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Sample records for immunodeficiency virus infected

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  2. Nonpathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Nichole R.; Silvestri, Guido; Hirsch, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are a diverse group of viruses that naturally infect a wide range of African primates, including African green monkeys (AGMs) and sooty mangabey monkeys (SMs). Although natural infection is widespread in feral populations of AGMs and SMs, this infection generally does not result in immunodeficiency. However, experimental inoculation of Asian macaques results in an immunodeficiency syndrome remarkably similar to human AIDS. Thus, natural nonprogressive SIV infections appear to represent an evolutionary adaptation between these animals and their primate lentiviruses. Curiously, these animals maintain robust virus replication but have evolved strategies to avoid disease progression. Adaptations observed in these primates include phenotypic changes to CD4+ T cells, limited chronic immune activation, and altered mucosal immunity. It is probable that these animals have achieved a unique balance between T-cell renewal and proliferation and loss through activation-induced apoptosis, and virus-induced cell death. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the lack of disease progression in natural hosts for SIV infection should therefore yield insights into the pathogenesis of AIDS and may inform vaccine design. PMID:22315718

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  4. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, J B

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, an increase in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had a substantial impact on childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant accounts for the vast majority of these cases. Identification of HIV-infected pregnant women needs to be impoved so that appropriate therapy can be initiated for both mothers and infants. While recent data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in HIV transmission from a subset of women treated with zidovudine during pregnancy, further efforts at reducing transmission are desperately needed. This review focuses on vertically transmitted HIV infection in children, its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, and clinical manifestations including infectious and noninfectious complications. An overview of the complex medical management of these children ensues, including the use of antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infection prophylaxis is reviewed, along with the important role of other supportive therapies. PMID:8894346

  5. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1992-12-01

    As of March 31, 1992, individuals 13 to 19 years of age had been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; over one third were diagnosed in the past 2 years alone. Because of the long incubation period from initial infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, the majority of young adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were probably initially infected as adolescents. In 1991, 34% of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were female, and their predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence studies of adolescents show a male-to-female ratio approaching 1:1, with many human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescent women identifying none of the standard risk. Factors such as sexual and drug experimentation, risk taking, and sense of invulnerability so characteristic of adolescence put adolescents at special risk for human immunodeficiency virus. There is no published information on if or how clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus disease in adolescents might differ from those seen in adults. Medical care should be broad-based and should include access to clinical trials for new drug treatments. General knowledge levels about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are high among US adolescents, but behavioral changes have lagged behind. All adolescents should be targeted for intensive education about human immunodeficiency virus along with interventions designed to enhance their general coping, communication, and decision-making skills.

  6. Endemic mycosis complicating human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sarosi, G A; DAvies, S F

    1996-01-01

    Persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus are prone to the development of many fungal diseases. Normal hosts with intact immunity usually recover from infection by these less-invasive fungi. In persons with compromised T-cell-mediated immunity, however, widespread dissemination from a pulmonary focus occurs. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the three major North American mycoses, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis. In most cases, amphotericin B is the initial drug of choice, followed by one of the azoles for lifelong maintenance therapy. PMID:8732733

  7. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, J Q; Semiatin, S L

    1991-01-01

    We summarize information from three sets of epidemiologic data: the Nevada AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] Surveillance System, which contains information about every case identified within the state boundaries through September 1989; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence reporting systems, which currently include data on all HIV-positive reports submitted statewide to public health authorities; and surveys on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Nevadans concerning HIV-related disease. The Nevada State AIDS Task Force outlined major policy recommendations, nearly half of which concerned testing; only 2 dealt with preventing HIV transmission. Greater efforts should go into education, particularly directed toward groups at greatest risk of exposure to HIV, and to improve community-based care of infected persons.

  8. Depoliticize Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Public-health policy is inconsistent in its approach to the sexually transmitted disease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nearly every health agency has politicized the reporting, finding, and contacting of HIV cases. There is also no consistency among the various state health departments and the various federal health agencies. Until we have a uniform health policy that treats HIV infection as every other reportable sexually transmitted disease, we will make little progress toward controlling its inevitable increase in both cases and costs. PMID:18475369

  9. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

  10. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  11. [Cerebral infarction in human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Blanche, P; Toulon, P; de La Blanchardière, A; Sicard, D

    1995-06-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to have a high risk of ischaemic cerebral events. We observed two cases of cerebral infarction in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the first case, a 38-year-old homosexual with no cardiovascular risk other than smoking presented with rapidly progressive hemiparesia. Brain CT-scan visualized two infarcts in the territory of the right sylvian artery and the arteriography an occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In the second, a 37-year-old homosexual, hospitalization was required for a left-sided pure sensitive epilepsy seizure. There was no cardiovascular risk other than smoking. Magnetic resonance imaging showed parietal ischaemia and thrombus in the left atrium without atrial hypertrophy was seen at transoesophageal echocardiography. In both cases, there was no evidence of endocarditis, dissection of the neck vessels or disseminated intravascular coagulation nor of associated viral or bacterial infectious complication of AIDS. Angiographic findings eliminated cerebral vascularitis. Among the perturbed haemostasis factors previously reported in HIV+ patients, we observed free proteins S deficiency (68 and 43%) and heparin cofactor II deficiency (54 and 40%). Serum albumin was 33 and 32 g/l respectively. Outcome was favourable in both cases with anticoagulant therapy. These coagulation anomalies would not appear sufficient to explain cerebral infarction. Other mechanisms including immune complexed deposition, direct HIV toxicity for endothelial cells or the effect of cytokines on smooth muscles fibres and fibroblasts are probably more important causal factors. PMID:7638144

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is clearly one of the most serious health-care crises in the professional lives of contemporary physicians. It cannot be regarded as a curiosity to be dealt with by inner-city infectious-disease experts, but rather must be considered a problem for all health-care providers and a problem in which the obstetrician-gynecologist has a special role to play. PMID:18475370

  13. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Damani A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  14. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Damani A; Carroll, Karen C; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  15. Neuromuscular complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G

    1994-01-01

    At least 4 distinct peripheral neuropathy syndromes occur in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The most common, painful sensory neuropathy, may be related to the viral infection or may be medication induced and is treated symptomatically. The other 3, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex (some patients), and the progressive polyradiculopathies related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may all respond to appropriate therapy. Both inflammatory myopathy and zidovudine myopathy also abate with early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:8048229

  16. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  17. Methods for assessing feline immunodeficiency virus infection, infectivity and purification.

    PubMed

    Ammersbach, Melanie; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2011-10-15

    Infection of cats with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) recapitulates many aspects of infection of humans with HIV, including highly activated but ineffectual immune responses. Infected hosts remain seropositive for life, and detection of antibodies is the mainstay of diagnosis. However, to quantify virus for research or prognosis, viral proteins, nucleic acids or enzymes, are typically measured by ELISA, PCR or activity, respectively. While such assays are in wide use, they do not distinguish whole, infectious viral particles from defective or disrupted viruses. Titers of infectious viral particles may be estimated from tissue culture infectious doses or by enumerating cell-associated viral proteins, viral transcriptional activity or formation of syncytia. To analyze the viral proteome and the incorporation of host components into viral envelopes, pure lentiviral preparations are required. Methods for purifying lentiviruses include ultracentrifugation to separate particles by size, mass and/or density; chromatography to separate particles by charge, affinity or size; and additional removal of extraviral proteins and exosomes through subtilisin digestion or immunoaffinity. This article reviews advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to purification of lentiviruses with special reference to suitability for FIV, and highlights effects of purification on immune responses and immune assays. PMID:21715023

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease. PMID:23662195

  19. Antiviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the stage of their intervention with the viral replicative cycle, human immunodeficiency virus inhibitors could be divided into the following groups: (i) adsorption inhibitors (i.e., CD4 constructs, polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, and polyoxometalates), (ii) fusion inhibitors (i.e., plant lectins, succinylated or aconitylated albumins, and betulinic acid derivatives), (iii) uncoating inhibitors (i.e., bicyclams), (iv) reverse transcription inhibitors acting either competitively with the substrate binding site (i.e., dideoxynucleoside analogs and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates) or allosterically with a nonsubstrate binding site (i.e., non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (v) integration inhibitors, (vi) DNA replication inhibitors, (vii) transcription inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and Tat antagonists), (viii) translation inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and ribozymes), (ix) maturation inhibitors (i.e., protease inhibitors, myristoylation inhibitors, and glycosylation inhibitors), and finally, (x) budding (assembly/release) inhibitors. Current knowledge, including the therapeutic potential, of these various inhibitors is discussed. In view of their potential clinical the utility, the problem of virus-drug resistance and possible strategies to circumvent this problem are also addressed. PMID:7542558

  20. Spatial analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cougars.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David C; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

    2010-07-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations.

  1. Spatial Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cougars

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Biek, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations. PMID:21197421

  2. BK virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, J; Muñoz, P; Garcia de Viedma, D; Cabrero, I; Loeches, B; Montilla, P; Gijon, P; Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Bouza, E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BK virus (BKV) infection in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our hospital. The presence of BKV was analysed in urine and plasma samples from 78 non-selected HIV-infected patients. Clinical data were recorded using a pre-established protocol. We used a nested PCR to amplify a specific region of the BKV T-large antigen. Positive samples were quantified using real-time PCR. Mean CD4 count in HIV-infected patients was 472 cells/mm3 and median HIV viral load was <50 copies/mL. BKV viraemia was detected in only 1 HIV-positive patient, but 57.7% (45 out of 78) had BKV viruria, which was more common in patients with CD4 counts>500 cells/mm3 (74.3% vs 25.7%; p=0.007). Viruria was present in 21.7% of healthy controls (5 out of 23 samples, p=0.02). All viral loads were low (<100 copies/mL), and we could not find any association between BKV infection and renal or neurological manifestations. We provide an update on the prevalence of BKV in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. BKV viruria was more common in HIV-infected patients; however, no role for BKV has been demonstrated in this population.

  3. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, J K; Sparger, E; Ho, E W; Andersen, P R; O'Connor, T P; Mandell, C P; Lowenstine, L; Munn, R; Pedersen, N C

    1988-08-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV; formerly, feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus) is a typical lentivirus resembling human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in morphologic features, protein structure, and reverse transcriptase enzyme. It is antigenically dissimilar, however. The virus is tropic for primary and permanent feline T-lymphoblastoid cells and Crandell feline kidney cells. The virus did not grow in other permanent feline non-lymphoblastoid cells that were tested, or in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells from man, dogs, mice, and sheep. During short-term inoculation studies in cats, the feline immunodeficiency-like syndrome found in nature was not experimentally induced, but a distinct primary phase of infection was observed. Fever and neutropenia were observed 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation; fever lasted several days, and neutropenia persisted from 1 to 9 weeks. Generalized lymphadenopathy that persisted for 2 to 9 months appeared at the same time. Antibodies to FIV appeared 2 weeks after inoculation and then plateaued. Virus was reisolated from the blood of all infected cats within 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation and persisted indefinitely in the face of humoral antibody response. Virus was recovered from blood, plasma, CSF and saliva, but not from colostrum or milk. Contact transmission was achieved slowly in one colony of naturally infected cats, but not between experimentally infected and susceptible specific-pathogen-free cats kept together for periods as long as 4 to 14 months. The infection was transmitted readily, however, by parenteral inoculation with blood, plasma, or infective cell culture fluids. In utero and lactogenic transmission were not observed in kittens born to naturally or experimentally infected queens. Lymphadenopathy observed during the initial stage of FIV infection was ascribed to lymphoid hyperplasia and follicular dysplasia. A myeloproliferative disorder was observed in 1 cat with experimentally induced infection. PMID:2459996

  4. Species-Specific, Postentry Barriers to Primate Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Schubert, David; LaBonte, Jason; Munson, Linda; Gibson, Susan; Scammell, Jonathan; Ferrigno, Paul; Sodroski, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    By using replication-defective vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac), and murine leukemia virus (MuLV), all of which were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G glycoprotein, the efficiency of postentry, early infection events was examined in target cells of several mammalian species. Titers of HIV-1 vectors were significantly lower than those of SIVmac and MuLV vectors in most cell lines and primary cells from Old World monkeys. By contrast, most New World monkey cells exhibited much lower titers for the SIVmac vector compared with those of the HIV-1 vector. Prosimian cells were resistant to both HIV-1 and SIVmac vectors, although the MuLV vector was able to infect these cells. Cells from other mammalian species were roughly equivalent in susceptibility to the three vectors, with the exception of rabbit cells, which were specifically resistant to the HIV-1 vector. The level of HIV-1 vector expression was very low in transduced cells of rodent, rabbit, cow, and pig origin. Early postentry restriction of primate immunodeficiency virus infection exhibits patterns largely coincident with species borders and applies to diverse cell types within an individual host, suggesting the involvement of species-specific, widely expressed cellular factors. PMID:10559316

  5. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

  6. Enteric ganglionitis in rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Orandle, Marlene S; Veazey, Ronald S; Lackner, Andrew A

    2007-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disease is a debilitating feature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that can occur in the absence of histopathological abnormalities or identifiable enteropathogens. However, the mechanisms of GI dysfunction are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to characterize changes in resident and inflammatory cells in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of macaques during the acute stage of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection to gain insight into potential pathogenic mechanisms of GI disease. Ganglia from duodenum, ileum, and colon were examined in healthy and acutely infected macaques by using a combination of routine histology, double-label immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. Evaluation of tissues from infected macaques showed progressive infiltration of myenteric ganglia by CD3+ T cells and IBA1+ macrophages beginning as early as 8 days postinfection. Quantitative image analysis revealed that the severity of myenteric ganglionitis increased with time after SIV infection and, in general, was more severe in ganglia from the small intestine than in ganglia from the colon. Despite an abundance of inflammatory cells in myenteric ganglia during acute infection, the ENS was not a target for virus infection. This study provides evidence that the ENS may be playing a role in the pathogenesis of GI disease and enteropathy in HIV-infected people.

  7. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, D S; Willey, R L; Sato, H; Chang, L J; Blumenthal, R; Martin, M A

    1993-01-01

    Tissue culture infections of CD4-positive human T cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proceed in three stages: (i) a period following the initiation of an infection during which no detectable virus is produced; (ii) a phase in which a sharp increase followed by a peak of released progeny virions can be measured; and (iii) a final period when virus production declines. In this study, we have derived equations describing the kinetics of HIV-1 accumulation in cell culture supernatants during multiple rounds of infection. Our analyses indicated that the critical parameter affecting the kinetics of HIV-1 infection is the infection rate constant k = Inn/ti, where n is the number of infectious virions produced by one cell (about 10(2)) and ti is the time required for one complete cycle of virus infection (typically 3 to 4 days). Of particular note was our finding that the infectivity of HIV-1 during cell-to-cell transmission is 10(2) to 10(3) times greater than the infectivity of cell-free virus stocks, the inocula commonly used to initiate tissue culture infections. We also demonstrated that the slow infection kinetics of an HIV-1 tat mutant is not due to a longer replication time but reflects the small number of infectious particles produced per cycle. PMID:8445728

  8. Sicca complex and infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Couderc, L J; D'Agay, M F; Danon, F; Harzic, M; Brocheriou, C; Clauvel, J P

    1987-05-01

    Five male patients with the persistent generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome also had a sicca complex. Salivary gland biopsy specimens showed diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the glandular parenchyma. Serum autoantibodies and rheumatoid factor were not detected. All patients had IgG antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and IgG to the viral capsid antigen of Epstein-Barr virus. These five patients had benign lymphocytic infiltrates in other organs (lung, liver, and kidneys). Sicca complex may be one of the various manifestations of the lymphoid hyperplasia noted in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. In these patients, the sicca complex showed specific features related to male predominance, lack of serum autoantibodies, and peripheral-blood T-lymphocyte subset distribution.

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population. PMID:25089282

  10. Neuromyelitis optica in patients with coexisting human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Singh, Parbhdeep; Smith, Robert G

    2013-09-01

    Two patients with known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and receiving antiretroviral treatment developed neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease). One patient tested positive for serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies. Both patients were treated with high dose pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone followed by standard sessions of plasma exchange both at the onset attack and during disease relapses. For maintenance therapy, one patient received rituximab infusions and the second patient received mycophenolate mofetil orally. Despite treatment, both patients are currently wheelchair-bound due to severe paraparesis. Neuromyelitis optica can occur in the course of HIV infection and poses an ongoing therapeutic challenge.

  11. Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kalapila, Aley G; Marrazzo, Jeanne

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a chronic medical condition. Several new drugs are available, including fixed-dose combination tablets, that have greatly simplified combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens to treat HIV, while increasing the life-expectancy of infected individuals. In the last decade, multiple well-regarded studies have established the benefits of using ART in high-risk, HIV-negative persons to prevent HIV acquisition. The primary care provider must not only understand commonly encountered issues pertaining to ART, such as toxicities and drug interactions, but also needs to be aware of using ART for HIV prevention. PMID:27235622

  12. Inflammatory joint disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Forster, S M; Seifert, M H; Keat, A C; Rowe, I F; Thomas, B J; Taylor-Robinson, D; Pinching, A J; Harris, J R W

    1988-01-01

    Nine men positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who developed peripheral, non-erosive arthritis were followed up. The clinical features were compatible with reactive arthritis but were atypical in several respects: the joint symptoms were generally severe, persistent, and unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The onset of arthritis was associated with various infections, none of which are known to be associated with the development of reactive arthritis. HLA typing was performed for three patients, all of whom were positive for HLA-B27. HIV was isolated from the synovial fluid of one patient. No patient had AIDS before developing arthritis, but four progressed to having AIDS after a mean of 7·5 months, and two died. Arthritis resolved in only one patient. The possibility of HIV infection should be considered in all patients with conditions suggesting reactive arthritis. Synovitis in patients with severe immunodeficiency has important pathogenetic implications. PMID:3135044

  13. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  14. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H.; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication. PMID:27047986

  15. Early Pathogenesis of Transmucosal Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Leslie A.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2002-01-01

    To identify the early target cells and tissues in transmucosal feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, cats were exposed to a clade C FIV isolate via the oral-nasal or vaginal mucosa and multiple tissues were examined by virus isolation coculture (VI), DNA PCR, catalyzed tyramide signal-amplified in situ hybridization (TSA-ISH), and immunohistochemistry between days 1 and 12 postinoculation (p.i.). FIV RNA was detected in tonsil and oral or vaginal mucosa as early as 1 day p.i. by TSA-ISH and in retropharyngeal, tracheobronchial, or external iliac lymph nodes and sometimes in spleen or blood mononuclear cells by day 2, indicating that regional and distant spread of virus-infected cells occurred rapidly after mucosal exposure. By day 8, viral RNA, DNA, and culturable virus were uniformly detected in regional and distant tissues, connoting systemic infection. TSA-ISH proved more sensitive than DNA PCR in detecting early FIV-infected cells. In mucosal tissues, the earliest demonstrable FIV-bearing cells were either within or subjacent to the mucosal epithelium or were in germinal centers of regional lymph nodes. The FIV+ cells were of either of two morphological types, large stellate or small round. Those FIV RNA+ cells which could be colabeled for a phenotype marker, were labeled for either dendritic-cell-associated protein p55 or T-lymphocyte receptor antigen CD3. These studies indicate that FIV crosses mucous membranes within hours after exposure and rapidly traffics via dendritic and T cells to systemic lymphoid tissues, a pathway similar to that thought to occur in the initial phase of infection by the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. PMID:12021364

  16. Antiretroviral therapy reduces neurodegeneration in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Alex K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh; Letendre, Scott L.; Achim, Cristian L.; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of virally-suppressive antiretroviral therapy on cortical neurodegeneration and associated neurocognitive impairment. Design Retrospective, postmortem observational study. Methods Clinical neuropsychological and postmortem neuropathology data were analyzed in 90 human immunodeficiency virus-infected volunteers from the general community who had never undergone antiretroviral therapy (n=7, “naïve”) or who had undergone antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma viral load was detectable (n = 64 “unsuppressed”) or undetectable (n = 19, “suppressed”) at the last clinical visit prior to death. Subjects were predominately male (74/90, 82%) with a mean age of 44.7 years (SD 9.8). Cortical neurodegeneration was quantified by measuring microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) and synaptophysin (SYP) density in midfrontal cortex tissue sections. Results The suppressed group had higher SYP density than the naïve group (p = 0.007) and higher MAP2 density than the unsuppressed group (p = 0.04). The suppressed group had lower odds of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders than naïve (OR 0.07, p = 0.03). Higher SYP was associated with lower likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders in univariable (OR 0.8, p=0.03) and multivariable models after controlling for antiretroviral treatment and brain human immunodeficiency virus p24 protein levels (OR 0.72, p=0.01). Conclusions We conclude that virally suppressive antiretroviral treatment protects against cortical neurodegeneration. Further, we find evidence supporting the causal chain from treatment-mediated peripheral and central nervous system viral load suppression to reduced neurodegeneration and improved neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:25686681

  17. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  18. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  19. Renal involvement in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Poli, A; Abramo, F; Taccini, E; Guidi, G; Barsotti, P; Bendinelli, M; Malvaldi, G

    1993-01-01

    Renal tissues from 15 cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Renal function and urinary proteins were also studied. Kidney abnormalities were found in 12 cats and were characterized by mesangial widening with segmental to diffuse glomerulosclerosis and presence of IgM and C3, and scanty IgG deposits in the mesangium. Tubulointerstitial lesions were also present. In 6 cats the lesions were severe enough to cause marked increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and heavy glomerular nonselective proteinuria. These findings suggest that a renal involvement is a frequent occurrence in FIV-infected cats. As the histopathological features observed were similar to those described in HIV-infected patients, FIV-infected cats may represent a valuable model for a better understanding of HIV-associated nephropathy in humans. PMID:8321363

  20. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Phung, Bao-Chau; Sogni, Philippe; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus (HBV and HIV) infection share transmission patterns and risk factors, which explains high prevalence of chronic HBV infection in HIV infected patients. The natural course of HBV disease is altered by the HIV infection with less chance to clear acute HBV infection, faster progression to cirrhosis and higher risk of liver-related death in HIV-HBV co-infected patients than in HBV mono-infected ones. HIV infected patients with chronic hepatitis B should be counseled for liver damage and surveillance of chronic hepatitis B should be performed to screen early hepatocellular carcinoma. Noninvasive tools are now available to evaluate liver fibrosis. Isolated hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) are a good predictive marker of occult HBV infection. Still the prevalence and significance of occult HBV infection is controversial, but its screening may be important in the management of antiretroviral therapy. Vaccination against HBV infection is recommended in non-immune HIV patients. The optimal treatment for almost all HIV-HBV co-infected patients should contain tenofovir plus lamivudine or emtricitabine and treatment should not be stopped to avoid HBV reactivation. Long term tenofovir therapy may lead to significant decline in hepatitis B surface Antigen. The emergence of resistant HBV strains may compromise the HBV therapy and vaccine therapy. PMID:25516647

  1. Perinatally infected adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (perinatally human immunodeficiency virus)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Leticia S; Cardoso, Claudete A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of highly potent antiretroviral treatment during the last decades has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic disease. Children that were diagnosed during the first months or years of life and received treatment, are living longer and better and are presently reaching adolescence and adulthood. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIV) and young adults may present specific clinical, behavior and social characteristics and demands. We have performed a literature review about different aspects that have to be considered in the care and follow-up of PHIV. The search included papers in the MEDLINE database via PubMed, located using the keywords “perinatally HIV-infected” AND “adolescents”. Only articles published in English or Portuguese from 2003 to 2014 were selected. The types of articles included original research, systematic reviews, and quantitative or qualitative studies; case reports and case series were excluded. Results are presented in the following topics: “Puberal development and sexual maturation”, “Growth in weight and height”, “Bone metabolism during adolescence”, “Metabolic complications”, “Brain development, cognition and mental health”, “Reproductive health”, “Viral drug resistance” and “Transition to adult outpatient care”. We hope that this review will support the work of pediatricians, clinicians and infectious diseases specialists that are receiving these subjects to continue treatment. PMID:26279988

  2. Follicular dendritic cells and human immunodeficiency virus infectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Sonya L.; Tew, J. Grant; Tew, John G.; Szakal, Andras K.; Burton, Gregory F.

    1995-10-01

    LARGE amounts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) localize on follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues following viral infection1,2. During clinical latency, active viral infection occurs primarily at these sites3,4. As HIV on FDC is in the form of immune complexes5, some of which may be formed with neutralizing antibody, we investigated whether HIV on FDC is infectious. We report here that HIV on FDC is highly infectious. Furthermore, FDC can convert neutralized HIV into an infectious form even in the presence of a vast excess of neutralizing antibody. Thus FDC may provide a mechanism whereby HIV infection can continue in the presence of neutralizing antibody.

  3. Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Sinha, Manish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. HIV-infected patients have a high incidence of tuberculous meningitis as well. The exact incidence and prevalence of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients are not known. HIV infection does not significantly alter the clinical manifestations, laboratory, radiographic findings, or the response to therapy. Still, some differences have been noted. For example, the histopathological examination of exudates in HIV-infected patients shows fewer lymphocytes, epithelioid cells, and Langhan's type of giant cells. Larger numbers of acid-fast bacilli may be seen in the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. The chest radiograph is abnormal in up to 46% of patients with tuberculous meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is likely to present with cerebral infarcts and mass lesions. Cryptococcal meningitis is important in differential diagnosis. The recommended duration of treatment in HIV-infected patients is 9-12 months. The benefit of adjunctive corticosteroids is uncertain. Antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis treatment should be initiated at the same time, regardless of CD4 cell counts. Tuberculous meningitis may be a manifestation of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Some studies have demonstrated a significant impact of HIV co-infection on mortality from tuberculous meningitis. HIV-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis have significantly higher mortality. The best way to prevent HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis is to diagnose and isolate infectious cases of tuberculosis promptly and administer appropriate treatment.

  4. Recombination in feline immunodeficiency virus genomes from naturally infected cougars.

    PubMed

    Bruen, Trevor C; Poss, Mary

    2007-08-01

    Recombination contributes significantly to diversity within virus populations and ultimately to viral evolution. Here we use a recently developed statistical test to perform exploratory analysis of recombination in fourteen feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVpco) genomes derived from a wild population of cougars. We use both the global and local Phi statistical test as an overall guide to predict where recombination may have occurred. Further analyses, including similarity plots and phylogenetic incongruence tests, confirmed that three FIVpco lineages were derived from recombinant events. Interestingly, the regions of mosaic origin were clustered in the area encoding lentiviral accessory genes and largely spared the viral structural genes. Because some of the mosaic strains are currently geographically disparate, our data indicate that the dispersal of cougars infected with these strains was preceded by recombination events. These results suggest that recombination has played an important role in the evolution of FIVpco for this wild population of cougars.

  5. Primary pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, R.; Fernandez-Infante, B.; Fernandez-Rozas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Several cardiorespiratory diseases can complicate human immunodeficiency virus infection. Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare clinical disorder which carries a bad prognosis. More than 90 cases of HIV-associated primary pulmonary hypertension have been reported to date. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, some evidence suggests a possible role for the virus itself in its development. Genetic susceptibility may also be implicated. The clinical and histopathologic features of this entity do not differ from those of classic primary pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and a careful evaluation to rule out causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. In addition to supportive measures, anticoagulation and vasodilators have been used to treat this disorder, although sufficient data regarding long-term results with these therapies are lacking. PMID:9799910

  6. Septic arthritis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rivera, J; Monteagudo, I; Lopez-Longo, J; Sanchez-Atrio, A

    1992-12-01

    We have evaluated the presence and characteristics of septic arthritis in intravenous (iv) drug users with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Sixteen patients with both HIV infection and septic arthritis were studied and compared with 5 patients with septic arthritis but no HIV infection. Clinical profile, laboratory findings at the time of onset, localization, causative organisms, mean hospitalization time and presence of complications were the same in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated organism in both groups. We conclude that septic arthritis in HIV infected iv drug users is not uncommon, it is produced by the same organisms and presents similar characteristics to the ones found in iv drug users without HIV infection. Therefore, the presence of HIV infection does not appear to modify the characteristics of septic arthritis.

  7. Stability of the gorilla microbiome despite simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Andrew H; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Esteban, Amadine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2015-02-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have been discovered in over 45 primate species; however, the pathogenic potential of most SIV strains remains unknown due to difficulties inherent in observing wild populations. Because those SIV infections that are pathogenic have been shown to induce changes in the host's gut microbiome, monitoring the microbiota present in faecal samples can provide a noninvasive means for studying the effects of SIV infection on the health of wild-living primates. Here, we examine the effects of SIVgor, a close relative of SIVcpz of chimpanzees and HIV-1 of humans, on the gut bacterial communities residing within wild gorillas, revealing that gorilla gut microbiomes are exceptionally robust to SIV infection. In contrast to the microbiomes of HIV-1-infected humans and SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees, SIVgor-infected gorilla microbiomes exhibit neither rises in the frequencies of opportunistic pathogens nor elevated rates of microbial turnover within individual hosts. Regardless of SIV infection status, gorilla microbiomes assort into enterotypes, one of which is compositionally analogous to those identified in humans and chimpanzees. The other gorilla enterotype appears specialized for a leaf-based diet and is enriched in environmentally derived bacterial genera. We hypothesize that the acquisition of this gorilla-specific enterotype was enabled by lowered immune system control over the composition of the microbiome. Our results indicate differences between the pathology of SIVgor and SIVcpz/HIV-1 infections, demonstrating the utility of investigating host microbial ecology as a means for studying disease in wild primates of high conservation priority.

  8. Eosinophilia in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam and diagnostic work-up is unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis. PMID:26126686

  9. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of CD8+ lymphocytes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G A; Reubel, G H; Pedersen, N C

    1996-01-01

    To determine the lymphoid target cells of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vivo, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) were positively selected (>97% purity) for surface expression of CD4, CD8, or CD20 and then analyzed for SIV provirus using semiquantitative DNA amplification. We found provirus in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but none in CD20+ lymphocytes. During acute SIV infection (< or = 214 days postinoculation), the percentage of PBL and LNL CD4+ cells containing proviral DNA ranged from 0.2 to 20% and from 0.2 to 2%, respectively. Proviral burden in the CD8+ population of either PBL or LNL ranged from 0.01 to 0.2%. Virus isolation by cocultivation was positive for both CD4+ and CD8+ purified populations. No difference in proviral burden was observed between PBL and LNL subsets during acute SIV infection. Up to 19.4% of positively selected CD8+ cells also expressed CD4, and thus the provirus may reside within a dual-positive population. This dual-positive population may represent activated lymphocytes that are particularly susceptible to infection and may provide an opportunity for virus entry into the CD8+ CD4- lymphocytes in vivo. PMID:8764081

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Neural Xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovich, Therese A.; Lazar, Eliot; Blumberg, Benjamin M.; Saito, Yoshihiro; Eskin, Thomas A.; Reichman, Richard; Baram, David A.; del Cerro, Coca; Gendelman, Howard E.; del Cerro, Manuel; Epstein, Leon G.

    1992-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly specific for its human host. To study HIV-1 infection of the human nervous system, we have established a small animal model in which second-trimester (11 to 17.5 weeks) human fetal brain or neural retina is transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of immunosuppressed adult rats. The human xenografts vascularized, formed a blood-brain barrier, and differentiated, forming neurons and glia. The xenografts were infected with cell-free HIV-1 or with HIV-1-infected human monocytes. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction revealed HIV-1 sequences in DNA from xenograft tissue exposed to HIV-1 virions, and in situ hybridization demonstrated HIV-1 mRNA localized in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Pathological damage was observed only in neural xenografts containing HIV-1-infected human monocytes, supporting the hypothesis that these cells mediate neurotoxicity. This small animal model allows the study of direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on developing human fetal neural tissues, and it should prove useful in evaluating antiviral therapies, which must ultimately target HIV-1 infection of the brain.

  11. Testicular dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.

    PubMed

    Poretsky, L; Can, S; Zumoff, B

    1995-07-01

    This review pertains to gonadal function in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who often exhibit clinical and biochemical evidence of hypogonadism. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism appears to be the most commonly encountered abnormality, although complete anterior pituitary insufficiency and primary gonadal failure have been reported. Levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are either unchanged or increased. Plasma levels of estrogens, progesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and prolactin vary. Pathologically, except for involvement by opportunistic infections, no significant abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary area has been described, but evidence of orchitis is commonly present. The cause(s) of these abnormalities remains unclear. The possible factors leading to hypogonadism in HIV-infected men include HIV infection itself, opportunistic infections, chronic debilitating illness, and effects of cytokines on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Further studies are needed to clarify the cause(s) of testicular dysfunction in HIV-infected men and its clinical significance, treatment, relevance to the progression of HIV infection, and influence on the immune system.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of neural xenografts.

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkovich, T A; Lazar, E; Blumberg, B M; Saito, Y; Eskin, T A; Reichman, R; Baram, D A; del Cerro, C; Gendelman, H E; del Cerro, M

    1992-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly specific for its human host. To study HIV-1 infection of the human nervous system, we have established a small animal model in which second-trimester (11 to 17.5 weeks) human fetal brain or neural retina is transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of immunosuppressed adult rats. The human xenografts vascularized, formed a blood-brain barrier, and differentiated, forming neurons and glia. The xenografts were infected with cell-free HIV-1 or with HIV-1-infected human monocytes. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction revealed HIV-1 sequences in DNA from xenograft tissue exposed to HIV-1 virions, and in situ hybridization demonstrated HIV-1 mRNA localized in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Pathological damage was observed only in neural xenografts containing HIV-1-infected human monocytes, supporting the hypothesis that these cells mediate neurotoxicity. This small animal model allows the study of direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on developing human fetal neural tissues, and it should prove useful in evaluating antiviral therapies, which must ultimately target HIV-1 infection of the brain. Images PMID:1594627

  13. [Antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infection: an update].

    PubMed

    Chaix, F; Goujard, C

    2009-06-01

    Since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, the care of infected patients improved dramatically. Whereas the disease was almost always fatal, the development of new drugs and new therapeutic strategies now allow a prolonged survival. However, the complexity of patient care is increasing and physicians face new clinical events and treatment toxicities. Recent molecules and follow-up according to the recent French recommendations will be presented here. The objectives of the treatment is to decrease mortality and morbidity of the HIV infection, by restoring near normal CD4+ T cell counts and qualitative T CD4+ responses, associated with a sustained reduction in viral replication. This objective must be reached by minimizing toxicity of antiretroviral drugs. Newly developed drugs that are better-tolerated and new therapeutic classes should improve outcome at all stages of HIV infection. Whereas viral eradication remains unrealistic and protective vaccines will not be soon available, direct consequences of long term HIV infection and issues related to an ageing HIV infected population raise up new research topics. Prevention of new infections, improvement in the precocity of care by a better-targeted screening and assessment of therapy before an established immune deficiency appear as the main priorities for the coming years. PMID:19237230

  14. Inhibition of productive human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection by cobalamins.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J B; Sauls, D L; Misukonis, M A; Shugars, D C

    1995-08-15

    Various cobalamins act as important enzyme cofactors and modulate cellular function. We investigated cobalamins for their abilities to modify productive human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection of hematopoietic cells in vitro. We show that hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl), methylcobalamin (Me-Cbl), and adenosylcobalamin Ado-Cbl (Ado-Cbl) inhibit HIV-1 infection of normal human blood monocytes and lymphocytes. The inhibitory effects were noted when analyzing the monocytotropic strains HIV-1-BaL and HIV-1-ADA as well as the lymphocytotropic strain HIV-1-LAI. Cobalamins did not modify binding of gp120 to CD4 or block early steps in viral life cycle, inhibit reverse transcriptase, inhibit induction of HIV-1 expression from cells with established or latent infection, or modify monocyte interferon-alpha production. Because of the ability to achieve high blood and tissue levels of cobalamins in vivo and the general lack of toxicity, cobalamins should be considered as potentially useful agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:7632933

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

    1993-01-01

    Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

  16. Neutralization Properties of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Infecting Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Hannah J.; Decker, Julie M.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Galimidi, Rachel P.; West, Anthony P.; Learn, Gerald H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Li, Yingying; Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Huang, Yaoxing; Denny, Thomas N.; Mouquet, Hugo; Martin, Loic; Acharya, Priyamvada; Zhang, Baoshan; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Verrips, C. Theo; Strokappe, Nika M.; Rutten, Lucy; McCoy, Laura E.; Weiss, Robin A.; Brown, Corrine S.; Jackson, Raven; Silvestri, Guido; Connors, Mark; Burton, Dennis R.; Shaw, George M.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ho, David D.; Farzan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4+ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection. PMID:25900654

  17. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-07-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV(+) donors to HIV(+) recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV(+) to HIV(+) kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV(+) to HIV(+) liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  18. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-01-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV+ donors to HIV+ recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV+ to HIV+ kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV+ to HIV+ liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  19. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb

    2002-09-01

    In persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the immune system becomes dysfunctional in many ways. There is both immunodeficiency due to the loss of CD4-positive T helper cells and hyperactivity as a result of B-cell activation. Likewise, both decreases and increases are seen in the production and/or activity of cytokines. Cytokine changes in HIV infection have been assessed by a variety of techniques, ranging from determination of cytokine gene expression at the mRNA level to secretion of cytokine proteins in vivo and in vitro. Changes in cytokine levels in HIV-infected persons can affect the function of the immune system, and have the potential to directly impact the course of HIV disease by enhancing or suppressing HIV replication. In particular, the balance between the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which up-regulate HIV expression, and IL-10, which can act both as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and a B-cell stimulatory factor, may play an important role in the progression to AIDS. In light of its ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, under some conditions, suppress HIV replication, increased IL-10 may be viewed as beneficial in slowing HIV disease progression. However, an association between increased IL-10 and the development of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphoma highlights the bifunctional nature of IL-10 as both an anti-inflammatory and B-cell-stimulatory cytokine that could have beneficial and detrimental effects on the course of HIV infection and AIDS.

  20. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27463051

  2. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  3. Selective destruction of cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a variant of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  4. Selective Destruction Of Cells Infected With The Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2006-03-28

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a varient of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  5. Association of human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression with human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Henry, M J; Stanley, M W; Cruikshank, S; Carson, L

    1989-02-01

    Human papillomavirus infection plays an important causal role in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. The rate of infection with human papillomavirus as well as the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma are increased in immunosuppressed patients. We report a possible association between infection with human immunodeficiency virus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with human papillomavirus infection.

  6. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic. PMID:27487603

  7. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.

  8. Preventing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: implications for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J E; Hu, D J; Holmes, K K; Jaffe, H W; Masur, H; De Cock, K M

    1996-07-01

    More than 18 million persons in the world are estimated to have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As immunodeficiency progresses, these persons become susceptible to a wide variety of opportunistic infections (OIs) The spectrum of OIs varies among regions of the world. Tuberculosis is the most common serious OI in sub-Saharan Africa and is also more common in Latin America and in Asia than in the United States. Bacterial and parasitic infections are prevalent in Africa; protozoal infections such as toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, and isosporiasis are also common in Latin America. Fungal infections, including cryptococcosis and Penicillium marneffei infection, appear to be prevalent in Southeast Asia. Despite limited health resources in these regions, some measures that are recommended to prevent OIs in the United States may be useful for prolonging and improving the quality of life of HIV-infected persons. These include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections; isoniazid to prevent tuberculosis; and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to prevent disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Research is needed to determine the spectrum of OIs and the efficacy of various prevention measures in resource-poor nations, and health officials need to determine a minimum standard of care for HIV-infected persons. An increasing problem in the developing world, HIV/AIDS should receive attention comparable to other tropical diseases.

  9. Dual infection with dengue virus 3 and human immunodeficiency virus 1 in Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Limonta, Daniel; Bandera, Juan Francisco; Perez, Jorge; Kouri, Gustavo; Guzman, Maria G

    2009-01-01

    Although dengue virus (DEN) endemic regions overlap with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) high incidence areas, little has been documented on HIV and DEN mixed infection. Here we report DEN/HIV concurrent infections recorded during the DEN-3 epidemic in 2001-2002 in Havana. Serologic-confirmed DEN is described in two HIV-infected subjects with dengue fever symptoms. Although patients had dengue disease, the CD4+ cells remained within normal levels and no accelerated progression of HIV disease was observed. To our knowledge, DEN cases caused by DEN-3 in HIV-infected individuals have not been reported previously. Further research is needed to diagnose this likely underreported mixed viral infection in DEN endemic areas.

  10. Metabolic stress in infected cells may represent a therapeutic target for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Menéndez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide, there are thousands of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection per day. The effectiveness of current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is relative; to prioritize finding vaccines and/or cure-oriented initiatives should be reinforced because there is little room, if any, for procrastination. Basic and clinical findings on HIV-1 reservoirs suggest that disruption of virus latency is feasible. Because the goal is curing HIV-1 infection, we should be aware that the challenge is to eradicate the viruses of every single infected cell and consequently acting upon virus latency is necessary but not sufficient. The large majority of the virus reservoir, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, is readily accessible but other minor reservoirs, where ART does not diffuse, require innovative strategies. The situation closely resembles that currently faced in the treatment of cancer. Exploiting the fact that histone deacetylase inhibitors, mainly vorinostat, may disrupt the latency of HIV-1, we propose to supplement this effect with a programmed interference in the metabolic stress of infected cells. Metformin and chloroquine are cheap and accessible modulators of pro-survival mechanisms to which viruses are constantly confronted to generate alternative energy sources and maximize virus production. Metformin restrains the use of the usurped cellular biosynthetic machinery by viral genes and chloroquine contributes to death of infected cells. We suggest that the combination of vorinostat, chloroquine and metformin should be combined with ART to pursue viral eradication in infected cells. PMID:23639282

  11. Quantitation of Productively Infected Monocytes and Macrophages of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Claudia R.; Price, Sarah L.; Forsyth, Ellen R.; Pin, Julia N.; Shirk, Erin N.; Bullock, Brandon T.; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Gellerup, Dane; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Gama, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a lifelong infection because of latent viral reservoirs in infected patients. The contribution of CD4+ T cells to infection and disease progression has been extensively studied. However, during early HIV infection, macrophages in brain and other tissues are infected and contribute to tissue-specific diseases, such as encephalitis and dementia in brain and pneumonia in lung. The extent of infection of monocytes and macrophages has not been rigorously assessed with assays comparable to those used to study infection of CD4+ T cells and to evaluate the number of CD4+ T cells that harbor infectious viral genomes. To assess the contribution of productively infected monocytes and macrophages to HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells in vivo, we developed a quantitative virus outgrowth assay (QVOA) based on similar assays used to quantitate CD4+ T cell latent reservoirs in HIV- and SIV-infected individuals in whom the infection is suppressed by ART. Myeloid cells expressing CD11b were serially diluted and cocultured with susceptible cells to amplify virus. T cell receptor β RNA was measured as a control to assess the potential contribution of CD4+ T cells in the assay. Virus production in the supernatant was quantitated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Productively infected myeloid cells were detected in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, spleen, and brain, demonstrating that these cells persist throughout SIV infection and have the potential to contribute to the viral reservoir during ART. IMPORTANCE Infection of CD4+ T cells and their role as latent reservoirs have been rigorously assessed; however, the frequency of productively infected monocytes and macrophages in vivo has not been similarly studied. Myeloid cells, unlike lymphocytes, are resistant to the cytopathic effects of HIV. Moreover, tissue

  12. Insights into human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus co-infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Runu; Pal, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Shared routes of transmission lead to frequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in a host which results in about 10% of HIV positive individuals to have chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. In post-antiretroviral therapy era, liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals and HBV co-infection have become the major health issue among this population particularly from the regions with endemic HBV infection. In setting of HIV-HBV co-infection, HIV significantly impacts the natural history of HBV infection, its disease profile and the treatment outcome in negative manner. Moreover, the epidemiological pattern of HBV infection and the diversity in HBV genome (genotypic and phenotypic) are also varied in HIV co-infected subjects as compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. Several reports on the abovementioned issues are available from developed parts of the world as well as from sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast, most of these research areas remained unexplored in India despite having considerable burden of HIV and HBV infections. This review discusses present knowledge from the studies on HIV-HBV co-infection in India and relevant reports from different parts of the world. Issues needed for the future research relevant to HIV-HBV co-infection in India are also highlighted here, including a call for further investigations on this field of study. PMID:26279986

  13. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  14. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection among cats in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan; Sears, William; Lachtara, Jessica; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection among cats in Canada and to identify risk factors for seropositivity. Signalment, lifestyle factors, and test results for FeLV antigen and FIV antibody were analyzed for 11 144 cats from the 10 Canadian provinces. Seroprevalence for FIV antibody was 4.3% and seroprevalence for FeLV antigen was 3.4%. Fifty-eight cats (0.5%) were seropositive for both viruses. Seroprevalence varied geographically. Factors such as age, gender, health status, and lifestyle were significantly associated with risk of FeLV and FIV seropositivity. The results suggest that cats in Canada are at risk of retrovirus infection and support current recommendations that the retrovirus status of all cats should be known. PMID:19721785

  15. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Infection and Sensing Capacity during Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Simon P.; Jacquelin, Beatrice; Chauveau, Lise; Huot, Nicolas; Petitjean, Gaël; Lepelley, Alice; Liovat, Anne-Sophie; Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Cartwright, Emily K.; Bosinger, Steven E.; Silvestri, Guido; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Schwartz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques (MAC) lead to chronic inflammation and AIDS. Natural hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM), are protected against SIV-induced chronic inflammation and AIDS. Here, we report that AGM plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) express extremely low levels of CD4, unlike MAC and human pDC. Despite this, AGM pDC efficiently sensed SIVagm, but not heterologous HIV/SIV isolates, indicating a virus-host adaptation. Moreover, both AGM and SM pDC were found to be, in contrast to MAC pDC, predominantly negative for CCR5. Despite such limited CD4 and CCR5 expression, lymphoid tissue pDC were infected to a degree similar to that seen with CD4+ T cells in both MAC and AGM. Altogether, our finding of efficient pDC infection by SIV in vivo identifies pDC as a potential viral reservoir in lymphoid tissues. We discovered low expression of CD4 on AGM pDC, which did not preclude efficient sensing of host-adapted viruses. Therefore, pDC infection and efficient sensing are not prerequisites for chronic inflammation. The high level of pDC infection by SIVagm suggests that if CCR5 paucity on immune cells is important for nonpathogenesis of natural hosts, it is possibly not due to its role as a coreceptor. IMPORTANCE The ability of certain key immune cell subsets to resist infection might contribute to the asymptomatic nature of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in its natural hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM). This relative resistance to infection has been correlated with reduced expression of CD4 and/or CCR5. We show that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) of natural hosts display reduced CD4 and/or CCR5 expression, unlike macaque pDC. Surprisingly, this did not protect AGM pDC, as infection levels were similar to those found in MAC pDC. Furthermore, we show that AGM pDC did not consistently produce type I

  16. Decline in CD4+ cell numbers in cats with naturally acquired feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Fezer, G; Thum, J; Ackley, C; Herbold, M; Mysliwietz, J; Thefeld, S; Hartmann, K; Kraft, W

    1992-03-01

    T-cell subsets were studied by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis in 57 feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-seropositive cats with naturally acquired FIV infection to see whether CD4(+)-CD8+ alterations were comparable to those observed in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. CD4+ values were decreased and CD8+ values were increased. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio was reduced to 1.6, compared with 3.3 in 33 FIV-seronegative control cats. Variance analysis of data showed a significant influence of FIV seropositivity, sex, and spaying of female cats on CD4+ values. CD8+ values were significantly influenced by FIV seropositivity, age, and breed. These findings indicate a similarity between FIV and human immunodeficiency virus infections, as far as alterations of T-cell subsets are concerned. PMID:1310760

  17. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samuel S.; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Gillies, Robert D.; Foster, Andrew L.; Barbati, Zachary R.; Smith, Davey M.; Fierer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods. We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results. Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions. One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  18. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men.

    PubMed

    Turner, Samuel S; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S; van Seggelen, Wouter O; Gillies, Robert D; Foster, Andrew L; Barbati, Zachary R; Smith, Davey M; Fierer, Daniel S

    2016-03-01

    Background.  The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods.  We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results.  Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions.  One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  19. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained in connection with the performance of any program or activity relating to infection with the HIV,...

  20. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained in connection with the performance of any program or activity relating to infection with the HIV,...

  1. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... indicating that a patient is infected with the HIV if the disclosure is made to the spouse of the patient,...

  2. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... indicating that a patient is infected with the HIV if the disclosure is made to the spouse of the patient,...

  3. Hepatitis B virus coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Due to the shared modes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. It is estimated that 10% of HIV-infected patients worldwide are coinfected with HBV. In areas where an HBV vaccination program is implemented, the HBV seroprevalence has declined significantly. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, HBV coinfection accelerates immunologic and clinical progression of HIV infection and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is initiated, while HIV infection increases the risk of hepatitis events, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease related to chronic HBV infection. With the advances in antiviral therapy, concurrent, successful long-term suppression of HIV and HBV replication can be achieved in the cART era. To reduce the disease burden of HBV infection among HIV-infected patients, adoption of safe sex practices, avoidance of sharing needles and diluent, HBV vaccination and use of cART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine or lamivudine are the most effective approaches. However, due to HIV-related immunosuppression, using increased doses of HBV vaccine and novel approaches to HBV vaccination are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HBV vaccine among HIV-infected patients. PMID:25356024

  4. Chikungunya infection in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected kidney transplant recipient returning to Italy from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Dalla Gasperina, D; Balsamo, M L; Garavaglia, S D; Rovida, F; Baldanti, F; Grossi, P A

    2015-12-01

    Since December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) spread in many countries of the Western Hemisphere, and during the last year some cases of infected European travelers, coming back from the Caribbean, have been reported. The risk of acquiring severe travel-related illness is higher in immunocompromised subjects, such as patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or solid organ transplant recipients. We reported the first case, to our knowledge, of CHIKV infection in an HIV-infected kidney transplant recipient.

