi infection of urinary tract among non-HIV immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent individuals. It tested also the influence of some factors on the risk of infection. Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected from 88 persons (44 non-HIV immunocompromised patients and 44 subjects as immunocompetent control group). IFAT serological assay and Weber’s green modified trichrome stain (MTS) urine smears were carried out. Molecular study by PCR was also performed to detect DNA of E. cuniculi in urine samples. A full history sheet was fulfilled for each subject to test the suspected risk factors. Results: The IFAT examination confirmed the presence of antibodies against E. cuniculi in 44.3% of the human subjects. The seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was significantly higher in the immunocompromised patients compared with the immunocompetent individuals (77.3% versus 11.4%). Compared with IFAT (the gold standard), the sensitivity and specificity of Weber’s green MTS smears were 69.23% and 89.80%. By using PCR, no positive cases were detected among human subjects. Conclusion: A high prevalence of E. cuniculi infection in the studied individuals was noted. Although infection was found in some immunocompetent individuals, the immune status of the host remains the corner stone for occurrence of the infection. PMID:26811722

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Acute Liver Failure Present in a 67-Year-Old Immunocompetent Female

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Betty; Chen, Yongxin; Chamberland, Robin; Fider-Whyte, Alexa; Craig, Julia; Varma, Chintalapati; Befeler, Alex S.; Bisceglie, Adrian M. Di; Horton, Peter; Lai, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare illness with a high mortality rate. The only favorable management is emergent liver transplantation. About 13% of ALF cases have no clear etiology. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated ALF accounts for less than 1% of all ALF cases, and is seen mostly in adults younger than 40 years. There are only a few cases of EBV-associated ALF in elderly immunocompromised adults. We report a case of ALF in an immunocompetent 67-year-old woman caused by EBV infection that was treated by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The diagnosis of EBV-associated ALF was established by EBV-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER-RNA) in situ hybridization (EBER-RISH). The patient is currently doing well 6 months after transplantation without any evidence of clinical EBV infection. This case illustrates the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of EBV-associated ALF by detection of EBV from liver biopsy, especially when patients are immunocompetent and other causes are excluded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of EBV-associated ALF present in an immunocompetent elderly female. PMID:27785330

  17. Asbestos-Induced Cellular and Molecular Alteration of Immunocompetent Cells and Their Relationship with Chronic Inflammation and Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Maeda, Megumi; Lee, Suni; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Kojima, Yoko; Tabata, Rika; Kishimoto, Takumi; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos causes lung fibrosis known as asbestosis as well as cancers such as malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. Asbestos is a mineral silicate containing iron, magnesium, and calcium with a core of SiO2. The immunological effect of silica, SiO2, involves the dysregulation of autoimmunity because of the complications of autoimmune diseases found in silicosis. Asbestos can therefore cause alteration of immunocompetent cells to result in a decline of tumor immunity. Additionally, due to its physical characteristics, asbestos fibers remain in the lung, regional lymph nodes, and the pleural cavity, particularly at the opening sites of lymphatic vessels. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation in these areas due to the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. As a consequence, immunocompetent cells can have their cellular and molecular features altered by chronic and recurrent encounters with asbestos fibers, and there may be modification by the surrounding inflammation, all of which eventually lead to decreased tumor immunity. In this paper, the brief results of our investigation regarding reduction of tumor immunity of immunocompetent cells exposed to asbestos in vitro are discussed, as are our findings concerned with an investigation of chronic inflammation and analyses of peripheral blood samples derived from patients with pleural plaque and mesothelioma that have been exposed to asbestos. PMID:22500091

  18. Correlation of rhinovirus load in the respiratory tract and clinical symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Gerna, G; Piralla, A; Rovida, F; Rognoni, V; Marchi, A; Locatelli, F; Meloni, F

    2009-08-01

    While human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are well accepted as a major cause of common cold syndromes (rhinitis), their role in the etiology of lower respiratory tract infections is still controversial, and their detection in asymptomatic patients is relatively common. The HRV pathogenic role in four groups of hospitalized patients (pediatric immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, and adult immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients) was investigated by quantifying HRV load in nasopharyngeal aspirates or bronchoalveolar lavage samples by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Real-time RT-PCR was performed in duplicate on all respiratory samples resulting positive by qualitative RT-PCR. In addition, molecular typing allowed detection of all known HRV species (A, B, and C). In immunocompetent pediatric patients HRVs were mostly associated with lower respiratory tract infections (in the absence of other viral agents) and wheezing, when viral load was > or =10(6) RNA copies/ml. In young immunocompromised patients (stem cell transplantation recipients), an inverse correlation between HRV persistence over time and time at which the infection occurred after transplantation was observed, whereas in adult immunocompromised patients (lung transplant recipients) HRVs could be detected at a medium-low level (<10(5) RNA copies/ml) in bronchoalveolar lavage samples taken routinely from asymptomatic patients. In conclusion, when detected at high viral load, HRVs may cause severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections, whereas when detected at a medium-low viral load, an event more frequent in immunocompromised subjects, they may represent only bystander viruses.

  19. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Meric, Meliha; Ozcan, Sema Keceli

    2012-03-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that causes infections primarily in animals. In humans, this bacterium usually causes localized cutaneous infections called erysipeloid. Here we report a case of pneumonia with isolation of E. rhusiopathiae from bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pneumonia case caused by E. rhusiopathiae confirmed by culture.

  20. Deriving causes of child mortality by re–analyzing national verbal autopsy data applying a standardized computer algorithm in Uganda, Rwanda and Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Li, Mengying; Cummings, Stirling; Black, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To accelerate progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 4, reliable information on causes of child mortality is critical. With more national verbal autopsy (VA) studies becoming available, how to improve consistency of national VA derived child causes of death should be considered for the purpose of global comparison. We aimed to adapt a standardized computer algorithm to re–analyze national child VA studies conducted in Uganda, Rwanda and Ghana recently, and compare our results with those derived from physician review to explore issues surrounding the application of the standardized algorithm in place of physician review. Methods and Findings We adapted the standardized computer algorithm considering the disease profile in Uganda, Rwanda and Ghana. We then derived cause–specific mortality fractions applying the adapted algorithm and compared the results with those ascertained by physician review by examining the individual– and population–level agreement. Our results showed that the leading causes of child mortality in Uganda, Rwanda and Ghana were pneumonia (16.5–21.1%) and malaria (16.8–25.6%) among children below five years and intrapartum–related complications (6.4–10.7%) and preterm birth complications (4.5–6.3%) among neonates. The individual level agreement was poor to substantial across causes (kappa statistics: –0.03 to 0.83), with moderate to substantial agreement observed for injury, congenital malformation, preterm birth complications, malaria and measles. At the population level, despite fairly different cause–specific mortality fractions, the ranking of the leading causes was largely similar. Conclusions The standardized computer algorithm produced internally consistent distribution of causes of child mortality. The results were also qualitatively comparable to those based on physician review from the perspective of public health policy. The standardized computer algorithm has the advantage of requiring minimal

  1. Bordetella holmesii, an emerging cause of septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Abouanaser, Salaheddin F; Srigley, Jocelyn A; Nguyen, Tram; Dale, Suzanne E; Johnstone, Jennie; Wilcox, Lindsay; Jamieson, Frances; Rawte, Prasad; Pernica, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-01

    Bordetella holmesii is a well-described pathogen in asplenic and immunocompromised patients. Here we report the first two published cases of septic arthritis caused by B. holmesii documented in apparently immunocompetent patients and unaccompanied by bacteremia.

  2. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Nader; Izhakain, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G.; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the Gram-positive weakly acid-fast, filamentous aerobic Actinomycetes. The lungs are the primary site of infection mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. In rare circumstances even immunocompetent hosts may also develop infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations which mimic fungal, tuberculous, or neoplastic processes. The present report describes a rare bronchoscopic presentation of an endobronchial nocardial mass in a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman without underlying lung disease. The patient exhibited signs and symptoms of unresolving community-acquired pneumonia with a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed a space-occupying lesion and enlarged paratracheal lymph node. This patient represents the unusual presentation of pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis as an endobronchial mass. Pathology obtained during bronchoscopy demonstrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of nocardiosis. Symptoms and clinical findings improved with antibiotic treatment. This patient emphasizes the challenge in making the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis, especially in a low risk host. A literature review presents the difficulties and pitfalls in the clinical assessment of such an individual. PMID:26819795

  3. Susceptibility to disease varies with ontogeny and immunocompetence in a threatened amphibian.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Amalina; Bower, Deborah S; Stockwell, Michelle P; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Ontogenetic changes in disease susceptibility have been demonstrated in many vertebrate taxa, as immature immune systems and limited prior exposure to pathogens can place less developed juveniles at a greater disease risk. By causing the disease chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection has led to the decline of many amphibian species. Despite increasing knowledge on how Bd varies in its effects among species, little is known on the interaction between susceptibility and development within host species. We compared the ontogenetic susceptibility of post-metamorphic green and golden bell frogs Litoria aurea to chytridiomycosis by simultaneously measuring three host-pathogen responses as indicators of the development of the fungus-infection load, survival rate, and host immunocompetence-following Bd exposure in three life stages (recently metamorphosed juveniles, subadults, adults) over 95 days. Frogs exposed to Bd as recently metamorphosed juveniles acquired higher infection loads and experienced lower immune function and lower survivorship than subadults and adults, indicating an ontogenetic decline in chytridiomycosis susceptibility. By corresponding with an intrinsic developmental maturation in immunocompetence seen in uninfected frogs, we suggest these developmental changes in host susceptibility in L. aurea may be immune mediated. Consequently, the physiological relationship between ontogeny and immunity may affect host population structure and demography through variation in life stage survival, and understanding this can shape management targets for effective amphibian conservation.

  4. Liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Minodier, Philippe; Retornaz, Karine; Horelt, Alexia; Garnier, Jean-Marc

    2003-04-01

    The leishmaniases are protozoan diseases caused by Leishmania parasites. The first-line treatment of its visceral forms is pentavalent antimony (meglumine antimoniate or sodium stibogluconate), but toxicity is frequent with this drug. Moreover antimony unresponsiveness is increasing in Leishmania infantum and L. donovani foci, both in immunocompetent and in immunosuppressed patients. Amphotericin B is a polyene macrolide antibiotic that binds to sterols in cell membranes. It is the most active antileishmanial agent in use. Its infusion-related and renal toxicity may be reduced by lipid-based delivery. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome); Gilead Science, Paris, France) seems to be less toxic than other amphotericin B lipid formulations (Amphocil); Liposome Technology Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA, Amphotec); Ben Venue Laboratories Inc., Bedford, OH, USA). Optimal drug regimens of AmBisome) vary from one geographical area to another. In the Mediterranean Basin, a total dose of 18 mg/kg (3 mg/kg on days 1-5 and 3 mg/kg on day 10) could be used as first-line treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompetent patients. In immunocompromised patients, especially those co-infected with HIV, relapses are frequent with AmBisome), as with other drugs.

  5. Pulmonary cryptococcosis with trachea wall invasion in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Chen, Hui; Shao, Changzhou; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in the world. Pulmonary cryptococcosis is a kind of subacute or chronic pulmonary fungal disease. We present a case of pulmonary cryptococcosis with a trachea wall invasion-like malignant tumor in an immunocompetent patient and a literature review. The 44-year-old man, a nonsmoker, suffered from mild dyspnea and white sputum with intermittent blood streaks. A computed tomography (CT) scan of his chest showed two possibly malignant lesions in the right hilum and upper-right field of his lung, which have higher uptake values of fluorodeoxyglucose on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Lung biopsy pathology showed scattered fungal spores and positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. The immune status and blood tumor markers were all normal in this patient. The titer of Cryptococcus antigen latex agglutination test was 1:1,280. Under fiberoptic bronchoscopy, a prominent new mass on the right wall of the trachea blocked most of the right main bronchus. To reduce the symptoms of airway obstruction, treatment by bronchoscopy, i.e. ablation and endotracheal stent, was used. As his symptoms were aggravated by the use of itraconazole, amphotericin B liposome was used as antifungal treatment. All these methods led to a better prognosis. We conclude that pulmonary cryptococcosis may mimic lung neoplasms radiologically and bronchoscopically, even in immunocompetent patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Stroke due to septic embolism resulting from Aspergillus aortitis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Abenza-Abildua, M J; Fuentes-Gimeno, B; Morales-Bastos, C; Aguilar-Amat, M J; Martinez-Sanchez, P; Diez-Tejedor, E

    2009-09-15

    Cerebral infarction secondary to Aspergillus arteritis or septic embolism is an exceptional finding. We present a case of multiple systemic embolism and cerebral infarction resulting from Aspergillus aortitis in an immunocompetent patient. A 65-year-old male with hypertension, hyperglycaemia and myocardial infarction with aorto-coronary by-pass surgery three years before admission, that suffered cerebral infarction in middle right cerebral artery territory and right cubital artery embolism. One month later he presented abrupt increase of his left hemiparesia and left central facial palsy associated with fever of unknown origin. Laboratory test, cranial CT and echocardiogram were performed. He died ten days later. Hemogram: leucocytes 34.700/microL (85% N, 4.8%L). Cranial CT: cerebral infarction in middle right cerebral artery territory. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram: moderate left ventricular hypertrophy and slight inferior hypokinesis. Arteriography: complete thrombosis of the left internal carotid. Necropsy: parietal aortic aspergillosis with generalized septic embolisms (brain, kidney, liver, fingers), cerebral infarction in middle right cerebral artery territory and thrombosis of the left carotid siphon with Aspergillus arteritis. Aspergillosis is an exceptional cause of cerebral infarction, especially in immunocompetent patients, and their diagnosis is complicated, being usually found at necropsy.

  7. Conundrum of Autism: A Review of Its Causes and Significant Impact on the Education of a School Age Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwokeafor, Cosmas U.

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a brain development disorder that is characterized by impaired social interaction, communication, restricted and repetitive behavior which starts before a child is three years old. As a result of the outcome of set of signs such as restricted and repetitive behaviors, autism distinguishes itself from milder Autism Spectrum Disorders…

  8. "The environment as a cause of disease in children": Josef Friedjung's transnational influence on modern child welfare theory.

    PubMed

    Danto, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    Josef K. Friedjung's Advanced Pediatrics--A Companion to Traditional Textbooks (Erlebte Kinderheilkunde--eine Ergänzung er gebräuchlichen Lehrbucher), published in 1919 in Vienna, has cast a long but nearly-vanished shadow over modern child welfare theory. The originality of his focus on "the whole child" was in some ways a commentary on Sigmund Freud, but its overtly progressive political character gave Friedjung's argument visible applicability within the field of urban social welfare. As a pediatrician and an ardent cosmopolitan, Friedjung was willing to consider conflicting values between traditional family systems and the state. Had the Nazis not forced him into exile in Palestine, where he died in 1946, Friedjung's pioneering oeuvre would have joined our child welfare narrative long ago. Fortunately today archival evidence on which this study draws, fragmented as it is in both German and English, does confirm that the first and second generation psychoanalysts, Friedjung among them, built a mental health movement around a social justice core closely allied to the cultural context of central Europe from 1918 to 1933. In many ways, child welfare as we know it emerged as a practical implementation of that ideology.

  9. Identification of opportunistic enteric parasites among immunocompetent patients with diarrhoea from Northern India and genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, U; Dey, A; Ranjan, P; Khanduja, S; Agarwal, V; Ghoshal, U C

    2016-01-01

    Enteric parasitic infestation is a major public health problem in developing countries. Parasites such as Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora spp., Cystoisospora spp. and Microsporidia may cause severe diarrhoea among immunocompromised patients. There is scanty data on their frequency among immunocompetent patients. Accordingly, we studied the frequency of enteric opportunistic parasites among immunocompetent patients with diarrhoea from northern India; we also performed genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidia and Microsporidia among them. Stool samples from 80 immunocompetent patients with diarrhoea, and 110 healthy controls were examined. Parasites were detected by direct microscopy, modified acid-fast (Kinyoun's) and modified trichrome stain. Polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for genetic characterisation of selected species such as Cryptosporidia and Microsporidia. Enteric parasites were detected in 16/80 (20%) patients (mean age 28.8±20 years, 45, 56% males) and in 2/110 (1.8%) healthy controls (P=0.00007). Parasites detected were Cryptosporidium spp. (8/16, 50.0%), Cystoisospora spp. (4/16, 25%), Microsporidia (1/16, 6.25%), Cyclospora spp. (1/16, 6.25%) and Giardia spp. (1/16, 6.25%). One patient had mixed infection with Cystoisospora spp. and Giardia spp. The species of Cryptosporidia and Microsporidia detected were Cryptosporidium hominis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively. Parasites were more often detected in younger patients (≤20 years of age) than in older. Most of the parasite infected patients presented with chronic diarrhoea. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infestation was more common among immunocompetent patients with diarrhoea than healthy subjects. Special staining as well as molecular methods are essential for appropriate diagnosis of these parasites.

  10. Changes in cause-specific neonatal and 1-59-month child mortality in India from 2000 to 2015: a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    2017-09-19

    Documentation of the demographic and geographical details of changes in cause-specific neonatal (younger than 1 month) and 1-59-month mortality in India can guide further progress in reduction of child mortality. In this study we report the changes in cause-specific child mortality between 2000 and 2015 in India. Since 2001, the Registrar General of India has implemented the Million Death Study (MDS) in 1·3 million homes in more than 7000 randomly selected areas of India. About 900 non-medical surveyors do structured verbal autopsies for deaths recorded in these homes. Each field report is assigned randomly to two of 404 trained physicians to classify the cause of death, with a standard process for resolution of disagreements. We combined the proportions of child deaths according to the MDS for 2001-13 with annual UN estimates of national births and deaths (partitioned across India's states and rural or urban areas) for 2000-15. We calculated the annual percentage change in sex-specific and cause-specific mortality between 2000 and 2015 for neonates and 1-59-month-old children. The MDS captured 52 252 deaths in neonates and 42 057 deaths at 1-59 months. Examining specific causes, the neonatal mortality rate from infection fell by 66% from 11·9 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 4·0 per 1000 livebirths in 2015 and the rate from birth asphyxia or trauma fell by 76% from 9·0 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 2·2 per 1000 livebirths in 2015. At 1-59 months, the mortality rate from pneumonia fell by 63% from 11·2 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 4·2 per 1000 livebirths in 2015 and the rate from diarrhoea fell by 66% from 9·4 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 3·2 per 1000 livebirths in 2015 (with narrowing girl-boy gaps). The neonatal tetanus mortality rate fell from 1·6 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to less than 0·1 per 1000 livebirths in 2015 and the 1-59-month measles mortality rate fell from 3·3 per 1000 livebirths in 2000 to 0·3 per 1000 livebirths in 2015. By

  11. Intrauterine Zika virus infection of pregnant immunocompetent mice models transplacental transmission and adverse perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, Meghan S; Lei, Jun; Shabi, Yahya; Baxter, Victoria K; Crilly, Nathan P; McLane, Michael; Griffin, Diane E; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L; Burd, Irina

    2017-02-21

    Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia. Viral antigen localizes in trophoblast and endothelial cells in the placenta, and endothelial, microglial and neural progenitor cells in the fetal brain. ZIKV infection of the placenta increases production of IFNβ and expression of IFN-stimulated genes 48 h after infection. This mouse model provides a platform for identifying factors at the maternal-fetal interface that contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in a host with an intact immune system.

  12. Intrauterine Zika virus infection of pregnant immunocompetent mice models transplacental transmission and adverse perinatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vermillion, Meghan S.; Lei, Jun; Shabi, Yahya; Baxter, Victoria K.; Crilly, Nathan P.; McLane, Michael; Griffin, Diane E.; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L.; Burd, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia. Viral antigen localizes in trophoblast and endothelial cells in the placenta, and endothelial, microglial and neural progenitor cells in the fetal brain. ZIKV infection of the placenta increases production of IFNβ and expression of IFN-stimulated genes 48 h after infection. This mouse model provides a platform for identifying factors at the maternal–fetal interface that contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in a host with an intact immune system. PMID:28220786

  13. Neurologic Disorders in Immunocompetent Patients with Autochthonous Acute Hepatitis E

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, H. Blasco; Cintas, P.; Abravanel, F.; Gérolami, R.; d'Alteroche, L.; Raynal, J.-N.; Alric, L.; Dupuis, E.; Prudhomme, L.; Vaucher, E.; Couzigou, P.; Liversain, J.-M.; Bureau, C.; Vinel, J.-P.; Kamar, N.; Izopet, J.

    2015-01-01

    Neurologic disorders, mainly Guillain-Barré syndrome and Parsonage–Turner syndrome (PTS), have been described in patients with hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in industrialized and developing countries. We report a wider range of neurologic disorders in nonimmunocompromised patients with acute HEV infection. Data from 15 French immunocompetent patients with acute HEV infection and neurologic disorders were retrospectively recorded from January 2006 through June 2013. The disorders could be divided into 4 main entities: mononeuritis multiplex, PTS, meningoradiculitis, and acute demyelinating neuropathy. HEV infection was treated with ribavirin in 3 patients (for PTS or mononeuritis multiplex). One patient was treated with corticosteroids (for mononeuropathy multiplex), and 5 others received intravenous immunoglobulin (for PTS, meningoradiculitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or Miller Fisher syndrome). We conclude that pleiotropic neurologic disorders are seen in HEV-infected immunocompetent patients. Patients with acute neurologic manifestations and aminotransferase abnormalities should be screened for HEV infection. PMID:26490255

  14. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids.

  15. Cytokines profile in immunocompetent mice during Trichosporon asahii infection.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Alexandra M; González, Gloria M; Martinez-Castilla, Azalia M; Aguilar, Sonia A; Franco-Molina, Moises A; Coronado-Cerda, Erika; Rosas-Taraco, Adrián G

    2017-03-15

    Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic yeastlike fungus commonly associated with systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Neutropenia is recognized as the main risk factor in infections by T. asahii; however, little is known about the cytokine response during trichosporonosis. Here, we evaluated systemic and local cytokine production and histological damage in immunocompetent mice during systemic infection with T. asahii. We found a significant increased presence of G-CSF, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6 in sera samples. High levels of G-CSF were found in organs (kidney, liver and spleen); meanwhile IL-10, IL-17A, IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-α were found in low levels. Neutrophils and fungal structures were found in early stage in analyzed organs. Our results demonstrated that T. asahii induces a systemic inflammatory response and G-CSF environment in infected organs in immunocompetent mice and neutrophil recruitment in analyzed tissue suggests the importance of these cells for fungal control.

  16. Paecilomyces lilacinus Vaginitis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Ron; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus, an environmental mold found in soil and vegetation, rarely causes human infection. We report the first case of P. lilacinus isolated from a vaginal culture in a patient with vaginitis. PMID:14519255

  17. Septic arthritis in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingyuan Alvin; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2015-04-01

    Septic arthritis has long been considered an orthopedic emergency. Historically, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus have been the most common causes of septic arthritis worldwide but in the modern era of biological therapy and extensive use of prosthetic joint replacements, the spectrum of microbiological causes of septic arthritis has widened considerably. There are also new approaches to diagnosis but therapy remains a challenge, with a need for careful consideration of a combined medical and surgical approach in most cases.

  18. Infectious causes of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lisa; Surawicz, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Infections are an uncommon cause of chronic diarrhoea. Parasites are most likely, including protozoa like giardia, cryptosporidia and cyclospora. Bacteria are unlikely to cause chronic diarrhoea in immunocompetent individuals with the possible exception of Yersinia, Plesiomonas and Aeromonas. Infectious diarrhoea can trigger other causes of chronic diarrhoea, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and "Brainerd-type" diarrhoea. A thorough evaluation should detect most infections causing chronic diarrhoea.

  19. Mood in Relationship to Immuno-Competence and Physical Illness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-25

    assemble a comparison group of subjects diagnosed as major depression unipolar to be tested for mood immune function and illness at 3 times: before... factors that mediate the relationships of mood, immunocompetence and physical illness. Subjects and Procedures During this first year of the grant we...subjects who were found to be eligible to repeat our measures with each subject. There would be 2 points with the subjects in a low (or depressed ) mood, 2 at

  20. Toxoplasma gondii pneumonia in immunocompetent subjects: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Leal, Fabio Eudes; Cavazzana, Cinthya Luzia; de Andrade, Heitor Franco; Galisteo, Andrés Jimenez; de Mendonça, João Silva; Kallas, Esper Georges

    2007-03-15

    Pulmonary toxoplasmosis is rare in immunocompetent subjects. Here, we describe a 41-year-old previously healthy male patient who presented to the emergency department of a hospital with a life-threatening case of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection, which responded to specific therapy. Clinical and image-based findings overlap with those for atypical pneumonias, and toxoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis--especially if immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies are detected.