  5. Frequent perinatal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus by chronically infected cats.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, L L; Burkhard, M J; Hoover, E A

    1996-01-01

    Vertical transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was studied in cats infected with either of two FIV clinical isolates (FIV-B-2542 or FIV-AB-2771) prior to breeding and conception. Queens infected 4 to 30 months (mean = 14 months) prior to conception transmitted FIV to 59 of 83 (71%) kittens; 50.6% were virus positive on the day of birth. To examine potential routes of FIV transmission from mother to offspring, kittens were delivered via either vaginal or cesarean birth and nursed by either their virus-infected natural mothers or uninfected surrogate mothers. Comparison of FIV infection rates at birth with those at 6 months of age in kittens delivered by cesarean and surrogate raised demonstrated that late in utero transmission occurred in approximately 20% of kittens. Comparison of kittens nursed by FIV mothers with those by uninfected surrogate mothers demonstrated a 13.5% increase in infection rate of kittens exposed to milk-borne virus. Isolation of virus from 40% of maternal vaginal wash samples and the slightly greater infection rate in vaginally versus cesarean-delivered surrogate-nursed kittens suggested that intrapartum transmission may occur. In addition, we found that low maternal CD4 count (<200 cells per microl), longer duration of maternal infection (>15 months), and maternal symptoms of clinical immunodeficiency correlated with increased rates of mother-to-kitten FIV transmission, paralleling observations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. We conclude that FIV infection provides a model in which to explore aspects of human immunodeficiency virus vertical transmission and intervention difficult to address in human patients. PMID:8627764

  6. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Mason, Andrew; Luftig, Ronald B; Bautista, Abraham P

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 400,000 individuals in the United States are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is likely that almost one in two of these subjects consumes alcohol. The majority of these patients suffer an accelerated course of liver disease as manifested by the onset of cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years of developing HCV infection, as well as an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is thought that chronic alcohol abuse mediates liver damage as a result of increased production of free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. In the setting of chronic HCV infection, alcohol ingestion has an additional effect of diminishing immune clearance and increasing viral burden to hasten the onset of cirrhosis and HCC. Likewise, chronic HCV and HIV-1 co-infection results in a net increase in HCV burden; higher prevalence rates of HCV transmission to sexual partners and offspring, as well as an accelerated progression to end stage liver disease as compared to individuals with HCV infection alone. Thus, the synergistic effects of alcohol abuse and HIV-1 greatly impact on the morbidity and mortality for patients with HCV coinfection. Ultimately, this cumulative disease process will require far more aggressive management with abstinence and counseling for alcohol abuse; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection and combination anti-viral therapy for HCV infection to stem the rapid progression to end stage liver disease. PMID:12086918

  7. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Course Is Predicted by the Extent of Virus Replication during Primary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Staprans, Silvija I.; Dailey, Peter J.; Rosenthal, Ann; Horton, Chris; Grant, Robert M.; Lerche, Nicholas; Feinberg, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between early viral infection events and immunodeficiency virus disease progression, quantitative-competitive and branched-DNA methods of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA quantitation were cross-validated and used to measure viremia following infection of rhesus macaques with the pathogenic SIVmac251 virus isolate. Excellent correlation between the methods suggests that both accurately approximate SIV copy number. Plasma viremia was evident 4 days postinfection, and rapid viral expansion led to peak viremia levels of 107 to 109 SIV RNA copies/ml by days 8 to 17. Limited resolution of primary viremia was accompanied by relatively short, though variable, times to the development of AIDS (81 to 630 days). The persistent high-level viremia observed following intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 explains the aggressive disease course in this model. Survival analyses demonstrated that the disease course is established 8 to 17 days postinfection, when peak viremia is observed. The most significant predictor of disease progression was the extent of viral decline following peak viremia; larger decrements in viremia were associated with both lower steady-state viremia (P = 0.0005) and a reduced hazard of AIDS (P = 0.004). The data also unexpectedly suggested that following SIVmac251 infection, animals with the highest peak viremia were better able to control virus replication rather than more rapidly developing disease. Analysis of early viral replication dynamics should help define host responses that protect from disease progression and should provide quantitative measures to assess the extent to which protective responses may be induced by prophylactic vaccination. PMID:10233944

  8. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  9. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G H; McKim, K D; Cooley, P L; Dice, P F; Russell, R G; Grant, C K

    1989-01-15

    Lymphoma was diagnosed in a 7-year-old domestic cat found to be infected with FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The cat was affected by chronic disorders suggestive of immunosuppression, including gingivitis, periodontitis, keratitis, and abscesses. Despite treatment, peripheral keratitis of the left eye progressed, resulting in uveitis, chronic glaucoma, and eventual corneal rupture. Microscopic retinal and optic disk pathologic processes also were suspected. Abnormal jaw movements that were believed to be indicative of neurologic disease were observed. Approximately 17 months later, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and bilateral renomegaly. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and glomerulonephritis were diagnosed histologically. Manganese- and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity were detected in supernatants from lymph node and spleen mononuclear cell cultures, suggesting T-lymphocyte infection with FeLV and FIV. PMID:2537274

  10. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... partner and that the disclosure is necessary to protect the health of the spouse or sexual partner. (c) A... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject...

  11. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... partner and that the disclosure is necessary to protect the health of the spouse or sexual partner. (c) A... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject...

  12. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... partner and that the disclosure is necessary to protect the health of the spouse or sexual partner. (c) A... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject...

  13. Simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ lymphocyte response in acutely infected rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Yasutomi, Y; Reimann, K A; Lord, C I; Miller, M D; Letvin, N L

    1993-01-01

    To assess the possible role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in containing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus in acutely infected individuals, the temporal evolution of the virus-specific CD8+ lymphocyte response was defined in simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac)-infected rhesus monkeys. A brief period of SIVmac plasma antigenemia was seen 9 to 16 days following intravenous infection with SIVmac, ending as the absolute number of CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) increased. In a prospective assessment of the ability of CD8+ lymphocytes of these monkeys to suppress SIVmac replication in autologous PBLs, inhibitory activity was detected as early as 4 days, with a more pronounced effect 12 to 16 days following infection. SIVmac Gag- and Nef-specific CD8+ effector cell activities were demonstrable in PBLs of animals by 2 weeks following virus inoculation. In fact, SIVmac-specific CTL precursors were documented in the PBLs of rhesus monkeys 4 to 6 days after SIVmac infection. These studies indicate that AIDS virus-specific CD8+ CTLs are present in PBLs within days of infection and may play an important role in containing the early spread of virus. PMID:8437240

  14. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. PMID:25948844

  15. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started.

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  17. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  18. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART.

  19. Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Melissa J; Wesselingh, Steven L; Cowley, Daniel; Pardo, Carlos A; McArthur, Justin C; Brew, Bruce J; Gorry, Paul R

    2009-08-01

    Astrocyte infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered rare, so astrocytes are thought to play a secondary role in HIV neuropathogenesis. By combining double immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, and highly sensitive multiplexed polymerase chain reaction to detect HIV DNA in single astrocytes in vivo, we showed that astrocyte infection is extensive in subjects with HIV-associated dementia, occurring in up to 19% of GFAP+ cells. In addition, astrocyte infection frequency correlated with the severity of neuropathological changes and proximity to perivascular macrophages. Our data indicate that astrocytes can be extensively infected with HIV, and suggest an important role for HIV-infected astrocytes in HIV neuropathogenesis.

  20. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  1. Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus during early infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M A; Kingsley, L A; Atchison, R W; Belle, S; Breinig, M C; Ho, M; Rinaldo, C R

    1991-01-01

    Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was investigated in 49 homosexual men who seroconverted to HIV (cases) as compared with 49 matched controls who remained seronegative to HIV during a longitudinal study. EBV infection was reactivated in cases 6 months, but not 12 months, prior to HIV seroconversion as compared with controls and remained reactivated during 18 months of follow-up after HIV seroconversion, as shown by increases in immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody titers to EBV early antigen. Antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen did not differ between cases and controls prior to the time of seroconversion to HIV but were significantly increased among cases by the first seropositive study visit and remained elevated during the 18 months after HIV seroconversion. Total serum IgG levels were increased in cases at the visit of seroconversion, and during 18 months of follow-up, but did not correlate with enhanced IgG production specific for EBV antigens. Significant decreases in numbers of CD4+ cells and increases in numbers of CD8+ cells during this early phase of HIV infection were not associated with changes in patterns of EBV antibody responses. Reactivation of EBV beginning 6 months before HIV seroconversion may have implications regarding the role of this herpesvirus in the pathogenesis of HIV. PMID:1650790

  2. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Scott; Thackray, Larissa B.; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C.; Permar, Sallie R.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:23063120

  3. Plasma viral RNA load predicts disease progression in accelerated feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, L J; Mathiason-Dubard, C K; O'Neil, L L; Hoover, E A

    1996-01-01

    Viral RNA load has been shown to indicate disease stage and predict the rapidity of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. We had previously demonstrated that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA levels in plasma correlate with disease stage in infected cats. Here we expand upon those observations by demonstrating that plasma virus load is 1 to 2 logs higher in cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease than in long-term survivors. Differences in plasma FIV RNA levels are evident by 1 to 2 weeks after infection and are consistent throughout infection. We also evaluated humoral immune responses in FIV-infected cats for correlation with survival times. Total anti-FIV antibody titers did not differ between cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease and long-term survivors. These findings indicate that virus replication plays an important role in FIV disease progression, as it does in HIV-1 disease progression. The parallels in virus loads and disease progressions between HIV-1 and FIV support the idea that the accelerated disease model is well suited for the study of therapeutic agents directed at reducing lentiviral replication. PMID:8642679

  4. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected infant

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, E. D.; Smith, A.; Golitko, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY World Health Organization-classified very severe pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is recognized as a life-threatening condition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected infants. We recount the use of nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) in an HIV-infected African infant with very severe pneumonia and treatment failure due to suspected infection with P. jirovecii. We also examine the potential implications of BCPAP use in resource-poor settings with a high case index of acute respiratory failure due to HIV-related pneumonia, but limited access to mechanical ventilation. PMID:21396221

  5. Role of dendritic cells in immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, D; Fauci, A S

    1997-01-01

    The role of dendritic cells (DC) in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has been a subject of considerable interest for several years. Initial studies focused on the infection, dysfunction, and depletion of DC in HIV-infected individuals. More recent studies have begun to identify the functional role of DC in the initiation and propagation of viral replication in T cells in HIV-infected individuals. This review discusses recent data regarding the role of DC in HIV disease with the aim of delineating basic immunopathogenic principles of infection and the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:9105759

  6. Immunological changes in cats with concurrent Toxoplasma gondii and feline immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, D S; Bowman, D D; Jacobson, R H

    1992-01-01

    To examine the immunological changes in cats concurrently infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Toxoplasma gondii, kittens (four per group) were inoculated with FIV, T. gondii, both agents, or no pathogens. Blood mononuclear cells and plasma were collected weekly for lymphocyte assays and serology. At week 14, spleen and lymph node cells were used for lymphocyte assays; brains and mesenteric lymph nodes were used for isolation of T. gondii. More T. gondii organisms were present in tissues of the dually infected cats than in tissues of cats with toxoplasmosis alone. Two dually infected cats and one cat infected with T. gondii developed chorioretinitis. Spleen, lymph node, and blood mononuclear cells from dually infected cats had the greatest reduction in mitogenic responses. By week 3, cats infected with FIV underwent a decrease in the number of CD4 cells that was not changed by concurrent T. gondii infection; the number of CD8 cells increased only in cats infected with T. gondii alone. For cats infected with T. gondii, the responses of lymphocytes to T. gondii antigen were not affected by FIV infection; the responses to FIV antigen were negligible in all groups. Overall, this study indicates that FIV infection favors T. gondii proliferation. Also, the establishment of toxoplasmosis may enhance FIV-induced immunodeficiency and is likely to cause a more rapid disease progression than that from infection with FIV alone. PMID:1346403

  7. Persistent Peripheral Nervous System Damage in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Jamie L; Mangus, Lisa M; Hauer, Peter; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Queen, Suzanne E; Laast, Victoria A; Adams, Robert J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication associated with HIV infection. In addition to virus-mediated injury of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), treatment of HIV infection with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may induce toxic neuropathy as a side effect. Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy is clinically indistinguishable from the sensory neuropathy induced by HIV; in some patients, these 2 processes are likely superimposed. To study these intercurrent PNS disease processes, we first established a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/pigtailed macaque model in which more than 90% of animals developed PNS changes closely resembling those seen in HIV-infected individuals with distal sensory neuropathy. To determine whether cART alters the progression of SIV-induced PNS damage, dorsal root ganglia and epidermal nerve fibers were evaluated in SIV-infected macaques after long-term suppressive cART. Although cART effectively suppressed SIV replication and reduced macrophage activation in the dorsal root ganglia, PGP 9.5 immunostaining and measurements of epidermal nerve fibers in the plantar surface of the feet of treated SIV-infected macaques clearly showed that cART did not normalize epidermal nerve fiber density. These findings illustrate that significant PNS damage persists in SIV-infected macaques on suppressive cART.

  8. Complete genome analysis of hepatitis B virus in human immunodeficiency virus infected and uninfected South Africans.

    PubMed

    Gededzha, Maemu P; Muzeze, Muxe; Burnett, Rosemary J; Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Selabe, Selokela G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly endemic in South Africa. Data on the complete genome sequences of HBV in HIV-positive patients in South Africa are scanty. This study characterized the complete HBV genome isolated from both HIV-positive and negative patients at the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Pretoria. Serum samples from nine (five HIV-positive and four HIV-negative) patients attending the DGMAH from 2007 to 2011 were serologically tested, amplified, and sequenced for complete genome. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA6.0. Mutations were analyzed by comparing the sequences with genotype-matched GenBank references. Eight patients were HBsAg positive, with only one from the HIV positive group being negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences classified them into five genotypes; A1 (n = 4), A2 (n = 1), C1 (n = 2), D1 (n = 1), and D3 (n = 1). Deletions up to 35 nucleotides in length were identified in this study. No drug resistance mutations were identified in the P ORF, while the L217R mutation was identified in one subgenotype A2 sequence. The double (A1762T/G1764A) and triple (T1753C/A1762T/G1764A) mutations in the Basal core promoter were identified in four and two sequences, respectively. In the core region, mutation G1888A was identified in four of the subgenotype A1 sequences. In conclusion, this study has added to the limited South African data on HBV genotypes and mutations in HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients, based on complete HBV genome analysis. Subgenotype A1 was predominant, and no drug-resistant mutants were detected in the study. J. Med. Virol. 88:1560-1566, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Gastric uptake of gallium67 in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Escalera Temprado, T; Banzo Marraco, J; Abós Olivares, M D; Olave Rubio, M T; Prats Rivera, E; García López, F; Razola Alba, P

    2004-02-01

    Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a chronic disease. In the frequent clinical situations with fever, lymph nodes and loss weight it is necessary to determine their etiology, for establishing a specific treatment. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections or gastric lymphomatous or sarcomatous process, which can accumulate Ga67, may be present in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report 2 cases with gastric uptake in which endoscopy and biopsy was obtained. In the first one, with previous treatment with omeprazol and almalgate for gastroesophagic reflux, endoscopy and biopsy were normal and in the second patient an Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. We think that gastric uptake of Ga67 in HIV patients, must indicate to the clinician to rule out associated pathologies.

  10. Psychological problems of families and health workers dealing with people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1.

    PubMed

    Maj, M

    1991-03-01

    The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.

  11. Establishment of an indicator cell line for monitoring bovine immunodeficiency virus infection and inhibitor susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xue; Su, Yang; Liu, Chang; Tan, Juan; Liu, Li; Geng, Yun-Qi; Qiao, Wen-Tao

    2010-01-01

    Indicator cell lines are useful biological tools for monitoring virus infection. In order to monitor infection with bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in vitro, an indicator cell line derived from baby hamster kidney cells which contains integrated copies of an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene driven by the BIV long terminal repeat was constructed. The BIV indicator cell line, designated BIVE, can detect BIV infection more easily and effectively than the established method, which involves the observation of cell cytopathic effects. Furthermore, viral titration using an assay based on the indicator cells is 100 times more sensitive than the assay based on cytopathic effect. The finding that BIV can infect the hamster cell line expands the known host range of BIV in vitro. The BIV indicator cell line could also be used for the evaluation of the inhibitory effect of antiviral agents. The fusion inhibition effect of the heptad repeat 2 region of the BIV envelope protein could also be quantified.

  12. Whole body positron emission tomography imaging of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Scharko, A M; Perlman, S B; Hinds PW2nd; Hanson, J M; Uno, H; Pauza, C D

    1996-01-01

    Pathogenesis of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques begins with acute viremia and then progresses to a distributed infection in the solid lymphoid tissues, which is followed by a process of cellular destruction leading to terminal disease and death. Blood and tissue specimens show the progress of infection at the cellular level but do not reveal the pattern of infection and host responses occurring throughout the body. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with intravenous 2-18F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) could identify activated lymphoid tissues in a living animal and whether this pattern would reflect the extent of SIV infection. PET images from SIV-infected animals were distinguishable from uninfected controls and revealed a pattern consistent with widespread lymphoid tissue activation. Significant FDG accumulation in colon along with mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes was found in SIV infection, especially during terminal disease stages. Areas of elevated FDG uptake in the PET images were correlated with productive SIV infection using in situ hybridization as a test for virus replication. PET-FDG images of SIV-infected animals correlated sites of virus replication with high FDG accumulation. These data show that the method can be used to evaluate the distribution and activity of infected tissues in a living animal without biopsy. Fewer tissues had high FDG uptake in terminal animals than midstage animals, and both were clearly distinguishable from uninfected animal scans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692831

  13. Vulvar carcinoma in a 12-year-old girl with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, C; Del Mistro, A; De Rossi, A; Bertorelle, R; Giacomet, V; Ruga, E; Minucci, D

    2000-10-01

    We report the first case of a girl with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who developed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva at 12 years of age. Lesions resembling bowenoid papulosis covered the perianal area as well. She underwent a nonmutilating surgical excision of the infiltrating lesion. More than 3 years later, her clinical condition is excellent, although dysplastic, noninfiltrating multifocal lesions persist. This case highlights the need to perform careful periodic genital examinations in all HIV-infected children and adolescents born to HIV-positive mothers.

  14. Nodular Erythema Elevatum Diutinum Mimicking Kaposi's Sarcoma in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rao, G Raghurama; Joshi, Rajiv; Phaneendra Prasad, A Krishna; Amareswar, A; Sandhya, S; Sridevi, M

    2014-01-01

    Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) has been emerging as a specific Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) associated dermatosis in recent times. It is an extremely rare chronic disease of unknown origin and part of the spectrum of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. We describe a case of EED simulating Kaposi's sarcoma in a 52-year-old HIV infected female patient with no previous opportunistic infections and CD4+ count of 164/mm3. Therapy with oral dapsone (100 mg/day) for two weeks resulted in resolution of some lesions. PMID:25484391

  15. Amebic liver abscess and human immunodeficiency virus infection: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Liu, C J; Hung, C C; Chen, M Y; Lai, Y P; Chen, P J; Huang, S H; Chen, D S

    2001-07-01

    Invasive amebiasis rarely occurs in homosexual men and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has not been regarded as a beacon for concomitant HIV infection. We encountered a bisexual man with a protracted course of amebic liver abscess and amebic colitis. In the presence of fever, generalized lymphadenopathy, and elevated serum aminotransferase levels, HIV infection was suspected and then confirmed by a de novo seroconversion of HIV antibody. Subsequently, we noted two consecutive patients with amebic liver abscess, also later found to be infected with HIV. The ameba obtained from these three cases was identified as Entamoeba histolytica by amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. This observation suggests that amebic liver abscess and colitis can be presentations for HIV infection in the Far East. Thus, the local patients with invasive amebiasis, especially those with a protracted course or with risk factors of HIV infection, should be tested for HIV.

  16. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 33 Final Diagnosis: Tuberculous meningitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Lumbar puncture Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. Case Report: A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while antiretroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Conclusions: A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  17. Routine vaccination and vaccine-preventable infections in children born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers. European Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Dunn, D T; Newell, M L; Peckham, C S; Vanden Eijden, S

    1998-04-01

    Information on vaccinations and vaccine-preventable infections collected in a prospective study of children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers was analysed for reports of adverse reactions and to estimate the clinical efficacy of vaccines. No vaccinated, HIV-infected child developed measles (56 child-years' follow-up), mumps (33), rubella (33) or pertussis (239), and only one adverse reaction - to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) - was reported. These findings provide limited evidence of the safety and efficacy of routine vaccination of HIV-infected children. PMID:9628307

  18. Cyclospora infection in a young woman with human immunodeficiency virus in Hong Kong: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclospora is an uncommon pathogen. The diagnosis of Cyclospora infection can be difficult because of its scarcity in developed countries, intracellular mode of life, small size of the parasite and its inability to take up routine microscopic stains. However, it is endemic in many countries in Asia, Africa, Central and South America. With the increase in travels to these areas, the number of cases is expected to increase. Moreover, it is found to be associated with numerous food-borne outbreaks. Case presentation We encountered a patient with human immunodeficiency virus presented with 6 months of diarrhoea. The initial investigation was unrevealing. The diagnosis of Cyclospora infection was finally made on the histological sample obtained by colonoscopy. Moreover, the initial therapy with ciprofloxacin was not effective, while trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resulted in final cure of the disease. Conclusion Travel and food histories are important for the suspicion of Cyclospora infection. Histological examination is more sensitive in making a diagnosis of Cyclospora infection of the gut than fecal microscopic examination. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is a more reliable therapy for Cyclospora infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:24321705

  19. Reduction of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells from donor blood by leukocyte filtration.

    PubMed

    Rawal, B D; Busch, M P; Endow, R; Garcia-de-Lomas, J; Perkins, H A; Schwadron, R; Vyas, G N

    1989-06-01

    Several filters for leukocyte removal were evaluated in terms of their ability to reduce the cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load in units of blood either inoculated in vitro with lymphocytes from a chronically infected cell line or collected directly from seropositive donors. Filtration of the experimentally inoculated units of blood resulted in a 5.9 log 10 mean reduction (95% confidence interval:7.4-4.5) of tissue culture infectious units (TCIU) as assayed by end-point titration using the coculture assay. Filtration of the units of blood from anti-HIV positive donors lowered the infectivity by over 2 logs, as detected by the coculture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. However, residual cell-associated virus was detected in the majority of experiments. Clinical studies are warranted to determine if leukocyte filtration of blood will reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted viral infections.

  20. Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.

    PubMed Central

    Funnyé, Allen S.; Akhtar, Abbasi J.

    2003-01-01

    Co-infection of syphilis and AIDS has profound implications for the African American community. The purpose of this review is to: evaluate the historical background of HIV and syphilis and their similarities in pathogenesis; review the epidemiology of syphilis and HIV co-infection, and implications for continued prevention efforts; examine the effect of syphilis on HIV transmission and acquisition; and, to examine the effects of HIV infection on syphilis transmission, diagnostic and serologic changes, clinical course, and treatment. The prevalence of HIV is higher in those with syphilis; moreover, the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection is highest in African Americans. There may be humoral and cellular immune similarities. HIV may affect the transmission of syphilis, alter its serologic diagnosis, and accelerate and change the clinical course and response to treatment. In conclusion, combined infection of HIV and syphilis may alter the clinical presentation and course of either disease. There are historical and immunologic similarities and the high prevalence in African Americans compared to other groups is of great importance for prevention efforts. PMID:12793793

  1. Immunovirological analyses of chronically simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmnd-1- and SIVmnd-2-infected mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    PubMed

    Apetrei, Cristian; Sumpter, Beth; Souquiere, Sandrine; Chahroudi, Ann; Makuwa, Maria; Reed, Patricia; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Pandrea, Ivona; Roques, Pierre; Silvestri, Guido

    2011-12-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in African nonhuman primate (NHP) natural hosts is usually nonpathogenic, despite high levels of virus replication. We have previously shown that chronic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs) is associated with low levels of immune activation and bystander T cell apoptosis. To compare these features with those observed in another natural host, the mandrill (MND), we conducted a cross-sectional survey of the 23 SIV-infected and 25 uninfected MNDs from the only semifree colony of mandrills available worldwide. Viral loads (VLs) were determined and phenotypic and functional analysis of peripheral blood- and lymph node-derived lymphocytes was performed. We found that mandrills chronically infected with SIVmnd-1 or SIVmnd-2 have similar levels of viral replication, and we observed a trend toward lower CD4+ T cell counts in chronically SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs than SIVmnd-1-infected MNDs. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and VLs in SIV-infected MNDs could be established. Of note, the levels of T cell activation, proliferation, and apoptosis were comparable between SIVmnd-1- and SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs and to those observed in uninfected animals, with the only exception being an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing CD8+ T cells in SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs. Overall, these findings recapitulate previous observations in SIV-infected SMs and AGMs and lend further evidence to the hypothesis that low levels of immune activation protect natural SIV hosts from disease progression.

  2. In vitro infection of natural killer cells with different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Chehimi, J; Bandyopadhyay, S; Prakash, K; Perussia, B; Hassan, N F; Kawashima, H; Campbell, D; Kornbluth, J; Starr, S E

    1991-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a discrete subset of leukocytes, distinct from T and B lymphocytes. NK cells mediate spontaneous non-MHC-restricted killing of a wide variety of target cells without prior sensitization and appear to be involved in initial protection against certain viral infections. Depressed NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, one of the many immunological defects observed in AIDS patients, may contribute to secondary virus infections. Here we report that clonal and purified polyclonal populations of NK cells, which expressed neither surface CD4 nor CD4 mRNA, were susceptible to infection with various isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Viral replication was demonstrated by detection of p24 antigen intracellularly and in culture supernatants, by the presence of HIV DNA within infected cells, and by the ability of supernatants derived from HIV-infected NK cells to infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells or CD4+ cell lines. Infection of NK cells was not blocked by anti-CD4 or anti-Fc gamma RIII monoclonal antibodies. NK cells from HIV-infected and uninfected cultures were similar in their ability to lyse three different target cells. Considerable numbers of cells died in HIV-infected NK cell cultures. These results suggest that loss of NK cells in AIDS patients is a direct effect of HIV infection but that reduced NK cell function involves another mechanism. The possibility that NK cells serve as a potential reservoir for HIV-1 must be considered. Images PMID:1672164

  3. Interference to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in the absence of downmodulation of the principal virus receptor, CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Volsky, D J; Simm, M; Shahabuddin, M; Li, G; Chao, W; Potash, M J

    1996-01-01

    It is thought that interference during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is established by downmodulation of the principal virus receptor, CD4. Here we present evidence to the contrary. At various times after primary infection, we superinfected T cells in vitro by exposure to a genetically distinct viral clone or to a virus carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Replication of each virus strain was determined by restriction enzyme analysis of total cellular DNA, by PCR amplification of viral DNA, or by assay of cell extracts for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. We found that efficient viral interference is established within 24 h of infection at a multiplicity of infection of 1. At that time, expression of viral structural proteins was low and infected cells displayed undiminished levels of surface CD4 and were fully susceptible to virus binding and fusion. Superinfection by either cell-free HIV-1 or cocultivation was blocked. Cells resistant to superinfection by HIV-1 remained susceptible to Moloney murine leukemia and vaccinia viruses. No interference was observed 4 h after primary infection or in cells infected with either UV-inactivated HIV-1 or a mutant virus defective in virus-cell fusion activity, indicating that binding of primary virus to CD4 is insufficient to prevent superinfection. The minimum viral requirements for this interference are that HIV-1 must be able to enter cells and synthesize viral DNA; Tat-mediated transcription is dispensable. Our results support the existence of a novel pathway to interference to HIV-1 infection, which we term postentry interference, which blocks superinfection during intracellular phases of the virus life cycle. PMID:8648718

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and its association with sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira da Silva; Sales, Marina Cerqueira; Scaramussa, Eduarda Sobral; da Paz, Clara Junia Calazans; Morelato, Renato Lirio

    2016-01-01

    Presarcopenia and sarcopenia were evaluated in HIV-infected individuals and in healthy elderly controls according to the consensus definitions of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Bioelectrical impedance, a hydraulic hand dynamometer, and gait speed were used to evaluate muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, respectively. Adjusted and unadjusted binary logistic regression predicted the risk of sarcopenia. Predictor contribution was assessed by the Wald test. Significance was established at p≤0.05. The HIV-infected group consisted of 33 patients on treatment (42.4% women; mean age 59±7 years; mean BMI 25±6kg/m(2); viral load undetectable in 30 cases). The HIV-uninfected group consisted of 60 individuals (71.7% women; mean age 70±7 years; mean BMI 28±6kg/m(2)). Of the controls, 4 (6.7%) individuals had presarcopenia and 4 (6.7%) sarcopenia compared to 4 (12.1%) and 8 (24.2%), respectively, in the HIV-infected group. The HIV-infected patients had a 4.95 higher risk (95% CI: 1.34-18.23) for sarcopenia compared to the controls. It should be pointed out that the control group was on average 10 years older. This risk increased further (RR=5.20; 95% CI: 1.40-19.20) after adjusting for age and BMI. HIV-infected patients were shown to be at a greater risk of sarcopenia, an indicator of frailty, even following adjustment for age and BMI.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and its association with sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira da Silva; Sales, Marina Cerqueira; Scaramussa, Eduarda Sobral; da Paz, Clara Junia Calazans; Morelato, Renato Lirio

    2016-01-01

    Presarcopenia and sarcopenia were evaluated in HIV-infected individuals and in healthy elderly controls according to the consensus definitions of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Bioelectrical impedance, a hydraulic hand dynamometer, and gait speed were used to evaluate muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, respectively. Adjusted and unadjusted binary logistic regression predicted the risk of sarcopenia. Predictor contribution was assessed by the Wald test. Significance was established at p≤0.05. The HIV-infected group consisted of 33 patients on treatment (42.4% women; mean age 59±7 years; mean BMI 25±6kg/m(2); viral load undetectable in 30 cases). The HIV-uninfected group consisted of 60 individuals (71.7% women; mean age 70±7 years; mean BMI 28±6kg/m(2)). Of the controls, 4 (6.7%) individuals had presarcopenia and 4 (6.7%) sarcopenia compared to 4 (12.1%) and 8 (24.2%), respectively, in the HIV-infected group. The HIV-infected patients had a 4.95 higher risk (95% CI: 1.34-18.23) for sarcopenia compared to the controls. It should be pointed out that the control group was on average 10 years older. This risk increased further (RR=5.20; 95% CI: 1.40-19.20) after adjusting for age and BMI. HIV-infected patients were shown to be at a greater risk of sarcopenia, an indicator of frailty, even following adjustment for age and BMI. PMID:26626165

  6. Finger clubbing in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zar, H J; Hussey, G

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the frequency of finger clubbing in 150 HIV-infected children consecutively hospitalized for acute pneumonia in South Africa and described associated clinical, laboratory and radiological features. Clubbing occurred in 30 of 150 (20%) HIV-infected children compared with one of 99 (1%) HIV-negative control patients, p < 0.001. Clubbing was associated with lower presenting heart and respiratory rates and enlarged parotid glands. Total and CD4 + lymphocytes, CD4:CD8 ratio and LDH were lower in children with clubbing, but serum protein and gammaglobulin were higher. No differences in the prevalence or type of microbial pathogens were found between the two groups. Clubbing was associated with a radiological diagnosis of LIP. Children with clubbing had a lower in-hospital mortality rate than those without clubbing (6.7% vs 24.2%, p = 0.035). In geographical areas with high HIV seroprevalence rates, the presence of clubbing in a child hospitalized for respiratory disease should raise the suspicion of HIV infection. PMID:11284240

  7. Heat shock protein-based therapeutic strategies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, B G; Wainberg, M A

    1999-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (hsps) and cyclophilins (CypA) are intracellular chaperone molecules that facilitate protein folding and assembly. These proteins are selectively expressed in cells following exposure to a range of stress stimuli, including viral infection. Hsp species are highly immunogenic, eliciting humoral, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and natural killer (NK) cell responses against viruses, tumours, and infectious diseases. This review discusses the roles of stress proteins in immunity and viral life cycles, vis-à-vis the development of Hsp-based therapeutic strategies against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Cumulative findings are cited implicating the requirement of CypA in HIV-1 replication and formation of infectious virions. Studies by our group show the upregulated expression of hsp27 and hsp70 during single-cycle HIV infections. These species redistribute to the cell surface following HIV-infection and heat stress, serving as targets for NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies show that hsp27, hsp70, and hsp78 complex with HIV-1 viral proteins intracellularly. Hsp70, hsp56, and CypA are assembled into HIV-1 virions. The ability of hsps to interact with HIV-1 viral proteins, combined with their inherent adjuvant and immunogenic properties, indicates that hsps may serve as vehicles for antigen delivery and the design of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:10231014

  8. Persistence and Fitness of Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Acquired in Primary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Bluma G.; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Petrella, Marco; Moisi, Daniela; Oliveira, Maureen; Detorio, Mervi; Spira, Bonnie; Essabag, Vidal; Conway, Brian; Lalonde, Richard; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Wainberg, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the persistence and fitness of multidrug-resistant (MDR) viruses acquired during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (PHI). In four individuals, MDR infections persisted over the entire study period, ranging from 36 weeks to 5 years, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. In stark contrast, identified source partners in two cases showed expected outgrowth of wild-type (WT) virus within 12 weeks of treatment interruption. In the first PHI case, triple-class MDR resulted in low plasma viremia (1.6 to 3 log copies/ml) over time compared with mean values obtained for an untreated PHI group harboring WT infections (4.1 to 4.3 log copies/ml). Increasing viremia in PHI patient 1 at week 52 was associated with the de novo emergence of a protease inhibitor-resistant variant through a recombination event involving the original MDR virus. MDR infections in two other untreated PHI patients yielded viremia levels typical of the untreated WT group. A fourth patient's MDR infection yielded low viremia (<50 to 500 copies/ml) for 5 years despite his having phenotypic resistance to all antiretroviral drugs in his treatment regimen. In two of these PHI cases, a rebound to higher levels of plasma viremia only occurred when the M184V mutation in reverse transcriptase could no longer be detected and, in a third case, nondetection of M184V was associated with an inability to isolate virus. To further evaluate the fitness of MDR variants acquired in PHI, MDR and corresponding WT viruses were isolated from index and source partners, respectively. Although MDR viral infectivity (50% tissue culture infective dose) was comparable to that observed for WT viruses, MDR infections in each case demonstrated 2-fold and 13- to 23-fold reductions in p24 antigen and reverse transcriptase enzymatic activity, respectively. In dual-infection competition assays, MDR viruses consistently demonstrated a marked replicative disadvantage compared with WT virus. These results

  9. Mechanisms of androgen deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with the wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grinspoon, S; Corcoran, C; Stanley, T; Rabe, J; Wilkie, S

    2001-09-01

    Although prior studies suggest reduced androgen levels in women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting, little is known regarding the regulation of adrenal and ovarian androgen secretion in such patients. We investigated ovarian and adrenal function in 13 human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting and 21 age- and body mass index-matched healthy control subjects studied in the early follicular phase. Subjects received hCG (5000 U, im) on d 1 and Cosyntropin (0.25 mg, i.v.) on d 3 after dexamethasone (1 mg, orally, at 2400 h) pretreatment on d 2. At baseline, human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects demonstrated significantly reduced T [18 +/- 2 vs. 25 +/- 2 ng/dl (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol/liter); P = 0.02], free T [1.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.2 pg/ml (5.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.6 pmol/liter); P = 0.001], androstenedione [119 +/- 6 vs. 162 +/- 14 ng/dl (4.16 +/- 0.20 vs. 5.66 +/- 0.48 nmol/liter); P = 0.02], and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [0.96 +/- 0.17 vs. 1.55 +/- 0.19 microg/ml (2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.5 micromol/liter); P = 0.047] levels compared with the control subjects. T [8 +/- 2 vs. 6 +/- 2 ng/dl (0.3 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 nmol/liter); P = 0.48], free T [0.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (1.7 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.5 pmol/liter); P = 0.85], 17 hydroxyprogesterone [0.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.2 microg/liter (1.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.6 nmol/liter); P = 0.63], and androstenedione [-1 +/- 12 vs. 8 +/- 11 ng/dl (-0.03 +/- 0.42 vs. 0.28 +/- 0.39 nmol/liter), P = 0.61] responses to hCG were not different between the groups. Cortisol responses were increased and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate responses were decreased in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected vs. control subjects after ACTH stimulation. The ratio of DHEA to cortisol was significantly decreased at 60 (71 +/- 11 vs. 107 +/- 10; P = 0.02) and 90 (63 +/- 8 vs. 102 +/- 9; P = 0.004) min post-ACTH in the human immunodeficiency

  10. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by ascorbate in chronically and acutely infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, S; Jariwalla, R J; Pauling, L

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the action of ascorbate (vitamin C) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the etiological agent clinically associated with AIDS. We report the suppression of virus production and cell fusion in HIV-infected T-lymphocytic cell lines grown in the presence of nontoxic concentrations of ascorbate. In chronically infected cells expressing HIV at peak levels, ascorbate reduced the levels of extracellular reverse transcriptase (RT) activity (by greater than 99%) and of p24 antigen (by 90%) in the culture supernatant. Under similar conditions, no detectable inhibitory effects on cell viability, host metabolic activity, and protein synthesis were observed. In freshly infected CD4+ cells, ascorbate inhibited the formation of giant-cell syncytia (by approximately 93%). Exposure of cell-free virus to ascorbate at 37 degrees C for 1 day had no effect on its RT activity or syncytium-forming ability. Prolonged exposure of virus (37 degrees C for 4 days) in the presence of ascorbate (100-150 micrograms/ml) resulted in the drop by a factor of 3-14 in RT activity as compared to a reduction by a factor of 25-172 in extracellular RT released from chronically infected cells. These results indicate that ascorbate mediates an anti-HIV effect by diminishing viral protein production in infected cells and RT stability in extracellular virions. Images PMID:1698293

  11. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Caught Chimpanzees from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nerrienet, Eric; Santiago, Mario L.; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bailes, Elizabeth; Mundy, Nicolas I.; Njinku, Bernadette; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Shaw, George M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ayouba, Ahidjo

    2005-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpz) infecting chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in west central Africa are the closest relatives to all major variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ([HIV-1]; groups M, N and O), and have thus been implicated as the source of the human infections; however, information concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and subspecies association of SIVcpz still remains limited. In this study, we tested 71 wild-caught chimpanzees from Cameroon for evidence of SIVcpz infection. Thirty-nine of these were of the central subspecies (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), and 32 were of the Nigerian subspecies (Pan troglodytes vellerosus), as determined by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Serological analysis determined that one P. t. troglodytes ape (CAM13) harbored serum antibodies that cross-reacted strongly with HIV-1 antigens; all other apes were seronegative. To characterize the newly identified virus, 14 partially overlapping viral fragments were amplified from fecal virion RNA and concatenated to yield a complete SIVcpz genome (9,284 bp). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SIVcpzCAM13 fell well within the radiation of the SIVcpzPtt group of viruses, as part of a clade including all other SIVcpzPtt strains as well as HIV-1 groups M and N. However, SIVcpzCAM13 clustered most closely with SIVcpzGAB1 from Gabon rather than with SIVcpzCAM3 and SIVcpzCAM5 from Cameroon, indicating the existence of divergent SIVcpzPtt lineages within the same geographic region. These data, together with evidence of recombination among ancestral SIVcpzPtt lineages, indicate long-standing endemic infection of central chimpanzees and reaffirm a west central African origin of HIV-1. Whether P. t. vellerosus apes are naturally infected with SIVcpz requires further study. PMID:15613358

  12. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  13. Retinal blood flow indices in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Yung, C W; Harris, A; Massicotte, S; Chioran, G; Krombach, G; Danis, R; Wolf, S

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow dynamics are believed to contribute to the development of retinal microvascular disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) was used, combined with fluorescein angiography, to measure retinal blood flow indices in HIV seropositive patients. METHODS: Arteriovenous passage time (AVP) and perifoveal capillary blood flow velocity (CFV) were measured in 23 HIV infected patients and 23 control subjects with SLO fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: No significant difference in AVP was found between the two groups. However, CFV was significantly reduced in HIV infected patients (p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Patients infected with HIV show abnormal haemodynamics at the level of the perifoveal capillaries. PMID:8949717

  14. Invasive Aspergillus Sinusitis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, John M.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Gulick, Roy M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Aspergillus (IA) sinusitis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals, but it is uncommon in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of IA sinusitis in this population, we present a unique case of chronic IA sinusitis in an HIV-infected patient taking antiretroviral therapy and review the literature summarizing published cases of invasive aspergillosis of the paranasal (n = 41) and mastoid (n = 17) sinuses in HIV-infected individuals. Among these cases, only 4 were reported after 1999, and 98% of patients had acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Orbital invasion occurred in 54% of paranasal sinus cases, whereas intracranial invasion was reported in 53% of mastoid sinus cases. The overall mortality was 79%. We also discuss various clinical and immunologic factors that may play a role in the development of IA and consider the changing epidemiology of aspergillosis in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. PMID:27800523

  15. Progressive immune dysfunction in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Torten, M; Franchini, M; Barlough, J E; George, J W; Mozes, E; Lutz, H; Pedersen, N C

    1991-01-01

    Within 6 months of infection with the Petaluma isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, specific-pathogen-free domestic cats exhibited a decrease in the percentage and number of circulating CD4+ lymphocytes and in the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio, along with a marginally significant depression of pokeweed mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. There was no loss of responsiveness to concanavalin A during this stage, and the cats were capable of mounting a satisfactory antibody response to a T-dependent, synthetic polypeptide immunogen. The pokeweed mitogen response deficit became clearly demonstrable by 11 to 12 months postinfection. A decline in the lymphocyte proliferative response to concanavalin A and a diminished ability to mount an in vivo antibody response to the T-dependent immunogen evolved by 25 to 44 months postinfection. Virus infection did not affect the ability of cats to mount an antibody response to a T-independent synthetic polypeptide immunogen. These data indicate that feline immunodeficiency virus produces a slowly progressive deterioration of T-cell function but does not affect the ability of B cells to recognize and respond to a T-independent antigenic stimulus. PMID:1673159

  16. One approach to care for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in an academic medical center.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J. L.; Damson, L. C.; Rogers, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic poses unprecedented challenges to the health-care system. Caregivers must contend both with the complicated clinical syndromes associated with HIV infection and with issues that are central to the epidemic, such as discrimination, isolation, poverty, and substance abuse. Our HIV treatment program combines and enhances the resources of an academic medical center in a multidisciplinary care model. All patients, regardless of payor class, are offered services from 10 different disciplines. The same team of clinicians follows patients in the clinic and hospital. The program is flexible, non-hierarchical, and open to community participation. This approach may be a useful model for other institutions. PMID:8982523

  17. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk?

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Shima; Manicardi, Marcella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease (CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial. PMID:26516417

  18. Antibodies to CD4 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, M; Ardman, B; Basiripour, L; Lu, Y C; Blohm, D; Haseltine, W; Sodroski, J

    1989-01-01

    The attachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to target cells is mediated by a specific interaction between the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and the CD4 receptor. Here we report that approximately 10% of HIV-1-infected individuals produce antibodies that recognize the extracellular portion of the CD4 molecule. Carboxyl-terminal deletions of CD4 that do not affect HIV-1 gp120 binding eliminate recognition of CD4 by patient antisera. In contrast, mutations in the amino-terminal domain of CD4 that attenuate HIV-1 gp120 binding do not diminish CD4 recognition by patient antisera. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection can generate antibodies directed against a region of the viral receptor distinct from the virus-binding domain. Images PMID:2541442

  19. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Yesuf, Yohannes Amede

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection. Results The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674). The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5.25), patients who ever had intercourse with penetration (AOR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.11–28.57), and those who had marriage experience (AOR: 11.65; 95% CI: 4.2–32.3) were more infected with HIV. Conclusion The trend of HIV infection significantly reduced in the last 10 years in Kombolcha area. However, the HIV infection still remains high (4.5%) that needs intervention of those who had marriage experience, risky sexual behavior, and urban dwellers. PMID:27462177

  20. Global stability of infection-free state and endemic infection state of a modified human immunodeficiency virus infection model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qilin; Min, Lequan; Kuang, Yang

    2015-06-01

    This study proposes a modified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection differential equation model with a saturated infection rate. This model has an infection-free equilibrium point and an endemic infection equilibrium point. Using Lyapunov functions and LaSalle's invariance principle shows that if the model's basic reproductive number R0 < 1, the infection-free equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable, otherwise the endemic infection equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable. It is shown that a forward bifurcation will occur when R0 = 1. The basic reproductive number R0 of the modified model is independent of plasma total CD4⁺ T cell counts and thus the modified model is more reasonable than the original model proposed by Buonomo and Vargas-De-León. Based on the clinical data from HIV drug resistance database of Stanford University, using the proposed model simulates the dynamics of two group patients' anti-HIV infection treatments. The simulation results have shown that the first 4 weeks' treatments made the two group patients' R'0 < 1, respectively. After the period, drug resistance made the two group patients' R'0 > 1. The results explain why the two group patients' mean CD4⁺ T cell counts raised and mean HIV RNA levels declined in the first period, but contrary in the following weeks.

  1. Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kevin O.; Wang, Lingshu; Joyce, M. Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Balazs, Alejandro B.; Cheng, Cheng; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Duan, Lijie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Donaldson, Mitzi; Xu, Ling; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Todd, John-Paul; Baltimore, David; Roederer, Mario; Haase, Ashley T.; Kwong, Peter D.; Rao, Srinivas S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here, we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 μg/ml, although immune suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled. IMPORTANCE Sustained interventions that can prevent HIV-1 infection are needed to halt the spread of the HIV-1 pandemic. The protective capacity of anti-HIV antibody gene therapy has been established in mouse models of HIV-1 infection but has not been established for primates. We show here a proof-of-concept that gene transfer of anti-HIV antibody genes can protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when host immune responses are controlled. PMID:26041300

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

    PubMed

    Minagawa, H; Sakuma, S; Mohri, S; Mori, R; Watanabe, T

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in mutant mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice), i.e., mice in which the differentiation of both T and B lymphocytes is severely impaired, was studied. All control (infected and not treated with antibodies or with immune spleen cells) SCID mice were dead by 17 days after intracutaneous injection in the right midflank with 1 x 10(5) PFU of a virulent HSV-1 strain, Hayashida. Immunization with an avirulent strain of HSV-1 (SKa) did not protect them from death or prolong the survival time. Tissue virus titration of infected mice killed at various times after inoculation detected infectious virus in various organs, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, brain, kidney and adrenal gland in addition to the inoculation site of the skin in SCID mice, whereas virus could be detected only in the inoculation site and the nervous tissues in euthymic BALB/c mice, and in the adrenal gland from only one out of 17 nude mice. Human gamma globulin containing neutralizing antibody against HSV-1 prolonged the survival time but did not protect SCID mice from death. Transfer of spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice protected the infected SCID mice from death. Treatment of spleen cells with anti-Thy 1.2 monoclonal antibody and complement abolished the protection.

  3. Successful treatment of spleen tuberculosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Maserati, R; Seminari, E; Scudeller, L; Rizzi, L; Benedetti, M; Minoli, L

    1999-04-01

    Tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may act as a cofactor that accelerates the clinical course of HIV infection, and, indeed, HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis have a reduced survival rate compared to those without tuberculosis. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients can be difficult because of nonspecific symptoms and the time required for the identification of mycobacteria by means of culture techniques. Recently, antiretroviral combination therapies have improved the outcome of several acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated conditions. Unfortunately, the use of antiretroviral therapy for patients coinfected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still to be fully evaluated. The complexity of side-effects due to antituberculosis medication and drug interaction represent important issues and combining an effective anti-HIV treatment with antituberculosis therapy is still a clinical challenge. We discuss here a case of spleen tuberculosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient who had a successful response after a diagnostic splenectomy and medical treatment that included classical antituberculosis treatment associated with antiretroviral therapy without protease inhibitors.

  4. Salivary gland lymph nodes. The site of lymphadenopathies and lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, H L; Ryan, J R; Blaugrund, S M

    1988-12-01

    Normally, lymph nodes are intimately associated with the salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland. Several lymph nodes are embedded in the parotid gland, other lymph nodes are adjacent to the submaxillary gland, and ectopic salivary gland acini and ducts are commonly present in cervical lymph nodes. These salivary gland lymph nodes may become the primary site of the benign lymphadenopathy and the malignant lymphomas characteristically associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This report of a series of HIV-associated lymphatic lesions originating in salivary gland lymph nodes comprises nine cases of salivary gland masses that were surgically excised, it includes six cases of lymphadenitides and three cases of lymphoma--all originating in salivary gland lymph nodes and showing the histologic lesions known to occur in association with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV-related infections and neoplasias located in the salivary gland lymph nodes raise interesting questions about the possible etiologic role of an oral portal of entry and of the virus-infected saliva. The recognition of their clinical and pathologic features is indispensable to enable correct diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Unusually high seroprevalence of Borna disease virus in clade E human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Auwanit, W; Ayuthaya, P I; Nakaya, T; Fujiwara, S; Kurata, T; Yamanishi, K; Ikuta, K

    1996-01-01

    The seroprevalence of Borna disease virus (BDV) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals in Thailand was examined by using recombinant BDV p24. A high (38 to 48%) rate of seroprevalence of BDV was observed in clade E-infected patients with sexually transmitted diseases, compared with those in clade E-infected prostitutes (8.3%), pregnant women (0%), clade B-infected intravenous-drug users (0%), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1-negative blood donors (1.9%). PMID:8877141

  6. Productive Infection of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Implications for Vector Development

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James; Power, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 101.3 to 102.1 50% tissue culture infective doses/106 cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy. PMID:9971834

  7. Primary stage of feline immunodeficiency virus infection: viral dissemination and cellular targets.

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, A M; Dua, N; Faith, T G; Moore, P F; Pedersen, N C; Dandekar, S

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify cellular and organ targets of acute feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in vivo. Tissues of FIV-infected cats were studied at eight time points during the first 3 months after experimental infection. FIV nucleic acids were first detected by in situ hybridization 21 days after infection, approximately 1.5 weeks after lymph node enlargement was first observed and 3 weeks before the primary acute flu-like illness. The majority of FIV-infected cells were present in lymphoid organs, though low numbers of infected cells were noted in nonlymphoid organs as well. Germinal centers harbored many of the FIV-infected cells within lymphoid tissues. The thymic cortex was also a major site of early infection. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that T lymphocytes were the primary target of early FIV infection in tissues of cats before the onset of clinical signs of acute illness. An unidentified population of mononuclear cells and a few macrophages were also infected. During the ensuing acute flu-like illness, the proportion of FIV-infected macrophages in tissues increased dramatically. This early shift in the predominant cellular localization of FIV from T lymphocytes to macrophages may be important for establishing viral persistence. Images PMID:8151773

  8. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4(+) cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections.

  9. Aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Bessudo, A; Rassenti, L; Havlir, D; Richman, D; Feigal, E; Kipps, T J

    1998-08-15

    We examined the IgM VH gene subgroup use-distribution in serial blood samples of 37 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and a group of HIV-seronegative healthy adults. The IgM VH gene repertoires of healthy adults were relatively similar to one another and were stable over time. In contrast, individuals infected with HIV had IgM VH gene repertoires that were significantly more heterogeneous and unstable. Persons at early stages of HIV infection generally had abnormal expression levels of Ig VH3 genes and frequently displayed marked fluctuations in the relative expression levels of this VH gene subgroup over time. In contrast, persons with established acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a significantly lower incidence of abnormalities in Ig VH3 expression levels, although continued to display abnormalities and instability in the expression levels of the smaller Ig VH gene subgroups. Moreover, the skewing and/or fluctuations in the expressed-IgM VH gene repertoire appeared greatest for persons at earlier stages of HIV infection. These studies show that persons infected with HIV have aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes suggestive of a high degree humoral immune dysregulation and ongoing humoral immune responses to HIV-associated antigens and superantigens.

  10. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4(+) cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  11. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  12. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.486 Disclosure of information related to infection with the...

  13. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.486 Disclosure of information related to infection with the...

  14. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.486 Disclosure of information related to infection with the...

  15. [Role of human immunodeficiency virus in leukocytes apoptosis from infected patients].

    PubMed

    Salmen, Siham; Guillermo, Carolina; Colmenares, Melisa; Barboza, Luisa; Goncalves, Loredana; Terán, Guillermo; Alfonso, Nacarid; Montes, Henry; Berrueta, Lisbeth

    2005-09-01

    The hallmark of the immunodeficiency virus infection is a progressive detriment of the immune response which has been associated to a gradual loss of its responsible components, in particularly, CD4 positive T cells. Although this cell population is considered the main target of the virus, there is a recent deal of interest in studying other components that may not be targets of the virus, but are important elements to control infectious microorganisms and that have been demonstrated to be altered during HIV infection. Neutrophils (PMN) are innate immune components that play a fundamental role against HIV infection and these cells have been described as functionally altered during AIDS. It has been suggested that such a dysfunction could be attributed to an increased susceptibility of these cells to accelerated spontaneous apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms that induce programmed cell death of neutrophils remain unknown. In previous works we have explored some events involved during cell death of neutrophils from HIV infected patients. It is the purpose of this work to review the current knowledge of apoptosis signals in neutrophils and to discuss our own data about some mechanisms involved in spontaneous and Fas mediated apoptosis, which may contribute to understand neutrophils dysfunction during HIV infection.

  16. Visualization and quantification of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells using non-invasive molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiasheng; Cai, Zhengxin; White, Alexander G; Jin, Tao; Wang, Xiaolei; Kadayakkara, Deepak; Anderson, Carolyn J; Ambrose, Zandrea; Young, Won-Bin

    2015-10-01

    In vivo imaging can provide real-time information and three-dimensional (3D) non-invasive images of deep tissues and organs, including the brain, whilst allowing longitudinal observation of the same animals, thus eliminating potential variation between subjects. Current in vivo imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of target cells, which is urgently needed for revealing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination in real-time and HIV-1 reservoirs during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). To demonstrate that in vivo imaging can be used to visualize and quantify simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-transduced cells, we genetically engineered SIV to carry different imaging reporters. Based on the expression of the reporter genes, we could visualize and quantify the SIV-transduced cells via vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyping in a mouse model using BLI, PET-CT or MRI. We also engineered a chimeric EcoSIV for in vivo infection study. Our results demonstrated that BLI is sensitive enough to detect as few as five single cells transduced with virus, whilst PET-CT can provide 3D images of the spatial location of as few as 10 000 SIV-infected cells. We also demonstrated that MRI can provide images with high spatial resolution in a 3D anatomical context to distinguish a small population of SIV-transduced cells. The in vivo imaging platform described here can potentially serve as a powerful tool to visualize lentiviral infection, including when and where viraemia rebounds, and how reservoirs are formed and maintained during latency or suppressive ART. PMID:26297664

  17. Visualization and quantification of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells using non-invasive molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiasheng; Cai, Zhengxin; White, Alexander G.; Jin, Tao; Wang, Xiaolei; Kadayakkara, Deepak; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Ambrose, Zandrea

    2015-01-01

    In vivo imaging can provide real-time information and three-dimensional (3D) non-invasive images of deep tissues and organs, including the brain, whilst allowing longitudinal observation of the same animals, thus eliminating potential variation between subjects. Current in vivo imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of target cells, which is urgently needed for revealing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination in real-time and HIV-1 reservoirs during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). To demonstrate that in vivo imaging can be used to visualize and quantify simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-transduced cells, we genetically engineered SIV to carry different imaging reporters. Based on the expression of the reporter genes, we could visualize and quantify the SIV-transduced cells via vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyping in a mouse model using BLI, PET-CT or MRI. We also engineered a chimeric EcoSIV for in vivo infection study. Our results demonstrated that BLI is sensitive enough to detect as few as five single cells transduced with virus, whilst PET-CT can provide 3D images of the spatial location of as few as 10 000 SIV-infected cells. We also demonstrated that MRI can provide images with high spatial resolution in a 3D anatomical context to distinguish a small population of SIV-transduced cells. The in vivo imaging platform described here can potentially serve as a powerful tool to visualize lentiviral infection, including when and where viraemia rebounds, and how reservoirs are formed and maintained during latency or suppressive ART. PMID:26297664

  18. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia.

  19. Beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin: predictive markers for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in children?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, M M; Campos, J M; Josephs, S; Rifai, N

    1990-01-01

    The value of beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin concentrations in serum for early diagnosis of infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected mothers was assessed. Concentrations of both markers were measured in serum samples from pediatric patients (Centers for Disease Control classifications P0, P1, and P2), as well as in age-matched normal subjects. Both beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin were significantly increased in HIV-1-infected symptomatic subjects (P2) compared to controls. Seventy-five percent of asymptomatic patients (P1) also had increased values. On the other hand, a significant overlap in concentrations of both markers in serum was found between controls and P0 patients. Thirty-eight percent of the P0 patients had values comparable to those of the P2 group. Persistently high concentrations of both markers in P0 patients may be indicative of HIV-1 infection. PMID:2229344

  20. Association of infections with human immunodeficiency virus and human papillomavirus in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, A; Melchers, W J; Velema, J P; Figueroa, M

    1997-08-01

    The etiologic role of the oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical cancer has been widely proven. Since this cancer occurs more frequently in immunosuppressed individuals, we sought to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-noninfected prostitutes in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Cervical scrapes were collected from 23 HIV-seropositive and 28 HIV-seronegative prostitutes for HPV DNA detection by the polymerase chain reaction. Fifty-six percent of the HIV-seropositive women and only 18% of the seronegative women were HPV DNA positive (odds ratio = 6.0). In addition, there was a significant association between seropositivity for HIV with a history of sexually transmitted diseases (P < 0.01). Our data confirm the association between infections with HIV and HPV.

  1. A human serum mannose-binding protein inhibits in vitro infection by the human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In vitro infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of CD4+ H9 lymphoblasts is inhibited by a mannose-binding protein (MBP) purified from human serum. In addition, MBP is able to selectively bind to HIV- infected H9 cells and HIV-infected cells from the monocyte cell line U937. These results indicate MBP most likely recognizes high mannose glycans known to be present on gp120 in the domain that is recognized by CD4 and thereby inhibits viral entry to susceptible cells. In support of this contention, recombinant gp120 binds directly to MBP; the binding is saturable, mannan inhibitable, removed by N-glycanase treatment, and dependent on divalent cations. PMID:2909656

  2. Quality of different in-clinic test systems for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin; Griessmayr, Pascale; Schulz, Bianka; Greene, Craig E; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Jarrett, Os; Egberink, Herman F

    2007-12-01

    Many new diagnostic in-house tests for identification of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection have been licensed for use in veterinary practice, and the question of the relative merits of these kits has prompted comparative studies. This study was designed to define the strengths and weaknesses of seven FIV and eight FeLV tests that are commercially available. In this study, 536 serum samples from randomly selected cats were tested. Those samples reacting FIV-positive in at least one of the tests were confirmed by Western blot, and those reacting FeLV-positive were confirmed by virus isolation. In addition, a random selection of samples testing negative in all test systems was re-tested by Western blot (100 samples) and by virus isolation (81 samples). Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of each test and the quality of the results were compared.

  3. Efavirenz Therapy in Rhesus Macaques Infected with a Chimera of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Containing Reverse Transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Michael J.; Higgins, Joanne; Matthews, Timothy B.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Tan, Chalet; Schinazi, Raymond F.; North, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The specificity of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the RT of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has prevented the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the study of NNRTIs and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. However, a SIV-HIV-1 chimera (RT-SHIV), in which the RT from SIVmac239 was replaced with the RT-encoding region from HIV-1, is susceptible to NNRTIs and is infectious to rhesus macaques. We have evaluated the antiviral activity of efavirenz against RT-SHIV and the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants in vitro and in vivo. RT-SHIV was susceptible to efavirenz with a mean effective concentration of 5.9 ± 4.5 nM, and RT-SHIV variants selected with efavirenz in cell culture displayed 600-fold-reduced susceptibility. The efavirenz-resistant mutants of RT-SHIV had mutations in RT similar to those of HIV-1 variants that were selected under similar conditions. Efavirenz monotherapy of RT-SHIV-infected macaques produced a 1.82-log-unit decrease in plasma viral-RNA levels after 1 week. The virus load rebounded within 3 weeks in one treated animal and more slowly in a second animal. Virus isolated from these two animals contained the K103N and Y188C or Y188L mutations. The RT-SHIV-rhesus macaque model may prove useful for studies of antiretroviral drug combinations that include efavirenz. PMID:15328115

  4. CXCR4 expression during lymphopoiesis: implications for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the thymus.

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, S G; Zack, J A

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the human thymus results in depletion of CD4-bearing thymocytes. This depletion is initially manifested in the immature CD4+/CD8+ thymocyte subset. To determine cellular factors involved in HIV infection in the thymus, we examined the expression of the recently identified viral coreceptor, CXCR4, on fresh human thymocytes and on human cells from SCID-hu (Thy/Liv) mice. CXCR4 is a member of the chemokine receptor family which is required along with CD4 for entry into the cell of syncytium-inducing (SI) HIV-1 strains. Our analyses show that CXCR4 expression is modulated during T-lymphoid differentiation such that immature thymocytes display an increased frequency and higher surface density of the coreceptor than do more mature cells. In addition, using an SI strain of HIV-1 which directs expression of a reporter protein on the surface of infected cells, we have found that the immature CD4+/CD8+ thymocytes that express the highest levels of both CD4 and CXCR4 are the cells that are preferentially infected and depleted by the virus in vitro. Thus, high levels of both primary receptor and coreceptor may allow efficient infection of the thymus by certain HIV-1 strains. This in part may explain the rapid disease progression seen in some HIV-infected children, where the thymus is actively involved in the production of new T lymphocytes. PMID:9261420

  5. Multiple Simultaneous Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cardona-Rodríguez, Zaydalee; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Soto-Malave, Ruth; De León-Borras, Rafeal

    2016-06-01

    Patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhea, particularly when those infections are parasitic in nature. This propensity is more pronounced in AIDS, where opportunistic parasitic infections may cause severe diarrhea, marked absorptive dysfunction, and significant risk of mortality. There are scant data regarding parasitic infections among HIV patients in the developed world; most studies and research come from povertystricken areas of South Africa, India, Iran, and the South Pacific. Although multiple infections with the same or different parasites have been reported, simultaneous infections are rare. We present the case of a 35-year-old man who developed a co-infection with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Strongyloides, simultaneously, the diagnosis being made after the judicious evaluation of a stool sample. Given the associated morbidity, prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed to avoid further complications in patients with HIV. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of triple parasitic infection in a patient with HIV.

  6. Assessing the impact of feline immunodeficiency virus and bovine tuberculosis co-infection in African lions

    PubMed Central

    Maas, M.; Keet, D. F.; Rutten, V. P. M. G.; Heesterbeek, J. A. P.; Nielen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease that was introduced relatively recently into the Kruger National Park (KNP) lion population. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVple) is thought to have been endemic in lions for a much longer time. In humans, co-infection between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus increases disease burden. If BTB were to reach high levels of prevalence in lions, and if similar worsening effects would exist between FIVple and BTB as for their human equivalents, this could pose a lion conservation problem. We collected data on lions in KNP from 1993 to 2008 for spatio-temporal analysis of both FIVple and BTB, and to assess whether a similar relationship between the two diseases exists in lions. We found that BTB prevalence in the south was higher than in the north (72 versus 19% over the total study period) and increased over time in the northern part of the KNP (0–41%). No significant spatio-temporal differences were seen for FIVple in the study period, in agreement with the presumed endemic state of the infection. Both infections affected haematology and blood chemistry values, FIVple in a more pronounced way than BTB. The effect of co-infection on these values, however, was always less than additive. Though a large proportion (31%) of the lions was co-infected with FIVple and M. bovis, there was no evidence for a synergistic relation as in their human counterparts. Whether this results from different immunopathogeneses remains to be determined. PMID:22915673

  7. Assessing the impact of feline immunodeficiency virus and bovine tuberculosis co-infection in African lions.

    PubMed

    Maas, M; Keet, D F; Rutten, V P M G; Heesterbeek, J A P; Nielen, M

    2012-10-22

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease that was introduced relatively recently into the Kruger National Park (KNP) lion population. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV(ple)) is thought to have been endemic in lions for a much longer time. In humans, co-infection between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus increases disease burden. If BTB were to reach high levels of prevalence in lions, and if similar worsening effects would exist between FIV(ple) and BTB as for their human equivalents, this could pose a lion conservation problem. We collected data on lions in KNP from 1993 to 2008 for spatio-temporal analysis of both FIV(ple) and BTB, and to assess whether a similar relationship between the two diseases exists in lions. We found that BTB prevalence in the south was higher than in the north (72 versus 19% over the total study period) and increased over time in the northern part of the KNP (0-41%). No significant spatio-temporal differences were seen for FIV(ple) in the study period, in agreement with the presumed endemic state of the infection. Both infections affected haematology and blood chemistry values, FIV(ple) in a more pronounced way than BTB. The effect of co-infection on these values, however, was always less than additive. Though a large proportion (31%) of the lions was co-infected with FIV(ple) and M. bovis, there was no evidence for a synergistic relation as in their human counterparts. Whether this results from different immunopathogeneses remains to be determined.

  8. Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Drives Differentiation, Aberrant Accumulation, and Latent Infection of Germinal Center Follicular T Helper Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Malam, Naomi; Aye, Pyone P.; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ follicular T helper (Tfh) cells play a prominent role in humoral immune responses, but the mechanisms of their accumulation and infection in AIDS remain unclear. Here we found that germinal center (GC) Tfh cells, defined here as CXCR5+ PD-1HIGH CD4+ T cells, do not express the HIV coreceptor CCR5 yet serve as a latent reservoir in GCs. With disease progression, an expansion of GC Tfh cells is accompanied by increases in dysfunctional CD8+ T cells. In contrast, Tfh precursor (CXCR5− CD4+ T) cells in lymph nodes do express CCR5 and differentiate into GC Tfh cells following interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-21 stimulation, and viral DNA is detectable in fully differentiated GC Tfh cells ex vivo. This suggests that SIV-infected GC Tfh cells may be derived from Tfh precursor cell subsets that become infected in marginal zones and then migrate into GCs as fully mature GC Tfh cells that serve as persistent virus reservoirs. These findings suggest that viral persistence in lymph nodes drives compensatory differentiation, aberrant accumulation, and latent infection of GC Tfh cells, resulting in marked impairment of humoral immune responses. IMPORTANCE Generation of antibodies that can effectively eliminate viruses requires interactions of B cells with highly specialized T cells in GCs of lymphoid tissues called follicular T helper cells. Here we show that in simian immunodeficiency virus infection, these cells are initially infected in a precursor stage that leads to alterations in their homing, accumulation, and function that may be responsible for the inability of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients to generate effective antibody responses. PMID:26608323

  9. An Update on Heart Transplantation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Agüero, F; Castel, M A; Cocchi, S; Moreno, A; Mestres, C A; Cervera, C; Pérez-Villa, F; Tuset, M; Cartañà, R; Manzardo, C; Guaraldi, G; Gatell, J M; Miró, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have become a significant cause of morbidity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Heart transplantation (HT) is a well-established treatment of end-stage heart failure (ESHF) and is performed in selected HIV-infected patients in developed countries. Few data are available on the prognosis of HIV-infected patients undergoing HT in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) because current evidence is limited to small retrospective cohorts, case series, and case reports. Many HT centers consider HIV infection to be a contraindication for HT; however, in the era of cART, HT recipients with HIV infection seem to achieve satisfactory outcomes without developing HIV-related events. Consequently, selected HIV-infected patients with ESHF who are taking effective cART should be considered candidates for HT. The present review provides epidemiological data on ESHF in HIV-infected patients from all published experience on HT in HIV-infected patients since the beginning of the epidemic. The practical management of these patients is discussed, with emphasis on the challenging issues that must be addressed in the pretransplant (including HIV criteria) and posttransplant periods. Finally, proposals are made for future management and research priorities. PMID:26523614

  10. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  11. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  12. Establishment of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in resistant, sensitive, and immunodeficient mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Ellison, A R; Yang, L; Voytek, C; Margolis, T P

    2000-03-01

    Productive infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 is limited by both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether these mechanisms also play a role in the establishment of latent HSV infection. First we examined the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), interferon-gamma knockout (GKO), and beige (a strain deficient in natural killer cell activity) mice following ocular inoculation with HSV. Although infection of SCID mice was invariably lethal, we consistently found latently infected neurons in the TG of these animals at 2-4 days postinoculation. HSV infection of GKO and beige mice, while not lethal, was characterized by a greater number of productively infected TG neurons and/or a delay in the time to peak productive infection compared to C57BL/6 controls. However, as assayed by both in situ hybridization for LAT expression and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) for viral DNA, we found that HSV established a latent infection in GKO and beige mice as efficiently as in C57BL/6 controls. We subsequently examined the TG of "HSV-sensitive" strains of mice (Swiss-Webster, CBA, and BALB/c) following ocular infection with HSV. At the peak of acute ganglionic infection the number of productively infected TG neurons in each of these mouse strains was about sevenfold greater than in the "HSV-resistant" strain C57BL/6, consistent with previously reported differences in susceptibility to lethal challenge with HSV. However, as assayed by both in situ hybridization for LAT and Q-PCR for viral DNA, we found that HSV established a latent infection in Swiss-Webster, CBA, and BALB/c mice as efficiently as in C57BL/6 controls. We conclude that HSV efficiently establishes latent infection in the TG of mice in the absence of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that are essential for limiting productive viral infection.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of mature CD3hiCD8+ thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S; Goldstein, H; Baseler, M; Adelsberger, J; Golding, H

    1997-01-01

    Although CD4+ cells are the primary targets of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, earlier reports have suggested that intrathymic infection of CD8+ cells may occur. However, it was unclear whether HIV-1-infected CD8+ thymocytes were truly mature single-positive (SP) cells. In the present study, SCID mice implanted with human fetal thymus and liver tissues (SCID-hu mice) were infected with three primary isolates of HIV-1 and infected thymocytes were analyzed to assess maturational status. After intra-implant or intraperitoneal injection with HIV-1, thymocytes were sorted by three-color flow cytometric analysis into mature populations of CD3hiCD4+ and CD3hiCD8+ SP cells of > 99% purity (< 0.3% CD4-containing cells in the CD8+ population). The presence of HIV-1 provirus in the sorted thymocyte populations was determined by quantitative PCR. A fraction of mature CD3hiCD8+ thymocytes contained HIV-1 proviral DNA, and evidence of viral mRNA transcription in these cells was demonstrated by in situ hybridization. In contrast, when uninfected CD3hiCD8+ thymocytes were cocultured with HIV-1-infected CD4+ thymocytes, no evidence of productive HIV-1 infection was detected. Thus, HIV-1 infection of CD8+ thymocytes in the SCID-hu mouse does not occur by direct contact with the virus. Rather, cell surface CD4 is required; therefore, precursor cells are the likely primary target of HIV-1 infection in the thymus. During ontogeny, some of these infected cells continue their differentiation into mature CD8+ SP thymocytes that contain proviral DNA and express viral RNA. PMID:9261389

  14. Very low prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in western Canadian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, G C; Johnston, J B; Nickel, D D; Jacobs, R M; Olson, M; Power, C

    2001-01-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a lentivirus that causes disease in cattle. Despite the large cattle industry in western Canada, the presence of BIV has not been examined to date. Genomic DNA, derived from semen and buffy coat samples, was analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for the gag, pol, and env genes of BIV. Despite utilizing a procedure that detected a minimum of 10 proviral copies, BIV sequences were not amplified in any of 317 buffy coat and 50 semen samples that were obtained from an archive that included 27 cattle breeds, collected from different sources in Alberta (1980-1999). In the 367 DNA samples examined, there was no evidence of BIV infection, suggesting that the prevalence of BIV infection was very low. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:11227201

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 endocytic trafficking through macrophage bridging conduits facilitates spread of infection.

    PubMed

    Kadiu, Irena; Gendelman, Howard E

    2011-12-01

    Bridging conduits (BC) sustain communication and homeostasis between distant tethered cells. These are also exploited commonly for direct cell-to-cell transfer of microbial agents. Conduits efficiently spread infection, effectively, at speeds faster than fluid phase exchange while shielding the microbe against otherwise effective humoral immunity. Our laboratory has sought to uncover the mechanism(s) for these events for human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection. Indeed, in our prior works HIV-1 Env and Gag antigen and fluorescent virus tracking were shown sequestered into endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi organelles but the outcomes for spreading viral infection remained poorly defined. Herein, we show that HIV-1 specifically traffics through endocytic compartments contained within BC and directing such macrophage-to-macrophage viral transfers. Following clathrin-dependent viral entry, HIV-1 constituents bypass degradation by differential sorting from early to Rab11(+) recycling endosomes and multivesicular bodies. Virus-containing endocytic viral cargoes propelled by myosin II through BC spread to neighboring uninfected cells. Disruption of endosomal motility with cytochalasin D, nocodasole and blebbistatin diminish intercellular viral spread. These data lead us to propose that HIV-1 hijacks macrophage endocytic and cytoskeletal machineries for high-speed cell-to-cell spread.

  16. The epidemiology of cancers in human immunodeficiency virus infection and after organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grulich, Andrew E; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-04-01

    The authors provide an update on the association between immune deficiency and cancer risk in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and in solid organ transplant recipients. Over the past decade, it has become clear that a wider range of about 20 mostly infection-related cancers occur at increased rates in people with immune deficiency. The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-related cancers of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are most closely related to level of immune deficiency. Transplant recipients also have a greatly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, related to direct carcinogenic effects of the pharmaceuticals used for immune suppression. For those three cancer types, the increased cancer risk is largely reversed when immune deficiency is decreased by treatment of HIV or by reduction of iatrogenic immune suppression. Other infection-related cancers also occur at increased rates, but it is not clear whether reduction of immune deficiency reduces cancer risk. Prostate and breast cancer do not occur at increased rates, providing strong evidence that these cancers are unlikely to be related to infection. Epidemiological and clinical trends in these two populations have led to substantial recent changes in cancer occurrence. PMID:25843729

  17. Foci of Endemic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Living Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N.; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A.; Lwanga, Jeremiah S.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Watts, David P.; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Sharp, Paul M.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) is the immediate precursor to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet remarkably, the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz in wild ape populations are unknown. Studies of SIVcpz infection rates in wild chimpanzees are complicated by the species' endangered status and by its geographic location in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed sensitive and specific urine and fecal tests for SIVcpz antibody and virion RNA (vRNA) detection and describe herein the first comprehensive prevalence study of SIVcpz infection in five wild Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii communities in east Africa. In Kibale National Park in Uganda, 31 (of 52) members of the Kanyawara community and 39 (of ∼145) members of the Ngogo community were studied; none were found to be positive for SIVcpz infection. In Gombe National Park in Tanzania, 15 (of 20) members of the Mitumba community, 51 (of 55) members of the Kasekela community, and at least 10 (of ∼20) members of the Kalande community were studied. Seven individuals were SIVcpz antibody and/or vRNA positive, and two others had indeterminate antibody results. Based on assay sensitivities and the numbers and types of specimens analyzed, we estimated the prevalence of SIVcpz infection to be 17% in Mitumba (95% confidence interval, 10 to 40%), 5% in Kasekela (95% confidence interval, 4 to 7%), and 30% in Kalande (95% confidence interval, 15 to 60%). For Gombe as a whole, the SIVcpz prevalence was estimated to be 13% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 25%). SIVcpz infection was confirmed in five chimpanzees by PCR amplification of partial pol and gp41/nef sequences which revealed a diverse group of viruses that formed a monophyletic lineage within the SIVcpzPts radiation. Although none of the 70 Kibale chimpanzees tested SIVcpz positive, we estimated the likelihood that a 10% or higher prevalence existed but went undetected because of sampling and assay limitations; this

  18. White matter tract injury and cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Taylor, Michael J; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Letendre, Scott L; Alhassoon, Omar M; Jacobus, Joanna; Woods, Steven P; Jernigan, Terry L; Ellis, Ronald J; Frank, Lawrence R; Grant, Igor

    2009-04-01

    Approximately half of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit cognitive impairment, which has been related to cerebral white matter damage. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment, cognitive impairment remains common even in individuals with undetectable viral loads. One explanation for this may be subtherapeutic concentrations of some antiretrovirals in the central nervous system (CNS). We utilized diffusion tensor imaging and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to investigate the relationship of white matter integrity to cognitive impairment and antiretroviral treatment variables. Participants included 39 HIV-infected individuals (49% with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]; mean CD4 = 529) and 25 seronegative subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were mapped onto a common whole-brain white matter tract skeleton, allowing between-subject voxelwise comparisons. The total HIV-infected group exhibited abnormal white matter in the internal capsule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiation; whereas those with AIDS exhibited more widespread damage, including in the internal capsule and the corpus callosum. Cognitive impairment in the HIV-infected group was related to white matter injury in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. White matter injury was not found to be associated with HIV viral load or estimated CNS penetration of antiretrovirals. Diffusion tensor imaging was useful in identifying changes in white matter tracts associated with more advanced HIV infection. Relationships between diffusion alterations in specific white matter tracts and cognitive impairment support the potential utility of diffusion tensor imaging in examining the anatomical underpinnings of HIV-related cognitive impairment. The study also confirms that CNS injury is evident in persons infected with HIV despite effective antiretroviral treatment.

  19. Efficient lysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, O O; Kalams, S A; Rosenzweig, M; Trocha, A; Jones, N; Koziel, M; Walker, B D; Johnson, R P

    1996-09-01

    Numerous studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have examined their ability to recognize B-cell lines expressing recombinant HIV-1 proteins, but relatively few data regarding the lysis of HIV-1-infected cells by CTL are available. We studied the ability of HIV-1-specific CTL clones of defined epitope specificity and HLA restriction to lyse infected CD4+ cells at serial time points following infection. CD4+ cell lines were acutely infected with HIV-1 IIIB at a high multiplicity of infection, and the kinetics of cell lysis were examined and compared with the kinetics of viral replication. Intracellular HIV-1 p24 expression was detected by 1 to 2 days after infection, reaching over 98% positive cells by day 4. Recognition of the infected cells by HLA A2- and B14-restricted CTL clones closely paralleled intracellular p24 expression and preceded peak virion production. The maximal levels of lysis with Gag-, reverse transcriptase-, and envelope-specific clones were different, however. The Gag- and envelope-specific clones lysed infected cells at levels equivalent to peptide-sensitized controls, whereas lysis by the reverse transcriptase-specific clones plateaued at a lower level. Peptide titration curves indicated that this effect was not due to differences in sensitivity to the cognate epitopes for the different clones. Although HIV-1 infection induced an approximately 50% decrease in class I HLA expression on the surface of infected cells, lysis by CTL clones was unaffected. These studies indicate that HIV-1-specific CTL can efficiently lyse HIV-1-infected CD4+ cells and suggest that the partial downregulation of class I molecules in infected cells does not significantly affect recognition by CTL.

  20. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  1. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Southern African Adults: Occult or Overt – That Is the Question

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Trevor G.; Makondo, Euphodia; Martinson, Neil A.; Kramvis, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share transmission routes and are endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the present study was to use the Taormina definition of occult HBV infection, together with stringent amplification conditions, to determine the prevalence and characteristics of HBV infection in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve HIV+ve adults in a rural cohort in South Africa. The presence of HBV serological markers was determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) tests. HBV DNA-positivity was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of at least two of three different regions of the HBV genome. HBV viral loads were determined by real-time PCR. Liver fibrosis was determined using the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index. Of the 298 participants, 231 (77.5%) showed at least one HBV marker, with 53.7% HBV DNA−ve (resolved) and 23.8% HBV DNA+ve (current) [8.7% HBsAg+ve: 15.1% HBsAg−ve]. Only the total number of sexual partners distinguished HBV DNA+ve and HBV DNA−ve participants, implicating sexual transmission of HBV and/or HIV. It is plausible that sexual transmission of HBV and/or HIV may result in a new HBV infection, superinfection and re-activation as a consequence of immunesuppression. Three HBsAg−ve HBV DNA+ve participants had HBV viral loads <200 IU/ml and were therefore true occult HBV infections. The majority of HBsAg−ve HBV DNA+ve participants did not differ from HBsAg+ve HBV DNA+ve (overt) participants in terms of HBV viral loads, ALT levels or frequency of liver fibrosis. Close to a quarter of HIV+ve participants were HBV DNA+ve, of which the majority were HBsAg−ve and were only detected using nucleic acid testing. Detection of HBsAg−ve HBV DNA+ve subjects is advisable considering they were clinically indistinguishable from HBsAg+ve HBV DNA+ve individuals and should not be overlooked, especially if lamivudine is included in the ART. PMID:23049685

  2. PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) INFECTION IN WILD AFRICAN LIONS

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Melody E.; Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L.; Alexander, Katherine; Klein, Lin; Martinelli, Paulo; Krishnasamu, Karthiuani; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV sero-prevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS defining conditions: lymphandenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters and elevated liver enzymes and serum proteins. Spleen and lymph node laparoscopic biopsies from free-ranging FIVple infected lions (N=8) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodefieciency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca). PMID:19464039

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in heterosexual intravenous drug users in San Francisco.

    PubMed Central

    Chaisson, R E; Moss, A R; Onishi, R; Osmond, D; Carlson, J R

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in San Francisco, the prevalence of antibodies to HIV was determined in 281 heterosexual intravenous drug users recruited from community-based settings. Ten per cent of subjects had ELISA and Western blot confirmed seropositivity for antibodies (95 per cent CI 6.8-14.2 per cent). Analysis of behavioral factors revealed an increased risk of seropositivity in addicts who reported regularly sharing needles when injecting, particularly those sharing with two or more persons (odds ratio = 5.43; 95 per cent CI 1.08-52.5). Blacks and Latinos also had a greater prevalence of seropositivity than Whites, and this finding persisted after adjustment for needle sharing (adjusted odds ratio = 2.8; 95 per cent CI .84-8.59). Seropositivity was not associated with age, sex, duration of drug use, or history of prostitution. These data indicate that a new epidemic of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in intravenous drug users, similar to that which has occurred among homosexuals in San Francisco, is possible. The relatively low seroprevalence in 1985 provides health officials an important opportunity to intervene and attempt to prevent widespread infection of drug users with HIV. PMID:3467596

  4. The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients with factor IX deficiency (Christmas disease)

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J M; Variakojis, D; Phair, J P; Green, D

    1987-06-01

    Early reports suggested that hemophiliacs with factor IX deficiency (Christmas Disease) may be at less risk for developing the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) than patients with classic hemophilia. We evaluated 12 factor IX deficient patients for clinical and immunologic abnormalities related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibody to HIV was not detected in these patients prior to 1982. By 1985, 66 percent (eight of 12) patients were seropositive. All three concentrates available commercially before 1985 were associated with seropositivity. Furthermore, seropositive hemophiliacs had received on average significantly more factor IX concentrate than seronegative hemophiliacs (27,825 +/- 17,976 (S.D.) versus 1,250 +/- 1,500 factor units/year, (p less than 0.02). Half of the seropositive individuals had generalized lymphadenopathy with splenomegaly. Two seropositive patients have developed AIDS, one with cryptococcal meningitis and another with a large cell immunoblastic lymphoma. Infection with HIV has occurred with high frequency in hemophiliacs who received unmodified factor IX concentrates.

  5. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Shares Features of Both Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Lentiviral Infections.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Edward J D; Schmidt, Fabian; Kondova, Ivanela; Niphuis, Henk; Hodara, Vida L; Clissold, Leah; McLay, Kirsten; Guerra, Bernadette; Redrobe, Sharon; Giavedoni, Luis D; Lanford, Robert E; Murthy, Krishna K; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2015-09-01

    The virus-host relationship in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected chimpanzees is thought to be different from that found in other SIV infected African primates. However, studies of captive SIVcpz infected chimpanzees are limited. Previously, the natural SIVcpz infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was reported, with limited follow-up. Here, we present a long-term study of these seven animals, with a retrospective re-examination of the early stages of infection. The only clinical signs consistent with AIDS or AIDS associated disease was thrombocytopenia in two cases, associated with the development of anti-platelet antibodies. However, compared to uninfected and HIV-1 infected animals, SIVcpz infected animals had significantly lower levels of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells. Despite this, levels of T-cell activation in chronic infection were not significantly elevated. In addition, while plasma levels of β2 microglobulin, neopterin and soluble TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (sTRAIL) were elevated in acute infection, these markers returned to near-normal levels in chronic infection, reminiscent of immune activation patterns in 'natural host' species. Furthermore, plasma soluble CD14 was not elevated in chronic infection. However, examination of the secondary lymphoid environment revealed persistent changes to the lymphoid structure, including follicular hyperplasia in SIVcpz infected animals. In addition, both SIV and HIV-1 infected chimpanzees showed increased levels of deposition of collagen and increased levels of Mx1 expression in the T-cell zones of the lymph node. The outcome of SIVcpz infection of captive chimpanzees therefore shares features of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic lentivirus infections.

  6. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Shares Features of Both Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Lentiviral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Edward J. D.; Schmidt, Fabian; Kondova, Ivanela; Niphuis, Henk; Hodara, Vida L.; Clissold, Leah; McLay, Kirsten; Guerra, Bernadette; Redrobe, Sharon; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Lanford, Robert E.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The virus-host relationship in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected chimpanzees is thought to be different from that found in other SIV infected African primates. However, studies of captive SIVcpz infected chimpanzees are limited. Previously, the natural SIVcpz infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was reported, with limited follow-up. Here, we present a long-term study of these seven animals, with a retrospective re-examination of the early stages of infection. The only clinical signs consistent with AIDS or AIDS associated disease was thrombocytopenia in two cases, associated with the development of anti-platelet antibodies. However, compared to uninfected and HIV-1 infected animals, SIVcpz infected animals had significantly lower levels of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells. Despite this, levels of T-cell activation in chronic infection were not significantly elevated. In addition, while plasma levels of β2 microglobulin, neopterin and soluble TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (sTRAIL) were elevated in acute infection, these markers returned to near-normal levels in chronic infection, reminiscent of immune activation patterns in ‘natural host’ species. Furthermore, plasma soluble CD14 was not elevated in chronic infection. However, examination of the secondary lymphoid environment revealed persistent changes to the lymphoid structure, including follicular hyperplasia in SIVcpz infected animals. In addition, both SIV and HIV-1 infected chimpanzees showed increased levels of deposition of collagen and increased levels of Mx1 expression in the T-cell zones of the lymph node. The outcome of SIVcpz infection of captive chimpanzees therefore shares features of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic lentivirus infections. PMID:26360709

  7. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  8. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  9. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  10. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  11. Slow Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infectivity Correlated with Low HIV Coreceptor Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Cynthia L.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes in blood is prognostic for disease progression, yet the cell surface density of CD4 receptors or chemokine receptors on a single cell has not previously been found to be predictive of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity outcome. It has recently been shown that human leukocyte elastase (HLE) and its ligand α1 proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; α1 antitrypsin) act as HIV fusion cofactors. The present study shows that decreased HIV infectivity is significantly correlated with decreased cell surface density of HLE but not with decreased CD4 nor chemokine receptors. In vitro HIV infectivity outcome in this study was predicted by the surface density of HLE on mononuclear phagocytes but not on lymphocytes. The set point HLE surface density was in part determined by α1PI. Decreased circulating α1PI was correlated with increased cell surface HLE and with increased HIV infectivity. The correlation of HIV infectivity outcome with surface HLE and circulating α1PI supports the utility of these HIV cofactors in diagnostic analysis and therapeutic intervention. PMID:11527806

  12. Genetic characterisation of Langerin gene in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Giselle Calasans de Souza; Jesus, Jaqueline Goes; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Edson Souza; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Studies on human genetic variations are a useful source of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The Langerin protein, found at the surface of Langerhans cells, has an important protective role in HIV-1 infection. Differences in Langerin function due to host genetic factors could influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To verify the frequency of mutations in the Langerin gene, 118 samples from HIV-1-infected women and 99 samples from HIV-1-uninfected individuals were selected for sequencing of the promoter and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-encoding regions of the Langerin gene. Langerin promoter analysis revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one mutation in both studied groups, which created new binding sites for certain transcription factors, such as NFAT5, HOXB9.01 and STAT6.01, according to MatInspector software analysis. Three SNPs were observed in the CRD-encoding region in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals: p.K313I, c.941C>T and c.983C>T. This study shows that mutations in the Langerin gene are present in the analysed populations at different genotypic and allelic frequencies. Further studies should be conducted to verify the role of these mutations in HIV-1 susceptibility. PMID:24676666

  13. Health care workers infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The next steps.

    PubMed

    Lo, B; Steinbrook, R

    1992-02-26

    The tragedy of five patients who contracted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from a seropositive dentist has alarmed the public. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently revised its recommendations for preventing the transmission of HIV infection to patients during invasive procedures. The CDC abandoned a previous plan to list exposure-prone invasive procedures that HIV-infected health care workers should not perform. The CDC said "expert review panels" should decide on a case-by-case basis whether seropositive health care workers may perform invasive procedures. As of February 1992, the revised recommendations were under review by the US Department of Health and Human Services. Many issues remain to be clarified, such as how these panels will operate and whether decisions will be consistent in similar cases. Disregarding the CDC guidelines or infection-control precautions may further erode public trust and lead to draconian restrictions on HIV-infected health care workers. Physicians and dentists should respond more effectively to public fears about HIV transmission. The challenge is to protect patients while respecting the privacy and livelihood of health care workers.

  14. Bispecific Antibodies that Mediate Killing of Cells Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus of Any Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Jorg; Lotscher, Erika; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Capon, Daniel J.; Baenziger, Jurg; Jack, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1991-06-01

    Although AIDS patients lose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T cells, their remaining CD8-positive T lymphocytes maintain cytotoxic function. To exploit this fact we have constructed bispecific antibodies that direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes of any specificity to cells that express gp120 of HIV. These bispecific antibodies comprise one heavy/light chain pair from an antibody to CD3, linked to a heavy chain whose variable region has been replaced with sequences from CD4 plus a second light chain. CD3 is part of the antigen receptor on T cells and is responsible for signal transduction. In the presence of these bispecific antibodies, T cells of irrelevant specificity effectively lyse HIV-infected cells in vitro.

  15. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia.

  16. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  17. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Croxson, T S; Chapman, W E; Miller, L K; Levit, C D; Senie, R; Zumoff, B

    1989-02-01

    Serum total testosterone, total 17 beta-estradiol, LH, FSH, and PRL concentrations were measured by RIA in 59 homosexual men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (32 clinically healthy antibody-positive men (HH+), 20 men with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 7 men with AIDS-related complex (ARC). The results were compared with those of 26 antibody-negative homosexual men (HH-) who served as controls. The mean serum total testosterone concentration was significantly lower in the men with AIDS [414 +/- 230 (+/- SD) ng/dL (14.5 +/- 8.0)] than in the HH- men [550 +/- 172 ng/dL (19.0 +/- 6.0 nmol/L); P less than 0.05]. The mean serum LH level was significantly higher in the men with AIDS (26 +/- 14 vs. 14 +/- 4 IU/L in HH- men; P less than 0.01) and slightly but significantly higher in the men with ARC (19 +/- 8 IU/L; 0.10 greater than P greater than 0.05). Serum FSH also was significantly higher in the men with AIDS (P less than 0.05). Serum PRL was significantly higher in the men with ARC (10 +/- 2 micrograms/L; P less than 0.05) and AIDS (16 +/- 10 micrograms/L; P less than 0.001) than in the HH- men (8 +/- 3 micrograms/L). Serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels were similar in HH- men and men with AIDS as were serum T responses to hCG administration for 2 days. These results suggest that alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis indicative of primary hypogonadism accompany human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual men.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphomagenesis in the context of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Petrara, Maria R; Freguja, Riccardo; Gianesin, Ketty; Zanchetta, Marisa; De Rossi, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpes virus which establishes a life-long asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients, the impaired immunosurveillance against EBV may favor the development of EBV-related diseases, ranging from lymphoproliferative disorders to B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly modified the natural course of HIV-1 infection, resulting in decreased HIV-1 plasmaviremia, increased CD4 lymphocytes, and decreased opportunistic infections, indicating a restoration of immune functions. However, the impact of ART appears to be less favorable on EBV-related malignancies than on other AIDS-defining tumors, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, and NHL remains the most common cancer during the ART era. EBV-driven tumors are associated with selective expression of latent oncogenic proteins, but uncontrolled lytic cycle with virus replication and/or reactivation may favor cell transformation, at least in the early phases. Several host's factors may promote EBV reactivation and replication; besides immunodepression, inflammation/chronic immune stimulation may play an important role. Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns, through Toll-like receptors, activate the immune system and may promote EBV reactivation and/or polyclonal expansion of EBV-infected cells. A body of evidence suggests that chronic immune stimulation is a hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis and may persist even in ART-treated patients. This review focuses on lymphomagenesis driven by EBV both in the context of the natural history of HIV-1 infection and in ART-treated patients. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the expansion of EBV-infected cells is a premise for the identification of prognostic markers of EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:24151490

  19. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  20. Immunization of children at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, William J.; Clements, C. John; Halsey, Neal A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the English language literature on the safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of vaccines currently recommended by WHO for use in national immunization programmes. Immunization is generally safe and beneficial for children infected with HIV, although HIV-induced immune suppression reduces the benefit compared with that obtained in HIV-uninfected children. However, serious complications can occur following immunization of severely immunocompromised children with bacillus Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) vaccine. The risk of serious complications attributable to yellow fever vaccine in HIV-infected persons has not been determined. WHO guidelines for immunizing children with HIV infection and infants born to HIV-infected women differ only slightly from the general guidelines. BCG and yellow fever vaccines should be withheld from symptomatic HIV-infected children. Only one serious complication (fatal pneumonia) has been attributed to measles vaccine administered to a severely immunocompromised adult. Although two HIV-infected infants have developed vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, several million infected children have been vaccinated and the evidence does not suggest that there is an increased risk. The benefits of measles and poliovirus vaccines far outweigh the potential risks in HIV-infected children. The policy of administering routine vaccines to all children, regardless of possible HIV exposure, has been very effective in obtaining high immunization coverage and control of preventable diseases. Any changes in this policy would have to be carefully examined for a potential negative impact on disease control programmes in many countries. PMID:12640478

  1. Shared alterations in NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ute-Christiane; Owen, Rachel E; Taylor, Elizabeth; Worth, Andrew; Naoumov, Nikolai; Willberg, Christian; Tang, Kwok; Newton, Phillipa; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Klenerman, Paul; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause clinically important persistent infections. The effects of virus persistence on innate immunity, including NK cell responses, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood CD3- CD56+ NK subsets in HIV+ and HCV+ patients and identified significantly reduced numbers of total NK cells and a striking shift in NK subsets, with a marked decrease in the CD56(dim) cell fraction compared to CD56(bright) cells, in both infections. This shift influenced the phenotype and functional capacity (gamma interferon production, killing) of the total NK pool. In addition, abnormalities in the functional capacity of the CD56(dim) NK subset were observed in HIV+ patients. The shared NK alterations were found to be associated with a significant reduction in serum levels of the innate cytokine interleukin 15 (IL-15). In vitro stimulation with IL-15 rescued NK cells of HIV+ and HCV+ patients from apoptosis and enhanced proliferation and functional activity. We hypothesize that the reduced levels of IL-15 present in the serum during HIV and HCV infections might impact NK cell homeostasis, contributing to the common alterations of the NK pool observed in these unrelated infections. PMID:16160163

  2. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although a recent report has shown that domestic cat encodes 7 haplotypes (hap I to hap VII) of A3Z3, the relevance of A3Z3 polymorphism in domestic cats with FIV Vif has not yet been addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that these feline A3Z3 variants suppress vif-defective FIV infectivity. We also revealed that codon 65 of feline A3Z3 is a positively selected site and that A3Z3 hap V is subject to positive selection during evolution. It is particularly noteworthy that feline A3Z3 hap V is resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation and still inhibits vif-proficient viral infection. Moreover, the side chain size, but not the hydrophobicity, of the amino acid at position 65 determines the resistance to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses have led to the inference that feline A3Z3 hap V emerged approximately 60,000 years ago. Taken together, these findings suggest that feline A3Z3 hap V may have been selected for escape from an ancestral FIV. This is the first evidence for an evolutionary “arms race” between the domestic cat and its cognate lentivirus. IMPORTANCE Gene diversity and selective pressure are intriguing topics in the field of evolutionary biology. A direct interaction between a cellular protein and a viral protein can precipitate an evolutionary arms race between host and virus. One example is primate APOBEC3G, which potently restricts the replication of primate lentiviruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  3. Infection of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in water buffalo and cattle populations in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Meas, S; Seto, J; Sugimoto, C; Bakhsh, M; Riaz, M; Sato, T; Naeem, K; Ohashi, K; Onuma, M

    2000-03-01

    A survey of antibodies to bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) known as bovine lentivirus and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted with samples from water buffalo and cattle populations in Pakistan. A total of 370 water buffaloes and 76 cattle were tested, and 10.3% and 15.8%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting, while 0.8% of water buffaloes and no cattle were positive for anti-BLV antibodies determined by immunodiffusion test. BIV-seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were found to have BIV proviral DNA in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells determined by nested polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report of BIV infections in water buffaloes.

  4. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Library ▸ Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI ...

  5. "Frontal systems" behaviors in comorbid human immunodeficiency virus infection and methamphetamine dependency.

    PubMed

    Marquine, María J; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Morgan, Erin E; Brown, Gregory G; Letendre, Scott L; Ellis, Ronald J; Deutsch, Reena; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2014-01-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and methamphetamine (MA) dependence are associated with neural injury preferentially involving frontostriatal circuits. Little is known, however, about how these commonly comorbid conditions impact behavioral presentations typically associated with frontal systems dysfunction. Our sample comprised 47 HIV-uninfected/MA-nondependent; 25 HIV-uninfected/MA-dependent; 36 HIV-infected/MA-nondependent; and 28 HIV-infected/MA-dependent subjects. Participants completed self-report measures of "frontal systems" behaviors, including impulsivity/disinhibition, sensation-seeking, and apathy. They also underwent comprehensive neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments that allowed for detailed characterization of neurocognitive deficits and comorbid/premorbid conditions, including lifetime Mood and Substance Use Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Multivariable regression models adjusting for potential confounds (i.e., demographics and comorbid/premorbid conditions) showed that MA dependence was independently associated with increased impulsivity/disinhibition, sensation-seeking and apathy, and HIV infection with greater apathy. However, we did not see synergistic/additive effects of HIV and MA on frontal systems behaviors. Global neurocognitive impairment was relatively independent of the frontal systems behaviors, which is consistent with the view that these constructs may have relatively separable biopsychosocial underpinnings. Future research should explore whether both neurocognitive impairment and frontal systems behaviors may independently contribute to everyday functioning outcomes relevant to HIV and MA.

  6. Autoreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    A subtractive analysis of peptides eluted from major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)- A2.1 molecules purified from either human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected or uninfected cells was performed using micro high- performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Three peptides unique to infected cells were identified and found to derive from a single protein, human vinculin, a structural protein not known to be involved in viral pathogenesis. Molecular and cytofluorometric analyses revealed vinculin mRNA and vinculin protein overexpression in B and T lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals. Vinculin peptide-specific CTL activity was readily elicited from peripheral blood lymphocytes of the majority of HLA-A2.1+, HIV+ patients tested. Our observations suggest that atypical vinculin expression and MHC class I-mediated presentation of vinculin-derived peptides accompany HIV infection of lymphoid cells in vivo, with a resultant induction of antivinculin CTL in a significant portion of HIV+ (HLA-A2.1+) individuals. PMID:8676071

  7. Molecular Characterization of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Women and Their Vertically Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sara Nunes; Giovanetti, Marta; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Oliveira, Tulio de; Danaviah, Siva; Gonçalves, Maria Luiza Freire; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Brites, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 35 million people worldwide are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) around 3.2 million of whom are children under 15 years. Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 accounts for 90% of all infections in children. Despite great advances in the prevention of MTCT in Brazil, children are still becoming infected. Samples from 19 HIV-1-infected families were collected. DNA was extracted and fragments from gag, pol, and env were amplified and sequenced directly. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed. Drug resistance analyses were performed in pol and env sequences. We found 82.1% of subtype B and 17.9% of BF recombinants. A prevalence of 43.9% drug resistance-associated mutations in pol sequences was identified. Of the drug-naive children 33.3% presented at least one mutation related to protease inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (PI/NRTI/NNRTI) resistance. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations was 4.9%. On env we found a low prevalence of HR1 (4.9%) and HR2 (14.6%) mutations. PMID:26200738

  8. Circadian rhythms of circulating NK cells in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.

    PubMed

    Bourin, P; Mansour, I; Doinel, C; Roué, R; Rouger, P; Levi, F

    1993-08-01

    Antiviral immunity involves NK cells, which circulate rhythmically every 24 hours. We have investigated circadian and 12-hour rhythms in the peripheral count of circulating NK cells in 15 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 13 healthy controls. We analyzed three phenotypes using double-labeling with monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry assessment: CD3- CD16+, CD3-CD57+, and CD2+CD3-. A statistical validation of time-dependent differences was achieved if significance (p < 0.05) was validated both with analysis of variance and cosinor. The circadian rhythm had a similar asymmetric waveform for the three phenotypes and is homogeneous on an individual basis. The circulating NK cell count peaked in the early morning and was low at night. A circadian rhythm and a circahemidian harmonic characterized all phenotypes in healthy subjects. We considered two groups of HIV-infected men: those who were asymptomatic (eight) and those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (seven). Circadian changes in NK cell count were similar in both subgroups and in healthy controls. The circadian pattern was also consistent among individual patients. Asymptomatic HIV-infected men (early-stage disease) exhibited more pronounced 12-hour rhythmicity than did patients with AIDS or controls. The circulation of NK cells does not appear to share the same synchronizer(s) as other circulating T- or B-lymphocyte subsets. Thus, HIV infection gradually abolished circadian rhythmicity in circulating T and B cells, whereas it did not disturb that in NK cells.