  1. Asymptomatic "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" infections in immunocompetent humans.

    PubMed

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Siński, Edward; Kowalec, Maciej; Zajkowska, Joanna; Pancewicz, Sławomir A

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, human infections with "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" have mainly been restricted to immunocompromised patients. We report here the first cases of asymptomatic "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" infection in immunocompetent humans (5/316 [1.6%] were infected). Due to the potential threats of infections with "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in healthy persons to the safety of the blood supply, further study of this phenomenon is required.

  2. Disseminated Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwa; Lee, Eun Ha; Choi, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a cutaneous infection that is characterized by an acute vesicobullous rash with ipsilateral one or two dermatomal distribution and painful allodynia, while predominantly being found in the elderly. Extensive cutaneous dissemination has been reported in immune-compromised patients, such as those who suffer from HIV infections, cancer, chemotherapy, and corticosteroid therapy patients. However, we report a case of disseminated herpes zoster infection in an immuno-competent elderly individual. PMID:23614086

  3. Pulmonary tuberculosis revealed by lupus vulgaris in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Barbareschi, M; Denti, F; Bottelli, S; Greppi, F

    1999-01-01

    A seventy-four-year-old patient had lupus vulgaris associated with the nodular, confluent ulcerated type of pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis had been missed on several occasions. The presence of cutaneous tuberculosis in developed countries is emphasized again. It is also stressed that chronic dermatosis of unknown nature in an immunocompetent patient may have a tubercular origin. Complete resolution of the disease was achieved after almost two years of anti-tubercular therapy.

  4. ACQUIRED MULTIFOCAL TUFTED ANGIOMAS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Biswas, Surajit Kumar; Barma, Kuntal Deb

    2011-01-01

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, localized to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, occurring primarily on the trunk and extremities of children. The lesions are usually asymptomatic but, rarely, paroxysmal painful episodes may be associated. The occurrence of eruptive TA is still rarer and had been described almost exclusively in association with immunocompromised states. We report here a case of acquired painful multifocal tufted angiomas on the face and neck in an immunocompetent young adult. PMID:21965850

  5. Cytomegalovirus: associated ischemic colitis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Puerta, Ana; Priego, Pablo; Galindo, Julio

    2017-09-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a common entity in immunocompromised patients, being rare among immunocompetent individuals. In addition, its association with ischemic colitis is unusual in both groups of population. Rectal bleeding might occur in both entities and, occasionally, urgent surgical treatment may be required, associating high morbility rates. We report one case of cytomegalovirus colitis associated with severe ischemic colitis in a non- immunocompromised patient with favourable response to conservative management with antiviral therapy.

  6. A severe transmissible Majocchi's granuloma in an immunocompetent returned traveler.

    PubMed

    Gallo, James G; Woods, Marion; Graham, Rikki M; Jennison, Amy V

    2017-12-01

    Severe dermatophyte infection is rare in immunocompetent adults. Recently cases have been described in travelers returning from South East Asia (Luchsinger et al., 2015) [1]. These may be sexually transmitted and can have permanent sequelae. We describe the first reported case of Majocchi's granuloma (MG) in an Australian returned traveler and its subsequent transmission via sexual contact. Both patients were successfully treated with systemic antifungals. MG should be considered in patients with severe rash after travel to South East Asia.

  7. Tuberculous Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Suchin R; Kralovic, Stephen M; Prakash, Rajan

    2016-12-23

    BACKGROUND Tuberculous meningitis is very rare in the United States in immunocompetent hosts. Risk factors are similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis, including poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, a compromised immune system, and coming from an endemic area. Meningeal tuberculosis mortality and other outcomes have changed little over time despite effective therapies due to delay in diagnosis because of its rarity, variable presentation, and often indolent course. CASE REPORT We describe a case of a 57-year-old male immigrant from Senegal with no significant past medical history and no previous history of tuberculosis or evidence of immune compromise. He presented to the hospital with headache and altered mental status and was subsequently diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. CONCLUSIONS This is a rare case of tuberculous meningitis in an immunocompetent host, questioning the conventional view that tuberculous meningitis is a disease of immunocompromised individuals. It emphasizes the importance of maintaining a strong clinical suspicion of tuberculous meningitis even in an immunocompetent patient in a geographical area with low prevalence if the patient has risk factors. Missed or delayed diagnosis is commonly fatal.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-positive plasmacytoma in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Loghavi, Sanam; Khoury, Joseph D; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytomas are often localized, clinically indolent neoplasms, and affected patients usually respond to radiation therapy or limited cycles of chemotherapy. In contrast, plasmablastic lymphomas are clinically aggressive neoplasms composed of immunoblastic or plasmablastic cells and associated with more mature plasma cells in some cases. Patients with plasmablastic lymphoma usually have a poor prognosis despite aggressive chemotherapy. Evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is uncommon in plasmacytoma, but common in plasmablastic lymphoma, and is therefore helpful in differential diagnosis. The aim of this study is to describe four cases of plasmacytoma arising in immunocompetent individuals that were diffusely positive for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA as shown by in-situ hybridization. We describe the clinicopathological and immunophenotypic findings of four EBV-positive plasmacytomas arising in immunocompetent patients. These tumours were characterized by diffuse proliferation of mature-appearing plasma cells intermixed with a briskly reactive, CD8-positive, TIA-1-positive cytotoxic T-cell infiltrate. Long-term follow-up was available for all patients, and all were alive and free of disease at last follow-up (median 43.4 months). We suggest the term EBV-positive plasmacytoma in immunocompetent patients for these lesions. It is essential to distinguish these tumours from plasmablastic lymphoma, as the latter diagnosis is associated with a much poorer prognosis, and patients require much more aggressive therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis mimicking pyogenic osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Spinal Aspergillus osteomyelitis is rare and occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, but especially very rare in immunocompetent adult. This report presents a case of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent adult. A 53-year-old male who had no significant medical history was admitted due to complaints of back pain radiating to the flank for the last 3 months, followed by a progressive motor weakness of both lower limbs. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated osteomyelitis and diskitis, suspected to be a pyogenic condition rather than a tuberculosis infection. Despite antibiotic treatment for several weeks, the symptoms worsened, and finally, open surgery was performed. Surgical biopsy revealed an Aspergillus infection and medical treatment with amphotericin B was started. It can be diagnosed early through an MRI; biopsy is very important but difficult, and making the correct differential diagnosis is essential for avoiding unexpected complications. The authors report a case of lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult and reviewed previously described cases of spinal aspergillosis.

  10. Retrospective analysis of 76 immunocompetent patients with primary pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Xie, Jia-xing; Zeng, Qing-si; Chen, Guo-qin; Zhong, Shu-qing; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2012-06-01

    Pulmonary cryptococcosis typically occurs in immunocompromised patients, but it can also occur in immunocompetent patients. Our objective was to describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 76 patients with primary pulmonary cryptococcosis who were admitted to our hospital from 1995 to 2010. Pulmonary cryptococcosis was pathologically proven in all patients. Mean patient age was 42.5 years and 55 patients (72%) were male. The major clinical manifestations were cough (47 pts, 62%), expectoration (29 pts, 38%), fever (16 pts, 21%), chest pain (15 pts, 20%), dyspnea (17 pts, 22%), and emaciation (10 pts, 13%). Eighteen patients (24%) were asymptomatic. Most patients were admitted due to shadows on chest X-rays. Lesions were more common in the lower lung (60 pts, 78.9%) than in the upper lung (25 pts, 32.9%). More lesions (28 pts, 37%) were characterized by patchy consolidations. Pulmonary cryptococcosis was confirmed histologically among all patients. Surgical removal of lesions or treatment with fluconazole and other antifungal agents for complete courses led to favorable outcomes for most patients. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis was found mainly in immunocompetent patients aged <50 years without preexisting lung disease. Shadow on the chest X-ray is the predominant feature. Treatment with a complete course of fluconazole and/or other antifungal agents can achieve favorable outcome.

  11. Upper-extremity mucormycosis infections in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Moran, Steven L; Strickland, Justin; Shin, Alexander Y

    2006-09-01

    Mucormycosis can produce an aggressive and sometimes fatal soft tissue infection seen most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. Eradication consists of surgical resection and antifungal chemotherapy. Knowledge regarding infectious mucormycosis in the upper extremity has been limited to case reports involving mainly immunocompromised individuals. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of mucormycosis infections within the upper extremity in immunocompetent individuals and to evaluate the effectiveness of the present therapies. A 12-year retrospective review of all fungal infections involving the upper extremity was conducted in our institution. Seven immunocompetent patients with infectious cutaneous mucormycosis of the upper extremity were identified from 223 primary upper-extremity fungal infections. In the 7 patients 3 infections resulted from heavy soil contamination after motor vehicle collisions and 4 resulted from conveyor belt injuries in agricultural facilities. All patients had considerable upper-extremity soft tissue loss and 6 of the 7 patients had upper-extremity fractures or dislocations. Patients had an average of 10 surgical debridements. Four infections resulted in amputations: 1 partial hand amputation, 1 below the elbow, 1 above the elbow, and 1 at the glenohumeral joint. Mucormycosis can produce limb-threatening infections in an immunocompetent host. Hand surgeons must have suspicion of such infections in patients with grossly contaminated open wounds.

  12. Tuberculous Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Suchin R.; Kralovic, Stephen M.; Prakash, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 57 Final Diagnosis: Tuberculous meningitis Symptoms: Altered mental state • headache Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Lumbar puncture Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Tuberculous meningitis is very rare in the United States in immunocompetent hosts. Risk factors are similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis, including poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, a compromised immune system, and coming from an endemic area. Meningeal tuberculosis mortality and other outcomes have changed little over time despite effective therapies due to delay in diagnosis because of its rarity, variable presentation, and often indolent course. Case Report: We describe a case of a 57-year-old male immigrant from Senegal with no significant past medical history and no previous history of tuberculosis or evidence of immune compromise. He presented to the hospital with headache and altered mental status and was subsequently diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Conclusions: This is a rare case of tuberculous meningitis in an immunocompetent host, questioning the conventional view that tuberculous meningitis is a disease of immunocompromised individuals. It emphasizes the importance of maintaining a strong clinical suspicion of tuberculous meningitis even in an immunocompetent patient in a geographical area with low prevalence if the patient has risk factors. Missed or delayed diagnosis is commonly fatal. PMID:28008165

  13. Cause-specific mortality among children and young adults with epilepsy: Results from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System ☆

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Niu; Shaw, Esther C.; Zack, Matthew; Kobau, Rosemarie; Dykstra, Heather; Covington, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated causes of death in children and young adults with epilepsy by using data from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System (NCDR-CRS), a passive surveillance system composed of comprehensive information related to deaths reviewed by local child death review teams. Information on a total of 48,697 deaths in children and young adults 28 days to 24 years of age, including 551 deaths with epilepsy and 48,146 deaths without epilepsy, was collected from 2004 through 2012 in 32 states. In a proportionate mortality analysis by official manner of death, decedents with epilepsy had a significantly higher percentage of natural deaths but significantly lower percentages of deaths due to accidents, homicide, and undetermined causes compared with persons without epilepsy. With respect to underlying causes of death, decedents with epilepsy had significantly higher percentages of deaths due to drowning and most medical conditions including pneumonia and congenital anomalies but lower percentages of deaths due to asphyxia, weapon use, and unknown causes compared with decedents without epilepsy. The increased percentages of deaths due to pneumonia and drowning in children and young adults with epilepsy suggest preventive interventions including immunization and better instruction and monitoring before or during swimming. State-specific and national population-based mortality studies of children and young adults with epilepsy are recommended. PMID:25794682

  14. Cause-specific mortality among children and young adults with epilepsy: Results from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Tian, Niu; Shaw, Esther C; Zack, Matthew; Kobau, Rosemarie; Dykstra, Heather; Covington, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    We investigated causes of death in children and young adults with epilepsy by using data from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System (NCDR-CRS), a passive surveillance system composed of comprehensive information related to deaths reviewed by local child death review teams. Information on a total of 48,697 deaths in children and young adults 28days to 24years of age, including 551 deaths with epilepsy and 48,146 deaths without epilepsy, was collected from 2004 through 2012 in 32 states. In a proportionate mortality analysis by official manner of death, decedents with epilepsy had a significantly higher percentage of natural deaths but significantly lower percentages of deaths due to accidents, homicide, and undetermined causes compared with persons without epilepsy. With respect to underlying causes of death, decedents with epilepsy had significantly higher percentages of deaths due to drowning and most medical conditions including pneumonia and congenital anomalies but lower percentages of deaths due to asphyxia, weapon use, and unknown causes compared with decedents without epilepsy. The increased percentages of deaths due to pneumonia and drowning in children and young adults with epilepsy suggest preventive interventions including immunization and better instruction and monitoring before or during swimming. State-specific and national population-based mortality studies of children and young adults with epilepsy are recommended.

  15. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Causing Pancreatitis in a Child with New-onset Type-I Diabetes Mellitus Presenting with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pradeep Kumar; Kumar, Maneesh; Yadav, Dinesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The triad of pancreatitis, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis and its treatment has not been extensively discussed in the pediatric literature. We report a 4-year-old child with severe hypertriglyceridemia, pancreatitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis with diabetic ketoacidosis can be successfully managed with insulin and hydration therapy in children. Early recognition of this triad is important as insulin requirements, recovery duration, and prognosis can be altered. PMID:28400692

  16. Paralytic poliomyelitis caused by a vaccine-derived polio virus in an antibody-deficient Argentinean child.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Solange; García Erro, Marcela; Cisterna, Daniel; Freire, M Cecilia

    2003-06-01

    We describe a case of poliomyelitis in a 3-year-old Argentinean boy with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia. The child had no history of polio vaccination, but a poliovirus isolated from a stool sample had 97.2% genetic similarity to the Sabin 1 vaccine strain. According to the WHO definition, this is the first case reported of a vaccine-derived poliovirus infection recorded in continental Latin America.

  17. [Cladophilaphora bantiana brain abscess treated with voriconazole in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Koyuncu, Sümeyra; Ulu Kiliç, Ayşegül; Kurtsoy, Ali; Alp Meşe, Emine

    2014-07-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is a term used to define infections caused by darkly pigmented fungi with septate hyphae which contain melanin in their cell walls. Although fungi rarely cause central nervous system (CNS) infections, the incidence of CNS infections caused by melanin-containing fungi has been increasing in the recent years. Cladophialophora bantiana is the most frequently isolated species from cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. It mostly affects adult men in the second and third decade of life and about half of the cases occurs in immunocompetent patients. In this report, the isolation of C.bantiana from brain tissue of an immunocompetent patient who was operated with the initial diagnosis of a brain abscess, was presented. A 27 year-old male patient presenting without any chronic disease was admitted to the emergency department of our hospital with the complaints of persistent headache and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a space-occupying lesion in the right parietal lobe and left frontal lobe. Brain abscess was diagnosed in the patient who was referred to the neurosurgery department. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole. The abscess material sent for direct microscopic examination in the mycology laboratory was stained with Gram and Giemsa and cultured in the Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA) with and without antibiotics (cycloheximide and chloramphenicol). Then, it was incubated at 37°C and 25°C. Direct examination and staining revealed a septate hyphae. The patient who received liposomal amphotericin B was referred to the infectious diseases department. Surface colors of all media including SDA with cycloheximide were olive-gray to black and contained velvety colonies. Lemon-like very long and integrated chains of conidium with poor branching in cornmeal Tween 80 agar, as well as growth at 42°C in passages, positive urease test result and cycloheximide resistance suggested C.bantiana. The isolate was confirmed as C

  18. A rare cause of cerebral venous thrombosis: cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Senadim, Songul; Alpaydin Baslo, Sezin; Tekin Güveli, Betül; Dedei Daryan, Metin; Kantaroglu, Elif; Ozturk, Oya; Atakli, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is a serious central nervous system infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, seen mostly in immunocompromised hosts and less in immunocompetent patients. The vast majority of cryptococcosis cases are seen as human immunodeficiency virus infections with advanced immunosuppression. Meningitis and meningoencephalitis are the most common clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, immunocompetent patients with CM are rarely reported. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare complication of CM. Here, we report an immunocompetent patient with CM from a non-endemic area, who presented with an acute onset and atypical symptoms associated with cerebral venous thrombosis.

  19. Tomographic findings of acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    de Souza Giassi, Karina; Costa, Andre Nathan; Apanavicius, Andre; Teixeira, Fernando Bin; Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar; Helito, Alfredo Salim; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib

    2014-11-25

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common human zoonosis, and is generally benign in most of the individuals. Pulmonary involvement is common in immunocompromised subjects, but very rare in immunocompetents and there are scarce reports of tomographic findings in the literature. The aim of the study is to describe three immunocompetent patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis and their respective thoracic tomographic findings. Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. From 2009 to 2013, three patients were diagnosed with acute respiratory failure secondary to acute toxoplasmosis. The patients were two female and one male, and were 38, 56 and 36 years old. Similarly they presented a two-week febrile illness and progressive dyspnea before admission. Laboratory tests demonstrated lymphocytosis, slight changes in liver enzymes and high inflammatory markers. Tomographic findings were bilateral smooth septal and peribronchovascular thickening (100%), ground-glass opacities (100%), atelectasis (33%), random nodules (33%), lymph node enlargement (33%) and pleural effusion (66%). All the patients improved their symptoms after treatment, and complete resolution of tomographic findings were found in the followup. These cases provide a unique description of the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tomographic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. Toxoplasma pneumonia manifests with fever, dyspnea and a non-productive cough that may result in respiratory failure. In animal models, changes were described as interstitial pneumonitis with focal infiltrates of neutrophils that can finally evolve into a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage with focal necrosis. The tomographic findings are characterized as ground glass opacities, smooth septal and marked peribronchovascular thickening; and may mimic pulmonary congestion

  20. In kittiwakes food availability partially explains the seasonal decline in humoral immunocompetence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Roulin, A.; Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Boulinier, T.

    2006-01-01

    1. The immune system plays an important role in fitness, and interindividual variation in immunocompetence is due to several factors including food supply. 2. Seasonal variation in food resources may therefore explain why immunocompetence in bird nestlings usually declines throughout the breeding season, with chicks born early in the season receiving more food than chicks born later, and thereby possibly developing a more potent immune system. Although there are studies supporting this hypothesis, none has been experimental. 3. We performed an experiment in the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla by manipulating the food supply of pairs that were left to produce a first brood, and of pairs that were induced to produce a late replacement brood. 4. If food supply mediates, at least partially, seasonal variations in chick immunocompetence, non-food-supplemented chicks would show a stronger seasonal decline in immunocompetence than food-supplemented chicks. 5. Food supplementation improved humoral immunocompetence (the production of immunoglobulins Y), but not T-cell immunocompetence (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA response). T-cell immunocompetence of food-supplemented and non-food- supplemented chicks decreased through the season but to a similar extent, whereas the humoral immunocompetence of non-food-supplemented chicks decreased more strongly than that of food-supplemented chicks. 6. Our results suggest that the seasonal decline in humoral immunocompetence can be explained, at least partly, by variations in food supply throughout the breeding season. ?? 2006 British Ecological Society.

  1. Osteitis of the fourth metatarsal caused by a date palm thorn in a child: why the dorsum of the foot is the most commonly injured site.

    PubMed

    Madhar, Mohammed; Sammous, Younes; Bouslous, Jamal; Messaoudi, Tarik; Chafik, Rachid; Elhaoury, Hanane; Saidi, Halim; Fikry, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    The palms are frequent in the region of eastern Morocco. An insidious onset of a lytic lesion in the base of the fourth metatarsal caused by a date palm thorn in a 20-year-old patient is presented. An untreated embedded thorn can cause late complications, including periostitis or osteomyelitis. In most cases, removal of the foreign body is easy, and no surgical care is needed. If detected, these injuries can be treated without complications. In children, however, the diagnosis can be very easily missed, especially if the child has aphasia and deafness, which was present in our patient. These can influence communication between the child and family, such that the patient is unable to inform the family about what object pricked him (e.g., date palm thorn, toothpick, insect) and is unable to tell the family that the foreign object remains embedded. This major communication issue between the child and family can result in potentially avoidable complications such as osteitis. No other issues were present in our patient that could have caused a delay in diagnosis, such as fear of punishment or fear of medical treatment. We present a case of date palm thorn-induced periostitis of the base of the fourth metatarsal. Surgical exploration revealed a 2.5-cm palm tree thorn embedded in granulation tissue, forming an abscess. The lesion was successfully treated by curettage of the lesion and removal of the thorn embedded in the periosteum of the metatarsal base. The purpose of the present report was to explain the mechanism of this rare entity and the frequency of this lesion on the dorsal aspect of the foot rather than on the plantar. Despite the absence of a definite history of trauma, organic foreign material should be in the differential diagnosis of a lytic lesion of the bone, especially in patients who have a problem with deafness or aphasia. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strongyloidiasis in the immunocompetent: an overlooked infection

    PubMed Central

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj; Karmacharya, Paras

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Most cases are asymptomatic; however, symptomatic patients may present with a wide range of non-specific cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal symptoms posing a diagnostic dilemma and delay in diagnosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old female who presented with months of generalized pruritus and abdominal discomfort along with persistent eosinophilia due to strongyloidiasis, which completely resolved with treatment. PMID:27609726

  3. Isolated cavernous haemangioma of the stomach in a 3-year-old child: an unusual cause of upper GI bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Attash, Saad Muwafaq; Ali, Mohammed Sulaiman; Al-Nuaimy, Hatim A

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of a 3-year-old child with a history of recurrent attacks of haematemesis, melena and severe anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a vascular mass at the fundus and greater curvature of the stomach, CT revealed an ill-circumscribed mass of mixed attenuation in the left upper abdomen, which was related to the fundus and greater curvature of the stomach, extending to the spleen, greater omentum and transverse colon with a homogeneous enhancement following contrast injection suggesting the diagnosis of haemangioma. Explorative laparotomy was done and partial gastrectomy together with splenectomy and omentectomy was performed. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous haemangioma. PMID:23045447

  4. Cor triatriatum: an unusual cause of elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in a child with tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Ramakrishnan, S; Doshi, Shrenik

    2013-10-01

    The coexistence of cor triatriatum and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is rare. Preoperative identification of cor triatriatum may be difficult owing to reduced pulmonary blood flow in patients with TOF. However, it is imperative to identify this rare combination as failure to identify obstruction to pulmonary venous egress may result in persistent pulmonary venous hypertension postoperatively. The authors discuss hemodynamic aspects of this rare coexistence in a 14-month-old child in whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was elevated despite right ventricular outflow obstruction.

  5. A double-edged sword: advantages and disadvantages to the current emphasis on biogenetic causes of child psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2015-02-01

    Research on child psychopathology is a largely biogenetic endeavor these days, at least according to current funding priorities at the National Institutes of Health in the US. This heavy focus on genetic contributions to child psychopathology has some real advantages. Available research has conclusively indicated that child and adolescent mental health problems are partially genetic in origin and, moreover, are related to neural structure and function (as an example, see Plomin et al.). Moreover, these genetic effects may be responsible for some previously reported 'environmental' effects, such that, what appear to be direct environmental risk factors may in fact reflect genetic/familial risks. As one example, Sengupta et al. (this issue) found that maternal smoking during pregnancy was in fact a marker of maternal and paternal psychopathology. Put another way, the association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy may index a genetic/familial risk for a more severe form of ADHD, rather than a direct effect of uterine exposure to cigarettes. A final, more subtle reason for the current trend towards biogenetic research is that it has the rarely-discussed but all-too-important 'allure of the unknown'. We have only just recently been able to directly explore the biological underpinnings of psychopathology; and as technology advances, so too will the insights gained (presumably). This offers both funding agencies and individual scientists the very real possibility of making a major new discovery - a siren's call for most of us. In sharp contrast, decades of research have explored putatively environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology. New paradigm-shifting discoveries are thus likely to be fewer in number and farther between (if we continue using traditional study designs that omit joint consideration of biology, that is). In short, biogenetic research just feels more cutting edge at the moment. The clear merits of such work

  6. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a 62-year-old immunocompetent woman.