  9. Molecular Characterization of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Women and Their Vertically Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Sara Nunes; Giovanetti, Marta; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; de Oliveira, Tulio; Danaviah, Siva; Gonçalves, Maria Luiza Freire; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 35 million people worldwide are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) around 3.2 million of whom are children under 15 years. Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 accounts for 90% of all infections in children. Despite great advances in the prevention of MTCT in Brazil, children are still becoming infected. Samples from 19 HIV-1-infected families were collected. DNA was extracted and fragments from gag, pol, and env were amplified and sequenced directly. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed. Drug resistance analyses were performed in pol and env sequences. We found 82.1% of subtype B and 17.9% of BF recombinants. A prevalence of 43.9% drug resistance-associated mutations in pol sequences was identified. Of the drug-naive children 33.3% presented at least one mutation related to protease inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (PI/NRTI/NNRTI) resistance. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations was 4.9%. On env we found a low prevalence of HR1 (4.9%) and HR2 (14.6%) mutations. PMID:26200738

  10. Maternal human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection and intrauterine growth: a prospective cohort study in Butare, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Bulterys, M; Chao, A; Munyemana, S; Kurawige, J B; Nawrocki, P; Habimana, P; Kageruka, M; Mukantabana, S; Mbarutso, E; Dushimimana, A

    1994-02-01

    A prospective cohort study of 318 human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected and 309 seronegative pregnant women was carried out in Butare, Rwanda. Birth weight was significantly lower among singleton infants born alive to HIV-1-infected mothers compared with those born alive to seronegative mothers (2706 g vs. 2825 g; P = 0.002). Crown-to-heel length, head circumference, chest circumference and placental weight were also reduced. Maternal HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with intrauterine growth retardation but not with preterm birth. Differences in the body mass index and weight/head ratio suggest that the adverse impact on live born infants may have been most severe towards the end of pregnancy, resulting in a lean infant with a relatively large head. The higher frequency of intrauterine growth retardation could not be explained by potential confounding factors such as maternal cigarette smoking, history of sexually transmitted diseases or sociodemographic characteristics. The neonatal physical examination did not reveal any differences in clinical signs or symptoms within 48 hours of birth except for the presence of conjunctivitis which was more common among infants of HIV-1-infected mothers. The perinatal and neonatal mortality rates were not significantly affected by maternal HIV-1 status. PMID:8190558

  11. Contribution of Immune Activation to the Pathogenesis and Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Stephen D.; Butera, Salvatore T.; Folks, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is intricately related to the activation state of the host cells supporting viral replication. Although cellular activation is essential to mount an effective host immune response to invading pathogens, paradoxically the marked systemic immune activation that accompanies HIV-1 infection in vivo may play an important role in sustaining phenomenal rates of HIV-1 replication in infected persons. Moreover, by inducing CD4+ cell loss by apoptosis, immune activation may further be central to the increased rate of CD4+ cell turnover and eventual development of CD4+ lymphocytopenia. In addition to HIV-1-induced immune activation, exogenous immune stimuli such as opportunistic infections may further impact the rate of HIV-1 replication systemically or at localized anatomical sites. Such stimuli may also lead to genotypic and phenotypic changes in the virus pool. Together, these various immunological effects on the biology of HIV-1 may potentially enhance disease progression in HIV-infected persons and may ultimately outweigh the beneficial aspects of antiviral immune responses. This may be particularly important for those living in developing countries, where there is little or no access to antiretroviral drugs and where frequent exposure to pathogenic organisms sustains a chronically heightened state of immune activation. Moreover, immune activation associated with sexually transmitted diseases, chorioamnionitis, and mastitis may have important local effects on HIV-1 replication that may increase the risk of sexual or mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. The aim of this paper is to provide a broad review of the interrelationship between immune activation and the immunopathogenesis, transmission, progression, and treatment of HIV-1 infection in vivo. PMID:11585784

  12. Infection of brain microglial cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is CD4 dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, C A; Watkins, B A; Kufta, C; Dubois-Dalcq, M

    1991-01-01

    In the central nervous system of AIDS patients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects primarily microglia, a cell type of bone marrow origin. Moreover, microglial cells isolated from adult human brain support the replication of macrophage-adapted strains of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) (B.A. Watkins, H.H. Dorn, W.B. Kelly, R.C. Armstrong, B. Potts, F. Michaels, C.V. Kufta, and M. Dubois-Dalcq, Science 249:549-553, 1990). To determine whether the CD4 receptor, which is expressed in brain, mediates the entry of HIV-1 in microglial cells, we analyzed CD4 transcript expression in cultured microglia using highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction detection of cDNAs synthesized from RNA. With this method, CD4 transcripts could be detected in cultured microglia--as well as in various human brain regions and cultured macrophages used as positive controls--along with transcripts for the LDL and Fc receptors which are characteristic of cells of the macrophage lineage. We then attempted to block viral entry into microglial cells using anti-CD4 antibodies or soluble CD4 (sCD4), which recognize binding sites on CD4 and HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120, respectively. Cultures were pretreated with blocking antibodies (Leu-3a, OKT4A) or virus was preincubated with sCD4 prior to infection with HIV-1 strain AD87(M) or BaL. With either viral strain, these treatments resulted in the prevention of infection or significant and dose-dependent reduction in the number of infected cells and in the levels of reverse transcriptase or p24 antigen released in the medium. Thus, brain-derived microglial cells, which are the primary target of HIV-1 infection in the brain, express the CD4 receptor and this receptor is effectively used for viral entry in vitro. Images PMID:1702842

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Living Gorillas▿

    PubMed Central

    Neel, Cécile; Etienne, Lucie; Li, Yingying; Takehisa, Jun; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Ndong Bass, Innocent; Moudindo, Joseph; Mebenga, Aimé; Esteban, Amandine; Van Heuverswyn, Fran; Liegeois, Florian; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Boesch, Christophe; Todd, Angelique; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Peeters, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees and gorillas are the only nonhuman primates known to harbor viruses closely related to HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses showed that gorillas acquired the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVgor from chimpanzees, and viruses from the SIVcpz/SIVgor lineage have been transmitted to humans on at least four occasions, leading to HIV-1 groups M, N, O, and P. To determine the geographic distribution, prevalence, and species association of SIVgor, we conducted a comprehensive molecular epidemiological survey of wild gorillas in Central Africa. Gorilla fecal samples were collected in the range of western lowland gorillas (n = 2,367) and eastern Grauer gorillas (n = 183) and tested for SIVgor antibodies and nucleic acids. SIVgor antibody-positive samples were identified at 2 sites in Cameroon, with no evidence of infection at 19 other sites, including 3 in the range of the Eastern gorillas. In Cameroon, based on DNA and microsatellite analyses of a subset of samples, we estimated the prevalence of SIVgor to be 1.6% (range, 0% to 4.6%), which is significantly lower than the prevalence of SIVcpzPtt in chimpanzees (5.9%; range, 0% to 32%). All newly identified SIVgor strains formed a monophyletic lineage within the SIVcpz radiation, closely related to HIV-1 groups O and P, and clustered according to their field site of origin. At one site, there was evidence for intergroup transmission and a high intragroup prevalence. These isolated hot spots of SIVgor-infected gorilla communities could serve as a source for human infection. The overall low prevalence and sporadic distribution of SIVgor could suggest a decline of SIVgor in wild populations, but it cannot be excluded that SIVgor is still more prevalent in other parts of the geographical range of gorillas. PMID:19906908

  14. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S.; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C.; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d’Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d’Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d’Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  15. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d'Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  16. Persistent nonproductive infection of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B lymphocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, K E; Burrage, T; Jones, F; Miller, G

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the interaction of different strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-lymphocyte line, X50-7. Previously we found that some HIV-1 strains replicated rapidly and were exclusively cytolytic; others induced persistent noncytopathic infection associated with continued shedding of extracellular virus (K. Dahl, K. Martin, and G. Miller, J. Virol. 61:1602-1608, 1987). We now describe a third form of cell-virus relationship in which infection by strain IIIB is maintained in a highly cell-associated state in a small subpopulation (less than 2%) of X50-7 cells. Neither viral subcomponents nor infectious virus was detectable in culture supernatants; however, the carrier lines were fusogenic and HIV-1 could be recovered following prolonged cocultivation with susceptible cells. In these chronic carrier cultures, virions were not seen budding at the cell surface, but a few were found within cytoplasmic vesicles. HIV-1 infection of first- and second-generation cell subclones of the carrier cell line rapidly evolved from a productive to a cell-associated state. There were low levels of HIV DNA, and RNA in the fusogenic secondary clones, but most clones lacked HIV-1 DNA, failed to express HIV-1 RNA, and exhibited no properties associated with HIV-1 infection. The experiments indicate that HIV-1 can be sequestered in human B lymphocytes. The cell cloning experiments introduce the possibility that the HIV-1 provirus may be lost from some lymphocytes. Images PMID:2157058

  17. The oral and conjunctival microbiotas in cats with and without feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Weese, Scott J; Nichols, Jamieson; Jalali, Mohammad; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The oral and conjunctival microbiotas likely play important roles in protection from opportunistic infections, while also being the source of potential pathogens. Yet, there has been limited investigation in cats, and the impact of comorbidities such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has not been reported. Oral and conjunctival swabs were collected from cats with FIV infection and FIV-uninfected controls, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene (V4) PCR and next generation sequencing. 9,249 OTUs were identified from conjunctival swabs, yet the most common 20 (0.22%) OTUs accounted for 76% of sequences. The two most abundant OTUs both belonged to Staphylococcus, and accounted for 37% of sequences. Cats with FIV infection had significantly lower relative abundances of Verrucomicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes, and a higher relative abundance of Deinococcus-Thermus. There were significant differences in both community membership (P = 0.006) and community structure (P = 0.02) between FIV-infected and FIV-uninfected cats. FIV-infected cats had significantly higher relative abundances of Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria in the oral cavity, and significantly higher relative abundances of several bacterial classes including Fusobacteria (0.022 vs 0.007, P = 0.006), Actinobacteria (0.017 vs 0.003, P = 0.003), Sphingobacteria (0.00015 vs 0.00003, P = 0.0013) and Flavobacteria (0.0073 vs 0.0034, P = 0.030). The feline conjunctival and oral microbiotas are complex polymicrobial communities but dominated by a limited number of genera. There is an apparent impact of FIV infection on various components of the microbiota, and assessment of the clinical relevance of these alterations in required. PMID:25879465

  18. Normal T-Cell Turnover in Sooty Mangabeys Harboring Active Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Lisa A.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Zhang, Linqi; Gettie, Agegnehu; Luckay, Amara; Martin, Louis N.; Skulsky, Eva; Ho, David D.; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Marx, Preston A.

    2000-01-01

    Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) remain healthy though they harbor viral loads comparable to those in rhesus macaques that progress to AIDS. To assess the immunologic basis of disease resistance in mangabeys, we compared the effect of SIV infection on T-cell regeneration in both monkey species. Measurement of the proliferation marker Ki-67 by flow cytometry showed that mangabeys harbored proliferating T cells at a level of 3 to 4% in peripheral blood irrespective of their infection status. In contrast, rhesus macaques demonstrated a naturally high fraction of proliferating T cells (7%) that increased two- to threefold following SIV infection. Ki-67+ T cells were predominantly CD45RA−, indicating increased proliferation of memory cells in macaques. Quantitation of an episomal DNA product of T-cell receptor α rearrangement (termed α1 circle) showed that the concentration of recent thymic emigrants in blood decreased with age over a 2-log unit range in both monkey species, consistent with age-related thymic involution. SIV infection caused a limited decrease of α1 circle numbers in mangabeys as well as in macaques. Dilution of α1 circles by T-cell proliferation likely contributed to this decrease, since α1 circle numbers and Ki-67+ fractions correlated negatively. These findings are compatible with immune exhaustion mediated by abnormal T-cell proliferation, rather than with early thymic failure, in SIV-infected macaques. Normal T-cell turnover in SIV-infected mangabeys provides an explanation for the long-term maintenance of a functional immune system in these hosts. PMID:10627531

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of 7 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Infants Infected by Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen; Qiu, Ye; Lu, DeCheng; Zhang, Jianquan; Zhong, Xiaoning; Liu, Guangnan

    2015-08-01

    Infection with Penicillium marneffei has rarely been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative infants. We aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and immunological characteristics of 7 HIV-negative infants infected by P. marneffei, and to provide insights into its diagnosis and treatment.We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 7 HIV-negative infants infected by P. marneffei who presented to the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between January 1, 2003 and December 1, 2014. The infants' median age was 23.43 months (SD = 8.34), and all lived in Guangxi Province in China, where P. marneffei is endemic. The median time from disease onset to diagnosis was 2.29 months (SD = 2.12). Of the cases studied, 5 (71.43%) had medical histories that included frequent pneumonia or bronchopneumonia, thrush, congenital megacolon, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and hemophagocytic syndrome. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and anemia, followed by lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and being underweight. Four patients had slightly elevated white blood cell counts. The lymphocyte and CD4 T-cell counts were normal. The CD8 T-cell counts, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G titer, and serum IgA titer were low in 5 patients, and the serum IgM titers were high in 3 infants. Caseous necrosis was observed in 3 patients whose lymph nodes were affected. One case who received intravenous amphotericin B and 3 cases who received intravenous voriconazole improved, and these patients were cured after continual treatment with oral voriconazole for 6 or 12 months. The remaining patients died before they received antifungal treatment.P. marneffei causes severe disease and disseminated infections, and it has high mortality rates in HIV-negative infants in endemic areas. P. marneffei susceptibility may be associated with immunodeficiencies or immune disorders. In endemic areas, clinicians should aware of disseminated

  20. A Retrospective Analysis of 7 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Infants Infected by Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wen; Qiu, Ye; Lu, DeCheng; Zhang, Jianquan; Zhong, Xiaoning; Liu, Guangnan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infection with Penicillium marneffei has rarely been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative infants. We aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and immunological characteristics of 7 HIV-negative infants infected by P. marneffei, and to provide insights into its diagnosis and treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 7 HIV-negative infants infected by P. marneffei who presented to the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between January 1, 2003 and December 1, 2014. The infants’ median age was 23.43 months (SD = 8.34), and all lived in Guangxi Province in China, where P. marneffei is endemic. The median time from disease onset to diagnosis was 2.29 months (SD = 2.12). Of the cases studied, 5 (71.43%) had medical histories that included frequent pneumonia or bronchopneumonia, thrush, congenital megacolon, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and hemophagocytic syndrome. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and anemia, followed by lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and being underweight. Four patients had slightly elevated white blood cell counts. The lymphocyte and CD4+ T-cell counts were normal. The CD8+ T-cell counts, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G titer, and serum IgA titer were low in 5 patients, and the serum IgM titers were high in 3 infants. Caseous necrosis was observed in 3 patients whose lymph nodes were affected. One case who received intravenous amphotericin B and 3 cases who received intravenous voriconazole improved, and these patients were cured after continual treatment with oral voriconazole for 6 or 12 months. The remaining patients died before they received antifungal treatment. P. marneffei causes severe disease and disseminated infections, and it has high mortality rates in HIV-negative infants in endemic areas. P. marneffei susceptibility may be associated with immunodeficiencies or immune disorders. In endemic areas, clinicians should aware

  1. Variants selected by treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells with an immunotoxin

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    An immunotoxin has been made by coupling anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope antibody 907 to ricin A chain (907-RAC). 907 recognizes an epitope within the immunodominant PB-1 loop of gp120. Variant cells were selected by cloning persistently infected H9/human T lymphocyte virus IIIB cells in the presence of the immunotoxin. Clones resistant to 907-RAC arose at a frequency of 0.1-1.0%. Seven clones were selected for intensive analysis. When studied, these clones fell into two distinct groups, members of which appeared to be identical, suggesting that the variation arose before the selection process. In contrast to the parent cells, none of the cloned variants produced infectious HIV. The first set of clones, designated the "E" variants, expressed decreased levels of the HIV envelope on the cell surface. However, levels of intracellular HIV antigens and reverse transcriptase were equal to or greater than that of the parental cell line. Radioimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that the gp160 was truncated to 145 kD (gp120 was normal length), capable of binding to CD4, and, unlike normal gp160, was released in its unprocessed form into the cellular supernatant. Sequence analysis demonstrated that a deletion at codon 687 of the envelope gene resulted in the production of this truncated protein. Ultrastructural analysis of E variants demonstrated some budding forms of virus, but also large numbers of HIV within intracellular vesicles. The second set of variants, the "F" series, produced no HIV antigens, reverse transcriptase, nor was there ultrastructural evidence of virus. However, proviral DNA was present. Virus could not be induced with agents known to activate latent HIV. These cells also lacked cell surface CD4 and could not be infected with HIV. These studies demonstrate that variation in HIV can affect the phenotype of the cells carrying the altered virus, allowing for escape from immunologic destruction. The E variants may serve as prototypes for

  2. Co-Infection Burden of Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Injecting Heroin Users at the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Mwatelah, Ruth S.; Lwembe, Raphael M.; Osman, Saida; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Aman, Rashid; Kitawi, Rose C.; Wangai, Laura N.; Oloo, Florence A.; Kokwaro, Gilbert O.; Ochieng, Washingtone

    2015-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is steadily rising in Kenya. We assessed the prevalence of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting heroin users (IHUs) at the Kenyan Coast. Methods A total of 186 IHUs (mean age, 33 years) from the Omari rehabilitation center program in Malindi were consented and screened for HIV-1 and HCV by serology and PCR and their CD4 T-cells enumerated by FACS. Results Prevalence of HIV-1 was 87.5%, that of HCV was 16.4%, co-infection was 17.9% and 18/152 (11.8%) were uninfected. Only 5.26% of the HIV-1 negative injectors were HCV positive. Co-infection was higher among injectors aged 30 to 40 years (20.7%) and among males (22.1%) than comparable groups. About 35% of the injectors were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Co-infection was highest among injectors receiving D4T (75%) compared to those receiving AZT (21.6%) or TDF (10.5%) or those not on ART (10.5%). Mean CD4 T-cells were 404 (95% CI, 365 - 443) cells/mm3 overall, significantly lower for co-infected (mean, 146; 95% CI 114 – 179 cells/mm3) than HIV mono infected (mean, 437, 95% CI 386 – 487 cells/mm3, p<0.001) or uninfected (mean, 618, 95% CI 549 – 687 cells/mm3, p<0.001) injectors and lower for HIV mono-infected than uninfected injectors (p=0.002). By treatment arm, CD4 T-cells were lower for injectors receiving D4T (mean, 78; 95% CI, 0.4 – 156 cells/mm3) than TDF (mean 607, 95% CI, 196 – 1018 cells/mm3, p=0.005) or AZT (mean 474, 95% CI -377 – 571 cells/mm3, p=0.004). Conclusion Mono and dual infections with HIV-1 and HCV is high among IHUs in Malindi, but ART coverage is low. The co-infected IHUs have elevated risk of immunodeficiency due to significantly depressed CD4 T-cell numbers. Coinfection screening, treatment-as-prevention for both HIV and HCV and harm reduction should be scaled up to alleviate infection burden. PMID:26208212

  3. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications. PMID:27583063

  4. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    PubMed Central

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  5. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis and pneumonitis in a simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaque due to Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, S V; Rosen, J; MacKey, J; Romsey, C; Xia, D-L; Visvesvera, G S; Mansfield, K G

    2004-07-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause a fatal disease of the brain in humans called granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. We present a case of meningoencephalitis and pneumonitis in a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque caused by Acanthamoeba sp. The animal became ill 176 days after intravenous inoculation with SIVmac251 after a short history of weight loss and a sudden onset of hind limb paresis and abnormal head movements. Histopathologic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissues revealed multifocal to coalescing necrotizing neutrophilic meningoencephalitis and pneumonitis. Immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the genus of amoeba as Acanthamoeba. Immunohistochemistry of immune cell markers was used to characterize the animal's immune response to the opportunistic amoebic infection with features of both innate and adaptive cell-mediated immunity. Although not previously reported, the potential transmission to humans, either through environmental contamination or contact with an infected animal, makes this disease a threat to laboratory animal care staff and pathologists. PMID:15232140

  6. The Roles of Genetic Polymorphisms and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Flauzino, Tamires; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been frequently observed among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and factors related to HIV-1, the host, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are involved in this phenomenon. This study reviews the roles of genetic polymorphisms, HIV-1 infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in lipid metabolism. Lipid abnormalities can vary according to the HAART regimen, such as those with protease inhibitors (PIs). However, genetic factors may also be involved in dyslipidemia because not all patients receiving the same HAART regimen and with comparable demographic, virological, and immunological characteristics develop variations in the lipid profile. Polymorphisms in a large number of genes are involved in the synthesis of structural proteins, and enzymes related to lipid metabolism account for variations in the lipid profile of each individual. As some genetic polymorphisms may cause dyslipidemia, these allele variants should be investigated in HIV-1-infected patients to identify individuals with an increased risk of developing dyslipidemia during treatment with HAART, particularly during therapy with PIs. This knowledge may guide individualized treatment decisions and lead to the development of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia in these patients. PMID:24319689

  7. Identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected infant and adult rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, K G; Lin, K C; Newman, J; Schauer, D; MacKey, J; Lackner, A A; Carville, A

    2001-03-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was recognized as a common opportunistic pathogen of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with AIDS. Retrospective analysis revealed that 27 of 96 (28.1%) animals with AIDS had features of EPEC infection, and EPEC was the most frequent pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract identified morphologically. In 7.3% of animals dying with AIDS, EPEC represented the sole opportunistic agent of the gastrointestinal tract at death. In 20.8% of cases, it was seen in combination with one or more gastrointestinal pathogens, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Mycobacterium avium, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Strongyloides stercoralis, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus. Clinically, infection was associated with persistent diarrhea and wasting and was more frequent in animals that died at under 1 year of age (P < 0.001, Fisher exact test). The organism was associated with the characteristic attaching and effacing lesion in colonic tissue sections and produced a focal adherence pattern on a HEp-2 assay but was negative for Shiga toxin production as assessed by PCR and a HeLa cell cytotoxicity assay. A 2.6-kb fragment encompassing the intimin gene was amplified and sequenced and revealed 99.2% identity to sequences obtained from human isolates (GenBank AF116899) corresponding to the epsilon intimin subtype. Further investigations with rhesus macaques may offer opportunities to study the impact of EPEC on AIDS pathogenesis and gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:11230413

  8. [Range of neuromuscular involvement in 47 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Ghika-Schmid, F; Kuntzer, T; Chave, J P; Miklossy, J; Regli, F

    1994-05-14

    Over a 30 month period, 47 out of 749 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus had various neuromuscular symptoms. Based on clinical and electrophysiological data, 47% had distal symmetric polyneuropathy, 11% chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), 8.5% toxic neuropathy related to 2-3-dideoxyinosine (DDI), 8.5% cranial neuropathy, 8.5% mononeuropathy multiplex or isolated focal neuropathy, 8.5% progressive lumbosacral polyradiculopathy, and 8.5% myopathy. Half of the patients exhibited previous or concomitant signs of central nervous system involvement and 18 patients died during the study period. CIDP and cranial neuropathies usually appeared early in the course of the disease and consequently showed neurological improvement. Nerve conduction studies of DDI related toxic neuropathies showed distal axono-myelinic sensitivo-motor neuropathy, differing from CIDP by the absence of a conduction block. Distal symmetric polyneuropathies, frequent in the advanced systemic illness, do not systematically require an extended workup, but more unusual peripheral neuropathies which might be treatable necessitate further investigations (electromyography, radiology, serological blood tests; protein chemistry and routine workup of the cerebrospinal fluid). For example, progressive lumbosacral polyradiculopathies responded to early treatment, with a better outcome in one case of herpetic origin than in another case due to cytomegalovirus infection. Our observations suggest that myopathies in HIV infected patients should first be tackled by temporary interruption of virostatic medication, followed by muscle biopsy if the symptoms persist. PMID:8209201

  9. Infectivity and pathogenesis of titered dosages of simian immunodeficiency virus experimentally inoculated into longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Tsai, C C; Follis, K E; Grant, R F; Nolte, R E; Wu, H; Benveniste, R E

    1993-10-01

    The 50% macaque infectious dose (MID50) and pathogenesis of uncloned simian immunodeficiency virus (isolated from a pigtailed macaque, SIVmne) was determined in longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Five pairs of macaques were inoculated with 10-fold dilutions of the virus stock, and one macaque was mock-infected. The virologic and clinical status of these macaques was monitored for up to 80 weeks. The MID50 of SIVmne was determined to be 10(2) cell culture infectious dose of the original virus stock. In order to test the infectivity and pathogenesis of an established viral dose, six additional macaques were inoculated with 10x MID50 (10(3) cell culture infectious dose) of the SIVmne. The virologic and clinical status of these macaques was monitored for 40 weeks. All of the macaques inoculated with 10x MID50 or greater became infected as evidenced by seroconversion and consistent virus isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Macaques infected with SIVmne had an initial sharp decrease in CD2, CD20, CD4, CD8, and CD4CD29 lymphocyte subsets, whereas the CD4:CD8 ratio increased. Viremic macaques developed persistent slight to moderate peripheral lymphadenopathy approximately 3 to 4 weeks after inoculation. Four macaques subsequently died of AIDS-like disease at 29, 33, 42, and 80 weeks after inoculation. Data obtained from the viral titration study and the acute infection model will aid in the development of animal trials to evaluate antiretroviral therapies and preventive vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  10. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions.

  11. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions. PMID:24080632

  12. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region.

    PubMed

    Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Pena, Giselle Priscila Dos Anjos; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215bp) and IG (610bp) regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2); in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only) and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV) subjects regarding their TCD4(+)/TCD8(+) lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:27266589

  13. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among TB patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erhabor, O; Jeremiah, Z A; Adias, T C; Okere, CE

    2010-01-01

    The joint statement by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that all patients with tuberculosis (TB) undergo testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after counseling. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 120 patients diagnosed with microbiologically proven TB aged 18 to 54 years with a mean age of 39.5 years (standard deviation 6.75). The subjects studied were 36 male (30%) and 84 females (70%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to screen for HIV infection among the subjects. Of the 120 TB patients tested 30 (25%) were positive for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV was higher in females 24 (80%) compared to males 6 (20%) and among singles (66.7%) compared to married subjects (33.3%) (χ2 = 83.5 and χ2 = 126.2, respectively P = 0.001). HIV-1 was the predominant viral subtype. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in subjects in the 38–47 year and 28–37 year age groups (both 40%) followed by the 18–28 year age group (20%) (χ2 = 42.6, P = 0.05). The mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the HIV-infected TB subjects was significantly lower (195 ± 40.5 cells/μL) compared to the non-HIV infected (288 ± 35.25 cells/μL P = 0.01). This study has shown a high prevalence of HIV among TB patients. Reactivation of TB among people living with HIV can be reduced by TB preventive therapy and by universal access to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22096379

  14. Intensifying Antiretroviral Therapy With Raltegravir and Maraviroc During Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Does Not Accelerate HIV Reservoir Reduction.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Mario; Benko, Erika; Yue, Feng Yun; Kim, Connie J; Huibner, Sanja; Lee, Terry; Singer, Joel; Pankovich, Jim; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Kaul, Rupert; Kandel, Gabor; Kovacs, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Persistent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within the CD4(+) T-cell reservoir is an obstacle to eradication. We hypothesized that adding raltegravir and maraviroc to standard combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during early HIV infection could substantially reduce viral reservoirs as a step towards eradication. Methods.  A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot trial enrolled 32 participants with documented early (<6 months) HIV infection to either standard cART (emtricitabine/tenofovir/lopinavir/ritonavir) or intensive cART (standard regimen + raltegravir/maraviroc). Human immunodeficiency virus reservoirs were assessed at baseline and at 48 weeks by (1) proviral DNA, (2) cell-associated RNA, and (3) replication-competent virus, all from purified blood CD4(+) T cells, and (4) gut proviral DNA. A multiassay algorithm (MAA) on baseline sera estimated timing of infection. Results.  Thirty individuals completed the study to the 48-week endpoint. The reduction in blood proviral burden was -1.03 log DNA copies/10(6) CD4(+) T cells versus -.84 log in the standard and intensive groups, respectively (P = .056). Overall, there was no significant difference in the rate of decline of HIV-associated RNA, replication-competent virus in blood CD4(+) T cells, nor proviral gut HIV DNA to 48 weeks. Individuals who presented with more recent HIV infection had significantly lower virus reservoirs, and cART tended to reduce their reservoirs to a greater extent. Conclusions.  Intensive cART led to no additional reduction in the blood virus reservoir at 48 weeks compared with standard cART. Human immunodeficiency virus reservoir size is smaller earlier in HIV infection. Other novel treatment strategies in combination with early cART will be needed to eliminate the HIV latent reservoir.

  15. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive United States Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Jeff S; Clark, Leslie L; Garges, Eric C; Otto, Jean Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Minimal data exist that describe the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive populations across the pre- and post-diagnosis periods for HIV. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the epidemiology of gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus in an HIV-positive population. Methods. All 1,961 HIV seropositive United States active duty military personnel from 2000-2010 were identified. STI diagnoses relative to HIV diagnosis from 1995, which was the earliest electronic medical record available, to 2010 were examined. Results. The incidence diagnosis rates of STI generally increased during the period leading up to eventual HIV diagnosis. The rates of STI during the post-HIV diagnosis period fluctuated, but remained elevated compared to pre-HIV diagnosis period. Approximately 45%-69% with an STI in the HIV seropositive military population were diagnosed with their first STI greater than one year after their HIV diagnosis. Of those who were diagnosed with an STI in the post-HIV diagnosis period, 70.6% had one STI diagnosis, 23.5% had two STI diagnoses, and 5.8% had three or more STI diagnoses. Conclusions. Despite aggressive counseling, high-risk sexual behavior continues to occur in the HIV-positive military population.

  16. A case of plasmablastic lymphoma of the liver without human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Nomura, Takako; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Himoto, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a very rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder was with an aggressive clinical behavior that recently characterized by the World Health Organization. Although PBL is most commonly observed in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, it can also be observed at extra-oral sites in HIV-negative patients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be closely related the pathogenesis of PBL. PBL shows different clinicopathological characteristics between HIV-positive and -negative patients. Here, we report a case of PBL of the liver in a 79-year-old HIV-negative male. The patient died approximately 1.5 mo after examination and autopsy showed that the main lesion was a very large liver mass. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed large-cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation diffusely infiltrating the liver and involving the surrounding organs. The neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for CD30, EBV, Bob-1, and CD38. The autopsy findings suggested a diagnosis of PBL. To our knowledge, the present case appears to be the first report of PBL with initial presentation of the liver in a patient without HIV infection. PMID:24115831

  17. Intestinal parasite co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis cases without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a rural county in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47-6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17-5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03-10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  18. Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  19. Resistance of previously infected chimpanzees to successive challenges with a heterologous intraclade B strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, R; Siemon, C; Cho, M W; Arthur, L O; Nigida, S M; Matthews, T; Sawyer, L A; Schultz, A; Murthy, K K; Israel, Z; Javadian, A; Frost, P; Kennedy, R C; Lane, H C; Martin, M A

    1996-01-01

    To test whether the protective effects of attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines in macaques were applicable to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-chimpanzee system, two groups of animals, previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) or HIV-1(SF2) were each challenged with a heterologous clade B virus, HIV-1(DH12). Following challenge, the parameters measured included virus isolation (from plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymph node tissue); quantitative DNA PCR using primers capable of distinguishing HIV-1(IIIB), HIV-1(SF2), and HIV-1(DH12) from one another; and serologic assays to monitor changes in binding and neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to an HIV-1-naive chimpanzee that rapidly became infected following the inoculation of HIV-1(DH12), the two chimpanzees previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) resisted repeated and escalating inoculations of HIV-1(DH12), as monitored by virus isolation and PCR. The two animals previously infected with HIV-1(SF2) became infected with HIV-1(DH12) but in contrast to the case with the HIV-1-naive chimpanzee, no cell-free viral RNA was detected in the plasma by the branched DNA procedure and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-associated viral DNA were reduced 35- to 50-fold. PMID:8676459

  20. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  1. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  2. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-08-03

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs.

  3. Pregnancy and Human Herpesvirus 8 Reactivation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Women▿

    PubMed Central

    Lisco, Andrea; Barbierato, Massimo; Fiore, Josè R.; Gasperini, Paola ; Favia, Anna; Volpe, Anna; Chironna, Maria; Pastore, Giuseppe; Chieco-Bianchi, Luigi; Calabrò, Maria Luisa

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the impact of pregnancy on human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) reactivation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women, the HHV-8 DNA presence and load were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) from 15 pregnant women coinfected with HIV-1 and HHV-8. HHV-8 detection was analyzed in relation to anti-HHV-8 antibodies and HIV-1-related parameters. Nucleotide sequence analysis of an ORFK1 hypervariable region of the HHV-8 strains was performed. HHV-8 was detected in maternal PBMCs (5/15 women) from the second trimester and in CVSs (5/15 women) mainly from the third trimester. The HHV-8 load significantly increased late in pregnancy in both maternal compartments and was associated with a significant increase in HIV-1 shedding in the genital tract. Antilytic antibodies were significantly more common in HHV-8 DNA-positive women. An elevated HHV-8 load was found in the PBMCs of an infant born to a mother with large amounts of HHV-8 in both compartments at delivery. Different ORFK1 subtypes were found in maternal samples, whereas the same subtype was identified in the mother-child pair. These data suggest that pregnancy may induce HHV-8 replication in HIV-1-infected women. An augmented HHV-8 load may, in turn, influence mother-to-child transmission, since one of the HIV-1-infected mothers with HHV-8 reactivation transmitted her ORFK1 subtype to the infant, who showed a high level of HHV-8 viremia indicative of a primary infection. This finding documents for the first time the perinatal transmission of a specific HHV-8 subtype. Vertical transmission may thus play a role in HHV-8 spread also in areas of subendemicity among HIV-1-infected women. PMID:16943357

  4. The ocular manifestations of syphilis in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected host.

    PubMed

    McLeish, W M; Pulido, J S; Holland, S; Culbertson, W W; Winward, K

    1990-02-01

    Nine patients with active ocular or optic nerve involvement by syphilis who also had concurrent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection are described. The ocular manifestations of syphilis led to the discovery of HIV-1 seropositivity in four of nine cases. Fifteen eyes were affected. Ocular manifestations were: iridocyclitis in three eyes, vitreitis in one eye, retinitis or neuroretinitis in five eyes, papillitis in two eyes, optic perineuritis in two eyes, and retrobulbar optic neuritis in two eyes. Three patients diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) had the worst initial visual acuities. Six of nine patients had evidence of concomitant central nervous syndrome (CNS) involvement with syphilis. Benzathine penicillin was administered intramuscularly to three patients. All three had relapses. Seven of nine patients treated intravenously with high-dose penicillin had dramatic responses to therapy with improvement in vision and serologies and no evidence of relapse. Regimens accepted for the treatment of neurosyphilis appear to be adequate for the treatment of ocular syphilis in HIV-1-infected patients though further long-term follow-up will be required. PMID:2326008

  5. [Challenges of lopinavir/ritonavir in the chronicity of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Aguirrebengoa, Koldo

    2014-11-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased patient survival, which is currently similar to that of the general population in western countries. However, ART is unable to completely restore normal health, given the persistence of chronic immune activation. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease and 50% of patients will soon be older than 50 years. Currently, there is a debate on the possibility of accelerated aging in the HIV-infected population. An overlap has been observed between chronic inflammation, age-related comorbidities, lifestyle, and the long-term toxicity of ART. ART-related toxicity can encourage the development of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular and renal complications, while toxicity-especially that of thymidine analogs-can also contribute to inflammation and aging. Evidence is available on simplification strategies with boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy aiming to avoid or reduce potential or demonstrated toxicity. Currently, studies are underway of dual therapy strategies with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) with distinct antiretroviral agents. The studies with the largest samples are those with raltegravir and lamivudine. The GARDEL trial has demonstrated that dual therapy with LPV/r plus a generic drug such as lamivudine is non-inferior to triple therapy in treatment- naïve patients. All of the above indicates the response to the challenge posed to LPV/r by the chronic phase of the disease and by the need to reduce costs.

  6. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among transgender men in Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transgender males are at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS caused by the notorious Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), yet little consideration is given by the policy makers, researchers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) towards this sensitive issue in Pakistan. Methods In this study, we have investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 306 transgender males with a median age of 29 years (range 15–64 years) residing in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Rapid HIV antibody-screening methods including the strip test and Enzyme Linked Immuno-absorbent tests were employed to detect HIV antibodies among the subjects. For further confirmation, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried out. Statistical analytical techniques utilized included logistic regression and chi-square. Results HIV-1 was found to be the predominant viral subtype. PCR confirmed 21.6% (Confidence Interval 0.17-0.26) of the respondents were reported being HIV positive. 15.7% of the transgender men who shave at home and 13.7% of the transgender men who were educated below 5th grade were found to have HIV. Conclusion This study shows a very high prevalence of HIV among transgender males. Unawareness among these individuals about the ramifications of this infection owes largely to lack of education. The spread rate is alarming and HIV epidemic is imminent if awareness is not widespread. PMID:23039269

  7. Can antiretroviral therapy be tailored to each human immunodeficiency virus-infected individual? Role of pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Asensi, Victor; Collazos, Julio; Valle-Garay, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics refers to the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within human genes on drug therapy outcome. Its study might help clinicians to increase the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and by decreasing their side effects. HLAB*5701 genotyping to avoid the abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a cost-effective diagnostic tool, with a 100% of negative predictive value, and, therefore, it has been included in the guidelines for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HALDRB*0101 associates with nevirapine-induced HSR. CYP2B6 SNPs modify efavirenz plasma levels and their genotyping help decreasing its central nervous system, hepatic and HSR toxicities. Cytokines SNPs might influence the development of drug-associated lipodystrophy. APOA5, APOB, APOC3 and APOE SNPs modify lipids plasma levels and might influence the coronary artery disease risk of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. UGT1A1*28 and ABCB1 (MDR1) 3435C > T SNPs modify atazanavir plasma levels and enhance hyperbilirubinemia. Much more effort needs to be still devoted to complete large prospective studies with multiple SNPs genotyping in order to reveal more clues about the role played by host genetics in antiretroviral drug efficacy and toxicity. PMID:26279978

  8. Can antiretroviral therapy be tailored to each human immunodeficiency virus-infected individual? Role of pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Asensi, Victor; Collazos, Julio; Valle-Garay, Eulalia

    2015-08-12

    Pharmacogenetics refers to the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within human genes on drug therapy outcome. Its study might help clinicians to increase the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and by decreasing their side effects. HLAB*5701 genotyping to avoid the abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a cost-effective diagnostic tool, with a 100% of negative predictive value, and, therefore, it has been included in the guidelines for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HALDRB*0101 associates with nevirapine-induced HSR. CYP2B6 SNPs modify efavirenz plasma levels and their genotyping help decreasing its central nervous system, hepatic and HSR toxicities. Cytokines SNPs might influence the development of drug-associated lipodystrophy. APOA5, APOB, APOC3 and APOE SNPs modify lipids plasma levels and might influence the coronary artery disease risk of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. UGT1A1*28 and ABCB1 (MDR1) 3435C > T SNPs modify atazanavir plasma levels and enhance hyperbilirubinemia. Much more effort needs to be still devoted to complete large prospective studies with multiple SNPs genotyping in order to reveal more clues about the role played by host genetics in antiretroviral drug efficacy and toxicity. PMID:26279978

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen testing to detect HIV infection in female sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, R K; Ali, K; Thoe, S Y

    1995-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterised by seroconversion after a ¿window¿ period of 2 to 3 months. After this period antibodies are usually detectable by screening tests (enzyme immunoassay or particle agglutination) confirmed by Western blot analysis. We studied 1000 newly enrolled female sex workers who had not been previously tested for HIV to assess the usefulness of HIV antigen testing to improve the efficacy of HIV infection detection. Blood was taken at enrollment for HIV antigen and HIV antibody testing. The Abbott HIVAG-1 test was used to detect antigen; antibody detection was by the Abbott recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test, the Fujirebio Serodia-HIV particle agglutination (PA) test for screening, and the Diagnostic Biotechnology HIV Blot 2.2 Western blot (WB) test for antibody confirmation. Of the 1000 samples, 26 were positive for HIV antibody testing (26/26 for EIA, 25/25 for PA, 26/26 for WB), giving a prevalence rate of 2.6%, Of these 26 seropositive samples 1 was positive on HIV antigen testing. There were no samples which were antigen-positive and antibody-negative. HIV antigen testing does not add to increased efficacy of HIV detection among female sex workers in Singapore.

  10. Localization of human immunodeficiency virus antigens in infected cells by scanning/transmission-immunogold techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, M.I.; Santa Maria, I.; de Andres, R.; Najera, R.

    1988-01-01

    An application of high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and gold-labelling techniques for the rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected cells has been developed. Experimental in vitro studies for detecting two HIV structural proteins, gp41 and p17, were performed following an indirect labeling procedure that uses monoclonal anti-p17 and anti-gp41 antibodies as primary antibodies and 40 nm gold-linked goat antimouse IgG as secondary antibodies. The cells were then studied by STEM in the scanning mode. Unambiguous localization of the viral antigens was possible by combining the three-dimensional image provided by the secondary electron image and the atomic number-dependent backscattered electron image for the identification of the gold marker. This technique combines both the morphological information and the rapid procedures of scanning electron microscopy with the precise and sensitive antigen detection provided by the use of STEM and immunological methods. The preliminary results of its application to the study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four anti-HIV-seropositive patients showing the presence of specific labeling in all of them suggest that it might prove useful for early detection of HIV infection before seroconversion, as well as for quantitative studies.

  11. Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Adults and Adolescents: Current Concepts and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Sadatomo

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Colonization of Pneumocystis is highly prevalent among the general population and could be associated with the transmission and development of PCP in immunocompromised individuals. Although the microscopic demonstration of the organisms in respiratory specimens is still the golden standard of its diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction has been shown to have a high sensitivity, detecting Pneumocystis DNA in induced sputum or oropharyngeal wash. Serum β-D-glucan is useful as an adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of PCP. High-resolution computed tomography, which typically shows diffuse ground-glass opacities, is informative for the evaluation of immunocompromised patients with suspected PCP and normal chest radiography. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the first-line agent for the treatment of mild to severe PCP, although it is often complicated with various side effects. Since TMP-SMX is widely used for the prophylaxis, the putative drug resistance is an emerging concern.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors irreversibly block infectivity of purified virions from chronically infected cells.

    PubMed

    Lambert, D M; Petteway, S R; McDanal, C E; Hart, T K; Leary, J J; Dreyer, G B; Meek, T D; Bugelski, P J; Bolognesi, D P; Metcalf, B W

    1992-05-01

    Synthetic peptide analog inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease were used to study the effects of inhibition of polyprotein processing on the assembly, structure, and infectivity of virions released from a T-cell line chronically infected with HIV-1. Inhibition of proteolytic processing of both Pr55gag and Pr160gag-pol was observed in purified virions from infected T cells after treatment. Protease inhibition was evident by the accumulation of precursors and processing intermediates of Pr55gag and by corresponding decreases in mature protein products. Electron microscopy revealed that the majority of the virion particles released from inhibitor-treated cells after a 24-h treatment had an immature or aberrant capsid morphology. This morphological change correlated with the inhibition of polyprotein processing and a loss of infectivity. The infectivity of virion particles purified from these chronically infected cell cultures was assessed following treatment with the inhibitor for 1 to 3 days. Virions purified from cultures treated with inhibitor for 1 or 2 days demonstrated a 95- to 100-fold reduction in virus titers, and treatment for 3 days resulted in complete loss of detectable infectivity. The fact that virions from treated cultures were unable to establish infection over the 7- to 10-day incubation period in the titration experiments strongly suggests that particles produced by inhibitor-treated cells were unable to reactivate to an infectious form when they were purified away from exogenous protease inhibitor. Thus, a block of HIV-1 protease processing of viral polyproteins by specific inhibitors results in a potent antiviral effect characterized by the production of noninfectious virions with altered protein structures and immature morphologies.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  15. Comparison of Talaromyces marneffei Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative Patients from Fujian, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Ru; Cai, Shao-Xi; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Yu, Mei-E; Xu, Neng-Luan; Xie, Bao-Song; Lin, Ming; Hu, Xin-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (TM) is an emerging dimorphic human pathogenic fungus that is endemic to Southeast Asia. TM mostly occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with TM infections who were HIV-positive and HIV-negative and to assess therapies and outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 26 patients diagnosed with disseminated TM infection from September 2005 to April 2014 at Fujian Provincial Hospital, China. Results: Patients with TM infection tend to present with fever, weight loss, and anemia. The time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was greater for HIV-negative patients (n = 7; median: 60 days, range: 14–365 days) than for HIV-positive patients (n = 19; median: 30 days, range: 3–90 days, Mann–Whitney U = 31.50, P = 0.041). HIV-negative patients were more likely to have dyspnea (57.1% vs. 5.3%, χ2 = 8.86, P = 0.010), low neutrophil count (Mann–Whitney U = 27.00, P = 0.029), high CD4 count (Mann–Whitney U = 0.00, P = 0.009), and high lymphocyte count (Mann–Whitney U = 21.00, P = 0.009). There were no significant differences in other demographic, clinical, or biochemical characteristics. Among all the patients, 12 HIV-positive patient and 1 HIV-negative patient received amphotericin and fluconazole treatment, 9 of whom improved, 1 died, 2 had kidney damage, 1 had hypokalemia due to exceeded doses. Conclusions: HIV-negative patients with TM infections tend to have a longer diagnostic interval, a higher percentage of dyspnea, higher levels of CD4 and lymphocytes, and lower neutrophil counts than TM infection in HIV-positive patients. Treatment programs with amphotericin and fluconazole are mostly effective. PMID:27098791

  16. Epidemiological profiles of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections in Malian women: Risk factors and relevance of disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bouare, Nouhoum; Gothot, Andre; Delwaide, Jean; Bontems, Sebastien; Vaira, Dolores; Seidel, Laurence; Gerard, Paul; Gerard, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To document the epidemiologic patterns and risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Mali in order to develop prevention means for both diseases. METHODS: Two prospective studies were conducted in Bamako in 2009 among 1000 pregnant women (i.e., young women) who consulted six reference health centers, and in 2010, among 231 older women who attended general practice in two hospitals. Antibody tests and molecular analysis (performed only for HCV) were used to quantify the frequencies of both infections. The data were collected from patients recruited through a questionnaire. Transmission risk factors of both diseases were identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 0.2% for young and 6.5% for older women. HIV prevalence was similar in both populations (4.1% vs 6.1%). In older women, the analysis of risk factors highlighted an association between HCV infection and episodes of hospitalization (P < 0.01). The study did not show an association between HIV infection and the variables such as hospitalization, transfusion, tattoo, dental care, and endoscopy. A significant decrease of HIV seroprevalence was detected in young women who used condoms for contraception more than for other purposes (P < 0.01). By contrast, HIV seroprevalence was significantly increased in young women using condoms mainly to prevent sexual infections rather than for contraception (P < 0.01). No HCV/HIV coinfection was detected in our study. CONCLUSION: Risk factors and epidemiologic data of HIV and HCV as well as the absence of co-infection strongly suggest epidemiological disparities between these diseases. PMID:23671724

  17. A new look at human immunodeficiency virus infection and stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Luchuo, Engelbert Bain; Nkoke, Clovis

    2016-06-01

    Stroke and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with disease burdens being amongst the highest worldwide. HIV infection has emerged as an important risk factor for stroke. The remarkable development in the treatment of HIV infection which occurred in recent decades has allowed the survival of a large number of patients. This therapeutic success which allows patients to live longer has facilitated the emergence of a new population of adults with increased risk for cardiovascular disease including stroke due to aging, the direct effects of HIV infection and combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Preventive strategies to decrease the burden of stroke amongst this specific patient population remain understudied in this region of the world. Lack of early diagnosis (CT scans) and poor record keeping make appreciation of the burden difficult. There is indisputable evidence that early diagnosis and early placement on cART therapy reduce HIV associated morbidity and mortality in this region of the world. However, the emergence of a new population of patients at risk for developing stroke (HIV patients) who fortunately live longer deserves a keener attention. Long term effects of cART regimens on cardiovascular and metabolic profiles remain uncertain, and specific cohort studies to properly ascertain its consequences are needed. The evidence and specific guidelines with regards to anti-platelet therapies and statin use, though potentially beneficial, in this patient sub group remains scarce. African specific cohort studies including HIV positive patients in our opinion should constitute a top research priority, to properly ascertain the potential roles of anti-platelet therapies and statins with regards to primary and secondary prevention of stroke, as well as long term effects of cART on their cardiovascular and metabolic profiles. PMID:27429969

  18. Circadian rhythms of circulating NK cells in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.

    PubMed

    Bourin, P; Mansour, I; Doinel, C; Roué, R; Rouger, P; Levi, F

    1993-08-01

    Antiviral immunity involves NK cells, which circulate rhythmically every 24 hours. We have investigated circadian and 12-hour rhythms in the peripheral count of circulating NK cells in 15 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 13 healthy controls. We analyzed three phenotypes using double-labeling with monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry assessment: CD3- CD16+, CD3-CD57+, and CD2+CD3-. A statistical validation of time-dependent differences was achieved if significance (p < 0.05) was validated both with analysis of variance and cosinor. The circadian rhythm had a similar asymmetric waveform for the three phenotypes and is homogeneous on an individual basis. The circulating NK cell count peaked in the early morning and was low at night. A circadian rhythm and a circahemidian harmonic characterized all phenotypes in healthy subjects. We considered two groups of HIV-infected men: those who were asymptomatic (eight) and those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (seven). Circadian changes in NK cell count were similar in both subgroups and in healthy controls. The circadian pattern was also consistent among individual patients. Asymptomatic HIV-infected men (early-stage disease) exhibited more pronounced 12-hour rhythmicity than did patients with AIDS or controls. The circulation of NK cells does not appear to share the same synchronizer(s) as other circulating T- or B-lymphocyte subsets. Thus, HIV infection gradually abolished circadian rhythmicity in circulating T and B cells, whereas it did not disturb that in NK cells. PMID:8403073

  19. Induction Immunosuppression and Clinical Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Kucirka, L M; Durand, C M; Bae, S; Avery, R K; Locke, J E; Orandi, B J; McAdams-DeMarco, M; Grams, M E; Segev, D L

    2016-08-01

    There is an increased risk of acute rejection (AR) in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Induction immunosuppression is standard of care for those at high risk of AR; however, use in HIV+ patients is controversial, given fears of increased infection rates. We sought to compare clinical outcomes between HIV+ KT recipients who were treated with (i) anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), (ii) IL-2 receptor blocker, and (iii) no induction. We studied 830 HIV+ KT recipients between 2000 and 2014, as captured in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, and compared rates of delayed graft function (DGF), AR, graft loss and death. Infections and hospitalizations were ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in a subset of 308 patients with Medicare. Compared with no induction, neither induction agent was associated with an increased risk of infection (weighted hazard ratio [wHR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-1.18). HIV+ recipients who received induction spent fewer days in the hospital (weighted relative risk [wRR] 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.95), had lower rates of DGF (wRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.84), less graft loss (wHR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.89) and a trend toward lower mortality (wHR 0.60, 95% CI 0.24-1.28). Those who received induction with ATG had lower rates of AR (wRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.99). Induction in HIV+ KT recipients was not associated with increased infections; in fact, those receiving ATG, the most potent agent, had the lowest rates. In light of the high risk of AR in this population, induction therapy should be strongly considered.

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Newly Diagnosed at Autopsy in New York City, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Chitra; Ellman, Tanya M; Myers, Julie; Madsen, Ann; Sepkowitz, Kent; Shepard, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Studying the most extreme example of late diagnosis, new HIV diagnoses after death, may be instructive to HIV testing efforts. Using the results of routine HIV testing of autopsies performed by the Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME), we identified new HIV diagnoses after death in New York City (NYC) from 2008 to 2012. Methods.  Population-based registries for HIV and deaths were linked to identify decedents not known to be HIV-infected before death. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to determine correlates of a new HIV diagnosis after death among all persons newly diagnosed with HIV and among all HIV-infected decedents receiving an OCME autopsy. Results.  Of 264 893 deaths, 24 426 (9.2%) were autopsied by the NYC OCME. Of these, 1623 (6.6%) were infected with HIV, including 142 (8.8%) with a new HIV diagnosis at autopsy. This represents 0.8% (142 of 18 542) of all new HIV diagnoses during the 5-year period. Decedents newly diagnosed with HIV at OCME autopsy were predominantly male (73.9%), aged 13-64 years (85.9%), non-white (85.2%), unmarried (81.7%), less than college educated (83.8%), and residents of an impoverished neighborhood (62.0%). Of all HIV-infected OCME decedents aged ≥65 years (n = 71), 22.0% were diagnosed at autopsy. The strongest independent correlate of new HIV diagnosis at autopsy in both multivariable models was age ≥65 years. Conclusions.  Human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses first made after death are rare, but, when observed, these diagnoses are more commonly found among persons ≥65 years, suggesting that despite highly visible efforts to promote HIV testing community-wide, timely diagnosis among older adults living in impoverished, high-prevalence neighborhoods may require additional strategies. PMID:26566538

  1. A new look at human immunodeficiency virus infection and stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Luchuo, Engelbert Bain

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with disease burdens being amongst the highest worldwide. HIV infection has emerged as an important risk factor for stroke. The remarkable development in the treatment of HIV infection which occurred in recent decades has allowed the survival of a large number of patients. This therapeutic success which allows patients to live longer has facilitated the emergence of a new population of adults with increased risk for cardiovascular disease including stroke due to aging, the direct effects of HIV infection and combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Preventive strategies to decrease the burden of stroke amongst this specific patient population remain understudied in this region of the world. Lack of early diagnosis (CT scans) and poor record keeping make appreciation of the burden difficult. There is indisputable evidence that early diagnosis and early placement on cART therapy reduce HIV associated morbidity and mortality in this region of the world. However, the emergence of a new population of patients at risk for developing stroke (HIV patients) who fortunately live longer deserves a keener attention. Long term effects of cART regimens on cardiovascular and metabolic profiles remain uncertain, and specific cohort studies to properly ascertain its consequences are needed. The evidence and specific guidelines with regards to anti-platelet therapies and statin use, though potentially beneficial, in this patient sub group remains scarce. African specific cohort studies including HIV positive patients in our opinion should constitute a top research priority, to properly ascertain the potential roles of anti-platelet therapies and statins with regards to primary and secondary prevention of stroke, as well as long term effects of cART on their cardiovascular and metabolic profiles. PMID:27429969

  2. Malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in India: Initial experience in the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Soneja, Manish; Ranjan, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Limited data are available on malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from India. We undertook this study to assess the frequency and spectrum of malignancies in HIV-infected adult patients during the first eight years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) rollout under the National ART Programme at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. Methods: Retrospective analysis of records of patients registered at the ART clinic between May 2005 and December 2013 was done. Results: The study included 2598 HIV-infected adult patients with 8315 person-years of follow up. Malignancies were diagnosed in 26 patients with a rate of 3.1 (IQR 2.1-4.5) cases per 1000 person-years. The median age for those diagnosed with malignancy was 45 (IQR 36-54) yr, which was significantly (P<0.01) higher compared with those not developing malignancies 35 (IQR 30-40) yr. The median baseline CD4+ T-cell count in patients with malignancy was 135 (IQR 68-269) cells/µl compared to 164 (IQR 86-243) cells/µl in those without malignancies. AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) were seen in 19 (73%) patients, while non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) were observed in seven (27%) patients. Malignancies diagnosed included non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (16), carcinoma cervix (3), Hodgkin's lymphoma (2), carcinoma lung (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (1), and urinary bladder carcinoma (1). One patient had primary central nervous system lymphoma. There was no case of Kaposi's sarcoma. Interpretation & conclusions: Malignancies in HIV-infected adult patients were infrequent in patients attending the clinic. Majority of the patients presented with advanced immunosuppression and the ADCs, NHL in particular, were the commonest malignancies. PMID:26658591

  3. Productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in dendritic cells requires fusion-mediated viral entry

    SciTech Connect

    Janas, Alicia M.; Dong, Chunsheng; Wang Jianhua; Wu Li

    2008-06-05

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters dendritic cells (DCs) through endocytosis and viral receptor-mediated fusion. Although endocytosis-mediated HIV-1 entry can generate productive infection in certain cell types, including human monocyte-derived macrophages, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs appears to be dependent on fusion-mediated viral entry. It remains to be defined whether endocytosed HIV-1 in DCs can initiate productive infection. Using HIV-1 infection and cellular fractionation assays to measure productive viral infection and entry, here we show that HIV-1 enters monocyte-derived DCs predominately through endocytosis; however, endocytosed HIV-1 cannot initiate productive HIV-1 infection in DCs. In contrast, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs requires fusion-mediated viral entry. Together, these results provide functional evidence in understanding HIV-1 cis-infection of DCs, suggesting that different pathways of HIV-1 entry into DCs determine the outcome of viral infection.

  4. Lymphocyte Activation during Acute Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV89.6PD Infection in Macaques†

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Marianne; Waterman, Paul M.; Mitchen, Jacque L.; Djavani, Mahmoud; Brown, Charles; Trivedi, Parul; Horejsh, Douglas; Dykhuizen, Marta; Kitabwalla, Moiz; Pauza, C. David

    1999-01-01

    Host-virus interactions control disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected human beings and in nonhuman primates infected with simian or simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV). These interactions evolve rapidly during acute infection and are key to the mechanisms of viral persistence and AIDS. SHIV89.6PD infection in rhesus macaques can deplete CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes within 2 weeks after exposure and is a model for virulent, acute infection. Lymphocytes isolated from blood and tissues during the interval of acute SHIV89.6PD infection have lost the capacity to proliferate in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). T-cell unresponsiveness to mitogen occurred within 1 week after mucosal inoculation yet prior to massive CD4+ T-cell depletion and extensive virus dissemination. The lack of mitogen response was due to apoptosis in vitro, and increased activation marker expression on circulating T cells in vivo coincided with the appearance of PHA-induced apoptosis in vitro. Inappropriately high immune stimulation associated with rapid loss of mature CD4+ T cells suggested that activation-induced cell death is a mechanism for helper T-cell depletion in the brief period before widespread virus dissemination. Elevated levels of lymphocyte activation likely enhance SHIV89.6PD replication, thus increasing the loss of CD4+ T cells and diminishing the levels of virus-specific immunity that remain after acute infection. The level of surviving immunity may dictate the capacity to control virus replication and disease progression. We describe this level of immune competence as the host set point to show its pivotal role in AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:10559340

  5. Rapid Development of gp120-Focused Neutralizing B Cell Responses during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Joshua D.; Himes, Jonathon E.; Armand, Lawrence; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Martinez, David R.; Colvin, Lisa; Beck, Krista; Overman, R. Glenn; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The initial phases of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may be critical for development of effective envelope (Env)-specific antibodies capable of impeding the establishment of the latent pool of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, preventing virus-induced immune hyperactivation to limit disease progression and blocking vertical virus transmission. However, the initial systemic HIV-1 Env-specific antibody response targets gp41 epitopes and fails to control acute-phase viremia. African-origin, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts do not typically progress to AIDS and rarely postnatally transmit virus to their infants, despite high milk viral loads. Conversely, SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs), Asian-origin nonnatural SIV hosts, sustain pathogenic SIV infections and exhibit higher rates of postnatal virus transmission. In this study, of acute SIV infection, we compared the initial systemic Env-specific B cell responses of AGMs and RMs in order to probe potential factors influencing the lack of disease progression observed in AGMs. AGMs developed higher-magnitude plasma gp120-specific IgA and IgG responses than RMs, whereas RMs developed more robust gp140-directed IgG responses. These gp120-focused antibody responses were accompanied by rapid autologous neutralizing responses during acute SIV infection in AGMs compared to RMs. Moreover, acute SIV infection elicited a higher number of circulating Env-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood of AGMs than in the blood of RMs. These findings indicate that AGMs have initial systemic Env-specific B cell responses to SIV infection distinct from those of a nonnatural SIV host, resulting in more functional SIV-specific humoral responses, which may be involved in impairing pathogenic disease progression and minimizing postnatal transmission. IMPORTANCE Due to the worldwide prevalence of HIV-1 infections, development of a vaccine to prevent infection or limit the viral reservoir

  6. Emergence of CD4 Independence Envelopes and Astrocyte Infection in R5 Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Model of Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Ke; Leda, Ana Rachel; Tsai, Lily; Knight, Heather; Harbison, Carole; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Westmoreland, Susan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by replication in macrophages or brain microglia that express low levels of the CD4 receptor and is the cause of HIV-associated dementia and related cognitive and motor disorders that affect 20 to 30% of treatment-naive patients with AIDS. Independent viral envelope evolution in the brain has been reported, with the need for robust replication in resident CD4low cells, as well as CD4-negative cells, such as astrocytes, proposed as a major selective pressure. We previously reported giant-cell encephalitis in subtype B and C R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques (SHIV-induced encephalitis [SHIVE]) that experienced very high chronic viral loads and progressed rapidly to AIDS, with varying degrees of macrophage or microglia infection and activation of these immune cells, as well as astrocytes, in the CNS. In this study, we characterized envelopes (Env) amplified from the brains of subtype B and C R5 SHIVE macaques. We obtained data in support of an association between severe neuropathological changes, robust macrophage and microglia infection, and evolution to CD4 independence. Moreover, the degree of Env CD4 independence appeared to correlate with the extent of astrocyte infection in vivo. These findings further our knowledge of the CNS viral population phenotypes that are associated with the severity of HIV/SHIV-induced neurological injury and improve our understanding of the mechanism of HIV-1 cellular tropism and persistence in the brain. IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of astrocytes in the brain has been suggested to be important in HIV persistence and neuropathogenesis but has not been definitively demonstrated in an animal model of HIV-induced encephalitis (HIVE). Here, we describe a new nonhuman primate (NHP) model of R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced encephalitis

  7. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection in blood donations in Europe and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Suligoi, Barbara; Raimondo, Mariangela; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Camoni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Background The safety of blood with regards to transmission of infectious diseases is guaranteed by European laws that regulate both the selection of donors through pre-donation questionnaires and serological screening. However, variability in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in different countries and some differences in the selection of donors can influence the efficacy (with regards to the safety of blood) of these processes. In this study we compared the prevalence of HIV in blood donations in the three macro-areas of Europe and in various western European countries, analysed the criteria of selection and rewarding of donors in western European countries, and studied the trend in the prevalence of HIV in Italy from to 1995 and 2006. Methods European data were derived from the European Centre for the Surveillance of HIV; Italian data were obtained from the Transfusion-Transmitted Infections Surveillance System and National and Regional Register of blood and plasma. The information on eligibility criteria and rewarding offered to donors was derived from international sources. Results The prevalence of HIV in blood donations was highest in eastern Europe, followed by central Europe and western Europe. Among the western European countries, Spain, Italy and Israel had the highest prevalences; the prevalence was noted to be higher in countries which did not offer any rewarding to the donor. In Italy the prevalence of HIV was 3.8 cases per 100,000 donations in 2006 and increased between 1995 and 2006, both among donations from repeat donors and first time donors. Conclusions The data highlight the need to continue improving the selection of donors and the coverage of the surveillance systems for HIV infection in transfusion services. PMID:20671878

  8. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  9. Anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kee, Mee-Kyung; Lee, Sae-Young; Kim, Na-Young; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, June Myung; Choi, Jun Yong; Ku, Nam Su; Kang, Moon Won; Kim, Min Ja; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Shin-Woo; Song, Joon Young; Baek, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-01-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may develop mental health problems such as anxiety and depression, which negatively impact of disease progression. We investigated factors associated with the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms among HIV-infected patients in Korea. A total of 840 HIV-infected patients who participated in the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study from 2006 to 2012 were evaluated. Socio-demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical variables were obtained through standardized questionnaires. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among HIV-infected patients was 32% and 36%, respectively. Ex-smoker and persistent symptoms for more than one week within the past six months and diagnosis of HIV infection within one year were associated with increased anxiety symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.69; OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09-2.11; OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.20) and current smoking and persistent symptoms were also associated with increased depressive symptoms (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.31-3.30; OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.25-2.79). Marital status, current smoking, current drinking, and persistent symptoms were associated with both increased anxiety and depressive symptoms (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.07-2.88; OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06-2.61; OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.18-2.99). The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among HIV-infected patients is higher than those estimated for the general population. This study shows the necessity to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression and suggest psychological support for HIV-infected patients who smoke or have persistent symptoms or have sexual partner or drink.

  10. Didanosine reduces atevirdine absorption in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, G D; Fischl, M A; Shelton, M J; Borin, M T; Driver, M R; DeRemer, M; Lee, K; Wajszczuk, C P

    1996-01-01

    Atevirdine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and is currently in phase II clinical trials. Atevirdine is most soluble at a pH of < 2, and therefore, normal gastric acidity is most likely necessary for optimal bioavailability. Because of the rapid development of resistance in vitro, atevirdine is being evaluated in combination with didanosine and/or zidovudine in both two- and three-drug combination regimens. To examine the influence of concurrent didanosine (buffered tablet formulation) on the disposition of atevirdine, 12 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects (mean CD4+ cell count, 199 cells per mm3; range, 13 to 447 cells/mm3) participated in a three-way, partially randomized, crossover, single-dose study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of didanosine and atevirdine when each drug was given alone (treatments A and B, respectively) versus concurrently (treatment C). Concurrent administration of didanosine and atevirdine significantly reduced the maximum concentration of atevirdine in serum from 3.45 +/- 2.8 to 0.854 +/- 0.33 microM (P = 0.004). Likewise, the mean atevirdine area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h after administration of the combination was reduced to 6.47 +/- 2.2 microM.h (P = 0.004) relative to a value of 11.3 +/- 4.8 microM.h for atevirdine alone. Atevirdine had no statistically significant effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of didanosine. Concurrent administration of single doses of atevirdine and didanosine resulted in a markedly lower maximum concentration of atevirdine in serum and area under the concentration-time curve, with a minimal effect on the disposition of didanosine. It is unknown whether an interaction of similar magnitude would occur under steady-state conditions; thus, combination regimens which include both atevirdine and didanosine should be designed so that their administration times are separated. Since

  11. Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections in circumcised and uncircumcised cases in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayyar, Charu; Chander, Ram; Gupta, Poonam; Sherwal, B. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), is now one of the greatest challenges facing the world. Sexual transmission is the primary route of human immunodeficiency virus infection worldwide. Male circumcision is being considered as strategy to reduce the burden of HIV/AIDS. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 200 HIV positive clients. They were screened for bacterial causes of STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Gardnerella vaginalis). Results: There were 138 males and 62 females. The males were examined and the circumcision status was observed. In the females, circumcision status of their male partners was observed. The coinfection of HIV and STIs in circumcised and uncircumcised cases was found out. Diagnosis was made using standard tests. A total of 23% cases were diagnosed to have HIV –STI coinfection. Most common diagnosed diseases were Chlamydia (10%), Gonorrhoea (9%), Bacterial Vaginosis (4.8%) and Syphilis (2.5%). The coinfection rate in uncircumcised cases was found to be higher (29.2% in males and 39.2% in females) as compared to the circumcised cases (14.2% in males and 13.6% in females). Conclusion: The present study suggests that circumcision is a protective factor for acquisition of STIs in HIV positive clients but other factors like sexual behaviours, use of barrier contraceptives, drug abuse etc also play a role. PMID:26396445

  12. Preexisting infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 neither exacerbates nor attenuates simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 infection in macaques.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shari N; Weissman, Anna R; Cecchinato, Valentina; Fenizia, Claudio; Ma, Zhong-Min; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Zaffiri, Lorenzo; Andresen, Vibeke; Parks, Robyn Washington; Jones, Kathryn S; Heraud, Jean Michel; Ferrari, Maria Grazia; Chung, Hye Kyung; Venzon, David; Mahieux, Renaud; Murphy, Edward L; Jacobson, Steven; Miller, Christopher J; Ruscetti, Francis W; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2010-03-01

    Coinfection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been reported to have either a slowed disease course or to have no effect on progression to AIDS. In this study, we generated a coinfection animal model and investigated whether HTLV-2 could persistently infect macaques, induce a T-cell response, and impact simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251)-induced disease. We found that inoculation of irradiated HTLV-2-infected T cells into Indian rhesus macaques elicited humoral and T-cell responses to HTLV-2 antigens at both systemic and mucosal sites. Low levels of HTLV-2 provirus DNA were detected in the blood, lymphoid tissues, and gastrointestinal tracts of infected animals. Exposure of HTLV-2-infected or naïve macaques to SIV(mac251) demonstrated comparable levels of SIV(mac251) viral replication, similar rates of mucosal and peripheral CD4(+) T-cell loss, and increased T-cell proliferation. Additionally, neither the magnitude nor the functional capacity of the SIV-specific T-cell-mediated immune response was different in HTLV-2/SIV(mac251) coinfected animals versus SIV(mac251) singly infected controls. Thus, HTLV-2 targets mucosal sites, persists, and importantly does not exacerbate SIV(mac251) infection. These data provide the impetus for the development of an attenuated HTLV-2-based vectored vaccine for HIV-1; this approach could elicit persistent mucosal immunity that may prevent HIV-1/SIV(mac251) infection.

  13. Disguising the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: creative flavor compounding and techniques, part 2.

    PubMed

    Horace, Alexis E; Akbarian-Tefagh, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to antiretrovirals for pediatric patients is challenging for a variety of reasons, many of which are quite obvious. The medication's taste and texture may contribute to a child's resistance to following their regimen. To make the problem of compliance even more complex, there are fewer pediatric-friendly formulations available and fewer alternative options for antiretrovirals when compared to formulations and alternatives available to adults. For the sake of compliance, it is vital that parents and/or caregivers be offered innovative ways to disguise the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Compounding pharmacists can play an important role in finding answers to this situation. This article provides an in-depth discussion on some of the specific flavoring and taste-masking options that are available in the effort to increase adherence in the pediatric patient population.

  14. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infection by agents that interfere with thiol-disulfide interchange upon virus-receptor interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Ryser, H J; Levy, E M; Mandel, R; DiSciullo, G J

    1994-01-01

    The cell surface of mammalian cells is capable of reductively cleaving disulfide bonds of exogenous membrane-bound macromolecules (for instance, the interchain disulfide of diphtheria toxin), and inhibiting this process with membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl reagents prevents diphtheria toxin cytotoxicity. More recently it was found that the same membrane function can be inhibited by bacitracin, an inhibitor of protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI), and by monoclonal antibodies against PDI, suggesting that PDI catalyzes a thiol-disulfide interchange between its thiols and the disulfides of membrane-bound macromolecules. We provide evidence that the same reductive process plays a role in the penetration of membrane-bound human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and show that HIV infection of human lymphoid cells is markedly inhibited by the membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl blocker 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), by bacitracin, and by anti-PDI antibodies. The results imply that HIV and its target cell engage in a thiol-disulfide interchange mediated by PDI and that the reduction of critical disulfides in viral envelope glycoproteins may be the initial event that triggers conformational changes required for HIV entry and cell infection. These findings suggest additional approaches to impede cell infection by HIV. PMID:8183947

  15. Chemoprophylaxis with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate provided partial protection against infection with simian human immunodeficiency virus in macaques given multiple virus challenges.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Shambavi; Otten, Ronald A; Ramos, Artur; Kim, Caryn; Jackson, Eddie; Monsour, Michael; Adams, Debra R; Bashirian, Sheila; Johnson, Jeffrey; Soriano, Vincent; Rendon, Ana; Hudgens, Michael G; Butera, Salvatore; Janssen, Robert; Paxton, Lynn; Greenberg, Alan E; Folks, Thomas M

    2006-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in blocking simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in Chinese rhesus macaques. Once weekly for 14 weeks or until a macaque became infected, 12 male macaques were inoculated intrarectally with amounts of SHIV(SF162P3) (10 median tissue culture infective doses; 3.8 x 10(5) virus particles) that were approximately 5-fold higher than the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels noted in human semen during an acute infection. Of the 12 macaques, 4 received oral TDF daily, 4 received oral TDF once weekly, and 4 (control animals) received no TDF. The control animals became infected after receiving a median of 1.5 virus inoculations; macaques receiving TDF daily (1 macaque remained uninfected after 14 inoculations) and those receiving TDF weekly became infected after a median duration of 6.0 and 7.0 weeks, respectively. Although infection was delayed in treated macaques, compared with control macaques, the differences were not statistically significant (P=.315); however, the study was limited by the small numbers of animals evaluated and the variability in blood levels of TDF that resulted from oral dosing. These data demonstrate that treatment with oral TDF provided partial protection against SHIV infection but ultimately did not protect all TDF treated animals against multiple virus challenges.

  16. Specific Behaviors Predict Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Wang, Xun; Weintrob, Amy; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Bavaro, Mary; Okulicz, Jason F; Mende, Katrin; Ellis, Michael; Agan, Brian K

    2015-04-01

    Background.  Few data exist on the incidence and risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods.  Over a 2-year period, we prospectively evaluated adults infected with HIV for incident S aureus colonization at 5 body sites and SSTIs. Cox proportional hazard models using time-updated covariates were performed. Results.  Three hundred twenty-two participants had a median age of 42 years (interquartile range, 32-49), an HIV duration of 9.4 years (2.7-17.4), and 58% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Overall, 102 patients (32%) became colonized with S aureus with an incidence rate of 20.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8-25.0) per 100 person-years [PYs]. Predictors of colonization in the final multivariable model included illicit drug use (hazard ratios [HR], 4.26; 95% CI, 1.33-13.69) and public gym use (HR 1.66, 95% CI, 1.04-2.66), whereas antibacterial soap use was protective (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.78). In a separate model, perigenital colonization was associated with recent syphilis infection (HR, 4.63; 95% CI, 1.01-21.42). Fifteen percent of participants developed an SSTI (incidence rate of 9.4 cases [95% CI, 6.8-12.7] per 100 PYs). Risk factors for an SSTI included incident S aureus colonization (HR 2.52; 95% CI, 1.35-4.69), public shower use (HR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.48-4.56), and hospitalization (HR 3.54; 95% CI, 1.67-7.53). The perigenital location for S aureus colonization was predictive of SSTIs. Human immunodeficiency virus-related factors (CD4 count, HIV RNA level, and HAART) were not associated with colonization or SSTIs. Conclusions.  Specific behaviors, but not HIV-related factors, are predictors of colonization and SSTIs. Behavioral modifications may be the most important strategies in preventing S aureus colonization and SSTIs among persons infected with HIV. PMID:26380335

  17. Retention of viral infectivity after extensive mutation of the highly conserved immunodominant domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope.

    PubMed Central

    Pancino, G; Sonigo, P

    1997-01-01

    In lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the principal immunodominant domain (PID) of the transmembrane glycoprotein elicits a strong humoral response in infected hosts. The PID is marked by the presence of two cysteines that delimit a sequence, composed of five to seven amino acids in different lentiviruses, which is highly conserved among isolates of the same lentiviral species. While the conservation of the sequence suggests the presence of functional constraints, the conservation of the immunodominance among divergent lentiviruses raises the hypothesis of a selective advantage for the infecting virus conferred by the host humoral response against this domain. We and others have previously shown that an appropriate structure of the PID is required for the production of a functional envelope. In the present work, we analyzed virological functions and immune reactivity of the envelope after random mutagenesis of the PID of FIV. We obtained nine mutant envelopes which were correctly processed and retained fusogenic ability. Mutation of the two C-terminal residues of the PID sequence between the cysteines in a molecular clone of FIV abolished infectivity. In contrast, three molecular clones containing extensive mutations in the four N-terminal amino acids were infectious. However, the mutations affected PID reactivity with sera from infected cats. Our results suggest that functional constraints, although existent, are not sufficient to account for PID sequence conservation. Such conservation may also result from positive selection by anti-PID antibodies which enhance infection. PMID:9151822

  18. Cognitive functioning during highly active antiretroviral therapy interruption in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Childers, Meredith E; Woods, Steven Paul; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, J Allen; Rosario, Debralee; Grant, Igor; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Ellis, Ronald J

    2008-11-01

    Although no longer considered therapeutically beneficial, antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) still occur frequently among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for a variety of reasons. TIs typically result in viral rebound and worsening immunosuppression, which in turn are risk factors for neurocognitive decline and dementia. We sought to determine the extent of neurocognitive risk with TIs and subsequent reintroduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by using a comprehensive, sensitive neuropsychological assessment and by concurrently determining changes in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load and CD4 counts. Prospective, serial, clinical evaluations including neuropsychological (NP) testing and measurement of plasma HIV RNA and CD4 count and mood state were performed on HIV-1-infected individuals (N=11) at three time points: (1) prior to a TI, while on HAART; (2) after TIs averaging 6 months; and (3) after reinitiating HAART therapy. During TI, plasma HIV RNA increased and CD4 counts declined significantly, but NP performance did not change. Following reinitiation of HAART, viral loads fell below pre-TI levels, and CD4 counts rose. Improved viral suppression and immune restoration with reinitiation of HAART resulted in significant improvement in neurocognitive performance. No changes on comprehensive questionnaires of mood state were observed in relation to TI.NP performance and mood state remained stable during TIs despite worsened viral loads and CD4 counts. Because "practice effects" are generally greatest between the first and second NP testing sessions, improvement at the third, post-TI time point was unlikely to be accounted for by practice. TIs of up to 6 months appear to be neurocognitively and psychiatrically safe for most patients.

  19. Clinical pharmacokinetics of cidofovir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cundy, K C; Petty, B G; Flaherty, J; Fisher, P E; Polis, M A; Wachsman, M; Lietman, P S; Lalezari, J P; Hitchcock, M J; Jaffe, H S

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cidofovir (HPMPC; (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]cytosine) were examined at five dose levels in three phase I/II studies in a total of 42 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (with or without asymptomatic cytomegalovirus infection). Levels of cidofovir in serum following intravenous infusion were dose proportional over the dose range of 1.0 to 10.0 mg/kg of body weight and declined biexponentially with an overall mean +/- standard deviation terminal half-life of 2.6 +/- 1.2 h (n = 25). Approximately 90% of the intravenous dose was recovered unchanged in the urine in 24 h. The overall mean +/- standard deviation total clearance of the drug from serum (148 +/- 25 ml/h/kg; n = 25) approximated renal clearance (129 +/- 42 ml/h/kg; n = 25), which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the baseline creatinine clearance in the same patients (83 +/- 21 ml/h/kg; n = 12). These data indicate that active tubular secretion played a significant role in the clearance of cidofovir. The steady-state volume of distribution of cidofovir was approximately 500 ml/kg, suggesting that the drug was distributed in total body water. Repeated dosing with cidofovir at 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/week did not alter the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Concomitant administration of intravenous cidofovir and oral probenecid to hydrated patients had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of cidofovir at a 3.0-mg/kg dose. At higher cidofovir doses, probenecid appeared to block tubular secretion of cidofovir and reduce its renal clearance to a level approaching glomerular filtration. PMID:7574510

  20. Methionine-enkephalin as immunomodulator therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infections: clinical and immunological effects.

    PubMed

    Zunich, K M; Kirkpatrick, C H

    1988-03-01

    Enkephalins have been shown to enhance T cell-mediated immune responses and natural killer-cell activity in vitro. We have studied the effects of infusions of methionine-enkephalin on immune functions and clinical courses in seven patients with various stages of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All patients were clinically stable at the time of entry into the study. Each received 10 micrograms/kg of methionine-enkephalin in an intravenous infusion three times weekly for up to 12 weeks. Evaluation of cellular immunity (T-cell subsets, in vitro interleukin-2 production and interleukin-2 receptor expression, T-cell responses to mitogens and antigens, and delayed-hypersensitivity skin tests) as well as clinical and toxicity monitoring was performed prior to treatment, at 2-week intervals during treatment, and after the cessation of treatment. Increases in interleukin-2 receptor expression were seen on lymphocytes collected on one occasion from each of two patients 30 min postinfusion. Studies done 24 hr after infusions revealed increases in interleukin-2 production in one patient, but when pre- and posttreatment values were compared there were no significant changes in numbers of circulating T cells of any phenotype or in T-cell responses to mitogens or antigens. None of the patients with Kaposi's sarcoma had regression of tumor; one patient dropped out of the study at week 5 because of deteriorating clinical status and progression of tumor. There were no adverse reactions or evidence of toxicity. We conclude that methionine-enkephalin appears to enhance temporarily selected immune responses in patients with HIV infection, however, in the schedule used in this study it was not clinically efficacious.

  1. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and heartworm infection among owned cats in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Colin-Flores, Rafael F; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2014-06-01

    Several infectious agents may be distributed within a healthy population of cats where diverse risk factors predispose them to come into contact with pathogens. Blood samples from 227 owned cats in Merida, Mexico, were collected with the objective of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody. Serological detection of FeLV and D immitis antigens, and FIV antibodies was performed using the commercial kit SNAP Feline Triple Test. The prevalence was found to be 7.5% for FeLV, 2.5% for FIV and 0% for D immitis. Adult cats were at a higher risk of coming into contact with FeLV (P <0.01) than younger cats. Owing to its low prevalence, a risk factor analysis was not performed for FIV. The prevalence of retroviral infections found in this study was low, but within the limits reported in the different geographical areas of the world. Cases of filariosis in the domestic cats of Merida, Mexico, may be absent or very low; however, the low sample size may have influenced these results. PMID:24196568

  2. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on liver function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pediatric patients with or without hepatitis virus co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lijuan; Jin, Changzhong; Bai, Shi; Davies, Henry; Rao, Heping; Liang, Yong; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Co-infection of hepatitis virus is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults in China. But little is known about hepatitis virus co-infection in pediatric HIV-infected subjects. The study aimed to investigate the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on liver function of pediatric HIV-infected subjects. Materials and Methods: A cohort study including 101 pediatric HIV-infected subjects with HBV/HCV co-infection and 44 pediatric comparators with HIV mono-infection was carried out in Henan Province of China from September 2011 to September 2012. All patients received HAART for 1-year. HBV and HCV infection was determined by antibody tests. HIV RNA load, CD4+ T-cell counts and liver function were determined before and after HAART. The Student's t-test or a one-way ANOVA was used for normally distributed values and A Mann-Whitney U-test was performed for values without normal distribution using SPSS statistical package 18.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results: After HAART for 1-year, the median levels of viral load were decreased to lower limit of detection in 90.34% pediatric HIV-infected subjects with/without HBV/HCV co-infection (P < 0.001), and CD4+ T-cell counts increased significantly (P < 0.001). Compared with the pre-HAART, mean level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in each group had a significant increase after HAART (P < 0.01). The mean levels of ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in nevirapine (NVP) based HAART group increased significantly after HAART (P < 0.01). Mean change values of ALT and AST were significantly higher in the NVP based regimen group than in the efavirenz (EFV) based regimen group (P < 0.01). For HIV/HBV/HCV co-infected patients, mean change values of ALT and AST in NVP-based HAART group was significantly higher than that in EFV-based HAART group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Highly active antiretroviral therapy can damage liver

  3. Longitudinal assessment of fractional anisotropy alterations caused by simian immunodeficiency virus infection: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenchao; Dong, Enqing; Liu, Jiaojiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Wang, Bo; Li, Hongjun; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to white matter (WM) microstructure degeneration. Most of the DTI studies were cross-sectional and thus merely investigated only one specific point in the disease. In order to systematically study the WM impairments caused by HIV infection, more longitudinal studies are needed. However, longitudinal studies on HIV patients are very difficult to conduct. To address this question, we employed the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys model to carry out a longitudinal DTI study. We aimed to longitudinally access the WM abnormalities of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys by studying the fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations with Tract Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) analysis. Four rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 were utilized in the study. DTI scans and peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts were acquired prior to virus inoculation (as the baseline) and in the 12th and 24th week postvirus inoculation. Significant FA alterations were found in the two areas of the inferotemporal regions (iTE), respectively located in the ventral subregion of posterior iTE (iTEpv) and the dorsal subregion of iTE (iTEpd). The decreased FA values in iTEpd were found significantly negatively correlated with the elevated peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios. It might suggest that WM in iTEpd was still impaired even though the immune dysfunction alleviated temporally. PMID:26438160

  4. Longitudinal assessment of fractional anisotropy alterations caused by simian immunodeficiency virus infection: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenchao; Dong, Enqing; Liu, Jiaojiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Wang, Bo; Li, Hongjun; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to white matter (WM) microstructure degeneration. Most of the DTI studies were cross-sectional and thus merely investigated only one specific point in the disease. In order to systematically study the WM impairments caused by HIV infection, more longitudinal studies are needed. However, longitudinal studies on HIV patients are very difficult to conduct. To address this question, we employed the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys model to carry out a longitudinal DTI study. We aimed to longitudinally access the WM abnormalities of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys by studying the fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations with Tract Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) analysis. Four rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 were utilized in the study. DTI scans and peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts were acquired prior to virus inoculation (as the baseline) and in the 12th and 24th week postvirus inoculation. Significant FA alterations were found in the two areas of the inferotemporal regions (iTE), respectively located in the ventral subregion of posterior iTE (iTEpv) and the dorsal subregion of iTE (iTEpd). The decreased FA values in iTEpd were found significantly negatively correlated with the elevated peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios. It might suggest that WM in iTEpd was still impaired even though the immune dysfunction alleviated temporally.

  5. Prevention of immunodeficiency virus induced CD4+ T-cell depletion by prior infection with a non-pathogenic virus

    SciTech Connect

    TerWee, Julie A.; Carlson, Jennifer K.; Sprague, Wendy S.; Sondgeroth, Kerry S.; Shropshire, Sarah B.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-20

    Immune dysregulation initiated by a profound loss of CD4+ T-cells is fundamental to HIV-induced pathogenesis. Infection of domestic cats with a non-pathogenic lentivirus prevalent in the puma (puma lentivirus, PLV or FIV{sub PCO}) prevented peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion caused by subsequent virulent FIV infection. Maintenance of this critical population was not associated with a significant decrease in FIV viremia, lending support to the hypothesis that direct viral cytopathic effect is not the primary cause of immunodeficiency. Although this approach was analogous to immunization with a modified live vaccine, correlates of immunity such as a serum-neutralizing antibody or virus-specific T-cell proliferative response were not found in protected animals. Differences in cytokine transcription profile, most notably in interferon gamma, were observed between the protected and unprotected groups. These data provide support for the importance of non-adaptive enhancement of the immune response in the prevention of CD4+ T-cell loss.

  6. Trends in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load among HIV-1-infected children with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Engels, E A; Rosenberg, P S; Katki, H; Goedert, J J; Biggar, R J

    2001-08-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons, virus load (serum/plasma level of HIV) predicts outcome. Virus load trends have been characterized in adults and infants but not in children. Virus load trends in 22 male children with hemophilia who acquired HIV-1 postnatally (age 0.7-5.2 years at seroconversion) were studied. The mean HIV-1 load 2 years after seroconversion was 4.40 log10 copies/mL, and the mean change over time (slope) was 0.03 log10 copies/(mL x year). Significant among-children variation was apparent: a random effects model predicted that 95% of children had early virus loads 3.75-5.04 log10 copies/mL and slopes -0.07 to 0.12 log10 copies/(mL x year). Higher early virus loads and higher slopes were each associated with increased mortality (P=.006 and P=.03, respectively). In conclusion, those subjects had virus load trends similar to those in adults. Early virus loads were lower than those in vertically infected infants, which suggests that factors changing soon after birth affect viral replication.

  7. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  8. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    SciTech Connect

    Mathez, D.; Paul, D.; de Belilovsky, C.; Sultan, Y.; Deleuze, J.; Gorin, I.; Saurin, W.; Decker, R.; Leibowitch, J. )

    1990-10-01

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials.

  9. Clinical manifestations and outcome of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection at tertiary care teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Virendra Chandrashekhar; Patil, Harsha V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: AIDS has become chronic illness which is well treated with antiretroviral therapy and management of opportunistic infections (OIs). Aims and Objectives: The study clinical profile and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients. Materials and Methods: This was retrospective observational study carried out over a period of 1 year (January 2011–December 2011). All HIV patients admitted in medicine ward, and ICU were enrolled. Statistical analysis was performed using SSPE statistical software trial version 11. The P< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Of total 111 patients with a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, 75 (67.56%) were male and 36 (32.43%) were female patients. A total 52 (46.84%) patients presented with respiratory manifestations, of them 23 (44.23%) had pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), 6 (11.53%) had tubercular effusion, and 3 (5.76%) had Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Respiratory manifestations including pulmonary TB were the most common presentation (P< 0.001). Total 27 (24.32%) patients were presented with the neurological manifestation of them 8 (29.62%) had a cerebro-vascular accident, 5 (18.51%) had cryptococcal meningitis, 4 (14.81%) had tubercular meningitis, and 1 (3.70%) had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Total 12 (38.70%) had acute gastroenteritis 6 (19.35%) had oral candidiasis, 8 (25%) had general tonic clonic seizure and 7 (21.87%) had pyrexia of unknown origin, 6 (18.75%) had septicemia, 6 (18.75%) had acute renal failure, and 6 (94.11%) had anemia. A total 11 (9.90%) patients succumbed. Conclusions: Overall respiratory manifestations were the common presentation in a present cohort of HIV seropositive patients and TB was the most common OI and the cerebrovascular accident was the most common neurological manifestation. PMID:27190411

  10. Elevated Plasma Viral Loads in Romidepsin-Treated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques on Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Oswald, Kelli; Lara, Abigail; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Coalter, Vicky; Wiles, Adam; Wiles, Rodney; Li, Yuan; Fast, Randy; Kiser, Rebecca; Lu, Bing; Zheng, Jim; Alvord, W Gregory; Trubey, Charles M; Piatak, Michael; Deleage, Claire; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas; Lifson, Jeffrey D

    2016-03-01

    Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (<30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n = 5) or saline (n = 3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4(+) T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy. PMID:26711758

  11. Elevated Plasma Viral Loads in Romidepsin-Treated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques on Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, Gregory Q.; Oswald, Kelli; Lara, Abigail; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Coalter, Vicky; Wiles, Adam; Wiles, Rodney; Li, Yuan; Fast, Randy; Kiser, Rebecca; Lu, Bing; Zheng, Jim; Alvord, W. Gregory; Trubey, Charles M.; Piatak, Michael; Deleage, Claire; Keele, Brandon F.; Estes, Jacob D.; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas

    2015-01-01

    Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (<30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n = 5) or saline (n = 3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4+ T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy. PMID:26711758

  12. Elevated Plasma Viral Loads in Romidepsin-Treated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques on Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Oswald, Kelli; Lara, Abigail; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Coalter, Vicky; Wiles, Adam; Wiles, Rodney; Li, Yuan; Fast, Randy; Kiser, Rebecca; Lu, Bing; Zheng, Jim; Alvord, W Gregory; Trubey, Charles M; Piatak, Michael; Deleage, Claire; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas; Lifson, Jeffrey D

    2015-12-28

    Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (<30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n = 5) or saline (n = 3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4(+) T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy.

  13. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

    2014-12-01

    In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV.

  14. Neutralization breadth and potency of serum derived from recently human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected Thai individuals.

    PubMed

    Chaitaveep, Nithinart; Utachee, Piraporn; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Karasavvan, Nicos; Takeda, Naokazu; Kameoka, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses play important roles in controlling several viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Potent and broad neutralizing antibody responses have been reported in some HIV-1-infected individuals; therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying neutralizing antibody responses will provide important information for the development of anti-HIV-1 vaccines. We herein performed a comparative study on the neutralization breadth and potency of serum samples collected from Thai individuals recently and chronically infected with HIV-1. Neutralization tests using a series of envelope glycoproteins (Env)-recombinant viruses revealed that although several serum samples derived from recently infected individuals did not show any HIV-1-specific neutralizing activity, the remaining serum samples exhibited neutralizing activity not only for recombinant viruses with CRF01_AE Env, but also for viruses with subtypes B and C Env. Furthermore, some serum samples derived from recently infected individuals showed the neutralization potency. Our results may provide a deeper insight into the characteristics of neutralizing antibody responses that develop during the course of HIV-1 infection among individuals in Thailand.

  15. Genotyping and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Makondo, Euphodia; Bell, Trevor G.; Kramvis, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are hyperendemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The HBV genotypes prevailing in HIV-infected Africans are unknown. Our aim was to determine the HBV genotypes in HIV-infected participants and to identify clinically significant HBV mutations. From 71 HBV DNA+ve HIV-infected participants, 49 basic core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and 29 complete S regions were successfully sequenced. Following phylogenetic analysis of 29 specimens in the complete S region, 28 belonged to subgenotype A1 and one to D3. Mutations affecting HBeAg expression at the transcriptional (1762T1764A), translational (Kozak 1809–1812, initiation 1814–1816, G1896A with C1858T), or post translational levels (G1862T), were responsible for the high HBeAg-negativity observed. The G1862T mutation occurred only in subgenotype A1 isolates, which were found in one third (7/21) of HBsAg−ve participants, but in none of the 18 HBsAg+ve participants (p<0.05). Pre-S deletion mutants were detected in four HBsAg+ve and one HBsAg−ve participant/s. The following mutations occurred significantly more frequently in HBV isolated in this study than in strains of the same cluster of the phylogenetic tree: ps1F25L, ps1V88L/A; ps2Q10R, ps2 R48K/T, ps2A53V and sQ129R/H, sQ164A/V/G/D, sV168A and sS174N (p<0.05). ps1I48V/T occurred more frequently in females than males (p<0.05). Isolates with sV168A occurred more frequently in participants with viral loads >200 IU per ml (p<0.05) and only sS174N occurred more frequently in HBsAg−ve than in HBsAg+ve individuals (p<0.05). Prior to initiation of ART, ten percent, 3 of 29 isolates sequenced, had drug resistance mutations rtV173L, rtL180M+rtM204V and rtV214A, respectively. This study has provided important information on the molecular characteristics of HBV in HIV-infected southern Africans prior to ART initiation, which has important clinical relevance in the management of HBV/HIV co-infection in our unique setting

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  17. Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells Are Systemically Depleted in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Vinton, Carol; Wu, Fan; Rossjohn, Jamie; Matsuda, Kenta; McCluskey, James; Hirsch, Vanessa; Price, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to host immune protection against a wide range of potential pathogens via the recognition of bacterial metabolites presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I-related molecule MR1. Although bacterial products translocate systemically in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Asian macaques, several studies have shown that MAIT cell frequencies actually decrease in peripheral blood during the course of HIV/SIV disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this proportional decline remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the phenotype, activation status, functionality, distribution, and clonotypic structure of MAIT cell populations in the peripheral blood, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), jejunum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of healthy and SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). Low frequencies of MAIT cells were observed in the peripheral blood, MLNs, and BAL fluid of SIV-infected RMs. These numerical changes were coupled with increased proliferation and a highly public T cell receptor alpha (TCRα) repertoire in the MAIT cell compartment without redistribution to other anatomical sites. Collectively, our data show systemically decreased frequencies of MAIT cells likely attributable to enhanced turnover in SIV-infected RMs. This process may impair protective immunity against certain opportunistic infections with progression to AIDS. IMPORTANCE The data presented in this study reveal for the first time that MAIT cells are systemically depleted in an AIDS virus infection. These findings provide a new mechanistic link with our current understanding of HIV/SIV pathogenesis and implicate MAIT cell depletion in the disease process. PMID:26912615

  18. The extent of early viral replication is a critical determinant of the natural history of simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lifson, J D; Nowak, M A; Goldstein, S; Rossio, J L; Kinter, A; Vasquez, G; Wiltrout, T A; Brown, C; Schneider, D; Wahl, L; Lloyd, A L; Williams, J; Elkins, W R; Fauci, A S; Hirsch, V M

    1997-01-01

    Different patterns of viral replication correlate with the natural history of disease progression in humans and macaques infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), respectively. However, the viral and host factors influencing these patterns of viral replication in vivo are poorly understood. We intensively studied viral replication in macaques receiving identical inocula of SIV. Marked differences in viral replication patterns were apparent within the first week following inoculation, a time prior to the development of measurable specific immune effector responses to viral antigens. Plasma viral RNA levels measured on day 7 postinoculation correlated with levels measured in the postacute phase of infection. Differences in the susceptibility of host cells from different animals to in vitro SIV infection correlated with the permissiveness of the animals for early in vivo viral replication and hence with the postacute set point level of plasma viremia. These results suggest that host factors that exert their effects prior to full development of specific immune responses are critical in establishing the in vivo viral replication pattern and associated clinical course in subjects infected with SIV and, by extension, with HIV-1. PMID:9371613

  19. rhesus cytomegalovirus (macacine herpesvirus 3)-associated facial neuritis in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Assaf, B T; Knight, H L; Miller, A D

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are common sequelae to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and are due to a variety of mechanisms, including direct antiretroviral toxicity, HIV-mediated damage, immune-mediated disorders, and opportunistic viral infections. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) remain the most consistent animal model for unraveling the pathogenesis of lentiviral-associated disease and its associated opportunistic infections. Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) is the most common opportunistic viral infection in rhesus macaques infected with SIV and causes multiorgan pathology; however, its role in peripheral nerve pathology has not been explored. We have identified 115 coinfected cases with SIV and RhCMV, of which 10 cases of RhCMV-associated facial neuritis were found (8.7% prevalence). Histologic lesions were consistent in all cases and ranged from partial to complete obliteration of the nerves of the tongue, lacrimal gland, and other facial tissues with a mixed inflammatory population of neutrophils and macrophages, of which the latter commonly contained intranuclear inclusion bodies. Luxol fast blue staining and myelin basic protein immunohistochemistry confirmed the progressive myelin loss in the peripheral nerves. Bielschowsky silver stain revealed progressive loss of axons directly related to the severity of inflammation. Double immunohistochemistry with spectral imaging analysis revealed RhCMV-infected macrophages directly associated with the neuritis, and there was no evidence to support RhCMV infection of Schwann cells. These results suggest that peripheral nerve damage is a bystander effect secondary to inflammation rather than a direct infection of Schwann cells and warrants further investigations into the pathogenesis of RhCMV-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  20. Testing women for human immunodeficiency virus infection: who, when, and how?

    PubMed

    Clark, Jill; Lampe, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2008-09-01

    Obstetrician-gynecologists provide comprehensive primary and preventive care for women and are ideally suited to provide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening for their patients. This paper provides a summary and rationale for the current recommendations for HIV testing among women in the United States, emphasizing recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [corrected] Who should receive HIV testing, when and how often testing should be conducted, and how testing should be offered are discussed. These recommendations are described separately for general populations (including nonpregnant women) and for pregnant women and their infants.

  1. An Unusual Case of Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Presenting as Mononucleosis-like Syndrome and Acute Aseptic Meningoencephalitis. Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    Clinical presentation of primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes a wide spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a symptomatic and severe illness. Central nervous system involvement should be always considered as a severe clinical form of primary HIV infection. Physicians should be aware to the broad clinical spectrum of primary HIV infection. We report a case of a female with diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis during primary HIV infection.

  2. An Unusual Case of Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Presenting as Mononucleosis-like Syndrome and Acute Aseptic Meningoencephalitis. Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Marcelo; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Clinical presentation of primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes a wide spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a symptomatic and severe illness. Central nervous system involvement should be always considered as a severe clinical form of primary HIV infection. Physicians should be aware to the broad clinical spectrum of primary HIV infection. We report a case of a female with diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis during primary HIV infection. PMID:25374871

  3. Identification and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of CD1d-Restricted Macaque Natural Killer T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Motsinger, Alison; Azimzadeh, Agnes; Stanic, Aleksandar K.; Johnson, R. Paul; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian; Unutmaz, Derya

    2003-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells express a highly conserved T-cell receptor (TCR) and recognize glycolipids in the context of CD1d molecules. We recently demonstrated that CD4+ NKT cells are highly susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and are selectively depleted in HIV-infected individuals. Here, we identified macaque NKT cells using CD1d tetramers and human Vα24 antibodies. Similar to human NKT cells, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-pulsed dendritic cells activate and expand macaque NKT cells. Upon restimulation with α-GalCer-pulsed CD1d+ cells, macaque NKT cells secreted high levels of cytokines, a characteristic of these T cells. Remarkably, the majority of resting and activated macaque NKT cells expressed CD8, and a smaller portion expressed CD4. Macaque NKT cells also expressed the HIV-1/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) coreceptor CCR5, and the CD4+ subset was susceptible to SIV infection. Identification of macaque NKT cells has major implications for delineating the role of these cells in nonhuman primate disease models of HIV as well as other pathological conditions, such as allograft rejection and autoimmunity. PMID:12829854

  4. Immunization of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys with soluble human CD4 elicits an antiviral response.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Levine, C G; Shen, L; Fisher, R A; Letvin, N L

    1991-01-01

    Since the CD4 molecule is a high-affinity cell-surface receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it has been suggested that a soluble truncated form of CD4 may compete with cell-surface CD4 for HIV binding and thus be of use in the therapy of AIDS. We have utilized the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac)-infected rhesus monkeys to explore another possible therapeutic application of CD4 in AIDS--the use of recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4) as an immunogen. SIVmac-infected rhesus monkeys immunized with human rsCD4 developed not only an anti-human CD4 but also an anti-rhesus monkey CD4 antibody response. Coincident with the generation of this antibody response, SIVmac could not be isolated easily from peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow macrophages of these animals. Furthermore, the decreased number of both granulocyte/macrophage and erythrocyte colonies grown from the bone marrow of these immunized monkeys rose to normal levels. These findings suggest that a modified human CD4 molecule serving as an immunogen might elicit an antibody response in man that could induce a beneficial therapeutic response in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:2052546

  5. Early stages of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in lymph nodes. Evidence for high viral load and successive populations of target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L.; Isola, P.; Cumont, M. C.; Claessens-Maire, M. A.; Hurtrel, M.; Montagnier, L.; Hurtrel, B.

    1994-01-01

    Lymph nodes obtained from 14 macaques sacrificed at early time points following experimental inoculation with simian immunodeficiency virus were analyzed by in situ hybridization for virus load and virus cellular tropism. The lymph nodes presented a remarkably high viral load during the early phase of infection, as viral RNA was detected in as many as 2% of lymph node cells 1 week after inoculation. At this stage, macrophages and T4 lymphocytes were identified by combined immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization as the target cells of the virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus-positive macrophages concentrated in the subcapsular sinuses, suggesting an entry of infected cells via the afferent lymphatics. A shift in the pattern of viral infection was observed at 2 weeks after inoculation, with a concentration of viral RNA in the germinal centers of the developing lymphoid follicles. Follicular dendritic cells were found to be the major target of the virus at this stage. Follicular dendritic cells were associated with high levels of viral RNA but little or no detectable viral DNA, suggesting that the virus was present mostly in the form of viral particles trapped at the cell surface. Follicular dendritic cell-associated virus persisted at high levels for 2 months before subsiding, indicating that follicular dendritic cells constituted a major reservoir of the virus during the early stages of simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8203463

  6. Case report: Candida zeylanoides infective endocarditis complicating infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Whitby, S; Madu, E C; Bronze, M S

    1996-09-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of mucosal candidiasis in patients infected with HIV, systemic candidiasis is uncommon and usually associated with intravenous catheters, parenteral nutrition, or antibiotics and neutropenia. Most of the fungal isolates are usually Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis or Candida parapsilosis. The authors report a case of infective endocarditis due to Candida zeylanoides that occurred in a patient infected with HIV in the absence of the usual risk factors for systemic candidiasis.

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women in Malawi: The BAN study☆

    PubMed Central

    Chasela, Charles S.; Wall, Patrick; Drobeniuc, Jan; King, Caroline C.; Teshale, Eyasu; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Codd, Mary; Jamieson, Denise J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Kourtis, Athena P.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Kayira, Dumbani; Mumba, Noel; Kamwendo, Deborah D.; Martinson, Francis; Powderly, William; van der Horst, Charles; Kamili, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vary widely. Objectives To assess the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected, pregnant women screened for a large clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Study design Plasma from 2041 HIV-infected, pregnant women was screened for anti-HCV IgG using a chemiluminiscent immunometric assay (CIA). Specimens with a signal-cut-off ratio ≥ 1.00 were considered reactive and those with S/Co ratio < 1.00 non-reactive. All CIA-reactive specimens were tested by a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) for anti-HCV and by PCR for HCV RNA. Results Of 2041 specimens, 110 (5.3%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.5%) were CIA reactive. Of the 109 CIA reactive specimens available for RIBA testing, 2 (1.8%) were positive, 28 (25.7%) were indeterminate, and 79 (72.5%) were negative. All CIA-reactive specimens were HCV RNA negative (n = 110). The estimated HCV prevalence based on the screening assay alone was 5.3%; based on supplemental RIBA testing, the status of HCV infection remained indeterminate in 1.4% (28/2040, 95% CI: 0.1–2.0) and the prevalence of confirmed HCV infections was 0.1% (2/2040, 95% CI: 0–0.4%). Conclusions HCV seroprevalence among HIV-infected, pregnant women in Malawi confirmed by supplemental RIBA HCV 3.0 is low (0.1%); CIA showed a high false-reactivity rate in this population. PMID:22658797

  8. Kinetics of infected cell appearance as a determinant of number of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infectious units.