    PubMed

    Gourineni, Venkata C; Juvet, Tristan; Kumar, Yogesh; Bordea, Doru; Sena, Kanaga N

    2014-01-01

    Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease that typically presents in immunodeficient patients. We report a case of a previously healthy 62-Year-Old woman who suffered from an unsteady gait, throbbing headaches, and progressive left-sided weakness and numbness. Stroke was initially suspected based on imaging and symptoms. A series of follow-up magnetic resonance images of the brain showed a right parietal lesion growing in size as the patient became unable to walk and experienced increasing lethargy and confusion. A biopsy of the lesion was positive for the John Cunningham virus (JCV). A diagnosis of PML was made and she was started on mefloquine. No improvement was seen on this treatment and her condition worsened. Although PML remains uncommon in immunocompetent individuals, it cannot be ruled out based on their immune status. Although the exact cause remains uncertain, underlying or transient states of immunosuppression may be responsible for reactivation of the JCV in these patients.

  7. Cryptococcosis mimicking lung carcinoma with brain metastases in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Ang, Samantha Y L; Ng, Victor W L; Kumar, Shree Dinesh; Low, Sharon Y Y

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus spp. that enters the body via inhalation. This ubiquitous yeast has gained notoriety as an opportunistic pathogen in the immunosuppressed population. The authors report a case of a previously-well adult male presented with left-sided weakness. Imaging demonstrated a pulmonary mass and 2 contrast-enhancing intracranial lesions-all features suggestive of a primary lung carcinoma with brain metastases. However, further investigations confirmed disseminated cryptococcosis, without evidence of malignancy. The patient was successfully treated with a course of antifungals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of dissemintated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent adult male, simulating as primary lung carcinoma with brain metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Classic Solitary Kaposi Sarcoma of the Foot in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian M; Holmes, Crystal M

    2016-09-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a tumor derived from endothelial cell lineage caused by Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus or human herpesvirus-8. The authors have set forth to describe a unique presentation of the classical form of KS in a homosexual individual. The authors demonstrate that a full history and physical are important in determining how to guide treatment along with ancillary tests, which can prove vital to determine management strategy. The authors then provide a brief discussion about variants of KS, biopsy techniques, and current treatment options available to patients diagnosed with this condition. The patient described is a 60-year-old male of Eastern European descent, who is immunocompetent in a monogamous homosexual relationship with a new onset and rapidly progressing skin lesion on the plantar aspect of his foot. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed and surveillance was determined to be the treatment of choice.

  9. DISSEMINATED REFRACTARY TUBERCULOSIS WITH BICEPS TENDON INVOLVEMENT IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis Oliveira, Marcelo; Schiefer, Márcio; da Silva, Marcos Britto; Fontenelle, César; Júnior, Yonder Archanjo Ching-San; Franco, José Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors report a rare case of disseminated tuberculosis which had compromised the long head of biceps tendon and shoulder joint, during standard drug therapy. Methods: On a first sight, the accurate diagnosis wasn't accomplished and the patient had been treated with physiotherapy for rotator cuff tear. However, the patient presented with a fast growing mass in anterior region of the proximal third of the arm, complaining of pain increase. Aspirative punction of the mass revealed a yellow fluid and the laboratorial analysis confirmed infection by M. Tuberculosis. The patient was treated with surgical debridement and his drug therapy was changed. Results: Resolution of infectious status and complete shoulder function restoration was succeeded. Conclusion: Due to its high prevalence in Brazil, tuberculosis must always be considered as a possible cause of inflammatory joint disease, even in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27004180

  10. Propionibacterium Acnes Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Man in the Absence of Prior Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Odunukan, Olufunso W; Masannat, Fares; Baka, J Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a rare, but established, cause of intracranial abscesses. We describe a case of P. acnes brain abscess in an immunocompetent man without prior neurosurgery. A 49-year old man with mild psoriasis presented with a two-week history of gait changes, generalized weakness and a two-day history of headaches, aphasia and confusion. Imaging revealed a left thalamic mass and surgical biopsy suggested a pyogenic abscess. Cultures of biopsy samples of the abscess grew P. acnes alone. MRI and serial neurological exam showed marked clinical improvement with intravenous antibiotics. The significant reduction in the abscess was sustained on MRI obtained at six weeks after completion of antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, P. acnes must be considered as a differential diagnosis in individuals presenting with features suggestive of a brain abscess even in the absence of immunosuppression or previous neurosurgery.

  11. Oral presentation of histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, F; Schifter, M; Coleman, H G

    2014-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is a rare systemic fungal infection, primarily affecting the pulmonary system. Oral lesions are usually a manifestation of the disseminated form of the disease and most frequently observed in severely immunocompromised patients, such as those with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and/or frank acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The clinical presentation of the oral lesions may be difficult to distinguish from oral squamous cell carcinoma. The histopathological features are usually characteristic, but occasionally the organisms are scanty and not readily identified, which can preclude obtaining the correct diagnosis and ensuring appropriate management. Histoplasmosis is an unusual and rare cause of chronic non-healing ulceration in the oral cavity. A case of histoplasmosis involving the oral cavity in an immunocompetent patient is reported, which was not recognized, resulting in the inappropriate management of the condition.

  12. Detecting child abuse based on parental characteristics: does the Hague Protocol cause parents to avoid the emergency department?

    PubMed

    Diderich, Hester M; Fekkes, Minne; Dechesne, Mark; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    The Hague Protocol is used by professionals at the adult Emergency Departments (ED) in The Netherlands to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (1) domestic violence, (2) substance abuse or (3) suicide attempt or self-harm. After detection, a referral is made to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN). This study investigates whether implementing this Protocol will lead parents to avoid medical care. We compared the number of patients (for whom the Protocol applied) who attended the ED prior to implementation with those attending after implementation. We conducted telephone interviews (n = 14) with parents whose children were referred to the RCCAN to investigate their experience with the procedure. We found no decline in the number of patients, included in the Protocol, visiting the ED during the 4 year implementation period (2008-2011). Most parents (n = 10 of the 14 interviewed) were positive and stated that they would, if necessary, re-attend the ED with the same complaints in the future. ED nurses and doctors referring children based on parental characteristics do not have to fear losing these families as patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vaccination and All-Cause Child Mortality From 1985 to 2011: Global Evidence From the Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Canning, David

    2015-01-01

    Based on models with calibrated parameters for infection, case fatality rates, and vaccine efficacy, basic childhood vaccinations have been estimated to be highly cost effective. We estimated the association of vaccination with mortality directly from survey data. Using 149 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys, we determined the relationship between vaccination coverage and the probability of dying between birth and 5 years of age at the survey cluster level. Our data included approximately 1 million children in 68,490 clusters from 62 countries. We considered the childhood measles, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, polio, and maternal tetanus vaccinations. Using modified Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk of child mortality in each cluster, we also adjusted for selection bias that resulted from the vaccination status of dead children not being reported. Childhood vaccination, and in particular measles and tetanus vaccination, is associated with substantial reductions in childhood mortality. We estimated that children in clusters with complete vaccination coverage have a relative risk of mortality that is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.77) times that of children in a cluster with no vaccinations. Although widely used, basic vaccines still have coverage rates well below 100% in many countries, and our results emphasize the effectiveness of increasing coverage rates in order to reduce child mortality. PMID:26453618

  14. Vaccination and all-cause child mortality from 1985 to 2011: global evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Mark E; Canning, David

    2015-11-01

    Based on models with calibrated parameters for infection, case fatality rates, and vaccine efficacy, basic childhood vaccinations have been estimated to be highly cost effective. We estimated the association of vaccination with mortality directly from survey data. Using 149 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys, we determined the relationship between vaccination coverage and the probability of dying between birth and 5 years of age at the survey cluster level. Our data included approximately 1 million children in 68,490 clusters from 62 countries. We considered the childhood measles, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, polio, and maternal tetanus vaccinations. Using modified Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk of child mortality in each cluster, we also adjusted for selection bias that resulted from the vaccination status of dead children not being reported. Childhood vaccination, and in particular measles and tetanus vaccination, is associated with substantial reductions in childhood mortality. We estimated that children in clusters with complete vaccination coverage have a relative risk of mortality that is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.77) times that of children in a cluster with no vaccinations. Although widely used, basic vaccines still have coverage rates well below 100% in many countries, and our results emphasize the effectiveness of increasing coverage rates in order to reduce child mortality.

  15. Mucormycosis in immunocompetent individuals: an increasing trend.

    PubMed

    Sridhara, Suryanrayan Rao; Paragache, Gilbert; Panda, Naresh K; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2005-12-01

    Mucormycosis is a fatal infection of the immunocompromised individual. It is unusual to affect healthy individuals. We report eight such cases of infection caused by this emerging fungal pathogen in healthy patients. Of the eight cases, three were infected with Apophysomyces elegans, again an unusual pathogen causing mucormycosis. Retrospective case review conducted at a tertiary referral center. From 1999 to 2003, eight cases of mucormycosis were managed in otherwise healthy patients. Seven of them were treated with surgery. Clinical presentation, imaging studies, mycologic findings, operative findings at surgery, and postoperative results were evaluated. A review of the literature pertaining to mucormycosis infecting otherwise healthy patients and A. elegans infecting otherwise healthy patients in the nose and paranasal sinuses also was done. Of the eight cases, three were infected with A. elegans, with no history of trauma or any invasive procedure. Seven patients underwent surgical treatment. Histopathologic examination showed broad, sparsely aseptate, thin-walled hyphae and angioinvasion with thrombosis. Mucormycosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any severe acute headache, sinusitis, or orbital cellulites, not only in immunocompromised patients but also in the absence of any underlying disease. Successful treatment requires tissue débridement and injection of amphotericin B.

  16. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: A cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a three-year-old child: A case report and comprehensive literature review

    PubMed Central

    Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Classen, Dale; Bruce, Garth; Kanthan, Rani

    2014-01-01

    A three-year-old boy was investigated for inexplicable incessant crying. On examination, his left wrist was mildly swollen (three to four months) and sensitive. Exploration and carpal tunnel decompression of the left wrist with incisional biopsy was performed for the presence of a fusiform swelling intimately associated with the median nerve. Histopathology revealed the presence of enlarged nerve bundles admixed with mature fat cells and diffuse fibroblastic proliferation. Three months later, he underwent urgent contralateral carpal tunnel decompression for a similar presentation. The final diagnosis was bilateral fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of the median nerves causing acute bilateral compression neuropathy. FLH of the median nerve is an extremely unusual cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a young child presenting with ‘incessant crying’. A comprehensive review of FLH including epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, imaging, pathology, treatment and prognosis is discussed. PMID:25332651

  17. Evaluating tetanus neonatorum as a child survival risk in rural Egypt in the absence of reliable cause-of-death registration.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A B; Kielmann, A A; van der Most van Spijk, M; Hammamy, M T; Nagaty, A A

    1985-12-01

    The principal finding of the investigation is that neonatal tenanus is, indeed an important cause of infant death in rural Egypt even though the normal cause-of-death reporting system had not altered health authorities to the problem. The finding is based on a comparison of registration statistics with (anthropological) reconstruction of pregnancies and child survival using the case-history rather than the epidemiological method. The histories go back ten years and refer to 102 women in two villages of Egypt. An incidental finding is confirmation of the known deficiency of infant death reporting, and associated births, with the extra dividend of showing how serious this may be in the neonatal period. Another incidental finding is the identification of induced abortion as a health problem.

  18. Treatment of experimental pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in immunocompetent rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà, J; Capdevila, J A; Almirante, B; Otero, J; Ruiz, I; Laguarda, M; Allende, H; Crespo, E; Pigrau, C; Pahissa, A

    1997-01-01

    A model of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin was developed in immunocompetent Wistar rats and was used to evaluate the efficacies of different doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin. Adult Wistar rats were challenged by intratracheal inoculation with 3 x 10(9) CFU of one strain of S. pneumoniae resistant to penicillin (MICs of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) suspended in brain heart broth supplemented with 0.7% agar. The rats experienced a fatal pneumonia, dying within 5 days and with peak mortality (70 to 80%) occurring 48 to 72 h after infection, and the bacterial counts in the lungs persisted from 8.87 +/- 0.3 log10 CFU/g of lung at 24 h of the infection to 9.1 +/- 0.3 log10 CFU/g at 72 h. Four hours after infection the animals were randomized into the following treatment groups: (i) control without treatment, (ii) penicillin G at 100,000 IU/kg of body weight every 2 h, (iii) penicillin G at 250,000 IU/kg every 2 h, (iv) cefotaxime at 100 mg/kg every 2 h, (v) cefpirome at 200 mg/kg every 2 h, and (vi) vancomycin at 50 mg/kg every 8 h. Two different protocols were used for the therapeutic efficacy studies: four doses of beta-lactams and one dose of vancomycin or eight doses of beta-lactams and two doses of vancomycin. Results of the therapy for experimental pneumonia caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae showed that initially, all the antimicrobial agents tested had similar efficacies, but when we prolonged the treatment, higher doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, and cefpirome were more effective than penicillin at lower doses in decreasing the residual bacterial titers in the lungs. Also, when we extended the treatment, vancomycin was more efficacious than penicillin at lower doses but was less efficacious than higher doses of penicillin or cefpirome. The model that we have developed is simple and amenable for inducing pneumonia in

  19. Disseminated Histoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Individuals- not a so Rare Entity, in India

    PubMed Central

    De, Dibyendu; Nath, Uttam Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Histoplasmosis is a rare fungal disease caused by dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum. The causative fungus persists in soil, infects through inhalation and manifests in three main types-acute primary, chronic cavitary and progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. Disseminated Histoplasmosis (DH) is defined as a clinical condition where the fungus is present in more than one location. Among the forms of histoplasmosis, DH is the rarest and mostly found in an immuno-compromised individual. Here we are presenting our experiences of the series of cases of DH in immuno-competent individuals who have been diagnosed in our institute in last 5 years. Materials and methods This is a single centre retrospective observational study, conducted in Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, which is a referral centre for Eastern India, from May 2009 to April 2014. Only cases with DH in otherwise healthy immuno-competent individuals were included in the study. The histoplasmosis was confirmed either by presence of Histoplasma in biopsy specimen from an extrapulmonary organ or by positive growth in fungal culture Result Total seven patients met the inclusion criteria. Five out of 7 patients were male. The mean age was 35 years. Five of the 7 patients presented with fever for a long duration. Six patients complained of significant weight loss before diagnosis. On examination, one patient had skin nodules, five patients had hepato-splenomegaly, and two patients had lymphadenopathy. The laboratory investigations revealed anaemia in six out of 7 patients, and pancytopenia in 3 patients. Two patients had features of the hemophagocytic syndrome in the bone marrow. All patients were treated with conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate and azole antifungal. One patient with adrenal involvement died in hospital. The patient with skin nodule had recurrent relapses. The other patients had resolution of symptoms and were clinically cured. Conclusion DH is not an

  20. Scedosporium prolificans Septic Arthritis and Osteomyelitis of the Hip Joints in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Adam Franklin; Brown, Lochlin Mark

    2017-01-01

    Scedosporium prolificans, also known as Scedosporium inflatum, is a fungus widespread in soil, sewage, and manure. This species is highly virulent and is an emerging opportunistic pathogen found in penetrating injuries in immunocompromised patients. Here we report on an immunocompetent patient with bilateral hip S. prolificans-associated osteomyelitis and septic arthritis caused by intentional penetrating trauma. The condition was refractory to initial antimicrobial suppression and surgical irrigation and debridement. Successful outcome was achieved after incorporating a bilateral two-stage total-hip-arthroplasty with Voriconazole-loaded cement and spacer. PMID:28163947

  1. Pancreatic Candidiasis That Mimics a Malignant Pancreatic Cystic Tumor on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Case Report in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Seong, Minjung; Kang, Tae Wook; Ha, Sang Yun

    2015-01-01

    Candida is a commensal organism that is frequently found in the human gastrointestinal tract. It is the most common organism that causes pancreatic fungal infections. However, magnetic resonance imaging findings of Candida infection in the pancreas have not been described. We report imaging findings of pancreatic candidiasis in a patient in immunocompetent condition. It presented as a multi-septated cystic mass with a peripheral solid component in the background of pancreatitis and restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted image that mimicked a malignant pancreatic cystic tumor.

  2. An update on bacterial brain abscess in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, R; Ruimy, R; Benzonana, N; Riffaud, L; Carsin, A; Tadié, J-M; Piau, C; Revest, M; Tattevin, P

    2017-09-01

    A brain abscess is a focal infection of the brain that begins as a localized area of cerebritis. In immunocompetent patients, bacteria are responsible for >95% of brain abscesses, and enter the brain either through contiguous spread following otitis, sinusitis, neurosurgery, or cranial trauma, or through haematogenous dissemination. To identify recent advances in the field. We searched Medline and Embase for articles published during years 2012-2016, with the keywords 'brain' and 'abscess'. The triad of headache, fever and focal neurological deficit is complete in ∼20% of patients on admission. Brain imaging with contrast-preferentially magnetic resonance imaging-is the reference standard for diagnosis, and should be followed by stereotactic aspiration of at least one lesion, before the start of any antimicrobials. Efforts should be made for optimal management of brain abscess samples, for reliable microbiological documentation. Empirical treatment should cover oral streptococci (including milleri group), methicillin-susceptible staphylococci, anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae. As brain abscesses are frequently polymicrobial, de-escalation based on microbiological results is safe only when aspiration samples have been processed optimally, or when primary diagnosis is endocarditis. Otherwise, many experts advocate for anaerobes coverage even with no documentation, given the sub-optimal sensitivity of current techniques. A 6-week combination of third-generation cephalosporin and metronidazole will cure most cases of community-acquired brain abscess in immunocompetent patients. Significant advances in brain imaging, minimally invasive neurosurgery, molecular biology and antibacterial agents have dramatically improved the prognosis of brain abscess in immunocompetent patients over the last decades. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of Cytomegalovirus Uveitis in Immunocompetent Patients.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jyh Haur; Lim, Wee K; Ho, Su L; Teoh, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    To present the clinical characteristics of patients with anterior uveitis who had evidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on polymerase chain reaction PCR-based assays for viral DNA in aqueous samples. This was a retrospective observational case series of 16 patients with CMV infection on qualitative polymerase chain reaction PCR-based assays for viral DNA in aqueous samples. Case records of 16 patients were reviewed and relevant clinical information was collected using a standardized data sheet. There were 10 male and 6 female patients, with 16 eyes included. The median age at the first attack was 52 years (range 27-77 years). Thirteen patients (81.3%) presented with an initial BCVA of 20/40 or better. Eleven eyes (68.8%) had anterior chamber inflammation of 1+ cells or less. Eight eyes (50.0%) had concomitant sectoral iris atrophy, while 2 eyes were noted to have heterochromic irides. Eleven patients (68.8%) presented with an elevated intraocular pressure. Seven patients (43.8%) had clinical features that led to a presumptive diagnosis of Posner-Schlossman syndrome, while 3 patients (18.8%) were initially diagnosed with Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis. Six patients were initially treated for uveitic glaucoma or anterior uveitis of unknown cause. There is a spectrum of clinical manifestations of CMV anterior uveitis. A high index of suspicion of a possible viral etiology, especially CMV, and subsequent accurate identification of the virus involved are fundamental to the overall therapeutic approach.

  4. A perinatal cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent patient with chorioretinitis.

    PubMed

    Kanik-Yuksek, Saliha; Gülhan, Belgin; Tezer, Hasan; Ozkaya-Parlakay, Aslinur

    2014-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common viral infection of newborns in all periods worldwide. Perinatal form of infection is usually less severe than the congenital form because of having a lower rate for serious organ involvement like central nervous system. In this article, we report a 3-month-old immunocompetent patient who was diagnosed as having perinatal CMV infection with a scar of chorioretinitis after presenting with gastroenteritis and hepatitis. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. PMID:25387508

  6. Nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Shah, S R; Dalal, B D; Modak, M S

    2016-03-01

    Fusarium onychomycosis is not uncommon in tropical countries but is worth reporting. We report a case of nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent woman from Buldhana district of Maharashtra (India). Bilateral involvement of great toe nail, chronic duration and acquisition of infection due to peculiar practice of daily pasting floors with mud and dung, is interesting. The case was successfully treated with topical and oral terbinafine with a dose of 250 mg daily for 3 weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Tattoo-associated Mycobacterium haemophilum Skin Infection in Immunocompetent Adult, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Perti, Tara R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    After a laboratory-confirmed case of Mycobacterium haemophilum skin infection in a recently tattooed immunocompetent adult was reported, we investigated to identify the infection source and additional cases. We found 1 laboratory-confirmed and 1 suspected case among immunocompetent adults who had been tattooed at the same parlor. PMID:21888807

  8. Effects of specific antibodies and immunocompetent cells on tumor growth in passive transfer experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhigunova, A V; Kravtsov, E G; Yashina, N V; Dalin, M V; Karpenko, L P

    2013-04-01

    Experiments with passive transfer of immunocompetent cell and serum demonstrated suppression of tumor growth after transfer of splenocytes from animals immunized with Trypanosoma cruzi. The nonspecific constituent of antitumor effect of immunocompetent cells was detected. The previously reported oncoprotective effect of mucins 2 and 3 was not confirmed.

  9. [Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in elderly immunocompetent patients. Report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Bosch, J; Sumalla, J; Mauleón, A; Rovira, A; Molins, M; Acarín, N

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a disorder which is rare in immunocompetent patients. We report the cases of two elderly patients with serology, in one case positive for hepatitis C, and in the other with anti-DNA antibodies, and discuss the part these might play in causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Case 1. An 86 year old man had been found on serology investigations to be positive for hepatitis C virus. In November 1996 he complained of dysarthria and left hemi-negligence following an accidental fall. Since his clinical condition became worse he was admitted to hospital for further investigation. On neuroimaging studies the intracerebral lesions were increased. The only other finding confirmed was that of positive serology for hepatitis C virus. The patient deteriorated progressively and died 50 days after admission. Case 2. A 70 year old woman began to show progressive cognitive impairment and left hemiparesia in June 1996. Se was investigated in another centre and provisionally diagnosed as having vasculitis of the CNS, in view of her positive anti-DNA antibody and right frontoparietal hypodense lesion. Treatment had been started with corticosteroids. She was admitted to our hospital when her neurological deficits worsened. The immunological alterations were confirmed. On MRI the lesions in the white matter were seen to have progressed. The patient slowly improved. She was discharged from hospital in February 1997 in a semiconscious state, able to follow persons and things with her eyes, with global aphasia and with spastic tetraparesia which was mainly left-sided. She remains stable. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a condition which should be remembered when dealing with immunocompetent patients.

  10. Differential Neurovirulence of African and Asian Genotype Zika Virus Isolates in Outbred Immunocompetent Mice.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Nisha K; Ritter, Jana M; McDonald, Erin M; Romo, Hannah; Guirakhoo, Farshad; Davis, Brent S; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Brault, Aaron C

    2017-08-14

    Although first isolated almost 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) has only recently been associated with significant outbreaks of disease in humans. Several severe ZIKV disease manifestations have also been recently documented, including fetal malformations, such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although principally transmitted by mosquitoes, sexual transmission of ZIKV has been documented. Recent publications of several interferon receptor knockout mouse models have demonstrated ZIKV-induced disease. Herein, outbred immunocompetent CD-1/ICR adult mice were assessed for susceptibility to disease by intracranial (i.c.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation with the Ugandan prototype strain (MR766; African genotype), a low-passage Senegalese strain (DakAr41524; African genotype) and a recent ZIKV strain isolated from a traveler infected in Puerto Rico (PRVABC59; Asian genotype). Morbidity was not observed in mice inoculated by the i.p. route with either MR766 or PRVABC59 for doses up to 6 log10 PFU. In contrast, CD-1/ICR mice inoculated i.c. with the MR766 ZIKV strain exhibited an 80-100% mortality rate that was age independent. The DakAr41524 strain delivered by the i.c route caused 30% mortality, and the Puerto Rican ZIKV strain failed to elicit mortality but did induce a serum neutralizing immune response in 60% of mice. These data provide a potential animal model for assessing neurovirulence determinants of different ZIKV strains as well as a potential immunocompetent challenge model for assessing protective efficacy of vaccine candidates.