    PubMed

    Cory, J M; Ohlsson-Wilhelm, B M; Steck, M E; Smithgall, M D; Rozday, V; Eyster, M E; Rapp, F

    1989-02-01

    In order to optimize detection of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected cells, the temporal appearance of virus antigens in newly infected H9 cell cultures was examined. Analyses were accomplished by indirect immunofluorescence labeling with each of 10 monoclonal antibodies and evaluation by flow cytometry. Of the antibodies examined, those specific for HIV-1 capsid protein p24, matrix protein p17, or their precursor molecule p55 allowed the earliest and most sensitive detection in infected cells fixed to allow detection of intracellular antigen. Discrimination of infected cells from uninfected cells was much less sensitive when three antibodies specific for HIV-1 glycoproteins were used to detect intracellular or cell surface antigen. In several experiments involving the time course of infection, we observed no differences in cell numbers between infected and uninfected H9 cultures initiated at identical cell concentrations. We hypothesized that it might be possible to quantitate infectious HIV-1 virions from the kinetics of infected cell appearance. Straight-line relationships between the log p24-positive cells and the time after infection were observed. These quantitative observations were employed to calculate the number of infectious units originally added to the culture that were capable of infecting H9 cells. The production of infectious virus, but not of cytopathic effects, was required. The results of this novel approach to the titration of infectious HIV-1 particles agreed well with those from median cell culture infective dose determination. This method could be employed with other infectious agents for which detection of cell-associated antigens is possible in cell cultures not destroyed by infection.

  9. Fatal Case of Polymicrobial Meningitis Caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient.

    PubMed

    Conde-Pereira, César; Rodas-Rodríguez, Lia; Díaz-Paz, Manuel; Palacios-Rivera, Hilda; Firacative, Carolina; Meyer, Wieland; Alcázar-Castillo, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    We describe a fatal case of polymicrobial meningitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient from Guatemala caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Central nervous system infections caused concurrently by these species are extremely rare. This is also the first report of disseminated disease caused by C. liquefaciens.

  10. Knowledge and Awareness of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Mobile App-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Missed Public Health Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; Sanchez, Travis; Sineath, R. Craig; Grey, Jeremy; Kahle, Erin; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    In a national online survey, we assessed awareness and knowledge of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection manifestation among 1748 men who have sex with men (MSM). Only 39% of respondents were aware that acute HIV infection may be accompanied by symptoms. Education and increased access to acute HIV testing may facilitate MSM to appropriately seek acute HIV testing. PMID:26034766

  11. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  12. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  13. Absence of cytotoxic antibody to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in humans and its induction in animals after infection or immunization with purified envelope glycoprotein gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Nara, P.L.; Robey, W.G.; Gonda, M.A.; Carter, S.G.; Fischinger, P.J.

    1987-06-01

    The presence of antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) was assessed in humans and chimpanzees, which are capable of infection with human immunodeficiency virus isolate HTLV-IIIb, and examined in the goat after immunization with the major viral glycoprotein (gp120) of HTLV-IIIb. In infected humans no antibody mediating ACC was observed regardless of the status of disease. Even healthy individuals with high-titer, broadly reactive, neutralizing antibodies has no ACC. In contrast, chimpanzees infected with HTLV-IIIb, from whom virus could be isolated, not only had neutralizing antibody but also antibodies broadly reactive in ACC, even against distantly related human immunodeficiency virus isolates, as well as against their own reisolated virus. In the goat, the gp120 of HTLV-IIIb induced a highly type-specific response as measured by both ACC and flow cytofluorometry of live infected H9 cells. Normal human cells were not subject to ACC by animal anti-HTLV-III gp120-specific sera. Induction of ACC and neutralizing antibody were closely correlated in the animal experimental models but not in humans. The presence of ACC in gp120-inoculated goats and HTLV-III-infected chimpanzees represent a qualitative difference that may be important in the quest for the elicitation of a protective immunity in humans.

  14. Neutralizing IgG at the Portal of Infection Mediates Protection against Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Katja; Veazey, Ronald S.; Warrier, Ranjit; Hraber, Peter; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Buffa, Viviana; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Shaw, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies may have critical importance in immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the amount of protective antibody needed at mucosal surfaces has not been fully established. Here, we evaluated systemic and mucosal pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of 2F5 IgG and 2F5 Fab fragments with respect to protection against vaginal challenge with simian-human immunodeficiency virus-BaL in macaques. Antibody assessment demonstrated that 2F5 IgG was more potent than polymeric forms (IgM and IgA) across a range of cellular and tissue models. Vaginal challenge studies demonstrated a dose-dependent protection for 2F5 IgG and no protection with 2F5 Fab despite higher vaginal Fab levels at the time of challenge. Animals receiving 50 or 25 mg/kg of body weight 2F5 IgG were completely protected, while 3/5 animals receiving 5 mg/kg were protected. In the control animals, infection was established by a minimum of 1 to 4 transmitted/founder (T/F) variants, similar to natural human infection by this mucosal route; in the two infected animals that had received 5 mg 2F5 IgG, infection was established by a single T/F variant. Serum levels of 2F5 IgG were more predictive of sterilizing protection than measured vaginal levels. Fc-mediated antiviral activity did not appear to influence infection of primary target cells in cervical explants. However, PK studies highlighted the importance of the Fc portion in tissue biodistribution. Data presented in this study may be important in modeling serum levels of neutralizing antibodies that need to be achieved by either vaccination or passive infusion to prevent mucosal acquisition of HIV-1 infection in humans. PMID:23966410

  15. Neutralizing Polyclonal IgG Present during Acute Infection Prevents Rapid Disease Onset in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIVSF162P3-Infected Infant Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, J. Pablo; Kobie, James; Brower, Zachary; Malherbe, Delphine C.; Landucci, Gary; Sutton, William F.; Guo, Biwei; Reed, Jason S.; Leon, Enrique J.; Engelmann, Flora; Zheng, Bo; Legasse, Al; Park, Byung; Dickerson, Mary; Lewis, Anne D.; Colgin, Lois M. A.; Axthelm, Michael; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Sacha, Jonah B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Forthal, Donald N.; Hessell, Ann J.

    2013-01-01

    Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been widely used in passive studies with HIV neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to test for protection against infection. However, because SHIV-infected adult macaques often rapidly control plasma viremia and any resulting pathogenesis is minor, the model has been unsuitable for studying the impact of antibodies on pathogenesis in infected animals. We found that SHIVSF162P3 infection in 1-month-old rhesus macaques not only results in high persistent plasma viremia but also leads to very rapid disease progression within 12 to 16 weeks. In this model, passive transfer of high doses of neutralizing IgG (SHIVIG) prevents infection. Here, we show that at lower doses, SHIVIG reduces both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated viremia and mitigates pathogenesis in infected animals. Moreover, production of endogenous NAbs correlated with lower set-point viremia and 100% survival of infected animals. New SHIV models are needed to investigate whether passively transferred antibodies or antibodies elicited by vaccination that fall short of providing sterilizing immunity impact disease progression or influence immune responses. The 1-month-old rhesus macaque SHIV model of infection provides a new tool to investigate the effects of antibodies on viral replication and clearance, mechanisms of B cell maintenance, and the induction of adaptive immunity in disease progression. PMID:23885083

  16. Autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody responses following initial seroconversion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Moog, C; Fleury, H J; Pellegrin, I; Kirn, A; Aubertin, A M

    1997-01-01

    In the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, patients develop a strong and persistent immune response characterized by the production of HIV-specific antibodies. The aim of our study was to analyze the appearance of autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibodies in the sera of HIV-infected individuals. For this purpose, primary strains have been isolated from 18 HIV-1-infected subjects prior to seroconversion (in one case) or within 1 to 8 months after seroconversion. Sera, collected at the same time as the virus was isolated and at various times after isolation, have been analyzed for their ability to neutralize the autologous primary strains isolated early after infection, heterologous primary isolates, and cell-line adapted strains. Our neutralization assay, which combines serial dilutions of virus and serial dilutions of sera, is based on the determination of the serum dilution at which a fixed reduction in virus titer (90%) occurs. We have shown that (i) we could not detect autologous neutralizing antibodies in sera collected at the same time as we isolated viruses; (ii) we detected neutralizing antibodies against the autologous strains about 1 year after seroconversion, occasionally after 8 months, but sera were not always available to exclude the presence of neutralizing antibodies at earlier times; (iii) after 1 year, the neutralization response was highly specific to virus present during the early phase of HIV infection; and (iv) heterologous neutralization of primary isolates was detected later (after about 2 years). These results reveal the enormous diversity of neutralization determinants on primary isolates as well as a temporal evolution of the humoral response generating cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9094648

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Siberry, George K.; Frederick, Toni; Emmanuel, Patricia; Paul, Mary E.; Bohannon, Beverly; Wheeling, Travis; Barton, Theresa; Rathore, Mobeen H.; Dominguez, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection incidence has increased in healthy US children. Our objective was to evaluate MRSA incidence and correlates in HIV-infected youth. Methods. The CDC-sponsored LEGACY study is a US multicenter chart abstraction study of HIV-infected youth. We identified MRSA infections among participants with ≥1 visit during 2006. We used bivariate and multivariable analyses to compare sociodemographic and HIV clinical factors between MRSA cases and noncases. Results. Fourteen MRSA infections (1 invasive, 12 soft tissue, 1 indeterminate) occurred among 1,813 subjects (11.1 infections/1,000 patient-years (PY), 95% CI: 11.06–11.14). Most (86%) isolates were clindamycin susceptible. Compared with noncases, MRSA cases were more likely older (17 versus 14 years), black (100% versus 69%), behaviorally HIV infected (43% versus 17%), and in Maryland (43% versus 7%) and had viral loads (VL) >1000 copies/mL (86% versus 51%) and lower mean CD4% (18% versus 27%) (all P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors were Maryland care site (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 9.0), VL >1000 copies/mL (aOR = 5.9), and black race (aOR undefined). Conclusions. MRSA occurred at a rate of 11.1 infections/1,000 PY in HIV-infected youth but invasive disease was uncommon. Geographic location, black race, and increased VL, but not immunosuppression, were independently associated with MRSA risk. PMID:23008761

  18. The presence of host-derived HLA-DR1 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 increases viral infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, R; Fortin, J F; Lamontagne, G; Tremblay, M

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) incorporates several host cell components when budding out of the infected cell. One of the most abundant host-derived molecules acquired by HIV-1 is the HLA-DR determinant of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules. The fact that CD4 is the natural ligand of MHC-II prompted us to determine if such virally embedded cellular components can affect the biology of the virus. Herein, we report for the first time that the incorporation of cellular HLA-DR1 within HIV-1 enhances its infectivity. This observation was made possible with virions bearing or not bearing on their surfaces host-derived HLA-DR1 glycoproteins. Such virus stocks were prepared by a transient-expression system based on transfection of 293T cells with a recombinant luciferase-encoding HIV-1 molecular clone along with plasmids encoding the alpha and beta chains of HLA-DR1. Cell-free virions recovered from transfected cells were shown to have efficiently incorporated host-derived HLA-DR1 glycoproteins. Infectivity was increased by a factor of 1.6 to 2.3 for virions bearing on their surfaces host-derived HLA-DR1. The observed enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity was independent of the virus stocks used and was seen in several T-lymphoid cell lines, in a premonocytoid cell line, and in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, we determined that the presence of virion-bound cellular HLA-DR1 is associated with faster kinetics of virus infection. Taken together, these results suggest that HLA-DR-1-bearing HIV-1 particles had a greater infectivity per picogram of viral p24 protein than HLA-DR1-free virions. PMID:9032323

  19. [Early disturbance of the circadian rhythm of T and B lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Bourin, P; Mansour, I; Levi, F; Villette, J M; Roué, R; Fiet, J; Rouger, P; Doinel, C

    1989-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in circulating B and T (CD3, CD4, CD8) lymphocyte subsets and in plasma cortisol were studied in 13 HIV-infected men and 14 healthy male controls. The circadian maximum (acrophase) of plasma cortisol was similar in both groups, approximately 8.00 A.M., however, a statistically significant increase was found in the 24 hour-mean value (mesor) of infected patients as compared to healthy controls. Circadian rhythms were statistically validated in all lymphocyte subsets of healthy controls, whereas, large alterations were found in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), already in asymptomatic infected individuals. The alterations concern the mesor and the amplitude for B and CD4 lymphocytes and all cycle parameters for CD3 and CD8 lymphocytes.

  20. Complementary Antiviral Efficacy of Hydroxyurea and Protease Inhibitors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Dendritic Cells and Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini, Giampiero; Foli, Andrea; Comolli, Giuditta; Lisziewicz, Julianna; Lori, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may transmit the virus to T cells in vivo. Scarce information is available about drug efficacy in dendritic cells because preclinical testing of antiretroviral drugs has been limited predominantly to T cells and macrophages. We compared the antiviral activities of hydroxyurea and two protease inhibitors (indinavir and ritonavir) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and in lymphocytes. At therapeutic concentrations (50 to 100 μM), hydroxyurea inhibited supernatant virus production from monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro but the drug was ineffective in activated lymphocytes. Concentrations of hydroxyurea insufficient to be effective in activated lymphocytes cultured alone strongly inhibited supernatant virus production from cocultures of uninfected, activated lymphocytes with previously infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro. In contrast, protease inhibitors were up to 30-fold less efficient in dendritic cells than in activated lymphocytes. Our data support the rationale for testing of the combination of hydroxyurea and protease inhibitors, since these drugs may have complementary antiviral efficacies in different cell compartments. A new criterion for combining drugs for the treatment of HIV infection could be to include at least one drug that selectively targets HIV in viral reservoirs. PMID:11836405

  1. Pharmacokinetics and safety of oral levofloxacin in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals receiving concomitant zidovudine.

    PubMed Central

    Chien, S C; Chow, A T; Rogge, M C; Williams, R R; Hendrix, C W

    1997-01-01

    This phase I, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-design study was conducted to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects concomitantly receiving a stable regimen of zidovudine (AZT). Sixteen HIV-infected males with CD4-cell counts ranging from 100 to 550 and not experiencing significant AZT intolerance were enrolled. Subjects received levofloxacin (350 mg of levofloxacin hemihydrate) or a placebo (eight subjects per treatment group) as a single oral dose on day 1, multiple doses every 8 h from days 3 to 9, and a single dose on day 10. On days 1 and 10, an AZT dose (100 mg) was administered concurrently with the study drug. In between these doses, AZT was administered according to the regimen used by the subject prior to entering the study up to a maximum of 500 mg/day. Plasma levofloxacin concentrations were monitored for 36 h after levofloxacin dosing on day 1, immediately prior to the morning doses on days 3 to 9, and for 72 h after dosing on day 10. Plasma AZT concentrations were monitored on day 0 for baseline (for 6 h after the AZT dose) and for 4 h after the AZT doses on days 1 and 10. Levofloxacin was rapidly absorbed (time to maximum plasma concentration, approximately 1.0 h) and extensively distributed in the body with an apparent volume of distribution of approximately 104 liters (approximately 1.34 liters/kg). Steady-state conditions on day 10 were confirmed. Pharmacokinetic profiles of levofloxacin from single doses and multiple (three-times-daily) doses were similar, with a moderate accumulation (observed day 10-to-day 1 ratio of the maximum plasma concentration, approximately 185% versus expected 169%; for the corresponding ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h [AUC(0-8)], the values were observed 217% versus expected 169%) at steady state. Mean average steady-state peak plasma concentration, plasma levofloxacin concentration at the

  2. Differential Dynamics of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Proliferation and Activation in Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amitinder; Hale, Corrina L.; Ramanujan, Saroja; Jain, Rakesh K.; Johnson, R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Although lymphocyte turnover in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been extensively studied, there is little information on turnover in acute infection. We carried out a prospective kinetic analysis of lymphocyte proliferation in 13 rhesus macaques inoculated with pathogenic SIV. A short-lived dramatic increase in circulating Ki-67+ lymphocytes observed at 1 to 4 weeks was temporally related to the onset of SIV replication. A 5- to 10-fold increase in Ki-67+ CD8+ T lymphocytes and a 2- to 3-fold increase in Ki-67+ CD3− CD8+ natural killer cells accounted for >85% of proliferating lymphocytes at peak proliferation. In contrast, there was little change in the percentage of Ki-67+ CD4+ T lymphocytes during acute infection, although transient increases in Ki-67− and Ki-67+ CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD69, Fas, and HLA-DR were observed. A two- to fourfold decline in CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD25 and CD69 was seen later in SIV infection. The majority of Ki-67+ CD8+ T lymphocytes were phenotypically CD45RA− CD49dhi Fashi CD25− CD69− CD28− HLA-DR− and persisted at levels twofold above baseline 6 months after SIV infection. Increased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation was associated with cell expansion, paralleled the onset of SIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity, and had an oligoclonal component. Thus, divergent patterns of proliferation and activation are exhibited by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in early SIV infection and may determine how these cells are differentially affected in AIDS. PMID:10954541

  3. Contact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected CD4+ T lymphocytes is highly cytolytic for both cells.

    PubMed Central

    Heinkelein, M; Sopper, S; Jassoy, C

    1995-01-01

    Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience a marked loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, leading to fatal immunodeficiency. The mechanisms causing the depletion of these cells are not yet understood. In this study, we observed that CD4+ T lymphocytes from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and uninfected individuals rapidly lysed B lymphoblasts expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein on the cell surface and Jurkat cells expressing the complete virus. Contact of uninfected CD4+ T cells with envelope glycoprotein-expressing cells also resulted in the lysis of the uninfected CD4+ T cells. Cytolysis did not require priming or in vitro stimulation of the CD4+ T cells and was not restricted by major histocompatibility complex molecules. Cytotoxicity was inhibited by soluble CD4 and anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies that block binding of CD4 to gp120. In addition, neutralizing anti-CD4 and anti-gp120 monoclonal antibodies which block postbinding membrane fusion events and syncytium formation also inhibited cell lysis, suggesting that identical mechanisms in HIV-infected cultures underlie cell-cell fusion and the cytolysis observed. However, cytotoxicity was not always accompanied by the formation of visible syncytia. Rapid cell lysis after contact of uninfected and HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells may explain CD4+ T-cell depletion in the absence of detectable syncytia in infected individuals. Moreover, because of its vigor, lysis of envelope-expressing targets by contact with unprimed CD4+ T lymphocytes may at first glance resemble antigen-specific immune responses and should be excluded when cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in infected individuals and vaccinees are evaluated. PMID:7474110

  4. Diverse Host Responses and Outcomes following Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239 Infection in Sooty Mangabeys and Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amitinder; Grant, Robert M.; Means, Robert E.; McClure, Harold; Feinberg, Mark; Johnson, R. Paul

    1998-01-01

    Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop immunodeficiency despite the presence of viral loads of 105 to 107 RNA copies/ml. To investigate the basis of apathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, three sooty mangabeys and three rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 and evaluated longitudinally for 1 year. SIVmac239 infection of sooty mangabeys resulted in 2- to 4-log-lower viral loads than in macaques and did not reproduce the high viral loads observed in natural SIVsmm infection. During acute SIV infection, polyclonal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity coincident with decline in peak plasma viremia was observed in both macaques and mangabeys; 8 to 20 weeks later, CTL activity declined in the macaques but was sustained and broadly directed in the mangabeys. Neutralizing antibodies to SIVmac239 were detected in the macaques but not the mangabeys. Differences in expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes or in the percentage of naive phenotype T cells expressing CD45RA and CD62L-selection did not correlate with development of AIDS in rhesus macaques. In macaques, the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD25 declined during SIV infection, while in mangabeys, CD25-expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes increased. Longitudinal evaluation of cytokine secretion by flow cytometric analysis of unstimulated lymphocytes revealed elevation of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon in a macaque and only interleukin-10 in a concurrently infected mangabey during acute SIV infection. Differences in host responses following experimental SIVmac239 infection may be associated with the divergent outcome in sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques. PMID:9811693

  5. Antiviral Antibodies and T Cells Are Present in the Foreskin of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rothaeusler, Kristina; Ma, Zhong-Min; Qureshi, Huma; Carroll, Timothy D.; Rourke, Tracy; McChesney, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    No information exists regarding immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the foreskin or glans of the human penis, although this is a key tissue for HIV transmission. To address this gap, we characterized antiviral immune responses in foreskin of male rhesus macaques (RMs) inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain SIVmac251 by penile foreskin exposure. We found a complete population of immune cells in the foreskin and glans of normal RMs, although B cells were less common than CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. IgG-secreting cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in cell suspensions made from the foreskin. In the foreskin and glans of SIV-infected RMs, although B cells were less common than CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, SIV-specific IgG antibody was present in foreskin secretions. In addition, cytokine-secreting SIV-specific CD8+ T cells were readily found in cell suspensions made from the foreskin. Although potential HIV target cells were found in and under the epithelium covering all penile surfaces, the presence of antiviral effector B and T cells in the foreskin suggests that vaccines may be able to elicit immunity in this critical site to protect men from acquiring HIV. PMID:22532691

  6. Primary infection with simian immunodeficiency virus: plasmacytoid dendritic cell homing to lymph nodes, type I interferon, and immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Malleret, Benoît; Manéglier, Benjamin; Karlsson, Ingrid; Lebon, Pierre; Nascimbeni, Michelina; Perié, Leïla; Brochard, Patricia; Delache, Benoît; Calvo, Julien; Andrieu, Thibault; Spreux-Varoquaux, Odile; Hosmalin, Anne; Le Grand, Roger; Vaslin, Bruno

    2008-12-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are antigen-presenting cells that develop into type-I interferon (IFN-I)-producing cells in response to pathogens. Their role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis needs to be understood. We analyzed their dynamics in relation to innate and adaptive immunity very early during the acute phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in 18 macaques. pDC counts decreased in blood and increased in peripheral lymph nodes, consistent with early recruitment in secondary lymphoid tissues. These changes correlated with the kinetic and intensity of viremia and were associated with a peak of plasma IFN-I. IFN-I and viremia were positively correlated with functional activity of the immune suppression associated enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and FoxP3(+)CD8(+) T cells, which both negatively correlated with SIV-specific T-cell proliferation and CD4(+) T-cell activation. These data suggest that pDCs and IFN-I play a key role in shaping innate and adaptive immunity toward suppressive pathways during the acute phase of SIV/HIV primary infection. PMID:18787223

  7. Hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus co-infected individuals: Is this still a “special population”?

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Allen, Joanna; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Co-infected individuals are traditionally considered as one of the “special populations” amongst those with chronic HCV, mainly because of faster progression to end-stage liver disease and suboptimal responses to treatment with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, the benefits of which are often outweighed by toxicity. The advent of the newer direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has given hope that the majority of co-infected individuals can clear HCV. However the “special population” designation may prove an obstacle for those with co-infection to gain access to the new agents, in terms of requirement for separate pre-licensing clinical trials and extensive drug-drug interaction studies. We review the global epidemiology, natural history and pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infection. The accelerated course of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infection is not adequately offset by successful combination antiretroviral therapy. We also review the treatment trials of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infected individuals with DAAs and compare them to trials in the HCV mono-infected. There is convincing evidence that HIV co-infection no longer diminishes the response to treatment against HCV in the new era of DAA-based therapy. The management of HCV co-infection should therefore become a priority in the care of HIV infected individuals, along with public health efforts to prevent new HCV infections, focusing particularly on specific patient groups at risk, such as men who have sex with men and injecting drug users. PMID:26244068

  8. Antibody responses to defined epitopes in the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1-encoded transactivator protein among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Tedeschi, R; Dillner, J; De Paoli, P

    1996-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1-encoded replication activator (ZEBRA) is a key mediator of reactivation from latency to the viral productive cycle. In the present study, the serum antibody responses against three defined ZEBRA epitopes (designated ZEBRA-1, -19, and -22) were determined for 50 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients and 100 matched healthy control subjects. The anti-ZEBRA responses were more commonly found among HIV-seropositive patients than among healthy controls for all the three ZEBRA epitopes tested (P < 0.0003, P < 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). Comparison of ZEBRA antibody levels with the degree of immunodeficiency (CD4 cell counts), CDC grouping, and HIV p24 antigen positivity showed little association, suggesting that induction of ZEBRA antibodies is an early event after HIV infection. PMID:8705686

  9. Accumulation of functionally immature myeloid dendritic cells in lymph nodes of rhesus macaques with acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wijewardana, Viskam; Bouwer, Anthea L; Brown, Kevin N; Liu, Xiangdong; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are key mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to virus infection, but the impact of HIV infection on the mDC response, particularly early in acute infection, is ill-defined. We studied acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques to address this question. The mDC in blood and bone marrow were depleted within 12 days of intravenous infection with SIVmac251, associated with a marked proliferative response. In lymph nodes, mDC were apoptotic, activated and proliferating, despite normal mDC numbers, reflecting a regenerative response that compensated for mDC loss. Blood mDC had increased expression of MHC class II, CCR7 and CD40, whereas in lymph nodes these markers were significantly decreased, indicating that acute infection induced maturation of mDC in blood but resulted in accumulation of immature mDC in lymph nodes. Following SIV infection, lymph node mDC had an increased capacity to secrete tumour necrosis factor-α upon engagement with a Toll-like receptor 7/8 ligand that mimics exposure to viral RNA, and this was inversely correlated with MHC class II and CCR7 expression. Lymph node mDC had an increased ability to capture and cleave soluble antigen, confirming their functionally immature state. These data indicate that acute SIV infection results in increased mDC turnover, leading to accumulation in lymph nodes of immature mDC with an increased responsiveness to virus stimulation. PMID:24684292

  10. Probiotics in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Systematic Review and Evidence Synthesis of Benefits and Risks

    PubMed Central

    Carter, George M.; Esmaeili, Aryan; Shah, Hardikkumar; Indyk, Debbie; Johnson, Matthew; Andreae, Michael; Sacks, Henry S.

    2016-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus frequently use dietary supplements, including probiotics, but concern exists about ingesting live organisms. We performed a systematic review of the benefits of probiotics and a meta-analysis of sepsis risk. We undertook a protocol-driven, comprehensive review to identify all relevant studies, assess their quality, and summarize the evidence. Of 2068 references, 27 were analyzed. The data suggest possible benefits for CD4 count, recurrence or management of bacterial vaginosis, and diarrhea management. We examined randomized, controlled studies explicitly assessing sepsis in any patient population, and we found zero cases of supplement-associated bacteremia or fungemia in 39 randomized controlled trials comprising 9402 subjects. The estimated number needed to harm is 7369 in Bayesian approach (95% credible interval: 1689, ∞), which should reassure clinicians. No or mild adverse effects were reported. Longer duration studies investigating different individual and mixed strains for plausible indications are needed to establish best practices. PMID:27747250

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection Increases Placental Parasite Density and Transplacental Malaria Transmission in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Steven D.; Hajek, Jan; Zhong, Kathleen; Owino, Simon O.; Sichangi, Moses; Smith, Geoffrey; Shi, Ya Ping; Moore, Julie M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 adversely interact in the context of pregnancy, however little is known regarding the influence of co-infection on the risk of congenital malaria. We aimed to determine the prevalence of placental and congenital malaria and impact of HIV co-infection on transplacental malaria transmission in 157 parturient women and their infants by microscopy and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in western Kenya. The prevalence of placental and cord blood infections were 17.2% and 0% by microscopy, and 33.1% and 10.8% by PCR. HIV co-infection w as associated with a significant increase in placental parasite density (P < 0.05). Cord blood malaria prevalence was increased in co-infected women (odds ratio [OR] = 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.90–15.47) and correlated with placental parasite density (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.80–3.67). A 1-log increase in placental monocyte count was associated with increased risk of congenital infection (P = 0.001) (OR = 48.15; 95% CI = 4.59–505.50). The HIV co-infected women have a significantly increased burden of placental malaria that increases the risk of congenital infection. PMID:19141849

  12. Selective Loss of Innate CD4+ Vα24 Natural Killer T Cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Johan K.; Fast, Noam M.; Palacios, Emil H.; Fennelly, Glenn; Dobroszycki, Joanna; Palumbo, Paul; Wiznia, Andrew; Grant, Robert M.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Rosenberg, Michael G.; Nixon, Douglas F.

    2002-01-01

    Vα24 natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate immune cells involved in regulation of immune tolerance, autoimmunity, and tumor immunity. However, the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on these cells is unknown. Here, we report that the Vα24 NKT cells can be subdivided into CD4+ or CD4− subsets that differ in their expression of the homing receptors CD62L and CD11a. Furthermore, both CD4+ and CD4− NKT cells frequently express both CXCR4 and CCR5 HIV coreceptors. We find that the numbers of NKT cells are reduced in HIV-infected subjects with uncontrolled viremia and marked CD4+ T-cell depletion. The number of CD4+ NKT cells is inversely correlated with HIV load, indicating depletion of this subset. In contrast, CD4− NKT-cell numbers are unaffected in subjects with high viral loads. HIV infection experiments in vitro show preferential depletion of CD4+ NKT cells relative to regular CD4+ T cells, in particular with virus that uses the CCR5 coreceptor. Thus, HIV infection causes a selective loss of CD4+ lymph node homing (CD62L+) NKT cells, with consequent skewing of the NKT-cell compartment to a predominantly CD4− CD62L− phenotype. These data indicate that the key immunoregulatory NKT-cell compartment is compromised in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:12097565

  13. A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and an infectivity assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 titration during virus inactivation of blood components.

    PubMed

    Hart, H; McOmish, F; Hart, W G; Simmonds, P; Yap, P L

    1993-10-01

    Three examples of human plasma-derived concentrates, intermediate-purity factors VIII and IX, and fibrinogen were spiked with tissue culture-grown human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain RF. All examples were freeze-dried and heated at 80 degrees C for 72 hours by using validated production process models. HIV-1 infectivity was measured by a syncytial infectivity assay in C8166 cells and then compared with levels determined by nested HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The infectivity assay demonstrated a reduction index of at least 4.5 log10, while PCR showed an average 1.7 log10. Large amounts of HIV-1 RNA (10(5)) were still detectable by PCR in samples in which infectivity assays failed to detect any HIV-1. These data suggest that HIV-1 PCR levels do not parallel HIV-1 infectivity levels during virus-inactivation procedures involved in coagulation factor concentrate production. PCR was able to detect the RNA associated with inactivated HIV-1 particles in the factor concentrates, which allows the conclusion that PCR is not a useful test with which to monitor virus-inactivation procedures such as heating at 80 degrees C for 72 hours. This judgment contrasts with the more definite and sensitive role of PCR in diagnosing HIV-1 infection in patients in whom a positive HIV-1 PCR result correlates with active HIV-1 infection and with PCR's usefulness in monitoring virus removal.

  14. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on lipid metabolism of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: Old and new drugs

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Joel; Maselli, Luciana Morganti Ferreira; Stern, Ana Carolina Bassi; Spada, Celso; Bydlowski, Sérgio Paulo

    2015-01-01

    For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, the 1990s were marked by the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) representing a new perspective of life for these patients. The use of HAART was shown to effectively suppress the replication of HIV-1 and dramatically reduce mortality and morbidity, which led to a better and longer quality of life for HIV-1-infected patients. Apart from the substantial benefits that result from the use of various HAART regimens, laboratory and clinical experience has shown that HAART can induce severe and considerable adverse effects related to metabolic complications of lipid metabolism, characterized by signs of lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, central adiposity, dyslipidemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and even an increased risk of atherosclerosis. New drugs are being studied, new therapeutic strategies are being implemented, and the use of statins, fibrates, and inhibitors of intestinal cholesterol absorption have been effective alternatives. Changes in diet and lifestyle have also shown satisfactory results. PMID:25964872

  15. Real-Time PCR Assay for Clinical Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bossolasco, Simona; Gaiera, Giovanni; Olchini, Davide; Gulletta, Maurizio; Martello, Leonardo; Bestetti, Arabella; Bossi, Laura; Germagnoli, Luca; Lazzarin, Adriano; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Cinque, Paola

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a real-time PCR for Leishmania DNA in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Leishmania coinfection, Leishmania DNA levels were measured in whole peripheral blood from 25 HIV-infected patients with clinical features suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania DNA was detected in 10 of 25 patients with microscopically confirmed visceral leishmaniasis and in none of those without this disease. Following treatment with liposomal amphotericin B, a clinical response was observed in 9 of 10 patients, in association with significantly decreased parasite loads. Seven patients relapsed clinically a median of 110 days after the end of treatment, in association with substantial increases in Leishmania DNA levels. Leishmania DNA levels correlated with the clinical course of visceral leishmaniasis, and their measurement at diagnosis and during and after treatment seems to be useful in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients with this disease. PMID:14605142

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Capsid Mutation N74D Alters Cyclophilin A Dependence and Impairs Macrophage Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyeongEun; Ndjomou, Jean; Xu, Hongzhan; Oztop, Ilker; Matous, James; Takemura, Taichiro; Unutmaz, Derya; Engelman, Alan; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    The antiviral factor CPSF6-358 interferes with the nuclear entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 acquires resistance to CPSF6-358 through the N74D mutation of the capsid (CA), which alters its nuclear entry pathway. Here we show that compared to wild-type (WT) HIV-1, N74D HIV-1 is more sensitive to cyclosporine, has increased sensitivity to nevirapine, and is impaired in macrophage infection prior to reverse transcription. These phenotypes suggest a difference in the N74D reverse transcription complex that manifests early after infection and prior to interaction with the nuclear pore. Overall, our data indicate that N74D HIV-1 replication in transformed cells requires cyclophilin A but is dependent on other interactions in macrophages. PMID:22301145

  17. Mannose-specific plant lectins from the Amaryllidaceae family qualify as efficient microbicides for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Balzarini, Jan; Hatse, Sigrid; Vermeire, Kurt; Princen, Katrien; Aquaro, Stefano; Perno, Carlo-Federico; De Clercq, Erik; Egberink, Herman; Vanden Mooter, Guy; Peumans, Willy; Van Damme, Els; Schols, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    The plant lectins derived from Galanthus nivalis (Snowdrop) (GNA) and Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) selectively inhibited a wide variety of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 strains and clinical (CXCR4- and CCR5-using) isolates in different cell types. They also efficiently inhibited infection of T lymphocytes by a variety of mutant virus strains. GNA and HHA markedly prevented syncytium formation between persistently infected HUT-78/HIV cells and uninfected T lymphocytes. The plant lectins did not measurably affect the antiviral activity of other clinically approved anti-HIV drugs used in the clinic when combined with these drugs. Short exposure of the lectins to cell-free virus particles or persistently HIV-infected HUT-78 cells markedly decreased HIV infectivity and increased the protective (microbicidal) activity of the plant lectins. Flow cytometric analysis and monoclonal antibody binding studies and a PCR-based assay revealed that GNA and HHA do not interfere with CD4, CXCR4, CCR5, and DC-SIGN and do not specifically bind with the membrane of uninfected cells. Instead, GNA and HHA likely interrupt the virus entry process by interfering with the virus envelope glycoprotein. HHA and GNA are odorless, colorless, and tasteless, and they are not cytotoxic, antimetabolically active, or mitogenic to human primary T lymphocytes at concentrations that exceed their antivirally active concentrations by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. GNA and HHA proved stable at high temperature (50 degrees C) and low pH (5.0) for prolonged time periods and can be easily formulated in gel preparations for microbicidal use; they did not agglutinate human erythrocytes and were not toxic to mice when administered intravenously.

  18. Seroprevalence survey of Egyptian tourism workers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and Treponema pallidum infections: association of hepatitis C virus infections with specific regions of Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Sayed, N M; Gomatos, P J; Rodier, G R; Wierzba, T F; Darwish, A; Khashaba, S; Arthur, R R

    1996-08-01

    Blood samples from 740 Egyptian Nationals working in the tourism industry at two sites in the South Sinai governorate were screened for markers of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Treponema pallidum. Study subjects included 467 individuals from a rural seashore tourist village and 273 persons at two hotels in a well-established resort town. Subjects' ages ranged from 15 to 70 years; 99.3% were male. The prevalence of serologic markers for currently asymptomatic or past HBV infection alone was 20.7% (n = 153), of markers for past or chronic HCV infection alone was 7.4% (n = 55), and of markers for both HBV and HCV was 6.9% (n = 51). Of the 204 individuals positive for anti-HBV core antibody, 12 (5.9%) were also positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Two individuals (0.3%) had a serologic market suggestive of an active syphilitic infection. No subject was found to be HIV-seropositive. History of prior injections and number of injections were associated with infection with HCV. Primary residence in the Nile delta and valley areas where schistosomiasis is highly endemic, was also a statistically significant risk factor for HCV, but not HBV infection.

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities.

  20. Detection of DNA of Lymphotropic Herpesviruses in Plasma of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: Frequency and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Broccolo, Francesco; Bossolasco, Simona; Careddu, Anna M.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Lazzarin, Adriano; Cinque, Paola

    2002-01-01

    The frequency and clinical significance of detection of DNA of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, and HHV-8 in plasma were investigated by PCR. The plasma was obtained from 120 selected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, of whom 75 had AIDS-related manifestations, 32 had primary HIV infection (PHI), and 13 had asymptomatic infections. Nested PCR analysis revealed that none of the lymphotropic herpesviruses tested were found in patients with PHI, in asymptomatic HIV-positive individuals, or in HIV-negative controls. By contrast, DNA of one or more of the viruses was found in 42 (56%) of 75 patients with AIDS-related manifestations, including CMV disease (CMV-D) or AIDS-related tumors. The presence of CMV DNA in plasma was significantly associated with CMV-D (P < 0.001). By contrast, EBV detection was not significantly associated with AIDS-related lymphomas (P = 0.31). Interestingly, the presence of HHV-8 DNA in plasma was significantly associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) disease (P < 0.001) and with the clinical status of KS patients (P < 0.001). CMV (primarily), EBV, and HHV-8 were the viruses most commonly reactivated in the context of severe immunosuppression (P < 0.05). In contrast, HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections were infrequent at any stage of disease. In conclusion, plasma PCR was confirmed to be useful in the diagnosis of CMV-D but not in that of tumors or other conditions possibly associated with EBV, HHV-6, and HHV-7. Our findings support the hypothesis of a direct involvement of HHV-8 replication in KS pathogenesis, thus emphasizing the usefulness of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests to monitor HHV-8 infection. PMID:12414753

  1. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Growth of Infected T Cells by the Immunosuppressive Drugs Cyclosporin A and FK 506

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpas, Abraham; Lowdell, Mark; Jacobson, S. Kim; Hill, Fergal

    1992-09-01

    The effects of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK 506 were studied on cells chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as well as on uninfected and newly infected cells. When cells chronically infected with HIV-1 or with HIV-2 were cocultivated with uninfected cells in the presence of cyclosporin A or FK 506 there was a delay in the formation of syncytia and of cytopathic effects. This inhibitory effect was not due to decreased membrane expression of CD4. In addition, there was an ≈100-fold reduction in the yield of infectious HIV-1 when the infected cells were grown in the presence of these drugs, a finding consistent with other evidence of decreased HIV expression. Both drugs were found to inhibit the growth of chronically infected cells at concentrations that did not inhibit the growth of the uninfected cells. These results, demonstrating that cyclosporin A and FK 506 interfere with HIV production and selectively inhibit the growth of infected cells, suggest that they may be useful in the treatment of this infection and indicate further cellular targets for antiviral agents.

  2. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus and growth of infected T cells by the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK 506.

    PubMed Central

    Karpas, A; Lowdell, M; Jacobson, S K; Hill, F

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK 506 were studied on cells chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as well as on uninfected and newly infected cells. When cells chronically infected with HIV-1 or with HIV-2 were cocultivated with uninfected cells in the presence of cyclosporin A or FK 506 there was a delay in the formation of syncytia and of cytopathic effects. This inhibitory effect was not due to decreased membrane expression of CD4. In addition, there was an approximately 100-fold reduction in the yield of infectious HIV-1 when the infected cells were grown in the presence of these drugs, a finding consistent with other evidence of decreased HIV expression. Both drugs were found to inhibit the growth of chronically infected cells at concentrations that did not inhibit the growth of the uninfected cells. These results, demonstrating that cyclosporin A and FK 506 interfere with HIV production and selectively inhibit the growth of infected cells, suggest that they may be useful in the treatment of this infection and indicate further cellular targets for antiviral agents. Images PMID:1381509

  3. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Casimiro, Danilo R; Schleif, William A; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A; Shiver, John W

    2007-05-10

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4(+) T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection.

  4. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiqiang . E-mail: zhiqiang_zhang@merck.com; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-05-10

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection.

  5. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection in undocumented migrants and refugees in southern Italy, January 2012 to June 2013.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Gualdieri, Luciano; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Sagnelli, Caterina; Caprio, Nunzio; Maffei, Rita; Starace, Mario; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Screening of undocumented migrants or refugees for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections has been offered free of charge and free from bureaucratic procedures since 2012 at four primary-level clinical centres in Naples and Caserta, Italy. Of 926 undocumented migrants and refugees visiting one of the primary-level clinical centres from January 2012 to June 2013, 882 (95%) were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and antibodies against HCV and HIV. Of the 882 individuals enrolled, 78 (9%) were HBsAg positive, 35 (4%) anti-HCV positive and 11 (1%) anti-HIV positive (single infections); seven (1%) had more than one infection (three were HBsAg positive). Of the 801 HBsAg-negative patients, 373 (47%) were anti-HBc positive. The HBsAg-positivity rate was high (14%; 62/444) in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and intermediate in those from eastern Europe (6%; 12/198), northern Africa (2%; 2/80) and Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka (the 'India-Pakistan area') (3%; 4/126). Anti-HCV was detected in 9/126 (7%) individuals originating from the India-Pakistan area, in 12/198 (6%) from eastern Europe, in 17/444 (4%) from sub-Saharan and in 2/80 (2%) from northern Africa. The HBV, HCV and HIV infections in the undocumented migrants and refugees screened serve as a reminder to the Italian healthcare authorities to carry out extensive screening and educational programmes for these populations. PMID:26530499

  6. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection in undocumented migrants and refugees in southern Italy, January 2012 to June 2013.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Gualdieri, Luciano; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Sagnelli, Caterina; Caprio, Nunzio; Maffei, Rita; Starace, Mario; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Screening of undocumented migrants or refugees for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections has been offered free of charge and free from bureaucratic procedures since 2012 at four primary-level clinical centres in Naples and Caserta, Italy. Of 926 undocumented migrants and refugees visiting one of the primary-level clinical centres from January 2012 to June 2013, 882 (95%) were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and antibodies against HCV and HIV. Of the 882 individuals enrolled, 78 (9%) were HBsAg positive, 35 (4%) anti-HCV positive and 11 (1%) anti-HIV positive (single infections); seven (1%) had more than one infection (three were HBsAg positive). Of the 801 HBsAg-negative patients, 373 (47%) were anti-HBc positive. The HBsAg-positivity rate was high (14%; 62/444) in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and intermediate in those from eastern Europe (6%; 12/198), northern Africa (2%; 2/80) and Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka (the 'India-Pakistan area') (3%; 4/126). Anti-HCV was detected in 9/126 (7%) individuals originating from the India-Pakistan area, in 12/198 (6%) from eastern Europe, in 17/444 (4%) from sub-Saharan and in 2/80 (2%) from northern Africa. The HBV, HCV and HIV infections in the undocumented migrants and refugees screened serve as a reminder to the Italian healthcare authorities to carry out extensive screening and educational programmes for these populations.

  7. Activation of a beta-galactosidase recombinant provirus: application to titration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Rocancourt, D; Bonnerot, C; Jouin, H; Emerman, M; Nicolas, J F

    1990-06-01

    A quantitative bioassay for human immunodeficiency viruses has been developed on the basis of the ability of the tat gene to transactivate the expression of an integrated beta-galactosidase gene in a HeLa-CD4+ cell line. Infection by a single virion of HIV-1 or HIV-2 corresponds to a unique blue syncytium or a cell cluster detected after fixation and addition of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (a beta-galactosidase substrate). The number of infected lymphoid cells in a culture (stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cell lines) can also be quantified by cell-to-cell transmission of HIV into the HeLa-CD4(+)-beta-galactosidase monolayer. Infections by simian immunodeficiency viruses are similarly detected. This assay has been used to determine the dose response of drugs, the half-life of HIV at 37 degrees C, and the appearance of infectious particles after virus infection.

  8. Human papillomavirus detection in women with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection leads to a decreasing immune response, thereby facilitating the appearance of other infections, one of the most important ones being HPV. However, studies are needed for determining associations between immunodeficiency caused by HIV and/or the presence of HPV during the course of cervical lesions and their degree of malignancy. This study describes the cytological findings revealed by the Papanicolaou test, laboratory characteristics and HPV molecular profile in women with and without HIV infection. Methods A total of 216 HIV-positive and 1,159 HIV-negative women were invited to participate in the study; PCR was used for the molecular detection of HPV in cervical samples. Statistical analysis (such as percentages, Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test when applicable) determined human papillomavirus (HPV) infection frequency (single and multiple) and the distribution of six types of high-risk-HPV in women with and without HIV infection. Likewise, a logistic regression model was run to evaluate the relationship between HIV-HPV infection and different risk factors. Results An association was found between the frequency of HPV infection and infection involving 2 or more HPV types (also known as multiple HPV infection) in HIV-positive women (69.0% and 54.2%, respectively); such frequency was greater than that found in HIV-negative women (44.3% and 22.7%, respectively). Statistically significant differences were observed between both groups (p = 0.001) regarding HPV presence (both in infection and multiple HPV infection). HPV-16 was the most prevalent type in the population being studied (p = 0.001); other viral types had variable distribution in both groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative). HPV detection was associated with <500 cell/mm3 CD4-count (p = 0.004) and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001). HPV-DNA detection, <200 cell/mm3 CD4-count (p = 0.001), and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001) were associated with

  9. Loss of infectivity by progeny virus from alpha interferon-treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells is associated with defective assembly of envelope gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, B D; Nara, P L; Maheshwari, R K; Sidhu, G S; Bernbaum, J G; Hoekzema, D; Meltzer, M S; Gendelman, H E

    1992-01-01

    Levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA, RNA, or p24 antigen and reverse transcriptase activity in T-cell cultures treated with 500 IU of recombinant alpha interferon (rIFN alpha) per ml were comparable to those in control cultures. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis of proteins in lysates of IFN-treated T cells documented a marked accumulation of HIV proteins. Localization of gp120 by immunofluorescence showed a diffuse pattern in IFN-treated cells quite distinct from the ring pattern in untreated control cells. That large quantities of gp120 in aberrant cell compartments might affect HIV morphogenesis was confirmed in infectivity studies: virions from IFN-treated cells were 100- to 1,000-fold less infectious than an equal number of virions from control cells. Direct examination of IFN-treated and control HIV-infected cells by transmission electron microscopy showed little difference in the number or distribution of viral particles. However, quantitation of gp120 by immunogold particle analysis revealed a marked depletion of envelope glycoprotein in virions released from IFN-treated cells. This defect in gp120 assembly onto mature viral particles provides a molecular basis for this loss of infectivity. Images PMID:1279206

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of cells and tissues from the upper and lower human female reproductive tract.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, A L; Edkins, R D; Rier, S E; Yeaman, G R; Stern, J E; Fanger, M W; Wira, C R

    1997-01-01

    Viable tissue sections and isolated cell cultures from the human fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, and vaginal mucosa were examined for susceptibility to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We examined infectivity by using the monocytotropic strain HIV-1(JR-FL) and several primary isolates of HIV-1 obtained from infected neonates. HIV-1 infection was measured by p24 production in short-term culture and by immunofluorescence detection of HIV-1 Nef and p24 proteins by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Three-color immunofluorescence was used to phenotype HIV-infected cells within tissue sections from each site. Our findings indicate that epithelial, stromal, and dendritic cells and cells with CD14+ CD4+, CD14-CD4-, and CD4+ CD14- phenotypes from the female reproductive tract are infectable with HIV-1. Of importance is the finding that tissues from the upper reproductive tract are susceptible to infection with HIV-1. Moreover, tissue samples from women in all stages of the menstrual cycle, including postmenopausal women (inactive), could be infected with HIV-1. Female reproductive tract cells required a minimum of 60 min of exposure to HIV-1 in order for infection to occur, in contrast to peripheral blood lymphocytes, which became infected after being exposed to HIV-1 for only 1 min. These findings demonstrate that HIV-1 can infect cells and tissues from different sites within the female reproductive tract and suggest that multiple cell types, including epithelial cells, may be targets for the initial infection by HIV-1. PMID:9094621

  11. Rhesus macaques previously infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus are protected from vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C J; McChesney, M B; Lü, X; Dailey, P J; Chutkowski, C; Lu, D; Brosio, P; Roberts, B; Lu, Y

    1997-01-01

    Nontraumatic vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV) chimera containing the envelope gene from HIV-1 89.6 (SHIV 89.6) results in systemic infection (Y. Lu, B. Brosio, M. Lafaile, J. Li, R. G. Collman, J. Sodroski, and C. J. Miller, J. Virol. 70:3045-3050, 1996). A total of five rhesus macaques have each been infected by exposure to at least three intravaginal inoculations of SHIV 89.6. The SHIV 89.6 infection is characterized by a transient viremia that evokes humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV and SIV antigens, but disease does not develop in animals infected with SHIV 89.6. To determine if a previous infection with SHIV 89.6 by vaginal inoculation could protect animals from vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIV, all five animals were intravaginally inoculated twice with pathogenic SIV-mac239. After challenge, all of the SHIV-immunized animals had low or undetectable viral RNA levels in plasma compared to control animals. Three of the five of the SHIV-immunized animals remained virus isolation negative for more than 8 months, while two became virus isolation positive. The presence of SIV Gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and SIV-specific antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions at the time of challenge was associated with resistance to pathogenic SIV infection after vaginal challenge. These results suggest that protection from sexual transmission of HIV may be possible by effectively stimulating both humoral and cellular antiviral immunity in the systemic and genital mucosal immune compartments. PMID:9032322

  12. Loss of CD4+ T Cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Chimpanzees Is Associated with Increased Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ian C.; Girard, Marc; Fultz, Patricia N.

    1998-01-01

    Supportive evidence that apoptosis contributes to loss of CD4+ lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans comes from an apparent lack of abnormal apoptosis in apathogenic lentivirus infections of nonhuman primates, including HIV-1 infection of chimpanzees. Two female chimpanzees were inoculated, one cervically and the other intravenously, with HIV-1 derived from the LAI/LAV-1b strain, which was isolated from a chimpanzee infected with the virus for 8 years. Within 6 weeks of infection, both recipient chimpanzees developed a progressive loss of CD4+ T cells which correlated with persistently high viral burdens and increased levels of CD4+ T-cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Lymph nodes from both animals also revealed evidence of immune hyperactivation. Intermediate levels of T-cell apoptosis in both peripheral blood and lymph nodes were seen in a third chimpanzee that had been infected with the LAI/LAV-1b strain for 9 years; this animal has maintained depressed CD4/CD8 T-cell ratios for the last 3 years. Similar analyses of cells from 4 uninfected animals and 10 other HIV-1-infected chimpanzees without loss of CD4+ cells revealed no difference in levels of apoptosis in these two control groups. These results demonstrate a correlation between immune hyperactivation, T-cell apoptosis, and chronic loss of CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected chimpanzees, providing additional evidence that apoptosis is an important factor in T-cell loss in AIDS. Furthermore, the results show that some HIV-1 strains are pathogenic for chimpanzees and that this species is not inherently resistant to HIV-1-induced disease. PMID:9573225

  13. Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection and transfer of virus from dendritic cells to T cells.