  11. A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Martínez-Valverde, Andrea; del Mar Sabater-Recolons, María; Jané-Salas, Enric; Marí-Roig, Antonio; López-López, José

    2016-03-15

    To report an uncommon case of hand, foot and mouth disease, (HFMD) in an immunocompetent adult; a highly infectious disease, characterized by the appearance of vesicles on the mouth, hands and feet, associated with coxsackieviruses and enteroviruses; including a literature review. A 23 year Caucasian male with no medical or surgical history, no allergies, was not taking any medication and smoked ten cigarettes a day, suffering from discomfort in the oral cavity; itching, burning and pain when swallowing associated with small erythematous lesions located on the hard palate, and small ulcers in tonsillar pillars and right buccal mucosa. Mild fever of 37.8 °C and general malaise. The patient reported he had had contact with a child diagnosed with HFMD. From his background and symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with HFMD. Following symptomatic treatment, the symptoms remitted in 7 days. A literature review in MEDLINE (PubMed). The inclusion criteria were for studies on humans over the last 5 years, using the keywords HFMD. We found 925 articles, which were subsequently reduced to 52 documents after applying the inclusion criteria. Maculopapular lesions were found on hands and feet. Dentists may have a key role diagnosing the disease. A surveillance system to predict future outbreaks, encourage early diagnosis, put appropriate public health measures in place and research vaccine development is vitally important in order to control the disease.

  12. Risk Factors for Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis among Immunocompetent Persons in the United States from 1999 to 2001

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sharon L.; DeLong, Stephanie M.; Stenzel, Sara A.; Shiferaw, Beletshachew; Roberts, Jacquelin M.; Khalakdina, Asheena; Marcus, Ruthanne; Segler, Suzanne D.; Shah, Dipti D.; Thomas, Stephanie; Vugia, Duc J.; Zansky, Shelley M.; Dietz, Vance; Beach, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the role of Cryptosporidium spp. in outbreaks of enteric illness, but few studies have evaluated sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the United States. To assess the risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis among immunocompetent persons, a matched case-control study was conducted in seven sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) involving 282 persons with laboratory-identified cryptosporidiosis and 490 age-matched and geographically matched controls. Risk factors included international travel (odds ratio [OR] = 7.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.7 to 22.0), contact with cattle (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.8 to 6.8), contact with persons >2 to 11 years of age with diarrhea (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.5 to 6.2), and freshwater swimming (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.049 to 3.5). Eating raw vegetables was protective (OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3 to 0.7). This study underscores the need for ongoing public health education to prevent cryptosporidiosis, particularly among travelers, animal handlers, child caregivers, and swimmers, and the need for further assessment of the role of raw vegetables in cryptosporidiosis. PMID:15243043

  13. Leading causes of child mortality in Brazil, in 1990 and 2015: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study.

    PubMed

    França, Elisabeth Barboza; Lansky, Sônia; Rego, Maria Albertina Santiago; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; França, Julia Santiago; Teixeira, Renato; Porto, Denise; Almeida, Marcia Furquim de; Souza, Maria de Fatima Marinho de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales

    2017-05-01

    To analyze under-5 mortality rates and leading causes in Brazil and states in 1990 and 2015, using the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2015 estimates. The main sources of data for all-causes under-5 mortality and live births estimates were the mortality information system, surveys, and censuses. Proportions and rates per 1,000 live births (LB) were calculated for total deaths and leading causes. Estimates of under-5 deaths in Brazil were 191,505 in 1990, and 51,226 in 2015, 90% of which were infant deaths. The rates per 1,000 LB showed a reduction of 67.6% from 1990 to 2015, achieving the proposed target established by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The reduction generally was more than 60% in states, with a faster reduction in the poorest Northeast region. The ratio of the highest and lowest rates in the states decreased from 4.9 in 1990 to 2.3 in 2015, indicating a reduction in socioeconomic regional disparities. Although prematurity showed a 72% reduction, it still remains as the leading cause of death (COD), followed by diarrheal diseases in 1990, and congenital anomalies, birth asphyxia and septicemia neonatal in 2015. Under-5 mortality has decreased over the past 25 years, with reduction of regional disparities. However, pregnancy and childbirth-related causes remain as major causes of death, together with congenital anomalies. Intersectoral and specific public health policies must be continued to improve living conditions and health care in order to achieve further reduction of under-5 mortality rates in Brazil.

  14. Pulmonary cryptococcoma: a rare and challenging diagnosis in immunocompetent patients

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Nicole; Cavallaro, Marina Costa; Lopes, Mariana Pezzute; Fernandez, Johana Marlen Jerias; Otoch, José Pinhata; Ferreira, Cristiane Rubia

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcal infection is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients, although immunocompetent patients may also be infected. The pathogen’s portal of entry is the respiratory tract; however, the central nervous system is predominantly involved. Pulmonary involvement varies from interstitial and alveolar infiltrations to large masses, which are frequently first interpreted as lung neoplasm. The diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis, in these cases, is frequently challenging, which, in most cases, requires histopathological examination. The authors report the case of a young female patient who presented a 20-day history of chest pleuritic pain and fever at the onset of symptoms. HIV serology was negative and CD4 count was normal. The imaging work-up was characterized by a huge opacity in the left inferior pulmonary lobe with a wide pleural base. Computed tomography showed a heterogeneous mass involving the bronchial tree. Mediastinal involvement was poor, and there was a splenomegaly. The patient underwent an exploratory thoracotomy and inferior lobectomy. The histopathological examination revealed a cryptococcoma. As the serum antigenemia was positive, the patient was scheduled for long-term treatment with fluconazole. The authors call attention to including the cryptococcal infection in the differential diagnosis of lung mass, mainly when localized in the lung bases in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26484332

  15. Acute Disseminated Talaromyces marneffei in An Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingli; Chen, Youfei; Xu, Hao; Ding, Liren; Wu, Zuqun; Xu, Zhijiang; Wang, Kai

    2017-03-27

    Talaromyces marneffei (also called Penicilliosis Marneffei or T. marneffei) is a rare fungal disease that is prevalent mainly in Southeast Asia and commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. It was rarely observed in immunocompetent hosts. We report a case of acute disseminated T. marneffei in an immunocompetent patient in the non-prevalent region. This patient had never visited the endemic area. The patient experienced a persistent fever. Brain CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass in the right frontal with osteolytic damage. Excessive white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein content were observed. Antibiotics including meropenem and linezolid could not play an effect, and another two hard masses appeared in his right neck and front chest wall. The aspirates from the right frontal mass and bone marrow were cultured. The final diagnose of this infection was disseminated T. marneffei. After voriconazole treatment, all symptoms improved gradually. We present this case and aim to promote more clinicians and microbiologists in the non-endemic region to recognize this rare disease.

  16. Endogenous Histoplasma capsulatum endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Schlaen, Ariel; Ingolotti, Mariana; Couto, Cristobal; Jacob, Nestor; Pineda, Gloria; Saravia, Mario

    2015-05-25

    To report on a case of Histoplasma capsulatum endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient. A 30-year-old patient was admitted with floaters and vision impairment of 1 month's duration. He had a history of adrenal insufficiency, together with nasal, septum, and soft palate lesions of 3 months; duration. Culture results from specimens of these lesions were positive for H capsulatum. He was human immunodeficiency virus negative and there was no evidence of immunodepression or history of immunosuppression. Fundus examination revealed multiple fluffy balls with a string of pearls appearance, 2+ vitreous haze, multiple foci of retinochoroiditis inferiorly in the peripheral retina, and a 6-disk area lesion of retinochoroiditis at the superotemporal periphery. Due to poor response to oral itraconazole, a vitrectomy was performed with an intraocular injection of amphotericin B 5 μg/0.1 mL and removal for a vitreous specimen for culture of bacteria and fungi. Vitreous specimen culture of the yeast at 28°C grew a white filamentous fungus colony, which was again cultured in a brain heart infusion agar medium, where it developed hyaline septate hyphae with microconidia and circular macroconidia with double wall, which was stained with a lactophenol dye at microscopic examination. The macroscopic morphology was consistent with H capsulatum. Although endogenous H capsulatum endophthalmitis is a rare entity, it should be considered as a possible etiology even in apparently immunocompetent hosts, especially in patients with history of disseminated disease.

  17. Sinoorbital mucormycosis due to Apophysomyces elegans in immunocompetent individuals--an increasing trend.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayan Rao, Sridhara; Panda, Naresh K; Pragache, Gilbert; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Saravanan, K

    2006-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a fatal infection of the immunocompromised individuals. Apophysomyces elegans is an unusual pathogen causing mucormycosis. It is unusual to affect the healthy individuals. We report 5 such cases of infection caused by A elegans in immunocompetent individuals. Retrospective case review conducted at a tertiary referral center. From 1999 to 2004, 5 cases of mucormycosis caused by A elegans were managed in otherwise healthy patients. All of them were treated with surgery. Clinical presentation, imaging studies, mycological findings, operative findings at surgery, and postoperative results were evaluated. A review of literature about mucormycosis caused by A elegans infecting otherwise healthy patients in orbit, nose, and paranasal sinuses has been done. All had no previous history of trauma or any invasive procedure. All of them underwent surgical treatment. Histopathological examination showed broad, sparsely aseptate, thin-walled hyphae and angioinvasion with thrombosis. Fungal culture revealed A elegans. Mucormycosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any severe acute headache, sinusitis, or orbital cellulites not only in the immunocompromised patients but also in the absence of any underlying disease. Successful treatment requires early debridement and systemic antifungal treatment with injection of amphotericin B.

  18. Community coverage with insecticide-treated mosquito nets and observed associations with all-cause child mortality and malaria parasite infections.

    PubMed

    Larsen, David A; Hutchinson, Paul; Bennett, Adam; Yukich, Joshua; Anglewicz, Philip; Keating, Joseph; Eisele, Thomas P

    2014-11-01

    Randomized trials and mathematical modeling suggest that insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) provide community-level protection to both those using ITNs and those without individual access. Using nationally representative household survey datasets from 17 African countries, we examined whether community ITN coverage is associated with malaria infections in children < 5 years old and all-cause child mortality (ACCM) among children < 5 years old in households with one or more ITNs versus without any type of mosquito net (treated or untreated). Increasing ITN coverage (> 50%) was protective against malaria infections and ACCM for children in households with an ITN, although this protection was not conferred to children in households without ITNs in these data. Children in households with ITNs were protected against malaria infections and ACCM with ITN coverage > 30%, but this protection was not significant with ITN coverage < 30%. Results suggest that ITNs are more effective with higher ITN coverage.

  19. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient due to Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGI in Brazil: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Erika; Bonifácio da Silva, Maria Emília Nadaletto; Martinez, Roberto; von Zeska Kress, Marcia Regina

    2014-07-01

    Primary Cutaneous Cryptococcosis is an uncommon infection caused by the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. Few case reports are available in the literature describing in detail primary cutaneous cryptococcosis due to C. gattii in immunocompetent patients. Herein, we present a case of a 68-year-old immunocompetent male patient with erythematous nodular lesions on the right forearm due to C. gattii mating-type α and molecular type VGI. The virulence factors test was performed for capsule diameter, melanin production and phospholipase activity. In vitro fluconazole testing showed the sensitivity profile of this clinical isolate. In addition, a review of the literature on this subject was carried out and verified that this is the first reported case of VGI in the south-east region of Brazil.

  20. Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Critically-Ill Immunocompetent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Ajit P.; Kirby, Katharine A.; Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Neff, Margaret J.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Huang, Meei-Li; Santo, Tracy K.; Corey, Lawrence; Boeckh, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in immunosuppressed persons, but the incidence and association of CMV reactivation with adverse outcomes in persons lacking evidence of immunosuppression (“immunocompetent”) with critical illness have not been well-defined. Objective To determine the association of CMV reactivation with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay in critically-ill immunocompetent persons. Methods We prospectively assessed CMV plasma DNAemia by real-time PCR twice weekly and clinical outcomes in a cohort of CMV seropositive, immunocompetent adults admitted to an ICU. Clinical parameters were assessed by personnel blinded to CMV PCR results. Risk factors for CMV reactivation and association with hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS) were assessed by multivariable logistic regression and proportional odds models. Setting Six ICU’s at two separate hospitals at a large tertiary care academic medical center between 2004–2006. Participants A total of 120 critically-ill, CMV seropositive adults lacking evidence of immunosuppression. Main Outcome Measures Association of CMV reactivation with prolonged hospital length of stay or death. Results The primary composite endpoint of continued hospitalization (n=35) or death (n=10) at 30 days occurred in 45 (35%) of the 120 patients. CMV viremia at any level or > 1,000 copies/ml occurred in 33% (39 of 120, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24%–41%) and 20% (24 of 120, 95% CI 13%–28%), at a median of 12 days (range 3–57) and 26 days (range 9–56), respectively. By logistic regression, CMV infection at any level (adjusted OR: 4.3 [1.6–11.9], p = 0.005), >1,000 copies/ml (adjusted OR 13.9 [3.2–60], p < 0.001), or average CMV area under the curve [AUC] (adjusted OR 2.1 [1.3–3.2], p < 0.001), was independently associated with hospitalization or death by 30 days. In multivariable partial proportional odds models, both CMV seven-day moving

  1. Cryptococcus gattii infection dampens Th1 and Th17 responses by attenuating dendritic cell function and pulmonary chemokine expression in the immunocompetent hosts.

    PubMed

    Angkasekwinai, Pornpimon; Sringkarin, Nuntarat; Supasorn, Oratai; Fungkrajai, Madtika; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit

    2014-09-01

    Cryptococcal infections are primarily caused by two related fungal species: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. It is well known that C. neoformans generally affects immunocompromised hosts; however, C. gattii infection can cause diseases in not only immunocompromised hosts but also immunocompetent individuals. While recent studies suggest that C. gattii infection could dampen pulmonary neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory cytokine production in immunocompetent hosts, the impact of C. gattii infection on the development of their adaptive T helper cell immune response has not been addressed. Here, we report that C. neoformans infection with highly virulent and less virulent strains preferentially induced pulmonary Th1 and Th17 immune responses in the host, respectively. However, fewer pulmonary Th1 and Th17 cells could be detected in mice infected with C. gattii strains. Notably, dendritic cells (DC) in mice infected with C. gattii expressed much lower levels of surface MHC-II and Il12 or Il23 transcripts and failed to induce effective Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, the expression levels of Ip10 and Cxcl9 transcripts, encoding Th1-attracting chemokines, were significantly reduced in the lungs of mice infected with the highly virulent C. gattii strain. Thus, our data suggest that C. gattii infection dampens the DC-mediated effective Th1/Th17 immune responses and downregulates the pulmonary chemokine expression, thus resulting in the inability to mount protective immunity in immunocompetent hosts.

  2. Mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients: a case-series of patients with maxillary sinus involvement and a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Michele D; Fortuna, Giulio; Leuci, Stefania; Adamo, Daniela; Ruoppo, Elvira; Siano, Maria; Mariani, Umberto

    2011-08-01

    To review the current literature on mucormycosis in immunocompentent/otherwise healthy individuals, to which five new cases with maxillary sinus involvement have been added. We searched in the PudMed database all articles in the English language related to human infections caused by fungi of the order Mucorales, in immunocompetent/otherwise healthy patients, starting from January 1978 to June 2009. In addition, we updated the literature by reporting five new cases diagnosed and treated at the oral medicine unit of our institution. The literature review showed at least 126 articles published from 35 different countries in the world, to a total of 212 patients described. The most affected country was India with 94 (44.3%) patients and the most representative clinical form was the cutaneous/subcutaneous with 90 (42.5%) patients. Our five immunocompetent patients with a diagnosed infection of Mucorales localized at the maxillary sinus completely healed with lyposomial amphotericin B. The literature analysis revealed that even in immunocompetent/otherwise healthy individuals mucormycosis infection has a worldwide distribution. What might be the real predisposing factors involved in its pathogenesis in such patients and the real causes of this peculiar geographic distribution still remains unknown. It is likely that, in our cases, a chronic insult of a well-defined and localized body area might have resulted in a local immunocompromission, thus fostering the development of an invasive fungal infection. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraneural microcystic lymphatic malformation of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon canal: unusual cause of ulnar pain in a child.

    PubMed

    Pérez, I González; Montoya, F Corella; Fariñas, I Casado

    2017-03-22

    We present a case of an unusual cause of ulnar pain on a 9 years old patient. The patient had pain on the ulnar side of the wrist after a fall. MRI showed a poorly defined lesion on the ulnar nerve at Guyońs canal. The initial diagnosis was traumatic neuropathy. Following conservative treatment of symptoms for one year, the pain started again. Therefore, a new MRI was performed were progression of the lesion was observed. Excision of the lesion was performed and the specimen sent for pathologic analysis. The diagnosis was of microcystic lymphatic malformation. The patient had a satisfactory evolution, with complete resolution. This is the first description of a microcystic lymphatic malformation in an intraneuronal location.

  4. [Cryptococcus Neoformans Var. Gattii meningoencephalitis with cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by surgical resection].

    PubMed

    Inada, Taku; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Kawamoto, Michi; Sekiya, Hiroaki; Imai, Yukihiro; Tani, Shoichi; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Mineharu, Yohei; Asai, Katsunori; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Takenori; Shibata, Teishiki; Beppu, Mikiya; Agawa, Yuji; Shimizu, Kanpei; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Haruhiko

    2014-02-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection, which mainly invades the lungs and central nervous system. In Japan, most cases of cryptococcosis are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans(C. neoformans). Until now, only three cases which the infectious agent was Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii(C. gattii)have been reported. As compared with cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans, which is often observed in immunocompromised hosts, cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii occurs predominantly in immunocompetent hosts and is resistant to antifungal drugs. Here, we report a case of refractory cerebral cryptococcoma that was successfully treated by surgical resection of the lesions. A 33-year-old man with no medical history complained of headache, hearing disturbance, and irritability. Pulmonary CT showed a nodular lesion in the left lung. Cerebrospinal fluid examination with Indian ink indicated cryptococcal meningitis, and PCR confirmed infection with C. gattii. C. gattii is usually seen in the tropics and subtropics. Since this patient imported trees and soils from abroad to feed stag beetles, parasite or fungal infection was, as such, suspected. Although he received 2 years of intravenous and intraventricular antifungal treatment, brain cryptococcomas were formed and gradually increased. Because of the refractory clinical course, the patient underwent surgical resection of the cerebral lesions. With continuation of antifungal drugs for 6 months after the surgeries, Cryptococcus could not be cultured from cerebrospinal fluid, and no lesions were seen on MR images. If cerebral cryptococcosis responds poorly to antifungal agents, surgical treatment of the cerebral lesion should be considered.

  5. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Acute, Severe Cryptosporidiosis in an Immunocompetent Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Tallant, Caitlin; Huddleston, Patrick; Alshanberi, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Severe diarrheal illness in children can be attributed to a number of different microbiological agents. Without appropriate microbiological testing of stool samples, patients who present with multiple days of severe diarrhea might have a delay in proper diagnosis and treatment. Here, we report a case of an immunocompetent pediatric patient presenting with acute cryptosporidiosis. Humans and bovine species are known hosts of cryptosporidium and several studies have evaluated the zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidium from cattle to humans. Adding diagnostic tests for cryptosporidium like Ziehl-Neelsen staining of stool or fecal rapid antigen detection techniques should be considered in the workup of patients presenting with undifferentiated, severe diarrheal illness, especially in those who have close contact with livestock. PMID:27478580

  7. An unusual case of invasive aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Afsal P; Dhunputh, Pushwinder; Chiluka, Raghuvaran; Umakanth, Shashikiran

    2015-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a highly lethal opportunistic infection that poses a significant threat to immunocompromised patients. With studies suggesting that the incidence of this disease is increasing, and mortality rates remain high, early diagnosis and treatment are very important to improve patient survival. We present the case of a 33-year-old immunocompetent woman who presented with a history of cough and severe breathlessness, and was diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis. This case emphasises the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion and also of remembering that invasive aspergillosis is no longer only a disease of immunocompromised individuals. In addition, this case tells us that aspergillosis is one of the new emerging infections in intensive care units. PMID:26123468

  8. Visceral Leishmaniasis with Endobronchial Involvement in an Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kotsifas, Konstantinos; Metaxas, Eugenios; Koutsouvelis, Ioannis; Skoutelis, Athanassios; Kara, Panayiota; Tatsis, George

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement. PMID:21577261

  9. Central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Ignacio; Minces, Pablo; De Cristofano, Analía M; Negroni, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Neurohistoplasmosis is a rare disease, most prevalent in immunosuppressed patients, secondary to disseminated disease with a high mortality rate when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. We report a previously healthy 12 year old girl, from a bat infested region of Tucuman Province, Argentine Republic, who developed meningoencephalitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum. Eighteen months prior to admission the patient started with headaches and intermittent fever. The images of the central nervous system showed meningoencephalitis suggestive of tuberculosis. She received antibiotics and tuberculostatic medications without improvement. Liposomal amphotericin B was administered for six weeks. The patient's clinical status improved remarkably. Finally the culture of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for micelial form of Histoplasma capsulatum. The difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of neurohistoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients are discussed in this manuscript, as it also intends to alert to the presence of a strain of Histoplasma capsulatum with affinity for the central nervous system.

  10. Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis of the Jejunum in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengqing; Hou, Xianming; Wang, Xiaoting; Chen, Ge; Zhao, Yupei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis (GIM) is a kind of opportunistic fungal infection with poor prognosis. It usually occurs in patients with immune deficiency. We reported a case of immunocompetent male patient. Patient concerns: This patient was presented as abdominal distension and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnoses: A variety of hemostatic methods was ineffective to stop the bleeding. The patient finally received laparotomy, and the jejunum lesions were found. Interventions: Pathological examination confirmed it to be gastrointestinal mucormycosis in jejunum. Outcomes: However, after systemic anti-fungi therapy, the patient died of septic shock. Lessons: The diagnosis mainly relies on pathological examination. Early diagnosis and early application of systemic amphotericin B liposome were fundamental for improving the prognosis. PMID:28422828

  11. Catheter-Associated Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Fungemia in an Immunocompetent Host

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Hyun, Miri

    2013-01-01

    Rhodotorula species live in the environment, but can also colonize human epithelium, as well as respiratory, and gastrointestinal tracts. Reports of infection, especially in the past 2 decades, have noted increasing numbers of Rhodotorula infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, leading it to be considered emerging opportunistic pathogen. The major risk factors for infection were prolonged use of central venous catheters in patients with hematological and solid malignancies who are taking corticosteroids or cytotoxic drugs. Herein, we report a case of catheter-associated fungemia due to R. mucilaginosa in an immunocompetent host. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. After 10 days, the patient developed new-onset fever confirmed to be a result of catheter-associated blood-stream infection by R. mucilaginosa. It was successfully treated by catheter removal and intravenous amphotericin B. PMID:24396637

  12. An unusual case of invasive aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Afsal P; Dhunputh, Pushwinder; Chiluka, Raghuvaran; Umakanth, Shashikiran

    2015-06-29

    Invasive aspergillosis is a highly lethal opportunistic infection that poses a significant threat to immunocompromised patients. With studies suggesting that the incidence of this disease is increasing, and mortality rates remain high, early diagnosis and treatment are very important to improve patient survival. We present the case of a 33-year-old immunocompetent woman who presented with a history of cough and severe breathlessness, and was diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis. This case emphasises the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion and also of remembering that invasive aspergillosis is no longer only a disease of immunocompromised individuals. In addition, this case tells us that aspergillosis is one of the new emerging infections in intensive care units.

  13. Immunocompetent, Immunized Male With Mumps, Complicated by Orchitis and Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tomich, Allison; Grubish, Lindsay; Young, Scott; Franklin, Jillian

    2015-10-01

    Mumps is a rare pathology often not encountered in the emergency department setting. It is an especially unusual finding in a fully immunized individual. We present a case of a 26-year-old Army active duty male who was evaluated in the emergency department for mumps over the course of two visits. The military population is presumed fully immunized and immunocompetent, travels widely and often lives in close quarters. This case highlights the importance for providers to consider such a disease that carries a risk of significant morbidity, and rarely, mortality. A literature review was performed evaluating mumps in the vaccinated population. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. [A rare case of endocarditis due to Moraxella catarrhalis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Tanyel, Esra; Taşdelen Fişgin, Nuriye; Esen, Saban; Darka, Ozge; Bahçivan, Muzaffer; Leblebicioğlu, Hakan; Tülek, Necla

    2009-10-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative, catalase and oxidase positive diplococcus. While it causes otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis and conjunctivitis in children and adults, it has a tendency to cause lower respiratory tract infections in older ages. More severe clinical pictures with the range of sepsis to endocarditis are also seen in immunocompromised patients. In this report, a case of M. catarrhalis endocarditis in an immunocompetent host who needed valve replacement has been presented. Forty three years old female patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, nausea, night sweating and arthralgia for 20 days. Physical examination revealed systolic murmurs on the apex, and vegetation on the atrial surface of mitral valve was detected by transthoracic echocardiography. Intravenous (IV) ampicillin (4 x 3 g/day) and gentamicin (3 x 80 mg/day) treatment was started empirically with prediagnosis of infective endocarditis. The treatment was modified to IV ceftriaxone (1 x 2 g/day) and gentamicin (3 x 80 mg/day) due to the reporting of gram-negative bacilli in blood culture (BacT/ALERT 3D, bioMérieux, France) on the next day. Gram-negative cocobacilli/diplococci were detected with Gram stain on the smear prepared from the blood culture bottle. Simultaneous subcultures to blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar yielded white colored, S-type, non-hemolytic colonies on only blood agar. Catalase and oxidase tests were positive, while beta-lactamase activity was negative. The isolate was identified as M. catarrhalis by using API NH (bioMérieux, France) identification strips. M. catarrhalis was isolated from five different blood culture specimens of the patient. The focus for bacteremia could not be detected. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement operation as an emergency since the vegetation exhibited rapid growth on the fifth day of medical treatment. Antibacterial therapy was completed for 6 weeks. Control echocardiography revealed

  15. Parental grief after a child's drug death compared to other death causes: investigating a greatly neglected bereavement population.

    PubMed

    Feigelman, William; Jordan, John R; Gorman, Bernard S

    2011-01-01

    This comparative survey contrasted 571 parents who lost children to various death causes: 48 to drug-related deaths and overdoses, 462 to suicide, 24 to natural death cases, and 37 to mostly accidental death cases. Groups were compared in terms of grief difficulties, mental health problems, posttraumatic stress, and stigmatization. Results did not show any appreciable differences in these respects between the suicide bereaved parents and those losing children to drug-related deaths. However, when the suicide and drug-related death survivors were specifically contrasted against accidental and natural death loss cases, a consistent pattern emerged showing the former group was consistently more troubled by grief and mental health problems than the latter two sub-groups. These differences remained when controls of time since the loss and gender differences were employed as covariates. These findings suggest that the powerful and intense stigma against drug use and mental illness, shared among the public-at-large, imposes challenges in healing of immense proportion for these parents as they find less compassionate responses from their significant others, following their losses.

  16. Vitamin K therapy for cortical bone fragility caused by reduced mechanical loading in a child with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, T; Takaki, T; Saito, T; Taguchi, T

    2007-01-01

    Fractures frequently occur at cortical bone sites in children with cerebral palsy, but there is no established therapy. We previously found that treatment with vitamins D and K increased cortical bone mass in children with severe physical disability, and have hypothesized that vitamin K could play a significant role in pediatric cortical bones under conditions with reduced mechanical loading. In the present case report, we treated a right hemiplegic ambulant eight-year-old boy with oral vitamin K (15 mg per day) for eight months. Cortical bone geometries at mid-diaphyseal sites in bilateral tibiae were evaluated before and after the treatment. The cross-sectional total, bone and marrow areas of non-hemiplegic tibia increased by 8.8%, 7.4% and 12.0%, respectively, while those of hemiplegic tibia changed by 9.0%, 14.9% and -3.4%, respectively. As a result, the polar moment of inertia, an indicator of the resistance to torsion forces, increased by 13.0% in the non-hemiplegic tibia and by 63.7% in the hemiplegic tibia. Vitamin K may restrict cortical bone fragility, caused by reduced mechanical loading, through its actions at the endosteal bone marrow interface. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to clarify the mechanisms involved.

  17. Causes of Child and Youth Homelessness in Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Lonnie; Lee, Hana; Gunn, Jayleen; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-05-01

    %-51%). Forty-seven studies included in this review reported family conflict as the reason for street involvement, with a pooled prevalence of 32% (95% CI, 26%-39%). Abuse was equally reported in developing and developed countries as the reason for street involvement, with a pooled prevalence of 26% (95% CI, 18%-35%). Delinquency was the least frequently cited reason overall, with a pooled prevalence of 10% (95% CI, 5%-20%). The street-connected children and youth who provided reasons for their street involvement infrequently identified delinquent behaviors for their circumstances and highlighted the role of poverty as a driving factor. They require support and protection, and governments globally are called on to reduce the socioeconomic inequities that cause children and youth to turn to the streets in the first place, in all regions of the world.

  18. Sports injuries: An important cause of morbidity in urban youth. District of Columbia Child/Adolescent Injury Research Network.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T L; Fields, C B; Brenner, R A; Wright, J L; Lomax, T; Scheidt, P C

    2000-03-01

    Sports injuries account for substantial morbidity and medical cost. To direct intervention, a population-based study of the causes and types of sports injuries was undertaken. An injury surveillance system was established at all trauma center hospitals that treat residents 10 to 19 years old in the District of Columbia and the Chief Medical Examiner's Office. Medical record abstractions were completed for those seen in an emergency department, admitted to the hospital, or who died from injury June 1996 through June 1998. Seventeen percent (n = 2563) of all injuries occurred while participating in 1 of 6 sports (baseball/softball, basketball, biking, football, skating, and soccer) resulting in an event-based injury rate of 25.0 per 1000 adolescents or 25.0/1000 population year. Rates were higher in males for all sports. The most common mechanisms were falls (E880-888) and being struck by or against objects (E916-918). Hospitalization was required in 2% of visits and there were no deaths. Of those requiring hospitalization, 51% involved other persons, 12% were equipment-related, and 8% involved poor field/surface conditions. Of all baseball injuries, 55% involved ball or bat impact often of the head. Basketball injuries included several injuries from striking against the basketball pole or rim or being struck by a falling pole or backboard. Biking injuries requiring admission included 2 straddle injuries onto the bike center bar and collision with motor vehicles. Of all football injuries, 48 (7%) involved being struck by an opponent's helmet and 63 (9%) involved inappropriate field conditions including falls on or against concrete, glass, or fixed objects. In soccer there were 4 goal post injuries and a large proportion of intracranial injuries. There were 51 probable or clear assaults during sports and an additional 30 to 41 injuries from baseball bat assaults. Many sports including noncontact sports involved injuries of the head suggesting the need for improved

  19. Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts.

    PubMed

    Stittelaar, Koert J; de Waal, Leon; van Amerongen, Geert; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Fraaij, Pieter L A; van Baalen, Carel A; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; van der Vries, Erhard; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; de Swart, Rik L

    2016-06-14

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (10⁵ TCID50) administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inoculation. Immune suppression was achieved by bi-daily oral administration of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Throat and nose swabs were collected daily and animals were euthanized four, seven, or 21 days post-infection (DPI). Virus loads were determined by quantitative virus culture and qPCR. We observed efficient HRSV replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In immunocompromised ferrets, virus loads reached higher levels and showed delayed clearance as compared to those in immunocompetent animals. Histopathological evaluation of animals euthanized 4 DPI demonstrated that the virus replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These animal models can contribute to an assessment of the efficacy and safety of novel HRSV intervention strategies.

  20. Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Stittelaar, Koert J.; de Waal, Leon; van Amerongen, Geert; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J.B.; Fraaij, Pieter L.A.; van Baalen, Carel A.; van Kampen, Jeroen J.A.; van der Vries, Erhard; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; de Swart, Rik L.

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (105 TCID50) administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inoculation. Immune suppression was achieved by bi-daily oral administration of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Throat and nose swabs were collected daily and animals were euthanized four, seven, or 21 days post-infection (DPI). Virus loads were determined by quantitative virus culture and qPCR. We observed efficient HRSV replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In immunocompromised ferrets, virus loads reached higher levels and showed delayed clearance as compared to those in immunocompetent animals. Histopathological evaluation of animals euthanized 4 DPI demonstrated that the virus replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These animal models can contribute to an assessment of the efficacy and safety of novel HRSV intervention strategies. PMID:27314379

  1. Nosocomial bacteremia and catheter infection by Bacillus cereus in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Hernaiz, C; Picardo, A; Alos, J I; Gomez-Garces, J L

    2003-09-01

    We present a case of Bacillus cereus bacteremia and catheter infection in an immunocompetent patient subjected to abdominal surgery, who recovered following central catheter removal and treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam.

  2. Antibiotic resistance in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders versus immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Ataeinia, Bahar; Kaynejad, Kimia; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Hosseini, Mohammad; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among bacterial isolates of patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) in comparison with immunocompetent patients. Patients' antibiotic sensitivity profiles were extracted from their medical records. In order to compare the antibiotic sensitivity profiles of PID patients with immunocompetent patients, the results of antibiograms of patients who did not have a known or suspected immunodeficiency and were hospitalized during the same period were obtained and used as control subjects. A total number of 257 isolates were obtained from 86 PID patients. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of several organisms isolated from PID patients were significantly lower compared to that of immunocompetent patients. Antibiotic resistance seems to be higher among PID patients compared to immunocompetent patients. This indicates a need for further investigations for the possible factors responsible for antibiotic resistance in PID patients.

  3. Invasive aspergillosis presenting as an intracardiac mass in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Nitin; Chadha, Davinder; Hasija, Pradeep; Arora, Harmeet Singh

    2016-03-04

    Invasive aspergillosis is a severe fungal infection that primarily affects immunocompromised patients. We report a case of invasive aspergillosis presenting as a febrile respiratory infection with a cardiac mass in an immunocompetent patient. Excision of the intracardiac mass followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was managed with voriconazole, to which he responded well. Rare occurrence of an intracardiac mass with systemic aspergillosis in an immunocompetent host is discussed in this case report.

  4. Isolated Pancreatic Histoplasmosis: An Unusual Suspect of Pancreatic Head Mass in an Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Avin; Garg, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is endemic to the Mississippi and Ohio River valley regions in the US. It usually affects patients with underlying immunodeficiency but can also be seen in immunocompetent hosts. Although gastrointestinal involvement is common in the setting of disseminated histoplasmosis, isolated gastrointestinal involvement is uncommon. We report a case of isolated pancreatic histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient, presenting as painless jaundice and pancreatic head mass.

  5. In vivo tropisms and kinetics of rat theilovirus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats.

    PubMed

    Drake, Michael T; Besch-Williford, Cindy; Myles, Matthew H; Davis, Justin W; Livingston, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    Rat theilovirus (RTV) is a cardiovirus related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. While RTV is a prevalent viral pathogen of rats used in biomedical research, the pathogenesis and characterization of RTV infections is not well understood. In the studies reported herein, we used immunohistochemistry to identify viral antigens in enterocytes of the small intestines of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Fecal viral shedding in immunocompromised and immunocompetent rats following oral gavage with RTV1 was high for the first 2 weeks of infection with persistent shedding of high viral loads being observed in immunocompromised nude rats but not in immunocompetent rats. RTV was also detected in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen of immunocompromised rats but not immunocompetent rats. In addition, the magnitude of serum antibody responses differed between immunocompetent rat strains with Brown Norway and SD rats having a significantly higher antibody response than CD or Fischer 344 rats. These data suggest that RTV1 has a tropism for the epithelial cells of the small intestine, immunocompetent rats have differing serum antibody responses to RTV infection, and sustained fecal shedding and extraintestinal dissemination of RTV1 occurs in rats deficient in T cell-dependent adaptive immunity. RTV infection in immunocompromised and immunocompetent rats has merit as a model for further studies of theilovirus pathogenesis following oral viral exposure.

  6. Disseminated cryptococcosis manifested as a single tumor in an immunocompetent patient, similar to the cutaneous primary forms.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Danielle Mechereffe do; Rocha, Ritha de Cássia Capelato; Carneiro, Luiz Euribel Prestes; Vasconcelos, Dewton Moraes; Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that tends to affect immunocompromised individuals. The fungi are mostly acquired by inhalation, which leads to an initial pulmonary infection. Later, other organs - such as the central nervous system and the skin - can be affected by hematogenous spread. In addition, cutaneous contamination can occur by primary inoculation after injuries (primary cutaneous cryptococcosis), whose diagnosis is defined based on the absence of systemic involvement. The clinical presentation of cutaneous forms typically vary according to the infection mode. We report an unusual case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient with cutaneous lesions similar to those caused by primary inoculation. This clinical picture leads us to question the definition of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis established in the literature.

  7. Disseminated cryptococcosis manifested as a single tumor in an immunocompetent patient, similar to the cutaneous primary forms*

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Danielle Mechereffe; Rocha, Ritha de Cássia Capelato; Carneiro, Luiz Euribel Prestes; Vasconcelos, Dewton Moraes; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that tends to affect immunocompromised individuals. The fungi are mostly acquired by inhalation, which leads to an initial pulmonary infection. Later, other organs - such as the central nervous system and the skin - can be affected by hematogenous spread. In addition, cutaneous contamination can occur by primary inoculation after injuries (primary cutaneous cryptococcosis), whose diagnosis is defined based on the absence of systemic involvement. The clinical presentation of cutaneous forms typically vary according to the infection mode. We report an unusual case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient with cutaneous lesions similar to those caused by primary inoculation. This clinical picture leads us to question the definition of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis established in the literature. PMID:28300886

  8. Human isolates of Bartonella tamiae induce pathology in experimentally inoculated immunocompetent mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bartonella tamiae, a newly described bacterial species, was isolated from the blood of three hospitalized patients in Thailand. These patients presented with headache, myalgia, anemia, and mild liver function abnormalities. Since B. tamiae was presumed to be the cause of their illness, these isolates were inoculated into immunocompetent mice to determine their relative pathogenicity in inducing manifestations of disease and pathology similar to that observed in humans. Methods Three groups of four Swiss Webster female mice aged 15-18 months were each inoculated with 106-7 colony forming units of one of three B. tamiae isolates [Th239, Th307, and Th339]. A mouse from each experimental group was sampled at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-inoculation. Two saline inoculated age-matched controls were included in the study. Samples collected at necropsy were evaluated for the presence of B. tamiae DNA, and tissues were formalin-fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined for histopathology. Results Following inoculation with B. tamiae, mice developed ulcerative skin lesions and subcutaneous masses on the lateral thorax, as well as axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. B. tamiae DNA was found in subcutaneous masses, lymph node, and liver of inoculated mice. Histopathological changes were observed in tissues of inoculated mice, and severity of lesions correlated with the isolate inoculated, with the most severe pathology induced by B. tamiae Th239. Mice inoculated with Th239 and Th339 demonstrated myocarditis, lymphadenitis with associated vascular necrosis, and granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis with associated hepatocellular and renal necrosis. Mice inoculated with Th307 developed a deep dermatitis and granulomas within the kidneys. Conclusions The three isolates of B. tamiae evaluated in this study induce disease in immunocompetent Swiss Webster mice up to 6 weeks after inoculation. The human patients from whom these isolates were obtained had

  9. The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959): Genesis, Transformation and Dissemination of a Treaty (Re)Constituting a Transnational Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, the social and legal status of the child evolved considerably. One remarkable illustration of this process can be seen by tracing the evolution of specific international treaties on the rights of the child. Although developments in national legislation inspired the authors of these treaties, it was through…

  10. The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959): Genesis, Transformation and Dissemination of a Treaty (Re)Constituting a Transnational Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, the social and legal status of the child evolved considerably. One remarkable illustration of this process can be seen by tracing the evolution of specific international treaties on the rights of the child. Although developments in national legislation inspired the authors of these treaties, it was through…

  11. Diagnostic Challenges of Cryptococcus neoformans in an Immunocompetent Individual Masquerading as Chronic Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Kedar R; Roberts, Amity L; Curtis, Mark T; Fortuna, Danielle; Dharia, Robin; Sheehan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans can cause disseminated meningoencephalitis and evade immunosurveillance with expression of a major virulence factor, the polysaccharide capsule. Direct diagnostic assays often rely on the presence of the cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan capsular antigen (CrAg) or visualization of the capsule. Strain specific phenotypic traits and environmental conditions influence differences in expression that can thereby compromise detection and timely diagnosis. Immunocompetent hosts may manifest clinical signs and symptoms indolently, often expanding the differential and delaying appropriate treatment and diagnosis. We describe a 63-year-old man who presented with a progressive four-year history of ambulatory dysfunction, headache, and communicating hydrocephalus. Serial lumbar punctures (LPs) revealed elevated protein (153-300 mg/dL), hypoglycorrhachia (19-47 mg/dL), lymphocytic pleocytosis (89-95% lymphocyte, WBC 67-303 mg/dL, and RBC 34-108 mg/dL), and normal opening pressure (13-16 cm H2O). Two different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CrAg assays were negative. A large volume CSF fungal culture grew unencapsulated C. neoformans. He was initiated on induction therapy with amphotericin B plus flucytosine and consolidation/maintenance therapy with flucytosine, but he died following discharge due to complications. Elevated levels of CSF Th1 cytokines and decreased IL6 may have affected the virulence and detection of the pathogen.

  12. Complicated secondary pneumonia after swine-origin influenza A virus infection in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Igusa, Ryotaro; Sakakibara, Tomohiro; Shibahara, Taizo; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Ota, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic of the swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) in 2009 demonstrated severe viral pneumonia followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although ARDS would be caused by the influenza virus pneumonia itself, it has remained unclear whether other respiratory viral or bacterial infections coexist with S-OIV pneumonia. We report an immunocompetent patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) pneumonia secondary to S-OIV infection. A 57-year-old man previously without major medical illness was admitted to our hospital with severe pneumonia accompanied by ARDS due to S-OIV. In his clinical course, anti-influenza treatment was not effective. Sputum culture revealed the presence of MRSA, and HSV was isolated in broncho-alveoler lavage (BAL) fluid. Administration of an antiviral agent (acyclovir), an antibacterial agent (linezolid), and a corticosteroid (methylprednisolone) successfully improved the pneumonia and ARDS. HSV pneumonia can scarcely be seen in healthy people. However recently it has been recognized as a ventilator-associated pneumonia. Although coexistence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and MRSA was reported in S-OIV pneumonia, secondary viral infection has not been reported. The present report is the first patient with HSV pneumonia secondary to S-OIV infection. We propose that a possibility of hidden HSV pneumonia should be taken into consideration in patients with prolonged severe pneumonia due to influenza infection.

  13. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares.

  14. Effects of fermentation products of Ganoderma lucidum on growth performance and immunocompetence in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Der; Hsieh, Meng-Chen; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lai, Yu-Shen; Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test fermentation, for its products of a Chinese medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, cultured by submerged fermentation for its effect on growth performance and immunocompetence in weanling piglets. In Experiment 1, 72 weanling piglets were allotted to one of four treatments receiving these fermentation products (GLF, expressed as amount of beta-glucans) at 0 (control), 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg feed for 4 weeks. The results showed that at a supplementation level of 50 mg/kg feed, GLF caused the best growth performance, the highest pseudorabies antibody titre, and a decrease of blood glucose level. It was also demonstrated that GLF up-regulated the cell-mediated immune response related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha) expression in different lymphoid tissues. After challenging with porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 (Experiment 2), a supplementation with 50 mg GLF per kg feed also inhibited PCV-2 virus amplification, and ameliorated lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid tissues. Conclusively, feed supplemented with GLF at 50 mg/kg could be beneficial to counteract the physiological stress in weanling piglets.

  15. Aerococcus viridans infection presenting as cutaneous vasculitis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Parrey, Ashaq Hussain; Sofi, Fayaz; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Kuchay, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Aerococcus viridans organisms are Gram-positive cocci that are widely distributed in hospital environments and room air. These bacteria have infrequently been encountered as human pathogens causing bacteremia, endocarditis and urinary tract infections. The significance of these bacteria may be overlooked due to their fastidious growth, and they are often confused with other strains of streptococci or staphylococci. We present a case of Aerococcus viridans manifesting as cutaneous vasculitis in an immunocompetent patient. A 30-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital after two weeks history of fever, chills and papular rash over the limbs and trunk. The clinical diagnosis of vasculitis was made. Investigations revealed elevated leucocytosis (21.7 × 10(9)/l) with 81% of neutrophils, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or 60 mm/h. Serum anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) were not found. Blood culture showed growth of Aerococcus viridans. Histopathological assessment of skin biopsy revealed cutaneous vasculitis. To date, no clinical case report of this kind has been reported implicating Aerococcus viridans in cutaneous vasculitis. Increased awareness and more studies of this genus should lead to the identification of its potential role in human infections.

  16. An immunocompetent migrant presenting with neurosyphilis with an unusual unilateral papillitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Paolo; Pacella, Fernanda; Pacella, Elena; Mirisola, Concetta; Uccella, Ilaria

    2012-02-14

    Unilateral papillitis caused by Treponema pallidum was found in an immunocompetent homosexual patient with severe vision loss who had received previous antibiotics treatment. Syphilis-related ocular manifestation is more common in the early stages of the disease and it can be associated with a central nervous system localization. In this patient, neurosyphilis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. Optical examination revealed unilateral papillitis in the left eye and no relative afferent pupillary defects. The patient underwent visual field examinations with conventional perimetry using the 30-2 program of the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer, which indicated a blind spot enlargement in the left eye. Optical coherence tomography, visual evoked potentials (VEP), and fluorescein angiograms revealed inflammation of the optic nerve head with edematous and blurred margins. A reactive T. pallidum hemagglutination assay with low rapid plasma reagin (RPR) serum titer was performed; an HIV antibody test and MRI of the orbits and head with contrast gave negative results. Resolution of the ocular inflammation after intravenous penicillin treatment was obtained. The reported case illustrates the importance of early recognition of this treatable disease. The rise of syphilis, especially in urban areas, necessitates a high level of suspicion when dealing with patients with intraocular inflammation of unknown origin. Lues serology should be incorporated into routine laboratory diagnostics to aid in the detection of such cases. Considering the re-emergence of syphilis, screening of migrants from countries with high syphilis seroprevalences should be recommended.

  17. An immunocompetent migrant presenting with neurosyphilis with an unusual unilateral papillitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral papillitis caused by Treponema pallidum was found in an immunocompetent homosexual patient with severe vision loss who had received previous antibiotics treatment. Syphilis-related ocular manifestation is more common in the early stages of the disease and it can be associated with a central nervous system localization. In this patient, neurosyphilis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. Optical examination revealed unilateral papillitis in the left eye and no relative afferent pupillary defects. The patient underwent visual field examinations with conventional perimetry using the 30-2 program of the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer, which indicated a blind spot enlargement in the left eye. Optical coherence tomography, visual evoked potentials (VEP), and fluorescein angiograms revealed inflammation of the optic nerve head with edematous and blurred margins. A reactive T. pallidum hemagglutination assay with low rapid plasma reagin (RPR) serum titer was performed; an HIV antibody test and MRI of the orbits and head with contrast gave negative results. Resolution of the ocular inflammation after intravenous penicillin treatment was obtained. The reported case illustrates the importance of early recognition of this treatable disease. The rise of syphilis, especially in urban areas, necessitates a high level of suspicion when dealing with patients with intraocular inflammation of unknown origin. Lues serology should be incorporated into routine laboratory diagnostics to aid in the detection of such cases. Considering the re-emergence of syphilis, screening of migrants from countries with high syphilis seroprevalences should be recommended. PMID:22472320

  18. Clinico-radiological improvement in an immunocompetent patient presented with scedosporium apiospermum osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rahul; Gopakumar, T S

    2016-01-01

    Scedosporium apiospermum is frequently found as a saprophyte in soil, sewage and contaminated water. Its manifestations in immunocompetent patients are usually localised and in immunodeficient patients, it causes invasive systemic diseases. We are reporting the case of a 40-year-old male, who presented with pain, oedema and multiple discharging sinuses over the lateral aspect of the left foot with history of thorn prick. On examination, there were multiple active sinuses with tenderness and local rise in temperature. Calcaneum on palpation showed a thickened and irregular surface with limitation of ankle and subtalar movements. Blood investigations showed a moderate rise in ESR and CRP. X-rays showed typical features of chronic osteomyelitis with sclerosis, cavities and irregular bone contour. CT report showed features of osteomyelitis involving calcaneum, talus, cuneiforms and navicular bone with periarticular soft tissue involvement and mild focal collection in the calcaneum. On repeated culture, it was found to be scedosporium apiospermum fungus. We managed the case with voriconazole therapy and it responded with excellent clinical and radiological improvement by 9 months.

  19. Aerococcus viridans infection presenting as cutaneous vasculitis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Sofi, Fayaz; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Kuchay, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Background Aerococcus viridans organisms are Gram-positive cocci that are widely distributed in hospital environments and room air. These bacteria have infrequently been encountered as human pathogens causing bacteremia, endocarditis and urinary tract infections. The significance of these bacteria may be overlooked due to their fastidious growth, and they are often confused with other strains of streptococci or staphylococci. Case report We present a case of Aerococcus viridans manifesting as cutaneous vasculitis in an immunocompetent patient. A 30-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital after two weeks history of fever, chills and papular rash over the limbs and trunk. The clinical diagnosis of vasculitis was made. Investigations revealed elevated leucocytosis (21.7 × 109/l) with 81% of neutrophils, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or 60 mm/h. Serum anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) were not found. Blood culture showed growth of Aerococcus viridans. Histopathological assessment of skin biopsy revealed cutaneous vasculitis. Conclusions To date, no clinical case report of this kind has been reported implicating Aerococcus viridans in cutaneous vasculitis. Increased awareness and more studies of this genus should lead to the identification of its potential role in human infections. PMID:28115783

  20. [Hyaline-vascular Multicentric Castleman's Disease in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Zapata-Bonilla, Sergio Armando; López Vargas, Roberto; Scherling-Ocampo, Aldo Alfonso; Morales Leyte, Ana Lilia; García Ilizaliturri, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy, immunocompetent 67-year-old female presented with a one-month history of general symptoms, weight loss, night fevers, and bilateral lower extremity edema. On admission she had severe anemia, acute kidney injury, and multiple lymphadenopathies. An excisional biopsy of one of the axillary lymphadenopathies confirmed hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease. This rare disease is a polyclonal lymphoproliferative disorder that affects the normal lymph node architecture. According to its location it can be divided in unicentric (localized) or multicentric disease; it can be further divided according to histopathology in hyaline-vascular or plasmatic cells variety. Clinical presentation relates more to histopathological variety than to centricity. Human herpes virus 8 is ubiquitous in this disease and, along with interleukin 6, plays an important role in pathogenesis and symptoms presentation. Surgery is the go-to treatment of localized disease, while systemic chemotherapy is the option in multicentric disease. Communication between the clinical and anatomopathological teams is crucial; lag in diagnosis can lead to futile investigations in search of other diseases and delay in treatment.

  1. [Acute phase reaction and immunocompetence in sepsis and SIRS].

    PubMed

    Burdon, Dan; Zabel, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of sepsis and SIRS, respectively is still rising. Mortality is 40 to 70% and, thus, remains very high in spite of major advances in intensive care medicine. Numerous experimental data have helped to explain isolated aspects of the pathophysiology of these disease states but the complex patho-mechanism remains to be elucidated. The discovery of the toll-like receptors and of the endotoxin-binding proteins LBP and BPI have substantially contributed to the understanding of the bacterial toxin-host interactions and may stimulate the development of new therapeutic strategies in the future. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a central role in disease evolution, however the concept of organ-derived and organ-specific damage is gaining importance. Both inflammation and counter-regulation can occur at the same time in the circulation thus, making the evaluation of the patients' immunological status difficult. Additionally, several gene polymorphisms have been detected for example within the toll-like receptor genes and TNF genes. These polymorphisms document the existence of pre-disposing factors, which influence acute phase reaction as well as immuno-competence in sepsis. Both genes and gender will play an important role in the future to identify patients at risk and potentially, to design a specific and individualized immuno-therapies.

  2. Immunocompetent molecules and their response network in horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Horseshoe crab hemocyte selectively responds to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which depends critically on the proteolytic activity of the LPS-responsive serine protease zymogen factor C. In response to stimulation by LPS, the hemocyte secretes several kinds of immunocompetent proteins. The coagulation cascade triggered by LPS or beta-1,3-D-glucans (BDG) results in the formation of coagulin fibrils that are subsequently stabilized by transglutaminase (TGase)-dependent cross-linking. Invading pathogens are recognized and agglutinated by lectins and then killed by antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, LPS-triggered hemocyte exocytosis is enhanced by a feedback mechanism in which the antimicrobial peptides serve as endogenous mediators. Factor C also acts as an LPS-sensitive complement C3 convertase. In addition, a sub-cuticular epidermis-derived protein forms a TGase-stabilized mesh at sites of injury. Horseshoe crabs have a sophisticated innate immune response network that coordinately effects pathogen recognition and killing, prophenoloxidase activation, complement activation and TGase-dependent wound healing.

  3. Synchronous oral paracoccidioidomycosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Amorim Pellicioli, Ana Carolina; Neves-Silva, Rodrigo; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte

    2015-06-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and tuberculosis (TB) are chronic granulomatous infectious diseases, in which the main form of contraction is through inhalation of the microorganism-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Oral involvement of PCM is observed in up to 70 % of the cases and usually presents clinically as ulcerations with granular surface showing tiny hemorrhagic areas. Oral presentation of TB is rare with prevalence smaller than 0.5 % of all cases. Clinical presentation of oral TB mainly consists of single ulcers with irregular limits and necrotic base. A 70-year-old immunocompetent man presented simultaneously oral PCM and pulmonary TB. Medical history revealed a previous diagnosis of pulmonary TB; however, even under treatment for TB, the patient remained with oral lesions and intense pulmonary fibrosis. The physician requested P. brasiliensis serological analysis, which resulted positive. Although the combination of PCM and TB has been reported in the literature, it is still considered an uncommon condition and their diagnosis may represent a challenge to healthcare professionals because of the similarity between their clinical and radiological presentations.

  4. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host. PMID:27506800

  5. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-08-23

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host.

  6. [Infectious cellulitis and Shewanella alga septicemia in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Clément, L-F; Gallet, C; Perron, J; Lesueur, A

    2004-12-01

    Shewanella alga is a Gram-negative bacilla often found in water or soil. Clinical infections in humans are rare, with serious infections described generally in immunocompromised hosts. A 66 year-old man with a heel wound had developed, after numerous sea baths in the Atlantic ocean (Oleron island, France), an infectious cellulitis of the leg with Shewanella alga septicemia. Despite the absence of immunodeficiency in this patient, infectious cellulitis and septicemia occurred via a wound to the skin and contact with sea water. Healing was seen after treatment with cefotaxime, ciprofoxacin and gentamicin IV, relayed with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. Shewanella alga was also susceptible to ticarcillin, piperacillin and ceftazidime but was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicilline-clavulanate, colistin, cyclines, fosfomycin and cefsulodin. No immunological anomaly was found. We report a case of infectious cellulitis with Shewanella alga septicemia. This has not previously been described in an immunocompetent patient. Antibiotic therapy must be longer than usual treatment for streptococcal erysipelas and first-line antibiotherapy with ampicillin alone may not be sufficient.

  7. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in a HIV Negative, Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease most common in immunodeficient patients. It occurs due to reactivation of the John Cunningham Virus (JCV) and carries a poor prognosis, with a median life expectancy of 6 months. We report a case of a 66-year-old man with a history of HCV related cirrhosis (HCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who was found to have PML in the setting of a negative viral load in the CSF and a CD4+ >200. He initially presented with two weeks of mild confusion and word-finding difficulty concerning for hepatic encephalopathy. An MRI was notable for extensive T2/FLAIR hyperintensity signal in the left temporal lobe. Brain biopsy was positive for JCV. PML is rare in immunocompetent individuals, especially in the setting of a negative viral load. It is possible, however, that transient states of immunosuppression may have been responsible in this case. Although viral load was reported as negative, virus may still have been detected but was below the quantifiable threshold. It is important for clinicians to note that a negative result does not necessarily exclude the possibility of PML, and care should be taken to review lab values on viral load in closer detail. PMID:27529042

  8. Chronic invasive sinus aspergillosis in immunocompetent hosts: a geographic comparison.

    PubMed

    Webb, Brandon J; Vikram, Holenarasipur R

    2010-12-01

    To investigate potential differences in clinical presentation, histopathology, and outcomes of chronic invasive sinus aspergillosis (CISA) based on geographic region and species of Aspergillus isolated. A retrospective analysis of published cases of CISA with a comparison of North American and worldwide cases comprised a systematic search of the English language literature. Thirty-four articles were identified detailing 15 North American and 76 global cases of CISA with cranio-cerebral extension in clinically immunocompetent patients. North American patients with CISA were older, had a more rapidly progressive course, and appeared to have higher rates of treatment failure and mortality. Anatomic distribution and presenting symptoms were similar between the two groups. North American cases were mostly due to A. fumigatus, while A. flavus was the predominant pathogen worldwide. While granulomatous inflammation was a rare observation in North American cases, it was seen in the majority of cases worldwide. CISA due to A. fumigatus was encountered in older adults, was associated with a chronic inflammatory response, an accelerated clinical course, and a trend toward treatment failure and higher mortality. Patients with A. flavus were younger, demonstrated granulomatous inflammation, and pursued an indolent, clinically responsive course. Observed differences in clinical presentation, histopathology, and outcome might involve a complex interplay between the human host, Aspergillus species, and local climatic conditions.

  9. Relative immunocompetence of the newborn harbour seal, Phoca vitulina.

    PubMed

    Ross, P S; de Swart, R L; Visser, I K; Vedder, L J; Murk, W; Bowen, W D; Osterhaus, A D

    1994-09-01

    The immune system of many mammalian species is not fully developed at birth, with newborns obtaining temporary immunological protection from maternal antibodies. Little is known of the immune system of the harbour seal, and developmental aspects of its immune system have not been systematically studied. We collected blood and milk samples from nine free-ranging mother-pup pairs throughout the lactation period on Sable Island, Canada, in an effort to characterise developmental aspects of the immune system of this newborn pinniped. Pup lymphocytes responded stronger to the mitogens concanavalin A, phytohaemagglutinin, and pokeweed mitogen than the lymphocytes of their mothers. In contrast to newborn cats and dogs, newborn seal pups developed high specific antibody responses after immunisation with an inactivated rabies vaccine. Circulating levels of total IgG in newborn pups were low (3% of maternal levels), but increased rapidly after colostrum intake (to 65% of maternal levels after 15 days). A similar pattern of increase in pup serum was observed for phocine distemper virus specific antibodies which had been detected in the serum and milk of mothers, suggesting that the transfer of colostral antibodies is an important feature of temporary protection for the pup. We speculate that the relative immunocompetence of the harbour seal at birth reflects an adaptation to its relatively short nursing period and limited maternal care.

  10. Majocchi's granuloma of the face in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Gill, Meenu; Sachdeva, Bhavna; Gill, Paramjeet S; Arora, Brijbala; Deep, Antariksh; Karan, Jai

    2007-10-01

    Majocchi's granuloma is a condition with chronic erythematous and indurated plaques that is a result of the rupture of a dermatophyte-infected infundibulum as a result of trauma. It is frequently seen on the anterior aspect of the legs of women. Herein, we present a case of Majocchi's granuloma of face, a site rarely involved, in an immunocompetent patient. Diagnosis was confirmed by histological and mycological examination. Histological examination revealed hyphae and arthrospores in the hair follicles and in the dermis with a diffuse dermal infiltrate consisting of lymphoplasmacytic cells, and focal collections of epithelioid cells, neutrophils and mild interstitial edema. Mycological examination confirmed the presence of fungus, Trichophyton rubrum, and the diagnosis of Majocchi's granuloma of the face was made. No concrete predisposing factor was found to be associated with the occurrence of the lesions on the face. However, the history of prolonged veiling of the face by a cloth by the patient, perhaps contributing to the occurrence of lesions on face, is a point of dubious significance.

  11. Immunopathological assessments of human Blastocystis spp. in experimentally infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Abdelgelil, Noha H; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Kamal, Amany M; Hassanin, Kamel M A; Abdel-Razik, Abdel-Razik H; Abdel-Raheem, Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    Blastocystis spp., one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. The host's immune response against Blastocystis spp. infection has also not been defined yet. Therefore, this research aimed to assess the potential pathogenicity of this parasite and its ability to modulate the immune response in experimental infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice. These results demonstrated that the infected immunosuppressed mice were more affected than infected immunocompetent mice. Histopathological examination of the small intestine in the infected immunosuppressed mice showed that Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the layers. Moreover, the epithelia showed exfoliation and inflammatory cell infiltration in submucosa compared to that of the infected immunocompetent mice. As well, examination of the large intestine of the infected immunosuppressed group showed severe goblet cell hyperplasia. Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the large intestine layers compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group. Furthermore, there was a significant upregulation of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infected immunosuppressed mice compared to that of the infected immunocompetent ones (p ≤ 0.004 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). However, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) was significantly downregulated in the infected immunosuppressed group compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group one at 10 days postinfection (p ≤ 0.002 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). The results of this study revealed that Blastocystis spp. affected the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both groups of mice compared to healthy normal (naive) group. Additionally, these data showed that there was a significant upregulation (p ≤ 0.005) of the locally

  12. Giant molluscum contagiosum presenting as lid neoplasm in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Shahid; Shrirao, Neha

    2016-01-15

    A three-year-old boy presented to our oculoplastic clinic with complaints of painless gradually increasing right upper lid mass for the last 6 months. On examination a firm mass measuring roughly 1x1 cm was present on the upper lid. The mass was non tender with fine superficial vessels running over it. A differential diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, vascular malformation, pilomatrixoma, and juvenile xanthogranuloma was considered. The patient underwent excisional biopsy of the mass. On gross examination the mass had a brain like appearance. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum. It is rare for molluscum contagiosum to present as a solitary lid tumor. A brain like appearance of the excised mass can provide a clue towards the diagnosis.

  13. Cat-scratch disease presenting as a solitary splenic abscess in an immunocompetent adult: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Papadomichelakis, Alexandros; Petrakis, Georgios; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a common zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is generally characterized by regional lymphadenopathy following exposure to an infected cat. Organ systemic manifestations occur rarely in atypical forms of the disease. Abscess of the spleen represents a rare, life-threatening clinical entity. Here we report an unusual case of cat scratch disease presenting as an isolated splenic abscess in an immunocompetent adult. Comprehensive social history revealed retrospectively close contact with cats. Diagnosis of B. henselae infection was confirmed on the basis of positive serology, skin lesion and imaging findings. Initial efforts at spleen preserving management failed to improve clinical symptoms and classical splenectomy was finally performed. Splenic bartonellosis may become potentially fatal if not recognized. Since diagnosis is challenging, a high index of clinical suspicion is required.

  14. Disseminated cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis by M. chelonae after sclerotherapy of varicose veins in a immunocompetent patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Murback, Nathalia Dias Negrão; Higa Júnior, Minoru German; Pompílio, Maurício Antônio; Cury, Eunice Stella Jardim; Hans Filho, Gunter; Takita, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Atypical mycobacteria are saprophytic organisms not transmitted from person to person, which affect mainly immunosuppressed but also immunocompetent individuals. We present a case of atypical mycobacteriosis after a vascular procedure, with widespread cutaneous lesions associated with polyarthralgia. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The patient showed improvement after treatment with three antibiotics. Mycobacterium chelonae causes skin lesions after invasive procedures. The clinical form depends on the immune state of the host and on the entry points. The diagnosis is based essentially on culture and the mycobacteria is identified by PCR. We highlight the importance of investigating atypical mycobacteriosis when faced with granulomatous lesions associated with a history of invasive procedures.

  15. Anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies are a risk factor for central nervous system infection by Cryptococcus gattii in otherwise immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Tomomi; Chen, Jianghan; Chen, Sharon C-A; Rosen, Lindsey B; Yi, Jin; Sorrell, Tania C; Bennett, John E; Holland, Steven M; Browne, Sarah K; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

    2014-03-18

    Cryptococcosis is caused by either Cryptococcus neoformans or C. gattii. While cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is caused mostly by C. neoformans in immunocompromised patients, the risk factors remain unclear for patients with no known immune defect. Recently, anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies were detected in the plasma of seven "immunocompetent" cryptococcosis patients, and the cryptococcal strains from these patients were reported as C. neoformans (three strains), C. gattii (one strain), and Cryptococcus (three strains not identified to the species level). We identified all three strains that had not been identified to the species level as C. gattii. Notably, the three strains that were reported as C. neoformans but were unavailable for species confirmation originated from Sothern California and Thailand where C. gattii is endemic. Most clinical laboratories designate C. neoformans without distinguishing between the two species; hence, these three strains could have been C. gattii. Since C. gattii infects more immunocompetent patients than C. neoformans, we pursued the possibility that this antibody may be more prevalent in patients infected with C. gattii than in those infected with C. neoformans. We screened the plasma of 20 healthy controls and 30 "immunocompetent" patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis from China and Australia (multiple ethnicities). Anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies were detected only in the plasma of seven patients infected by C. gattii and one healthy volunteer and in none infected by C. neoformans. While plasma from these C. gattii patients completely prevented GM-CSF-induced p-STAT5 in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma from one healthy volunteer positive for anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies caused only partial blockage. Our results suggest that anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies may predispose otherwise immunocompetent individuals to meningoencephalitis caused by C. gattii but

  16. Presentation and Outcome of Castleman's Disease in Immunocompetent Hosts.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gaurav; Bal, Amanjeet; Malhotra, Pankaj; Aggarwal, Vaishali; Khadwal, Alka; Suri, Vikas; Jain, Sanjay; Kumari, Savita; Srinivasan, Radhika; Das, Ashim; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash

    2016-12-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is a heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown aetiology. Mostly, this disorder is seen in immunocompromised hosts. It is known to be associated with systemic disorders like HIV, HHV-8, lymphoma, and Kaposi sarcoma. As of today, the clinical behaviour and outcome of CD in immunocompetent host remains suboptimally studied. We analyzed consecutively treated cases of CD presented to our centre in last 12 years. Case record files were studied for patient's characteristics, clinical presentation, baseline laboratory and pathologic parameters, therapy and outcome. This study describes presentation and treatment outcome of CD in immunocompetent patients. Total 16 patients of CD were treated during the study period. The median age of patients at the time of presentation was 40.5 years (range 13-72 years). An equal number of patients (8 each) had unicentric and multicentric CD. Sixty-three percent patients had hyaline vascular subtype while 37 % patients had plasma cell or mixed variant. Majority of the patients had good performance status (ECOG PS 0, 1 in 10 (62.5 %) patients; PS2-4 in 6 (37.5 %) patients). The median duration of symptoms was 6 months (range 2-36 months). None of the patients in our study had associated HIV infection. Six patients presented with fever, out of which four had plasma cell variant of CD and three of them had multicentric involvement. In comparison to unicentric CD, patients with multicentric CD had lower albumin levels (4.15 vs. 3.38 g/dl, p = 0.006), haemoglobin levels (11.3 vs. 9.8, p = 0.06), and lower complete remission rates (62.5 % vs. none). Patients were treated according to the stage and clinical status with surgery, chemotherapy or combination of both modalities. Surgery was the predominant treatment for unicentric CD while multicentric CD was treated with various chemotherapy regimens. Eight patients were treated with chemotherapy (CHOP-based regimen-5, melphalan

  17. Adaptation and immunogenicity of Cryptosporidium parvum to immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomohide; Tsuge, Yasuko; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Fujino, Takashi; Matsui, Toshihiro

    2014-03-01

    The adaptation and immunogenisity of Cryptosporidium parvum isolated from Siberian chipmunks (SC1 strain) in immunocompetent (ICR) mice were examined. The oocysts were received to the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice by repeated passage. The oocysts collected from the 18th SCID mice were inoculated to 5 ICR mice. The mice began to shed oocysts from 6 days after inoculation, the patency was 5 days, and the maximum oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) value was 10(4). The maximum of OPG value was gradually increased by successive passage, and finally that in the 22nd mice reached 10(6) (patency: 11 days). It is considered that these results indicate completion of their adaptation to ICR mice. To examine the immunogenicity of C. parvum to ICR mice, 8 groups of 5 mice each were inoculated with 1.3 × 10(6) oocysts of SC1 strain, which were collected after adaptation to SCID mice. All groups shed oocysts from 6th day, and their patency was from 8 to 12 days. On the 21st day after the primary infection, these mice were challenged with 1.3 × 10(6) oocysts. No oocysts shed from any groups, although 2 control groups shed oocysts from the 6th day, and their OPG values were more than 10(6). These results suggest that this strain has strong immunogenicity against ICR mice. Therefore, the immunological healthy mice were considered a useful experimental model to investigate immunological and drug treatments in the strain of C. parvum.

  18. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that {beta}-endorphin 1-31 ({beta}-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca{sup 2+} uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that {beta}-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} uptake was not affected by {beta}-END 1-31. {beta}-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca{sup 2+} uptake by either cell type. Using ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, {beta}-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E{sub 1} (PGE{sub 1}) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. {beta}-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by {beta}-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca{sup 2+} influx was not a major mechanism involved.

  19. Concomitant Mycobacterium avium infection and Hodgkin's disease in a lymph node from an HIV-negative child.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Yaxsier; Capó, Virginia; González, Ida; Mederos, Lilian; Díaz, Raúl; de Waard, Jacobus H; Rodríguez, Alberto; García, Yarmila; Cabanas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of an immunocompetent child with simultaneously an infection with Mycobacterium avium and Hodgkin's disease in a cervical lymph node. A positive PCR result for M. avium on a biopsy of the lymph node directed the definitive diagnosis for both etiologies and avoided a possible dissemination of this infection after chemotherapy was started.

  20. Cytomegalovirus enteritis in immunocompetent subjects: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Karigane, Daiki; Takaya, Saho; Seki, Yuki; Mastumoto, Yuka; Onose, Akira; Kosakai, Arifumi; Sugaya, Norio; Mori, Takehiko

    2014-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis (or colitis) is generally diagnosed in immunocompromised patients in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection as well as in recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. CMV enteritis has been reported only sporadically in immunocompetent individuals. We encountered a 76-year-old woman who developed CMV enteritis without any previously identified immunocompromised states. An extensive literature review of 33 cases of CMV enteritis or colitis diagnosed in immunocompetent individuals, including the present case, revealed that the median age of the patients was 68, the accompanying symptoms were diarrhea (76%), abdominal pain (52%), and hematochezia or melena (27%), and that the outcome was generally favorable, including resolution without any treatment in 24% of the patients. CMV enteritis should be recognized more widely as a disease entity not only in immunocompromised patients but also in immunocompetent individuals, especially in elderly populations.

  1. Acute Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Host as a Reason for Upper Right Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kai Oliver; Angst, Eliane; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich; Gingert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infections are widely distributed with a seroprevalence of up to 100%. The majority of the cases take a silent course or deal with unspecific clinical symptoms. Complications in immunocompetent patients are rare but may affect the liver and lead up to an acute organ failure. In this case report, we describe a 35-year-old immunocompetent female with an acute cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute hepatitis with ongoing upper right abdominal pain after cholecystectomy. Upper right abdominal pain is a common symptom with a wide range of differential diagnoses. If common reasons can be excluded, we want to sensitize for cytomegalovirus infection as a minor differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27403100

  2. Paecilomyces lilacinus causing debilitating sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gentle; Nash, Robert; Barai, Kushal; Rathod, Raksha; Singh, Arvind

    2012-03-26

    Since the discovery of the first documented case of Paecilomyces in 1963, only five cases of Paecilomyces sinusitis have been described to date and all of them have predisposing factors such as immunocompromised status or prior nasal surgery. We present the first case of Paecilomyces lilacinus sinusitis in a fit young woman with no identified predisposing factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known case in the UK and in Europe. A 20-year-old Iraqi woman who has lived in the UK for the past five years presented with rhinorrhea, hyposmia, and nasal obstruction. She was previously fit and well and had no significant medical history. Imaging revealed a fungal infection that was eventually revealed on cytological examination to be P. lilacinus. P. lilacinus is both a difficult and important organism to identify because it has intrinsic anti-fungal resistance. In our case, the infection was severe and recurrent, and the organism demonstrated resistance to common oral anti-fungal agents. There was a delay in its diagnosis, owing to its similarity in appearance to Penicillium and a difficulty in distinguishing between the two without specialized knowledge of fungal taxonomy. In the field of otolaryngology, Paecilomyces is relatively unknown. Our intention is to raise awareness of this organism as well as to describe the challenges in its management.

  3. Paecilomyces lilacinus causing debilitating sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Since the discovery of the first documented case of Paecilomyces in 1963, only five cases of Paecilomyces sinusitis have been described to date and all of them have predisposing factors such as immunocompromised status or prior nasal surgery. We present the first case of Paecilomyces lilacinus sinusitis in a fit young woman with no identified predisposing factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known case in the UK and in Europe. Case presentation A 20-year-old Iraqi woman who has lived in the UK for the past five years presented with rhinorrhea, hyposmia, and nasal obstruction. She was previously fit and well and had no significant medical history. Imaging revealed a fungal infection that was eventually revealed on cytological examination to be P. lilacinus. Conclusions P. lilacinus is both a difficult and important organism to identify because it has intrinsic anti-fungal resistance. In our case, the infection was severe and recurrent, and the organism demonstrated resistance to common oral anti-fungal agents. There was a delay in its diagnosis, owing to its similarity in appearance to Penicillium and a difficulty in distinguishing between the two without specialized knowledge of fungal taxonomy. In the field of otolaryngology, Paecilomyces is relatively unknown. Our intention is to raise awareness of this organism as well as to describe the challenges in its management. PMID:22443718

  4. Investigation of Spa Pools Associated with Lung Disorders Caused by Mycobacterium avium Complex in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lumb, Richard; Stapledon, Richard; Scroop, Andrew; Bond, Peter; Cunliffe, David; Goodwin, Allan; Doyle, Robyn; Bastian, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Three cases of Mycobacterium avium complex-related lung disorders were associated with two poorly maintained spa pools by genotypic investigations. Inadequate disinfection of the two spas had reduced the load of environmental bacteria to less than 1 CFU/ml but allowed levels of M. avium complex of 4.3 × 104 and 4.5 × 103 CFU/ml. Persistence of the disease-associated genotype was demonstrated in one spa pool for over 5 months until repeated treatments with greater than 10 mg of chlorine per liter for 1-h intervals eliminated M. avium complex from the spa pool. A fourth case of Mycobacterium avium complex-related lung disease was associated epidemiologically but not genotypically with another spa pool that had had no maintenance undertaken. This spa pool contained low numbers of mycobacteria by smear and was culture positive for M. avium complex, and the nonmycobacterial organism count was 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml. Public awareness about the proper maintenance of private (residential) spa pools must be promoted by health departments in partnership with spa pool retailers. PMID:15294830

  5. A Case of Healthcare Associated Pneumonia Caused by Chryseobacterium indologenes in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Nemli, Salih Atakan; Demirdal, Tuna; Ural, Serap

    2015-01-01

    Chryseobacterium indologenes is nonmotile, oxidase, and indole positive Gram-negative aerobic bacilli which is widely found in plants, soil, foodstuffs, and water. It can colonize hospital environment due to ability to survive in chlorine-treated water supplies. Chryseobacteria can also colonize patients via contaminated medical devices such as respirators, intubation tubes, humidifiers, intravascular catheters, and prosthetic valves. Immune suppression, comorbidities, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and extreme age are other important risk factors for Chryseobacterium infections. We report a case of an 82-year-old male admitted to our hospital with the complaint of altered mental status with history of trauma, and recent orthopedic and neurosurgery operations. He was transferred to neurosurgery intensive care unit due to respiratory failure. Urine culture yielded extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) (+). E. coli and C. indologenes were isolated from transtracheal aspirate. He was treated with ertapenem, and levofloxacin and discharged with full recovery. PMID:25628903

  6. Fusobacterium necrophorum: a rare cause of hepatic abscess in an immunocompetent individual.

    PubMed

    Fatakhov, Eduard; Patel, Maharsh K; Santha, Savini; Koch, Christopher F

    2013-08-20

    In the present case a 30-year-old African American man was admitted with fever and chills secondary to two large hepatic abscesses diagnosed on an ultrasound. The patient was started on antibiotics after blood cultures were drawn. Initially the abscess was drained and showed dramatic improvement upon repeat imaging. The blood cultures revealed Gram-negative rods that were identified as Fusobacterium necrophorum. At that time the patient was switched to levofloxacin and metronidazole based on sensitivities. On this new antibiotic regime the patient improved dramatically. After just 5 days the patient was discharged home on oral antibiotics and was scheduled to follow-up in 1 week. In the present case we present a healthy 30-year-old man with no significant co-morbidities who developed a hepatic abscess from F necrophorum but successfully recovered after appropriate antibiotic treatment.

  7. Fusobacterium necrophorum: a rare cause of hepatic abscess in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Fatakhov, Eduard; Patel, Maharsh K; Santha, Savini; Koch, Christopher F

    2013-01-01

    In the present case a 30-year-old African American man was admitted with fever and chills secondary to two large hepatic abscesses diagnosed on an ultrasound. The patient was started on antibiotics after blood cultures were drawn. Initially the abscess was drained and showed dramatic improvement upon repeat imaging. The blood cultures revealed Gram-negative rods that were identified as Fusobacterium necrophorum. At that time the patient was switched to levofloxacin and metronidazole based on sensitivities. On this new antibiotic regime the patient improved dramatically. After just 5 days the patient was discharged home on oral antibiotics and was scheduled to follow-up in 1 week. In the present case we present a healthy 30-year-old man with no significant co-morbidities who developed a hepatic abscess from F necrophorum but successfully recovered after appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:23964050

  8. A Case of Healthcare Associated Pneumonia Caused by Chryseobacterium indologenes in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Nemli, Salih Atakan; Demirdal, Tuna; Ural, Serap

    2015-01-01

    Chryseobacterium indologenes is nonmotile, oxidase, and indole positive Gram-negative aerobic bacilli which is widely found in plants, soil, foodstuffs, and water. It can colonize hospital environment due to ability to survive in chlorine-treated water supplies. Chryseobacteria can also colonize patients via contaminated medical devices such as respirators, intubation tubes, humidifiers, intravascular catheters, and prosthetic valves. Immune suppression, comorbidities, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and extreme age are other important risk factors for Chryseobacterium infections. We report a case of an 82-year-old male admitted to our hospital with the complaint of altered mental status with history of trauma, and recent orthopedic and neurosurgery operations. He was transferred to neurosurgery intensive care unit due to respiratory failure. Urine culture yielded extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) (+). E. coli and C. indologenes were isolated from transtracheal aspirate. He was treated with ertapenem, and levofloxacin and discharged with full recovery.

  9. Severe steroid-resistant thrombocytopenia secondary to cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Takashi; Kubota, Yasushi; Wakayama, Kazuo; Kimura, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia secondary to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is rare in immunocompetent hosts. We describe a case of severe thrombocytopenia secondary to CMV infection in an immunocompetent 30-year-old man who presented with pyrexia and bleeding tendency. A diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was made following hematological and serological testing, and bone marrow aspiration. Acute CMV infection was confirmed by serological testing, antigenemia, and detection of CMV-DNA. Corticosteroid therapy was ineffective and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was therefore administered. This resulted in immediate recovery of the platelet count and cessation of nasal bleeding. Early IVIG administration should be considered in steroid-resistant cases.

  10. Otomycosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: comparative study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Viswanatha, Borlingegowda; Sumatha, Dadarao; Vijayashree, Maliyappanahalli Siddappa

    2012-03-01

    A comparative clinical study was carried out that included 50 cases of otomycosis in immunocompetent patients and 50 cases of otomycosis in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation, predisposing factors, mycologic profile, and treatment outcomes were compared. Aspergillus spp were the most commonly isolated fungi in the immunocompetent group, and Candida albicans in the immunocompromised group. Bilateral involvement was more common in the immunocompromised group. All the patients were treated with topical clotrimazole ear drops. Four patients in the immunocompromised group did not respond to treatment with clotrimazole but were treated successfully with fluconazole ear drops. Three patients had a small tympanic membrane perforation due to otomycosis.

  11. Quantitative analysis of α-L-iduronidase expression in immunocompetent mice treated with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system.

    PubMed

    Aronovich, Elena L; Hall, Bryan C; Bell, Jason B; McIvor, R Scott; Hackett, Perry B

    2013-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon system, a non-viral, integrating vector that can deliver the alpha-L-iduronidase-encoding gene, is efficient in correcting mucopolysaccharidosis type I in NOD/SCID mice. However, in previous studies we failed to attain reliable long-term alpha-L-iduronidase expression in immunocompetent mice. Here, we focused on achieving sustained high-level expression in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. In our standard liver-directed treatment we hydrodynamically infuse mice with plasmids containing a SB transposon-encoding human alpha-L-iduronidase, along with a source of SB transposase. We sought to 1) minimize expression of the therapeutic enzyme in antigen-presenting cells, while avoiding promoter shutdown and gender bias, 2) increase transposition efficiency and 3) improve immunosuppression. By using a liver-specific promoter to drive IDUA expression, the SB100X hyperactive transposase and transient cyclophosphamide immunosuppression we achieved therapeutic-level (>100 wild-type) stabilized expression for 1 year in 50% of C57BL/6 mice. To gain insights into the causes of variability in transgene expression, we quantified the rates of alpha-L-iduronidase activity decay vis-a-vis transposition and transgene maintenance using the data obtained in this and previous studies. Our analyses showed that immune responses are the most important variable to control in order to prevent loss of transgene expression. Cumulatively, our results allow transition to pre-clinical studies of SB-mediated alpha-L-iduronidase expression and correction of mucopolysaccharidosis type I in animal models.

  12. Differences in the peritumoural inflammatory skin infiltrate between squamous cell carcinomas in organ transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Krynitz, Britta; Lundh Rozell, Barbro; Lindelöf, Bernt

    2010-07-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTR) have a greatly increased risk (up to 100 times) of developing squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the skin. This is attributed specifically to chronic immunosuppression, causing dysfunctional viral defence and tumour protection. To investigate the possible link between increasing risk of SCCs and type of inflammation in these tumour-prone patients, we analysed the peritumoural infiltrates with regard to cell types and densities. Seven SCCs from immunosuppressed OTR and 14 SCCs from immunocompetent patients were immun-histochemically stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, CD20, CD138, CD14, CD68, CD1a. Cell counts were performed with the aid of computer-based image analysis of > 100,000 cells. When comparing the percentage distributions, significant differences were detected (outlined as median values (min-max)): T cells (CD3+): OTR 57% (35-78), controls 68% (48-80), p = 0.036; plasma cells (CD138+): OTR 2% (0.7-7), controls 0.2% (0-1.2), p = 0.001; mono-cytes (CD14+): OTR 3.2% (1.1-5.6), controls 9.3% (2.2-17.2), p = 0.014. Surprisingly, no differences in cell densities, i.e. cells/mm2 tumour section area, were detected between the 2 groups. In conclusion, we found that the peritumoural infiltrates in immunosuppressed compared with immunocompetent patients differ in cellular composition, inferring a more tumour-submissive environment in OTR. However, cellular densities were equal, suggesting deviating cellular functionality in OTR.

  13. Sigmoid Colectomy for Acute Diverticulitis in Immunosuppressed vs Immunocompetent Patients: Outcomes From the ACS-NSQIP Database.

    PubMed

    Al-Khamis, Ahmed; Abou Khalil, Jad; Demian, Marie; Morin, Nancy; Vasilevsky, Carol-Ann; Gordon, Philip H; Boutros, Marylise

    2016-02-01

    The management of acute diverticulitis in immunosuppressed patients is increasingly debated. The appropriate timing and type of operation remains controversial. This study examines the impact of immunosuppression on mortality and morbidity following colectomies for diverticulitis in the emergency and elective settings. With the use of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, the outcomes of immunosuppressed compared with immunocompetent patients who underwent colectomy for acute diverticulitis were compared. The multi-institutional database was queried for patients who underwent colectomy for acute diverticulitis from 2005 to 2012. The impact of immunosuppression on mortality, major morbidity, organ space infection, infectious complications, and wound dehiscence was assessed. Of 26,987 patients, 1332 were immunosuppressed and 25,655 were immunocompetent; 4271 patients had emergency (596 immunosuppressed and 3675 immunocompetent) and 22,716 patients had elective (736 immunosuppressed and 21,980 immunocompetent) colectomies for diverticulitis. In both groups, mortality and major morbidity were significantly higher in the emergency (immunosuppressed 16% and 45%, immunocompetent 4% and 28%) compared with the elective setting (immunosuppressed 2% and 25%, immunocompetent 0.4% and 12%), p < 0.001. On multivariate regression for the emergency setting, immunosuppression significantly increased mortality (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.17-2.75) and did not significantly increase morbidity. On multivariate regression for the elective setting, mortality was similar in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent groups; however, major morbidity (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.17-1.83) and wound dehiscence (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.63-4.42) were significantly increased in immunosuppressed compared with immunocompetent patients. The retrospective design and standardized outcomes are based on heterogeneous data. Emergency colectomy for diverticulitis is associated

  14. [The first case of persistent vaginitis due to Aspergillus protuberus in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Borsa, Barış Ata; Özgün, Gonca; Houbraken, Jos; Ökmen, Fırat

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of vaginal fungal infections are caused by Candida species. However, vaginitis cases caused by molds are extremely rare. Aspergillus protuberus is previously known as a member of Aspergillus section Versicolores which can cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, however it has recently been described as a seperate species. Although the members of Aspergillus section Versicolores have been isolated rarely in cases of pulmonary infections, eye infections, otomycosis, osteomyelitis and onycomycoses, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published case of human infection caused by A.protuberus. In this report, the first case of persistent vaginitis due to A.protuberus in an immunocompetent patient was presented. A 42-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of pelvic pain, vaginal itching and discharge during one month. Her symptoms had been persistant despite of the miconazole nitrate and clotrimazole therapies for probable candidal vaginitis. Fungal structures such as branched, septate hyphae together with the conidial forms were seen in microscopic examination as in the cervical smear. Thereafter, a vaginal discharge sample was taken for microbiological evaluation and similar characteristics of fungal structures were observed in the microscopic examination as of cervical smear. Then, preliminary result was reported as Aspergillus spp. At the same time, the sample was plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) in duplicate and incubated at room temperature and at 37°C. After 5 days, white, powdery and pure-looking fungal colonies were observed in SDA which was incubated at room temperature, while the other medium remained sterile. The culture was submitted to the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Center for further characterization. Phenotypic identification showed that the isolated strain belonged to the Aspergillus section Versicolores. The strain was grown for 7 days on malt extract agar and then

  15. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  16. Attributions of Stability, Control and Responsibility: How Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities View Their Child's Problematic Behaviour and Its Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Hunter, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities have high rates of behaviour problems. This study explored parents' causal beliefs and attributions for general problematic child behaviour in children with different aetiologies of intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Ten parents of children with intellectual disabilities…

  17. Catheter-Related Bacteremia Caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Refractory to Antibiotic-Lock Therapy in a Hemophilic Child with Dog Exposure▿

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chia-Yunn; Yang, Yung-Li; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Ping-Ing

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a child with dog exposure. The organism was confirmed as S. pseudintermedius based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and positive PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the pta gene. PMID:20164279

  18. Attributions of Stability, Control and Responsibility: How Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities View Their Child's Problematic Behaviour and Its Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Hunter, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities have high rates of behaviour problems. This study explored parents' causal beliefs and attributions for general problematic child behaviour in children with different aetiologies of intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Ten parents of children with intellectual disabilities…

  19. Learner Pregnancy--Perceptions on Its Prevalence and the Child Support Grant (CSG) Being the Possible Cause in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naong, Matsidiso Nehemia

    2011-01-01

    Learner pregnancy has recently become a thorn in the flesh for most schools in South Africa, and documentary evidence shows that its prevalence is greater amongst Black public schools than White schools. Within its discourse, more often than not, the Child Support Grant (CSG) has featured prominently in the perceived increase in the pregnancy rate…

  20. Learner Pregnancy--Perceptions on Its Prevalence and the Child Support Grant (CSG) Being the Possible Cause in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naong, Matsidiso Nehemia

    2011-01-01

    Learner pregnancy has recently become a thorn in the flesh for most schools in South Africa, and documentary evidence shows that its prevalence is greater amongst Black public schools than White schools. Within its discourse, more often than not, the Child Support Grant (CSG) has featured prominently in the perceived increase in the pregnancy rate…

  1. Borrelia persica Infection in Immunocompetent Mice - A New Tool to Study the Infection Kinetics In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Overzier, Evelyn; Hermanns, Walter; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K.

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia persica, a bacterium transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian peninsula. Immunocompetent C3H/HeOuJ mice were infected intradermally with B. persica at varying doses: 1 x 106, 1 x 104, 1 x 102 and 4 x 100 spirochetes/mouse. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of B. persica DNA. Spirochetes were detected in all mice infected with 1 x 106, 1 x 104 and 1 x 102 borrelia by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene of the bacterium. Spirochetemia developed with a one- to two-day delay when 1 x 104 and 1 x 102 borrelia were inoculated. Mice injected with only four organisms were negative in all tests. No clinical signs were observed when infected mice were compared to negative control animals. Organs (heart, spleen, urinary bladder, tarsal joint, skin and brain) were tested for B. persica-specific DNA and cultured for the detection of viable spirochetes. Compiled data show that the target organs of B. persica infections are the brain and the skin. A newly developed serological two-tiered test system (ELISA and western blot) for the detection of murine IgM, IgG and IgA antibody titers against B. persica showed a vigorous antibody response of the mice during infection. In conclusion, the infection model described here for B. persica is a platform for in vivo studies to decipher the so far unexplored survival strategies of this Borrelia species. PMID:26890814

  2. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  3. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  4. Onycholysis and Chromonychia: A Case Caused by Trichosporon inkin

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Springall, María Fernanda; Arroyo-Escalante, Sara; Arenas, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Yeasts cause only 5-10% of onychomycosis; the most common yeast is Candida albicans, and rarely Trichosporon spp. is found. Recently, it has become an important cause of fungemia with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Superficial infections caused by Trichosporon spp., including piedra and onychomycosis, occur in immunocompetent patients. Herein, we report a case of a fungal nail infection characterized by onycholysis and chromonychia caused by Trichosporon inkin. PMID:27171745

  5. Tsukamurella infection: a rare cause of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Yatin B; Goswami, Raktima; Bhanot, Nitin; Mehta, Zankhana; Simonelli, Paul

    2011-06-01

    A 79-year-old Asian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Antimycobacterial therapy was initiated when sputum smears revealed acid fast bacilli. The patient was, however, diagnosed to have pneumonia secondary to Tsukamurella spp. This is an exceedingly rare cause of pneumonia, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies of Tsukamurella pneumonia are discussed with a literature review.

  6. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M; Lobo, Cheryl A; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M; Azcárate, Isabel G; Puente, Sabino; Montero, Estrella

    2016-10-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient.

  7. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M.; Lobo, Cheryl A.; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M.; Azcárate, Isabel G.; Puente, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:27560451

  8. Diffuse perforated necrotising amoebic colitis with histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual presenting as an acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Badyal, Rama Kumari; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim

    2013-06-27

    Perforated necrotising amoebic colitis associated with intestinal histoplasmosis has rarely been reported in an immunocompetent individual. Radiology and preoperative features are non-specific and requires histopathological examination for a definitive diagnosis. Hence, this condition needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of complicated infective colitis.

  9. Clinical Presentation of Herpes Zoster in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hospitalized Children Treated With Acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, Ernest; Szenborn, Leszek; Lis, Izabela; Jaroszewska, Anna; Czeladzka, Justyna

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster, defined as the reactivation of a latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, used to be a serious disease in immunocompromised children until recently. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of herpes zoster in hospitalized immunocompromised children compared with hospitalized immunocompetent counterparts. We reviewed the hospital charts of 72 children aged 6 months to 18 years diagnosed with herpes zoster and treated with acyclovir in our department covering a 19-year period. Forty-six of the children were immunocompromised which was mainly due to hematologic diseases. There were no differences in the age at which herpes zoster occurred, length of hospitalization, and the location or extent of the skin eruption. General symptoms were observed more frequently in the hospitalized immunocompetent patients compared with the hospitalized immunocompromised children (80% vs. 56%). The average age at which primary VZV infection occurred was higher among the immunocompromised children than the immunocompetent children with the latter group suffering from significantly more primary VZV infections during infancy. The presentation of herpes zoster in immunocompromised children is similar to that of herpes zoster in hospitalized immunocompetent children.

  10. Acquired Toxoplasmosis Presenting with a Brainstem Granuloma in an Immunocompetent Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Manwani, Nitin; Ravikumar, K; Viswanathan, V; Rao, Santosh Mohan; Mahadevan, Anita

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an uncommon disease in immunocompetent people. We report an adolescent boy with central nervous system toxoplasmosis who presented with progressive lower cranial nerve palsies and a ring-enhancing lesion on neuroimaging. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed on histopathology of the excised lesion. Toxoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of focal brain lesions irrespective of immune status.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic identification of Candida dubliniensis from subgingival sites in immunocompetent subjects in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Jewtuchowicz, V M; Mujica, M T; Brusca, M I; Sordelli, N; Malzone, M C; Pola, S J; Iovannitti, C A; Rosa, A C

    2008-12-01

    It is generally recognized that Candida dubliniensis is commonly found in immunocompromised patients, such as those with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, at sites of periodontal disease. Since there are no data available for Argentina, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and to identify C. dubliniensis in periodontal pockets from immunocompetent subjects living in Buenos Aires, Argentina, through a comparison of phenotypic and molecular assays. Yeasts recovered from subgingival plaque samples were studied for 180 immunocompetent non-smoking patients with periodontal disease. Yeasts were identified by conventional mycological methods and by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility studies were performed in keeping with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Among 76 yeasts isolated, C. dubliniensis comprised 10.5% (n = 8; 95% confidence interval 4.7-19.7), which corresponded to 4.4% of patients studied (8/180). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species of yeast. A great majority of C. dubliniensis isolates was susceptible with only one isolate resistant to both antifungals. Micromorphology on Staib agar was the phenotypic method that was most concordant with PCR and it was useful for selecting presumptive C. dubliniensis. This is the first report to use PCR to identify C. dubliniensis in subgingival fluid from immunocompetent individuals with periodontal disease in Argentina. On the basis of the findings presented here, we confirm that C. dubliniensis can colonize periodontal pockets of immunocompetent patients with periodontal disease.

  12. Diffuse perforated necrotising amoebic colitis with histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual presenting as an acute abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Badyal, Rama Kumari; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Perforated necrotising amoebic colitis associated with intestinal histoplasmosis has rarely been reported in an immunocompetent individual. Radiology and preoperative features are non-specific and requires histopathological examination for a definitive diagnosis. Hence, this condition needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of complicated infective colitis. PMID:23814195

  13. Plasmablastic lymphoma exclusively involving bones mimicking osteosarcoma in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Azmal Kabir; Im, Hyung-Jun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It has been known that plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a neoplasm of immunocompromised patients occurring in soft tissue of oral cavity or in the vicinity whereas bone is an unlikely site to harbor PBL. However, its occurrence is increasingly being reported in immunocompetent individuals in either osseous or extra-oral sites. To our best knowledge, F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of PBL involving bones in an immunocompetent patient have not been reported, yet . Case summary: We report a case of PBL involving multiple bones in an immunocompetent patient. Features of different imaging modalities including F-18 Fluoro-deoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were correlated well as findings of osteosarcoma in mandible with metastatic lesions. However, the histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of bone tissues from 2 separate biopsy sites revealed features of PBL. Conclusion: awareness to F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of PBL involving bones in an immunocompetent patient may prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27428232

  14. Colonic involvement in disseminated histoplasmosis of an immunocompetent adult: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Biwei; Lu, Lixia; Li, Dajiang; Liu, Li; Huang, Libin; Chen, Liyu; Tang, Hong; Wang, Lichun

    2013-03-20

    Histoplasmosis is a common opportunistic fungal infection that is observed almost exclusively in immunodeficient patients, especially those with AIDS. Immunocompetent individuals that suffer from histoplasmosis are rarely reported, especially those with disseminated lesions, such as disseminated histoplasmosis. The observation of disseminated histoplasmosis with prominent gastrointestinal involvement, no respiratory symptoms (which is presumed to be the portal of infection), gastrointestinal pathological changes, and minor digestive system disorders make this case study exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 33-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with fever and weight loss. Based on investigations, the patient showed pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow involvement and marked colonic involvement. Finally, disseminated histoplasmosis was diagnosed and confirmed by stained smears of fine needle aspirates and biopsy from lesions in the bone marrow and colon. The patient showed appreciable regression of lesions following prompt treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate, and was treated thereafter with oral itraconazole following discharge from hospital. Disseminated histoplasmosis could be underestimated in immunocompetent patients. A high degree of clinical suspicion is essential in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, regardless of pulmonary symptoms, and whether in endemic or non-endemic areas. Early and accurate diagnosis is extremely important for the appropriate treatment of infection and to improve disease outcome.

  15. Colonic involvement in disseminated histoplasmosis of an immunocompetent adult: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histoplasmosis is a common opportunistic fungal infection that is observed almost exclusively in immunodeficient patients, especially those with AIDS. Immunocompetent individuals that suffer from histoplasmosis are rarely reported, especially those with disseminated lesions, such as disseminated histoplasmosis. The observation of disseminated histoplasmosis with prominent gastrointestinal involvement, no respiratory symptoms (which is presumed to be the portal of infection), gastrointestinal pathological changes, and minor digestive system disorders make this case study exceedingly rare. Case presentation We report the case of a 33-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with fever and weight loss. Based on investigations, the patient showed pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow involvement and marked colonic involvement. Finally, disseminated histoplasmosis was diagnosed and confirmed by stained smears of fine needle aspirates and biopsy from lesions in the bone marrow and colon. The patient showed appreciable regression of lesions following prompt treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate, and was treated thereafter with oral itraconazole following discharge from hospital. Conclusion Disseminated histoplasmosis could be underestimated in immunocompetent patients. A high degree of clinical suspicion is essential in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, regardless of pulmonary symptoms, and whether in endemic or non-endemic areas. Early and accurate diagnosis is extremely important for the appropriate treatment of infection and to improve disease outcome. PMID:23514617

  16. Successful treatment of larynx-tracheobronchial-pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Qu, W X; Feng, X W; Zhao, L

    2014-02-14

    Immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to pulmonary Aspergillus infections, whereas invasive Aspergillus infection is extremely rare in the presence of normal immunity. A case of larynx-tracheobronchial-pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent 57-year-old female host who was successfully treated with amphotericin-B and voriconazole is reported here.

  17. Prolonged fever and splinter hemorrhages in an immunocompetent traveler with disseminated histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Bitterman, Roni; Oren, Ilana; Geffen, Yuval; Sprecher, Hannah; Schwartz, Eli; Neuberger, Ami

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent traveler. Histoplasmosis was acquired in South America; its manifestations included prolonged fever, splinter hemorrhages, erythema multiforme, arthritis, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. To the best of our knowledge no splinter hemorrhages had previously been reported in a patient with histoplasmosis.

  18. Valacyclovir versus acyclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Alexander K; Harder, Björn C; Schlichtenbrede, Frank C; Jarczok, Marc N; Tesarz, Jonas

    2016-11-14

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus affects the eye and vision, and is caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus in the distribution of the first division of the trigeminal nerve. An aggressive management of acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus with systemic antiviral medication is generally recommended as the standard first-line treatment for herpes zoster ophthalmicus infections. Both acyclovir and its prodrug valacyclovir are medications that are approved for the systemic treatment of herpes zoster. Although it is known that valacyclovir has an improved bioavailability and steadier plasma concentration, it is currently unclear as to whether this leads to better treatment results and less ocular complications. To assess the effects of valacyclovir versus acyclovir for the systemic antiviral treatment of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in immunocompetent patients. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register; 2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2016), Embase (January 1980 to June 2016), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S; January 1990 to June 2016), BIOSIS Previews (January 1969 to June 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 13 June 2016. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which systemic valacyclovir was compared to systemic acyclovir medication for treatment of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. There were no language restrictions. Two review authors independently selected trials, evaluated the risk of bias in included trials, and extracted and analysed

  19. Expression of the fusogenic p14 FAST protein from a replication-defective adenovirus vector does not provide a therapeutic benefit in an immunocompetent mouse model of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C M; Nash, L A; Del Papa, J; Poulin, K L; Falls, T; Bell, J C; Parks, R J

    2016-01-01

    When injected directly into a tumor mass, adenovirus (Ad) vectors only transduce cells immediately along the injection tract. Expression of fusogenic proteins from the Ad vector can lead to syncytium formation, which efficiently spreads the therapeutic effect. Fusogenic proteins can also cause cancer cell death directly, and enhance the release of exosome-like particles containing tumor-associated antigens, which boosts the anti-tumor immune response. In this study, we have examined whether delivery of an early region 1 (E1)-deleted, replication-defective Ad vector encoding the reptilian reovirus p14 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein can provide therapeutic efficacy in an immunocompetent mouse tumor model. A high multiplicity of infection of AdFAST is required to induce cell fusion in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro, and FAST protein expression caused a modest reduction in cell membrane integrity and metabolic activity compared with cells infected with a control vector. Cells expressing FAST protein released significantly higher quantities of exosomes. In immunocompetent Balb/C mice harboring subcutaneous 4T1 tumors, AdFAST did not induce detectable cancer cell fusion, promote tumor regression or prolong mouse survival compared with untreated mice. This study suggests that in the context of the 4T1 model, Ad-mediated FAST protein expression did not elicit a therapeutic effect. PMID:27740615

  20. A "bone marrow score" for predicting hematological disease in immunocompetent patients with fevers of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Yang, Ching-Fen; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Yang, Sheng-Hsiang; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Liu, Chun-Yu; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chen, Po-Min; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Fung, Chang-Phone; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Delayed diagnosis of hematological malignancies in immunocompetent patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains an exhausting challenge for non-hematologist physicians. This retrospective cohort study aimed to establish a scoring system, "bone marrow (BM) score", to identify FUO patients who require early bone marrow biopsy (BMB) to diagnose hematological disease. Two cohorts, comprising 85 (training) and 20 (validation) eligible immunocompetent patients, with FUOs diagnosed between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2013, underwent BMBs and were enrolled in the study. Demographic, laboratory, imaging, diagnostic, and outcome data were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Factors associated with hematological etiologies diagnosed using BMBs in the training cohort were identified and scored according to the relative hazards. These were further validated using the validation cohort. For the training cohort, 29 of 85 (34.1%) patients had hematological etiologies diagnosed using BMB. Seven factors significantly predicted the diagnostic yield of hematological diseases in the BM and were scored, with the 6 points for leucoerythroblastic changes in peripheral blood smears, 5.5 for elevated ferritin level (>1000 ng/mL), 4 for splenomegaly, 2 for thrombocytopenia, 1.5 for each of elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels and anemia, and 1 for neutropenia. When the cut-off value of the scoring system was set to 6, its sensitivity and specificity to diagnose hematological diseases in the BM of immunocompetent FUO patients were 93% and 58%, respectively. For the validation cohort, 7 of 20 (35%) patients had hematological disease, and all had BM scores higher than the cut-off, with the sensitivity and specificity at 100% and 77%, respectively. As immunocompetent FUO patients with hematological disease have poor prognoses, the "BM score" is valuable for non-hematologist physicians to identify immunocompetent FUO patients requiring early BMB.

  1. The PHA Test Reflects Acquired T-Cell Mediated Immunocompetence in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Lemus, Jesús A.; Carrete, Martina; Blanco, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Background cological immunology requires techniques to reliably measure immunocompetence in wild vertebrates. The PHA-skin test, involving subcutaneous injection of a mitogen (phytohemagglutinin, PHA) and measurement of subsequent swelling as a surrogate of T-cell mediated immunocompetence, has been the test of choice due to its practicality and ease of use in the field. However, mechanisms involved in local immunological and inflammatory processes provoked by PHA are poorly known, and its use and interpretation as an acquired immune response is currently debated. Methodology Here, we present experimental work using a variety of parrot species, to ascertain whether PHA exposure produces larger secondary than primary responses as expected if the test reflects acquired immunocompetence. Moreover, we simultaneously quantified T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD5+ and CD8+) and plasma proteins circulating in the bloodstream, potentially involved in the immunological and inflammatory processes, through flow cytometry and electrophoresis. Principal Findings Our results showed stronger responses after a second PHA injection, independent of species, time elapsed and changes in body mass of birds between first and second injections, thus supporting the adaptive nature of this immune response. Furthermore, the concomitant changes in the plasma concentrations of T-lymphocyte subsets and globulins indicate a causal link between the activation of the T-cell mediated immune system and local tissue swelling. Conclusions/Significance These findings justify the widespread use of the PHA-skin test as a reliable evaluator of acquired T-cell mediated immunocompetence in diverse biological disciplines. Further experimental research should be aimed at evaluating the relative role of innate immunocompetence in wild conditions, where the access to dietary proteins varies more than in captivity, and to ascertain how PHA responses relate to particular host-parasite interactions. PMID:18820730

  2. Psychiatric aspects of herpes simplex encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and herpes zoster encephalitis among immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Więdłocha, Magdalena; Marcinowicz, Piotr; Stańczykiewicz, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    The psychopathological symptoms occurring in the course of diseases associated with infections are often initially isolated and non-characteristic, and may cause diagnostic difficulties. Moreover, such disorders tend to be less responsive to psychiatric management. Among possible causes such as trauma, neoplasm and vascular changes, inflammatory changes of the brain as a result of a viral infection should also be considered. There were 452 registered cases of viral encephalitis in Poland in 2010, and although not very prevalent they remain a severe and life-threatening condition. What is more, the frequently occurring neurological and psychiatric complications of viral encephalitis often result in permanent disabilities, causing a significant decrease in the quality of life. This article presents the three types of encephalitis that are most prevalent among immunocompetent patients in Poland, i.e. herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE). The psychopathology of the acute phase of the infection, the residual symptoms, features apparent in imaging studies and some neuropathological aspects are also presented. The paper also focuses on psychiatric aspects of the diagnostics and treatment of the described conditions. The clinical pictures of these infections are quite specific, although they cover a wide range of symptoms, and these characteristic features are described. The aim of this review is also to show the significance of thorough diagnostics and a multidisciplinary approach to patients with viral CNS infections.

  3. A Robust Pneumonia Model in Immunocompetent Rodents to Evaluate Antibacterial Efficacy against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jennifer L; Lewandowski, Thomas F; Mininger, Cindy L; Singley, Christine M; Sucoloski, Scott; Rittenhouse, Stephen

    2017-01-02

    Efficacy of candidate antibacterial treatments must be demonstrated in animal models of infection as part of the discovery and development process, preferably in models which mimic the intended clinical indication. A method for inducing robust lung infections in immunocompetent rats and mice is described which allows for the assessment of treatments in a model of serious pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae or A. baumannii. Animals are anesthetized, and an agar-based inoculum is deposited deep into the lung via nonsurgical intratracheal intubation. The resulting infection is consistent, reproducible, and stable for at least 48 h and up to 96 h for most isolates. Studies with marketed antibacterials have demonstrated good correlation between in vivo efficacy and in vitro susceptibility, and concordance between pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets determined in this model and clinically accepted targets has been observed. Although there is an initial time investment when learning the technique, it can be performed quickly and efficiently once proficiency is achieved. Benefits of the model include elimination of the neutropenic requirement, increased robustness and reproducibility, ability to study more pathogens and isolates, improved flexibility in study design and establishment of a challenging infection in an immunocompetent host.

  4. Acute recurrent lymphocytic meningitis in an immunocompetent HIV-positive African woman: Is it a Mollaret’s meningitis or not?

    PubMed Central

    Yoganathan, Katie Tharshana; Cherif, Soumeya; Rashid, Mariam; Yoganathan, Kathir

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of acute recurrent meningitis in an HIV-positive immunocompetent woman. In this case, a 34-year-old African woman with a known HIV infection presented with symptoms of acute meningitis. She was on combination antiretroviral therapy with abacavir, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Her HIV RNA level was <70 IU/mL, and CD4 counts were 640 cells/mm3. This indicates that she was not immunocompromised. She was febrile on examination, with marked neck stiffness. Her cerebrospinal fluid revealed raised white cell counts with 100% lymphocytes and mildly raised protein. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed herpes simplex type 2 meningitis. She recovered fully with aciclovir 800 mg three times a day. However, she was readmitted with a similar presentation 5 months after the initial admission. Her cerebrospinal fluid confirmed recurrent herpes simplex type 2 meningitis. This case alerts the profession to the possibility of non-opportunistic infections in an immunocompetent HIV-positive patient and of herpes simplex virus type 2 causing recurrent lymphocytic meningitis. PMID:28835824

  5. Detection of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16/18 in cutaneous warts in immunocompetent patients, using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Payal, R; Gupta, S; Aggarwal, R; Handa, S; Radotra, B D; Arora, S K

    2006-10-31

    Cutaneous warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevalence studies of the types of HPV present in cutaneous warts have been carried out more frequently in immunosuppressed patients. The present study was designed to study the association of high-risk HPV in cutaneous warts of immunocompetent patients. A total of 45 cases of cutaneous warts from various sites in immunocompetent subjects were analyzed for HPV. Samples included both archival material i.e., paraffin embedded and fresh tissue. Highly sensitive and comprehensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology for detection of HPV of high oncogenic potential, HPV 16/18, was employed. Human papillomavirus 16 was detected in 3 (6.6%) patients. None of the lesions demonstrated HPV 18. None of the cutaneous warts demonstrated histopathological features associated with dysplasia or neoplasia. The identification of HPV 16 in cutaneous warts, which are benign proliferations of the skin, further expands the spectrum of HPV-linked lesions. It remains of critical interest to determine whether these types are specifically associated with the development of malignant lesions analogous to those seen in anogenital cancer.

  6. Pulmonary cryptococcosis: comparison of CT findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-xuan; Chen, You-san; Liu, Shi-yuan; Shi, Yu-xin

    2015-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis have been reported, however, many reports were limited by the small number of patients, and not taken into account the distinction between immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. To retrospectively evaluate thoracic CT findings in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis whose immune status ranged from normal to severely compromised, and determine characteristic imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis between patients with different immune status. CT scan findings of 29 immunocompetent and 43 immunocompromised patients with clinically proven pulmonary cryptococcosis were reviewed retrospectively. Different patterns of CT scan abnormalities between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, AIDS and non-AIDS immunocompromised patients were compared by Fisher's exact test. Pulmonary nodules/masses, either solitary or multiple, were the most common CT finding, present in 65 (90.3%) of the 72 patients; associated findings included CT halo sign (n = 24), cavitation (n = 23), and air bronchogram (n = 17). Areas of consolidation (n = 14), areas of GGO (n = 13), linear opacities (n = 11), lymphadenopathy (n = 5), and pleural effusion (n = 8) were uncommon. The parenchymal abnormalities were peripherally located in 47 (65.2%) of the cases. Cavitations within nodules/masses were more frequently present in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent patients (P = 0.009), and in AIDS patients than in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients (P = 0.002). Air bronchograms within nodules/masses were more frequent present in immunocompetent patients than in immunocompromised patients (P = 0.005). Nodules/masses with halo sign were less frequent in AIDS patients than those in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients (P = 0.027). Pulmonary cryptococcosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of G207, a conditionally replicating herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant, for gallbladder carcinoma in immunocompetent hamsters.

    PubMed

    Nakano, K; Todo, T; Chijiiwa, K; Tanaka, M

    2001-04-01

    Gallbladder cancer is an extremely difficult disease to cure once metastases occur. In this paper, we explored the potential of G207, an oncolytic, replication-competent herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant, as a new therapeutic means for gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder carcinoma cell lines (four human and one hamster) showed nearly total cell killing within 72 h of G207 infection at a m.o.i. of 0.25 to 2.5 in vitro. The susceptibility to G207 cytopathic activity correlated with the infection efficiency demonstrated by lacZ expression. Intraneoplastic inoculation of G207 (1 x 10(7) pfu) in immunocompetent hamsters bearing established subcutaneous KIGB-5 tumors caused a significant inhibition of tumor growth and prolongation of survival. Repeated inoculations (three times with 4-day intervals) were significantly more efficacious than a single inoculation. In hamsters with bilateral subcutaneous KIGB-5 tumors, inoculation of one tumor alone with G207 caused regression or growth reduction of uninoculated tumors as well as inoculated tumors. In athymic mice, however, the anti-tumor effect was largely reduced in inoculated tumors and completely abolished in remote tumors, suggesting large contribution of T-cell-mediated immune responses to both local and systemic anti-tumor effect of G207. These results indicate that G207 may be useful as a new strategy for gallbladder cancer treatment.

  8. Disseminated histoplasmosis in an immuno-competent young male: Role of bone marrow examination in rapid diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Muhammad Shariq; Majeed Memon, Ayesha

    2017-10-11

    Fungal infections are usually seen in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals particularly with human immunodeficiency virus infection. In immuno-competent individuals, they seldom present with overt clinical symptoms. In such cases diagnosis is made by combination of tests along with direct microscopic visualization of the organism. We present a case of immuno-competent individual who presented with unexplained fever and found to have Histoplasma capsulatum infection on bone marrow examination. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Noriyo; Sakai, Fumikazu; Takemura, Tamiko; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takaki, Yasunobu; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kamata, Noriko

    2013-11-01

    The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulmonary cryptococcosis manifesting as diffuse air-space consolidations in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Won; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, In Won

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an opportunity infection commonly occurred in the immunocompromised patients. However pulmonary cryptococcosis in the immunocompetent was reported up to 35% and these cases tend to show confined and localized radiologic findings than in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, extensive air-space consolidations have not frequently occurred in the immunocompetent patient. Therefore, in this case, we report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis, manifesting as diffuse air-space consolidations even though normal immune status. Thus, the possibility of pulmonary cryptococcosis should be considered when a patient with a normal immune status presents without respiratory symptoms are accompanied by consolidation on imaging. PMID:28275498

  11. Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-01-22

    According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.

  12. Possible Strongyloides stercoralis infection diagnosed by videocapsule endoscopy in an immunocompetent patient with devastating diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Xouris, Dimitrios; Vafiadis-Zoumbulis, Irene; Papaxoinis, Kostis; Bamias, Giorgos; Karamanolis, George; Vlachogiannakos, Janis; Ladas, Spiros D.

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an endemic parasitic infection of tropical areas, but it is rare in Europe. Most infected immunocompetent patients are asymptomatic, but may present with abdominal pain and diarrhea even several years after acquiring the infection. However, in immunocompromized patients, hyperinfection syndrome has a high mortality rate. Risk factors for the hyperinfection syndrome are corticosteroids and infection with human T lymphotropic virus type 1. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is usually made by identifying the larvae in the stool or in duodenal biopsies. There are only four published cases of strongyloidiasis in Greek patients, three of them were immunocompromized. In our patient videocapsule endoscopy identified rhabditiform larvae suggestive of strongyloidiasis. This case report illustrates the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis of the disease in immunocompetent patients. PMID:24713813

  13. Pulmonary cryptococcosis manifesting as diffuse air-space consolidations in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Won; Chong, Semin; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, In Won

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an opportunity infection commonly occurred in the immunocompromised patients. However pulmonary cryptococcosis in the immunocompetent was reported up to 35% and these cases tend to show confined and localized radiologic findings than in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, extensive air-space consolidations have not frequently occurred in the immunocompetent patient. Therefore, in this case, we report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis, manifesting as diffuse air-space consolidations even though normal immune status. Thus, the possibility of pulmonary cryptococcosis should be considered when a patient with a normal immune status presents without respiratory symptoms are accompanied by consolidation on imaging.

  14. Hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in immunocompetent adults: report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    García, Juan C; Núñez, Manuel J; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M; López, Asunción; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A

    2014-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%-20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin.

  15. [Pulmonary cryptococcoma with involvement of the chest wall in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Pisarevsky, Ana Andrea; Larriera, Alejandro; Cean, Pilar; Petrucci, Enrique A

    2010-01-01

    The pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients is unusual, and its presentation as large masses with involvement of the chest wall and the neighboring soft tissues has not been found in our bibliographic research. The variety gattii (serotype B/C) is limited geographically to tropical and subtropical regions and appears to affect particularly immunocompetent individuals. We describe the case of a 51-year-old man from the Northeast of Argentina, with a history of smoking 10 pack/year. He presented an increased volume of the left shoulder and reported that for the last six months he had been unable to move it due to the pain. A percutaneous biopsy of the mass provided a diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans, variety gattii. The patient was treated with antifungal therapy showing a favourable outcome with a progressive decrease of the mass.

  16. Disseminated cryptococcosis in an apparently immunocompetent patient presenting with primary intraventricular haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pal, Partha; Ray, Sayantan; Patra, Sisir Kumar; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2015-10-22

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is uncommon and almost always occurs in HIV-infected patients. However, cryptococcosis can also be found in patients of organ transplantation, in those on disease modifying agents for rheumatological conditions and in patients with underlying immunodeficiency. Cryptococcal infection may occur in an immunocompetent patient, but the pathogenic strain is usually Cryptococcus gattii, and not C. neoformans. However, disseminated disease, especially cerebral involvement in the form of primary intraventricular haemorrhage, is exceedingly rare. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous, cerebral and bone marrow involvement in an HIV-negative, apparently immunocompetent patient. Although the patient did not have the usual immunocompromising diseases, there were clinical signs possibly indicating a weakened immune system. This report highlights the need for awareness of disseminated cryptococcosis among patients with no apparent immunocompromising conditions. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Markus J.; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R.; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-01-01

    According to the ‘good genes’ hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The ‘immunocompetence handicap hypothesis’ proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice. PMID:23193134

  18. Primary mucormycosis of abdominal wall: A rare fungal infection in a immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Tapish, Sahu; Taha, Mustafa; Naresh, Garg; Neeraj, Dhamija; Malik Vinod, K

    2010-07-01

    Mucormycosis of the anterior abdominal wall is an uncommon disease and it is very rare to find this disease in immunocompetent, non-diabetic patients which usually affects patients with trauma, with contaminated wounds, patients with underlying malignancies or patients with immunocompromised state, e.g., diabetics. We herein report a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis in an immunocompetent and non-diabetic patient. Our patient was a 48-year-old female, executive by profession. She was diagnosed to have cutaneous mucormycosis of the anterior abdominal wall, and was managed with multiple debridements of the wound and intravenous amphotericin B therapy. She was administered a total of 1500 mg of liposomal amphotericin B and when fully healed, split skin grafting was done. We would like to emphasize the importance of high index of suspicion and early start of therapy in a condition with high rate of mortality.

  19. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in an immunocompetent host: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Khilnani, Gopi C; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Kumar, Subodh; Banerjee, Uma; Xess, Immaculata

    2003-01-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis is an uncommon disease and it usually affects immunocompromised, diabetic, and trauma patients with contaminated wounds or patients with underlying malignancies. It is very rare to find this disease in immunocompetent, nondiabetic patients. We herein report a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis in an immunocompetent and nondiabetic patient. Our patient was a 50-year-old veterinary doctor. He was diagnosed to have cutaneous mucormycosis of the anterior abdominal wall, and was treated with multiple debridements of the wound and intravenous amphotericin B therapy. He received a total of 1000 mg of amphotericin B. A high index of clinical suspicion and early institution of therapy in the form of surgical debridements and antifungal drugs are required to achieve a successful outcome.

  20. Cutaneous mucormycosis of the upper extremity in an immunocompetent host: case report.

    PubMed

    Lineberry, Kyle D; Boettcher, Adam K; Blount, Andrew L; Burgess, Scott D

    2012-04-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis, a relatively common infection in immunocompromised patients, remains rare in the immunocompetent patient outside the setting of major trauma. We report a case of an immunocompetent patient who developed left upper extremity Rhizopus infection following arterial puncture. Treatment included surgical debridement, liposomal amphotericin B, and hyperbaric oxygen wound therapy; the patient recovered fully. A review of the literature of cases of upper extremity Mucor infection is included for context. We feel that a high degree of suspicion for Mucor infection is warranted in patients with the described risk factors who do not respond to first-line antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.