    PubMed

    VanCompernolle, Scott E; Taylor, R Jeffery; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Jiang, Jiyang; Youree, Bryan E; Bowie, John H; Tyler, Michael J; Conlon, J Michael; Wade, David; Aiken, Christopher; Dermody, Terence S; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Unutmaz, Derya

    2005-09-01

    Topical antimicrobicides hold great promise in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Amphibian skin provides a rich source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides including some that have antiviral activity. We tested 14 peptides derived from diverse amphibian species for the capacity to inhibit HIV infection. Three peptides (caerin 1.1, caerin 1.9, and maculatin 1.1) completely inhibited HIV infection of T cells within minutes of exposure to virus at concentrations that were not toxic to target cells. These peptides also suppressed infection by murine leukemia virus but not by reovirus, a structurally unrelated nonenveloped virus. Preincubation with peptides prevented viral fusion to target cells and disrupted the HIV envelope. Remarkably, these amphibian peptides also were highly effective in inhibiting the transfer of HIV by dendritic cells (DCs) to T cells, even when DCs were transiently exposed to peptides 8 h after virus capture. These data suggest that amphibian-derived peptides can access DC-sequestered HIV and destroy the virus before it can be transferred to T cells. Thus, amphibian-derived antimicrobial peptides show promise as topical inhibitors of mucosal HIV transmission and provide novel tools to understand the complex biology of HIV capture by DCs.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope characteristics associated with disease progression differ in family members infected with genetically similar viruses.

    PubMed

    Baan, Elly; van der Sluis, Renée M; Bakker, Margreet E; Bekker, Vincent; Pajkrt, Dasja; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kuijpers, Taco W; Berkhout, Ben; Wolthers, Katja C; Paxton, William A; Pollakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein provides the primary contact between the virus and host, and is the main target of the adaptive humoral immune response. The length of gp120 variable loops and the number of N-linked glycosylation events are key determinants for virus infectivity and immune escape, while the V3 loop overall positive charge is known to affect co-receptor tropism. We selected two families in which both parents and two children had been infected with HIV-1 for nearly 10 years, but who demonstrated variable parameters of disease progression. We analysed the gp120 envelope sequence and compared individuals that progressed to those that did not in order to decipher evolutionary alterations that are associated with disease progression when individuals are infected with genetically related virus strains. The analysis of the V3-positive charge demonstrated an association between higher V3-positive charges with disease progression. The ratio between the amino acid length and the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites was also shown to be associated with disease progression with the healthier family members having a lower ratio. In conclusion in individuals initially infected with genetically linked virus strains the V3-positive charges and N-linked glycosylation are associated with HIV-1 disease progression and follow varied evolutionary paths for individuals with varied disease progression.

  15. Role of Invariant Thr80 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Structure, Function, and Viral Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Foulkes, Jennifer E.; Prabu-Jeyabalan, Moses; Cooper, Deyna; Henderson, Gavin J.; Harris, Janera; Swanstrom, Ronald; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2006-01-01

    Sequence variability associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is useful for inferring structural and/or functional constraints at specific residues within the viral protease. Positions that are invariant even in the presence of drug selection define critically important residues for protease function. While the importance of conserved active-site residues is easily understood, the role of other invariant residues is not. This work focuses on invariant Thr80 at the apex of the P1 loop of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus protease. In a previous study, we postulated, on the basis of a molecular dynamics simulation of the unliganded protease, that Thr80 may play a role in the mobility of the flaps of protease. In the present study, both experimental and computational methods were used to study the role of Thr80 in HIV protease. Three protease variants (T80V, T80N, and T80S) were examined for changes in structure, dynamics, enzymatic activity, affinity for protease inhibitors, and viral infectivity. While all three variants were structurally similar to the wild type, only T80S was functionally similar. Both T80V and T80N had decreased the affinity for saquinavir. T80V significantly decreased the ability of the enzyme to cleave a peptide substrate but maintained infectivity, while T80N abolished both activity and viral infectivity. Additionally, T80N decreased the conformational flexibility of the flap region, as observed by simulations of molecular dynamics. Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-1 protease functions best when residue 80 is a small polar residue and that mutations to other amino acids significantly impair enzyme function, possibly by affecting the flexibility of the flap domain. PMID:16809296

  16. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  17. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and…

  18. Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype among Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fengyu; Nie, Jingmin; Lan, Yun; Li, Huiqin; Lu, Ruichao; Gao, Yanqing; Song, Yuxia; Zhao, Qingxia; Zheng, Yuhuang; Tang, Xiaoping; Cai, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become the most common cause of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies with geographical regions and time, and limited studies have focused on the HCV genotype in HIV/HCV co-infection. Methods The distribution of HCV genotypes was evaluated in 414 patients with HIV/HCV co-infection in three regions (South, Central and Northwest) of China from 2008 to 2010. The NS5B region of HCV was characterized using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequences obtained were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results Genotype 3 was the most prevalent HCV strain (36.2%), followed by genotype 6 (30.0%), genotype 1 (28.5%), genotype 2 (5.1%), and genotype 5 (0.2%). The distribution varied geographically. Genotype 6 (37.6%) was the predominant strain while genotype 1 (20.2%) was less common in the South compared to the Central and Northwest regions (all P < 0.001). The distribution also varied temporally. There was no significant difference in genotype distribution in Guangdong (a province in the South region), between patient cohorts from 2005–2008 and 2009–2010. However, outside Guangdong, genotypes 3 and 6a became significantly more prevalent (22.4% vs.42.2%, P< 0.001; 8.0% vs. 19.8%, P = 0.004), and genotype 1 less prevalent (54.4% vs.26.6%, P< 0.001) over time. Conclusion The most dramatic shift in genotypic distribution was the movement of HCV genotypes 3 and 6a outside of Guangdong in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. This movement appeared closely associated with transmission via injected drug use. PMID:27603929

  19. Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Containing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype-E Envelope Gene: Persistent Infection, CD4+ T-Cell Depletion, and Mucosal Membrane Transmission in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Himathongkham, Sunee; Halpin, Nancy S.; Li, Jinling; Stout, Michael W.; Miller, Christopher J.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    The envelope (env) glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) determines several viral properties (e.g., coreceptor usage, cell tropism, and cytopathicity) and is a major target of antiviral immune responses. Most investigations on env have been conducted on subtype-B viral strains, prevalent in North America and Europe. Our study aimed to analyze env genes of subtype-E viral strains, prevalent in Asia and Africa, with a nonhuman primate model for lentivirus infection and AIDS. To this end, we constructed a simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 subtype-E (SHIV) recombinant clone by replacing the env ectodomain of the SHIV-33 clone with the env ectodomain from the subtype-E strain HIV-1CAR402, which was isolated from an individual in the Central African Republic. Virus from this recombinant clone, designated SHIV-E-CAR, replicated efficiently in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Accordingly, juvenile macaques were inoculated with cell-free SHIV-E-CAR by the intravenous or intravaginal route; virus replicated in these animals but did not produce hematological abnormalities. In an attempt to elicit the pathogenic potential of the recombinant clone, we serially passaged this viral clone via transfusion of blood and bone marrow through juvenile macaques to produce SHIV-E-P4 (fourth-passage virus). The serially passaged virus established productive infection and CD4+ T-cell depletion in juvenile macaques inoculated by either the intravenous or the intravaginal route. Determination of the coreceptor usage of SHIV-E-CAR and serially passaged SHIV-E-P4 indicated that both of these viruses utilized CXCR4 as a coreceptor. In summary, the serially passaged SHIV subtype-E chimeric virus will be important for studies aimed at developing a nonhuman primate model for analyzing the functions of subtype-E env genes in viral transmission and pathogenesis and for vaccine challenge experiments with macaques immunized with HIV-1 env antigens. PMID:10933692

  20. Neutralizing Antibodies in Sera from Macaques Infected with Chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Containing the Envelope Glycoproteins of either a Laboratory-Adapted Variant or a Primary Isolate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.; Wyand, Michael S.; Manson, Kelledy; Lewis, Mark G.; Collman, Ronald G.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Bolognesi, Dani P.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1998-01-01

    The magnitude and breadth of neutralizing antibodies raised in response to infection with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in rhesus macaques were evaluated. Infection with either SHIV-HXB2, SHIV-89.6, or SHIV-89.6PD raised high-titer neutralizing antibodies to the homologous SHIV (SHIV-89.6P in the case of SHIV-89.6PD-infected animals) and significant titers of neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains MN and SF-2. With few exceptions, however, titers of neutralizing antibodies to heterologous SHIV were low or undetectable. The antibodies occasionally neutralized heterologous primary isolates of HIV-1; these antibodies required >40 weeks of infection to reach detectable levels. Notable was the potent neutralization of the HIV-1 89.6 primary isolate by serum samples from SHIV-89.6-infected macaques. These results demonstrate that SHIV-HXB2, SHIV-89.6, and SHIV-89.6P possess highly divergent, strain-specific neutralization epitopes. The results also provide insights into the requirements for raising neutralizing antibodies to primary isolates of HIV-1. PMID:9525675

  1. Deletion of nef slows but does not prevent CD4-positive T-cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected human-PBL-SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gulizia, R J; Collman, R G; Levy, J A; Trono, D; Mosier, D E

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of four human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates with nef deleted for SCID mice repopulated with human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID mice) was studied. Deletion of nef led to a substantial reduction in CD4-positive T-cell depletion and delayed kinetics of plasma viremia in infected hu-PBL-SCID mice. Deletion of the nef gene impacts both the efficiency of primary infection and the cytopathicity of virus for infected CD4-positive T cells in this animal model of HIV-1 infection. PMID:9094701

  2. Platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation contribute to decreased platelet count during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection in pig-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Lyons, Claire E; Dorsey, Jamie L; Shirk, Erin N; Queen, Suzanne E; Adams, Robert J; Gama, Lucio; Morrell, Craig N; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2013-09-01

    Platelets are key participants in innate immune responses to pathogens. As a decrease in circulating platelet count is one of the initial hematologic indicators of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we sought to determine whether decline in platelet number during acute infection results from decreased production, increased antibody-mediated destruction, or increased platelet activation in a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model. During acute SIV infection, circulating platelets were activated with increased surface expression of P-selection, CD40L and major histocompatibility complex class I. Platelet production was maintained and platelet autoantibodies were not detected during acute infection. Concurrent with a decrease in platelet numbers and an increase in circulating monocytes, platelets were found sequestered in platelet-monocyte aggregates, thereby contributing to the decline in platelet counts. Because the majority of circulating CD16(+) monocytes formed complexes with platelets during acute SIV infection, a decreased platelet count may represent platelet participation in the innate immune response to HIV.

  3. Effect of probiotic bacteria on microbial host defense, growth, and immune function in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Ahrné, Siv; Johann-Liang, Rosemary; Abuav, Rachel; Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Grassey, Claudia; Bengmark, Stig; Cervia, Joseph S

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1) infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg) cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to formula alone

  4. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Ahrné, Siv; Johann-Liang, Rosemary; Abuav, Rachel; Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Grassey, Claudia; Bengmark, Stig; Cervia, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1) infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg) cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to formula alone

  5. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R.; Nguyen, Quang N.; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D.; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E.; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W.; Trama, Ashley M.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R.

    2016-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  6. Mesenchymoproliferative enteropathy associated with dual simian polyomavirus and rhesus cytomegalovirus infection in a simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Cummings Macri, S; Knight, H L; Miller, A D

    2013-07-01

    Opportunistic viral infections are common in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques and include simian polyomavirus 40 (SV40), which causes interstitial nephritis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and rhesus cytomegalovirus (Macacine herpesvirus-3), which is associated with many pathologic manifestations, including the formation of neutrophil-rich gastrointestinal masses. Herein we report the findings of a simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaque that presented to necropsy with multiple nodular masses restricted to the proximal jejunum. Histologically, the masses within the lamina propria were composed of abundant, loosely organized, mesenchymal tissue forming broad interlacing whorls and sheets admixed with variable numbers of neutrophils. Cells within the mesenchymoproliferative nodules contained numerous basophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies with only scattered cytomegalic cells. Immunohistochemistry for rhesus cytomegalovirus and SV40 demonstrated variable numbers of immunopositive cells within the affected nodules. This report is the first description of SV40-associated pathology in the small intestine of a rhesus macaque and highlights the role that opportunistic viral infections can have on gastrointestinal pathology in immunosuppressed rhesus macaques.

  7. Precancerous Cervix in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Women Thirty Years Old and above in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Izudi, Jonathan; Adrawa, Norbert; Amongin, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about precancerous cervical lesion (PCCL), the precursor of cervical cancer among Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) infected women in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Objective. To establish factors associated with PCCL among HIV infected women above thirty years of age in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Method. This retrospective cohort study used electronic data from 995 HIV-positive women that attended cervical cancer screening during June 2014 and December 2015. Data on social, sexual, obstetric, and gynecological factors was analyzed at 95% confidence level. Multivariate analysis determined factors independently associated with positive PCCL. Probability value less than 5% was considered significant. Results. Prevalence of PCCL was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-4.3). A positive PCCL was significantly associated with absence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09-0.64; P = 0.004) and first pregnancy before the age of 20 years (aOR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.21-7.89; P = 0.018). Conclusion. The prevalence of PCCL was low in the postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. HIV-positive women presenting with STDs and those with first pregnancy before the age of 20 years were at increased risk of PCCL. PMID:27478441

  8. Precancerous Cervix in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Women Thirty Years Old and above in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adrawa, Norbert; Amongin, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about precancerous cervical lesion (PCCL), the precursor of cervical cancer among Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) infected women in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Objective. To establish factors associated with PCCL among HIV infected women above thirty years of age in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Method. This retrospective cohort study used electronic data from 995 HIV-positive women that attended cervical cancer screening during June 2014 and December 2015. Data on social, sexual, obstetric, and gynecological factors was analyzed at 95% confidence level. Multivariate analysis determined factors independently associated with positive PCCL. Probability value less than 5% was considered significant. Results. Prevalence of PCCL was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0–4.3). A positive PCCL was significantly associated with absence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09–0.64; P = 0.004) and first pregnancy before the age of 20 years (aOR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.21–7.89; P = 0.018). Conclusion. The prevalence of PCCL was low in the postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. HIV-positive women presenting with STDs and those with first pregnancy before the age of 20 years were at increased risk of PCCL. PMID:27478441

  9. Motor development of infants exposed to maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but not infected

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the motor development of infants exposed to maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods Thirty infants were assessed in the period from November 2009 to March 2010 at the AIDS Reference and Training Centre, in São Paulo, Brazil. The assessment instrument used in the research was the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). All 30 infants used the antiretroviral drug properly for 42 consecutive days, in accordance with the protocol of the World Health Organization. Results Out of the total number of infants, 27 (90%) had proper motor performance and 3 (10%) presented motor delay, according to the AIMS. Discussion This study demonstrated that only 10% of the assessed group had developmental delay and no relation with environmental variables was detected, such as maternal level of education, social and economic issues, maternal practices, attendance at the day care center, and drug use during pregnancy. It is important to emphasize the necessity of studies with a larger number of participants. PMID:24171763

  10. A Pilot Study of Raltegravir Plus Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Collier, Ann C; Chun, Tae-Wook; Maenza, Janine; Coombs, Robert W; Tapia, Kenneth; Chang, Ming; Stevens, Claire E; Justement, J Shawn; Murray, Danielle; Stekler, Joanne D; Mullins, James I; Holte, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Availability of integrase strand transfer inhibitors created interest in determining whether their use would decrease persistently infected cell numbers. This study hypothesized that adding raltegravir (RAL) to standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) would decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected CD4(+) T cells more than standard combination ART. This was a pilot, randomized study comparing open-label standard triple ART to standard triple ART plus RAL over 96 weeks in ART-naive adults with early HIV infection. The primary objective was to compare quantity and trajectory of HIV DNA. Eighty-two persons were referred. A diverse set of reasons precluded the enrollment of all but 10. Those who enrolled and completed the study had an estimated median duration of HIV infection of 74 days at ART start. The groups had similar baseline characteristics. The RAL group had more rapid first phase plasma HIV RNA decay (0.67 log10 copies/mL/day) than with combination ART (0.34 log10copies/mL/day), p = 0.037. Second phase HIV RNA decay, residual viremia, cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4(+) T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circle levels did not differ between groups. Among those with entry plasma HIV RNA levels above the median, 2LTR circles were significantly lower over time than in those with lower entry HIV RNA levels (p = 0.02). Our results suggest homogeneity of responses in cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4(+) T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circles with early HIV in both ART groups. The kinetics of 2LTR DNA did not reflect the kinetics of plasma HIV RNA decline following ART initiation.

  11. A Pilot Study of Raltegravir Plus Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Collier, Ann C; Chun, Tae-Wook; Maenza, Janine; Coombs, Robert W; Tapia, Kenneth; Chang, Ming; Stevens, Claire E; Justement, J Shawn; Murray, Danielle; Stekler, Joanne D; Mullins, James I; Holte, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Availability of integrase strand transfer inhibitors created interest in determining whether their use would decrease persistently infected cell numbers. This study hypothesized that adding raltegravir (RAL) to standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) would decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected CD4(+) T cells more than standard combination ART. This was a pilot, randomized study comparing open-label standard triple ART to standard triple ART plus RAL over 96 weeks in ART-naive adults with early HIV infection. The primary objective was to compare quantity and trajectory of HIV DNA. Eighty-two persons were referred. A diverse set of reasons precluded the enrollment of all but 10. Those who enrolled and completed the study had an estimated median duration of HIV infection of 74 days at ART start. The groups had similar baseline characteristics. The RAL group had more rapid first phase plasma HIV RNA decay (0.67 log10 copies/mL/day) than with combination ART (0.34 log10copies/mL/day), p = 0.037. Second phase HIV RNA decay, residual viremia, cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4(+) T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circle levels did not differ between groups. Among those with entry plasma HIV RNA levels above the median, 2LTR circles were significantly lower over time than in those with lower entry HIV RNA levels (p = 0.02). Our results suggest homogeneity of responses in cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4(+) T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circles with early HIV in both ART groups. The kinetics of 2LTR DNA did not reflect the kinetics of plasma HIV RNA decline following ART initiation. PMID:26862469

  12. Containment of simian immunodeficiency virus infection: cellular immune responses and protection from rechallenge following transient postinoculation antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Lifson, J D; Rossio, J L; Arnaout, R; Li, L; Parks, T L; Schneider, D K; Kiser, R F; Coalter, V J; Walsh, G; Imming, R J; Fisher, B; Flynn, B M; Bischofberger, N; Piatak, M; Hirsch, V M; Nowak, M A; Wodarz, D

    2000-03-01

    To better understand the viral and host factors involved in the establishment of persistent productive infection by primate lentiviruses, we varied the time of initiation and duration of postinoculation antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir (9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine) while performing intensive virologic and immunologic monitoring in rhesus macaques, inoculated intravenously with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmE660. Postinoculation treatment did not block the initial infection, but we identified treatment regimens that prevented the establishment of persistent productive infection, as judged by the absence of measurable plasma viremia following drug discontinuation. While immune responses were heterogeneous, animals in which treatment resulted in prevention of persistent productive infection showed a higher frequency and higher levels of SIV-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses during the treatment period compared to control animals, despite the absence of either detectable plasma viremia or seroconversion. Animals protected from the initial establishment of persistent productive infection were also relatively or completely protected from subsequent homologous rechallenge. Even postinoculation treatment regimens that did not prevent establishment of persistent infection resulted in downmodulation of the level of plasma viremia following treatment cessation, compared to the viremia seen in untreated control animals, animals treated with regimens known to be ineffective, or the cumulative experience with the natural history of plasma viremia following infection with SIVsmE660. The results suggest that the host may be able to effectively control SIV infection if the initial exposure occurs under favorable conditions of low viral burden and in the absence of ongoing high level cytopathic infection of responding cells. These findings may be particularly important in relation to prospects for control of primate lentiviruses in the settings of

  13. Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Causes Ultimate Depletion of Follicular Th Cells in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Malam, Naomi; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-11-01

    CD4(+) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical for the generation of humoral immune responses to pathogenic infections, providing help for B cell development, survival, and affinity maturation of Abs. Although CD4(+) Tfh cells are reported to accumulate in HIV or SIV infection, we found that germinal center Tfh cells, defined in this study as CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH)CD4(+) T cells, did not consistently accumulate in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques compared with those infected with less pathogenic simian HIV, vaccinated and SIVmac-challenged, or SIVmac-infected Mamu-A*01(+) macaques, all of which are associated with some control of virus replication and slower disease progression. Interestingly, CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh cells in lymphoid tissues were eventually depleted in macaques with AIDS compared with the other cohorts. Chronic activation and proliferation of CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh were increased, but PD-L2 expression was downregulated on B cells, possibly resulting in germinal center Tfh cell apoptosis. Together, these findings suggest that changes in CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh cells in lymph nodes correlate with immune control during infection, and their loss or dysregulation contribute to impairment of B cell responses and progression to AIDS.

  14. Identification of Light-independent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection through Bioguided Fractionation of Hypericum perforatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not. Here, we identify the light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (...

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data from 297 HIV-1–infected adults (mean age = 31.1 years, 69% female) living in Lusaka, Zambia to assess the prevalence and associated predictors of helminth infection. We found at least one type of intestinal helminth in 24.9% of HIV-infected adults. Thirty-nine (52.7%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 29 (39.2%) were infected with hookworm. More than 80% were light-intensity infections. A recent visit to a rural area, food shortage, and prior history of helminth infection were significant predictors of current helminth status. The high helminth prevalence and potential for adverse interactions between helminths and HIV suggests that helminth diagnosis and treatment should be part of routine HIV care. PMID:16222025

  16. Antigenic and genetic variation in influenza A (H1N1) virus isolates recovered from a persistently infected immunodeficient child.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, E; Cox, N J; Black, R A; Harmon, M W; Harrison, C J; Kendal, A P

    1991-01-01

    Antigenic and genetic variations have been analyzed in eight consecutive isolates recovered from a child with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome persistently infected with naturally acquired type A (H1N1) influenza virus over a 10-month period. Hemagglutination inhibition reactions and T1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting demonstrated that these viruses were related to strains causing outbreaks in the United States at that time (1983 to 1984) but that antigenic and genetic differences between consecutive isolates could be detected. This variation between isolates was examined further by sequencing the RNAs encoding the HA1 region of the hemagglutinin (HA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) in five of the consecutive isolates. Multiple point mutations were detected in both genes, and a deletion of one amino acid was detected in the HA. Depending on the isolates compared, 5.8 x 10(-3) to 17 x 10(-3) substitutions per nucleotide site per year were detected in the RNAs encoding the HA1, and 3.5 x 10(-3) to 24 x 10(-3) substitutions per nucleotide site per year were detected in the NP gene. Fifty-four percent of the base changes in the HA1 and 73% in the NP led to amino acid substitutions. A progressive accumulation of mutations over time was not observed, suggesting that the genetic diversity of these viruses may best be interpreted as the result of shifts in the population equilibrium (quasi-species) of replicating variant genomes. PMID:2016763

  17. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults: differences in risk factors and their implications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, most have failed to show differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. This study was designed to identify differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among HIV-infected adults in Seoul. A face-to-face survey of 457 HIV-infected adults was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Among 422 participants, 44% had suicidal ideation, and 11% had suicide attempts. The independent risk factors for suicidal ideation were young and middle age, living with someone, history of AIDS-defining opportunistic disease, history of treatment for depression, lower social support, and psychological status. Beneficiaries of National Medical Aid, economic barriers to treatment, history of treatment for depression, and lower psychological status were independently associated with suicide attempts. Patients with HIV in Korea were treated without cost in some centers. Thus, experiencing an economic barrier to treatment might be due in part to ignorance of HIV care policies. Our findings indicate that suicide attempts are associated with socioeconomic factors and information inequality regarding medical care. In conclusion, suicidal ideation closely associated with the psychosocial factors, whereas suicide attempt demonstrates a stronger association with socioeconomic factors. Suicide prevention measures should be implemented to provide information to help HIV-infected patients.

  18. Immunopathologic changes in the thymus during the acute stage of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in juvenile cats.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J C; Dean, G A; Pedersen, N C; Moore, P F

    1997-01-01

    The feline thymus is a target organ and site of viral replication during the acute stage of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. This was demonstrated by histologic, immunohistologic, flow cytometric, and virologic tests. Thymic lesions developed after 28 days postinoculation (p.i.) and included thymitis, premature cortical involution, and medullary B-cell hyperplasia with germinal center formation and epithelial distortion. Alterations in thymocyte subsets also developed. Fewer CD4+ CD8- cells were detected at 28 days p.i., while an increase in CD4- CD8+ cells resulted in an inversion of the thymic CD4/CD8 ratio of single-positive cells, similar to events in peripheral blood. Provirus was present in all thymocyte subpopulations including cortical CD1(hi), CD1(lo), and B cells. The CD1(hi) thymocyte proviral burden increased markedly after 56 days p.i., coincident with the presence of infiltrating inflammatory cells. Increased levels of provirus in the CD1(lo) thymocyte subpopulation were detected prior to 56 days p.i. This was likely due to inclusion of infected infiltrating inflammatory cells which could not be differentiated from mature, medullary thymocytes. Proviral levels in B cells also increased from 70 days p.i. Morphologic alterations, productive viral infection, and altered thymocyte subpopulations suggest that thymic function is compromised, thus contributing to the inability of FIV-infected cats to replenish the peripheral T-cell pool. PMID:9343221

  19. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral loads in Kenyan women, men, and infants during primary and early infection.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Barbra A; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Lavreys, Ludo; John-Stewart, Grace C; Nduati, Ruth; Panteleeff, Dana D; Emery, Sandra; Kreiss, Joan K; Overbaugh, Julie

    2003-06-01

    Steady-state levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma reached at approximately 4 months postinfection are highly predictive of disease progression. Several studies have investigated viral levels in adults or infants during primary and early infection. However, no studies have directly compared these groups. We compared differences in peak and set point plasma HIV-1 RNA viral loads among antiretrovirus-naive Kenyan infants and adults for whom the timing of infection was well defined. Peak and set point viral loads were significantly higher in infants than in adults. We did not observe any gender-specific differences in viral set point in either adults or infants. However, infants who acquired HIV-1 in the first 2 months of life, either in utero, intrapartum, or through early breast milk transmission, had significantly higher set point HIV-1 RNA levels than infants who were infected after 2 months of age through late breast milk transmission or adults who were infected through heterosexual transmission.

  20. Utility of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, D C; Argosino, R; McKenna, B J; Cangiarella, J F; Cohen, J M

    1999-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has been increasingly utilized as a diagnostic tool in evaluating salivary gland masses, primarily to differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic lesions. Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) frequently present with salivary gland lesions. In this study, we reviewed the cytology of salivary gland lesions in HIV-infected patients and assessed the value of FNA in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions in HIV-infected patients. One hundred and three FNAs of salivary gland lesions from 78 HIV-infected patients (63 males and 15 females) were included in our study. The patients' ages ranged from 7-65 yr, with a mean age of 40.9 yr. FNAs were classified into three categories: benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLL) (77 cases or 74.8%), inflammatory processes (14 cases or 13.6%), including 3 reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and neoplastic lesions (6 cases or 5.8%). The latter included three malignant lymphomas, a multiple myeloma, a metastatic adenocarcinoma from a lung primary, and a direct extension of basal-cell carcinoma. Six (5.8%) aspirates were nondiagnostic. No false-positive or false-negative cases were noted during follow-up of these patients. In conclusion, FNA is a simple and cost-effective procedure for the diagnosis of HIV-related salivary gland lesions. The majority of these lesions are cystic BLL and can be managed conservatively. Malignant lesions are rarely encountered and are readily recognized by FNA. Diagn. Cytopathol. 1999;21:260-264.

  1. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. PMID:26448460

  2. Combined intra- and extracellular immunization against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection with a human anti-gp120 antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S Y; Khouri, Y; Bagley, J; Marasco, W A

    1994-01-01

    In this study, a human CD4+ T lymphocyte line was transduced to secrete Fab fragments of a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody F105 that reacts with the CD4-binding site of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein. In the transduced cells infected with HIV-1, the nascent Fab fragments bind intracellularly to the HIV-1 envelope protein and inhibit HIV-1 production. The secreted Fab fragments are able to neutralize cell-free HIV-1. In addition, the nascent Fab fragments can inhibit HIV-1 production by binding intracellularly to envelope mutants that escape neutralization by extracellular F105 antibody. The combined intra- and extracellular binding activities of the expressed Fab fragments result in the efficient blocking of cytopathic syncytium formation and infectious virus production. Thus, these antibody-producing T lymphocytes are not only resistant to HIV-1 infection but also can protect surrounding lymphocytes by secreting neutralizing antibodies. This novel strategy of combining intracellular and extracellular immunization may be useful for gene therapy of AIDS and other diseases. Images PMID:8016092

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats.

    PubMed

    Al-Kappany, Y M; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Dubey, J P

    2011-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus and human leukemia virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii , Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv and Dirofilaria immitis antigens was determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 172 (95.5%) of the 180 cats with titers of 1∶5 in 9, 1∶10 in 9, 1∶20 in 3, 1∶40 in 5, 1∶80 in 5, 1∶160 in 15, 1∶320 in 22, and 1∶640 or higher in 104. Thus, 57.4% had high T. gondii titers. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 105 (59.6%) of 178, with titers of 1∶64 in 45, 1∶128 in 39, 1∶256 in 13, 1∶512 in 3, 1∶1,024 in 4, and 1∶2,048 in 1 cat. Antibodies to FIV were detected in 59 (33.9%) of 174 cats. Of 174 cats tested, antigens to FeLv, and D. immitis were detected in 8 (4.6%) and 6 (3.4%) cats, respectively. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV infections in cats from Cairo, Egypt. This is the first report of Bartonella spp., and D. immitis infection in cats in Egypt. PMID:21506874

  4. Vaccine-induced virus-neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T cells do not protect macaques from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac32H (J5).

    PubMed Central

    Hulskotte, E G; Geretti, A M; Siebelink, K H; van Amerongen, G; Cranage, M P; Rud, E W; Norley, S G; de Vries, P; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-01-01

    To gain further insight into the ability of subunit vaccines to protect monkeys from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), two groups of cynomolgus macaques were immunized with either recombinant SIVmac32H-derived envelope glycoproteins (Env) incorporated into immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms) (group A) or with these SIV Env iscoms in combination with p27gag iscoms and three Nef lipopeptides (group B). Four monkeys immunized with recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus Env iscoms served as controls (group C). Animals were immunized intramuscularly at weeks 0, 4, 10, and 16. Two weeks after the last immunization, monkeys were challenged intravenously with 50 monkey 50% infectious doses of virus derived from the J5 molecular clone of SIVmac32H propagated in monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells. High titers of SIV-neutralizing antibodies were induced in the monkeys of groups A and B. In addition, p27gag-specific antibodies were detected in the monkeys of group B. Vaccine-induced cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte precursors against Env, Gag, and Nef were detected on the day of challenge in the monkeys of group B. Env-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte precursors were detected in one monkey from group A. In spite of the observed antibody and T-cell responses, none of the monkeys was protected from experimental infection. In addition, longitudinal determination of cell-associated virus loads at weeks 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 postchallenge revealed no significant differences between vaccinated and control monkeys. These findings illustrate the need to clarify the roles of the different arms of the immune system in conferring protection against primate lentivirus infections. PMID:7666529

  5. Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Their Mapping by Monomeric gp120 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Humans and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIVSF162P3N-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Manxue; Lu, Hong; Markowitz, Martin; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To improve our understanding of the similarities and differences between neutralizing antibodies elicited by simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected rhesus macaques and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans, we examined the plasma of 13 viremic macaques infected with SHIVSF162P3N and 85 HIV-1-infected humans with known times of infection. We identified 5 macaques (38%) from 1 to 2 years postinfection (p.i.) with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against tier 2 HIV-1. In comparison, only 2 out of 42 (5%) human plasma samples collected in a similar time frame of 1 to 3 years p.i. exhibited comparable neutralizing breadths and potencies, with the number increasing to 7 out of 21 (30%) after 3 years p.i. Plasma mapping with monomeric gp120 identified only 2 out of 9 humans and 2 out of 4 macaques that contained gp120-reactive neutralizing antibodies, indicating distinct specificities in these plasma samples, with most of them recognizing the envelope trimer (including gp41) rather than the gp120 monomer. Indeed, a total of 20 gp120-directed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) isolated from a human subject (AD358) and a Chinese rhesus macaque (GB40) displayed no or limited neutralizing activity against tier 2 strains. These isolated MAbs, mapped to the CD4-binding site, the V3 loop, the inner domain, and the C5 region of gp120, revealed genetic similarity between the human and macaque immunoglobulin genes used to encode some V3-directed MAbs. These results also support the use of envelope trimer probes for efficient isolation of HIV-1 bnAbs. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 vaccine research can benefit from understanding the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) in rhesus macaques, commonly used to assess vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Here, we examined 85 HIV-1-infected humans and 13 SHIVSF162P3N-infected macaques for bnAbs and found that, similar to HIV-1-infected humans, bnAbs in SHIV-infected macaques are also rare

  6. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi), and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun) to 35% (ileum) at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum) or IgM (duodenum) plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses to other pathogens and

  7. Extensive intrasubtype recombination in South African human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C infections.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Christine M; Learn, Gerald H; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Nickle, David C; Heckerman, David; Chetty, Senica; Brander, Christian; Goulder, Philip J R; Walker, Bruce D; Kiepiela, Photini; Korber, Bette T; Mullins, James I

    2007-05-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains containing sequences from different viral genetic subtypes (intersubtype) and different lineages from within the same subtype (intrasubtype) have been observed. A consequence of recombination can be the distortion of the phylogenetic signal. Several intersubtype recombinants have been identified; however, less is known about the frequency of intrasubtype recombination. For this study, near-full-length HIV-1 subtype C genomes from 270 individuals were evaluated for the presence of intrasubtype recombination. A sliding window schema (window, 2 kb; step, 385 bp) was used to partition the aligned sequences. The Shimodaira-Hasegawa test detected significant topological incongruence in 99.6% of the comparisons of the maximum-likelihood trees generated from each sequence partition, a result that could be explained by recombination. Using RECOMBINE, we detected significant levels of recombination using five random subsets of the sequences. With a set of 23 topologically consistent sequences used as references, bootscanning followed by the interactive informative site test defined recombination breakpoints. Using two multiple-comparison correction methods, 47% of the sequences showed significant evidence of recombination in both analyses. Estimated evolutionary rates were revised from 0.51%/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.53%) with all sequences to 0.46%/year (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.48%) with the putative recombinants removed. The timing of the subtype C epidemic origin was revised from 1961 (95% CI, 1947 to 1962) with all sequences to 1958 (95% CI, 1949 to 1960) with the putative recombinants removed. Thus, intrasubtype recombinants are common within the subtype C epidemic and these impact analyses of HIV-1 evolution. PMID:17314156

  8. Frequent substitution polymorphisms in African green monkey CCR5 cluster at critical sites for infections by simian immunodeficiency virus SIVagm, implying ancient virus-host coevolution.

    PubMed

    Kuhmann, S E; Madani, N; Diop, O M; Platt, E J; Morvan, J; Müller-Trutwin, M C; Barré-Sinoussi, F; Kabat, D

    2001-09-01

    In contrast to humans, several primate species are believed to have harbored simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) since ancient times. In particular, the geographically dispersed species of African green monkeys (AGMs) are all infected with highly diversified SIVagm viruses at high prevalences (greater than 50% of sexually mature individuals) without evident diseases, implying that the progenitor monkeys were infected prior to their dispersal. If this is correct, AGMs would be expected to have accumulated frequent resistance-conferring polymorphisms in host genes that are important for SIV replication. Accordingly, we analyzed the coding sequences of the CCR5 coreceptors from 26 AGMs (52 alleles) in distinct populations of the four species. These samples contained 29 nonsynonymous coding changes and only 15 synonymous nucleotide substitutions, implying intense functional selection. Moreover, 24 of the resulting amino acid substitutions were tightly clustered in the CCR5 amino terminus (D13N in the vervets and Y14N in the tantalus species) or in the first extracellular loop (Q93R and Q93K in all species). The Y14N substitution was extremely frequent in the 12 wild-born African tantalus, with 7 monkeys being homozygous for this substitution and 4 being heterozygous. Although two of these heterozygotes and the only wild-type homozygote were naturally infected with SIVagm, none of the Y14N homozygotes were naturally infected. A focal infectivity assay for SIVagm indicated that all five tested SIVagms efficiently use CCR5 as a coreceptor and that they also use CXCR6 (STRL33/Bonzo) and GPR15 (BOB) with lower efficiencies but not CXCR4. Interestingly, the D13N, Y14N, Q93R, and Q93K substitutions in AGM CCR5 all strongly inhibited infections by the SIVagm isolates in vitro. The Y14N substitution eliminates a tyrosine sulfation site that is important for infections and results in partial N-linked glycosylation (i.e., 60% efficiency) at this position. Nevertheless, the CCR

  9. Comparison of the safety, vaccine virus shedding, and immunogenicity of influenza virus vaccine, trivalent, types A and B, live cold-adapted, administered to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Treanor, J; Fast, P E; Wolff, M; Yan, L; Iacuzio, D; Readmond, B; O'Brien, D; Mallon, K; Highsmith, W E; Lambert, J S; Belshe, R B

    2000-02-01

    Fifty-seven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (CDC class A1-2) and 54 non-HIV-infected adults, not prescreened for influenza susceptibility, were randomized to receive trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo intranasally. LAIV was safe and well tolerated with no serious adverse events attributable to vaccine. Reactogenicity rates were similar in LAIV and placebo recipients except that runny nose/nasal congestion was significantly more common in LAIV recipients regardless of HIV status. No prolonged shedding of LAIV was observed in HIV-infected participants. HIV RNA levels were not increased and CD4 counts were not decreased in HIV-infected LAIV recipients compared with placebo recipients after immunization. Shedding of LAIV and increases in antibody titers were infrequent, consistent with prior experience in unscreened adults. The data suggest that inadvertent vaccination with LAIV in relatively asymptomatic HIV-infected adults would not be associated with frequent significant adverse events.

  10. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bruno M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Cruz, Juliano C. M.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America. PMID:22590677

  11. Circadian variations in plasma levels of hypophyseal, adrenocortical and testicular hormones in men infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Villette, J M; Bourin, P; Doinel, C; Mansour, I; Fiet, J; Boudou, P; Dreux, C; Roue, R; Debord, M; Levi, F

    1990-03-01

    Alterations in the circadian time structure of the secretion of several hormones were investigated in 13 male patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Seven were asymptomatic (classified CDC II, according to the criteria of the Atlanta Centers for Disease Control), and 6 had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (CDC IV). Ten healthy males volunteered as controls. Plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEA-S), cortisol, testosterone, ACTH, and beta-endorphin were determined by RIA in blood samples obtained every 4 h from 0830-0830 h the next morning. Data were analyzed both by two-way analysis of variance and the cosinor method. Circadian rhythms were statistically validated for each of the six hormones in each of the three groups of subjects. Compared with the control subjects, mesors (24-h adjusted means) were significantly higher for cortisol and lower for DHEA, DHEA-S, and ACTH (P less than 0.001 for all four hormones) in all HIV-infected patients. Plasma testosterone mesors were similar in controls and CDC II patients, but decreased significantly in the CDC IV patient group (P less than 0.05). Analysis of the circadian rhythms of plasma hormone levels clearly indicated an altered adrenal hormonal state in HIV-infected male patients, even during the asymptomatic period of the infection. For instance, plasma cortisol at 0430 h was more than twice as high in HIV-infected patients as it was in time-qualified controls. Although patients already had elevated plasma cortisol and lowered adrenal androgen levels at this stage, hypogonadism was not observed, as gauged by plasma testosterone concentrations. We speculate that the primary hormonal defect in HIV-infected patients is increased cortisol secretion resulting from circadian-varying stimulation of the adrenal cortex by a factor other than pituitary ACTH. This factor might be a stimulating substance secreted primarily by infected immune cells. Excess cortisol would lower

  12. A case of human immunodeficiency virus infection with cerebellar ataxia that suggested by an association with autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Shigeto; Kondo, Takayuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakagawa, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Sadayuki

    2016-04-28

    We report a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that showed subacute progressive cerebellar ataxia without HIV encephalopathy or other encephalopathies, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or encephalitis of other human herpes virus (HHV) infections. A 43-year-old man exhibited unsteady gait. Neurological examination disclosed ataxia of the trunk and lower extremities. Personality change and dementia were absent. Magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormal finding, including of the cerebellum. The serum HIV-1-RNA was 1.2 × 10(5) copies/ml, and the absolute CD4 lymphocyte count was 141 cells/ml. Remarkably, the serum anti-Yo antibody, as an anti-cerebellar antibody of paraneoplastic syndrome, and anti-gliadin antibody, associated with celiac disease or gluten ataxia, were positive. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoglobulin G index was 1.2 (< 0.8), and oligoclonal bands were present. PCR of the CSF was negative for HIV, JC virus, other HHVs, and mycosis. Previous reports presented HIV-infected patients with concurrent autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, vasculitis, polymyositis and dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, Graves' disease, and hepatic diseases. These might have been present in patients with a CD4 T lymphocyte count of more than 200 cells/ml. On the other hand, paraneoplastic syndrome, gluten ataxia, cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy might manifest as autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. As regards the association of HIV infection and autoimmune cerebellar ataxia, a previous report suggested that anti-gliadin antibody was detected in about 30% of HIV-infected children, though there is no reference to an association with cerebellar ataxia. Moreover, to our knowledge, detection of anti-Yo antibody in an HIV-infected patient with cerebellar ataxia has not been reported

  13. Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Holguín, Á; Yebra, G; Martín, L; de Pineda, A T; Ruiz, L E; Quezada, A Y; Nieto, A I; Escobar, G

    2013-12-01

    El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults attended in El Salvador were collected in 2011. The TDR was assessed according to the list recommended by the WHO. HIV-1 variants were described using phylogeny. Pol sequences could be amplified in 88 patients (50.6% men), with a mean age of 35 years. Almost all (96.7%) were infected with HIV through sexual practice and 58.7% were recently diagnosed. The mean CD4(+) count was 474 cells/mm(3) and 43.1% and 15.5% of patients showed moderate (<500 CD4 cells) or severe (<200) immune suppression, respectively. HIV-1 viral load was >100 000 copies/mL in 24.7% of patients and <2000 copies/mL in 9.1%. Five samples (5.7%) harboured any TDR mutation: 2.3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and 1.4% for protease inhibitor (PI). All showed only one TDR single-class resistance mutation: M184I (two cases) for NRTI, K101E and K103N for NNRTI and L23I for PI. All viruses excepting one (URF_BG) belonged to subtype B. No phylogenetic TDR networks were found. In conclusion, we report a TDR prevalence of 5.7% in El Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low-income and middle-income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador.

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr Functions as an Immediate-Early Protein during HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hrimech, Mohammed; Yao, Xiao-Jian; Bachand, François; Rougeau, Nicole; Cohen, Éric A.

    1999-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr is a virion-associated protein which facilitates HIV-1 infection of nondividing cells by contributing to the nuclear transport of the preintegration complex (PIC). Vpr was also shown to induce a cell cycle G2 arrest in infected proliferating cells that optimizes HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed gene expression and viral production. However, it is unclear whether this activity is mediated primarily early by virion-associated Vpr or alternatively late during infection when Vpr is de novo expressed. We report here that in the absence of de novo expression, virion-associated Vpr induces a transient G2 arrest that can subsequently lead to cell killing by apoptosis. Interestingly, the induction of both cell cycle G2 arrest and apoptosis by virion-associated Vpr requires viral entry but not viral replication, since reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitor treatments do not prevent these Vpr effects. These results raise the possibility that in vivo both infectious and noninfectious viruses contribute to the dysfunction and killing of CD4+ cells. In addition, our results reveal that virion-associated Vpr stimulates viral replication in proliferating cells after establishing a cell cycle G2 arrest by increasing LTR-directed gene expression. Importantly, this Vpr-mediated LTR activation appears to be a requirement for subsequent optimal Tat transactivation. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that in addition to participating in the HIV PIC nuclear transport in nondividing cells, virion-associated Vpr activates HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression by manipulating the host cell cycle. From this, we conclude that Vpr functions as an immediate-early protein during HIV-1 infection. PMID:10196306

  15. The Influence of Mining and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Patients Admitted for Retreatment of Tuberculosis in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mpagama, Stellah G; Lekule, Isaack A; Mbuya, Alexander W; Kisonga, Riziki M; Heysell, Scott K

    2015-08-01

    In tuberculosis (TB)-prevalent settings, patients admitted for retreatment of TB may account for a high burden of poor treatment outcome. We performed a retrospective cohort study to characterize retreatment patients and outcomes at a TB referral hospital in northern Tanzania. From 2009 to 2013, 185 patients began a retreatment regimen, the majority for relapse after prior treatment completion. Men accounted for an unexpected majority (88%), 36 (20%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and for 45 (24%) mining was their primary occupation. A poor outcome (death, default, or persistent smear positivity after 7 months of treatment) was found in 37 (23%). HIV infection was the only significant predictor of poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-5.83, P = 0.034). Interventions to minimize need for retreatment or improve retreatment success may be regionally specific. In our setting, community-based diagnosis and management among at-risk subpopulations such as miners and those HIV infected appear of highest yield.

  16. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults.

  17. Human APOBEC3 Induced Mutation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Contributes to Adaptation and Evolution in Natural Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Young; Lorenzo-Redondo, Ramon; Little, Susan J.; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Phalora, Prabhjeet K.; Maljkovic Berry, Irina; Archer, John; Penugonda, Sudhir; Fischer, Will; Richman, Douglas D.; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Malim, Michael H.; Wolinsky, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Human APOBEC3 proteins are cytidine deaminases that contribute broadly to innate immunity through the control of exogenous retrovirus replication and endogenous retroelement retrotransposition. As an intrinsic antiretroviral defense mechanism, APOBEC3 proteins induce extensive guanosine-to-adenosine (G-to-A) mutagenesis and inhibit synthesis of nascent human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) cDNA. Human APOBEC3 proteins have additionally been proposed to induce infrequent, potentially non-lethal G-to-A mutations that make subtle contributions to sequence diversification of the viral genome and adaptation though acquisition of beneficial mutations. Using single-cycle HIV-1 infections in culture and highly parallel DNA sequencing, we defined trinucleotide contexts of the edited sites for APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H. We then compared these APOBEC3 editing contexts with the patterns of G-to-A mutations in HIV-1 DNA in cells obtained sequentially from ten patients with primary HIV-1 infection. Viral substitutions were highest in the preferred trinucleotide contexts of the edited sites for the APOBEC3 deaminases. Consistent with the effects of immune selection, amino acid changes accumulated at the APOBEC3 editing contexts located within human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-appropriate epitopes that are known or predicted to enable peptide binding. Thus, APOBEC3 activity may induce mutations that influence the genetic diversity and adaptation of the HIV-1 population in natural infection. PMID:25080100

  18. Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: clinical characteristics in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mohle-Boetani, J C; Koehler, J E; Berger, T G; LeBoit, P E; Kemper, C A; Reingold, A L; Plikaytis, B D; Wenger, J D; Tappero, J W

    1996-05-01

    Clinical characteristics associated with bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis (BAP) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated in a case-control study; 42 case-patients and 84 controls were matched by clinical care institution. Case-patients presented with fever (temperature, > 37.8 degrees C; 93%), a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 21/mm3, cutaneous or subcutaneous vascular lesions (55%), lymphadenopathy (21%), and/or abdominal symptoms (24%). Many case-patients experienced long delays between medical evaluation and diagnosis of BAP (median, 4 weeks; range, 1 day to 24 months). Case-patients were more likely than controls to have fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, a low CD4 lymphocyte count, anemia, or an elevated serum level of alkaline phosphatase (AP) (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, a CD4 lymphocyte count of < 200/mm3 (matched odds ratio [OR], 9.9; P < .09), anemia reflected by a hematocrit value of < 0.36 (OR, 19.7; P < .04), and an elevated AP level of > or = 2.6 mukat/L (OR, 23.9; P < .05) remained associated with disease after therapy with zidovudine was controlled for. BAP should be considered an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection and should be included in the differential diagnosis for febrile, HIV-infected patients with cutaneous or osteolytic lesions, lymphadenopathy, abdominal symptoms, anemia, or an elevated serum level of AP.

  19. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Species and Their Clinical Manifestations in Patients with Renal Transplantation and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Asmita; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Agarwal, Vikas; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to determine (i) frequency of Cryptosporidium species among patients with renal transplantation (RT) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and (ii) relationship of the nature, severity, and duration of symptoms with different species and load of Cryptosporidium. Stool samples from 70 (42 RT and 28 HIV) and 140 immunocompromised patients with and without cryptosporidiosis by modified Kinyoun's staining were subjected to qPCR-melting curve analysis for identification of parasite species. qPCR detected one microscopically negative sample to be positive for cryptosporidiosis. C. hominis, C. parvum, and mixed infection were detected in 50/71 (70.4%), 19/71 (26.8%), and 2/71 (2.8%) patients, respectively. Patients with cryptosporidiosis had higher stool frequency (median, IQR: 4, 3–6/d versus 3, 2–4/d; P = 0.017) and watery stool (52/71 [73%] versus 64/139 [46%]; P = 0.003). Parasite load (median, IQR: Log10 6.37 (5.65–7.12), Log10 5.81 (4.26–6.65); P = 0.046) and nausea/vomiting (29/50 [58%] versus 5/19 [26%]; P = 0.032) were more frequent with C. hominis than with C. parvum infection. Thus, Cryptosporidium spp. (mainly C. hominis) is a common cause of diarrhoea in RT and HIV patients. PMID:26981284

  20. Correlates of Delayed Diagnosis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in a Rural HIV Clinic, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Boniface, Respicious; Moshabela, Mosa; Zulliger, Rose; Macpherson, Peter; Nyasulu, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Delay in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis is one of the major factors that affect outcome and threatens continued spread of tuberculosis. This study aimed at determining factors associated with delayed PTB diagnosis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. Methods. A retrospective observational study was done using clinic records of HIV-infected PTB suspects attending an HIV/AIDS clinic at Tintswalo rural hospital in South Africa (SA) between January 2006 and December 2007. Using routine clinic registers, 480 records were identified. Results. PTB diagnosis delay was found among 77/176 (43.8%) of the patients diagnosed with PTB. The mean delay of PTB diagnosis was 170.6 days; diagnosis delay ranged 1-30 days in 27 (35.1%) patients, 31-180 days in 24 (33.8%) patients; 24 (31.2%) patients remained undiagnosed for ≥180 days. Independent factors associated with delayed diagnosis were: older age >40 years (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.43, 95% CI 1.45-8.08) and virological failure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.09-6.74). Conclusion. There is a considerable delayed PTB diagnosis among HIV-infected patients in rural SA. Older patients as well as patients with high viral load are at a higher risk of PTB diagnosis delay. Therefore efforts to reduce PTB diagnosis delay need to emphasised.

  1. The Influence of Mining and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Patients Admitted for Retreatment of Tuberculosis in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mpagama, Stellah G.; Lekule, Isaack A.; Mbuya, Alexander W.; Kisonga, Riziki M.; Heysell, Scott K.

    2015-01-01

    In tuberculosis (TB)–prevalent settings, patients admitted for retreatment of TB may account for a high burden of poor treatment outcome. We performed a retrospective cohort study to characterize retreatment patients and outcomes at a TB referral hospital in northern Tanzania. From 2009 to 2013, 185 patients began a retreatment regimen, the majority for relapse after prior treatment completion. Men accounted for an unexpected majority (88%), 36 (20%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and for 45 (24%) mining was their primary occupation. A poor outcome (death, default, or persistent smear positivity after 7 months of treatment) was found in 37 (23%). HIV infection was the only significant predictor of poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07–5.83, P = 0.034). Interventions to minimize need for retreatment or improve retreatment success may be regionally specific. In our setting, community-based diagnosis and management among at-risk subpopulations such as miners and those HIV infected appear of highest yield. PMID:26013368

  2. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Species and Their Clinical Manifestations in Patients with Renal Transplantation and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Dey, Asmita; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Agarwal, Vikas; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to determine (i) frequency of Cryptosporidium species among patients with renal transplantation (RT) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and (ii) relationship of the nature, severity, and duration of symptoms with different species and load of Cryptosporidium. Stool samples from 70 (42 RT and 28 HIV) and 140 immunocompromised patients with and without cryptosporidiosis by modified Kinyoun's staining were subjected to qPCR-melting curve analysis for identification of parasite species. qPCR detected one microscopically negative sample to be positive for cryptosporidiosis. C. hominis, C. parvum, and mixed infection were detected in 50/71 (70.4%), 19/71 (26.8%), and 2/71 (2.8%) patients, respectively. Patients with cryptosporidiosis had higher stool frequency (median, IQR: 4, 3-6/d versus 3, 2-4/d; P = 0.017) and watery stool (52/71 [73%] versus 64/139 [46%]; P = 0.003). Parasite load (median, IQR: Log10 6.37 (5.65-7.12), Log10 5.81 (4.26-6.65); P = 0.046) and nausea/vomiting (29/50 [58%] versus 5/19 [26%]; P = 0.032) were more frequent with C. hominis than with C. parvum infection. Thus, Cryptosporidium spp. (mainly C. hominis) is a common cause of diarrhoea in RT and HIV patients. PMID:26981284

  3. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant rhesus macaques as a model to test antiretroviral drug prophylaxis and therapy: oral 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine prevents SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Van Rompay, K K; Marthas, M L; Ramos, R A; Mandell, C P; McGowan, E K; Joye, S M; Pedersen, N C

    1992-11-01

    The prophylactic and therapeutic properties of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection were tested in four 3-month-old rhesus macaques. The infant monkeys were inoculated intravenously with a low dose (1 to 10 100% animal infectious doses) of uncloned SIVmac. The monkeys were treated orally with 50 mg of AZT per kg of body weight every 8 h; two animals were started on treatment 2 h prior to virus inoculation, and two animals were started on treatment 6 weeks later. All four animals were treated for a period of 6 to 10 weeks. Outward signs of AZT toxicity were absent, but a mild macrocytic anemia occurred soon after therapy was started and resolved shortly after it was discontinued. The two infants that were begun on AZT treatment 2 h prior to virus inoculation never became infected, as demonstrated by the inability to detect cell-free or cell-associated virus in the blood, proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or anti-SIV antibodies. AZT administration over a 10-week period had no detectable effect on the course of disease in the two animals that were begun on treatment after the infection had been established. In addition to demonstrating the prophylactic effect of AZT against low-dose SIV exposure, the study demonstrated the ease with which infant rhesus macaques can be used for antiretroviral drug testing. PMID:1489181

  4. Co-infection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women with reproductive tract infections (RTI).

    PubMed

    Devi, Ksh Mamta; Devi, Kh Sulochana; Singh, Ng Brajachand; Singh, N Nabakishore; Singh, I Dorendra

    2008-09-01

    In India, HSV seroprevalence and its coinfection with HIV among female patients with reproductive tract infections (RTI) are sparse. We aim to ascertain the seroprevalence of HSV and its coinfection with HIV and common sexually transmitted infections attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology outpatient department, RIMS. The study included 92 female patients with RTI. Diagnostic serology was done for HSV-1 and HSV-2 using group specific IgM indirect immunoassay using ELISA, HIV by 3 ELISA/Rapid/Simple (E/R/S) test of different biological antigen. Diagnosis of RTI was made on clinical grounds with appropriate laboratory investigations--microscopy, Gram stain smear etc. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed using Nugent's criteria, Syphilis by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test and Chlamydia trachomatis by IgG ELISA. Out of 92 sera tested for HSV, 18 (19.6%) were IgM HSV positive and 9 (9.8%) were HIV positive. Co-infection rate of HSV in HIV positive was 16.7%. None of the patients had clinical herpes genitalis, all were subclinical cases. 55.5% of HSV positives belongs to age group 21 to 30 years. Of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM positives 3 (15%) had HIV, 4 (22.2%) bacterial vaginosis, 2 (11.1%) were RPR positive, 4 (22.2%) Chlamydia trachomatis, 3 (15%) were pregnant. 16 (88.8%) were unemployed, 14 (77.7%) had education level below 10 standard. Our study suggest that every case of RTI, be it an ulcerative or nonulcerative must be thoroughly evaluated by laboratory testing for primary subclinical genital HSV coinfection as this has profound implications on their judicious management and aversion of complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of HSV infection together with prophylaxis for recurrent HSV disease will prevent progression and spread of HIV disease.

  5. Use of polymerase chain reaction and quantitative antibody tests in children born to human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Newell, M L; Loveday, C; Dunn, D; Kaye, S; Tedder, R; Peckham, C; De Maria, A; Giaquinto, C; Omeñaca, F; Canosa, C

    1995-12-01

    The diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers is complicated by the presence of passively acquired maternal antibodies, and exclusion of infection in these infants remains problematic. The use of genome detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and the quantification of anti-HIV-1 antibodies were examined as methods for early diagnosis. Blood samples were taken from 84 non-breast-fed infants of HIV-infected mothers in five Italian and Spanish centres, a subgroup of children enrolled in the European Collaborative Study (ECS) for whom clinical and immunological information has been documented from birth. Whole blood was added to glycigel cryopreservative, stored, and tested in the United Kingdom by a nested PCR method. Antibody to HIV-1 was detected and quantified by titration using a gelatin particle agglutination test. PCR sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Twenty-one of the 84 children tested were infected. The estimated PCR sensitivity ranged from 0% (95% CI 0-26%) on day 1, 57% (19-85) on day 7, to 63% (33-92) on day 30. The negative predictive value of PCR ranged from 85% (83-88) on day 0 to 98% (94-100) at 3 months of age. On average, the level of maternal antibody halved every 33 days (31-36.5) in uninfected children. Between 6 and 9 months of age, increases in antibody titres in infected children were not more informative than absolute levels. These findings suggest that antibody measurement may supplement genomic diagnosis and that this collection method provides an alternative to the use of dried blood spots.

  6. Chemokine receptor expression in the human ectocervix: implications for infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-type I.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Asin, Susana; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; Gonzalez, Jorge L; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W; Howell, Alexandra L

    2004-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is a sexually transmitted pathogen that can infect cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT). The mechanism of viral transmission within the FRT and the mode of viral spread to the periphery are not well understood. To characterize the frequency of potential targets of HIV infection within the FRT, we performed a systematic study of the expression of HIV receptors (CD4, galactosyl ceramide (GalCer)) and coreceptors (CXCR4 and CCR5) on epithelial cells and leucocytes from the ectocervix. The ectocervix is a likely first site of contact with HIV-1 following heterosexual transmission, and expression of these receptors is likely to correlate with susceptibility to viral infection. We obtained ectocervical tissue specimens from women undergoing hysterectomy, and compared expression of these receptors among patients who were classified as being in the proliferative or secretory phases of their menstrual cycle at the time of hysterectomy, as well as from postmenopausal tissues. Epithelial cells from tissues at early and mid-proliferative stages of the menstrual cycle express CD4, although by late proliferative and secretory phases, CD4 expression was absent or weak. In contrast, GalCer expression was uniform in all stages of the menstrual cycle. CXCR4 expression was not detected on ectocervical epithelial cells and positive staining was only evident on individual leucocytes. In contrast, CCR5 expression was detected on ectocervical epithelial cells from tissues at all stages of the menstrual cycle. Overall, our results suggest that HIV infection of cells in the ectocervix could most likely occur through GalCer and CCR5. These findings are important to define potential targets of HIV-1 infection within the FRT, and for the future design of approaches to reduce the susceptibility of women to infection by HIV-1.

  7. Chemokine receptor expression in the human ectocervix: implications for infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-type I.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Asin, Susana; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; Gonzalez, Jorge L; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W; Howell, Alexandra L

    2004-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is a sexually transmitted pathogen that can infect cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT). The mechanism of viral transmission within the FRT and the mode of viral spread to the periphery are not well understood. To characterize the frequency of potential targets of HIV infection within the FRT, we performed a systematic study of the expression of HIV receptors (CD4, galactosyl ceramide (GalCer)) and coreceptors (CXCR4 and CCR5) on epithelial cells and leucocytes from the ectocervix. The ectocervix is a likely first site of contact with HIV-1 following heterosexual transmission, and expression of these receptors is likely to correlate with susceptibility to viral infection. We obtained ectocervical tissue specimens from women undergoing hysterectomy, and compared expression of these receptors among patients who were classified as being in the proliferative or secretory phases of their menstrual cycle at the time of hysterectomy, as well as from postmenopausal tissues. Epithelial cells from tissues at early and mid-proliferative stages of the menstrual cycle express CD4, although by late proliferative and secretory phases, CD4 expression was absent or weak. In contrast, GalCer expression was uniform in all stages of the menstrual cycle. CXCR4 expression was not detected on ectocervical epithelial cells and positive staining was only evident on individual leucocytes. In contrast, CCR5 expression was detected on ectocervical epithelial cells from tissues at all stages of the menstrual cycle. Overall, our results suggest that HIV infection of cells in the ectocervix could most likely occur through GalCer and CCR5. These findings are important to define potential targets of HIV-1 infection within the FRT, and for the future design of approaches to reduce the susceptibility of women to infection by HIV-1. PMID:15554931

  8. Transcription factor binding sites downstream of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription start site are important for virus infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lint, C; Amella, C A; Emiliani, S; John, M; Jie, T; Verdin, E

    1997-01-01

    When transcriptionally active, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter contains a nucleosome-free region encompassing both the promoter/enhancer region and a large region (255 nucleotides [nt]) downstream of the transcription start site. We have previously identified new binding sites for transcription factors downstream of the transcription start site (nt 465 to 720): three AP-1 sites (I, II, and III), an AP3-like motif (AP3-L), a downstream binding factor (DBF) site, and juxtaposed Sp1 sites. Here, we show that the DBF site is an interferon-responsive factor (IRF) binding site and that the AP3-L motif binds the T-cell-specific factor NF-AT. Mutations that abolish the binding of each factor to its cognate site are introduced in an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone to study their effect on HIV-1 transcription and replication. Individual mutation of the DBF or AP3-L site as well as the double mutation AP-1(III)/AP3-L did not affect HIV-1 replication compared to that of the wild-type virus. In contrast, proviruses carrying mutations in the Sp1 sites were totally defective in terms of replication. Virus production occurred with slightly delayed kinetics for viruses containing combined mutations in the AP-1(III), AP3-L, and DBF sites and in the AP3-L and DBF-sites, whereas viruses mutated in the AP-1(I,II,III) and AP3-L sites and in the AP-1(I,II,III), AP3-L, and DBF sites exhibited a severely defective replicative phenotype. No RNA-packaging defect could be measured for any of the mutant viruses as determined by quantification of their HIV genomic RNA. Measurement of the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 promoter after transient transfection of the HIV-1 provirus DNA or of long terminal repeat-luciferase constructs showed a positive correlation between the transcriptional and the replication defects for most mutants. PMID:9223506

  9. Disseminated human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in SCID- hu mice after peripheral inoculation with HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A small animal model that could be infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) after peripheral inoculation would greatly facilitate the study of the pathophysiology of acute HIV-1 infection. The utility of SCID mice implanted with human fetal thymus and liver (SCID-hu mice) for studying peripheral HIV-1 infection in vivo has been hampered by the requirement for direct intraimplant injection of HIV-1 and the continued restriction of the resultant HIV-1 infection to the human thymus and liver (hu-thy/liv) implant. This may have been due to the very low numbers of human T cells present in the SCID-hu mouse peripheral lymphoid compartment. Since the degree of the peripheral reconstitution of SCID-hu mice with human T cells may be a function of the hu-thy/liv implant size, we increased the quantity of hu-thy/liv tissue implanted under the renal capsule and implanted hu-thy/liv tissue under the capsules of both kidneys. This resulted in SCID-hu mice in which significant numbers of human T cells were detected in the peripheral blood, spleens, and lymph nodes. After intraimplant injection of HIV-1 into these modified SCID-hu mice, significant HIV-1 infection was detected by quantitative coculture not only in the hu- thy/liv implant, but also in the spleen and peripheral blood. This indicated that HIV-1 infection can spread from the thymus to the peripheral lymphoid compartment. More importantly, a similar degree of infection of the hu-thy/liv implant and peripheral lymphoid compartment occurred after peripheral intraperitoneal inoculation with HIV-1. Active viral replication was indicated by the detection of HIV-1 gag DNA, HIV-1 gag RNA, and spliced tat/rev RNA in the hu-thy/liv implants, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spleens, and lymph nodes of these HIV-1-infected SCID-hu mice. As a first step in using our modified SCID-hu mouse model to investigate the pathophysiological consequences of HIV-1 infection, the effect of HIV-1 infection on the

  10. Elevated homocysteine levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deminice, Rafael; Silva, Talita Capoani Vieira; de Oliveira, Vitor Hugo Fernando

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between the levels of homocysteine (Hcy), folate, vitamin B12 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who were treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) or not treated with ART. METHODS: The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched. Eligible studies regarding plasma Hcy level in HIV-infected patients were firstly identified. After careful analysis by two independent researches, the identified articles were included in the review according to two outcomes (1) Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 blood concentration in HIV-infected subjects vs health controls and; (2) Hcy blood concentration in HIV-infected subjects under ART vs not treated with ART. RevMan (version 5.2) was employed for data synthesis. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were included in outcome 1 (1649 participants, 932 cases and 717 controls). Outcome 1 meta-analysis demonstrated higher plasma Hcy (2.05 µmol/L; 95%CI: 0.10 to 4.00, P < 0.01) and decreased plasma folate concentrations (-2.74 ng/mL; 95%CI: -5.18 to -0.29, P < 0.01) in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. No changes in vitamin B12 plasma concentration were observed between groups. All studies included in the outcome 2 meta-analysis (1167 participants; 404 HIV-infected exposed to ART and 757 HIV-infected non-ART patients) demonstrated higher mean Hcy concentration in subjects HIV-infected under ART compared to non-ART HIV subjects (4.13 µmol/L; 95%CI: 1.34 to 6.92, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that the levels of Hcy and folate, but not vitamin B12, were associated with HIV infection. In addition, Hcy levels were higher in HIV-infected patients who were under ART compared to HIV-infected patients who were not exposed to ART. Our results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia should be included among the several important metabolic disturbances that are associated with ART in patients with HIV infection. PMID:25964880

  11. Lymphadenopathy and non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (FL112).

    PubMed

    Munro, R; Lysons, R; Venables, C; Horigan, M; Jeffrey, M; Dawson, M

    1998-08-01

    In an experiment on bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV), the virological and serological aspects of which were reported in an earlier paper, three groups (A, B and C) of three calves were inoculated subcutaneously with a recently isolated strain (FL112). For group B and group C, the virus was suspended in milk, and for group C (controls) the viral suspension was subjected to pasteurization before inoculation. The calves were killed for necropsy 12 months later. Clinical assessment revealed subtle ataxia in two group A calves, which took the form of an intermittent "shifting" (from one leg to another) lameness, and palpable enlargement of the pre-scapular lymph nodes in one group B animal. At necropsy, haemal lymph nodes (0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter), occurring singly, were observed in all animals. However, in groups A and B (but not C), enlarged haemal lymph nodes (< or = 2 cm in diameter) were also seen, occurring singly and in chains; and in one group A animal they occurred in grape-like clusters. In groups A and B (but not C), histopathological examination revealed generalized hyperplastic changes in lymph nodes, especially the haemal lymph nodes. This finding was particularly striking in the two clinically ataxic animals from group A, which also showed a non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis; the latter was possibly the cause of the subtle clinical signs. This study supports previous findings on lymphadenopathy resulting from experimental infection with BIV. PMID:9749357

  12. Temporal aspects of DNA and RNA synthesis during human immunodeficiency virus infection: Evidence for differential gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sunyoung; Baltimore, D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ); Byrn, R.; Groopman, J. )

    1989-09-01

    The kinetics of retroviral DNA and RNA synthesis are parameters vital to understanding viral growth, especially for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which encodes several of its own regulatory genes. The authors have established a single-cycle growth condition for HIV in H9 cells, a human CD4{sup +} lymphocyte line. The full-length viral linear DNA is first detectable by 4 h postinfection. During a one-step growth of HIV, amounts of viral DNA gradually increase until 8 to 12 h postinfection and then decrease. The copy number of unintegrated viral DNA is not extraordinarily high even at its peak. Most strikingly, there is a temporal program of RNA accumulation: the earliest RNA is greatly enriched in the 2-kilobase subgenomic mRNA species, while the level of 9.2-kilobase RNA which is both genomic RNA and mRNA remains low until after 24 h of infection. Virus production begins at about 24 h postinfection. Thus, viral DNA synthesis is as rapid as for other retroviruses, but viral RNA synthesis involves temporal alteration in the species that accumulate, presumably as a consequence of viral regulatory genes.

  13. [Epidemiology of hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus infections among injecting drug users in Hungary--what's next?].

    PubMed

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Rácz, József

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is currently about 35% among injecting drug users in Budapest, Hungary, and it is under 20% outside of the capital, and no verified case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been detected so far. Mathematical models describe that the co-occurrence of HIV and HCV among injecting drug users is such under an HCV prevalence of about 35% the probability of an HIV epidemic is low, but above this threshold an, HIV epidemic is to be expected. According to these models, there is a looming probability of an HIV epidemic among injecting drug users in Hungary, especially in Budapest. There are four ways to prevent or delay such an epidemic: 1. substitution treatment programs; 2. legal access to injecting equipment; 3. free and confidential HIV and HCV counseling and rapid testing; and 4. hygienic injecting environment. In order to avoid a predicted HIV epidemic, epidemiological pattern of HCV among injecting drug users in Hungary requires both a comprehensive prevention response and the systematic monitoring of the epidemiological situation. The success of the prevention programs depends on two factors: 1. wide access; and 2. regular financial support from the government. PMID:20178967

  14. High Prevalence of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Monoinfection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hepatitis-B Co-infection as Assessed by Shear Wave Elastography: Study at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gitau, Samuel Nguku; Vinayak, Sudhir; Silaba, Micah; Adam, Rodney; Shah, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection versus those with HIV hepatitis-B virus (HBV) co-infection as assessed with shear wave elastography (SWE) in a tertiary sub-Saharan Africa hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 consecutive patients, 70 with HIV monoinfection and 35 with HIV-HBV co-infection, had liver elastography obtained using SWE to assess for the presence of liver fibrosis the cutoff of which was 5.6 kPa. Assessment of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) score (a noninvasive serum biomarker of liver fibrosis) in these patients was also done. Results: The prevalence of liver fibrosis was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection, 25.7%, compared to those with HIV monoinfection, 7.1%. APRI score was greater in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection than those with HIV monoinfection. HIV co-infection with HBV accelerates progression to liver fibrosis. Association of a low cluster of differentiation 4 (CD-4) count with advanced fibrosis supports earlier starting of antiretroviral therapy to prevent rapid progression of liver disease in HIV-positive patients. Conclusion: In view of the high prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection, regular monitoring of the disease progression is recommended. PMID:27403400

  15. Integration is required for productive infection of monocyte-derived macrophages by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Englund, G; Theodore, T S; Freed, E O; Engelman, A; Martin, M A

    1995-01-01

    Certain human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates are able to productively infect nondividing cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. We have used a molecular genetic approach to construct two different HIV-1 integrase mutants that were studied in the context of an infectious, macrophage-tropic HIV-1 molecular clone. One mutant, HIV-1 delta D(35)E, containing a 37-residue deletion within the central, catalytic domain of integrase, was noninfectious in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. The HIV-1 delta D(35)E mutant, however, exhibited defects in the assembly and/or release of progeny virions in transient transfection assays, as well as defects in entry and/or viral DNA synthesis during the early stages of monocyte-derived macrophage infection. The second mutant, HIV-1D116N/8, containing a single Asp-to-Asn substitution at the invariant Asp-116 residue of integrase, was also noninfectious in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages but, in contrast to HIV-1 delta D(35)E, was indistinguishable from wild-type virus in reverse transcriptase production. PCR analysis indicated that HIV-1D116N/8 entered monocyte-derived macrophages efficiently and reverse transcribed its RNA but was unable to complete its replication cycle because of a presumed block to integration. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that integration is an obligate step in productive HIV-1 infection of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary human macrophage cultures. PMID:7707554

  16. Reversion of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase mutant at a second site restores enzyme function and virus infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, B; Carlini, F; Verani, P; Engelman, A

    1996-01-01

    The integration of a DNA copy of the retroviral RNA genome into the host cell genome is essential for viral replication. The virion-associated integrase protein, encoded by the 3' end of the viral pol gene, is required for integration. Stable virus-producing T-cell lines were established for replication-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 carrying single amino acid substitutions at conserved residues in the catalytic domain of integrase. Phenotypically reverted virus was detected 12 weeks after transfection with the integrase mutant carrying the P-109-->S mutation (P109S). Unlike the defective P109S virus, the revertant virus (designated P109SR) grew in CD4+ SupT1 cells. In addition to the Ser substitution at Pro-109, P109SR had a second substitution of Ala for Thr at position 125 in integrase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to show that the P109S T125A genotype was responsible for the P109SR replication phenotype. The T125A substitution also rescued the in vitro enzyme activities of recombinant P109S integrase protein. P109S integrase did not display detectable 3' processing or DNA strand transfer activity, although 5 to 10% of wild-type disintegration activity was detected. P109S T125A integrase displayed nearly wild-type levels of 3' processing, DNA strand transfer, and disintegration activities, confirming that T125A is a second-site intragenic suppressor of P109S. P109S integrase ran as a large aggregate on a size exclusion column, whereas wild-type integrase ran as a monomer and P109S T125A integrase ran as a mixed population. Pro-109 and Thr-125 are not immediately adjacent in the crystal structure of the integrase catalytic domain. We suggest that the T125A substitution restores integrase function by stabilizing a structural alteration(s) induced by the P109S mutation. PMID:8970947

  17. Truncation of the cytoplasmic domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein increases env incorporation into particles and fusogenicity and infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Zingler, K; Littman, D R

    1993-01-01

    Growth of macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) in certain cloned human T-cell lines, such as HUT.78, selects for isolates containing a premature stop codon within the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein. In contrast, propagation of virus in macaques or in their cultured T cells favors replication of virus containing the full-length envelope glycoprotein. To elucidate the causes of this phenomenon, we used a human immunodeficiency virus pseudotyping system to assess the effects on infectivity of the cytoplasmic domains of envelope glycoproteins obtained from SIVmac1A11 and SIVmac239. These envelopes contain truncated and full-length cytoplasmic domains, respectively. By analyzing human immunodeficiency virus particles containing selectable genes pseudotyped with each glycoprotein or with chimeric derivatives, we found that truncation of the cytoplasmic domain resulted in a significant advantage in viral entry into HUT.78 T cells and CD4+ U87.MG glial cells. Truncation of the cytoplasmic domain significantly enhanced both envelope density on particles and envelope-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. It is likely that one or both of these effects contribute to the observed differences in infectivity and to the selection of virions with short cytoplasmic tails in human T cells. Images PMID:8474176

  18. Acute mucosal pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus is independent of viral dose in vaginally infected cats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mucosal pathogenesis of HIV has been shown to be an important feature of infection and disease progression. HIV-1 infection causes depletion of intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells (LPL), therefore, intestinal CD4+ T cell preservation may be a useful correlate of protection in evaluating vaccine candidates. Vaccine studies employing the cat/FIV and macaque/SIV models frequently use high doses of parenterally administered challenge virus to ensure high plasma viremia in control animals. However, it is unclear if loss of mucosal T cells would occur regardless of initial viral inoculum dose. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of viral dose on mucosal leukocytes and associated innate and adaptive immune responses. Results Cats were vaginally inoculated with a high, middle or low dose of cell-associated and cell-free FIV. PBMC, serum and plasma were assessed every two weeks with tissues assessed eight weeks following infection. We found that irrespective of mucosally administered viral dose, FIV infection was induced in all cats. However, viremia was present in only half of the cats, and viral dose was unrelated to the development of viremia. Importantly, regardless of viral dose, all cats experienced significant losses of intestinal CD4+ LPL and CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). Innate immune responses by CD56+CD3- NK cells correlated with aviremia and apparent occult infection but did not protect mucosal T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in viremic cats were more likely to produce cytokines in response to Gag stimulation, whereas aviremic cats T cells tended to produce cytokines in response to Env stimulation. However, while cell-mediated immune responses in aviremic cats may have helped reduce viral replication, they could not be correlated to the levels of viremia. Robust production of anti-FIV antibodies was positively correlated with the magnitude of viremia. Conclusions Our results indicate that mucosal immune

  19. Infection of Lymphoid Cells by Integration-Defective Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Increases De Novo Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing-Yuan; Mikovits, Judy A.; Bagni, Rachel; Petrow-Sadowski, Cari L.; Ruscetti, Francis W.

    2001-01-01

    DNA methylation, by regulating the transcription of genes, is a major modifier of the eukaryotic genome. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are responsible for both maintenance and de novo methylation. We have reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection increases DNMT1 expression and de novo methylation of genes such as the gamma interferon gene in CD4+ cells. Here, we examined the mechanism(s) by which HIV-1 infection increases the cellular capacity to methylate genes. While the RNAs and proteins of all three DNMTs (1, 3a, and 3b) were detected in Hut 78 lymphoid cells, only the expression of DNMT1 was significantly increased 3 to 5 days postinfection. This increase was observed with either wild-type HIV-1 or an integrase (IN) mutant, which renders HIV replication defective, due to the inability of the provirus to integrate into the host genome. Unintegrated viral DNA is a common feature of many retroviral infections and is thought to play a role in pathogenesis. These results indicate another mechanism by which unintegrated viral DNA affects the host. In addition to the increase in overall genomic methylation, hypermethylation and reduced expression of the p16INK4A gene, one of the most commonly altered genes in human cancer, were seen in cells infected with both wild-type and IN-defective HIV-1. Thus, infection of lymphoid cells with integration-defective HIV-1 can increase the methylation of CpG islands in the promoters of genes such as the p16INK4A gene, silencing their expression. PMID:11559808

  20. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.

  1. A New Multidisciplinary Home Care Telemedicine System to Monitor Stable Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    León, Agathe; Cáceres, César; Fernández, Emma; Chausa, Paloma; Martin, Maite; Codina, Carles; Rousaud, Araceli; Blanch, Jordi; Mallolas, Josep; Martinez, Esteban; Blanco, Jose L.; Laguno, Montserrat; Larrousse, Maria; Milinkovic, Ana; Zamora, Laura; Canal, Neus; Miró, Josep M.; Gatell, Josep M.; Gómez, Enrique J.; García, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy has changed the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in developed countries, where it has become a chronic disease. This clinical scenario requires a new approach to simplify follow-up appointments and facilitate access to healthcare professionals. Methodology We developed a new internet-based home care model covering the entire management of chronic HIV-infected patients. This was called Virtual Hospital. We report the results of a prospective randomised study performed over two years, comparing standard care received by HIV-infected patients with Virtual Hospital care. HIV-infected patients with access to a computer and broadband were randomised to be monitored either through Virtual Hospital (Arm I) or through standard care at the day hospital (Arm II). After one year of follow up, patients switched their care to the other arm. Virtual Hospital offered four main services: Virtual Consultations, Telepharmacy, Virtual Library and Virtual Community. A technical and clinical evaluation of Virtual Hospital was carried out. Findings Of the 83 randomised patients, 42 were monitored during the first year through Virtual Hospital (Arm I) and 41 through standard care (Arm II). Baseline characteristics of patients were similar in the two arms. The level of technical satisfaction with the virtual system was high: 85% of patients considered that Virtual Hospital improved their access to clinical data and they felt comfortable with the videoconference system. Neither clinical parameters [level of CD4+ T lymphocytes, proportion of patients with an undetectable level of viral load (p = 0.21) and compliance levels >90% (p = 0.58)] nor the evaluation of quality of life or psychological questionnaires changed significantly between the two types of care. Conclusions Virtual Hospital is a feasible and safe tool for the multidisciplinary home care of chronic HIV patients. Telemedicine should be considered as an

  2. [Executive summary of the recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Gorriz, José L; Gutiérrez, Félix; Trullàs, Joan C; Arazo, Piedad; Arribas, Jose R; Barril, Guillermina; Cervero, Miguel; Cofán, Frederic; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Fulladosa, Xavier; Galindo, María J; Gràcia, Sílvia; Iribarren, José A; Knobel, Hernando; López-Aldeguer, José; Lozano, Fernando; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Martínez, Esteban; Mazuecos, Maria A; Miralles, Celia; Montañés, Rosario; Negredo, Eugenia; Palacios, Rosario; Pérez-Elías, María J; Portilla, Joaquín; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Rivero, Antonio; Santamaría, Juan M; Sanz, José; Sanz, Jesús; Miró, José M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glycosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir, or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document provides indications for renal biopsy and advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist. The indications for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed.

  3. Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Students of Tertiary and Secondary Institutions in An Endemic State

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Abdulazeez

    2012-01-01

    Background: Students are pivotal to manpower development and technological advancement of any nation. Nigerian nation was recently ranked third human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) most endemic nation in the world Aim: The study was designed to determine the frequency of HIV infection among Nigerian tertiary and secondary institution students. Materials and Methods: A HIV screening test was conducted on 1,978 apparently healthy students composed of 981 males and 997 females aged 11–35 years, randomly selected from some Nigerian tertiary and secondary institutions Results: Overall, the sero-prevalence rate of 13.7% was recorded consisting 9.9% in the tertiary and 3.8% in secondary institutions. The distribution of the infection showed no significant difference by age (χ2=1.07, P>0.05) and by gender (χ2=0.85, P>0.05). Also, the prevalence had no significant association with the settlement of students (χ2=0.96, P>0.05) and the status of educational institutions (χ2=1.42, P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings indicate a high HIV prevalence rate among students in this part of the globe. General behavioral changes about sex among the students are suggested. PMID:22536559

  4. START or SMART? Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Cardiovascular Risk for People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siedner, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection (START) study has reinforced the benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a notable secondary finding from that study was that immediate initiation of ART did not prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (0.17 vs 0.20 events/1000 person-years, P = .65). This result appears to contradict a body of evidence, most notably from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study, which reported a 70% increased hazard of cardiovascular events for those deferring or interrupting treatment. Thus, an important unresolved question is whether the timing of ART impacts CVD risk. In this review, published data on relationships between timing of ART and CVD risk are reviewed. The data support a role for ART in mitigating CVD risk at lower CD4 counts, but data also suggests that, among those initiating therapy early, ART alone appears to suboptimally mitigate CVD risk. Additional interventions to address CVD risk among human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations are likely to be needed. PMID:26989755

  5. START or SMART? Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Cardiovascular Risk for People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Siedner, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection (START) study has reinforced the benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a notable secondary finding from that study was that immediate initiation of ART did not prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (0.17 vs 0.20 events/1000 person-years, P = .65). This result appears to contradict a body of evidence, most notably from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study, which reported a 70% increased hazard of cardiovascular events for those deferring or interrupting treatment. Thus, an important unresolved question is whether the timing of ART impacts CVD risk. In this review, published data on relationships between timing of ART and CVD risk are reviewed. The data support a role for ART in mitigating CVD risk at lower CD4 counts, but data also suggests that, among those initiating therapy early, ART alone appears to suboptimally mitigate CVD risk. Additional interventions to address CVD risk among human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations are likely to be needed. PMID:26989755

  6. Occult hepatitis B virus co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A review of prevalence, diagnosis and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Cevallos, Ana Maria; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Enriquez-Navarro, Karina; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Lira, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is high as they share similar mechanisms of transmission. The development and widespread use of highly sensitive tests for HBV diagnosis has demonstrated that a significant proportion of apparently healthy individuals with evidence of exposure to HBV continue to carry fully functional HBV DNA in their hepatocytes, a situation that predisposes them to the development of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of co-infections frequently influences the natural evolution of each of the participating infections present by either facilitating their virulence or competing for resources. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat these infections may also contribute to changes in the natural course of these infections, making the analysis of the impact of co-infection more difficult. The majority of studies has examined the impact of HIV on overt chronic hepatitis B, finding that co-infection carries an increased risk of progressive liver disease and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the effect of HIV on the natural history of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) has not been fully assessed, all available data suggest a persisting risk of repeated flares of hepatitis and progressive liver disease. We describe studies regarding the diagnosis, prevalence and clinical significance of OBI in HIV-positive patients in this short review. Discrepancies in worldwide prevalence show the urgent need for the standardization of diagnostic criteria, as established by the Taormina statements. Ideally, standardized protocols for testing should be employed to enable the comparison of data from different groups. Additional studies are needed to define the differences in risk for OBI without HIV and in HIV-HBV co-infected patients with or without overt disease. PMID:25729480

  7. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 in hiv infected patients in Maputo City, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200) were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA). Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49). The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country. PMID:21849066

  8. Mutation in the primer binding site of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus genome affects virus production and infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Nagashunmugam, T; Velpandi, A; Goldsmith, C S; Zaki, S R; Kalyanaraman, V S; Srinivasan, A

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand the contribution of the primer-binding site (PBS) region to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, we have constructed a mutant HIV proviral DNA with an alteration in the 5' end of the PBS. The PBS mutant proviral DNA was characterized by transfection of the viral DNA into CD4+ and non-CD4+ target cells. The results indicate that mutation in the PBS reduced the level of viral particles released into the medium of transfected cells in comparison to wild-type proviral DNA. The viral particles were noninfectious upon transmission to established CD4+ cell lines and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Electron microscopic analysis of the transfected cells revealed no abnormalities in the structure of the virion directed by the mutant proviral DNA. Also, the protein and RNA contents of the mutant virions were similar to the wild type. The quantitation of intracellular viral structural protein in the transfected cells, however, indicated that the PBS mutation may have an effect on the assembly of viral particles in addition to completely abolishing reverse transcription of viral RNA into DNA. These results provide evidence that the PBS region of the viral genome has multiple functions in HIV-1 replication. Images PMID:1373895

  9. Antifibrotic Therapy in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Preserves CD4+ T-Cell Populations and Improves Immune Reconstitution With Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Jacob D.; Reilly, Cavan; Trubey, Charles M.; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Cory, Theodore J.; Piatak, Michael; Russ, Samuel; Anderson, Jodi; Reimann, Thomas G.; Star, Robert; Smith, Anthony; Tracy, Russell P.; Berglund, Anna; Schmidt, Thomas; Coalter, Vicky; Chertova, Elena; Smedley, Jeremy; Haase, Ashley T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Schacker, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Even with prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART), many human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have <500 CD4+ T cells/µL, and CD4+ T cells in lymphoid tissues remain severely depleted, due in part to fibrosis of the paracortical T-cell zone (TZ) that impairs homeostatic mechanisms required for T-cell survival. We therefore used antifibrotic therapy in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques to determine whether decreased TZ fibrosis would improve reconstitution of peripheral and lymphoid CD4+ T cells. Treatment with the antifibrotic drug pirfenidone preserved TZ architecture and was associated with significantly larger populations of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Combining pirfenidone with an ART regimen was associated with greater preservation of CD4+ T cells than ART alone and was also associated with higher pirfenidone concentrations. These data support a potential role for antifibrotic drug treatment as adjunctive therapy with ART to improve immune reconstitution. PMID:25246534

  10. Patterns of Healthcare Utilization Among Veterans Infected With Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Coinfected With HIV/HCV: Unique Burdens of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Katrak, Shereen; Park, Lawrence P.; Woods, Christopher; Muir, Andrew; Hicks, Charles; Naggie, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and the primary cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of comorbidities. However, healthcare utilization (HCU) patterns among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are poorly understood. This study compared the rates of HCU and reasons for hospital admission among HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans. Methods. Hepatitis C virus- and HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans in care with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) from 1998 to 2009 (n = 335 371, n = 28 179, n = 13 471, respectively) were identified by HIV- and HCV-associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from the clinical case registry. We assessed rates of HCU using emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalization and primary diagnoses associated with hospitalization. Independent risk factors associated with hospitalization were also examined. Results. Rates of outpatient and ED visits increased over the 11-year study period for all groups, with inpatient admission rates remaining stable. The HCU rates were consistently higher for the coinfected than other cohorts. The primary reason for hospital admission for all groups was psychiatric disease/substance use, accounting for 44% of all admissions. Nadir CD4 <350 cells/mm3 was associated with higher rates of hospitalization versus nadir CD4 >500 cells/mm3. Conclusions. As the current population of HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans age, they will continue to place a substantial and increasing demand on the US healthcare system, particularly in their utilization of ED and outpatient services. These data suggest the need for an ongoing investment in mental health and primary care within the VA healthcare system. PMID:27704025

  11. Cellular CD44S as a determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and cellular tropism.

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, C S; Yu, Y; Rivadeneira, E D; Sauls, D L; Liao, H X; Haynes, B F; Weinberg, J B

    1995-01-01

    CD4 is the predominant cell membrane protein that binds human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 and facilitates HIV-1 infection, but other membrane-associated molecules may be involved in determining HIV-1 cellular infection. Our prior work had suggested that CD44, the transmembrane receptor for hyaluronan, might play a role in the infection of mononuclear phagocytes with HIV-1. In the present work, we have used cells of the CD4-positive, CD44-negative human T-lymphoblast cell line Jurkat to study the role of CD44 in HIV-1 infection and tropism. Cells were transfected with cDNA for the standard (S, or hematopoietic) CD44 isoform CD44S or the epithelial isoform CD44E. The resultant lines expressed appropriate CD44S or CD44E mRNA and protein. While the parent Jurkat cells, those transfected with vector alone, and those transfected with CD44E could be productively infected with only the lymphocytotropic strain HIV-1-LAI, cells transfected with CD44S were rendered susceptible to productive infection with the monocytotropic strains HIV-1-BaL and HIV-1-ADA. Also, CD44S-transfected cells displayed higher levels of infection with HIV-1-LAI than did the other transfected Jurkat cells. The transfected cell line cells all had comparable growth rates and expressed similar levels of the membrane antigens CD4, CD7, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, MHC class II, and CD11a, while levels of CD3 were slightly higher in cells transfected with vector alone and in one of the clones transfected with CD44S. Hyaluronan binding was increased in cells transfected with either CD44S or CD44E. Mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts transfected with human CD4, human CD44S, or both human CD4 and CD44S displayed the appropriate antigens, but they could not be productively infected with lymphocytotropic or monocytotropic strains of HIV-1. The results indicate that in human leukocytes, CD44S is an important determinant of HIV-1 productive infection and may be involved in viral cellular

  12. Mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 localization in CD4-negative thymocytes: differentiation from a CD4-positive precursor allows productive infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, S G; Uittenbogaart, C H; Zack, J A

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the thymus could have profound effects on development of the immune response, particularly in children. We and others have established that in addition to infecting and depleting CD4-bearing thymocytes, functional HIV proviruses are found in thymocytes lacking surface CD4 expression. Using in vitro thymocyte cultures, we show that neither HIV-mediated down regulation of CD4 nor CD4-independent infection contributes to the localization of HIV in cells lacking the primary virus receptor. Rather, infection of a CD4-positive precursor cell (CD4 positive/CD8 positive) with subsequent differentiation into a mature CD4-negative phenotype results in productively infected CD4-negative cells. This novel mechanism may contribute to pathogenesis by distributing viral sequences into functional subsets of T cells typically refractory to HIV infection and could account for the presence of viral DNA in CD8-positive lymphocytes recently observed in patients. PMID:9223457

  13. Reduced viral load and lack of CD4 depletion in SCID-hu mice infected with Rev-independent clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, A; Aldrovandi, G; Zolotukhin, A S; Cole, S W; Zack, J A; Pavlakis, G N; Felber, B K

    1997-01-01

    The posttranscriptional control element CTE of the simian type D retrovirus has been shown to support replication of Rev-Rev-responsive-element (RRE)-deficient molecular clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Upon infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, these CTE-containing Rev-independent viruses that are nef+ or nef-minus showed lower replicative capacity and infectivity than the wild-type HIV-1. We studied the effects of Rev-RRE replacement by the CTE on HIV-1 expression with SCID-hu mice. The nef+ and nef-minus Rev-independent viruses established infection with kinetics slower than that of the nef-minus NL4-3. Most importantly, no depletion of CD4-bearing thymocytes was observed after 6 weeks for mice infected with these Rev-independent viruses. This is in contrast to the infection with both wild-type and nef-minus viruses, which led to varying depletion of thymocytes. These data suggest an attenuated phenotype for growth and cytotoxicity of the Rev-independent HIV-1 clones in SCID-hu mice, independent of the presence of Nef. The mutant viruses, which have the essential Rev-RRE regulatory system eliminated, display a distinct phenotype not previously observed with HIV mutant viruses having deletions of accessory genes. Therefore, replacement of the Rev-RRE regulatory axis may generate viruses with altered biological properties in vivo. PMID:9371653

  14. HuR interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, and modulates reverse transcription in infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Lemay, Julie; Maidou-Peindara, Priscilla; Bader, Thomas; Ennifar, Eric; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Benarous, Richard; Liu, Lang Xia

    2008-01-01

    Reverse transcription of the genetic material of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a critical step in the replication cycle of this virus. This process, catalyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT), is well characterized at the biochemical level. However, in infected cells, reverse transcription occurs in a multiprotein complex – the reverse transcription complex (RTC) – consisting of viral genomic RNA associated with viral proteins (including RT) and, presumably, as yet uncharacterized cellular proteins. Very little is known about the cellular proteins interacting with the RTC, and with reverse transcriptase in particular. We report here that HIV-1 reverse transcription is affected by the levels of a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein – the RNA-binding protein HuR. A direct protein-protein interaction between RT and HuR was observed in a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed in vitro by homogenous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF). We mapped the domain interacting with HuR to the RNAse H domain of RT, and the binding domain for RT to the C-terminus of HuR, partially overlapping the third RRM RNA-binding domain of HuR. HuR silencing with specific siRNAs greatly impaired early and late steps of reverse transcription, significantly inhibiting HIV-1 infection. Moreover, by mutagenesis and immunoprecipitation studies, we could not detect the binding of HuR to the viral RNA. These results suggest that HuR may be involved in and may modulate the reverse transcription reaction of HIV-1, by an as yet unknown mechanism involving a protein-protein interaction with HIV-1 RT. PMID:18544151

  15. The Effects of Chronic Binge Alcohol on the Genital Microenvironment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H.; Nelson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

  16. Social and immunological differences among uninfected Brazilians exposed or unexposed to human immunodeficiency virus-infected partners

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Luiza; Melo, Victor Hugo; Aleixo, Agdemir Waléria; Aleixo, Lúcia Fernandes; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo Antônio; Silva, Rafaela Oliveira; Ferreira, Laís Alves; Domingos, Willian Cunha; Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social conditions and immunological characteristics that allow some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed patients to remain uninfected represents an on-going challenge. In this study, the socio-demographic and sexual behaviour characteristics and immune activation profiles of uninfected individuals exposed to HIV-infected partners were investigated. A confidential and detailed questionnaire was administered and venous blood was tested using HIV-1/enzyme immunoassays, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels/bDNA and immunophenotyping/flow cytometry to determine the frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing activation markers. The data analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05) for immune parameters in individuals who were uninfected, albeit exposed to HIV-infected partners, compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, the exposed, uninfected individuals had a higher frequency (median, minimum-maximum) of CD4+HLA-DR+ (4.2, 1.8-6.1), CD8+HLA-DR+ (4.6, 0.9-13.7), CD4+CD45RO+ (27.5, 14.2-46.6), CD4+CD45RO+CD62L+ (46.7, 33.9-67.1), CD8+CD45RA+HLA-DR+ (12.1, 3.4-35.8) and CD8+CD45RO+HLA-DR+ (9.0, 3.2-14.8) cells, a decreased percentage of CD8+CD28+ cells (11.7, 4.5-24.0) and a lower cell-surface expression of Fcγ-R/CD16 on monocytes (56.5, 22.0-130.0). The plasma HIV-1 RNA levels demonstrated detectable RNA virus loads in 57% of the HIV-1+ female partners. These findings demonstrate an activation profile in both CD4 and CD8 peripheral T cells from HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals of serodiscordant couples from a referral centre in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. PMID:25317705

  17. Favorable Socioeconomic Status and Recreational Polydrug Use Are Linked With Sexual Hepatitis C Virus Transmission Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun-Chi; Wiberg, Kjell J.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Bansal, Arun; Bolzan, Philipe; Guy, Janelle A.; Maina, Erastus N.; Cox, Andrea L.; Thio, Chloe L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is an emerging issue. Studies addressing the temporal trends and risk factors associated with incident HCV in HIV-infected MSM in the community-based primary care settings in the United States are scarce. Methods. Using a retrospective cohort study design, HCV incidence, defined as HCV antibody seroconversion, was determined in 1147 HIV-infected men receiving care at Chase Brexton Health Care clinics in Baltimore, Maryland between 2004 and 2014. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with incident HCV. Results. There were 42 incident HCV infections during 5242 person-years (PY) of follow up (incidence rate [IR], 8.01/1000 PY). Thirty-seven (88%) of the incident infections were in MSM, of whom 31 (84%) reported no injection-drug use (IDU). The annual IRs for MSM were 13.1–15.8/1000 PY between 2004 and 2007, decreased to 2.7–6.2/1000 PY between 2008 and 2011, and increased to 10.4/1000 PY and 13.3/1000 PY in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Injection-drug use was strongly associated with incident HCV among all MSM (IR ratio [IRR], 14.15; P = .003); however, among MSM without IDU, entering care between 2010 and 2013 (IRR, 3.32; P = .01), being employed (IRR, 3.14; P = .03), and having a history of ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (IRR, 3.70; P = .009) or of polydrug use (IRR, 5.54; P = .01) independently predicted incident HCV. Conclusions. In this cohort of HIV-infected men, a re-emerging HCV epidemic was observed from 2011 to 2014 among MSM. In addition to IDU, high-risk sexual behaviors, favorable socioeconomic status, and polydrug use fueled this increase in HCV infections. PMID:27703998

  18. Rate and Incidence Estimates of Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections among Pregnant Women in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Oliveira, Carmem A.; Ueda, Mirthes; Yamashiro, Rosemeire; Rodrigues, Rosāngela; Sheppard, Haynes W.; de Macedo Brígido, Luís Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The serological testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion (STARHS) was employed to estimate HIV incidence among pregnant women from São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study (1999 to 2002) showed an incidence of infection of 0.2 per 100 pregnant women per year (95% confidence interval, 0.041 to 0.608). Western blot profiles suggested an association between results of the STARHS analysis and gp41/gp31 bands. PMID:15750127

  19. Switch to Raltegravir From Protease Inhibitor or Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor Does not Reduce Visceral Fat In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women With Central Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jordan E; McComsey, Grace A; Hulgan, Todd; Wanke, Christine A; Mangili, Alexandra; Walmsley, Sharon L; Currier, Judith S

    2015-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with central adiposity switched to raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy immediately or after 24 weeks. No statistically significant changes in computed tomography-quantified visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or subcutaneous fat were observed, although 48 weeks of raltegravir was associated with a 6.4% VAT decline. Raltegravir for 24 weeks was associated with improvements in lipids. PMID:26380350

  20. Switch to Raltegravir From Protease Inhibitor or Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor Does not Reduce Visceral Fat In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women With Central Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Jordan E.; McComsey, Grace A.; Hulgan, Todd; Wanke, Christine A.; Mangili, Alexandra; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Currier, Judith S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with central adiposity switched to raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy immediately or after 24 weeks. No statistically significant changes in computed tomography-quantified visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or subcutaneous fat were observed, although 48 weeks of raltegravir was associated with a 6.4% VAT decline. Raltegravir for 24 weeks was associated with improvements in lipids. PMID:26380350

  1. High Rate of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infections in Wild Chimpanzees in Northeastern Gabon.

    PubMed

    Boué, Vanina; Locatelli, Sabrina; Boucher, Floriane; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Butel, Christelle; Esteban, Amandine; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Ndoungouet, Alphonse; Motsch, Peggy; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Ngari, Paul; Prugnolle, Franck; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rouet, François; Liégeois, Florian

    2015-09-15

    The emergence of HIV-1 groups M, N, O, and P is the result of four independent cross-species transmissions between chimpanzees (cpz) and gorillas (gor) from central/south Cameroon and humans respectively. Although the first two SIVcpz were identified in wild-born captive chimpanzees in Gabon in 1989, no study has been conducted so far in wild chimpanzees in Gabon. To document the SIVcpz infection rate, genetic diversity, and routes of virus transmission, we analyzed 1458 faecal samples collected in 16 different locations across the country, and we conducted follow-up missions in two of them. We found 380 SIV antibody positive samples in 6 different locations in the north and northeast. We determined the number of individuals collected by microsatellite analysis and obtained an adjusted SIV prevalence of 39.45%. We performed parental analysis to investigate viral spread between and within communities and found that SIVs were epidemiologically linked and were transmitted by both horizontal and vertical routes. We amplified pol and gp41 fragments and obtained 57 new SIVcpzPtt strains from three sites. All strains, but one, clustered together within a specific phylogeographic clade. Given that these SIV positive samples have been collected nearby villages and that humans continue to encroach in ape's territories, the emergence of a new HIV in this area needs to be considered.

  2. High Rate of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infections in Wild Chimpanzees in Northeastern Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Boué, Vanina; Locatelli, Sabrina; Boucher, Floriane; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Butel, Christelle; Esteban, Amandine; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Ndoungouet, Alphonse; Motsch, Peggy; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Ngari, Paul; Prugnolle, Franck; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rouet, François; Liégeois, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of HIV-1 groups M, N, O, and P is the result of four independent cross-species transmissions between chimpanzees (cpz) and gorillas (gor) from central/south Cameroon and humans respectively. Although the first two SIVcpz were identified in wild-born captive chimpanzees in Gabon in 1989, no study has been conducted so far in wild chimpanzees in Gabon. To document the SIVcpz infection rate, genetic diversity, and routes of virus transmission, we analyzed 1458 faecal samples collected in 16 different locations across the country, and we conducted follow-up missions in two of them. We found 380 SIV antibody positive samples in 6 different locations in the north and northeast. We determined the number of individuals collected by microsatellite analysis and obtained an adjusted SIV prevalence of 39.45%. We performed parental analysis to investigate viral spread between and within communities and found that SIVs were epidemiologically linked and were transmitted by both horizontal and vertical routes. We amplified pol and gp41 fragments and obtained 57 new SIVcpzPtt strains from three sites. All strains, but one, clustered together within a specific phylogeographic clade. Given that these SIV positive samples have been collected nearby villages and that humans continue to encroach in ape’s territories, the emergence of a new HIV in this area needs to be considered. PMID:26389939

  3. Modulation of Type I Interferon-Associated Viral Sensing during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Simon P.; Petitjean, Gaël; Kunkel, Désirée; Liovat, Anne-Sophie; Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Jacquelin, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), such as African green monkeys (AGMs), do not progress to AIDS when infected with SIV. This is associated with an absence of a chronic type I interferon (IFN-I) signature. It is unclear how the IFN-I response is downmodulated in AGMs. We longitudinally assessed the capacity of AGM blood cells to produce IFN-I in response to SIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Phenotypes and functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and other mononuclear blood cells were assessed by flow cytometry, and expression of viral sensors was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. pDCs displayed low BDCA-2, CD40, and HLA-DR expression levels during AGM acute SIV (SIVagm) infection. BDCA-2 was required for sensing of SIV, but not of HSV, by pDCs. In acute infection, AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced less