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Sample records for immunodeficiency virus sivagm

  1. Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVagm.sab infection of Caribbean African green monkeys: a new model for the study of SIV pathogenesis in natural hosts.

    PubMed

    Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian; Dufour, Jason; Dillon, Nora; Barbercheck, Joseph; Metzger, Michael; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Bohm, Rudolf; Marx, Preston A; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2006-05-01

    Caribbean-born African green monkeys (AGMs) were classified as Chlorocebus sabaeus by cytochrome b sequencing. Guided by these phylogenetic analyses, we developed a new model for the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in natural hosts by inoculating Caribbean AGMs with their species-specific SIVagm.sab. SIVagm.sab replicated efficiently in Caribbean AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. During SIVagm.sab primary infection of six Caribbean AGMs, the virus replicated at high levels, with peak viral loads (VLs) of 10(7) to 10(8) copies/ml occurring by day 8 to 10 postinfection (p.i.). Set-point values of up to 2 x 10(5) copies/ml were reached by day 42 p.i. and maintained throughout follow-up (through day 450 p.i.). CD4(+) T-cell counts in the blood showed a transient depletion at the peak of VL, and then returned to near preinfection values by day 28 p.i. and remained relatively stable during the chronic infection. Preservation of CD4 T cells was also found in lymph nodes (LNs) of chronic SIVagm.sab-infected Caribbean AGMs. No activation of CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery in SIV-infected Caribbean AGMs. These virological and immunological profiles from peripheral blood and LNs were identical to those previously reported in African-born AGMs infected with the same viral strain (SIVagm.sab92018). Due to these similarities, we conclude that Caribbean AGMs are a useful alternative to AGMs of African origin as a model for the study of SIV infection in natural African hosts.

  2. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm.sab Infection of Caribbean African Green Monkeys: a New Model for the Study of SIV Pathogenesis in Natural Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian; Dufour, Jason; Dillon, Nora; Barbercheck, Joseph; Metzger, Michael; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Bohm, Rudolf; Marx, Preston A.; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Caribbean-born African green monkeys (AGMs) were classified as Chlorocebus sabaeus by cytochrome b sequencing. Guided by these phylogenetic analyses, we developed a new model for the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in natural hosts by inoculating Caribbean AGMs with their species-specific SIVagm.sab. SIVagm.sab replicated efficiently in Caribbean AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. During SIVagm.sab primary infection of six Caribbean AGMs, the virus replicated at high levels, with peak viral loads (VLs) of 107 to 108 copies/ml occurring by day 8 to 10 postinfection (p.i.). Set-point values of up to 2 × 105 copies/ml were reached by day 42 p.i. and maintained throughout follow-up (through day 450 p.i.). CD4+ T-cell counts in the blood showed a transient depletion at the peak of VL, and then returned to near preinfection values by day 28 p.i. and remained relatively stable during the chronic infection. Preservation of CD4 T cells was also found in lymph nodes (LNs) of chronic SIVagm.sab-infected Caribbean AGMs. No activation of CD4+ T cells was detected in the periphery in SIV-infected Caribbean AGMs. These virological and immunological profiles from peripheral blood and LNs were identical to those previously reported in African-born AGMs infected with the same viral strain (SIVagm.sab92018). Due to these similarities, we conclude that Caribbean AGMs are a useful alternative to AGMs of African origin as a model for the study of SIV infection in natural African hosts. PMID:16641277

  3. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Nadeene E.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Whitted, Sonya; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Goldstein, Simoy; Goeken, Robert M.; Plishka, Ronald J.; Buckler-White, Alicia; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4+ T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals. IMPORTANCE African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other

  4. Multiply spliced env and nef transcripts of simian immunodeficiency virus from West African green monkey (SIVagm-sab).

    PubMed

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Cuny, G; Pourrut, X; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Delaporte, E

    1998-04-10

    We have characterized the spliced transcripts of nef and envelope genes of SIVagm from African green monkey of the sabaeus subspecies. Most of the transcripts we have studied, representing the most abundant mRNA species in our assay, have undergone a specific splicing event that removes a part of the trans-activation response (TAR) element. This region is predicted to form a stable secondary structure (four stem-loop elements in SIVagm-sab) that affects the trans-activation of viral gene expression by Tat and the translation of the viral transcripts. Contrary to what is observed in other viruses, in which this R-region splicing has also been described (e.g., HIV-2), the LTR splicing in SIVagm-sab removes part of the first stem-loop and the following ones, nearly completely disrupting the TAR element secondary structure. Because LTR splicing seems to be a conserved feature among the strains we have characterized, these results suggest that this phenomenon could have important consequences for virus replication, pathogenicity, and latency.

  5. CXCR6-Mediated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagmSab Entry into Sabaeus African Green Monkey Lymphocytes Implicates Widespread Use of Non-CCR5 Pathways in Natural Host Infections.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Katherine S; Yi, Yanjie; Elliott, Sarah T C; Romero, Dino; Jacquelin, Beatrice; Hahn, Beatrice H; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Collman, Ronald G

    2017-02-15

    African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that do not progress to AIDS when infected with their species-specific viruses. Natural hosts of SIV express very low levels of the canonical entry coreceptor CCR5, and recent studies have shown that CCR5 is dispensable for SIV infection of SM in vivo and that blocking of CCR5 does not prevent ex vivo infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from SM or vervet AGM. In both hosts, CXCR6 is an efficient entry pathway in vitro Here we investigated the use of species-matched CXCR6 and other alternative coreceptors by SIVagmSab, which infects sabaeus AGM. We cloned sabaeus CD4 and 10 candidate coreceptors. Species-matched CXCR6, CCR5, and GPR15 mediated robust entry into transfected cells by pseudotypes carrying SIVagmSab92018ivTF Env, with lower-level entry through GPR1 and APJ. We cloned genetically divergent env genes from the plasma of two wild-infected sabaeus AGM and found similar patterns of coreceptor use. Titration experiments showed that CXCR6 and CCR5 were more efficient than other coreceptors when tested at limiting CD4/coreceptor levels. Finally, blocking of CXCR6 with its ligand CXCL16 significantly inhibited SIVagmSab replication in sabaeus PBMC and had a greater impact than did the CCR5 blocker maraviroc, confirming the use of CXCR6 in primary lymphocyte infection. These data suggest a new paradigm for SIV infection of natural host species, whereby a shared outcome of virus-host coevolution is the use of CXCR6 or other alternative coreceptors for entry, which may direct SIV toward CD4(+) T cell subsets and anatomical sites that support viral replication without disrupting immune homeostasis and function.

  6. Identification and Structural Characterization of the ALIX-Binding Late Domains of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239 and SIVagmTan-1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Q.; Robinson, H.; Landesman, M. B.; Sundquist, W. I.; Hill, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Retroviral Gag proteins contain short late-domain motifs that recruit cellular ESCRT pathway proteins to facilitate virus budding. ALIX-binding late domains often contain the core consensus sequence YPX{sub n}L (where X{sub n} can vary in sequence and length). However, some simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag proteins lack this consensus sequence, yet still bind ALIX. We mapped divergent, ALIX-binding late domains within the p6{sup Gag} proteins of SIV{sub mac239} ({sub 40}SREK{und P}YKE{und VT}ED{und L}LHLNSLF{sub 59}) and SIV{sub agmTan-1} ({sub 24}AAG{und A}YDP{und AR}KL{und L}EQYAKK{sub 41}). Crystal structures revealed that anchoring tyrosines (in lightface) and nearby hydrophobic residues (underlined) contact the ALIX V domain, revealing how lentiviruses employ a diverse family of late-domain sequences to bind ALIX and promote virus budding.

  7. Extensive genetic variability of simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Naidu, Y M; Daniel, M D; Desrosiers, R C

    1989-01-01

    Serological surveys have revealed that 30 to 50% of wild-caught African green monkeys have antibodies reactive to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a retrovirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the nucleotide sequence of one SIVagm isolate, Tyo1, was recently reported, the extent of genetic variability among SIVagm isolates remains to be determined. Restriction endonuclease mapping of infectious molecular clones of two SIVagm isolates (266 and 385), described in this note, revealed conservation of only 4 of 39 sites across the genome. Partial sequence analysis of the molecular clones revealed only 80% amino acid sequence conservation in the pol gene. Although the three Kenyan SIVagm isolates, Tyo1, 385, and 266, are more closely related to each other than to other primate lentiviruses, genetic variation among these three isolates is much greater than that observed previously among individual HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, or SIVmac isolates. Less variability among HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates could be explained by recent entry into the human population. The extensive genetic variation in these Kenyan SIVagm isolates should prompt continued examination of SIVagm variability from dispersed geographic regions; SIVagm strains much more closely related to HIV-1, HIV-2, or SIVmac which would be reasonable candidates for recent cross-species transmission may be found. PMID:2467010

  8. Isolation of a simian immunodeficiency virus from a malbrouck (Chlorocebus cynosuros).

    PubMed

    Carr, Michael; Kawaguchi, Akira; Sasaki, Michihito; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Ito, Kimihito; Thomas, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Zhao, Guoyan; Wang, David; Orba, Yasuko; Ishii, Akihiro; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) among nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Zambia, next-generation sequencing was performed to determine the complete genome sequence of a novel SIV recovered by co-culturing African green monkey (AGM) peripheral blood lymphocytes with human CD4(+) T-cell lines. We report the first described SIV (SIVagmMAL-ZMB) from a malbrouck (Chlorocebus cynosuros). SIVagmMAL-ZMB was detected by real-time PCR analysis of splenic RNA in 3.2% (3/94) of AGMs and was undetectable in baboons (0/105). SIVagmMAL-ZMB possessed <80% nucleotide sequence identity to known SIV isolates and was located basally to vervet monkey SIV strains in all phylogenies.

  9. Identification of a gag protein epitope conserved among all four groups of primate immunodeficiency viruses by using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Otteken, A; Nick, S; Bergter, W; Voss, G; Faisst, A C; Stahl-Hennig, C; Hunsmann, G

    1992-10-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the gag proteins of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from African green monkey (SIVagmTYO-7). Two MAbs reacted with the matrix protein p17 and the other three with the core protein p24. Studies on the cross-reactivity of the MAbs revealed that the anti-p24 MAbs detected an epitope shared by the viruses belonging to the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)/SIVmac group and SIVagmTYO-7 and SIVagmTYO-5. The anti-p17 MAbs recognized an epitope present on all these viruses and on SIVagmTYO-1, HIV-1 and SIVmnd. This finding demonstrates for the first time that the matrix protein, p17 or p18, respectively, of all nine HIV and SIV isolates tested in this study expresses at least one conserved immunogenic epitope recognized serologically. By using synthetic peptides, this epitope was identified at the N terminus of p17. Furthermore, this epitope was analysed by multiple sequence alignments of the peptide with homologous sequences of HIV and SIV p17.

  10. Nef proteins from simian immunodeficiency viruses are tetherin antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengwen; Wilson, Sam J.; Langford, Wilmina; Virgen, Beatriz; Gregory, Devon; Johnson, Marc; Munch, Jan; Kirchhoff, Frank; Bieniasz, Paul D.; Hatziioannou, Theodora

    2010-01-01

    The tetherin/BST2/CD317 protein blocks the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by inducing tethering of nascent particles to infected cell surfaces. The HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes the antiviral activity of human but not monkey tetherins and many simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) do not encode Vpu. Here, we show that the apparently ‘missing’ anti-tetherin activity in SIVs has been acquired by several SIV Nef proteins. Specifically, SIVMAC/SIVSMM, SIVAGM and SIVBLU Nef proteins can suppress tetherin activity. Notably, tetherin antagonism by SIV Nef proteins is species-specific, is genetically separable from other Nef activities and is most evident with simian rather than human tetherin proteins. Accordingly, a critical determinant of sensitivity to SIVMAC Nef in the tetherin cytoplasmic tail is variable in nonhuman primate tetherins and deleted in human tetherin, likely due to selective pressures imposed by viral antagonists, perhaps including Nef proteins. PMID:19501037

  11. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  12. Feline immunodeficiency virus latency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication. PMID:23829177

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  14. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Research: Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting and an opportunity for public comment on...

  15. Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses from West African green monkeys: evidence of multiple genotypes within populations from the same geographical locale.

    PubMed Central

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Pourrut, X; Vidal, N; Veas, F; Durand, J P; Cuny, G

    1997-01-01

    High simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) seroprevalence rates have been reported in the different African green monkey (AGM) subspecies. Genetic diversity of these viruses far exceeds the diversity observed in the other lentivirus-infected human and nonhuman primates and is thought to reflect ancient introduction of SIV in the AGM population. We investigate here genetic diversity of SIVagm in wild-living AGM populations from the same geographical locale (i.e., sympatric population) in Senegal. For 11 new strains, we PCR amplified and sequenced two regions of the genome spanning the first tat exon and part of the transmembrane glycoprotein. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences shows that viruses found in sympatric populations cluster into distinct lineages, with at least two distinct genotypes in each troop. These data strongly suggest an ancient introduction of these divergent viruses in the AGM population. PMID:8985351

  16. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Research; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure Research,'' published in the Federal...

  17. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, J B

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, an increase in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had a substantial impact on childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant accounts for the vast majority of these cases. Identification of HIV-infected pregnant women needs to be impoved so that appropriate therapy can be initiated for both mothers and infants. While recent data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in HIV transmission from a subset of women treated with zidovudine during pregnancy, further efforts at reducing transmission are desperately needed. This review focuses on vertically transmitted HIV infection in children, its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, and clinical manifestations including infectious and noninfectious complications. An overview of the complex medical management of these children ensues, including the use of antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infection prophylaxis is reviewed, along with the important role of other supportive therapies. PMID:8894346

  18. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this screening: (1) Everyone aged 15 to ... the disease to other people. Potential Benefits and Harms of Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The ...

  19. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  20. Primate immunodeficiency virus classification and nomenclature: Review.

    PubMed

    Foley, Brian T; Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Peeters, Martine

    2016-12-01

    The International Committee for the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Viruses does not rule on virus classifications below the species level. The definition of species for viruses cannot be clearly defined for all types of viruses. The complex and interesting epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses demands a detailed and informative nomenclature system, while at the same time it presents challenges such that many of the rules need to be flexibly applied or modified over time. This review outlines the nomenclature system for primate lentiviruses and provides an update on new findings since the last review was written in 2000.

  1. Primate immunodeficiency virus classification and nomenclature: Review

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian T.; Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Peeters, Martine

    2016-10-24

    The International Committee for the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Viruses does not rule on virus classifications below the species level. The definition of species for viruses cannot be clearly defined for all types of viruses. The complex and interesting epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses demands a detailed and informative nomenclature system, while at the same time it presents challenges such that many of the rules need to be flexibly applied or modified over time. As a result, this review outlines the nomenclature system for primate lentiviruses and provides an update on new findings since the last review was written in 2000.

  2. Primate immunodeficiency virus classification and nomenclature: Review

    DOE PAGES

    Foley, Brian T.; Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; ...

    2016-10-24

    The International Committee for the Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Viruses does not rule on virus classifications below the species level. The definition of species for viruses cannot be clearly defined for all types of viruses. The complex and interesting epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses demands a detailed and informative nomenclature system, while at the same time it presents challenges such that many of the rules need to be flexibly applied or modified over time. As a result, this review outlines the nomenclature system for primate lentiviruses and provides an update on new findings since the last review was written inmore » 2000.« less

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-28

    data and case definitions. By 1985 a virus, named at that time HTLV III, had been identified as the infectious agent of AIDS and the transmission of...in the military. HTLV III became internationally accepted as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the testing became the organized and...with the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases to "conduct clinical and epidemiological studies of cutaneous

  4. Thermal inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, E C; Keil, D; Coats, K S

    1996-01-01

    Cell-associated bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and cell-free BIV were subjected to increasing temperatures, including pasteurization conditions. To determine the effect of heat treatment on BIV viability, reverse transcriptase activity and infectivity of the heat-treated virus were assessed. BIV was inactivated by heating to 47 degrees C for 30 min and by low- and high-temperature pasteurization conditions. PMID:8900024

  5. Women at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadagno, David; And Others

    This article reports results from a survey among women at risk for contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as well as transmitting it in a vertical (to offspring) and horizontal (sexual partner or intravenous [IV] drug usage) mode. Little is known about the extent of HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, and IV drug usage for women at risk for…

  6. The Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasner, Peter D.; Kaslow, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology and natural history of human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Discusses early and late clinical manifestations, diagnosis of infection, incubation and latency periods, and survival time. Reviews data from published literature on distribution of HIV infection in adult United States population and factors that…

  7. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bruno M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Cruz, Juliano C. M.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America. PMID:22590677

  8. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joel B.; Mathias, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic continues. All health-care workers, including physicians and dental personnel, may be instrumental in recognizing risk factors associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Oral signs and symptoms of HIV infection may be the first presentation of the disease or may develop during the course of the disease and require management. Knowledge of the signs, symptoms and associated infections and tumours is needed to assist in recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13 PMID:21253078

  9. Genetic regulation of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Steffy, K; Wong-Staal, F

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a complex life cycle in which both cellular and virus-encoded factors participate to determine the level of virus production. Two of the viral genes, tat and rev, are essential for virus replication and encode novel trans-activators that interact specifically with their cognate RNA target elements. Elucidation of their mechanisms of action is likely to expand our knowledge of gene regulation at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in the eukaryotic cell. Several viral genes (vif, vpu, and vpr) facilitate virus infection and/or release and may play a role in target cell tropism and infection in vivo. The functions of yet other viral genes (nef, vpt) remain unclear. Recent data also suggest that the tat gene product may have a role in HIV pathogenesis that goes beyond trans-activating virus expression. It can potentially impact on uninfected cells as a diffusible molecule and alter the growth of different cell types. PMID:1886517

  10. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... No. FDA-2013-D-0589] Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral Drugs... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral...

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver.

    PubMed

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-03-27

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries.

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-19

    Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)," September 11, 1987 (hereby canceled) 1d) Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) Memorandum, ’) "The DoD HTLV -III...Testing Blood and Plasma for Antibodies to HTLV -III," July 17, 1985 (hereby canceled) (f) DoD Instruction 1438.4, "Compliance with Host Nation Human...partial or complete cutaneous anergy. In staging, if the CD4 number is 400 cells per mm3 , or greater, the individual shall be placed in stage 1 or 2

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    During the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), transmissions between humans and primates resulted in multiple HIV lineages in humans. This evolution has been rapid, giving rise to a complex classification and allowing for worldwide spread and intermixing of subtypes, which has consequently led to dozens of circulating recombinant forms. In the Republic of Korea, 12,522 cases of HIV infection have been reported between 1985, when AIDS was first identified, and 2015. This review focuses on the evolution of HIV infection worldwide and the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of HIV in Korea. PMID:28332348

  14. Hematologic disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cosby, Cecily D

    2007-01-01

    Nurses encounter patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection at various stages of their infection and in a variety of settings. This article focuses on the most common hematologic disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which can precipitate complications and frequently accompany hospitalization. It is important for nurses to have a solid foundation as to the cause of these disorders, their impact on quality of life and outcomes, and management strategies.

  15. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  16. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  17. Replication of biotinylated human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Belshan, Michael; Matthews, John M; Madson, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated recently the adaptation of the Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA - biotin acceptor sequence (BAS) labeling system to produce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viruses with biotinylated integrase (NLXIN(B)) and matrix (NLXMA(B)) proteins (Belshan et al., 2009). This report describes the construction of an HIV permissive cell line stably expressing BirA (SupT1.BirA). Consistent with the results in the previous report, NLXMA(B) replicated similar to wild-type levels and expressed biotinylated Gag and MA proteins in the SupT1.BirA cells, whereas the replication of NLXIN(B) was reduced severely. Three additional HIV type 2 (HIV-2) viruses were constructed with the BAS inserted into the vpx and vpr accessory genes. Two BAS insertions were made into the C-terminal half of the Vpx, including one internal insertion, and one at the N-terminus of Vpr. All three viruses were replication competent in the SupT1.BirA cells and their target proteins biotinylated efficiently and incorporated into virions. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the biotinylation system to label and capture HIV protein complexes in the context of replicating virus.

  18. Vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

    PubMed

    Nègre, Didier; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2002-11-01

    In contrast to other retroviruses, lentiviruses have the unique property of infecting non-proliferating cells. Thus vectors derived from lentiviruses are promising tools for in vivo gene delivery applications. Vectors derived from human primate and non-primate lentiviruses have recently been described and, unlike retroviral vectors derived from murine leukemia viruses, lead to stable integration of the transgene into quiescent cells in various organs. Despite all the safety safeguards that have been progressively introduced in lentiviral vectors, the clinical acceptance of vectors derived from pathogenic lentiviruses is subject to debate. It is therefore essential to design vectors derived from a wide range of lentivirus types and to comparatively examine their properties in terms of transduction efficiency and bio-safety. Here, we review the properties of lentiviral vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

  19. Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus coinfections.

    PubMed

    Dodig, M; Tavill, A S

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is estimated that 30% to 50% of patients with HIV are coinfected with HCV. Advances in antiretroviral therapy and improved life expectancy of HIV patients have resulted in an emergence of HCV-induced liver disease as a leading cause of significant morbidity and death in this population. Clinically, hepatitis C is a more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals, characterized by rapid progression toward end-stage liver disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is the mainstay of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome management. One of the limiting side effects of combination therapy for HIV is hepatotoxicity, which is more common and often more serious in patients with underlying liver disease. Management of coinfected patients has no strict guidelines, but it is generally accepted that HIV infection needs to be treated before HCV. Hepatitis C in coinfected individuals is probably best treated using combination therapy (interferon alpha and ribavirin). It appears that combination therapy can safely be administered to this population and that previous concerns about ribavirin/zidovudine antagonism are unsubstantiated in clinical practice. Although initial results using only interferon alpha showed poor results in HIV coinfected patients, combination therapy seems to be as effective as in the general population. All HIV-HCV coinfected patients should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and hepatitis A; vaccines are safe and effective.

  20. Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Nakai, M; Goto, T

    1996-08-01

    The ultrastructure and morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were elucidated by observation with several techniques including immunoelectron microscopy and cryo-microscopy. The virus particle consists of an envelope, a core and matrix. The virus particles were observed extracellularly as having one of three profiles: (1) a centric or an eccentric electron-dense core, (2) rod-shaped electron-dense core, and (3) doughnut-shaped. HIV-1 particles in the hydrated state were observed by high resolution electron cryo-microscopy to be globular, and the lipid membrane was clearly resolved as a bilayer. Many projections around the circumference were seen to be knob-like. The shapes and sizes of the projections, especially head parts, were found to vary in each projection. By isolation with Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde, HIV-1 cores were confirmed to consist of p24 protein by immunogold labeling. When the virus enters the cell, two entry modes were found: membrane fusion and endocytosis. No structures resembling virus particles could be seen in the cytoplasm after viral entry. In HIV-1-infected cells, positive reactions by immuno-labeling suggest that HIV-1 Gag may be produced in membrane-bound structures and transported to the cell surface by cytoskeletons. Then a crescent electron-dense layer was first formed underneath the cell membrane. Finally, the virus particle was released from the cell surface. Several cell clones producing defective particles were isolated from MT-4/HIV-1 cells. Among them, doughnut-shaped or teardrop-shaped particles were seen to be produced in the extracellular space. In the doughnut-shaped particles, Gag p17 and p24 proteins faced each other against the inner electron dense ring, suggesting that the inner ring consists of a precursor Gag protein.

  1. Antiviral drugs for viruses other than human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Razonable, Raymund R

    2011-10-01

    Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M(2) protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-α and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti-human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M(2) inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects.

  2. Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Razonable, Raymund R.

    2011-01-01

    Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-α and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti–human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in childhood.

    PubMed

    Blokzijl, M L

    1988-03-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with considerable morbidity in infants and children. It is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which can be transmitted vertically from mother to infant early in pregnancy. Transmission might also occur via breast milk. Although the exact transmission rate of HIV from mother to infant is not known, HIV can become a major threat to child survival. This threat is already present in Africa where high seroprevalences have been reported among infants and young children. Transmission via blood products is decreasing due to reliable methods of screening donors for HIV antibody. Where these tests are not available, parenteral transmission will increase the incidence of HIV infection. The clinical picture of HIV infection in children presents with failure to thrive, pulmonary interstitial pneumonitis, hepatosplenomegaly and recurrent bacterial infections. These are common manifestations of diseases prevalent in children in Africa where malnutrition and recurrent parasitic infections already cause immunosuppression. Recognition of the syndrome is therefore difficult. There is no available cure for HIV infection. Supportive treatment and relief of pain and suffering are the only means of management at present. Prevention of spread of the illness to infants and young children is therefore of paramount importance.

  4. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus-negative plasmablastic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Xudong; Dong, Meng; Li, Ling; Wang, Xinhua; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Xiaorui; Sun, Zhenchang; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Zhaoming; Chang, Yu; Wang, Yingjun; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Chen, Qingjiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare subtype of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that predominantly manifests in the oral cavity. Patient concerns: Three cases of HIV-negative PBL were reported. Diagnoses: HIV-negative PBL Interventions: The patient had undergone chemotherapy. Outcomes: Clinical outcomes were very poor in Cases 1 and 3; Case 2, whose diagnosis suggested no bone marrow involvement, is still alive. Lessons subsections: These cases served to broaden the reported clinical spectrum of HIV-negative PBL. Clinicians and pathologists need to be familiar with lymphoma in the identified extra-oral PBL variation and there levant differential diagnosis procedures for this particular disease. PMID:28207555

  6. Bacterial Respiratory Infections Complicating Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, most commonly those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii, remain the major causes of mortality in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial respiratory pathogens most prevalent in those infected with HIV, other than M. tuberculosis, represent the primary focus of the current review with particular emphasis on the pneumococcus, the leading cause of mortality due to HIV infection in the developed world. Additional themes include (1) risk factors; (2) the predisposing effects of HIV-mediated suppression on pulmonary host defenses, possibly intensified by smoking; (3) clinical and laboratory diagnosis, encompassing assessment of disease severity and outcome; and (4) antibiotic therapy. The final section addresses current recommendations with respect to pneumococcal immunization in the context of HIV infection, including an overview of the rationale underpinning the current "prime-boost" immunization strategy based on sequential administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, S. Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection. PMID:26538978

  8. Antiviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the stage of their intervention with the viral replicative cycle, human immunodeficiency virus inhibitors could be divided into the following groups: (i) adsorption inhibitors (i.e., CD4 constructs, polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, and polyoxometalates), (ii) fusion inhibitors (i.e., plant lectins, succinylated or aconitylated albumins, and betulinic acid derivatives), (iii) uncoating inhibitors (i.e., bicyclams), (iv) reverse transcription inhibitors acting either competitively with the substrate binding site (i.e., dideoxynucleoside analogs and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates) or allosterically with a nonsubstrate binding site (i.e., non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (v) integration inhibitors, (vi) DNA replication inhibitors, (vii) transcription inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and Tat antagonists), (viii) translation inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and ribozymes), (ix) maturation inhibitors (i.e., protease inhibitors, myristoylation inhibitors, and glycosylation inhibitors), and finally, (x) budding (assembly/release) inhibitors. Current knowledge, including the therapeutic potential, of these various inhibitors is discussed. In view of their potential clinical the utility, the problem of virus-drug resistance and possible strategies to circumvent this problem are also addressed. PMID:7542558

  9. Evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus Gag proteins.

    PubMed

    Burkala, Evan; Poss, Mary

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the predicted biochemical properties of Gag proteins from a diverse group of feline immunodeficiency viruses (FIV) to determine how different evolutionary histories of virus and host have changed or constrained these important structural proteins. Our data are based on FIV sequences derived from domestic cat (FIVfca), cougar (FIVpco), and lions (FIVple). Analyses consisted of determining the selective forces acting at each position in the protein and the comparing predictions for secondary structure, charge, hydrophobicity and flexibility for matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid, and the C-terminal peptide, which comprise the Gag proteins. We demonstrate that differences among the FIV Gag proteins have largely arisen by neutral evolution, although many neutrally evolving regions have maintained biochemical features. Regions with predicted differences in biochemical features appear to involve intramolecular interactions and structural elements that undergo conformational changes during particle maturation. In contrast, the majority of sites involved in intermolecular contacts on the protein surface are constrained by purifying selection. There is also conservation of sites that interact with host proteins associated with cellular trafficking and particle budding. NC is the only protein with evidence of positive selection, two of which occur in the N-terminal region responsible for RNA binding and interaction with host proteins.

  10. Development of vivo of genetic variability of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Baier, M; Dittmar, M T; Cichutek, K; Kurth, R

    1991-01-01

    Rapid development of genetic variability may contribute to the pathogenicity of lentiviruses as it may allow escape from immune surveillance and/or from suppression of virus replication. Although apathogenic in African green monkeys, simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from African green monkeys is shown to display extensive genetic variability and defectiveness in the V1- and V2-like variable domains of the external envelope protein comparable to that known for human immunodeficiency virus. However, in contrast to the situation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, a predominant major virus variant was detected neither in a monkey naturally infected for more than 10 years nor in two monkeys infected with a molecular virus clone for 15-20 months. Extensive variability evolves from a single genotype with a maximal rate of 7.7 mutations per 1000 nucleotides per year. A remarkable selection for nonsynonymous mutations that accounts for 92% of all changes indicates continuous selection of variants. Images PMID:1896460

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Military Service Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-07

    quantitative nucleic acid result for HIV infection according to a Food and Drug Administration-approved test. ...07 JUN 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Military...and Readiness (USD(P&R)),” June 23, 2008 (b) DoD Instruction 6485.01, “Human Immunodeficiency Virus ,” October 17, 2006 (hereby cancelled) (c) DoD

  12. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Preference Is Similar to That of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Crise, Bruce; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Chiuchin; Morcock, David R.; Whitby, Denise; Munroe, David J.; Arthur, Larry O.; Wu, Xiaolin

    2005-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a useful model for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. As with all other retroviruses, integration is a necessary step in the replication cycle of SIV. The location of the retrovirus integration site is known to impact on viral gene expression, establishment of viral latency, and other aspects of the replication cycle of a retrovirus. In this study, 148 SIV provirus integration sites were sequenced and mapped in the human genome. Our analysis showed that SIV integration, like that of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), exhibited a strong preference for actively transcribed regions in the genome (A. R. Schroder et al., Cell 110:521-529, 2002) and no preference for the CpG islands or transcription start sites, in contrast to observations for murine leukemia virus (X. Wu et al., Science 300:1749-1751, 2003). The parallel integration target site preferences of SIV and HIV-1 suggest that these lentiviruses may share similar mechanisms for target site selection and that SIV serves as an accurate model of HIV-1 with respect to integration. PMID:16160146

  13. Bone health and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Jason J; Manlangit, Kristine; Squires, Kathleen E

    2013-06-01

    Low bone mineral density is common among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and studies reporting increased fracture rates in this patient population are emerging. The causes of low bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and fractures in persons with HIV are likely multifactorial, involving traditional risk factors, HIV infection, and exposure to antiretroviral treatment. Specific antiretrovirals such as tenofovir may cause a greater loss of bone mineral density compared with other agents and have recently been linked to an increased risk for fracture. As a result, recent treatment guidelines suggest that clinicians consider avoiding tenofovir as initial therapy in postmenopausal women. Evaluating bone mineral density and vitamin D status in persons with HIV may be important steps in identifying those requiring pharmacotherapy; however, the appropriate timing for bone mineral density and vitamin D screening is uncertain, as is the appropriate method of replacing vitamin D in HIV-positive patients who are deficient. Further study is necessary to definitively determine the approach to evaluating bone health and managing low bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency in patients with HIV infection.

  14. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  15. Macrophages in Progressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    The cells that are targeted by primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) are of intense interest given the renewed effort to identify potential cures for HIV. These viruses have been reported to infect multiple cell lineages of hematopoietic origin, including all phenotypic and functional CD4 T cell subsets. The two most commonly reported cell types that become infected in vivo are memory CD4 T cells and tissue-resident macrophages. Though viral infection of CD4 T cells is routinely detected in both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected Asian macaques, significant viral infection of macrophages is only routinely observed in animal models wherein CD4 T cells are almost entirely depleted. Here we review the roles of macrophages in lentiviral disease progression, the evidence that macrophages support viral replication in vivo, the animal models where macrophage-mediated replication of SIV is thought to occur, how the virus can interact with macrophages in vivo, pathologies thought to be attributed to viral replication within macrophages, how viral replication in macrophages might contribute to the asymptomatic phase of HIV/SIV infection, and whether macrophages represent a long-lived reservoir for the virus. PMID:27307568

  16. 76 FR 72417 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Through Solid Organ... (PHS) Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) through Solid Organ Transplantation'' (76 FR 58517). Written...

  17. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) through Solid Organ Transplantation (Draft Guideline). The Draft Guideline can...

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease. PMID:23662195

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Testing and the Right of Privacy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    test, the Western blot is done. Western blot is more specific than ELISA for antibodies but it is more expensive and complicated to run. Unfortunately...the error rates or the reliability of the ELISA test varies from laboratory to laboratory. The S interpretation of the Western blot also can vary...Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV (formerly known as Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III, HTLV III and Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus, LAV or a combination of those

  20. Neurosyphilis in a Man with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghani, Khosro; Kallini, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a 33-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus who developed erythematous macules on the palms and soles with subsequent headaches, papilledema, and iritis. They review the salient characteristics of neurosyphilis with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. The incidence of syphilis has increased since the year 2000 in African Americans, Hispanics, and men who have sex with men. Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of this disease—a fastidious, slowly growing, microaerophilic spirochete. Sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission. The rapid plasma reagin, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory assay, and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption assay are commonly used to diagnose syphilis. The mainstay treatment is penicillin. Special considerations exist in the natural history and management of syphilis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:25161759

  1. Spatial analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cougars.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David C; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

    2010-07-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations.

  2. Distinct replicative and cytopathic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Fenyö, E M; Morfeldt-Månson, L; Chiodi, F; Lind, B; von Gegerfelt, A; Albert, J; Olausson, E; Asjö, B

    1988-01-01

    According to their capacity to replicate in vitro, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates can be divided into two major groups, rapid/high and slow/low. Rapid/high viruses can easily be transmitted to a variety of cell lines of T-lymphoid (CEM, H9, and Jurkat) and monocytoid (U937) origin. In contrast, slow/low viruses replicate transiently, if at all, in these cell lines. Except for a few isolates, the great majority of slow/low viruses replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat-tatIII cells constitutively expressing the tatIII gene of HIV-1. The viruses able to replicate efficiently cause syncytium formation and are regularly isolated from immunodeficient patients. Poorly replicating HIV isolates, often obtained from individuals with no or mild disease, show syncytium formation and single-cell killing simultaneously or, with some isolates, cell killing only. Images PMID:2459416

  3. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  4. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  5. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  6. Inhibition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus by oligodeoxynucleoside methylphosphonates.

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, P S; Agrawal, S; Civeira, M P; Goodchild, J; Ikeuchi, T; Zamecnik, P C

    1988-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides containing internucleoside methylphosphonate linkages were examined for their ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced syncytium formation and virus expression. HIV inhibitory activity was found to be dependent on both chain length and the number of phosphonate residues. Introduction of 18 phosphonate groups in an oligomer of chain length 20 significantly increased HIV inhibitory activity relative to the parent oligonucleotide, whereas 5 such groups showed little or no increase in the HIV inhibition capacity. Methylphosphonate-linked oligomers are more stable to nuclease degradation and hence could be potentially useful in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:3174646

  7. Identification of a novel retroviral gene unique to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVMAC.

    PubMed Central

    Kappes, J C; Morrow, C D; Lee, S W; Jameson, B A; Kent, S B; Hood, L E; Shaw, G M; Hahn, B H

    1988-01-01

    Human and simian immunodeficiency-associated retroviruses are extraordinarily complex, containing at least five genes, tat, art, sor, R, and 3' orf, in addition to the structural genes gag, pol, and env. Recently, nucleotide sequence analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVMAC revealed the existence of still another open reading frame, termed X, which is highly conserved between these two viruses but absent from HIV-1. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that the X open reading frame represents a functional retroviral gene in both HIV-2 and SIVMAC and that it encodes a virion-associated protein of 14 and 12 kilodaltons, respectively. We also describe the production of recombinant TrpE/X fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and show that sera from some HIV-2-infected individuals specifically recognize these proteins. Images PMID:3136256

  8. Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with a global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia) and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less important as a deadly infectious agent as in the last 20 years prevalence has been decreasing in most countries.

  9. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa María; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future.

  11. The Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic, Washington, DC.

    This document presents findings of the Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. The executive summary lists 20 major findings and recommendations which together comprise a comprehensive national strategy for managing the HIV epidemic. The commission recommends: (1) replacement of the obsolete term "AIDS"…

  12. Risk Assessment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Pregnant Hispanic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, David K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assessed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk status of pregnant Hispanic adolescents in New York City. One-third of 87 adolescents were identified as being at increased risk for HIV infection. Sexual risk-taking behavior was most common factor that increased HIV risk. Birthplace and nationality were significantly associated with HIV risk…

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Associated Sporadic Nonfamilial Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Sibashish Kamal; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti; Lal, Niharika Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), a relatively uncommon metabolic disease, is the most common cutaneous porphyria. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with sporadic, nonfamilial PCT that presented with classical cutaneous findings and multiple risk factors, including alcohol abuse, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, that have been strongly associated with the sporadic form of PCT. PMID:27293254

  14. Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Sullivan, Katherine; Sletten, David M.; Fujii, Satomi; Umekawa, Sari; Kocher, Morgan; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Low, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequencies of symptoms associated with autonomic dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on stable combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients infected with HIV reported higher frequencies of dysautonomia symptoms compared with HIV-negative patients, particularly in the autonomic domains related to urinary, sleep, gastroparesis, secretomotor, pupillomotor, and male sexual dysfunction. PMID:26269797

  15. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-09

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression.

  16. 75 FR 22814 - Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): Testing, Product Disposition, and Donor Deferral... Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Nucleic Acid Test (NAT) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NAT, on...

  17. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Letvin, N L; Schmitz, J E; Jordan, H L; Seth, A; Hirsch, V M; Reimann, K A; Kuroda, M J

    1999-08-01

    A non-human primate model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey, was used to explore the role of the AIDS virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in disease pathogenesis. This CTL response was measured using the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I/peptide tetramer technology. Large numbers of tetramer-binding CD8+ T lymphocytes were demonstrable not only in the peripheral blood, but in lymph nodes and even in semen of chronically SIV-infected monkeys. The central role of these effector T lymphocytes in containing SIV spread during primary infection was demonstrated by showing that early SIV clearance during primary infection correlated with the emergence of the tetramer binding CD8+ T lymphocytes and that in vivo depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes eliminated the ability of the infected monkeys to contain SIV replication. These observations suggest that an effective AIDS vaccine should elicit a potent virus-specific CTL response. In fact, a live, recombinant SIV vaccine constructed using the attenuated pox virus vector modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) elicited a high-frequency CTL response, comparable in magnitude to that elicited by SIV infection itself. This suggests that vaccine modalities such as MVA may prove useful in creating an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. These studies also indicate the power of both the SIV/macaque model and MHC class I/peptide tetramers for assessing AIDS vaccine strategies.

  18. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Anthony A.; Rosenthal, David G.; Bender Ignacio, Rachel; Chu, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in immunocompromised hosts is a fulminant syndrome of immune activation with high rates of mortality that may be triggered by infections or immunodeficiency. Rapid diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disorder is necessary to prevent progression to multiorgan failure and death. We report a case of HLH in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus, disseminated histoplasmosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Escherichia coli bacteremia. We discuss management of acutely ill patients with HLH and treatment of the underlying infection versus initiation of HLH-specific chemotherapy. PMID:26566535

  19. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus can productively infect cultured human glial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng-Mayer, C; Rutka, J T; Rosenblum, M L; McHugh, T; Stites, D P; Levy, J A

    1987-05-01

    Six isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) showed differences in their ability to productively infect glioma-derived cell lines and early-passage human brain cell cultures. Susceptibility to HIV infection correlated well with the expression of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. The CD4 molecule was expressed on some, but not all, of the brain-derived cells; however, no correlation was observed between CD4 protein expression and susceptibility to virus infection. The results show that HIV can productively infect human brain cells, particularly those of glial origin, and suggest that these cell types in the brain can harbor the virus.

  1. Towards detecting the human immunodeficiency virus using microcantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alodhayb, Abdullah; Brown, Nicole; Saydur Rahman, S. M.; Harrigan, Richard; Beaulieu, L. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Detecting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is difficult because the virus is prone to mutations and is in low concentrations in the body. Inside the HIV virion are two well characterized single stranded (ss) RNA molecules (viral genome) that feature both variable regions and regions that are conserved under virus mutation. In this work, microcantilever sensors have been employed as potential HIV detectors by targeting a conserved sequence of the viral genome by attempting to detect target ssDNA and ssRNA molecules that are significantly longer than the ssDNA molecules functionalized on the cantilever.

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Liver Disease Forum 2010: Conference Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kenneth E.; Thomas, David L.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease continues to represent a critical mediator of morbidity and mortality in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The frequent presence and overlap of concomitant injurious processes, including hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections, hepatoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapeutic agents, alcohol, and other toxins, in the setting of immunosuppression lead to rapid fibrotic progression and early development of end-stage liver disease. This conference summary describes the proceedings of a state-of-the-art gathering of international experts designed to highlight the status of current research in epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis, and treatment of HIV and liver disease. PMID:21898501

  3. Persistent infection of macaques with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J T; Halloran, M; Lord, C I; Watson, A; Ranchalis, J; Fung, M; Letvin, N L; Sodroski, J G

    1995-01-01

    Chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) containing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tat, rev, env, and, in some cases, vpu genes were inoculated into eight cynomolgus monkeys. Viruses could be consistently recovered from the CD8-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes of all eight animals for at least 2 months. After this time, virus isolation varied among the animals, with viruses continuing to be isolated from some animals beyond 600 days after inoculation. The level of viral RNA in plasma during acute infection and the frequency of virus isolation after the initial 2-month period were higher for the Vpu-positive viruses. All of the animals remained clinically healthy, and the absolute numbers of CD4-positive lymphocytes were stable. Antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 were generated at high titers in animals exhibiting the greatest consistency of virus isolation. Strain-specific HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies were initially elicited, and then more broadly neutralizing antibodies were elicited. env sequences from two viruses isolated more than a year after infection were analyzed. In the Vpu-negative SHIV, for which virus loads were lower, a small amount of env variation, which did not correspond to that found in natural HIV-1 variants, was observed. By contrast, in the Vpu-positive virus, which was consistently isolated from the host animal, extensive variation of the envelope glycoproteins in the defined variable gp120 regions was observed. Escape from neutralization by CD4 binding site monoclonal antibodies was observed for the viruses with the latter envelope glycoproteins, and the mechanism of escape appears to involve decreased binding of the antibody to the monomeric gp120 glycoproteins. The consistency with which SHIV infection of cynomolgus monkeys is initiated and the similarities in the neutralizing antibody response to SHIV and HIV-1 support the utility of this model system for the study of HIV-1 prophylaxis. PMID

  4. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  5. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Goodchild, J; Agrawal, S; Civeira, M P; Sarin, P S; Sun, D; Zamecnik, P C

    1988-01-01

    Twenty different target sites within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA were selected for studies of inhibition of HIV replication by antisense oligonucleotides. Target sites were selected based on their potential capacity to block recognition functions during viral replication. Antisense oligomers complementary to sites within or near the sequence repeated at the ends of retrovirus RNA (R region) and to certain splice sites were most effective. The effect of antisense oligomer length on inhibiting virus replication was also investigated, and preliminary toxicity studies in mice show that these compounds are toxic only at high levels. The results indicate potential usefulness for these oligomers in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex either alone or in combination with other drugs. PMID:3041414

  6. Thirty years of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Younai, Fariba S

    2013-01-01

    After more than 30 years of battling a global epidemic, the prospect of eliminating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the most challenging infectious disease of the modern era is within our reach. Major scientific discoveries about the virus responsible for this immunodeficiency disease state, including its pathogenesis, transmission patterns and clinical course, have led to the development of potent antiretroviral drugs that offer great hopes in HIV treatment and prevention. Although these agents and many others still in development and testing are capable of effectively suppressing viral replication and survival, the medical management of HIV infection at the individual and the population levels remains challenging. Timely initiation of antiretroviral drugs, adherence to the appropriate therapeutic regimens, effective use of these agents in the pre and post-exposure prophylaxis contexts, treatment of comorbid conditions and addressing social and psychological factors involved in the care of individuals continue to be important considerations. PMID:24136672

  7. Recovery of the human immunodeficiency virus from fibreoptic bronchoscopes.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, P J; Gor, D; Clarke, J R; Chadwick, M V; Gazzard, B; Jeffries, D J; Gaya, H; Collins, J V

    1991-01-01

    Ten bronchoscopes that had been used on patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were sampled to determine the nature and extent of microbial contamination. Samples were taken by irrigating the suction biopsy channel with modified viral transport medium and by swabbing the insertion tube. Sampling was repeated after they had been cleaned in detergent and after two minutes' disinfection in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde. Before being cleaned the seven bronchoscopes tested by polymerase chain reaction were contaminated with the human immunodeficiency virus, though infectivity and antigen assays gave negative results. Other organisms identified were hepatitis B virus (1), commensal bacteria (9), and Pneumocystis carinii (4). Mean bacterial contamination was 2.27 log colony forming organisms per millilitre. Cleaning the bronchoscope before disinfection removed all detectable contaminants with a reduction in bacterial growth of up to 8 log colony forming units/ml. PMID:1858078

  8. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, John; Agrawal, Sudhir; Civeira, Maria P.; Sarin, Prem S.; Sun, Daisy; Zamecnik, Paul C.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty different target sites within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA were selected for studies of inhibition of HIV replication by antisense oligonucleotides. Target sites were selected based on their potential capacity to block recognition functions during viral replication. Antisense oligomers complementary to sites within or near the sequence repeated at the ends of retrovirus RNA (R region) and to certain splice sites were most effective. The effect of antisense oligomer length on inhibiting virus replication was also investigated, and preliminary toxicity studies in mice show that these compounds are toxic only at high levels. The results indicate potential usefulness for these oligomers in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex either alone or in combination with other drugs.

  9. Antiretroviral therapy reduces neurodegeneration in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Alex K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh; Letendre, Scott L.; Achim, Cristian L.; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of virally-suppressive antiretroviral therapy on cortical neurodegeneration and associated neurocognitive impairment. Design Retrospective, postmortem observational study. Methods Clinical neuropsychological and postmortem neuropathology data were analyzed in 90 human immunodeficiency virus-infected volunteers from the general community who had never undergone antiretroviral therapy (n=7, “naïve”) or who had undergone antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma viral load was detectable (n = 64 “unsuppressed”) or undetectable (n = 19, “suppressed”) at the last clinical visit prior to death. Subjects were predominately male (74/90, 82%) with a mean age of 44.7 years (SD 9.8). Cortical neurodegeneration was quantified by measuring microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) and synaptophysin (SYP) density in midfrontal cortex tissue sections. Results The suppressed group had higher SYP density than the naïve group (p = 0.007) and higher MAP2 density than the unsuppressed group (p = 0.04). The suppressed group had lower odds of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders than naïve (OR 0.07, p = 0.03). Higher SYP was associated with lower likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders in univariable (OR 0.8, p=0.03) and multivariable models after controlling for antiretroviral treatment and brain human immunodeficiency virus p24 protein levels (OR 0.72, p=0.01). Conclusions We conclude that virally suppressive antiretroviral treatment protects against cortical neurodegeneration. Further, we find evidence supporting the causal chain from treatment-mediated peripheral and central nervous system viral load suppression to reduced neurodegeneration and improved neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:25686681

  10. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Patton, Lauren L

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications.

  11. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

  12. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H.; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication. PMID:27047986

  13. Candida Esophagitis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Positive Elite Controller With Hepatitis C Virus Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Anders; Shieh, Eugenie; Brinkley, Sherilyn; Blankson, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of Candida esophagitis in a human immunodeficiency virus elite controller with a preserved CD4 count, a population in which opportunistic infections are almost never seen. The patient has hepatitis C virus coinfection and compensated cirrhosis, suggesting a possible multifactorial etiology of immune dysregulation. PMID:25734179

  14. [Vaccination against the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Girard, M; Pialoux, G

    1995-06-15

    Much progress has been made in recent years in the development of anti-VIH vaccines. Nearly 20 such vaccines have reached phase 1 clinical study in seronegative volunteers. The responses invoked by these vaccines are, however, mediocre, both in quality (lack of cross over neutralisation in isolated "wild" viruses) and in their levels and length of action. New formulations of vaccines are under study, but their development is long and difficult, and researchers are still disarmed by the problem of the variability of the virus. Several years of study, both clinical and fundamental, will be necessary before an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is available.

  15. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge and risk factors in Ethiopian military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Abebe, Yegeremu; Brodine, Stephanie K; Kraft, Heidi S; Shaffer, Richard A; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2004-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge and behaviors were assessed in face-to-face structured interviews with 314 Ethiopian military personnel. A significant finding of this research was the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risky sexual behavior. That is, military personnel who had inaccurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention were 3.4 times as likely to engage in combined sexual risk behaviors compared with personnel with accurate knowledge, after controlling for age, military rank, and marital status (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-6.22). This finding highlights the potential value of educational programs in slowing the spread of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 536: Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and women of color.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, most new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur among women of color (primarily African American and Hispanic women). Most women of color acquire the disease from heterosexual contact, often from a partner who has undisclosed risk factors for HIV infection. Safe sex practices, especially consistent condom use, must be emphasized for all women, including women of color. A combination of testing, education, and brief behavioral interventions can help reduce the rate of HIV infection and its complications among women of color. In addition,biomedical interventions such as early treatment of patients infected with HIV and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis of high-risk individuals offer promise for future reductions in infections.

  18. In Vivo Monocyte Tropism of Pathogenic Feline Immunodeficiency Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Steven W.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Hoover, Edward A.

    1999-01-01

    Virus-infected monocytes rarely are detected in the bloodstreams of animals or people infected with immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses, yet tissue macrophages are thought to be a major reservoir of virus-infected cells in vivo. We have identified feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) clinical isolates that are pathogenic in cats and readily transmitted vertically. We report here that five of these FIV isolates are highly monocytotropic in vivo. However, while FIV-infected monocytes were numerous in the blood of experimentally infected cats, viral antigen was not detectable in freshly isolated cells. Only after a short-term (at least 12-h) in vitro monocyte culture were FIV antigens detectable (by immunocytochemical analysis or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). In vitro experiments suggested that monocyte adherence provided an important trigger for virus antigen expression. In the blood of cats infected with a prototype monocytotropic isolate (FIV subtype B strain 2542), infected monocytes appeared within 2 weeks, correlating with high blood mononuclear-cell-associated viral titers and CD4 cell depletion. By contrast, infected monocytes could not be detected in the blood of cats infected with a less pathogenic FIV strain (FIV subtype A strain Petaluma). We concluded that some strains of FIV are monocytotropic in vivo. Moreover, this property may relate to virus virulence, vertical transmission, and infection of tissue macrophages. PMID:10400783

  19. Homeostatic Cytokines Induce CD4 Downregulation in African Green Monkeys Independently of Antigen Exposure To Generate Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Resistant CD8αα T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Molly R.; Briant, Judith A.; Calantone, Nina; Whitted, Sonya; Vinton, Carol L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Ortiz, Alexandra M.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGMs; genus Chlorocebus) are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). As they do not develop simian AIDS, there is great interest in understanding how this species has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Adult African green monkeys naturally have low numbers of CD4 T cells and a large population of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted CD8αdim T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4+ T cells. Mechanisms that drive this process of CD4 downregulation are unknown. Here, we show that juvenile AGMs accelerate CD4-to-CD8αα conversion upon SIV infection and avoid progression to AIDS. The CD4 downregulation induced by SIV infection is not limited to SIV-specific T cells, and vaccination of an adult AGM who had a negligible number of CD4 T cells demonstrated that CD4 downregulation can occur without antigenic exposure. Finally, we show that the T cell homeostatic cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 can induce CD4 downregulation in vitro. These data identify a mechanism that allows AGMs to generate a large, diverse population of T cells that perform CD4 T cell functions but are resistant to SIV infection. A better understanding of this mechanism may allow the development of treatments to induce protective CD4 downregulation in humans. IMPORTANCE Many African primate species are naturally infected with SIV. African green monkeys, one natural host species, avoid simian AIDS by creating a population of T cells that lack CD4, the human immunodeficiency virus/SIV receptor; therefore, they are resistant to infection. However, these T cells maintain properties of CD4+ T cells even after receptor downregulation and preserve immune function. Here, we show that juvenile AGMs, who have not undergone extensive CD4 downregulation, accelerate this process upon SIV infection. Furthermore, we show that in vivo, CD4 downregulation does not occur exclusively in antigen-experienced T cells

  20. Tissue tropism of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Wyand, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a T-lymphotropic lentivirus that is genetically, immunologically, and morphologically related to the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). In rhesus monkeys, SIV induces a progressively fatal immunodeficiency syndrome strikingly similar to human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The tissue and cellular tropism of SIV was determined by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization using a 3.48 kilobase SIV envelope gene probe labeled with biotin, {sup 35}S, or {sup 3}H. Probes labeled with {sup 35}S nonspecifically bound to tissue eosinophils and produced poor signal resolution compared to tritium labeled probes. Biotin labeled probes did not detect SIV under similar hybridization conditions. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues produced strong hybridization signal with superior morphology compared to frozen tissues. Gastrointestinal, respiratory, and lymphoid tissues most frequently contained SIV RNA. The distribution of SIV did not correlate with sex, or viral inoculum, but was most extensive in animals with SIV induced granulomatous encephalitis. SIV was most frequently observed in lymphocytes and macrophages. In the brain focal granulomas were composed almost entirely of EBM11+, lysozyme+, macrophages which contained large amounts of SIV RNA and p27 core protein detected by the monoclonal antibody R1C7. Cells away from granulomas in the brain parenchyma and around blood vessels contained virus and were compatible with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Lymph nodes in follicular hyperplasia contained small numbers of SIV positive cells compatible with lymphocytes in the paracortex and mantle zones as well as in cells of the germinal center. Lymph nodes in various stages of follicular depletion with expanded paracortices contained large numbers of cells with SIV RNA in lymphocytes and macrophages.

  1. Aminosugar derivatives as potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents.

    PubMed Central

    Karpas, A; Fleet, G W; Dwek, R A; Petursson, S; Namgoong, S K; Ramsden, N G; Jacob, G S; Rademacher, T W

    1988-01-01

    Recent data suggest that aminosugar derivatives which inhibit glycoprotein processing have potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. These inhibitory effects may be due to disruption of cell fusion and subsequent cell-cell transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus. Free virus particles able to bind CD4-positive cells are still produced in the presence of these compounds with only partial reduction of infectivity. We now report a method to score in parallel both the degree of antiviral activity and the effect on cell division of aminosugar derivatives. We find that (i) the compounds 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol and N-(5-carboxymethyl-1-pentyl)-1,5-imino-L-fucitol partially inhibit the cytopathic effect (giant cell formation, etc.) of HIV and yield of infectious virus; (ii) the compounds N-methyldeoxynojirimycin and N-ethyldeoxynojirimycin reduce the yield of infectious HIV by an order of four and three logarithms, respectively; and (iii) one compound, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, of the 47 compounds previously screened reduces infectious viral particles by a logarithmic order greater than five at noncytotoxic concentrations. In addition, long-term growth of infected cells in the presence of N-butyldeoxynojirimycin gradually decreases the proportion of infected cells, leading to eventual elimination of HIV from culture. This result suggests that replication is associated with cytolysis. The ability to break the cycle of replication and reinfection has important implications in the chemotherapy of AIDS. PMID:3264071

  2. NMR structure of the myristylated feline immunodeficiency virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lola A; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O; Summers, Michael F

    2015-04-30

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag's N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.

  3. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lola A.; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G.; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O.; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  4. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae.

  5. Rehabilitation in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-related diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, M W; Dillon, M E

    1992-06-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a fatal disorder of cell-mediated immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As many as one million Americans infected with HIV can expect improved survival with more advanced treatment approaches. Complications of HIV infection occur in the brain, spinal cord, muscle, nerve, joints and other organ systems, which lead to extensive impairments. As survival increases, rehabilitation professionals can anticipate a greater number of referrals for the assessment and management of physical disability in persons with HIV infection. This article reviews HIV-related disease, impairment, disability and handicap pertinent to rehabilitation medicine. An agenda for future research is also proposed. Current knowledge and models or rehabilitation care can be applied to HIV-related physical disability in an effort to improve overall quality of life.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus and the substance abuser: public policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Fernandez, F

    1994-05-01

    Until recently, the abuse of intravenous drugs was perceived as a problem of the United States, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was seen mainly as a sexually transmitted disease that tended to affect homosexuals from industrialized nations. However, these perceptions are no longer valid. At present, the abuse of intravenous drugs constitutes the second most common cause of AIDS in the United States and in Europe. This trend has led to a review of the current strategies in the fight against infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We analyzed the current epidemiologic trends regarding infection with HIV; we examined the behavioral manifestations of intravenous drug users, particularly from a sexual point of view; and finally, we reviewed the most relevant governmental public policy positions related to drug abuse, specially that focusing on "damage control."

  7. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia Enable Javascript to view the ... X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (typically known by the acronym ...

  8. Lymphatic Dissemination of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus after Penile Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Min; Dutra, Joseph; Fritts, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily transmitted by heterosexual contact, and approximately equal numbers of men and women worldwide are infected with the virus. Understanding the biology of HIV acquisition and dissemination in men exposed to the virus by insertive penile intercourse is likely to help with the rational design of vaccines that can limit or prevent HIV transmission. To characterize the target cells and dissemination pathways involved in establishing systemic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, we necropsied male rhesus macaques at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after penile SIV inoculation and quantified the levels of unspliced SIV RNA and spliced SIV RNA in tissue lysates and the number of SIV RNA-positive cells in tissue sections. We found that penile (glans, foreskin, coronal sulcus) T cells and, to a lesser extent, macrophages and dendritic cells are primary targets of infection and that SIV rapidly reaches the regional lymph nodes. At 7 days after inoculation, SIV had disseminated to the blood, systemic lymph nodes, and mucosal lymphoid tissues. Further, at 7 days postinoculation (p.i.), spliced SIV RNA levels were the highest in the genital lymph nodes, indicating that this is the site where the infection is initially amplified. By 14 days p.i., spliced SIV RNA levels were high in all tissues, but they were the highest in the gastrointestinal tract, indicating that the primary site of virus replication had shifted from the genital lymph nodes to the gut. The stepwise pattern of virus replication and dissemination described here suggests that vaccine-elicited immune responses in the genital lymph nodes could help prevent infection after penile SIV challenge. IMPORTANCE To be the most effective, vaccines should produce antiviral immune responses in the anatomic sites of virus replication. Thus, understanding the path taken by HIV from the mucosal surfaces, which are the site of virus exposure, to the deeper tissues where

  9. Oligodeoxynucleoside phosphoramidates and phosphorothioates as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, S; Goodchild, J; Civeira, M P; Thornton, A H; Sarin, P S; Zamecnik, P C

    1988-01-01

    Modified oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to RNA of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) were tested for their ability to inhibit virally induced syncytium formation and expression of viral p24 protein. The modifications of oligomers include replacement of backbone phosphodiester groups with phosphorothioates and various phosphoramidates. All oligomers were found to be active. Oligomers with complete replacement of phosphodiesters with phosphoramidate or phosphorothioate groups were more active at the micromolar range than were unmodified oligomers of the same sequence. In addition, modified and unmodified homooligonucleotides also showed inhibition of HIV-1 replication. It is suggested that different classes of oligonucleotides may inhibit HIV replication by different mechanisms. PMID:3174622

  10. Primary Care of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient.

    PubMed

    Buckhold, Fred R

    2015-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a disease that affects 1 million patients in the United States. Many excellent drug regimens exist that effectively suppress the viral load and improve immune function, but there are consequences of long-term antiviral therapy. In addition, patients with HIV tend to have much higher rates of chronic disease, substance abuse, and cancer. Thus, while expert care in the treatment of HIV remains critical, the skill set of a primary care provider in the prevention, detection, and management of acute and chronic illness is vital to the care of the HIV patient.

  11. Fungal, Viral, and Parasitic Pneumonias Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Skalski, Joseph H; Limper, Andrew H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory illness is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The spectrum of pulmonary disease that can affect patients with HIV is wide and includes opportunistic infection with many fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms. This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness.

  12. Neuromyelitis optica in patients with coexisting human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Singh, Parbhdeep; Smith, Robert G

    2013-09-01

    Two patients with known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and receiving antiretroviral treatment developed neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease). One patient tested positive for serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies. Both patients were treated with high dose pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone followed by standard sessions of plasma exchange both at the onset attack and during disease relapses. For maintenance therapy, one patient received rituximab infusions and the second patient received mycophenolate mofetil orally. Despite treatment, both patients are currently wheelchair-bound due to severe paraparesis. Neuromyelitis optica can occur in the course of HIV infection and poses an ongoing therapeutic challenge.

  13. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Deficiency Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Dis 158:1158, 1988 2. Albert J, Bredberg U, Chiodi F, et a: A new human retrovirus isolate of West African origin (SBL-6669) and its relationship to...J Epidemiol 4:426, 1988 27. Chiodi F, Albert J, Olausson E, et al: Isolation frequency of human immunodeficiency virus from cerebrospinal fluid and...blood of patients with varying severity of HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 4:351, 1988 28. Chiodi F, Bredberg-Baden U, Biberfeld G, et al

  14. Genetic diversity of Argentine isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, M R; Tomonaga, K; Miyazawa, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Sugita, S; Tohya, Y; Kai, C; Etcheverrigaray, M E; Mikami, T

    1996-09-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence and genetic diversity of part of the envelope (env) gene of four strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated from Argentine domestic cats. The DNA encoding the V3 to V5 regions of the env gene of the FIV isolates were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Argentine isolates did not cluster into a single group; one isolate clustered with subtype B FIV isolated in the USA and Japan, whereas the others formed a new cluster of FIV which might represent a prototype sequence for subtype E.

  15. Inner architecture of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Fukui, T; Imura, S; Goto, T; Nakai, M

    1993-07-01

    The cores of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) were observed by negative staining after isolation of the core with Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde. Four kinds of cores were found: asymmetric and symmetric sectoral shapes, a bar shape, and a triangular shape. These results were confirmed by the examination of ultrathin sections of whole virions. In some virions, the connection between the core and the envelope was observed after freeze fracturing. Its structure was considered to be characteristic of an intermediate stage of viral maturation. The HIV-1 core was reacted with anti-HIV-1 p24 mouse monoclonal antibody.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus associated plasmablastic lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Dinkar; Pandit, Siddharth; Jasphin, Shiny; Shetty, Akhil S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the third common malignant lesion of the oral region. Plasmablastic lymphomas are rare, aggressive neoplasms occurring mostly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individual which accounts for approximately 2.6% of all NHL. It usually presents as a diffuse growth and with diffuse pattern of histological presentation. It is very difficult to differentiate this lymphoma from other NHL. Immunohistochemical evaluation of various markers is an important criteria of the diagnostic protocol. Here, we describe a case of plasmablastic lymphoma in a 50-year-old female HIV-infected patient. The diagnosis was based on histopathological examination and immunophenotyping. PMID:27795651

  17. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  20. 75 FR 51273 - Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus... Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. Notice of Intent to increase... Announcement CDC-RFA-PS10-10138, ``Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for...

  1. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ requirements. 610.46 Section 610.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are...

  2. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ requirements. 610.46 Section 610.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are...

  3. Early pathogenesis of transmucosal feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Obert, Leslie A; Hoover, Edward A

    2002-06-01

    To identify the early target cells and tissues in transmucosal feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, cats were exposed to a clade C FIV isolate via the oral-nasal or vaginal mucosa and multiple tissues were examined by virus isolation coculture (VI), DNA PCR, catalyzed tyramide signal-amplified in situ hybridization (TSA-ISH), and immunohistochemistry between days 1 and 12 postinoculation (p.i.). FIV RNA was detected in tonsil and oral or vaginal mucosa as early as 1 day p.i. by TSA-ISH and in retropharyngeal, tracheobronchial, or external iliac lymph nodes and sometimes in spleen or blood mononuclear cells by day 2, indicating that regional and distant spread of virus-infected cells occurred rapidly after mucosal exposure. By day 8, viral RNA, DNA, and culturable virus were uniformly detected in regional and distant tissues, connoting systemic infection. TSA-ISH proved more sensitive than DNA PCR in detecting early FIV-infected cells. In mucosal tissues, the earliest demonstrable FIV-bearing cells were either within or subjacent to the mucosal epithelium or were in germinal centers of regional lymph nodes. The FIV(+) cells were of either of two morphological types, large stellate or small round. Those FIV RNA(+) cells which could be colabeled for a phenotype marker, were labeled for either dendritic-cell-associated protein p55 or T-lymphocyte receptor antigen CD3. These studies indicate that FIV crosses mucous membranes within hours after exposure and rapidly traffics via dendritic and T cells to systemic lymphoid tissues, a pathway similar to that thought to occur in the initial phase of infection by the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants affected by primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Lanari, Marcello; Vandini, Silvia; Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population.

  5. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population. PMID:25089282

  6. Feline immunodeficiency virus clade C mucosal transmission and disease courses.

    PubMed

    Obert, L A; Hoover, E A

    2000-05-01

    The transmissibility and pathogenicity of a clade C feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-C) was examined via the oral-nasal, vaginal, or rectal mucosa. FIV-C was transmissible by all three mucosal routes. Vaginal transmission was most efficient (100%), oral exposure resulted in a 80% infection rate, and rectal transmission was least effective (44%). In contrast to previous intravenous passage studies, a broader range of host-virus relationships was observed after mucosal exposure. Three categories of FIV-C infection were defined: (1) rapidly progressive infection marked by high virus burdens and rapid CD4+ cell depletion (43% of vaginally exposed animals); (2) conventional (typical) infection featuring slowly progressive CD4+ cell decline (61% of all exposed animals); and (3) regressive (transient) infection marked by low and then barely detectable virus burdens and no CD4+ cell alterations (22% of rectally inoculated cats). These disease courses appear to have parallels in mucosal HIV and SIV infections, emphasizing the importance of the virus-mucosa interface in lentiviral pathogenesis.

  7. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, D S; Willey, R L; Sato, H; Chang, L J; Blumenthal, R; Martin, M A

    1993-01-01

    Tissue culture infections of CD4-positive human T cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proceed in three stages: (i) a period following the initiation of an infection during which no detectable virus is produced; (ii) a phase in which a sharp increase followed by a peak of released progeny virions can be measured; and (iii) a final period when virus production declines. In this study, we have derived equations describing the kinetics of HIV-1 accumulation in cell culture supernatants during multiple rounds of infection. Our analyses indicated that the critical parameter affecting the kinetics of HIV-1 infection is the infection rate constant k = Inn/ti, where n is the number of infectious virions produced by one cell (about 10(2)) and ti is the time required for one complete cycle of virus infection (typically 3 to 4 days). Of particular note was our finding that the infectivity of HIV-1 during cell-to-cell transmission is 10(2) to 10(3) times greater than the infectivity of cell-free virus stocks, the inocula commonly used to initiate tissue culture infections. We also demonstrated that the slow infection kinetics of an HIV-1 tat mutant is not due to a longer replication time but reflects the small number of infectious particles produced per cycle. PMID:8445728

  8. BST-2 mediated restriction of simian-human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Autumn; Lau, David; Mitchell, Richard S; Hill, M Sarah; Schmitt, Kimberly; Guatelli, John C; Stephens, Edward B

    2010-10-25

    Pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) contain HIV-1 Vpu and SIV Nef, both shown to counteract BST-2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) inhibition of virus release in a species-specific manner. We show that human and pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) restrict SHIV. We found that sequential "humanization" of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) protein resulted in a fluctuation in sensitivity to HIV-1 Vpu. Our results also show that the length of the TMD in human and ptBST-2 proteins is important for BST-2 restriction and susceptibility to Vpu. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of tertiary structure in BST-2 antagonism and suggests that the HIV-1 Vpu transmembrane domain may have additional functions in vivo unrelated to BST-2 antagonism.

  9. Recombination in feline immunodeficiency virus genomes from naturally infected cougars.

    PubMed

    Bruen, Trevor C; Poss, Mary

    2007-08-01

    Recombination contributes significantly to diversity within virus populations and ultimately to viral evolution. Here we use a recently developed statistical test to perform exploratory analysis of recombination in fourteen feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVpco) genomes derived from a wild population of cougars. We use both the global and local Phi statistical test as an overall guide to predict where recombination may have occurred. Further analyses, including similarity plots and phylogenetic incongruence tests, confirmed that three FIVpco lineages were derived from recombinant events. Interestingly, the regions of mosaic origin were clustered in the area encoding lentiviral accessory genes and largely spared the viral structural genes. Because some of the mosaic strains are currently geographically disparate, our data indicate that the dispersal of cougars infected with these strains was preceded by recombination events. These results suggest that recombination has played an important role in the evolution of FIVpco for this wild population of cougars.

  10. Primary pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, R.; Fernandez-Infante, B.; Fernandez-Rozas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Several cardiorespiratory diseases can complicate human immunodeficiency virus infection. Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare clinical disorder which carries a bad prognosis. More than 90 cases of HIV-associated primary pulmonary hypertension have been reported to date. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, some evidence suggests a possible role for the virus itself in its development. Genetic susceptibility may also be implicated. The clinical and histopathologic features of this entity do not differ from those of classic primary pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and a careful evaluation to rule out causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. In addition to supportive measures, anticoagulation and vasodilators have been used to treat this disorder, although sufficient data regarding long-term results with these therapies are lacking. PMID:9799910

  11. Primary pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Golpe, R; Fernandez-Infante, B; Fernandez-Rozas, S

    1998-07-01

    Several cardiorespiratory diseases can complicate human immunodeficiency virus infection. Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare clinical disorder which carries a bad prognosis. More than 90 cases of HIV-associated primary pulmonary hypertension have been reported to date. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, some evidence suggests a possible role for the virus itself in its development. Genetic susceptibility may also be implicated. The clinical and histopathologic features of this entity do not differ from those of classic primary pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and a careful evaluation to rule out causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. In addition to supportive measures, anticoagulation and vasodilators have been used to treat this disorder, although sufficient data regarding long-term results with these therapies are lacking.

  12. Persistent infection of rabbits with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus.

    PubMed Central

    Pifat, D Y; Ennis, W H; Ward, J M; Oberste, M S; Gonda, M A

    1992-01-01

    Chronic infection of rabbits was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV)-infected cells. Ten BIV-infected animals were monitored serologically for up to 2 years. Results of serologic and virus rescue assays indicated that all animals became infected and demonstrated a rapid and sustained BIV-specific humoral response. BIV was rescued by cocultivation from spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood leukocytes of infected animals. Viral DNA in immune tissues was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of BIV sequences. These data and specific immunohistochemical staining of mononuclear cells of the spleen for BIV antigen suggest that the infection is targeted to immune system cells. Images PMID:1318416

  13. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Model for Designing HIV/AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Janet K.; Sanou, Missa P.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Coleman, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) discovered in 1986 is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats. FIV is classified into five subtypes (A–E), and all subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants have been identified throughout the world. A commercial FIV vaccine, consisting of inactivated subtype-A and –D viruses (Fel-O-Vax FIV, Fort Dodge Animal Health), was released in the United States in 2002. The United States Department of Agriculture approved the commercial release of Fel-O-Vax FIV based on two efficacy trials using 105 laboratory cats and a major safety trial performed on 689 pet cats. The prototype and commercial FIV vaccines had broad prophylactic efficacy against global FIV subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants. The mechanisms of cross-subtype efficacy are attributed to FIV-specific T-cell immunity. Findings from these studies are being used to define the prophylactic epitopes needed for an HIV-1 vaccine for humans. PMID:20210778

  14. BST-2 Mediated Restriction of Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Autumn; Lau, David; Mitchell, Richard S.; Hill, M. Sarah; Schmitt, Kimberly; Guatelli, John C.; Stephens, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV)contain HIV-1 Vpu and SIV Nef, both shown to counteract BST-2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) inhibition of virus release in a species-specific manner. We show that human and pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) restrict SHIV. We found that sequential “humanize” of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) protein resulted in a fluctuation in sensitivity to HIV-1 Vpu. Our results also show that the length of the TMD in human and ptBST-2 proteins is important for BST-2 restriction and susceptibility to Vpu. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of tertiary structure in BST-2 antagonism and suggests that the HIV-1 Vpu transmembrane domain may have additional functions in vivo unrelated to BST-2 antagonism. PMID:20708210

  15. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb

    2002-09-01

    In persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the immune system becomes dysfunctional in many ways. There is both immunodeficiency due to the loss of CD4-positive T helper cells and hyperactivity as a result of B-cell activation. Likewise, both decreases and increases are seen in the production and/or activity of cytokines. Cytokine changes in HIV infection have been assessed by a variety of techniques, ranging from determination of cytokine gene expression at the mRNA level to secretion of cytokine proteins in vivo and in vitro. Changes in cytokine levels in HIV-infected persons can affect the function of the immune system, and have the potential to directly impact the course of HIV disease by enhancing or suppressing HIV replication. In particular, the balance between the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which up-regulate HIV expression, and IL-10, which can act both as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and a B-cell stimulatory factor, may play an important role in the progression to AIDS. In light of its ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, under some conditions, suppress HIV replication, increased IL-10 may be viewed as beneficial in slowing HIV disease progression. However, an association between increased IL-10 and the development of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphoma highlights the bifunctional nature of IL-10 as both an anti-inflammatory and B-cell-stimulatory cytokine that could have beneficial and detrimental effects on the course of HIV infection and AIDS.

  16. Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes. PMID:15744406

  17. Gene-based immunotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dropulic, Boro; June, Carl H

    2006-06-01

    More than 40 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and a successful vaccine is at least a decade away. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy prolongs life, the maintenance of viral latency requires life-long treatment and results in cumulative toxicities and viral escape mutants. Gene therapy offers the promise to cure or prevent progressive HIV infection by interfering with HIV replication and CD4+ cell decline long term in the absence of chronic chemotherapy, and approximately 2 million HIV-infected individuals live in settings where there is sufficient infrastructure to support its application with current technology. Although the development of HIV/AIDS gene therapy has been slow, progress in a number of areas is evident, so that studies to date have significantly advanced the field of gene-based immunotherapy. Advances have helped to define a series of ongoing and planned trials that may shed light on potential mechanisms for the successful clinical gene therapy of HIV.

  18. Repeatedly positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA polymerase chain reaction in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed seroreverting infants.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, S S; Tetali, S; Abrams, E J; Paul, M O; Pahwa, S G

    1995-08-01

    Three human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-exposed children who had repeatedly positive DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for HIV in > or = 5 samples before seroreversion to HIV-negative status are reported. The children belong to a cohort of 210 infants who were born to HIV-infected mothers and were tested at intervals of 1 to 3 months by HIV viral culture, PCR, and p24 antigen; only the PCR was positive in > or = 5 samples in the children reported here. Their clinical features were indistinguishable from other seroreverters. All three children had a transient drop in CD4:CD8 ratio to < 1.0. The transiently positive DNA PCR in HIV-exposed infants may indicate either that HIV infection was eliminated by a strong host immune response or that infection was caused by an attenuated/defective strain of virus.

  19. The life-cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Nakai, M; Ikuta, K

    1998-01-01

    The life-cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been studied using several techniques including immunoelectron microscopy and cryomicroscopy. The HIV-1 particle consists of an envelope, a core and the region between the core and the envelope (matrix). Virus particles in the extracellular space are observed as having various profiles: a central or an eccentric round electron-dense core, a bar-shaped electron-dense core, and immature doughnut-shaped particle. HIV-1 particles in the hydrated state were observed by high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy to be spherical and the lipid membrane was clearly resolved as a bilayer. Projections around the circumference were seen to be knob-like. The shapes and sizes of the projections, especially the head parts, were found to vary with each projection. HIV-1 cores were isolated with a mixture of Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde, and were confirmed to consist of HIV-1 Gag p24 protein by immunogold labelling. On infection, the HIV-1 virus was found to enter the cell in two ways: membrane fusion and endocytosis. After viral entry, no structures resembling virus particles could be seen in the cytoplasm. In the infected cells, positive reactions by immunolabelling suggest that HIV-1 Gag is produced in membrane-bound structures and transported to the cell surface by the cytoskeletons. A crescent electron-dense layer is then formed underneath the cell membrane. Finally, the virus particle is released from the cell surface and found extracellularly to be a complete virus particle with an electron-dense core. However, several cell clones producing defective mature, doughnut-shaped (immature) or teardrop-shaped particles were found to be produced in the extracellular space. In the doughnut-shaped particles, Gag p17 and p24 proteins exist facing each other against an inner electron-dense ring, suggesting that the inner ring consists of a precursor Gag protein showing a defect at the viral proteinase.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  1. Molecular characterization of gag proteins from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVMne).

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L E; Benveniste, R E; Sowder, R; Copeland, T D; Schultz, A M; Oroszlan, S

    1988-01-01

    A simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) designated SIVMne was isolated from a pig-tailed macaque with lymphoma housed at the University of Washington Regional Primate Research Center, Seattle. To better establish the relationship of SIVMne to other immunodeficiency viruses, we purified and determined the partial amino acid sequences of six structural proteins (p1, p2, p6, p8, p16, and p28) from SIVMne and compared these amino acid sequences to the translated nucleotide sequences of SIVMac and human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). A total of 125 residues of SIVMne amino acid sequence were compared to the predicted amino acid sequences of the gag precursors of SIV and HIVs. In the compared regions 92% of the SIVMne amino acids were identical to predicted residues of SIVMac, 83% were identical to predicted residues of HIV-2, and 41% were identical to predicted residues of HIV-1. These data reveal that the six SIVMne proteins are proteolytic cleavage products of the gag precursor (Pr60gag) and that their order in the structure of Pr60gag is p16-p28-p2-p8-p1-p6. Rabbit antisera prepared against purified p28 and p16 were shown to cross-react with proteins of 60, 54, and 47 kilodaltons present in the viral preparation and believed to be SIVMne Pr60gag and intermediate cleavage products, respectively. SIVMne p16 was shown to contain covalently bound myristic acid, and p8 was identified as a nucleic acid-binding protein. The high degree of amino acid sequence homology between SIVs and HIV-2 around proven proteolytic cleavage sites in SIV Pr60gag suggests that proteolytic processing of the HIV-2 gag precursor is probably very similar to processing of the SIV gag precursor. Peptide bonds cleaved during proteolytic processing of the SIV gag precursor were similar to bonds cleaved during processing of HIV-1 gag precursors, suggesting that the SIV and HIV viral proteases have similar cleavage site specificities. Images PMID:3292789

  2. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura might be an early hematologic manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Little research focuses on the association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. This study investigated whether immune thrombocytopenic purpura might be an early hematologic manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using data of individuals enrolled in Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 5472 subjects aged 1-84 years with a new diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the purpura group since 1998-2010 and 21,887 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected subjects without immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the non-purpura group. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection at the end of 2011 was measured in both groups. We used the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to measure the hazard ratio and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The overall incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.47-fold higher in the purpura group than that in the non-purpura group (3.78 vs. 0.58 per 10,000 person-years, 95 % CI 5.83-7.18). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.3 (95 % CI 2.58-15.4) for the purpura group, as compared with the non-purpura group. We conclude that individuals with immune thrombocytopenic purpura are 6.47-fold more likely to have human immunodeficiency virus infection than those without immune thrombocytopenic purpura. We suggest not all patients, but only those who have risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection should receive testing for undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection when they develop immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

  3. Conserved serines in simian immunodeficiency virus capsid are required for virus budding.

    PubMed

    Rue, Sarah M; Roos, Jason W; Clements, Janice E; Barber, Sheila A

    2005-05-25

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) capsid protein (CA), a constituent of the Pr55Gag polyprotein, is phosphorylated in virions but not in virus-producing cells (Rue, S.M., Roos, J.W., Tarwater, P.M., Clements, J.E., Barber, S.A., 2005. Phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage of gag proteins in budded simian immunodeficiency virus. J. Virol. 79 (4), 2484-2492.). Using phosphoamino acid analysis of CA, we show that serine is the primary phosphate acceptor. A series of substitution mutants of serines in the CA domain of Pr55Gag were constructed in the infectious viral clone SIVmac239. These virus mutants were examined for defects in virus replication and virion infectivity, release, and morphology, as well as alterations in phosphorylation of CA-containing proteins. Although the virus mutants exhibited a number of replication defects, none of these defects could be directly attributed to aberrant CA phosphorylation. A novel defect was a block in early budding, which was common among several virus mutants with substitutions in the CA N terminus. Together, these results indicate that certain residues in the CA N terminus are crucial for early budding events.

  4. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  5. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  6. Human bites and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Pretty, I A; Anderson, G S; Sweet, D J

    1999-09-01

    The risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission following a bite injury is important to many groups of people. The first are those who are likely to be bitten as an occupational risk, such as police officers and institutional staff. Another group are represented by the victims and perpetrators of crimes involving biting, both in attack and defense situations. The possibility of these bites transmitting a potentially fatal disease is of interest to the physicians who treat such patients and the legal system which may have to deal with the repercussions of such a transmission. Bite injuries represent 1% of all emergency department admissions in the United States, and human bites are the third most common following those of dogs and cats. The worldwide epidemic of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) continues, with >5 million new cases last year and affecting 1 in 100 sexually active adults. A review of the literature concerning human bites, HIV and AIDS, HIV in saliva, and case examples was performed to examine the current opinion regarding the transmission of HIV via this route. A bite from an HIV-seropositive individual that breaks the skin or is associated with a previous injury carries a risk of infection for the bitten individual.

  7. [Disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis in children and adolescents affected by it and their caregivers].

    PubMed

    Malanca, Adriana; Foradori, Irene; Stankievich, Erica; Pandullo, Hugo; Losso, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Children and adolescents need to know about their health or that of their parents. However, families affected by human immunodeficiency virus often delay disclosure of diagnosis for fear of stigma or discrimination or simply because they wonder when and how to communicate it. We present the experience of implementing a program to "reveal" the human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis to children, adolescents and caregivers. The aim was to describe and understand the impact of disclosure and to collaborate on actions to improve comprehensive care for families living with human immunodeficiency virus.

  8. Generation of hybrid human immunodeficiency virus by homologous recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, A; York, D; Jannoun-Nasr, R; Kalyanaraman, S; Swan, D; Benson, J; Bohan, C; Luciw, P A; Schnoll, S; Robinson, R A

    1989-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, isolated from diverse sources, exhibits genomic diversity. The mechanisms by which the genomic diversity takes place in individuals exposed to multiple virus isolates is yet to be elucidated. Genetic variation, in general, might result from mutagenic events such as point mutations, rearrangements (insertions and deletions), and recombination. In an attempt to evaluate the process of genetic diversity, we designed experiments to analyze recombination between HIV DNAs by using DNA transfection in cell cultures. Here we report the successful recombination between truncated HIV proviral DNAs with an overlap homology of 53 base pairs that leads to the formation of viable hybrid virus. Recombination was also seen between exogenous DNA introduced into cells and homologous HIV sequences resident in the cells. These results indicate that recombination among various HIV isolates may play a significant role in the generation of genetic diversity of HIV. Further, the method used here enables the construction of hybrid HIV genomes to identify the viral determinants responsible for tropism, replication, and cytopathic effects. Images PMID:2474834

  9. Methods for assessing feline immunodeficiency virus infection, infectivity and purification.

    PubMed

    Ammersbach, Melanie; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2011-10-15

    Infection of cats with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) recapitulates many aspects of infection of humans with HIV, including highly activated but ineffectual immune responses. Infected hosts remain seropositive for life, and detection of antibodies is the mainstay of diagnosis. However, to quantify virus for research or prognosis, viral proteins, nucleic acids or enzymes, are typically measured by ELISA, PCR or activity, respectively. While such assays are in wide use, they do not distinguish whole, infectious viral particles from defective or disrupted viruses. Titers of infectious viral particles may be estimated from tissue culture infectious doses or by enumerating cell-associated viral proteins, viral transcriptional activity or formation of syncytia. To analyze the viral proteome and the incorporation of host components into viral envelopes, pure lentiviral preparations are required. Methods for purifying lentiviruses include ultracentrifugation to separate particles by size, mass and/or density; chromatography to separate particles by charge, affinity or size; and additional removal of extraviral proteins and exosomes through subtilisin digestion or immunoaffinity. This article reviews advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to purification of lentiviruses with special reference to suitability for FIV, and highlights effects of purification on immune responses and immune assays.

  10. Absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus in Peruvian prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Golenbock, D T; Guerra, J; Pfister, J; Golubjatnikov, R; Tejada, A; Abugattas, J; Kemper, R; Maki, D G

    1988-12-01

    We serologically tested 140 female prostitutes (mean age, 30 years) from the port city of Callao, Peru, for evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses (HSV) I and II, and hepatitis B virus. The women had worked as prostitutes for an average of 5 years; one-fourth serviced foreign visitors exclusively, mainly sailors. Only 4 women used condoms, and only 1 woman gave a history of parenteral narcotic abuse, although 53% were regularly exposed to unsterile needles outside the medical setting for injections of vitamins, antibiotics, or steroids; another 29% are thought to probably use unsterile needles. None of the 140 prostitutes screened was seropositive for HIV, despite a very high prevalence of antibody to T. pallidum (24%), C. trachomatis (97%), HSV I and II (100%), and hepatitis B (51%); 5% were HbsAg positive. These data indicate that HIV has not yet been introduced into female prostitutes in the Peruvian port city. We believe that widespread use of unsterile needles in developing countries, such as Peru, represents a serious health threat and will amplify the spread of HIV, once introduced.

  11. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of CD8+ lymphocytes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G A; Reubel, G H; Pedersen, N C

    1996-01-01

    To determine the lymphoid target cells of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vivo, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) were positively selected (>97% purity) for surface expression of CD4, CD8, or CD20 and then analyzed for SIV provirus using semiquantitative DNA amplification. We found provirus in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but none in CD20+ lymphocytes. During acute SIV infection (< or = 214 days postinoculation), the percentage of PBL and LNL CD4+ cells containing proviral DNA ranged from 0.2 to 20% and from 0.2 to 2%, respectively. Proviral burden in the CD8+ population of either PBL or LNL ranged from 0.01 to 0.2%. Virus isolation by cocultivation was positive for both CD4+ and CD8+ purified populations. No difference in proviral burden was observed between PBL and LNL subsets during acute SIV infection. Up to 19.4% of positively selected CD8+ cells also expressed CD4, and thus the provirus may reside within a dual-positive population. This dual-positive population may represent activated lymphocytes that are particularly susceptible to infection and may provide an opportunity for virus entry into the CD8+ CD4- lymphocytes in vivo. PMID:8764081

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus integration in a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, V; Abrams, H; Roe, T; Lifson, J; Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Integration of the viral genome into the nuclear DNA of a host cell plays a pivotal role in the replication of retroviruses. We have developed an in vitro method for studying the biochemistry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration by using extracts from HIV-infected cells. Analysis of the reaction products showed that HIV integration in vitro accurately reproduces the in vivo process. Integration occurred without apparent specificity for the target sequence, and the integrated provirus was directly flanked by a 5-base-pair duplication of DNA from the target site. HIV integration did not require a high-energy cofactor, and the enzymatic activities required for integration were recovered with the viral DNA when cell extracts were fractionated by gel exclusion chromatography. Images PMID:2335814

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies and the vaccine problem.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, F; Weiss, R A

    2014-05-01

    Despite the great advances made in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with antiretroviral drug treatment, a safe and efficacious HIV vaccine has yet to be developed. Here, we discuss why clinical trials and vaccine development for HIV have so far been disappointing, with an emphasis on the lack of protective antibodies. We review approaches for developing appropriate HIV immunogens and the stimulation of long-lasting B-cell responses with antibody maturation. We conclude that candidate reagents in the pipeline for HIV vaccine development are unlikely to be particularly effective. Although the major funders of HIV vaccine research and development are placing increasing emphasis on clinical product development, a genuine breakthrough in preventing HIV infection through vaccines is more likely to come from novel immunogen research.

  16. Self Antigen Prognostic for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Cynthia L.; Patel, Hirenkumar; Arnold, Roland R.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently found that an extracellular protein, α1 proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; α1 antitrypsin), is required for in vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity outcome. We show here in a study of HIV-seropositive patients that decreased viral load is significantly correlated with decreased circulating α1PI. In the asymptomatic category of HIV disease, 100% of patients manifest deficient levels of active α1PI, a condition known to lead to degenerative lung diseases and a dramatically reduced life span. Further, HIV-associated α1PI deficiency is correlated with circulating anti-α1PI immunoglobulin G. These results suggest that preventing HIV-associated α1PI deficiency may provide a strategic target for preventing HIV-associated pathophysiology. PMID:11527807

  17. In vitro assembly of the feline immunodeficiency virus Gag polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Affranchino, José L; González, Silvia A

    2010-06-01

    The retroviral Gag protein is the only viral product that is necessary for the assembly of virions in mammalian cells. We have established an in vitro assembly system to study the assembly properties of purified feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Gag protein expressed in bacteria. Under fully defined conditions, the FIV Gag protein assembles into spherical particles of 33 nm in diameter which are morphologically similar to authentic immature particles, albeit smaller than virions. The in vitro assembly of FIV Gag into particles was found to be resistant to the addition of Triton X-100 and required the presence of RNA. Notably, we found that an amino acid substitution in the nucleocapsid domain of Gag that impairs RNA binding and blocks virion production in vivo, also abrogates Gag assembly in vitro. The development of an in vitro assembly system for FIV Gag protein will facilitate the study of the mechanisms by which this protein assembles into immature particles.

  18. Eosinophilia in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam and diagnostic work-up is unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis. PMID:26126686

  19. Sexual Assault: A Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, William F.; Ackerman, Gary E.; Zoellner, Cindy L.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62%) were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier PMID:20706678

  20. Emerging bone problems in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Mondy, Kristin; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-04-01

    Recently, a high incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been observed in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This problem appears to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. Other bone-related complications in HIV-infected individuals, including avascular necrosis of the hip and compression fracture of the lumbar spine, have also been reported. People living with HIV have significant alterations in bone metabolism, regardless of whether they are receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms to account for these observations remain unknown, although studies are underway to examine the relationship between the bone abnormalities and other complications associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infected patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis should be treated similarly to HIV-seronegative patients with appropriate use of nutritional supplements (calcium and vitamin D) and exercise. Hormone replacement and antiresorptive therapies might be also indicated.

  1. Secondary abdominal pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus-positive woman

    PubMed Central

    Manyanga, Hudson; Lwakatare, Flora

    2016-01-01

    We report on an abdominal pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus-positive mother, currently on antiretroviral therapy, which was discovered incidentally while training the obstetric ultrasound capacity building program. Although abdominal pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, it may be more common in women with HIV infection because they tend to have a higher rate of sexually transmitted diseases than the general population. The positive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy is difficult to establish and is usually missed during prenatal assessment particularly in settings that lack routine ultrasound examination as is the case in most developing countries. For the management of abdominal pregnancy, surgical intervention is recommended and removal of the placenta is a key controversy. Ultrasonography is considered the front-line and most effective imaging method and an awareness with a high index of suspicion of abdominal pregnancy is vital for reducing associated high maternal and even higher perinatal mortality. PMID:27896258

  2. Evaluation of recombinant influenza virus-simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines in macaques.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Amy; De Rose, Robert; Reece, Jeanette C; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Loh, Liyen; Moffat, Jessica M; Laurie, Karen; Hurt, Aeron; Doherty, Peter C; Turner, Stephen J; Kent, Stephen J; Stambas, John

    2009-08-01

    There is an urgent need for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines that induce robust mucosal immunity. Influenza A viruses (both H1N1 and H3N2) were engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) CD8 T-cell epitopes and evaluated following administration to the respiratory tracts of 11 pigtail macaques. Influenza virus was readily detected from respiratory tract secretions, although the infections were asymptomatic. Animals seroconverted to influenza virus and generated CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses to influenza virus proteins. SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses bearing the mucosal homing marker beta7 integrin were induced by vaccination of naïve animals. Further, SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses could be boosted by recombinant influenza virus-SIV vaccination of animals with already-established SIV infection. Sequential vaccination with influenza virus-SIV recombinants of different subtypes (H1N1 followed by H3N2 or vice versa) produced only a limited boost in immunity, probably reflecting T-cell immunity to conserved internal proteins of influenza A virus. SIV challenge of macaques vaccinated with an influenza virus expressing a single SIV CD8 T cell resulted in a large anamnestic recall CD8 T-cell response, but immune escape rapidly ensued and there was no impact on chronic SIV viremia. Although our results suggest that influenza virus-HIV vaccines hold promise for the induction of mucosal immunity to HIV, broader antigen cover will be needed to limit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape.

  3. Autoimmune hepatitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Leila; Beattie, Adam; Green, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. Patient Concerns: Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state. Diagnoses: Autoimmune Hepatitis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatotoxicity, Liver Injury, Liver Transplantation. Interventions: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with HIV and AIH based on histological, serologic, biochemical demographic, and clinical data. Outcomes: Five patients were identified with autoimmune hepatitis; 4 of 5 were women, and all were African or African-American. The age at the time of AIH diagnosis was 46.6 ± 13.4 years. All patients acquired HIV sexually and all had CD4 counts >250 cells/uL (456–1011 cells/uL) and undetectable HIV viral loads at the time of AIH diagnosis. One patient presented with acute liver failure necessitating liver transplantation and developed AIH posttransplantation. At the time of diagnosis, the AST were 350 ± 448 U/L, ALT 247 ± 190 U/L, bilirubin 7 ± 12 mg/dL, and alkaline phosphatase 126 ± 53 U/L. All patients had histologic evidence of AIH on liver biopsies. Patients were successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine, without a decrease in CD4 <250 cells/uL, infectious complications or significant side effects. Lessons: AIH occurs in patients with well-controlled HIV. In our patient cohort, immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and azathioprine was safe and effective in inducing remission, without significant complications or development of opportunistic infections. PMID:28207511

  4. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies.

  5. Presentation of severe combined immunodeficiency with respiratory syncytial virus and pneumocystis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; Allende-Martínez, Luis; Corral Sánchez, María Dolores; Arocena, Jaime de Inocencio; González-Granado, Luis Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency can cause severe, life-threatening viral, bacterial and fungal infections at an early age. We report a case of a 4-month-old boy with co-infection by respiratory syncytial virus and Pneumocystis jiroveci infection that led to recognition of severe combined immunodeficiency.

  6. Capsid proteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac can coassemble into mature cores of infectious viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbo; Pathak, Vinay K; Peng, Weiqun; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2008-09-01

    We have recently shown that the Gag polyproteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 can coassemble and functionally complement each other. During virion maturation, the Gag polyproteins undergo proteolytic cleavage to release mature proteins including capsid (CA), which refolds and forms the outer shell of a cone-shaped mature core. Less than one-half of the CA proteins present within the HIV-1 virion are required to form the mature core. Therefore, it is unclear whether the mature core in virions containing both HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag consists of CA proteins from a single virus or from both viruses. To determine whether CA proteins from two different viruses can coassemble into mature cores of infectious viruses, we exploited the specificity of the tripartite motif 5alpha protein from the rhesus monkey (rhTRIM5alpha) for cores containing HIV-1 CA (hCA) but not the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac) CA protein (sCA). If hCA and sCA cannot coassemble into the same core when equal amounts of sCA and hCA are coexpressed, the infectivities of such virus preparations in cells should be inhibited less than twofold by rhTRIM5alpha. However, if hCA and sCA can coassemble into the same core structure to form a mixed core, rhTRIM5alpha would be able to recognize such cores and significantly restrict virus infectivity. We examined the restriction phenotypes of viruses containing both hCA and sCA. Our results indicate that hCA and sCA can coassemble into the same mature core to produce infectious virus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of functional coassembly of heterologous CA protein into the retroviral core.

  7. Inducible human immunodeficiency virus type 1 packaging cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, H; Rabson, A B; Kaul, M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1996-01-01

    Packaging cell lines are important tools for transferring genes into eukaryotic cells. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based packaging cell lines are difficult to obtain, in part owing to the problem that some HIV-1 proteins are cytotoxic in a variety of cells. To overcome this, we have developed an HIV-1-based packaging cell line which has an inducible expression system. The tetracycline-inducible expression system was utilized to control the expression of the Rev regulatory protein, which in turn controls the expression of the late proteins including Gag, Pol, and Env. Western blotting (immunoblotting) demonstrated that the expression of p24gag and gp120env from the packaging cells peaked on days 6 and 7 postinduction. Reverse transcriptase activity could be detected by day 4 after induction and also peaked on days 6 and 7. Defective vector virus could be propagated, yielding titers as high as 7 x 10(3) CFU/ml, while replication-competent virus was not detectable at any time. Thus, the cell line should enable the transfer of specific genes into CD4+ cells and should be a useful tool for studying the biology of HIV-1. We have also established an inducible HIV-1 Env-expressing cell line which could be used to propagate HIV-1 vectors that require only Env in trans. The env-minus vector virus titer produced from the Env-expressing cells reached 2 x 10(4) CFU/ml. The inducible HIV-1 Env-expressing cell line should be a useful tool for the study of HIV-1 Env as well. PMID:8676479

  8. Infection of brain-derived cells with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Chiodi, F; Fuerstenberg, S; Gidlund, M; Asjö, B; Fenyö, E M

    1987-01-01

    A malignant glioma cell line was infected with the human T-lymphotropic virus type IIIB isolate of the human immunodeficiency virus. Infection appeared to be latent rather than productive. Through contact with monocytic or lymphoid cells, the virus present in the glioma cells could be transmitted and gave rise to a fully productive infection. Images PMID:3644020

  9. Role of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Deepak; Agarwal, Kosh

    2015-01-01

    End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, drug-induced hepatotoxicity related to combined anti-retro-viral therapy, alcohol related liver disease and non-alcohol related fatty liver disease appear to be the leading causes. It is therefore, anticipated that more HIV-positive patients with ESLD will present as potential transplant candidates. HIV infection is no longer a contraindication to liver transplantation. Key transplantation outcomes such as rejection and infection rates as well as medium term graft and patient survival match those seen in the non-HIV infected patients in the absence of co-existing HCV infection. HIV disease does not seem to be negatively impacted by transplantation. However, HIV-HCV co-infection transplant outcomes remain suboptimal due to recurrence. In this article, we review the key challenges faced by this patient cohort in the pre- and post-transplant period. PMID:26604639

  10. Tripeptide interference with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Stefan; Su, Jin; Reneby, Sara Sandin; Végvári, Akos; Hjertén, Stellan; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Foster, Hillary; Wu, Yi-Pyng; Nyström, Ingela; Vahlne, Anders

    2002-11-01

    Capsid assembly during virus replication is a potential target for antiviral therapy. The Gag polyprotein is the main structural component of retroviral particles, and in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), it contains the sequences for the matrix, capsid, nucleocapsid, and several small polypeptides. Here, we report that at a concentration of 100 micro M, 7 of 83 tripeptide amides from the carboxyl-terminal sequence of the HIV-1 capsid protein p24 suppressed HIV-1 replication (>80%). The three most potent tripeptides, glycyl-prolyl-glycine-amide (GPG-NH(2)), alanyl-leucyl-glycine-amide (ALG-NH(2)), and arginyl-glutaminyl-glycine-amide (RQG-NH(2)), were found to interact with p24. With electron microscopy, disarranged core structures of HIV-1 progeny were extensively observed when the cells were treated with GPG-NH(2) and ALG-NH(2). Furthermore, nodular structures of approximately the same size as the broad end of HIV-1 conical capsids were observed at the plasma membranes of treated cells only, possibly indicating an arrest of the budding process. Corresponding tripeptides with nonamidated carboxyl termini were not biologically active and did not interact with p24.

  11. Natural simian immunodeficiency virus transmission in mandrills: a family affair?

    PubMed Central

    Fouchet, David; Verrier, Delphine; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Kazanji, Mirdad; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Pontier, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how pathogens spread and persist in the ecosystem is critical for deciphering the epidemiology of diseases of significance for global health and the fundamental mechanisms involved in the evolution of virulence and host resistance. Combining long-term behavioural and epidemiological data collected in a naturally infected mandrill population and a Bayesian framework, the present study investigated unknown aspects of the eco-epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), the recent ancestor of HIV. Results show that, in contrast to what is expected from aggressive and sexual transmission (i.e. the two commonly accepted transmission modes for SIV), cases of SIVmnd-1 subtype were significantly correlated among related individuals (greater than 30% of the observed cases). Challenging the traditional view of SIV, this finding suggests the inheritance of genetic determinants of susceptibility to SIV and/or a role for behavioural interactions among maternal kin affecting the transmission of the virus, which would highlight the underappreciated role of sociality in the spread of infectious diseases. Outcomes of this study also provide novel insights into the role of host social structure in the evolution of pathogens. PMID:22673358

  12. Neutralization Properties of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Infecting Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Hannah J.; Decker, Julie M.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Galimidi, Rachel P.; West, Anthony P.; Learn, Gerald H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Li, Yingying; Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Huang, Yaoxing; Denny, Thomas N.; Mouquet, Hugo; Martin, Loic; Acharya, Priyamvada; Zhang, Baoshan; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Verrips, C. Theo; Strokappe, Nika M.; Rutten, Lucy; McCoy, Laura E.; Weiss, Robin A.; Brown, Corrine S.; Jackson, Raven; Silvestri, Guido; Connors, Mark; Burton, Dennis R.; Shaw, George M.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ho, David D.; Farzan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4+ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection. PMID:25900654

  13. A review of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence in cats in Canada.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious diseases of cats in Canada. Prevalence data are necessary to define prophylactic, management, and therapeutic measures for stray, feral and owned cats. Recently, comprehensive data on the seroprevalence of retrovirus infections of cats in Canada have become available and are reviewed. Further investigation into geographic variations in retrovirus seroprevalence within Canada is warranted, and may provide information to improve recommendations for testing and prevention. As well, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, as well as to provide information on disease outcomes.

  14. BK virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, J; Muñoz, P; Garcia de Viedma, D; Cabrero, I; Loeches, B; Montilla, P; Gijon, P; Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Bouza, E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BK virus (BKV) infection in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our hospital. The presence of BKV was analysed in urine and plasma samples from 78 non-selected HIV-infected patients. Clinical data were recorded using a pre-established protocol. We used a nested PCR to amplify a specific region of the BKV T-large antigen. Positive samples were quantified using real-time PCR. Mean CD4 count in HIV-infected patients was 472 cells/mm3 and median HIV viral load was <50 copies/mL. BKV viraemia was detected in only 1 HIV-positive patient, but 57.7% (45 out of 78) had BKV viruria, which was more common in patients with CD4 counts>500 cells/mm3 (74.3% vs 25.7%; p=0.007). Viruria was present in 21.7% of healthy controls (5 out of 23 samples, p=0.02). All viral loads were low (<100 copies/mL), and we could not find any association between BKV infection and renal or neurological manifestations. We provide an update on the prevalence of BKV in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. BKV viruria was more common in HIV-infected patients; however, no role for BKV has been demonstrated in this population.

  15. Functional domains within the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein required to enhance virus production.

    PubMed

    Abada, Paolo; Noble, Beth; Cannon, Paula M

    2005-03-01

    Primate lentiviruses code for a protein that stimulates virus production. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the activity is provided by the accessory protein, Vpu, while in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus it is a property of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Using a group of diverse retroviruses and cell types, we have confirmed the functional equivalence of the two proteins. However, despite these similarities, the two proteins have markedly different functional domains. While the Vpu activity is associated primarily with its membrane-spanning region, we have determined that the HIV-2 Env activity requires both the cytoplasmic tail and ectodomain of the protein, with the membrane-spanning domain being less important. Within the Env cytoplasmic tail, we further defined the necessary sequence as a membrane-proximal tyrosine-based motif. Providing the two Env regions separately as distinct CD8 chimeric proteins did not increase virus release. This suggests that the two domains must be either contained within a single protein or closely associated within a multiprotein oligomer, such as the Env trimer, in order to function. Finally, we observed that wild-type levels of incorporation of the HIV-2 Env into budding viruses were not required for this activity.

  16. Functional Domains within the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Required To Enhance Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Abada, Paolo; Noble, Beth; Cannon, Paula M.

    2005-01-01

    Primate lentiviruses code for a protein that stimulates virus production. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the activity is provided by the accessory protein, Vpu, while in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus it is a property of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Using a group of diverse retroviruses and cell types, we have confirmed the functional equivalence of the two proteins. However, despite these similarities, the two proteins have markedly different functional domains. While the Vpu activity is associated primarily with its membrane-spanning region, we have determined that the HIV-2 Env activity requires both the cytoplasmic tail and ectodomain of the protein, with the membrane-spanning domain being less important. Within the Env cytoplasmic tail, we further defined the necessary sequence as a membrane-proximal tyrosine-based motif. Providing the two Env regions separately as distinct CD8 chimeric proteins did not increase virus release. This suggests that the two domains must be either contained within a single protein or closely associated within a multiprotein oligomer, such as the Env trimer, in order to function. Finally, we observed that wild-type levels of incorporation of the HIV-2 Env into budding viruses were not required for this activity. PMID:15731257

  17. [Study of molecular function of proteins in human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mikako

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has no more than nine genes expressing approximately twenty proteins. When T lymphocytes and macrophages in a body are infected with HIV, these proteins work in turn at specific time and location, causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease yet to be overcome. Since the elucidation of molecular mechanism of HIV proteins should lead to remedy of AIDS, the author has been engaged in the study of HIV protein in the past decade. Described herein are viral protein X (Vpx), uniquely found in HIV-2, and its homologous protein Vpr found both in HIV-1 and -2. We found that Vpx enhances genome nuclear import in T lymphocytes, and is critical for reverse transcription of viral RNA in macrophages. This finding on the function in macrophages corrected long-term misleading belief. Furthermore, functional region mapping of Vpx was performed. In 2011, the protein SAMHD1 was identified as the host restriction factor counteracted by Vpx, by foreign researchers. After that, our independent study demonstrated the presence of SAMHD1-independent functions of Vpx in T cells, in addition to its SAMHD1-dependent functions in macrophages. Another topic of this review is Gag protein. Recently, it has reported by overseas researchers that PI(4,5)P2 (one of phosphoinositide) regulates Pr55(Gag) localization and assembly. In this study, we determined the binding affinity between N-terminal MA domain of Pr55(Gag) and various phosphoinositide derivatives using surface plasmon resonance. The results suggested that both negatively charged inositol phosphates and hydrophobic acyl chain are required for the MA binding.

  18. Profound CD4+ T lymphocytopenia in human immunodeficiency virus negative individuals, improved with anti-human herpes virus treatment.

    PubMed

    Díaz Betancourt, María Lilia; Klínger Hernández, Julio César; Niño Castaño, Victoria Eugenia

    2012-10-01

    Lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia can be associated with many bacterial, fungal, parasite and viral infections. They can also be found in autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, common variable immunodeficiency syndrome, physical, psychological and traumatic stress, malnutrition and immunosuppressive therapy. Besides, they can also be brought into relation, without a known cause, with idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. Among viral infections, the Retrovirus, specially the human immunodeficiency virus, is the most frequently cause. However, many acute viral infections, including cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus can be associated with transient lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. As is well known, transient lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia are temporary and overcome when the disease improves. Nonetheless, severe CD4+ T Lymphocytopenia associated with chronic infections by human herpes virus has not been reported. We describe 6 cases of human immunodeficiency virus negative patients, with chronic cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus infections and profound lymphocytopenia with clinical symptoms of cellular immunodeficiency. These patients improved rapidly with ganciclovir or valganciclovir treatment. We claim here that it is important to consider the chronic human herpes virus infection in the differential diagnosis of profoundly CD4+ T lymphocytopenia etiology, when human immunodeficiency virus is absent, in order to start effective treatment and to determine, in future studies, the impact of chronic human herpes virus infection in human beings' health.

  19. Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption through Altered Mucosal MicroRNA Expression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gaulke, Christopher A.; Porter, Matthew; Han, Yan-Hong; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; George, Michael D.; Dang, Angeline T.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jiang, Guochun; Korf, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5′-3′-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of mi

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infection in Southern Brazil: clinical and epidemiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia Mara; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Beloto, Nayara Carvalho Polido; Demeneck, Henrique; Oliveira, Andre; Largura, Denis; Sagrado, Andressa Gervasoni; Lima, Bárbara Perdonsini; Franzoni, João Paulo; Pedroso, Maria Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus share a similar transmission pathway and are often diagnosed in the same patient. These patients tend to have a faster progression of hepatic fibrosis. This cross-sectional study describes the demographic features and clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis co-infected patients in Paraná, Southern Brazil. A total of 93 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients attending a tertiary care academic hospital in Southern Brazil were included. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data were evaluated. Hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus positive serology was found in 6.6% of patients. The anti-hepatitis C virus serum test was positive in 85% (79/93) of patients, and the infection was confirmed in 72% of the cases. Eighteen patients (19%) were human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus positive (detectable HBsAg). Among co-infected patients, there was a high frequency of drug use, and investigations for the detection of co-infection were conducted late. A low number of patients were eligible for treatment and, although the response to antiretroviral therapy was good, there was a very poor response to hepatitis therapy. Our preliminary findings indicate the need for protocols aimed at systematic investigation of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, thus allowing for early detection and treatment of co-infected patients.

  1. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  2. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  3. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  4. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  5. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  6. Iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis in a human immunodeficiency negative-virus patient.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Kilani, Houda; Bouassida, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Moufida; Chalbi, Emna; Siai, Karima; Ezzine, Heykel; Touinsi, Hassen; Azzouz, Mohamed M'saddak; Sassi, Sadok

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor associated to a human herpes virus-8. It often occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. Colorectal localization is rare. We report the case of a colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis treated with surgery after the failure of immunomodulator therapy in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative heterosexual man.

  7. Lessons from the history of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among Spanish drug injectors.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, L; Bravo, M J; Barrio, G; Parras, F; Suárez, M; Rodés, A; Noguer, I

    2003-12-15

    In Spain, approximately 10 years passed between the time when human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) harm-reduction programs should have been developed with sufficient coverage to have an optimum impact on public health (before the HIV/AIDS epidemic's explosion in 1984) and the date of their actual implementation. This delay yielded an enormous cost for the country. The introduction of the virus in drug injector networks during a period of widespread diffusion of heroin injection and the lack of political awareness of the growing problem were 2 important factors that contributed to the important diffusion of the HIV infection among Spanish injection drug users. Lessons can be learned that may be of great interest in countries or territories facing similar challenges now and in the future.

  8. Simultaneous multiorgan presence of human herpesvirus 8 and restricted lymphotropism of Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunodeficient infant.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Velasco, P; Ocejo-Vinyals, J G; Flores, R; Gómez-Román, J J; Lozano, M J; Leyva-Cobián, F

    2001-01-15

    Because a profound dysregulation of the immune system occurs in primary immunodeficiencies, viral infections are not uncommon. Human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, Southern blotting, and in situ hybridization (ISH) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphoid organs (bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes) and endothelial and epithelial cells and macrophages from several organs (skin, lung, esophagus, intestine, choroid plexus [but not in brain or cerebellum], heart, striated muscle, liver, and kidney) of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative infant with DiGeorge anomaly who died of disseminated infection. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in the spleen and lymph nodes (by PCR and ISH) and in bone marrow (only by ISH) but not in blood or nonlymphoid organs. This report is believed to be the first of multiorgan dissemination of HHV-8 in a primary immunodeficiency.

  9. Immunopathogenesis of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Repentigny, Louis; Lewandowski, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases remain significant causes of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, despite the dramatic ability of antiretroviral therapy to reconstitute immunity. Notable advances have been achieved in understanding, at the molecular level, the relationships between the progression of HIV infection, the acquisition, maintenance, and clonality of oral candidal populations, and the emergence of antifungal resistance. However, the critical immunological defects which are responsible for the onset and maintenance of mucosal candidiasis in patients with HIV infection have not been elucidated. The devastating impact of HIV infection on mucosal Langerhans' cell and CD4+ cell populations is most probably central to the pathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. However, these defects may be partly compensated by preserved host defense mechanisms (calprotectin, keratinocytes, CD8+ T cells, and phagocytes) which, individually or together, may limit Candida albicans proliferation to the superficial mucosa. The availability of CD4C/HIV transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 in immune cells has provided the opportunity to devise a novel model of mucosal candidiasis that closely mimics the clinical and pathological features of candidal infection in human HIV infection. These transgenic mice allow, for the first time, a precise cause-and-effect analysis of the immunopathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV infection under controlled conditions in a small laboratory animal. PMID:15489345

  10. Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Sinha, Manish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. HIV-infected patients have a high incidence of tuberculous meningitis as well. The exact incidence and prevalence of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients are not known. HIV infection does not significantly alter the clinical manifestations, laboratory, radiographic findings, or the response to therapy. Still, some differences have been noted. For example, the histopathological examination of exudates in HIV-infected patients shows fewer lymphocytes, epithelioid cells, and Langhan's type of giant cells. Larger numbers of acid-fast bacilli may be seen in the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. The chest radiograph is abnormal in up to 46% of patients with tuberculous meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is likely to present with cerebral infarcts and mass lesions. Cryptococcal meningitis is important in differential diagnosis. The recommended duration of treatment in HIV-infected patients is 9-12 months. The benefit of adjunctive corticosteroids is uncertain. Antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis treatment should be initiated at the same time, regardless of CD4 cell counts. Tuberculous meningitis may be a manifestation of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Some studies have demonstrated a significant impact of HIV co-infection on mortality from tuberculous meningitis. HIV-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis have significantly higher mortality. The best way to prevent HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis is to diagnose and isolate infectious cases of tuberculosis promptly and administer appropriate treatment.

  11. [Changes in vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection Chile].

    PubMed

    Chávez P, Ana; Alvarez P, Ana M; Wu H, Elba; Peña D, Anamaría; Vizueta R, Eloísa

    2007-10-01

    The identification of various risk factors of vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission resulted in the development of strategies whose aim was to decrease the mother's viral load, to reduce her child's exposure to it during delivery, and to avoid the subsequent viral exposure due to breastfeeding. The administration of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy, delivery and to the neonate (PACTG 076) proved to be useful. At a first stage, zidovudine was used. A triple combination therapy was then administered. Initially, the viral transmission in mothers who were enrolled in protocols for vertically transmitted HIV prophylaxis was reduced to 9.5%, whereas the last measurement carried out between 1998 and 2005, the initial figure was brought down to 2%. Nevertheless, the delivery of infected children whose mother's HIV status was unknown is still considered likely to happen. The main step to be taken to reduce HIV infection among children is to perform universal HIV tests during pregnancy, so that HIV positive pregnant patients conveniently receive proper prophylaxis. We look forward to achieving this by following the new prevention guidelines of vertically-transmitted HIV infection, developed by the Comisión Nacional del SIDA of the Chilean Health Ministry.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef quasispecies in pathological tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, B M; Epstein, L G; Saito, Y; Chen, D; Sharer, L R; Anand, R

    1992-01-01

    The role of the nef gene in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is poorly understood. To provide a basis for studies on the role of nef in AIDS, we used targeted polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing to determine the structure of nef genes in pathologic tissue from HIV-1-infected children and adults. We find that the nef reading frame is open in 92% of clones derived from both brain and lymphocytic tissue of children, suggesting that nef is expressed in these tissues. One HIV-1 clone, BRVA, obtained by coculture from the brain of an adult AIDS patient with progressive dementia, was previously shown to contain a duplicated region in nef. We show here that similar duplications are widespread in both adults and children with AIDS. However, coculture strongly selects against the broad spectrum of nef quasispecies found in tissue. These findings suggest functional selection for nef quasispecies in pathologic tissues during HIV-1 infection of the human host. Images PMID:1501274

  13. Global Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Gayle, Helene D.; Hill, Gena L.

    2001-01-01

    This review provides information on the epidemiology, economic impact, and intervention strategies for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) at the end of 1999, an estimated 34.3 million people were living with HIV/AIDS. Most of the people living with HIV, 95% of the global total, live in developing countries. Examples of the impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Newly Independent States provide insight into the demographics, modes of exposure, treatment and prevention options, and the economic effect of the epidemic on the global community. The epidemic in each region of the world is influenced by the specific risk factors that are associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS and the responses that have evolved to address it. These influences are important in developing HIV/AIDS policies and programs to effectively address the global pandemic. PMID:11292641

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

    1993-01-01

    Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

  15. Stability of the gorilla microbiome despite simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Andrew H; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Esteban, Amadine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2015-02-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have been discovered in over 45 primate species; however, the pathogenic potential of most SIV strains remains unknown due to difficulties inherent in observing wild populations. Because those SIV infections that are pathogenic have been shown to induce changes in the host's gut microbiome, monitoring the microbiota present in faecal samples can provide a noninvasive means for studying the effects of SIV infection on the health of wild-living primates. Here, we examine the effects of SIVgor, a close relative of SIVcpz of chimpanzees and HIV-1 of humans, on the gut bacterial communities residing within wild gorillas, revealing that gorilla gut microbiomes are exceptionally robust to SIV infection. In contrast to the microbiomes of HIV-1-infected humans and SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees, SIVgor-infected gorilla microbiomes exhibit neither rises in the frequencies of opportunistic pathogens nor elevated rates of microbial turnover within individual hosts. Regardless of SIV infection status, gorilla microbiomes assort into enterotypes, one of which is compositionally analogous to those identified in humans and chimpanzees. The other gorilla enterotype appears specialized for a leaf-based diet and is enriched in environmentally derived bacterial genera. We hypothesize that the acquisition of this gorilla-specific enterotype was enabled by lowered immune system control over the composition of the microbiome. Our results indicate differences between the pathology of SIVgor and SIVcpz/HIV-1 infections, demonstrating the utility of investigating host microbial ecology as a means for studying disease in wild primates of high conservation priority.

  16. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-01-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV+ donors to HIV+ recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV+ to HIV+ kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV+ to HIV+ liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  17. [The lungs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection].

    PubMed

    Barić, D; Vrkić, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a case of two patients who were admitted to the Zadar hospital and according to clinical symptoms directed to the Department of Lung Diseases. Both patients were temporarily employed abroad. It has been established that they were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). One of the patients has been moved to the Department of Infectious Diseases and later to Zagreb, while the other has returned abroad. On admission to the hospital of the Zadar Medical Center none of them answered the question about being engaged in risky behavior. In 1990 there were 699 registered patients hospitalized and 745 registered in the protocol of the Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Lung Diseases. 0.069% of patients were HIV-1-infected. In 1991, there were 520 hospitalized and 453 outpatients, whereas 0.102% were HIV-1-infected and registered subjects. It must be pointed out that these are only numbers of registration and not subjects, because there were patients who were examined or hospitalized twice or more times during the corresponding calendar year. The aim of this study was to point to a new differentially-diagnostic problem present especially at the Department of Lung Diseases after AIDS has become part of our reality. There still remains a problem in regard to detection of HIV-1 seropositivity in patients at departments with opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis.

  18. Selective Destruction Of Cells Infected With The Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2006-03-28

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a varient of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  19. Selective destruction of cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a variant of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  20. Schistosomiasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Men in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; de Dood, Claudia J; Dee, Hannah E; McGeehan, Megan; Khan, Hijab; Marenga, Abena; Adel, Patrick E; Faustine, Edward; Issarow, Benson; Kisanga, Emmanuel F; Kisigo, Godfrey Alfred; Ngahyolerwa, Salvius; Zahoro, Frank; Miyaye, Donald; Magawa, Ruth Gideon; Mngara, Julius; Lee, Myung Hee; Corstjens, Paul L A M; van Dam, Govert J; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2017-02-06

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic worm infection that affects over 260 million individuals worldwide. Women with schistosome infections have been demonstrated to have a 4-fold increase in the odds of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared with women without schistosome infections. A relationship between schistosome and HIV infections has not been clearly defined in men. Among 674 men aged 18-50 years living in rural Tanzania, we identified 429 (63.6%) who had a schistosome infection as defined by serum positivity for schistosome circulating anodic antigen, visualization of parasite eggs in urine or stool, or both. HIV infection was identified in 38 (5.6%). The odds of HIV infection was 1.3 [95% confidence interval = 0.6-2.5] (P = 0.53) among men with any schistosome infection (Schistosoma haematobium or Schistosoma mansoni), and it was 1.4 [0.6-3.3] (P = 0.43) among men with S. haematobium infection. Men with S. haematobium infection were significantly more likely to report the symptom of hemospermia than men without S. haematobium infection. We conclude that schistosome infections appear to have little to no association with HIV infection in men.

  1. Cardiovascular disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus: a review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luísa Amado; Almeida, Ana G

    2015-01-01

    The cardiovascular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have changed significantly following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. On one hand, HAART has altered the course of HIV disease, with longer survival of HIV-infected patients, and cardiovascular complications of HIV infection such as myocarditis have been reduced. On the other hand, HAART is associated with an increase in the prevalence of both peripheral and coronary arterial disease. As longevity increases in HIV-infected individuals, long-term effects, such as cardiovascular disease, are emerging as leading health issues in this population. In the present review article, we discuss HIV-associated cardiovascular disease, focusing on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, management and therapy. Cardiovascular involvement in treatment-naive patients is still important in situations such as non-adherence to treatment, late initiation of treatment, and/or limited access to HAART in developing countries. We therefore describe the cardiovascular consequences in treatment-naive patients and the potential effect of antiretroviral treatment on their regression, as well as the metabolic and cardiovascular implications of HAART regimens in HIV-infected individuals.

  2. Federal spending for illness caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Winkenwerder, W; Kessler, A R; Stolec, R M

    1989-06-15

    Is the federal government devoting sufficient resources to fighting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and are these resources being spent appropriately? Some observers contend that the amounts have been inadequate, but until now there has been no overall accounting of federal activities and spending to combat the epidemic. We report expenditure data collected from federal agencies for the years 1982 to 1989. In all, $5.5 billion will have been spent on HIV-related illness during this period by the federal government, nearly 60 percent of it by the U.S. Public Health Service. Federal spending on HIV-related illness in 1989 will reach $2.2 billion, representing over one third of all estimated national (public and private) HIV expenditures, and tripling state expenditures. In 1992, federal spending on the epidemic will reach an estimated $4.3 billion. Although sizable, this will be just 1.8 percent of all 1992 federal health dollars. Similarly, in 1992, national (public and private) spending on HIV-related illness will consume roughly 1.6 percent of all health-related costs in the United States. Federal spending for HIV research and prevention is similar to funding for other major diseases, including some conditions, such as cancer and heart disease, that now have a greater impact on mortality.

  3. Cannabinoid administration attenuates the progression of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Molina, Patricia E; Winsauer, Peter; Zhang, Ping; Walker, Edith; Birke, Leslie; Amedee, Angela; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Troxclair, Dana; McGoey, Robin; Varner, Kurt; Byerley, Lauri; LaMotte, Lynn

    2011-06-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary psychoactive component in marijuana, is FDA approved to ameliorate AIDS-associated wasting. Because cannabinoid receptors are expressed on cells of the immune system, chronic Δ(9)-THC use may impact HIV disease progression. We examined the impact of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration (0.32 mg/kg im, 2 × daily), starting 28 days prior to inoculation with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV(mac251); 100 TCID(50)/ml, iv), on immune and metabolic indicators of disease during the initial 6 month asymptomatic phase of infection in rhesus macaques. SIV(mac251) inoculation resulted in measurable viral load, decreased lymphocyte CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, and increased CD8(+) proliferation. Δ(9)-THC treatment of SIV-infected animals produced minor to no effects in these parameters. However, chronic Δ(9)-THC administration decreased early mortality from SIV infection (p = 0.039), and this was associated with attenuation of plasma and CSF viral load and retention of body mass (p = NS). In vitro, Δ(9)-THC (10 μm) decreased SIV (10 TCID(50)) viral replication in MT4-R5 cells. These results indicate that chronic Δ(9)-THC does not increase viral load or aggravate morbidity and may actually ameliorate SIV disease progression. We speculate that reduced levels of SIV, retention of body mass, and attenuation of inflammation are likely mechanisms for Δ(9)-THC-mediated modulation of disease progression that warrant further study.

  4. Shedding new light on viruses: super-resolution microscopy for studying human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara; Heilemann, Mike

    2013-10-01

    For more than 70 years electron microscopy (EM) techniques have played an important role in investigating structures of enveloped viruses. By contrast, use of fluorescence microscopy (FM) methods for this purpose was limited by the fact that the size of virus particles is generally around or below the diffraction limit of light microscopy. Various super-resolution (SR) fluorescence imaging techniques developed over the past two decades bypass the diffraction limit of light microscopy, allowing visualization of subviral details and bridging the gap between conventional FM and EM methods. We summarize here findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) obtained using SR-FM techniques. Although the number of published studies is currently limited and some of the pioneering analyses also covered methodological or descriptive aspects, recent publications clearly indicate the potential to approach open questions in HIV-1 replication from a new angle.

  5. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: recommendations for testing and management.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-08-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to testing, and on education of veterinarians, veterinary team members, and cat owners regarding the importance of testing. New test methodologies for FeLV and FIV are emerging, and should be independently evaluated in order to provide practitioners with information on test reliability. Finally, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, and to provide information on disease outcomes.

  6. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection among cats in Canada.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Sears, William; Lachtara, Jessica; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2009-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection among cats in Canada and to identify risk factors for seropositivity. Signalment, lifestyle factors, and test results for FeLV antigen and FIV antibody were analyzed for 11 144 cats from the 10 Canadian provinces. Seroprevalence for FIV antibody was 4.3% and seroprevalence for FeLV antigen was 3.4%. Fifty-eight cats (0.5%) were seropositive for both viruses. Seroprevalence varied geographically. Factors such as age, gender, health status, and lifestyle were significantly associated with risk of FeLV and FIV seropositivity. The results suggest that cats in Canada are at risk of retrovirus infection and support current recommendations that the retrovirus status of all cats should be known.

  7. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: Recommendations for testing and management

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O’Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to testing, and on education of veterinarians, veterinary team members, and cat owners regarding the importance of testing. New test methodologies for FeLV and FIV are emerging, and should be independently evaluated in order to provide practitioners with information on test reliability. Finally, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, and to provide information on disease outcomes. PMID:22294790

  8. HIV and Sports. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Virus in the Athletic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on participation of athletes with human immunodeficiency virus suggests they be allowed to participate in competitive sports until disease transmission is found to occur in sport settings. The article discusses physician and coach roles and recommends precautions regarding body fluids and…

  9. Extracellular Vpr protein increases cellular permissiveness to human immunodeficiency virus replication and reactivates virus from latency.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; Weiner, D B

    1995-01-01

    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus is a virion-associated regulatory protein that has been shown using vpr mutant viruses to increase virus replication, particularly in monocytes/macrophages. We have previously shown that vpr can directly inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation, events linked to the control of HIV replication, and also that the replication of a vpr mutant but not that of wild-type HIV type 1 (HIV-1) was compatible with cellular proliferation (D. N. Levy, L. S. Fernandes, W. V. Williams, and D. B. Weiner, Cell 72:541-550, 1993). Here we show that purified recombinant Vpr protein, in concentrations of < 100 pg/ml to 100 ng/ml, increases wild-type HIV-1 replication in newly infected transformed cell lines via a long-lasting increase in cellular permissiveness to HIV replication. The activity of extracellular Vpr protein could be completely inhibited by anti-Vpr antibodies. Extracellular Vpr also induced efficient HIV-1 replication in newly infected resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Extracellular Vpr transcomplemented a vpr mutant virus which was deficient in replication in promonocytic cells, restoring full replication competence. In addition, extracellular Vpr reactivated HIV-1 expression in five latently infected cell lines of T-cell, B-cell, and promonocytic origin which normally express very low levels of HIV RNA and protein, indicating an activation of translational or pretranslational events in the virus life cycle. Together, these results describe a novel pathway governing HIV replication and a potential target for the development of anti-HIV therapeutics. PMID:7815499

  10. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. PMID:27777245

  11. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  12. Immunogenicity and efficacy of immunodeficiency virus-like particles pseudotyped with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuate, Seraphin; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Stoiber, Heribert; Nchinda, Godwin; Floto, Anja; Franz, Monika; Sauermann, Ulrike; Bredl, Simon; Deml, Ludwig; Ignatius, Ralf; Norley, Steve; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Steinman, Ralph M.; Wagner, Ralf; Uberla, Klaus . E-mail: klaus.ueberla@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

    2006-07-20

    Vaccination with exogenous antigens such as recombinant viral proteins, immunodeficiency virus-derived whole inactivated virus particles, or virus-like particles (VLP) has generally failed to provide sufficient protection in animal models for AIDS. Pseudotyping VLPs with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), which is known to mediate entry into dendritic cells, might allow more efficient stimulation of immune responses. Therefore, we pseudotyped noninfectious immunodeficiency virus-like particles with VSV-G and carried out a preliminary screen of their immunogenicity and vaccination efficacy. Incorporation of VSV-G into HIV-1 VLPs led to hundred-fold higher antibody titers to HIV-1 Gag and enhancement of T cell responses in mice. Repeated vaccination of rhesus monkeys for 65 weeks with VSV-G pseudotyped simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-like particles (VLP[G]) provided initial evidence for efficient suppression of viral load after mucosal challenge with the SIVmac239 virus. Challenge of monkeys after a 28 week vaccination regimen with VLP[G] led to a reduction in peak viremia, but persistent suppression of viral load was not achieved. Due to limitations in the number of animals available for this study, improved efficacy of VSV-G pseudotyped VLPs in nonhuman primates could not be demonstrated. However, mouse experiments revealed that pseudotyping of VLPs with fusion-competent VSV-G clearly improves their immunogenicity. Additional strategies, particularly adjuvants, should be considered to provide greater protection against a challenge with pathogenic immunodeficiency virus.

  13. Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: the breast-feeding dilemma.

    PubMed

    Van de Perre, P

    1995-08-01

    Human milk has been considered only recently as a source of transmission for the human immunodeficiency virus. The estimated postnatal transmission rate from mothers who acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection while lactating is 26% (95% confidence interval 13% to 39%) and may be in the range of 8% to 18% from mothers who were infected before becoming pregnant. Risk factors for postnatal transmission include maternal immune deficiency and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in milk. Some milk factors may be protective against postnatal transmission such as specific immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin M and a molecule able to inhibit the binding of human immunodeficiency virus to CD4. In addition to its safety and its birth-spacing properties, breast-feeding provides immunologic protection and an ideal nutritional content to the infant. In a poor hygienic environment artificial feeding dramatically increases morbidity and mortality from diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections. Consequently, according to our current knowledge the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund reasonably recommend continuing breast-feeding promotion in women living in settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the primary causes of infant deaths such as in many developing countries. In settings where infectious diseases and malnutrition are not the primary causes of infant deaths, such as in most of the settings in the developed world, the advisory group recommends against breast-feeding for mothers with proved human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

  14. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Sparger, Ellen E. Dubie, Robert A.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Cole, Kelly S.; Chang, W.L.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2008-05-10

    Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogenicity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by twenty weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus.

  15. Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: the first 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Alvar, J; Cañavate, C; Gutiérrez-Solar, B; Jiménez, M; Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Molina, R; Moreno, J

    1997-01-01

    Over 850 Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases have been recorded, the majority in Europe, where 7 to 17% of HIV-positive individuals with fever have amastigotes, suggesting that Leishmania-infected individuals without symptoms will express symptoms of leishmaniasis if they become immunosuppressed. However, there are indirect reasons and statistical data demonstrating that intravenous drug addiction plays a specific role in Leishmania infantum transmission: an anthroponotic cycle complementary to the zoonotic one has been suggested. Due to anergy in patients with coinfection, L. infantum dermotropic zymodemes are isolated from patient viscera and a higher L. infantum phenotypic variability is seen. Moreover, insect trypanosomatids that are currently considered nonpathogenic have been isolated from coinfected patients. HIV infection and Leishmania infection each induce important analogous immunological changes whose effects are multiplied if they occur concomitantly, such as a Th1-to-Th2 response switch; however, the consequences of the viral infection predominate. In fact, a large proportion of coinfected patients have no detectable anti-Leishmania antibodies. The microorganisms share target cells, and it has been demonstrated in vitro how L. infantum induces the expression of latent HIV-1. Bone marrow culture is the most useful diagnostic technique, but it is invasive. Blood smears and culture are good alternatives. PCR, xenodiagnosis, and circulating-antigen detection are available only in specialized laboratories. The relationship with low levels of CD4+ cells conditions the clinical presentation and evolution of disease. Most patients have visceral leishmaniasis, but asymptomatic, cutaneous, mucocutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis can be produced by L. infantum. The digestive and respiratory tracts are frequently parasitized. The course of coinfection is marked by a high relapse rate. There is a lack

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes Prevalence in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Wen-jie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the epidemic characteristics, transmission sources and routes of various subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sequence variations in Henan, central China. To provide theoretical foundation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention strategy in this region where the primary HIV transmission route was through former paid blood donation. Materials and Methods HIV-1 gene env and gag were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 1,287 HIV-1 confirmed samples in Henan. Results Among 1,287 samples, 5 HIV-1 strains were found including subtypes B' (95.9%), C (0.47%) and recombinant subtypes CRF 07_BC (1.09%), CRF 08_BC (1.79%) and CRF 01_AE (0.78%). Phylogenetic tree analysis found that 1,234 Henan subtype B' were closely related to those commonly found in Thailand, and were distantly related to other international subtypes. The dominant strain in former blood plasma donors (FPDs) was subtype B', and the dominant strains in sexual transmission were subtype B' and BC. Among HIV patients who were most likely infected through routes other than paid blood donation, the percentage of non-B' subtypes was much higher than those of FPD. Conclusion These findings suggest that the prevailing strain of HIV-1 in Henan is subtype B', similar to the B' subtype found in Thailand. In addition, for the first time we found subtypes C and recombinant subtypes CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and CRF01_AE in this region. Indicating that the subtype feature of HIV-1 became more complicated than before in central China. PMID:19881967

  17. Feline immunodeficiency virus env gene evolution in experimentally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Kraase, Martin; Sloan, Richard; Klein, Dieter; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Linda; Biek, Roman; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), an immunosuppressive lentivirus found in cats worldwide, is studied to illuminate mechanisms of lentiviral pathogenesis and to identify key components of protective immunity. During replication, lentiviruses accumulate errors of nucleotide mis-incorporation due to the low-fidelity of reverse transcriptase and recombination between viral variants, resulting in the emergence of a complex viral "quasispecies". In patients infected with HIV-1, env sequences may vary by up to 10% and the detection of quasispecies with greater heterogeneity is associated with higher viral loads and reduced CD4+ T cell numbers [1], indicating that transmission of more complex quasispecies may lead to disease progression. However, little is known about how FIV evolves as disease progresses, or why some cats develop AIDS rapidly while disease progression is slow in others. The aim of this study was to determine whether disease progression may be governed by viral evolution and to examine the diversity of viral variants emerging following infection with an infectious molecular clone. The FIV env gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein (Env) was examined at early (12 weeks) and late (322 weeks) stages of FIV infection in two groups of cats infected experimentally with the FIV-GL8 molecular clone. Viral variants were detected within quasispecies in cats in the late stages of FIV infection that contained differing amino acid compositions in several variable loops of Env, some of which were identified as determinants of receptor usage and resistance to neutralization. Therefore these results indicate that the FIV env gene evolves during the course of infection, giving rise to variants that resist neutralization and likely lead to disease progression.

  18. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Group B

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Giovanetti, Marta; Veo, Carla; Lai, Alessia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciotti, Marco; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infections are mainly restricted to West Africa; however, in the recent years, the prevalence of HIV-2 is a growing concern in some European countries and the Southwestern region of India. Despite the presence of different HIV-2 groups, only A and B Groups have established human-to-human transmission chains. Aims: This work aimed to evaluate the phylogeographic inference of HIV-2 Group B worldwide to estimate their data of origin and the population dynamics. Materials and Methods: The evolutionary rates, the demographic history for HIV-2 Group B dataset, and the phylogeographic analysis were estimated using a Bayesian approach. The viral gene flow analysis was used to count viral gene out/in flow among different locations. Results: The root of the Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree of HIV-2 Group B dated back to 1957. The demographic history of HIV-2 Group B showed that the epidemic remained constant up to 1970 when started an exponential growth. From 1985 to early 2000s, the epidemic reached a plateau, and then it was characterized by two bottlenecks and a new plateau at the end of 2000s. Phylogeographic reconstruction showed that the most probable location for the root of the tree was Ghana. Regarding the viral gene flow of HIV-2 Group B, the only observed viral gene flow was from Africa to France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Conclusions: The study gives insights into the origin, history, and phylogeography of HIV-2 Group B epidemic. The growing number of infections of HIV-2 worldwide indicates the need for strengthening surveillance. PMID:27621561

  20. Lymphoid organs function as major reservoirs for human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, G; Graziosi, C; Butini, L; Pizzo, P A; Schnittman, S M; Kotler, D P; Fauci, A S

    1991-01-01

    The total number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes is considered to be a reflection of the HIV burden at any given time during the course of HIV infection. However, the low frequency of HIV-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes and the low level or absence of plasma viremia in the early stages of infection do not correlate with the progressive immune dysfunction characteristic of HIV infection. In this study, we have determined whether HIV-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes are a correct reflection of the total pool of HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (i.e., HIV burden). To this end, HIV burden has been comparatively analyzed in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, adenoids, and tonsils) from the same patients. The presence of HIV-1 DNA in mononuclear cells isolated simultaneously from peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues of the same patients was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. We found that the frequency of HIV-1-infected cells in unfractionated or sorted CD4+ cell populations isolated from lymphoid tissues was significantly higher (0.5-1 log10 unit) than the frequency in peripheral blood. Comparable results were obtained in five HIV seropositive patients in the early stages of disease and in one patient with AIDS. These results demonstrate that a heavy viral load does reside in the lymphoid organs, indicating that they may function as major reservoirs for HIV. In addition, the finding of a heavy viral load in the lymphoid organs of patients in the early stages of disease may explain the progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the immune dysfunction associated with the early stages of HIV infection. Images PMID:1682922

  1. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, T; Washizu, T; Toriyabe, K; Motoyoshi, S; Tomoda, I; Pedersen, N C

    1989-01-15

    A seroepidemiologic survey for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection was conducted in Japan. Between June and December 1987, individual sera (n = 3,323) were submitted by veterinary practitioners from many parts of the country. Specimens were from 1,739 cats with clinical signs suggestive of FIV infection and from 1,584 healthy-appearing cats seen by the same practitioners. The overall FIV infection rate among cats in Japan was 960/3,323 cats (28.9%). The infection rate was more than 3 times higher in the clinically ill cats, compared with that in the healthy cats of the same cohort (43.9 vs 12.4%). Male cats were 1.5 times as likely to be infected as were females. Almost all FIV-infected cats were domestic cats (as opposed to purebred cats). Complete clinical history was available for 700 of 960 FIV-infected cats. Of these 700 FIV-infected cats, 626 (89.4%) were clinically ill, and the remainder did not have clinical signs of disease. The mean age at the time of FIV diagnosis for the 700 cats was 5.2 years, with younger mean age for males (4.9 years) than for females (5.8 years). Most of the infected cats (94.7%) were either allowed to run outdoors or had lived outdoors before being brought into homes. The mortality for FIV-infected cats during the 6 months after diagnosis was 14.7%, and the mean age at the time of death was 5.7 years. Concurrent FeLV infection was seen in 12.4% of the FIV-infected cats, but this was not much different from the historical incidence of FeLV infection in similar groups of cats not infected with FIV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Calubiran, O V; Horiuchi, J; Klein, N C; Cunha, B A

    1990-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia without meningitis has been reported in patients who have undergone long-term hemodialysis and have transfusional iron overload. On the other hand, cases of Listeria bacteremia without meningitis have occurred sporadically among the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome population, mostly homosexuals. There have been no reports of Listeria meningitis occurring among persons who are antibody positive to human immunodeficiency virus or are intravenous drug abusers having chronic renal failure and undergoing hemodialysis. This patient represents the first case of Listeria bacteremia and meningitis to occur in an intravenous drug abuser who is human immunodeficient antibody positive, is receiving hemodialysis, and has transfusional iron overload.

  3. Utilization of C-C chemokine receptor 5 by the envelope glycoproteins of a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac239.

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, L; Choe, H; Martin, K A; Farzan, M; Ponath, P D; Wu, L; Newman, W; Gerard, N; Gerard, C; Sodroski, J

    1997-01-01

    We examined chemokine receptors for the ability to facilitate the infection of CD4-expressing cells by viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac239. Expression of either human or simian C-C chemokine receptor CCR5 allowed the SIVmac239 envelope glycoproteins to mediate virus entry and cell-to-cell fusion. Thus, distantly related immunodeficiency viruses such as SIV and the primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates can utilize CCR5 as an entry cofactor. PMID:9032394

  4. Alcohol use disorder and its impact on chronic hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Daniel; Sanvisens, Arantza; Bolao, Ferran; Rivas, Inmaculada; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently co-occur. AUD is associated with greater exposure to HCV infection, increased HCV infection persistence, and more extensive liver damage due to interactions between AUD and HCV on immune responses, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Although AUD and HCV infection are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, HCV antiviral therapy is less commonly prescribed in individuals with both conditions. AUD is also common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which negatively impacts proper HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and liver disease. In addition, AUD and HCV infection are also frequent within a proportion of patients with HIV infection, which negatively impacts liver disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding pathological interactions of AUD with hepatitis C infection, HIV infection, and HCV/HIV co-infection, as well as relating to AUD treatment interventions in these individuals. PMID:27872681

  5. Oral immunization with recombinant listeria monocytogenes controls virus load after vaginal challenge with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Rosemary; Howard, Kristina E; Nordone, Sushila; Burkhard, MaryJo; Dean, Gregg A

    2004-08-01

    Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes has many attractive characteristics as a vaccine vector against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Wild-type and attenuated Listeria strains expressing HIV Gag have been shown to induce long-lived mucosal and systemic T-cell responses in mice. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model of HIV we evaluated recombinant L. monocytogenes in a challenge system. Five cats were immunized with recombinant L. monocytogenes that expresses the FIV Gag and delivers an FIV Env-expressing DNA vaccine (LMgag/pND14-Lc-env). Control cats were either sham immunized or immunized with wild-type L. monocytogenes (LM-wt). At 1 year after vaginal challenge, provirus could not be detected in any of the nine tissues evaluated from cats immunized with the recombinant bacteria but was detected in at least one tissue in 8 of 10 control animals. Virus was isolated from bone marrow of four of five LMgag/pND14-Lc-env-immunized cats by use of a stringent coculture system but required CD8(+) T-cell depletion, indicating CD8(+) T-cell suppression of virus replication. Control animals had an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio in mesenteric lymph node and were depleted of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) intestinal epithelial T cells, while LMgag/pND14-Lc-env-immunized animals showed no such abnormalities. Vaginal FIV-specific immunoglobulin A was present at high titer in three LMgag/pND14-Lc-env-immunized cats before challenge and in all five at 1 year postchallenge. This study demonstrates that recombinant L. monocytogenes conferred some control of viral load after vaginal challenge with FIV.

  6. Accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in T cells: results of multiple infection events.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, H L; Zinkus, D M

    1990-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA synthesis was followed in a CD4+ line of T cells (C8166) grown in the presence or absence of a monoclonal antibody to CD4 that blocks infection By 48 h after infection, cultures grown in the presence of the antibody contained approximately 4 copies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA per cell, whereas those grown in the absence of the antibody contained approximately 80 copies of viral DNA per cell. Most of the viral DNA in cultures grown in the absence of the antibody was present in a broad smear of apparently incomplete viral sequences. In cultures grown in the presence or absence of the antibody, the 9.6-kilobase linear duplex of viral DNA appeared to undergo integration within 24 h of its appearance. These results demonstrate that T cells accumulate unintegrated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA as a result of multiple virions entering cells. Images PMID:2398529

  7. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained in... may be disclosed to a Federal, State, or local public health authority, charged under Federal or...

  8. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained in... may be disclosed to a Federal, State, or local public health authority, charged under Federal or...

  9. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained in... may be disclosed to a Federal, State, or local public health authority, charged under Federal or...

  10. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained in... may be disclosed to a Federal, State, or local public health authority, charged under Federal or...

  11. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  12. Successful Orthotopic Heart Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Management in 2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patients.

    PubMed

    Conte, Antonio Hernandez; Kittleson, Michelle M; Dilibero, Deanna; Hardy, W David; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Esmailian, Fardad

    2016-02-01

    Few orthotopic heart transplantations have been performed in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus since the first such case was reported in 2001. Since that time, advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy have resulted in potent and durable suppression of the causative human immunodeficiency virus-accompanied by robust immune reconstitution, reversal of previous immunodeficiency, a marked decrease in opportunistic and other infections, and near-normal long-term survival. Although human immunodeficiency virus infection is not an absolute contraindication, few centers in the United States and Canada have performed heart transplantations in this patient population; these patients have been de facto excluded from this procedure in North America. Re-evaluation of the reasons for excluding these patients from cardiac transplantation is warranted in light of such significant advances in antiretroviral therapy. This case report documents successful orthotopic heart transplantation in 2 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and we describe their antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive management challenges. Both patients were doing well without sequelae 43 and 38 months after transplantation.

  13. Use of a Small Molecule CCR5 Inhibitor in Macaques to Treat Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection or Prevent Simian–Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Klasse, Per Johan; Ketas, Thomas J.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Piatak, Michael; Kunstman, Kevin; Kuhmann, Shawn E.; Marx, Preston A.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Dufour, Jason; Mefford, Megan; Pandrea, Ivona; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Doms, Robert W.; DeMartino, Julie A.; Siciliano, Salvatore J.; Lyons, Kathy; Springer, Martin S.; Moore, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fuses with cells after sequential interactions between its envelope glycoproteins, CD4 and a coreceptor, usually CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). CMPD 167 is a CCR5-specific small molecule with potent antiviral activity in vitro. We show that CMPD 167 caused a rapid and substantial (4–200-fold) decrease in plasma viremia in six rhesus macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains SIVmac251 or SIVB670, but not in an animal infected with the X4 simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), SHIV-89.6P. In three of the SIV-infected animals, viremia reduction was sustained. In one, there was a rapid, but partial, rebound and in another, there was a rapid and complete rebound. There was a substantial delay (>21 d) between the end of therapy and the onset of full viremia rebound in two animals. We also evaluated whether vaginal administration of gel-formulated CMPD 167 could prevent vaginal transmission of the R5 virus, SHIV-162P4. Complete protection occurred in only 2 of 11 animals, but early viral replication was significantly less in the 11 CMPD 167-recipients than in 9 controls receiving carrier gel. These findings support the development of small molecule CCR5 inhibitors as antiviral therapies, and possibly as components of a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission. PMID:14623909

  14. C5A Protects Macaques from Vaginal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Chatterji, Udayan; Bobardt, Michael; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei; Gallay, Philippe A

    2015-11-09

    A safe and effective vaginal microbicide could decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in women. Here, we evaluated the safety and microbicidal efficacy of a short amphipathic peptide, C5A, in a rhesus macaque model. We found that a vaginal application of C5A protects 89% of the macaques from a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-162P3) challenge. We observed no signs of lesions or inflammation in animals vaginally treated with repeated C5A applications. With its noncellular cytotoxic activity and rare mechanism of action, C5A represents an attractive microbicidal candidate.

  15. Disseminated varicella zoster virus in an immunized child as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness.

    PubMed

    Chilek, Katherine; Routhouska, Shannon; Tamburro, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunization aids in the prevention of future VZV infections in immunocompetent patients; however, severely immunocompromised patients remain at increased risk of VZV infection. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy previously immunized to Varicella who presented with herpes zoster with hematogenous dissemination as the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-defining illness. Disseminated VZV is more commonly seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with more advanced disease, as was the case with our patient. Disseminated VZV infection in a previously immunized child should raise suspicion for underlying immunosuppression.

  16. Inhibition of simian immunodeficiency virus by foamy virus vectors expressing siRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeonghae; Nadeau, Peter; Zucali, James R.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Mergia, Ayalew . E-mail: mergiaa@mail.vetmed.ufl.edu

    2005-12-20

    Viral vectors available for gene therapy are either inefficient or suffer from safety concerns for human applications. Foamy viruses are non-pathogenic retroviruses that offer several unique opportunities for gene transfer in various cell types from different species. In this report, we describe the use of simian foamy virus type 1 (SFV-1) vector to examine the efficacy of therapeutic genes. Hairpin short-interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) rev/env was placed under the control of the PolIII U6 snRNA promoter for expression and screened for silencing target genes using cognate target-reporter fusions. We have identified an effective siRNA (designated R2) which reduces the rev and env gene expression by 89% and 95%, respectively. Using the simian foamy virus type 1 (SFV-1) based vector, we delivered the PolIII expressed R2 siRNA into cultured cells and challenged with SIV. The results show that the R2 siRNA is a potent inhibitor of SIV replication as determined by p27 expression and reverse transcriptase assays. Vectors based on a non-pathogenic SFV-1 vector may provide a safe and efficient alternative to currently available vectors, and the SIV model will help devise protocols for effective anti-HIV gene therapy.

  17. Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Cepeda, Javier; Wu, Johnny; Trestman, Robert L.; Altice, Frederick L.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management in correctional settings is logistically feasible, but HIV-related outcomes before release have not been recently systematically examined. OBJECTIVE To evaluate HIV treatment outcomes throughout incarceration, including jail and prison. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of longitudinally linked demographic, pharmacy, and laboratory data on 882 prisoners within the Connecticut Department of Correction (2005–2012) with confirmed HIV infection, who were continually incarcerated 90 days or more, had at least 2 HIV-1 RNA and CD4 lymphocyte measurements, and were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Three electronic databases (correctional, laboratory, and pharmacy) were integrated to assess HIV viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA levels, <400 copies/mL) on intake and release. Secondary outcomes were mean change in log-transformed HIV-1 RNA levels and mean change in CD4 lymphocyte count during incarceration. Demographic characteristics, prescribed pharmacotherapies, receipt of directly observed therapy, and duration of incarceration were analyzed as possible explanatory variables for HIV viral suppression in logistic regression models. RESULTS Among 882 HIV-infected prisoners with 1185 incarceration periods, mean HIV-1 RNA level decreased by 1.1 log10 and CD4 lymphocyte count increased by 98 cells/μL over time, with a higher proportion achieving viral suppression by release compared with entry (70.0% vs 29.8%; P < .001); 36.9% of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens were changed during incarceration. After adjusting for baseline HIV-1 RNA level, prerelease viral suppression correlated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26–2.59) and psychiatric disorder severity below the sample median (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12–1.99), but not race/ethnicity, incarceration duration, ART regimen or dosing strategy, or directly observed therapy

  18. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samuel S.; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Gillies, Robert D.; Foster, Andrew L.; Barbati, Zachary R.; Smith, Davey M.; Fierer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods. We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results. Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions. One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  19. Microbial Translocation and Inflammation Occur in Hyperacute Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Compromise Host Control of Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Greene, Justin M.; Lehrer-Brey, Gabrielle; Gieger, Samantha M.; Buechler, Connor R.; Crosno, Kristin A.; Peterson, Eric J.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Estes, Jacob D.; Sacha, Jonah B.; Brenchley, Jason M.; O’Connor, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute “pre-peak” phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood. This, heretofore unappreciated, hyperacute-phase microbial translocation was accompanied by sustained reduction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific antibody titer, intestinal permeability, increased abundance of CD4+CCR5+ T cell targets of virus replication, and T cell activation. To test whether increasing gastrointestinal permeability to cause microbial translocation would amplify viremia, we treated two SIV-infected macaque ‘elite controllers’ with a short-course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)–stimulating a transient increase in microbial translocation and a prolonged recrudescent viremia. Altogether, our data implicates translocating microbes as amplifiers of immunodeficiency virus replication that effectively undermine the host’s capacity to contain infection. PMID:27926931

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Results: HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. Conclusion: HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients. PMID:27830031

  1. Live, attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines elicit potent resistance against a challenge with a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 chimeric virus.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, R; Siemon, C; Czajak, S C; Desrosiers, R C; Martin, M A

    1997-01-01

    Three rhesus macaques, previously immunized with SIVdelta3 or SIVdelta2, each an attenuated derivative of SIVmac239, and two naive monkeys were challenged with 30,000 50% tissue culture infective doses of SHIV, an SIV/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) chimeric virus bearing the dual-tropic envelope of HIV-1DH12. By several criteria, including virus isolation, serological assays, and PCR (both DNA and reverse transcriptase), SHIV levels were reduced to barely detectable levels in the circulating blood of vaccinated animals. The resistant SIV-vaccinated macaques had no preexisting neutralizing antibodies directed against SHIV, nor did they produce neutralizing antibodies at any time over a 14-month observation period following SHIV challenge. Interestingly, SIV sequences, derived from the vaccine, could be amplified from numerous tissue samples collected at the conclusion of the experiment, 60 weeks postchallenge, but SHIV-specific sequences (viz., HIV-1 env) could not. These results demonstrate that live attenuated SIV vaccines provide strong long-term protection even against challenge strains with highly divergent envelope sequences. PMID:9343164

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-09-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world.

  3. Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Ballow, M; Notarangelo, L; Grimbacher, B; Cunningham-Rundles, C; Stein, M; Helbert, M; Gathmann, B; Kindle, G; Knight, A K; Ochs, H D; Sullivan, K; Franco, J L

    2009-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are uncommon, chronic and severe disorders of the immune system in which patients cannot mount a sufficiently protective immune response, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections. The treatment of choice for PID patients with predominant antibody deficiency is intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy. Despite major advances over the last 20 years in the molecular characterization of PIDs, many patients remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed too late, with severe consequences. Various strategies to ensure timely diagnosis of PIDs are in place, and novel approaches are being developed. In recent years, several patient registries have been established. Such registries shed light on the pathology and natural history of these varied disorders. Analyses of the registry data may also reveal which patients are likely to respond well to higher Ig infusion rates and may help to determine the optimal dosing of Ig products. Faster infusion rates may lead to improved convenience for patients and thus increase patient compliance, and may reduce nursing time and the need for hospital resources. Data from two recent studies suggest that Gamunex® and Privigen® are well tolerated at high infusion rates. Nevertheless, careful selection of patients for high infusion rates, based on co-morbid conditions and tolerance of the current infusion rate, is advisable. Based on the available data, intravenous Ig offers broad protection against encapsulated organisms. As vaccine trends change, careful monitoring of specific antibody levels in the general population, such as those against pneumococcal and meningococcal bacteria, should be implemented. PMID:19883420

  4. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in a child with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Katelyn R; Gonzalez Santiago, Tania M; Tollefson, Megha M

    2013-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by susceptibility to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. An acquired form of EDV has been described in the setting of immunosuppression, including in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present the case of an HIV-positive, adopted Haitian boy who presented with EDV. Few cases of chidren with HIV and acquired EDV have been reported and are likely underrecognized.

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing and False Disclosures in Heterosexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marelich, William D.; Clark, Tonya

    2004-01-01

    The authors assessed factors that motivate individuals to report negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test results, although they had never been tested. In particular, they investigated sexual intimacy motives associated with the needs for affiliation, sex, and dominance as contributing factors for faulty disclosures. Participants…

  6. Women and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Historical and Personal Psychosocial Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Lori S.

    1991-01-01

    Presents brief historical look at women, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Describes women as invisible participants in AIDS epidemic and notes how societal sexism, racism, and classism have affected public perception of HIV infection and AIDS in women. Also considers the role of women as…

  7. Early Identification of Seronegative Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection with Severe Presentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Bum Sik; Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Gab Jung; Kee, Mee Kyung; Suh, Soon Deok; Kim, Sung Soon

    2007-01-01

    Specific antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), usually used for diagnosis, almost invariably become detectable within 3 months of exposure. We report on a patient whose HIV infection was identified early by a combined antigen/antibody test, but seroconversion did not occur for 7 months, until the implementation of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:17344360

  8. Photoactive terthiophenes: the influence of serum on anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) activities.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J B; Marles, R J; Soucy-Breau, C; Harris, L; Arnason, J T

    1994-12-01

    A number of carboxylic acid derivatives of the photoactive terthiophene, alpha-terthienyl, were found to possess impressive UVA-dependent activity against the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1; but only when assayed in the absence of serum, indicating that the latter contained interfering components. Good antiviral activity required a high rate of singlet oxygen production, in accordance with previous observations on thiophenes.

  9. The Connections between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…

  10. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Associated Risk Factors in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Olivia; Wu, Qishan; Ickes, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study documents the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in a sample of college students and examines associated demographic and behavioral characteristics. Participants: College students aged 18 or older were randomly selected to participate in a health behavior survey at a southeastern university in September…

  11. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  13. Rapid, simple, and reliable doctor's office test for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 in serum.

    PubMed

    Dafforn, A; Irvine, J D; Kurn, N; Becker, M; Bryning, Z; Ullman, E F

    1990-07-01

    This "Unit Test Method" assay for detecting anti-human immunodeficiency virus 1 antibody is suitable for nonlaboratory testing and has a sensitivity comparable with that of present enzyme immunoassay methods. The method does not require instrumentation, gives a result in less than 15 min, and incorporates a procedural control. Little technical expertise and hands-on time are required of the user.

  14. Case Study: Delirium in an Adolescent Girl with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharko, Alexander M.; Baker, Eva H.; Kothari, Priti; Khattak, Hina; Lancaster, Duniya

    2006-01-01

    Delirium and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia are well recognized neuropsychiatric consequences of HIV infection in adults. Almost nothing is known regarding the management of delirium in HIV-infected children and adolescents. HIV-related progressive encephalopathy is thought to represent the pediatric form of HIV-associated…

  15. The burden of sepsis in critically ill human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients--a brief review.

    PubMed

    Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, we have seen dramatic changes in morbi-mortality rates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. If on the one hand, the immunologic preservation-associated with the use of current antiretroviral therapy markedly diminishes the incidence of opportunistic infections, on the other hand it extended life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals similarly to the general population. However, the management of critically ill human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients remains challenging and troublesome for practicing clinician. Sepsis - a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome in response to infection - is the second leading cause of intensive care unit admission in both human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected populations. Recent data have emerged describing a substantial burden of sepsis in the infected population, in addition, to a much poorer prognosis in this group. Many factors contribute to this outcome, including specific etiologies, patterns of inflammation, underlying immune dysregulation related to chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection and delays in prompt diagnosis and treatment. This brief review explores the impact of sepsis in the context of human immunodeficiency virus infection, and proposes future directions for better management and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus-associated sepsis.

  16. Cyclophilin A is required for the replication of group M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(CPZ)GAB but not group O HIV-1 or other primate immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Braaten, D; Franke, E K; Luban, J

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein binds to cyclophilin A and incorporates this cellular peptidyl prolyl-isomerase into virions. Disruption of cyclophilin A incorporation, either by gag mutations or by cyclosporine A, inhibits virion infectivity, indicating that cyclophilin A plays an essential role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Using assays for packaging of cyclophilin A into virions and for viral replication sensitivity to cyclosporine A, as well as information gleaned from the alignment of Gag residues encoded by representative viral isolates, we demonstrate that of the five lineages of primate immunodeficiency viruses, only HIV-1 requires cyclophilin A for replication. Cloned viral isolates from clades A, B, and D of HIV-1 group M, as well as a phylogenetically related isolate from chimpanzee, all require cyclophilin A for replication. In contrast, the replication of two outlier (group O) HIV-1 isolates is unaffected by concentrations of cyclosporine A which disrupt cyclophilin A incorporation into virions, indicating that these viruses are capable of replicating independently of cyclophilin A. These studies identify the first phenotypic difference between HIV-1 group M and group O and are consistent with phylogenetic studies suggesting that the two HIV-1 groups were introduced into human populations via separate zoonotic transmission events. PMID:8676442

  17. Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus: the orf-B region down-regulates virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Luciw, P A; Cheng-Mayer, C; Levy, J A

    1987-01-01

    Mutations were made by recombinant DNA techniques in an infectious molecular clone of the human immunodeficiency virus San Francisco isolate 2 (HIVSF2) [formerly the prototype isolate of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus (ARV-2)]. The effect of these changes on the replicative and cytopathologic properties of the virus was studied by transfecting modified virus clones into cultured human cells. Mutations in the gag, pol, env, and tat regions precluded virus replication and cytopathology in lymphoid cells. A mutation in orf-A dramatically reduced but did not abolish virus replication. Mutant viruses with deletions in the orf-B region were highly cytopathic and replicated to approximately 5-fold higher levels than wild-type virus. They also produced approximately 5-fold more viral DNA in infected lymphoid cells than did wild-type virus. Thus, the orf-B region may function to down-regulate virus replication. This mutational analysis of the HIVSF2 genome is a means of assessing genes regulating viral replication and cytopathology. Images PMID:2434956

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 core proteins: cross-reactivity with HIV type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Minassian, A A; Kalyanaraman, V S; Gallo, R C; Popovic, M

    1988-09-01

    Four mouse monoclonal antibodies were developed after immunization with one human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 isolate and were tested for reactivity with different HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates in an immunofluorescence assay and by immunological blot analysis. One of them, an anti-capsid (p24) antibody, called R1C7, reacted with all HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV isolates tested, thus identifying an epitope shared by all HIV and SIV. Another anti-capsid antibody, named A4F6, reacted with three HIV-2 isolates (HIV-2NIH-Z, LAV-2Rod, and LK001 ST9), some SIV isolates (STLV-IIIAGM, SIV-251, and SIV-309), but no HIV-1 isolates. Two anti-matrix (p16) antibodies, named R5C4 and R5F6, reacted strongly only with the HIV-2 isolates. The use of these monoclonal antibodies for rapid discrimination and identification of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related retroviruses is discussed.

  19. Efavirenz therapy in rhesus macaques infected with a chimera of simian immunodeficiency virus containing reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael J; Higgins, Joanne; Matthews, Timothy B; Pedersen, Niels C; Tan, Chalet; Schinazi, Raymond F; North, Thomas W

    2004-09-01

    The specificity of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the RT of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has prevented the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the study of NNRTIs and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. However, a SIV-HIV-1 chimera (RT-SHIV), in which the RT from SIVmac239 was replaced with the RT-encoding region from HIV-1, is susceptible to NNRTIs and is infectious to rhesus macaques. We have evaluated the antiviral activity of efavirenz against RT-SHIV and the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants in vitro and in vivo. RT-SHIV was susceptible to efavirenz with a mean effective concentration of 5.9 +/- 4.5 nM, and RT-SHIV variants selected with efavirenz in cell culture displayed 600-fold-reduced susceptibility. The efavirenz-resistant mutants of RT-SHIV had mutations in RT similar to those of HIV-1 variants that were selected under similar conditions. Efavirenz monotherapy of RT-SHIV-infected macaques produced a 1.82-log-unit decrease in plasma viral-RNA levels after 1 week. The virus load rebounded within 3 weeks in one treated animal and more slowly in a second animal. Virus isolated from these two animals contained the K103N and Y188C or Y188L mutations. The RT-SHIV-rhesus macaque model may prove useful for studies of antiretroviral drug combinations that include efavirenz.

  20. Efavirenz Therapy in Rhesus Macaques Infected with a Chimera of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Containing Reverse Transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Michael J.; Higgins, Joanne; Matthews, Timothy B.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Tan, Chalet; Schinazi, Raymond F.; North, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The specificity of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the RT of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has prevented the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the study of NNRTIs and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. However, a SIV-HIV-1 chimera (RT-SHIV), in which the RT from SIVmac239 was replaced with the RT-encoding region from HIV-1, is susceptible to NNRTIs and is infectious to rhesus macaques. We have evaluated the antiviral activity of efavirenz against RT-SHIV and the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants in vitro and in vivo. RT-SHIV was susceptible to efavirenz with a mean effective concentration of 5.9 ± 4.5 nM, and RT-SHIV variants selected with efavirenz in cell culture displayed 600-fold-reduced susceptibility. The efavirenz-resistant mutants of RT-SHIV had mutations in RT similar to those of HIV-1 variants that were selected under similar conditions. Efavirenz monotherapy of RT-SHIV-infected macaques produced a 1.82-log-unit decrease in plasma viral-RNA levels after 1 week. The virus load rebounded within 3 weeks in one treated animal and more slowly in a second animal. Virus isolated from these two animals contained the K103N and Y188C or Y188L mutations. The RT-SHIV-rhesus macaque model may prove useful for studies of antiretroviral drug combinations that include efavirenz. PMID:15328115

  1. env Sequences of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses from Chimpanzees in Cameroon Are Strongly Related to Those of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Group N from the Same Geographic Area

    PubMed Central

    Corbet, Sylvie; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Versmisse, Pierre; Delarue, Severine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Lewis, John; Brunak, Soren; Martin, Paul; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Simon, François; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Mauclere, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group N from Cameroon is phylogenetically close, in env, to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) cpz-gab from Gabon and SIVcpz-US of unknown geographic origin. We screened 29 wild-born Cameroonian chimpanzees and found that three (Cam3, Cam4, and Cam5) were positive for HIV-1 by Western blotting. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that Cam3 and Cam5 belonged to Pan troglodytes troglodytes and that Cam4 belonged to P. t. vellerosus. Genetic analyses of the viruses together with serological data demonstrated that at least one of the two P. t. troglodytes chimpanzees (Cam5) was infected in the wild, and revealed a horizontal transmission between Cam3 and Cam4. These data confirm that P. t. troglodytes is a natural host for HIV-1-related viruses. Furthermore, they show that SIVcpz can be transmitted in captivity, from one chimpanzee subspecies to another. All three SIVcpz-cam viruses clustered with HIV-1 N in env. The full Cam3 SIVcpz genome sequence showed a very close phylogenetic relationship with SIVcpz-US, a virus identified in a P. t. troglodytes chimpanzee captured nearly 40 years earlier. Like SIVcpz-US, SIVcpz-cam3 was closely related to HIV-1 N in env, but not in pol, supporting the hypothesis that HIV-1 N results from a recombination event. SIVcpz from chimpanzees born in the wild in Cameroon are thus strongly related in env to HIV-1 N from Cameroon, demonstrating the geographic coincidence of these human and simian viruses and providing a further strong argument in favor of the origin of HIV-1 being in chimpanzees. PMID:10590144

  2. Intracellular Immunization of Human Fetal Cord Blood Stem/Progenitor Cells with a Ribozyme Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mang; Leavitt, Mark C.; Maruyama, Midori; Yamada, Osamu; Young, Dennis; Ho, Anthony D.; Wong-Staal, Flossie

    1995-01-01

    Successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection may ultimately require targeting of hematopoietic stem cells. Here we used retroviral vectors carrying the ribozyme gene to transduce CD34^+ cells from human fetal cord blood. Transduction and ribozyme expression had no apparent adverse effect on cell differentiation and/or proliferation. The macrophage-like cells, differentiated from the stem/progenitor cells in vitro, expressed the ribozyme gene and resisted infection by a macrophage tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1. These results suggest the feasibility of stem cell gene therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

  3. Pathology of parainfluenza virus infection in patients with congenital immunodeficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Madden, John F; Burchette, James L; Hale, Laura P

    2004-05-01

    Infection with parainfluenza virus typically produces a mild, self-limited upper respiratory infection. However, parainfluenza infections have become increasingly recognized as a source of severe morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. In this retrospective study we identified 6 patients with congenital immunodeficiency and positive respiratory cultures for parainfluenza virus who died and underwent complete autopsy. Tissues obtained at autopsy were studied using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, immunoperoxidase staining for parainfluenza virus, and in selected cases, electron microscopy. All 6 patients exhibited typical cytopathic effects of parainfluenza virus, including giant cell formation, in lung and/or bronchial tissues. Parainfluenza virus infection was also documented by giant cell formation and immunohistochemistry in the pancreas (in 3 of 6 patients) and the kidney or bladder (in 2 of 4 patients). Anti-parainfluenza antibody also specifically reacted with cells in the gastrointestinal tract (in 2 of 4), spleen (in 4 of 6), thymus and/or lymph nodes (in 4 of 4), and small blood vessels in various organs (in 4 of 6). Pancreatic, bladder, colon, and thymic epithelial cell lines were susceptible to experimental infections with clinical isolates of parainfluenza virus type 3 in vitro. Parainfluenza virus infection was serious in patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, contributing directly to death in 5 of the 6 patients studied. Because this virus is capable of infecting tissues in the gastrointestinal and urinary systems as well as in the respiratory tract, body secretions and fluids from each of these locations should be considered potentially infectious.

  4. Suppression of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in vivo by 9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)adenine.

    PubMed Central

    Egberink, H; Borst, M; Niphuis, H; Balzarini, J; Neu, H; Schellekens, H; De Clercq, E; Horzinek, M; Koolen, M

    1990-01-01

    The acyclic purine nucleoside analogue 9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)adenine [PMEA; formerly referred to as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine] is a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and of Moloney murine sarcoma virus-induced tumor formation in mice. In the latter system PMEA has stronger antiretroviral potency and selectivity than 3'-azido-3'-thymidine (AZT). We have now investigated the effect of the drug in cats infected with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In vitro, PMEA was found to efficiently block FIV replication in feline thymocytes (50% effective dose, 0.6 microM). When administered to cats at doses of 20, 5, or 2 mg/kg per day, PMEA caused a dose-dependent suppression of FIV replication and virus-specific antibody production. Seropositive field cats with signs of opportunistic infection (gingivitis, stomatitis, and diarrhea) showed clinical improvement during PMEA therapy (5 mg/kg per day) and recurrence of the disease after treatment was discontinued. Thus, FIV infection in cats is an excellent model to test the efficacy of selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents in vivo. Images PMID:2158102

  5. Presence of human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acids in wastewater and their detection by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S A; Farrah, S R; Chaudhry, G R

    1992-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) released by infected individuals or present in human and hospital wastes can potentially cause contamination problems. The presence of HIV-1 was investigated in 16 environmental samples, including raw wastewater, sludge, final effluent, soil, and pond water, collected from different locations. A method was developed to extract total nucleic acids in intact form directly from the raw samples or from the viral concentrates of the raw samples. The isolated nucleic acids were analyzed for the presence of HIV-1 by using in vitro amplification of the target sequences by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. HIV-1-specific proviral DNA and viral RNA were detected in the extracted nucleic acids obtained from three wastewater samples by this method. The specificity of the PCR-amplified products was determined by Southern blot hybridization with an HIV-1-specific oligonucleotide probe, SK19. The isolated nucleic acids from wastewater samples were also screened for the presence of poliovirus type 1, representing a commonly found enteric virus, and simian immunodeficiency virus, representing, presumably, rare viruses. While poliovirus type 1 viral RNA was found in all of the wastewater samples, none of the samples yielded a simian immunodeficiency virus-specific product. No PCR-amplified product was yielded when wastewater samples were directly used for the detection of HIV-1 and poliovirus type 1. The wastewater constituents appeared to be inhibitory to the enzymes reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1476440

  6. Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: Diagnostic methods and clinical impact

    PubMed Central

    Sagnelli, Caterina; Martini, Salvatore; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Macera, Margherita; Zampino, Rosa; Coppola, Nicola; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Several non-invasive surrogate methods have recently challenged the main role of liver biopsy in assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, applied to avoid the well-known side effects of liver puncture. Serological tests involve the determination of biochemical markers of synthesis or degradation of fibrosis, tests not readily available in clinical practice, or combinations of routine tests used in chronic hepatitis and HIV/HCV coinfection. Several radiologic techniques have also been proposed, some of which commonly used in clinical practice. The studies performed to compare the prognostic value of non-invasive surrogate methods with that of the degree of liver fibrosis assessed on liver tissue have not as yet provided conclusive results. Each surrogate technique has shown some limitations, including the risk of over- or under-estimating the extent of liver fibrosis. The current knowledge on liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients will be summarized in this review article, which is addressed in particular to physicians involved in this setting in their clinical practice. PMID:26523204

  7. Evaluation of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus transmembrane peptides for serological diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, J D; Hoover, E A; Elder, J H; Montelaro, R C

    1992-01-01

    The general model for retrovirus transmembrane (TM) proteins proposed by Gallaher et al. (W. R. Gallaher, J. M. Ball, R. F. Garry, M. C. Griffin, and R. C. Montelaro, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 5:431-440, 1989) suggests that all retrovirus TM proteins may contain an immunodominant domain (Imd-TM peptide) located at the apex of the TM polypeptide. Although this Imd-TM peptide has been shown to be immunodominant in a variety of lentivirus infections, there has not been a detailed serological analysis of an oncovirus Imd-TM peptide as a diagnostic agent. We describe here an analysis of the antigenic properties and diagnostic potentials of the predicted Imd-TM peptides of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in serological assays of sera from infected cats. The results of these studies demonstrate that antibodies specific to the FIV Imd-TM peptide are detected within 2 weeks postinfection, are maintained at high levels for extended periods, and are not detectable in uninfected or FeLV-infected cats. In marked contrast, the FeLV Imd-TM peptide displayed only negligible levels of serological reactivity in FeLV-infected cats. These studies indicate that the peptide is a useful reagent for the detection of antibodies to FIV. PMID:1629349

  8. Enhancement of Mucosal Immunization with Virus-Like Particles of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Compans, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is the most potent known mucosal adjuvant, but its toxicity precludes its use in humans. Here, in an attempt to develop safe and effective mucosal adjuvants, we compared immune responses to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virus-like particles (VLPs) after intranasal coimmunization with RANTES, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), or CT. Antibody analysis demonstrated that RANTES and CpG ODN had capacities for mucosal adjuvanticity, i.e., for enhancing serum and vaginal antibodies specific to SIV Env, similar to those for CT. RANTES and CpG ODN skewed serum antibodies predominantly to the immunoglobulin G2a isotype. Most importantly, RANTES and CpG ODN were more effective than CT in increasing neutralizing titers of both serum and vaginal antibodies. After intranasal coadministration with VLPs, RANTES or CpG ODN also induced increased levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing lymphocyte and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities in both spleen and lymph nodes but did not increase the levels of interleukin-4-producing lymphocytes. The results suggest that RANTES and CpG ODN enhance immune responses in a T-helper-cell-type-1 (Th1)-oriented manner and that they can be used as effective mucosal adjuvants for enhancing both humoral and cellular immune responses in the context of VLPs, which are particulate antigens. PMID:12610137

  9. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Mexican human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Gutierrez-Escolano, Fernanda; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Gomez, Alejandro; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier; Lira, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OHBI) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1+/ hepatitis B surface antigen negative (HBsAg)- patients from Mexico. METHODS: We investigated the presence of OHBI in 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was analyzed using nested PCR to amplify the Core (C) region and by real-time PCR to amplify a region of the S and X genes. The possible associations between the variables and OHBI were investigated using Pearson’s χ2 and/or Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of OHBI was 49% among the group of 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients studied. The presence of OHBI was significantly associated with the HIV-1 RNA viral load [odds ratio (OR) = 8.75; P = 0.001; 95%CI: 2.26-33.79] and with HIV-antiretroviral treatment with drugs that interfere with HBV replication (lamivudine, tenofovir or emtricitabine) (OR = 0.25; P = 0.05; 95%CI: 0.08-1.05). CONCLUSION: The OHBI frequency is high among 49 Mexican HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients and it was more frequent in patients with detectable HIV RNA, and less frequent in patients who are undergoing HIV-ARV treatment with drugs active against HBV. PMID:25309083

  10. Preparation of Quadri-Subtype Influenza Virus-Like Particles Using Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus Gag Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Hamilton, Garrett; Horn, Noah; Nickols, Brian; Prather, Raphael O.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Pushko, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza VLPs comprised of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. Here we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be made in Sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (Bgag) protein in place of M1. We showed that Bgag can be used to prepare VLPs for several influenza subtypes including H1N1 and H10N8. Furthermore, by using Bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype VLPs, which co-expressed within the VLP the four HA subtypes derived from avian-origin H5N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 viruses. VLPs showed hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and reacted with specific antisera. The content and co-localization of each HA subtype within the quadri-subtype VLP were evaluated. Electron microscopy showed that Bgag-based VLPs resembled influenza virions with the diameter of 150-200 nm. This is the first report of quadri-subtype design for influenza VLP and the use of Bgag for influenza VLP preparation. PMID:26529299

  11. Hepatitis B virus coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Due to the shared modes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. It is estimated that 10% of HIV-infected patients worldwide are coinfected with HBV. In areas where an HBV vaccination program is implemented, the HBV seroprevalence has declined significantly. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, HBV coinfection accelerates immunologic and clinical progression of HIV infection and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is initiated, while HIV infection increases the risk of hepatitis events, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease related to chronic HBV infection. With the advances in antiviral therapy, concurrent, successful long-term suppression of HIV and HBV replication can be achieved in the cART era. To reduce the disease burden of HBV infection among HIV-infected patients, adoption of safe sex practices, avoidance of sharing needles and diluent, HBV vaccination and use of cART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine or lamivudine are the most effective approaches. However, due to HIV-related immunosuppression, using increased doses of HBV vaccine and novel approaches to HBV vaccination are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HBV vaccine among HIV-infected patients. PMID:25356024

  12. Insights into human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus co-infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Runu; Pal, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Shared routes of transmission lead to frequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in a host which results in about 10% of HIV positive individuals to have chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. In post-antiretroviral therapy era, liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals and HBV co-infection have become the major health issue among this population particularly from the regions with endemic HBV infection. In setting of HIV-HBV co-infection, HIV significantly impacts the natural history of HBV infection, its disease profile and the treatment outcome in negative manner. Moreover, the epidemiological pattern of HBV infection and the diversity in HBV genome (genotypic and phenotypic) are also varied in HIV co-infected subjects as compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. Several reports on the abovementioned issues are available from developed parts of the world as well as from sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast, most of these research areas remained unexplored in India despite having considerable burden of HIV and HBV infections. This review discusses present knowledge from the studies on HIV-HBV co-infection in India and relevant reports from different parts of the world. Issues needed for the future research relevant to HIV-HBV co-infection in India are also highlighted here, including a call for further investigations on this field of study. PMID:26279986

  13. Purinergic signaling and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: From viral entry to therapy.

    PubMed

    Passos, Daniela F; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Leal, Daniela Br

    2015-08-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious condition associated to severe immune dysfunction and immunodeficiency. Mechanisms involved in HIV-associated immune activation, inflammation and loss of CD4+ T cells have been extensively studied, including those concerning purinergic signaling pathways. Purinergic signaling components are involved in viral entry and replication and disease progression. Research involving the participation of purinergic signaling in HIV infection has been not only important to elucidate disease mechanisms but also to introduce new approaches to therapy. The involvement of purinergic signaling in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and its implications in the control of the HIV infection are reviewed in this paper.

  14. Disseminated histoplasmosis: a comparative study between patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Tobón, Angela M; Agudelo, Carlos A; Rosero, David S; Ochoa, Juan E; De Bedout, Catalina; Zuluaga, Alejandra; Arango, Myrtha; Cano, Luz E; Sampedro, Jaime; Restrepo, Angela

    2005-09-01

    We studied 52 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis, 30 with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (cohort 1) and 22 not co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (cohort 2). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, mycologic findings, as well as antifungal therapy and highly active antiretroviral (HAART), were analyzed. Skin lesions were significantly higher in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (P = 0.001). Anemia, leukopenia, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate were also more pronounced in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (P < 0.001). Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated more often in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (P < 0.05) patients, but antibodies to H. capsulatum were detected more frequently in cohort 2 than in cohort 1 (P < 0.05). Itraconazole treatment was less effective in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (P = 0.012). In cohort 1 patients, HAART improved response to antifungals when compared with individuals not given HAART (P = 0.003), who exhibited higher mortality rates (P = 0.025). Cohort 1 patients who were given dual antifungal and anti-retroviral therapies responded as well as the non-HIV patients in cohort 2, who were treated only with itraconazole. These results indicate the need to promote restoration of the immune system in patients with AIDS and histoplasmosis.

  15. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  16. South Asian Consensus Guidelines for the rational management of diabetes in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Raza, Syed Abbas; Bantwal, Ganpathy; Baruah, Manash P.; Latt, Tint Swe; Shrestha, Dina; John, Mathew; Katulanda, Prasad; Somasundaram, Noel; Sahay, Rakesh; Pathan, Faruque

    2011-01-01

    As newer methods of management are made available, and accessible, survival rates with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasing. This means that chronic, metabolic complications of HIV are becoming more frequent in clinical practice, as acute morbidity is controlled. Management of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is gradually expanding to include these chronic and metabolic complications of the disease, and the adverse effects associated with its treatments, including diabetes. Unfortunately, no guidelines are available to help the medical practitioners choose appropriate therapy for patients with these conditions. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with HIV. The development of these guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. These guidelines and associated review of literature represent a compilation of available knowledge regarding rational management of diabetes in HIV. Patients of diabetes with concomitant HIV infection are managed optimally with insulin therapy and judicious use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with suitable alternatives is also recommended. These guidelines should prove helpful to physicians, not only in South Asia, but also across the globe, while managing patients with coexistent HIV and diabetes. PMID:22028994

  17. Effects of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; McGrath, M. S.; Hanks, D.; Erickson, S.; Pulliam, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the direct effect of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 (dmPGA1) on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). dmPGA1 significantly inhibited viral replication in both HSV and HIV infection systems at concentrations of dmPGA1 that did not adversely alter cellular DNA synthesis. The 50% inhibitory concentration (ID50) for several HSV type 1 (HSV-1) strains ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 micrograms/ml for Vero cells and from 4.6 to 7.3 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. The ID50s for two HSV-2 strains varied from 3.8 to 4.5 micrograms/ml for Vero cells; the ID50 was 5.7 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. We found that closely related prostaglandins did not have the same effect on the replication of HSV; dmPGE2 and dmPGA2 caused up to a 60% increase in HSV replication compared with that in untreated virus-infected cells. HIV-1 replication in acutely infected T cells (VB line) and chronically infected macrophages was assessed by quantitative decreases in p24 concentration. The effective ID50s were 2.5 micrograms/ml for VB cells acutely infected with HIV-1 and 5.2 micrograms/m for chronically infected macrophages. dmPGA1 has an unusual broad-spectrum antiviral activity against both HSV and HIV-1 in vitro and offers a new class of potential therapeutic agents for in vivo use.

  18. Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kevin O; Wang, Lingshu; Joyce, M Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Balazs, Alejandro B; Cheng, Cheng; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Duan, Lijie; Foulds, Kathryn E; Donaldson, Mitzi; Xu, Ling; Schmidt, Stephen D; Todd, John-Paul; Baltimore, David; Roederer, Mario; Haase, Ashley T; Kwong, Peter D; Rao, Srinivas S; Mascola, John R; Nabel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here, we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 g/ml, although immune suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled.

  19. Potent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus by MDL 101028, a novel sulphonic acid polymer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D L; Brennan, T M; Bridges, C G; Mullins, M J; Tyms, A S; Jackson, R; Cardin, A D

    1995-10-01

    MDL 101028, a novel biphenyl disulphonic acid urea co-polymer was designed and synthesised as a heparin mimetic. This low molecular weight polymer showed potent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in a number of host-cell/virus systems, including primary clinical isolates of the virus cultured in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). When compared with the heterogeneous polysulphated molecules, heparin and dextran sulphate, this chemically defined compound showed equivalent antiviral activity with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the range 0.27-3.0 micrograms/ml in the host-cell/virus systems tested. MDL 101028 also inhibited the replication of HIV type 2 and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), as well as HIV-1 variants resistant to reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Virus growth was blocked when exposure of T-lymphocytes to MDL 101028 was restricted to the virus absorption stage, or even in whole blood conditions. MDL 101028 did not irreversibly inactivate virions, and in contrast to heparin, did not inhibit the attachment of radiolabelled HIV-1 to CD4+ T-cells. MDL 101028 blocked HIV-induced cell-to-cell fusion and this activity appears to explain the mechanism of its antiviral action. The antiviral evaluation of discrete oligomer molecules of MDL 101028 showed that a polymer chain length of six repeating units had optimal potency. The lack of anticoagulant properties and significant antiviral activity in whole blood may allow the development of MDL 101028 as a treatment of HIV infections.

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection in Spain: Prevalence and Patient Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Berenguer, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Núñez, María J.; Vivancos, María J.; Crespo, Manel; Téllez, María J.; Domingo, Pere; Iribarren, José A.; Artero, Arturo; Márquez, Manuel; Santos, Ignacio; Moreno, Javier; Montero, Marta; González-García, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (Abs) and active HCV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) patients in Spain in 2015. This was a cross-sectional study. Methods. The study was performed in 41 centers in 2015. Sample size was estimated for an accuracy of 2%, the number of patients from each hospital was determined by proportional allocation, and patients were selected using simple random sampling. Results. The reference population was 35 791 patients, and the sample size was 1867 patients. Hepatitis C virus serostatus was known in 1843 patients (98.7%). Hepatitis C virus-Abs were detected in 695 patients (37.7%), in whom the main route of HIV acquisition was injection drug use (75.4%). Of these 695 patients, 402 had HCV RNA, 170 had had a sustained viral response (SVR) after anti-HCV therapy, and 102 cleared HCV spontaneously. Hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid results were unknown in 21 cases. Genotype distribution (known in 367 patients) was 1a in 143 patients (39.0%), 4 in 90 (24.5%) patients, 1b in 69 (18.8%) patients, 3 in 57 (15.5%) patients, 2 in 5 (1.4%) patients, and mixed in 3 (0.8%) patients. Liver cirrhosis was present in 93 patients (23.1%) with active HCV infection and in 39 (22.9%) patients with SVR after anti-HCV therapy. Conclusions. The prevalence of HCV-Abs and active HCV infection in HIV+ patients in Spain is 37.7% and 22.1%, respectively; these figures are significantly lower than those recorded in 2002 and 2009. The predominant genotypes in patients with active HCV infection were 1a and 4. A high percentage of patients had cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is also common in patients with SVR after anti-HCV therapy. PMID:27186584

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection in Spain: Prevalence and Patient Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Núñez, María J; Vivancos, María J; Crespo, Manel; Téllez, María J; Domingo, Pere; Iribarren, José A; Artero, Arturo; Márquez, Manuel; Santos, Ignacio; Moreno, Javier; Montero, Marta; González-García, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Background.  The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (Abs) and active HCV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) patients in Spain in 2015. This was a cross-sectional study. Methods.  The study was performed in 41 centers in 2015. Sample size was estimated for an accuracy of 2%, the number of patients from each hospital was determined by proportional allocation, and patients were selected using simple random sampling. Results.  The reference population was 35 791 patients, and the sample size was 1867 patients. Hepatitis C virus serostatus was known in 1843 patients (98.7%). Hepatitis C virus-Abs were detected in 695 patients (37.7%), in whom the main route of HIV acquisition was injection drug use (75.4%). Of these 695 patients, 402 had HCV RNA, 170 had had a sustained viral response (SVR) after anti-HCV therapy, and 102 cleared HCV spontaneously. Hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid results were unknown in 21 cases. Genotype distribution (known in 367 patients) was 1a in 143 patients (39.0%), 4 in 90 (24.5%) patients, 1b in 69 (18.8%) patients, 3 in 57 (15.5%) patients, 2 in 5 (1.4%) patients, and mixed in 3 (0.8%) patients. Liver cirrhosis was present in 93 patients (23.1%) with active HCV infection and in 39 (22.9%) patients with SVR after anti-HCV therapy. Conclusions.  The prevalence of HCV-Abs and active HCV infection in HIV+ patients in Spain is 37.7% and 22.1%, respectively; these figures are significantly lower than those recorded in 2002 and 2009. The predominant genotypes in patients with active HCV infection were 1a and 4. A high percentage of patients had cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is also common in patients with SVR after anti-HCV therapy.

  2. Severe cutaneous human papilloma virus infection associated with Natural Killer cell deficiency following stem cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kamili, Qurat-ul-Ain; Seeborg, Filiz O; Saxena, Kapil; Nicholas, Sarah K; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Angelo, Laura S; Mace, Emily M; Forbes, Lisa R; Martinez, Caridad; Wright, Teresa S; Orange, Jordan S.; Hanson, Imelda Celine

    2016-01-01

    Capsule Summary The authors identify Natural Killer cell deficiency in post-transplant severe combined immunodeficiency patients who developed severe human papilloma virus infections as a long term complication. PMID:25159470

  3. A molecularly cloned, pathogenic, neutralization-resistant simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVsmE543-3.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, V; Adger-Johnson, D; Campbell, B; Goldstein, S; Brown, C; Elkins, W R; Montefiori, D C

    1997-01-01

    An infectious molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm was derived from a biological isolate obtained late in disease from an immunodeficient rhesus macaque (E543) with SIV-induced encephalitis. The molecularly cloned virus, SIVsmE543-3, replicated well in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages and resisted neutralization by heterologous sera which broadly neutralized genetically diverse SIV variants in vitro. SIVsmE543-3 was infectious and induced AIDS when inoculated intravenously into pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Two of four infected macaques developed no measurable SIV-specific antibody and succumbed to a wasting syndrome and SIV-induced meningoencephalitis by 14 and 33 weeks postinfection. The other two macaques developed antibodies reactive in Western blot and virus neutralization assays. One macaque was sacrificed at 1 year postinoculation, and the survivor has evidence of immunodeficiency, characterized by persistently low CD4 lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood. Plasma samples from these latter animals neutralized SIVsmE543-3 but with much lower efficiency than neutralization of other related SIV strains, confirming the difficulty by which this molecularly cloned virus is neutralized in vitro. SIVsmE543-3 will provide a valuable reagent for studying SIV-induced encephalitis, mapping determinants of neutralization, and determining the in vivo significance of resistance to neutralization in vitro. PMID:8995688

  4. Molecularly cloned feline immunodeficiency virus NCSU1 JSY3 induces immunodeficiency in specific-pathogen-free cats.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J S; English, R V; Ritchey, J W; Davidson, M G; Wasmoen, T; Levy, J K; Gebhard, D H; Tompkins, M B; Tompkins, W A

    1996-01-01

    A full-length feline immunodeficiency virus NCSU1 (FIV-NCSU1) genome (JSY3) was cloned directly from FIV-NCSU1-infected feline CD4+ lymphocyte (FCD4E) genomic DNA and identified by PCR amplification with 5' long terminal repeat, gag, env, and 3' long terminal repeat primer sets. Supernatant from FCD4E cells cocultured with JSY3-transfected Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells was used as an inoculum. Cell-free JSY3 virus was cytopathogenic for FCD4E lymphocytes but did not infect CrFK cells in vitro. To determine in vivo infectivity and pathogenesis, six young adult specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with cell-free JSY3 virus. Provirus was detected at 2 weeks postinfection (p.i.) and was still detectable at 25 weeks p.i. as determined by gag region PCR-Southern blot analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates. Infectious virus was recovered from peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 6 and 25 weeks p.i., and an antibody response to FIV was detected by 4 weeks. In the acute phase of infection, JSY3 provirus was found only in the CD4+ lymphocyte subset; however, by 14 weeks p.i., the greatest provirus burden was detected in B lymphocytes. All six cats were panlymphopenic at 2 weeks p.i., CD4+/CD8+ ratios were inverted by 6 weeks p.i., and five of the six cats developed lymphadenopathy by 10 weeks p.i. To determine if the JSY3 molecular clone caused immunodeficiency similar to that of the parental wild-type FIV-NCSU1, the cats were challenged with the low-virulence ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii at 29 weeks p.i. Five of six cats developed clinical signs consistent with generalized toxoplasmosis, and three of six cats developed acute respiratory distress and required euthanasia. Histopathologic examination of the severely affected cats revealed generalized inflammatory reactions and the presence of T. gondii tachyzoites in multiple tissues. None of the six age- and sex-matched specific-pathogen-free cats inoculated with only T. gondii developed

  5. Vaccine and antiviral strategies against infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, M A; Kendall, O; Gilmore, N

    1988-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been clearly associated with a variety of new illnesses, including profound immunodeficiency (acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]), wasting syndromes (formerly termed AIDS-related complex [ARC]) and neurologic syndromes, including neuropathy, myelopathy and encephalopathy (often termed subacute encephalitis or AIDS dementia complex). HIV-1 preferentially infects T lymphocytes by binding to a membrane receptor protein, CD4, associated with helper function. The virus can also attack macrophages and, possibly, other cells such as neuronal cells, colonic epithelial cells and B lymphocytes. Infection of macrophages or monocytes may be involved in neurologic disease. Knowledge about HIV-1 has rapidly increased, and investigators have characterized its structure, ways in which it infects cells, replicates and is cytopathic for certain cells, and how the immune system responds to it. The ideal vaccine would prevent adsorption of the virus into the cell, but it is difficult to develop stable resistance because the virus has many antigenic patterns and mutates frequently. The results of vaccine trials in animals have not been promising, but work is being done with monoclonal antibodies. Antiviral therapies being investigated include those to prevent virus binding and entry, to inhibit reverse transcription, to inhibit the virus's life cycle and to restore immune competence in immunocompromised patients. PMID:3282628

  6. Extensive envelope heterogeneity of simian immunodeficiency virus in tissues from infected macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B J; Hirsch, V M

    1994-01-01

    The extent of virus genetic variation within tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from two simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques was analyzed. The products of PCR amplification of two regions, region 1 (SIV V1 region) and region 2 (region corresponding to the human immunodeficiency virus V3 cysteine loop and part of the C3 region immediately downstream), of the SIV envelope were examined for single-stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequence analysis of selected clones. The V1 region of the SIV envelope of viruses present within lymphoid tissues displayed extensive heterogeneity, while viral populations within the PBMC and brain appeared to be less variable. Region 2 heterogeneity in both animals was generally confined to three residues in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, virus from the brains of both animals appeared to be distinct compared with viruses present in other tissues and PBMC of the same animal, both in the pattern of PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism SCP and in the sequence of region 2. These studies revealed that the tissues of SIV-infected macaques were a reservoir for viral variants distinct from those seen in PBMC. Images PMID:8151778

  7. Dissecting the role of dendritic cells in simian immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wonderlich, Elizabeth R.; Kader, Muhamuda; Wijewardana, Viskam

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the loss of the two principal types of dendritic cell (DC), myeloid DC (mDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC), but the mechanism of this loss and its relationship to AIDS pathogenesis remain ill-defined. The nonhuman primate is a powerful model to dissect this response for several reasons. Both DC subsets have been well characterized in nonhuman primates and shown to have strikingly similar phenotypic and functional characteristics to their counterparts in the human. Moreover, decline of mDC and pDC occurs in rhesus macaques with end-stage simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, the model of HIV infection in humans. In this brief review, we discuss what is known about DC subsets in pathogenic and nonpathogenic nonhuman primate models of HIV infection and highlight the advances and controversies that currently exist in the field. PMID:21717075

  8. Preparation of quadri-subtype influenza virus-like particles using bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Hamilton, Garrett; Horn, Noah; Nickols, Brian; Prather, Raphael O.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Pushko, Peter

    2016-01-15

    Influenza VLPs comprised of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. Here we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be made in Sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (Bgag) protein in place of M1. We showed that Bgag can be used to prepare VLPs for several influenza subtypes including H1N1 and H10N8. Furthermore, by using Bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype VLPs, which co-expressed within the VLP the four HA subtypes derived from avian-origin H5N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 viruses. VLPs showed hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and reacted with specific antisera. The content and co-localization of each HA subtype within the quadri-subtype VLP were evaluated. Electron microscopy showed that Bgag-based VLPs resembled influenza virions with the diameter of 150–200 nm. This is the first report of quadri-subtype design for influenza VLP and the use of Bgag for influenza VLP preparation. - Highlights: • BIV gag protein was configured as influenza VLP core component. • Recombinant influenza VLPs were prepared in Sf9 cells using baculovirus expression system. • Single- and quadri-subtype VLPs were prepared by using BIV gag as a VLP core. • Co-localization of H5, H7, H9, and H10 HA was confirmed within quadri-subtype VLP. • Content of HA subtypes within quadri-subtype VLP was determined. • Potential advantages of quadri-subtype VLPs as influenza vaccine are discussed.

  9. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Complete genome analysis of hepatitis B virus in human immunodeficiency virus infected and uninfected South Africans.

    PubMed

    Gededzha, Maemu P; Muzeze, Muxe; Burnett, Rosemary J; Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Selabe, Selokela G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly endemic in South Africa. Data on the complete genome sequences of HBV in HIV-positive patients in South Africa are scanty. This study characterized the complete HBV genome isolated from both HIV-positive and negative patients at the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Pretoria. Serum samples from nine (five HIV-positive and four HIV-negative) patients attending the DGMAH from 2007 to 2011 were serologically tested, amplified, and sequenced for complete genome. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA6.0. Mutations were analyzed by comparing the sequences with genotype-matched GenBank references. Eight patients were HBsAg positive, with only one from the HIV positive group being negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences classified them into five genotypes; A1 (n = 4), A2 (n = 1), C1 (n = 2), D1 (n = 1), and D3 (n = 1). Deletions up to 35 nucleotides in length were identified in this study. No drug resistance mutations were identified in the P ORF, while the L217R mutation was identified in one subgenotype A2 sequence. The double (A1762T/G1764A) and triple (T1753C/A1762T/G1764A) mutations in the Basal core promoter were identified in four and two sequences, respectively. In the core region, mutation G1888A was identified in four of the subgenotype A1 sequences. In conclusion, this study has added to the limited South African data on HBV genotypes and mutations in HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients, based on complete HBV genome analysis. Subgenotype A1 was predominant, and no drug-resistant mutants were detected in the study. J. Med. Virol. 88:1560-1566, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Widespread flat warts associated with human papillomavirus type 5: a cutaneous manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Prose, N S; von Knebel-Doeberitz, C; Miller, S; Milburn, P B; Heilman, E

    1990-11-01

    Numerous flat and tinea versicolor-like warts developed on the face, trunk, and upper extremities of a 10-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Nucleic acid analysis of involved skin revealed human papillomavirus type 5, which has sometimes been associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. This human papillomavirus type has also been described in patients with common variable immunodeficiency and dyskeratosis congenita and in renal allograft recipients. Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be added to the list of immune-related disorders that predispose to widespread flat warts.

  12. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein by aptamer-based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Uda; Fatin, M. F.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to detect the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein using interdigitated electrodes. The measurements and images of the IDEs' finger gaps and the images of chitosan-carbon nanotubes deposited on top of the interdigitated electrodes were taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope. The detection of HIV-1 Tat protein was done using split aptamers and aptamer tail. Biosensors were chosen as diagnostic equipment due to their rapid diagnostic capabilities.

  13. Gonococcal arthritis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sena Corrales, Gabriel; Mora Navas, Laura; Palacios Muñoz, Rosario; García López, Victoria; Márquez Solero, Manuel; Santos González, Jesús

    We report a case of gonococcal arthritis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and review 17 previously published cases; only one patient presented urethritis, and blood cultures were positive in one case. Gonococcal arthritis is rare in HIV-infected patients and is not usually associated with other symptoms. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute arthritis in patients with HIV infection.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in illicit-drug solutions used intravenously retains infectivity.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, Aleksei F; Selimova, Ludmila M; Khanina, Tatyana A; Zverev, Sergey Y; Pokrovsky, Vadim V; Weber, Jonathan N; Bobkov, Eugene N; Rylkov, Andrey V

    2005-04-01

    The stability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain IIIB in drug solutions was studied. The data demonstrate that HIV-1 infectivity can be retained in drug solutions (e.g. , heroin, "Khanka," and "Vint") for long periods of time. This fact must be taken into account when designing health education programs for the prevention of HIV and AIDS in Eastern Europe.

  15. Response of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Cerebral Angiitis to the Combined Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheron, Julian; Wyndham-Thomas, Chloé; Sadeghi, Niloufar; Naeije, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    When secondary causes are excluded, mechanisms underlying central nervous system angiitis (ACNS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are still not understood and optimal treatment remains undefined. We report here a patient with an untreated HIV infection who presented multiple ischemic strokes probably due to HIV-ACNS. ACNS signs on vessel-wall imaging magnetic resonance monitoring retracted with combined antiretroviral therapy without adjunct immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:28348548

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus in feral and companion domestic cats of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jessica J; Taylor, John; Rodrigo, Allen G

    2007-03-01

    Nested PCR was used to amplify envelope V3-V6 gene fragments of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from New Zealand cats. Phylogenetic analyses established that subtypes A and C predominate among New Zealand cats, with clear evidence of intersubtype recombination. In addition, 17 sequences were identified that were distinct from all known FIV clades, and we tentatively suggest these belong to a novel subtype.

  17. Characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Lagana, Danielle M; Lee, Justin S; Lewis, Jesse S; Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Sweanor, Linda L; McBride, Roy; McBride, Caleb; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n=25) and Colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats.

  18. Sildenafil as treatment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related pulmonary hypertension in a child.

    PubMed

    Wong, Abdul Rahim; Rasool, Aida Hanum G; Abidin, Nik Zainal; Noor, Abdul Rahmand; Quah, Ban Seng

    2006-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related pulmonary hypertension is a relatively rare disease that can affect HIV sufferers. This is almost always associated with a poor outcome and death. An 18 month-old girl, probably the youngest on record, was diagnosed to have pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and retrospectively found to have HIV infection. Sildenafil was used to control her PHT and she remains alive even after 2 years.

  19. Role of Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION1 Monte S. Meltzer , Donald R. Skillman,* Peter J. Gomatos, D. Chester Kalter,t and Howard E. Gendelmant HIV Immunopathogenesis...unlimited. ’ 170 MELTZER ET AL certain bodily tissues, such as those of the central nervous system, lymph nodes, or lung, the frequency of HIV-infected...172 MELTZER ET AL with interferon y (IFNy) or with bacterial endotoxic lipopolysaccharides were similar to those induced in control cells (24

  20. Detection and Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Penny; Bremer, James; Wasserman, Steven S.; Nowicki, Marek; Driscoll, Barbara; Polsky, Bruce; Kovacs, Andrea; Reichelderfer, Patricia S.

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was detected in the genital tracts of 59% of 225 women by RNA PCR and in 7% of the women by culture. In a comparison of two sampling methods, endocervical swabs were more sensitive than cervicovaginal lavage for HIV-1 RNA detection by PCR but not by culture and their sensitivity was independent of the concentration of HIV-1 RNA. PMID:11015409

  1. Crusted Scabies: Presenting as erythroderma in a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Shruti; Shah, Hiral; Patel, Bharti; Bhuptani, Neela

    2016-01-01

    Crusted scabies is a rare manifestation of scabies characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of mites in the skin. It is common in patients with sensory neuropathy, mentally retarded persons and in patients who are immunosuppressed. Further, crusted scabies can rarely present as erythroderma (<0.5% cases) necessitating a high index of suspicion for its diagnosis. Because of its rare occurrence, we are reporting a case of crusted scabies presenting as erythroderma, in a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient. PMID:27190417

  2. Examination of whether persistently indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Western immunoblot reactions are due to serological reactivity with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus.

    PubMed Central

    Whetstone, C A; Sayre, K R; Dock, N L; VanDerMaaten, M J; Miller, J M; Lillehoj, E; Alexander, S S

    1992-01-01

    The bovine lentivirus, known as bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV), is genetically, structurally, and antigenically related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). It is not known whether sera from persons exposed to BIV proteins would show either positive or indeterminate reactivity on HIV-1 antibody tests. We used a BIV Western blot (immunoblot) analysis to examine human sera characterized as HIV-1 antibody positive, HIV-1 antibody negative, HIV-1 persistently indeterminate, HIV-1 p17 antibody positive only, HIV-1 p24 antibody positive only, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) p19 antibody positive only, or HTLV-1 p24 antibody positive only. None of these sera were positive by Western blot to BIV-specific proteins. Many of these sera, however, displayed strong reactivities to bovine cell culture antigens on blots prepared from both mock-infected and BIV-infected cell cultures. The HIV-1 p17 and p24 antibody-positive and the HTLV-1 p19 and p24 antibody-positive sera were further examined by Western blot to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and were found to be negative. We examined sera from laboratory personnel at risk for BIV exposure, including two laboratory workers who were exposed to BIV by accidental injection with BIV-infected cell culture material, and found no evidence of seroconversion to BIV-specific proteins. We tested 371 samples of fetal bovine sera, each sample representing serum pooled from one to three fetuses. All samples were negative by BIV Western blot. To date, we have not detected any human sera with antibody to BIV-specific proteins. Our data indicate that persistently indeterminate results on HIV-1 Western blot are not caused by a human antibody response to BIV proteins. Images PMID:1315332

  3. Accessory genes confer a high replication rate to virulent feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Ryan M; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence.

  4. Relationship of lymphoid lesions to disease course in mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus type C infection.

    PubMed

    Obert, L A; Hoover, E A

    2000-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection typically has a prolonged and variable disease course in cats, which can limit its usefulness as a model for human immunodeficiency virus infection. A clade C FIV isolate (FIV-C) has been associated with high viral burdens and rapidly progressive disease in cats. FIV-C was transmissible via oral-nasal, vaginal, or rectal mucosal exposure, and infection resulted in one of three disease courses: rapid, conventional/slow, or regressive. The severity of the pathologic changes paralleled the disease course. Thymic depletion was an early lesion and was correlated with detection of FIV RNA in thymocytes by in situ hybridization. The major changes in thymic cell populations were depletion of p55+/S100+ dendritic cells, CD3- cells, CD4+/CD8- cells, and CD4+/CD8+ cells and increases in apoptosis, CD45R+ B cells, and lymphoid follicles. In contrast to thymic depletion, peripheral lymphoid tissues often were hyperplastic. Mucosally transmitted FIV-C is thymotropic and induces a spectrum of lymphoid lesions and disease mirroring that seen with the human and simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

  5. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  6. Human Immune Responses to HTLV-III Virus Infections in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-10

    in western blots in the antibodies to HIV-1 structural antigens between this serum and the other sera which neutralize HIV at low dilutions but enhance...n3est AvailabCe AD N T== HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSE TO HTLV -III VIRUS INFECTION IN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME N ANNUAL REPORT FRANCIS A. ENNIS D...Stimulation of HIV-1 specific T cells. We have stimulated the PBL of 20 HIV antibody-positive donors with live HIV-1 ( HTLV -IIIB) virus, and only 30% respond

  7. Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection of cells lacking PDZD8.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shijian; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    PDZD8 can bind the capsid proteins of different retroviruses, and transient knockdown of PDZD8 results in a decrease in the efficiency of an early, post-entry event in the retrovirus life cycle. Here we used the CRISPR-CAS9 system to create cell lines in which PDZD8 expression is stably eliminated. The PDZD8-knockout cell lines were infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus as efficiently as the parental PDZD8-expressing cells. These results indicate that PDZD8 is not absolutely necessary for HIV-1 infection and diminishes its attractiveness as a potential target for intervention.

  8. [Oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus positive child: a case report].

    PubMed

    Astolfo, María Florencia; D'Antonio, Federico; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Arabolaza, María N; Cheistwer, Ariel; De Matteo, Elena; Torrado, Lidia; Martínez Iriart, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, originally described in the oral cavity of male adults with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is composed of neoplastic ceils which resemble immunoblasts but present immunophenotype distinctive of plasma cell and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. In children, it is an even rarer disease. We present a case of oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-positive five-year-old child.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus disease in California. Effects of the 1993 expanded case definition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, J A; Tabnak, F; Kuan, J; Rutherford, G W

    1996-01-01

    On January 1, 1993, the case definition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in adults and adolescents used for monitoring the AIDS epidemic in California was expanded to include persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with CD4 T-lymphocyte counts of less than 200 x 10(6) per liter (< 200 per mm3), pulmonary tuberculosis, recurrent pneumonia, or invasive cervical cancer. To assess the implications of this revision on AIDS case reporting in California, we compared cases reported through the end of 1994 based on 1 or more of the 4 new AIDS-defining conditions added in 1993 to cases reported based on pre-1993 AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and cancers. The 4 new conditions included in the 1993 expanded AIDS case definition accounted for a 23% increase in cumulative AIDS cases reported in California by the end of 1993, a 170% increase in the number of cases reported during 1993, and an 88% increase in the number of patients with AIDS living at the end of 1993. The number of cases reported in 1993 (19,629) was 124% more than that reported in 1992 (8,780) and 69% more than that reported in 1994 (11,587). The proportion of cases among women, injection-drug users, and African Americans also increased as a result of this change in the case definition. The expansion of the case definition may have resulted in a peak or plateau in the AIDS incidence in California because of reporting earlier in the HIV disease progression. The expanded case definition has enhanced the usefulness of AIDS surveillance data for targeting secondary prevention efforts, but more behavioral and HIV serosurveys are still needed to adequately target primary HIV prevention efforts. Images Figure 1. PMID:8775725

  10. Study of infections among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Shadan Hospital, Telangana, India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sukumar Gajjala; Ali, Syed Yousuf; Khalidi, Azheel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemicity is a major concern today as it causes greater loss of productivity than any other disease. HIV infection leads to profound immune deficiency and patients become highly susceptible to opportunistic infections (OIs). HIV epidemic in India is heterogeneous in nature, both in terms of routes of transmission as well as geographical spread. Aims: (1) Determine prevalence of OIs among HIV-seropositive patients and their relation to CD4 count and to focus on the routes of transmission. (2) Analyze the route of transmission. Methods: This is a single-center prospective study including all the patients attending acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care center during the period of January 2014 to December 2014. Results: Among 71 patients included in this study, mean age was 30 years, 57.7% (41 patients) were male, 42.3% (30 patients) were female. Mean CD4 cell count of the study group was 260.11 and of patients on antiretroviral therapy increased subsequently to 553.37 cells/ml. Among the infections, the prevalence of candidiasis, tuberculosis (TB), tinea infections, seborrheic dermatitis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and Entamoeba histolytica were 36.6%, 29.58%, 4.22%, 2.82%, 4.22%, 1.4%, and 1.4%. Most predominant routes were heterosexual transmission at 94.3%. It was followed by vertical transmission seen in 2.8%. Homosexual transmission is 1.4% and intravenous drug abuse 1.4%. Conclusion: The frequency of infections among HIV/AIDS patients has got a similar linear relation with CD4 cell count. This study reports data will serve as a matrix for future evaluation. It is concluded that candidiasis, TB are the most common infections in the HIV-seropositive patients in the present study group. PMID:27890948

  11. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine efficacy and FIV neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, James K.; Pu, Ruiyu; Martin, Marcus M.; Noon-Song, Ezra N.; Zwijnenberg, Raphael; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    A HIV-1 tier system has been developed to categorize the various subtype viruses based on their sensitivity to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (NAbs): tier 1 with greatest sensitivity, tier 2 being moderately sensitive, and tier 3 being the least sensitive to NAbs (Mascola et al., J Virol 2005; 79:10103-7). Here, we define an FIV tier system using two related FIV dual-subtype (A+D) vaccines: the commercially available inactivated infected-cell vaccine (Fel-O-Vax® FIV) and its prototype vaccine solely composed of inactivated whole viruses. Both vaccines afforded combined protection rates of 100% against subtype-A tier-1 FIVPet, 89% against subtype-B tier-3 FIVFC1, 61% against recombinant subtype-A/B tier-2 FIVBang, 62% against recombinant subtype-F′/C tier-3 FIVNZ1, and 40% against subtype-A tier-2 FIVUK8 in short-duration (37–41 weeks) studies. In long-duration (76–80 weeks) studies, the commercial vaccine afforded a combined protection rate of at least 46% against the tier-2 and tier-3 viruses. Notably, protection rates observed here are far better than recently reported HIV-1 vaccine trials (Sanou et al., The Open AIDS 2012; 6:246-60). Prototype vaccine protection against two tier-3 and one tier-2 viruses was more effective than commercial vaccine. Such protection did not correlate with the presence of vaccine-induced NAbs to challenge viruses. This is the first large-scale (228 laboratory cats) study characterizing short- and long-duration efficacies of dual-subtype FIV vaccines against heterologous subtype and recombinant viruses, as well as FIV tiers based on in vitro NAb analysis and in vivo passive-transfer studies. These studies demonstrate that not all vaccine protection is mediated by vaccine-induced NAbs. PMID:23800540

  12. Functional chimeras of the Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus gag proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, R P; Nelle, T D; Wills, J W

    1993-01-01

    The Gag protein encoded by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is the only viral product required for the process of budding whereby virus particles are formed at the plasma membrane. Deletion analysis of this Gag molecule has revealed several regions (assembly domains) that are important for budding. One of these domains is located at the amino terminus and is needed for membrane binding. Another is located within the carboxy-terminal third of the protein. Though there is little sequence homology among the Gag proteins of unrelated retroviruses, it seemed possible that their assembly domains might be functionally conserved, and to explore this idea, numerous Gag chimeras were made. The results indicate that the first 10 amino acids of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag protein can suppress the block to budding caused by deletions in the RSV MA sequence, much as described previously for the first 10 residues from the Src oncoprotein (J.W. Wills, R.C. Craven, R. A. Weldon, Jr., T. D. Nelle, and C.R. Erdie, J. Virol. 65:3804-3812, 1991). In addition, the carboxy-terminal half of the HIV Gag protein was fused to a truncated RSV Gag molecule, mutant Bg-Bs, which is unable to direct core assembly. This chimera was able to produce particles at a rate identical to that of RSV and of a density similar to that of authentic virions. Deletion analysis of the carboxy-terminal chimera revealed two small regions within the HIV NC protein that were sufficient for endowing mutant Bg-Bs with these properties. Chimeras lacking both regions produced particles of a low density, suggesting that these sequences may be involved in the tight packing of Gag molecules during assembly. In a related set of experiments, replacement of the RSV protease with that of HIV resulted in premature processing within the RSV sequence and a block to budding. Particle assembly was restored when the HIV PR activity was inactivated by mutagenesis. Collectively, the data presented here illustrate the functional

  13. Macaque-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1: breaking out of the host restriction factors

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Macaque monkeys serve as important animal models for understanding the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections. Since human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hardly replicates in macaque cells, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric viruses between HIV-1 and SIV (SHIV) have been used as challenge viruses in this research field. These viruses, however, are genetically distant from HIV-1. Therefore, in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs and vaccines in macaques, the development of a macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) having the ability to replicate efficiently in macaques has long been desired. Recent studies have demonstrated that host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 family and TRIM5, impose a strong barrier against HIV-1 replication in macaque cells. By evading these restriction factors, others and we have succeeded in developing an HIV-1mt that is able to replicate in macaques. In this review, we have attempted to shed light on the role of host factors that affect the susceptibility of macaques to HIV-1mt infection, especially by focusing on TRIM5-related factors. PMID:23847610

  14. Stoichiometry of Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers in the Entry of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinzhen; Kurteva, Svetla; Ren, Xinping; Lee, Sandra; Sodroski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Envs) function as a trimer, mediating virus entry by promoting the fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. HIV-1 Env trimers induce membrane fusion through a pH-independent pathway driven by the interaction between an Env trimer and its cellular receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. We studied viruses with mixed heterotrimers of wild-type and dominant-negative Envs to determine the number (T) of Env trimers required for HIV-1 entry. To our surprise, we found that a single Env trimer is capable of supporting HIV-1 entry; i.e., T = 1. A similar approach was applied to investigate the entry stoichiometry of envelope glycoproteins from amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV), avian sarcoma/leukosis virus type A (ASLV-A), and influenza A virus. When pseudotyped on HIV-1 virions, the A-MLV and ASLV-A Envs also exhibit a T = 1 entry stoichiometry. In contrast, eight to nine influenza A virus hemagglutinin trimers function cooperatively to achieve membrane fusion and virus entry, using a pH-dependent pathway. The different entry requirements for cooperativity among Env trimers for retroviruses and influenza A virus may influence viral strategies for replication and evasion of the immune system. PMID:16160141

  15. Defective virus is associated with induction of murine retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Morse, H C; Makino, M; Ruscetti, S K; Hartley, J W

    1989-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice infected with a mixture of murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) develop a syndrome characterized by lymphoproliferation and profound immunodeficiency. Analyses of this viral mixture (LP-BM5 MuLV) showed that it includes replication-competent ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLV and defective viruses with genome sizes of 3.8-6.5 kilobases. The ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLV biologically cloned from the mixture did not induce disease, whereas viral preparations containing the ecotropic MuLV and 4.8-kilobase defective virus were active. Cells producing the 4.8-kilobase defective virus expressed an unusual gag-encoded polyprotein of Mr 60,000. Images PMID:2542949

  16. Ongoing Clinical Trials of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Latency-Reversing and Immunomodulatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Delagrèverie, Héloïse M.; Delaugerre, Constance; Lewin, Sharon R.; Deeks, Steven G.; Li, Jonathan Z.

    2016-01-01

    In chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, long-lived latently infected cells are the major barrier to virus eradication and functional cure. Several therapeutic strategies to perturb, eliminate, and/or control this reservoir are now being pursued in the clinic. These strategies include latency reversal agents (LRAs) designed to reactivate HIV-1 ribonucleic acid transcription and virus production and a variety of immune-modifying drugs designed to reverse latency, block homeostatic proliferation, and replenish the viral reservoir, eliminate virus-producing cells, and/or control HIV replication after cessation of antiretroviral therapy. This review provides a summary of ongoing clinical trials of HIV LRAs and immunomodulatory molecules, and it highlights challenges in the comparison and interpretation of the expected trial results. PMID:27757411

  17. Immunological characterization of the gag gene products of bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Battles, J K; Hu, M Y; Rasmussen, L; Tobin, G J; Gonda, M A

    1992-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) gag gene encodes a 53-kDa precursor (Pr53gag) that is involved in virus particle assembly and is further processed into the putative matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) functional domains in the mature virus. Gag determinants are also found in the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor. To immunologically identify the major precursors and processed products of the BIV gag gene, monospecific rabbit sera to recombinant BIV MA protein and Pr53gag and peptides predicted to correspond to the CA and NC proteins and the MA-CA cleavage site were developed and used in immunoprecipitations and immunoblots of BIV antigens. Monospecific antisera to native and recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteins were also used to identify analogous BIV Gag proteins and to determine whether cross-reactive epitopes were present in the BIV Gag precursors or processed products. The BIV MA, CA, and NC Gag proteins were identified as p16, p26, and p13, respectively. In addition to BIV Pr53gag, the major Gag precursor, two other Gag-related precursors of 170 and 49 kDa were identified that have been designated pPr170gag-pol and Pr49gag, respectively; pPr170gag-pol is the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor, and Pr49gag is the transframe Gag precursor present in pPr170gag-pol. Several alternative Gag cleavage products were also observed, including p23, which contains CA and NC determinants, and p10, which contains a peptide sequence conserved in the CA proteins of most lentiviruses. The monospecific antisera to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CA (p24) and NC (p7) proteins showed cross-reactivity to and aided in the identification of analogous BIV proteins. Based on the present data, a scheme for the processing of BIV Gag precursors is proposed. Images PMID:1331499

  18. Immunological characterization of the gag gene products of bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Battles, J K; Hu, M Y; Rasmussen, L; Tobin, G J; Gonda, M A

    1992-12-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) gag gene encodes a 53-kDa precursor (Pr53gag) that is involved in virus particle assembly and is further processed into the putative matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) functional domains in the mature virus. Gag determinants are also found in the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor. To immunologically identify the major precursors and processed products of the BIV gag gene, monospecific rabbit sera to recombinant BIV MA protein and Pr53gag and peptides predicted to correspond to the CA and NC proteins and the MA-CA cleavage site were developed and used in immunoprecipitations and immunoblots of BIV antigens. Monospecific antisera to native and recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteins were also used to identify analogous BIV Gag proteins and to determine whether cross-reactive epitopes were present in the BIV Gag precursors or processed products. The BIV MA, CA, and NC Gag proteins were identified as p16, p26, and p13, respectively. In addition to BIV Pr53gag, the major Gag precursor, two other Gag-related precursors of 170 and 49 kDa were identified that have been designated pPr170gag-pol and Pr49gag, respectively; pPr170gag-pol is the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor, and Pr49gag is the transframe Gag precursor present in pPr170gag-pol. Several alternative Gag cleavage products were also observed, including p23, which contains CA and NC determinants, and p10, which contains a peptide sequence conserved in the CA proteins of most lentiviruses. The monospecific antisera to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CA (p24) and NC (p7) proteins showed cross-reactivity to and aided in the identification of analogous BIV proteins. Based on the present data, a scheme for the processing of BIV Gag precursors is proposed.

  19. PD 404,182 Is a Virocidal Small Molecule That Disrupts Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chamoun, Ana Maria; Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Bobardt, Michael; Simeon, Rudo; Chang, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    We describe a virucidal small molecule, PD 404,182, that is effective against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for the antiviral effect of PD 404,182 against HCV and HIV in cell culture are 11 and 1 μM, respectively. The antiviral activity of PD 404,182 is due to the physical disruption of virions that is accompanied to various degrees (depending on the virus and exposure temperature/time) by the release of viral nucleic acids into the surrounding medium. PD 404,182 does not directly lyse liposomal membranes even after extended exposure, and it shows no attenuation in antiviral activity when preincubated with liposomes of various lipid compositions, suggesting that the compound inactivates viruses through interaction with a nonlipid structural component of the virus. The virucidal activity of PD 404,182 appears to be virus specific, as little to no viral inactivation was detected with the enveloped Dengue and Sindbis viruses. PD 404,182 effectively inactivates a broad range of primary isolates of HIV-1 as well as HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and it does not exhibit significant cytotoxicity with multiple human cell lines in vitro (50% cytotoxic concentration, >300 μM). The compound is fully active in cervical fluids, although it exhibits decreased potency in the presence of human serum, retains its full antiviral potency for 8 h when in contact with cells, and is effective against both cell-free and cell-associated HIV. These qualities make PD 404,182 an attractive candidate anti-HIV microbicide for the prevention of HIV transmission through sexual intercourse. PMID:22083468

  20. A quantitative measurement of antiviral activity of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drugs against simian immunodeficiency virus infection: dose-response curve slope strongly influences class-specific inhibitory potential.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Zink, M Christine; Clements, Janice E; Siliciano, Robert F

    2012-10-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques is so far the best animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) studies, but suppressing viral replication in infected animals remains challenging. Using a novel single-round infectivity assay, we quantitated the antiviral activities of antiretroviral drugs against SIV. Our results emphasize the importance of the dose-response curve slope in determining the inhibitory potential of antiretroviral drugs and provide useful information for regimen selection in treating SIV-infected animals in models of therapy and virus eradication.

  1. Low immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children with severe immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Resino, Salvador; Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; de José, Maria Isabel; Martin-Fontelos, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Maria Dolores Gurbindo; Léon, Juan Antonio; Ramos, José Tomás; Ciria, Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the CD4 recovery of naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with severe immunodeficiency who were followed up during at least 4 years of receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Children with baseline CD4 of <15% did not reach a mean CD4 of > or =25% after the 4th year on HAART. We conclude that starting HAART after severe immunosuppression of naive HIV-infected children may not be effective for recovery of normal %CD4.

  2. Molecular investigation of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in a criminal case.

    PubMed

    Machuca, R; Jørgensen, L B; Theilade, P; Nielsen, C

    2001-09-01

    Very few criminal cases involving human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission have been described. We report on an HIV-1 transmission case with a child being infected by an HIV-1-positive man. The objective was to determine through molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analyses whether HIV-1 from the HIV-1-positive man could be the source of infection in the HIV-1-positive child, as claimed by the authorities. We conducted genetic analysis of three different parts of the HIV-1 genome (gag, pol, and env) by PCR, direct-sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. We used maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining methods for the phylogenetic analyses to investigate whether the sequences from the man and the child were related. We found that the viral sequences from the man and the child formed separate clusters in all of the phylogenetic analyses compared to the local controls. A unique amino acid deletion was identified in the C2-V3-C3 region of the env gene in the virus from the man and the child. These results were used in the criminal court to elucidate whether the virus from the man was related to the virus from the child. In summary, the results from the phylogenetic analyses, the sequence distances between the virus from the man and the virus from the child, and the identification of the unique molecular fingerprint in the env gene together indicated that the virus from the man and the virus from the child were epidemiologically linked.

  3. Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian T; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

  4. Identification of Light-independent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection through Bioguided Fractionation of Hypericum perforatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not. Here, we identify the light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (...

  5. Identification of three feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) env gene subtypes and comparison of the FIV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolutionary patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Sodora, D L; Shpaer, E G; Kitchell, B E; Dow, S W; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I

    1994-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus associated with AIDS-like illnesses in cats. As such, FIV appears to be a feline analog of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A hallmark of HIV infection is the large degree of viral genetic diversity that can develop within an infected individual and the even greater and continually increasing level of diversity among virus isolates from different individuals. Our goal in this study was to determine patterns of FIV genetic diversity by focusing on a 684-nucleotide region encompassing variable regions V3, V4, and V5 of the FIV env gene in order to establish parallels and distinctions between FIV and HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Our data demonstrate that, like HIV-1, FIV can be separated into distinct envelope sequence subtypes (three are described here). Similar to that found for HIV-1, the pairwise sequence divergence within an FIV subtype ranged from 2.5 to 15.0%, whereas that between subtypes ranged from 17.8 to 26.2%. However, the high number of synonymous nucleotide changes among FIV V3 to V5 env sequences may also include a significant number of back mutations and suggests that the evolutionary distances among FIV subtypes are underestimated. Although only a few subtype B viruses were available for examination, the pattern of diversity between the FIV A and B subtypes was found to be significantly distinct; subtype B sequences had proportionally fewer mutations that changed amino acids, compared with silent changes, suggesting a more advanced state of adaptation to the host. No similar distinction was evident for HIV-1 subtypes. The diversity of FIV genomes within individual infected cats was found to be as high as 3.7% yet twofold lower than that within HIV-1-infected people over a comparable region of the env gene. Despite these differences, significant parallels between patterns of FIV evolution and HIV-1 evolution exist, indicating that a wide array of potentially divergent virus challenges need to be considered

  6. Significance of premature stop codons in env of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, T; Wooley, D P; Naidu, Y M; Kestler, H W; Daniel, M D; Li, Y; Desrosiers, R C

    1989-01-01

    The location of the translational termination codon for the transmembrane protein (TMP) varies in three infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaques (SIVmac). The SIVmac251 and SIVmac142 infectious clones have premature stop signals that differ in location by one codon; transfection of these DNAs into human HUT-78 cells yielded virus with a truncated TMP (28 to 30 kilodaltons [kDa]). The SIVmac239 infectious clone does not have a premature stop codon in its TMP-coding region. Transfection of HUT-78 cells with this clone initially yielded virus with a full-length TMP (41 kDa). At 20 to 30 days posttransfection, SIVmac239 virus with a 41-kDa TMP gradually disappeared coincident with the emergence of a virus with a 28-kDa TMP. Virus production dramatically increased in parallel with the emergence of a virus with a 28-kDa TMP. Sequence analysis of viral DNAs from these cultures showed that premature stop codons arising by point mutation were responsible for the change in size of the TMP with time. A similar selective pressure for truncated forms of TMP was observed when the SIVmac239 clone was transfected into human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In contrast, no such selective pressure was observed in macaque PBL. When the SIVmac239 clone was transfected into macaque PBL and the resultant virus was serially passaged in macaque PBL, the virus replicated very well and maintained a 41-kDa TMP for 80 days in culture. Macaque monkeys were infected with SIVmac239 having a 28-kDa TMP; virus subsequently recovered from T4-enriched lymphocytes of peripheral blood showed only the 41-kDa form of TMP. These results indicate that the natural form of TMP in SIVmac is the full-length 41-kDa TMP, just as in human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Viruses with truncated forms of TMP appear to result from mutation and selection during propagation in unnatural human cells. Images PMID:2795718

  7. A lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E W; Yuhki, N; Packer, C; O'Brien, S J

    1994-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. A lion lentivirus (FIV-Ple) was isolated by infection of lion lymphocytes in vitro. Seroconversion was documented in two Serengeti lions, and discordance of mother-cub serological status argues against maternal transmission (in favor of horizontal spread) as a major route of infection among lions. A phylogenetic analysis of cloned FIV-Ple pol gene sequences from 27 lions from four African populations (from the Serengeti reserve, Ngorongoro Crater, Lake Manyara, and Kruger Park) revealed remarkably high intra- and interindividual genetic diversity at the sequence level. Three FIV-Ple phylogenetic clusters or clades were resolved with phenetic, parsimony, and likelihood analytical procedures. The three clades, which occurred not only together in the same population but throughout Africa, were as divergent from each other as were homologous pol sequences of lentivirus isolated from distinct feline species, i.e., puma and domestic cat. The FIV-Ple clades, however, were more closely related to each other than to other feline lentiviruses (monophyletic for lion species), suggesting that the ancestors of FIV-Ple evolved in allopatric (geographically isolated) lion populations that converged recently. To date, there is no clear evidence of FIV-Ple-associated pathology, raising the possibility of a historic genetic accommodation of the lion lentivirus and its host leading to a coevolved host-parasite symbiosis (or commensalism) in the population similar to that hypothesized for endemic

  8. Antiretroviral Therapy in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Sooty Mangabeys: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calascibetta, Francesca; Micci, Luca; Carnathan, Diane; Lawson, Benton; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Bosinger, Steven E.; Easley, Kirk; Chahroudi, Ann; Mackel, Joseph; Keele, Brandon F.; Long, Samuel; Lifson, Jeffrey; Paiardini, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) do not develop AIDS despite high levels of viremia. Key factors involved in the benign course of SIV infection in SMs are the absence of chronic immune activation and low levels of infection of CD4+ central memory (TCM) and stem cell memory (TSCM) T cells. To better understand the role of virus replication in determining the main features of SIV infection in SMs, we treated 12 SMs with a potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for 2 to 12 months. We observed that ART suppressed viremia to <60 copies/ml of plasma in 10 of 12 animals and induced a variable decrease in the level of cell-associated SIV DNA in peripheral blood (average changes of 0.9-, 1.1-, 1.5-, and 3.7-fold for CD4+ transitional memory [TTM], TCM, effector memory [TEM], and TSCM cells, respectively). ART-treated SIV-infected SMs showed (i) increased percentages of circulating CD4+ TCM cells, (ii) increased levels of CD4+ T cells in the rectal mucosa, and (iii) significant declines in the frequencies of HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells in the blood and rectal mucosa. In addition, we observed that ART interruption resulted in rapid viral rebound in all SIV-infected SMs, indicating that the virus reservoir persists for at least a year under ART despite lower infection levels of CD4+ TCM and TSCM cells than those seen in pathogenic SIV infections of macaques. Overall, these data indicate that ART induces specific immunological changes in SIV-infected SMs, thus suggesting that virus replication affects immune function even in the context of this clinically benign infection. IMPORTANCE Studies of natural, nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of African monkeys have provided important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the progression to AIDS during pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of humans and SIV infection of Asian macaques. In this study, for the first time, we treated SIV

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in Singapore--the first 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Chew, S K; Chan, R; Monteiro, E H; Sng, E H

    1990-12-01

    As at 31 May 1990, fifty Singaporeans with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection had been detected. Of these, nineteen had the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The majority of infected persons had been infected through sexual contact (homosexual 52%; bisexual 24%; heterosexual 20%) with men and women from countries where HIV infection was prevalent. The majority of infected patients (88%) were in the age range 20-39 years. There was one case of blood transfusion-associated AIDS. There were no infected paediatric or haemophiliac cases or intravenous drug use in any of the patients. A spectrum of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and cancers was observed, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was the most frequent presentation. Thirteen patients with AIDS had died and the median survival time was about seven months.

  10. Wound healing after anorectal surgery in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Burke, E C; Orloff, S L; Freise, C E; Macho, J R; Schecter, W P

    1991-10-01

    Medical records of 52 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who underwent a total of 80 anorectal operations from January 1985 to January 1990 were retrospectively reviewed to determined whether anorectal surgical wounds healed in HIV-infected patients and the mean survival time of these patients after surgery. Twenty-four operations were performed in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients, 19 in HIV-infected patients with persistent lymphadenopathy, and 37 in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Wounds healed in 49 patients (94%). The mortality rate 30 days after surgery was 2%. There were no major complications. The mean survival time of HIV-infected patients after surgery was 15 months. We conclude that anorectal surgical wounds heal in most HIV-infected patients and that the survival time after surgery of HIV-infected patients with anorectal disease justifies appropriate surgical treatment.

  11. [Gastric uptake of gallium67 in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Escalera Temprado, T; Banzo Marraco, J; Abós Olivares, M D; Olave Rubio, M T; Prats Rivera, E; García López, F; Razola Alba, P

    2004-02-01

    Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a chronic disease. In the frequent clinical situations with fever, lymph nodes and loss weight it is necessary to determine their etiology, for establishing a specific treatment. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections or gastric lymphomatous or sarcomatous process, which can accumulate Ga67, may be present in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report 2 cases with gastric uptake in which endoscopy and biopsy was obtained. In the first one, with previous treatment with omeprazol and almalgate for gastroesophagic reflux, endoscopy and biopsy were normal and in the second patient an Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. We think that gastric uptake of Ga67 in HIV patients, must indicate to the clinician to rule out associated pathologies.

  12. Knowledge and risks of human immunodeficiency virus transmission among veterans with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jennifer L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Stechuchak, Karen M; Meador, Keith M; Butterfield, Marian I

    2006-04-01

    This study is among the first to examine knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and behavioral risks for HIV transmission among veterans with severe mental illness (SMI), a group at high risk for HIV infection. This study examined associations between accuracy of HIV knowledge, risk behaviors, and clinical and demographic characteristics in a sample of male veteran psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with SMI (N = 353). Results showed high rates of inaccurate HIV knowledge, with > 40% of patients demonstrating some inaccuracies, particularly those related to the progression and symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Inaccurate HIV knowledge was associated with older age, minority status, education level, marital status, no homelessness within the previous 6 months, and no reported history of illicit intranasal drug use. There is a need for more effective HIV prevention interventions for persons with SMI.

  13. Homologous interference resulting from the presence of defective particles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, R; Tremblay, M

    1995-01-01

    Defective particles are naturally occurring virus mutants that lack one or more genes required for viral replication. Such viruses may affect positively or negatively the symptoms of the disease. Thus, it is of great interest to measure the role played by defective particles in the process of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since accumulating evidence indicates that a great proportion of HIV genomes are defective. We used defective particles produced by two stable cellular clones (UHC-8 and UHC-18) to investigate whether they can affect replication of infectious viral particles generated by a human T-cell line transfected with a molecular HIV-1 clone. Progeny virus harvested from UHC-8 cells has no reverse transcriptase and integrase proteins, while UHC-18 has no reverse transcriptase protein. We demonstrate here that coinoculation of a T-lymphoid cell line and of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with defective and infectious particles leads to a dramatic inhibition of virus replication. Defective particles do not interfere with virus production from proviral DNA. Rather, the inhibition of reinfection events seems to be their mechanism of action. This model closely parallels the in vivo conditions and demonstrates that defective particles may limit the spread of infection and progression of the disease by reducing the yield of infectious virus. PMID:7983721

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 negative factor is a transcriptional silencer.

    PubMed

    Niederman, T M; Thielan, B J; Ratner, L

    1989-02-01

    The negative factor (nef) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 acts to down-regulate virus replication. To decipher the step in the virus life cycle affected by nef, functional proviral clones with (pHIV F-) or without (pHIV F+) a deletion mutation in the nef gene were constructed. In CD4+ cells, 30- to 50-fold more virus was produced over the course of 18-20 days with cultures infected with F- compared to F+ virus. In CD4- cell lines, 2- to 10-fold greater virus production was found from cultures transfected with pHIV F- than those transfected with pHIV F+. The negative regulatory effects of nef on pHIV F- could be supplied in trans with a plasmid expressing only the nef gene product. Virus produced by COS-1 cells transfected with pHIV F- or pHIV F+ showed similar binding, uptake, uncoating, and reverse transcription. Analysis of HIV-1 RNA and structural protein levels and rates of viral RNA synthesis in CD4- cells also showed 2- to 10-fold higher levels in cells transfected with pHIV F- compared to pHIV F+. The activity of a HIV-1-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) plasmid was also suppressed by nef, whereas other CAT plasmids were unaffected. These findings demonstrate that nef acts as a specific silencer of HIV-1 transcription. This activity may be critical for maintenance of HIV-1 latency in vivo.

  15. Frequent Zika Virus Sexual Transmission and Prolonged Viral RNA Shedding in an Immunodeficient Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Nisha K; Ritter, Jana M; Pestorius, Samuel E; Zaki, Sherif R; Davis, Brent S; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Bowen, Richard A; Brault, Aaron C

    2017-02-14

    Circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Western hemisphere in late 2014. Primarily transmitted through mosquito bite, ZIKV can also be transmitted through sex and from mother to fetus, and maternal ZIKV infection has been associated with fetal malformations. We assessed immunodeficient AG129 mice for their capacity to shed ZIKV in semen and to infect female mice via sexual transmission. Infectious virus was detected in semen between 7 and 21 days post-inoculation, and ZIKV RNA was detected in semen through 58 days post-inoculation. During mating, 73% of infected males transmitted ZIKV to uninfected females, and 50% of females became infected, with evidence of fetal infection in resulting pregnancies. Semen from vasectomized mice contained significantly lower levels of infectious virus, though sexual transmission still occurred. This model provides a platform for studying the kinetics of ZIKV sexual transmission and prolonged RNA shedding also observed in human semen.

  16. Impaired cell mediated immunity in haemophilia in the absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Madhok, R; Gracie, A; Lowe, G D; Burnett, A; Froebel, K; Follett, E; Forbes, C D

    1986-01-01

    The cell mediated immune response was evaluated in vivo in 29 patients with clinically severe haemophilia by means of the dinitrochlorobenzene skin test. All patients had a response below the median normal value, and in 19 the response was on or below the lower limit of the normal range. There was no difference in skin response between patients positive and negative for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; formerly known as human T cell lymphotropic virus III or lymphadenopathy associated virus). In the whole group, and in seronegative patients (n = 17), there was an inverse relation between exposure to clotting factor and skin response. In seropositive patients (n = 12) no such association was apparent. This study shows that clotting factor concentrate impairs the cell mediated immune response to a new antigen in the absence of infection with HIV. PMID:3094762

  17. Potent and Specific Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Glen A.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to induce the degradation of specific mRNA targets in human cells by inducing RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we demonstrate that siRNA duplexes targeted against the essential Tat and Rev regulatory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can specifically block Tat and Rev expression and function. More importantly, we show that these same siRNAs can effectively inhibit HIV-1 gene expression and replication in cell cultures, including those of human T-cell lines and primary lymphocytes. These observations demonstrate that RNAi can effectively block virus replication in human cells and raise the possibility that RNAi could provide an important innate protective response, particularly against viruses that express double-stranded RNAs as part of their replication cycle. PMID:12186906

  18. The virus–receptor interaction in the replication of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)☆

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    The feline and human immunodeficiency viruses (FIV and HIV) target helper T cells selectively, and in doing so they induce a profound immune dysfunction. The primary determinant of HIV cell tropism is the expression pattern of the primary viral receptor CD4 and co-receptor(s), such as CXCR4 and CCR5. FIV employs a distinct strategy to target helper T cells; a high affinity interaction with CD134 (OX40) is followed by binding of the virus to its sole co-receptor, CXCR4. Recent studies have demonstrated that the way in which FIV interacts with its primary receptor, CD134, alters as infection progresses, changing the cell tropism of the virus. This review examines the contribution of the virus–receptor interaction to replication in vivo as well as the significance of these findings to the development of vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:23992667

  19. Ultrasensitive allele-specific PCR reveals rare preexisting drug-resistant variants and a large replicating virus population in macaques infected with a simian immunodeficiency virus containing human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Valerie F; Ambrose, Zandrea; Kearney, Mary F; Shao, Wei; Kewalramani, Vineet N; Maldarelli, Frank; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M

    2012-12-01

    It has been proposed that most drug-resistant mutants, resulting from a single-nucleotide change, exist at low frequency in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) populations in vivo prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To test this hypothesis and to investigate the emergence of resistant mutants with drug selection, we developed a new ultrasensitive allele-specific PCR (UsASP) assay, which can detect drug resistance mutations at a frequency of ≥0.001% of the virus population. We applied this assay to plasma samples obtained from macaques infected with an SIV variant containing HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) (RT-simian-human immunodeficiency [SHIV](mne)), before and after they were exposed to a short course of efavirenz (EFV) monotherapy. We detected RT inhibitor (RTI) resistance mutations K65R and M184I but not K103N in 2 of 2 RT-SHIV-infected macaques prior to EFV exposure. After three doses over 4 days of EFV monotherapy, 103N mutations (AAC and AAT) rapidly emerged and increased in the population to levels of ∼20%, indicating that they were present prior to EFV exposure. The rapid increase of 103N mutations from <0.001% to 20% of the viral population indicates that the replicating virus population size in RT-SHIV-infected macaques must be 10(6) or more infected cells per replication cycle.

  20. Defined amino acids in the gag proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are functionally active during virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Kattenbeck, B; Rohrhofer, A; Niedrig, M; Wolf, H; Modrow, S

    1996-01-01

    A structurally highly ordered arrangement of the polyprotein precursor, Pr55gag is a necessary prerequisite for assembly, budding and maturation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In particular, distinct regions of the matrix protein (p17) and the capsid protein (p24) contained within Pr55gag are functionally active during these processes. In order to determine such regions we exchanged amino acid triplets within p17 (amino acids 46-61) and p24 (amino acids 341-352) for alanine residues and deleted the whole regions. Synthetic peptides derived from these regions had been shown previously to inhibit the production of infectious virus. The effect of the mutations on the release of viral particles was investigated by using recombinant baculoviruses for the expression of mutated Pr55gag as virus-like particles and by use of the respective HI proviruses for monitoring the production of infectious particles.

  1. Inhibition of apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells enhances virus production and facilitates persistent infection.

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, B A; Sabbatini, P; Rabson, A B; White, E

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of several mechanisms by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exerts its cytopathic effects. CD4+ Jurkat T-cell lines overexpressing the adenovirus E1B 19K protein, a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, were used to examine the consequences of inhibition of apoptosis during acute and chronic HIV-1 infections. E1B 19K protein expression inhibited HIV-induced apoptosis, enhanced virus production, and established high levels of persistent viral infection. One E1B 19K-expressing line appeared to undergo HIV-induced death via a nonapoptotic mechanism, illustrating that HIV infection results in lymphocyte depletion through multiple pathways. Increased virus production associated with sustained cell viability suggests that therapeutic approaches involving inhibition of HIV-induced programmed cell death may be problematic. PMID:7884884

  2. Three-dimensional structure of a simian immunodeficiency virus protease/inhibitor complex. Implications for the design of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, B; Winborne, E; Minnich, M D; Culp, J S; Debouck, C; Abdel-Meguid, S S

    1993-12-07

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) proteins have considerable amino acid sequence homology to those from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); thus monkeys are considered useful models for the preclinical evaluation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapeutics. We have crystallized and determined the three-dimensional structure of SIV protease bound to the hydroxyethylene isostere inhibitor SKF107457. Crystals of the complex were grown from 25-32% saturated sodium chloride, by the hanging drop method of vapor diffusion. They belong to the orthorhombic space group I222, with a = 46.3 A, b = 101.5 A, and c = 118.8 A. The structure has been determined at 2.5-A resolution by molecular replacement and refined to a crystallographic discrepancy factor, R (= sigma parallel Fo magnitude of - magnitude of Fc parallel/sigma magnitude of Fo magnitude of), of 0.189. The overall structure of the complex is very similar to previously reported structures of HIV-1 protease bound to inhibitors. The inhibitor is bound in a conformation that is almost identical to that found for the same inhibitor bound to HIV-1 protease, except for an overall translation of the inhibitor, varying along the backbone atoms from about 1.0 A at the termini to about 0.5 A around the scissile bond surrogate. The structures of the SIV and HIV-1 proteins vary significantly only in three surface loops composed of amino acids 15-20, 34-45, and 65-70. Superposition of the 1188 protein backbone atoms from the two structures gives an rms deviation of 1.0 A; this number is reduced to 0.6 A when atoms from the three surface loops are eliminated from the rms calculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of the host cell response to feline immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat and an important animal model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research. In contrast to HIV, only limited information is available on the transcriptional host cell response to FIV infections. This study aims to identify FIV-induced gene expression changes in feline T-cells during the early phase of the infection. Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was used identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 24 h after FIV infection. Results After removal of low-quality reads, the remaining sequencing data were mapped against the cat genome and the numbers of mapping reads were counted for each gene. Regulated genes were identified through the comparison of FIV and mock-infected data sets. After statistical analysis and the removal of genes with insufficient coverage, we detected a total of 69 significantly DEGs (44 up- and 25 down-regulated genes) upon FIV infection. The results obtained by RNA-seq were validated by reverse transcription qPCR analysis for 10 genes. Discussion and conclusion Out of the most distinct DEGs identified in this study, several genes are already known to interact with HIV in humans, indicating comparable effects of both viruses on the host cell gene expression and furthermore, highlighting the importance of FIV as a model system for HIV. In addition, a set of new genes not previously linked to virus infections could be identified. The provided list of virus-induced genes may represent useful information for future studies focusing on the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions in FIV pathogenesis. PMID:24642186

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  6. Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef gene sequences present in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Shugars, D C; Smith, M S; Glueck, D H; Nantermet, P V; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, F; Swanstrom, R

    1993-01-01

    The nef genes of the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and the related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) encode a protein (Nef) whose role in virus replication and cytopathicity remains uncertain. As an attempt to elucidate the function of nef, we characterized the nucleotide and corresponding protein sequences of naturally occurring nef genes obtained from several HIV-1-infected individuals. A consensus Nef sequence was derived and used to identify several features that were highly conserved among the Nef sequences. These features included a nearly invariant myristylation signal, regions of sequence polymorphism and variable duplication, a region with an acidic charge, a (Pxx)4 repeat sequence, and a potential protein kinase C phosphorylation site. Clustering of premature stop codons at position 124 was noted in 6 of the 54 Nef sequences. Further analysis revealed four stretches of residues that were highly conserved not only among the patient-derived HIV-1 Nef sequences, but also among the Nef sequences of HIV-2 and the SIVs, suggesting that Nef proteins expressed by these retroviruses are functionally equivalent. The "Nef-defining" sequences were used to evaluate the sequence alignments of known proteins reported to share sequence similarity with Nef sequences and to conduct additional computer-based searches for similar protein sequences. A gene encoding the consensus Nef sequence was also generated. This gene encodes a full-length Nef protein that should be a valuable tool in further studies of Nef function. Images PMID:8043040

  7. Persistent Peripheral Nervous System Damage in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Jamie L; Mangus, Lisa M; Hauer, Peter; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Queen, Suzanne E; Laast, Victoria A; Adams, Robert J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication associated with HIV infection. In addition to virus-mediated injury of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), treatment of HIV infection with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may induce toxic neuropathy as a side effect. Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy is clinically indistinguishable from the sensory neuropathy induced by HIV; in some patients, these 2 processes are likely superimposed. To study these intercurrent PNS disease processes, we first established a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/pigtailed macaque model in which more than 90% of animals developed PNS changes closely resembling those seen in HIV-infected individuals with distal sensory neuropathy. To determine whether cART alters the progression of SIV-induced PNS damage, dorsal root ganglia and epidermal nerve fibers were evaluated in SIV-infected macaques after long-term suppressive cART. Although cART effectively suppressed SIV replication and reduced macrophage activation in the dorsal root ganglia, PGP 9.5 immunostaining and measurements of epidermal nerve fibers in the plantar surface of the feet of treated SIV-infected macaques clearly showed that cART did not normalize epidermal nerve fiber density. These findings illustrate that significant PNS damage persists in SIV-infected macaques on suppressive cART.

  8. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    This Maryland resource manual provides local education agencies with guidelines on how to handle body fluids to prevent the transmission of diseases, especially Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting. The first section summarizes the reasons for development of the manual. The second section summarizes…

  9. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Guidelines to prevent the transmission of blood-borne diseases, especially those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting are provided in this resource manual for school staff. Sections include information on the reasons for the development of this manual; a summary of the means of HIV…

  10. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  11. Pol gene quasispecies of human immunodeficiency virus: mutations associated with drug resistance in virus from patients undergoing no drug therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Nájera, I; Holguín, A; Quiñones-Mateu, M E; Muñoz-Fernández, M A; Nájera, R; López-Galíndez, C; Domingo, E

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two pol gene regions (codons 41 to 108 and 181 to 219 of reverse transcriptase) of 60 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes obtained directly from primary lymphocytes from infected individuals are reported. In addition, the mutant spectra of several quasispecies have been sampled by repetitive sequencing of molecular clones representing the same pol genomic regions. Average mutation frequencies ranged from 1.6 x 10(-2) to 3.4 x 10(-2) substitutions per nucleotide for independent samples (relative to their consensus nucleotide sequence) and from 3.6 x 10(-3) to 1.1 x 10(-2) substitutions per nucleotide for individual quasispecies distributions. Several mutations leading to amino acid substitutions related to loss of sensitivity to reverse transcriptase inhibitors have been identified in samples from patients not subjected to antiretroviral therapy. Mutation frequencies in the codons previously identified as involved in resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors were very similar to the average mutation frequencies in the pol region analyzed. Thus, the finding of mutations related to drug resistance (even in the absence of positive selection by the corresponding drugs) is the expected consequence of the statistical distribution of mutations along the pol gene. The presence of such critical amino acid replacements in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 populations underscores the importance of viral quasispecies as reservoirs of phenotypic virus variants and has a number of implications for AIDS control. PMID:7983713

  12. Insights into vaccine development for acquired immune deficiency syndrome from crystal structures of human immunodeficiency virus-1 gp41 and equine infectious anemia virus gp45.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liangwei; Du, Jiansen; Liu, Xinqi

    2015-10-01

    An effective vaccine against acquired immune deficiency syndrome is still unavailable after dozens of years of striving. The glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus is a good candidate as potential immunogen because of its conservation and relatively low glycosylation. As a reference of human immunodeficiency virus gp41, gp45 from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) could be used for comparison because both wild-type and vaccine strain of EIAV have been extensively studied. From structural studies of these proteins, the conformational changes during viral invasion could be unveiled, and a more effective acquired immune deficiency syndrome vaccine immunogen might be designed based on this information.

  13. Sleep patterns are disturbed in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Prospéro-García, O; Herold, N; Phillips, T R; Elder, J H; Bloom, F E; Henriksen, S J

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sleep disturbances have been reported early in AIDS. Likewise, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a natural lentivirus pathogen of cats, produces a similar immunodeficiency syndrome with neurological sequelae. To identify the neurophysiological substrate of FIV infection in brain, pathogen-free cats were infected with the Maryland strain of FIV. Eight weeks after inoculation, all FIV-infected cats seroconverted and virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and in the mononuclear cells of peripheral blood. Ten to 12 months after the FIV inoculation, inoculated and control cats were surgically implanted with electrodes to record the sleep/wake cycle. These sleep recordings were obtained under conditions controlling for environmental variables and instrumental adaptation. FIV-infected cats spent 50% more time awake than the sham-inoculated controls and exhibited many more sleep/waking stage shifts--i.e., 40% more than controls. In addition, FIV-infected cats showed approximately 30% of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep reduction compared to controls. The latency to sleep and REM sleep onset was also significantly delayed in FIV-infected cats. In addition, a remarkable increase in cortically recorded spindle activity (8-13 Hz) was observed during slow-wave sleep in some infected subjects, similar to changes described in HIV-infected humans. Moreover, infected cats exhibited no overt signs of systemic morbidity, such as hyperpyrexia or body weight loss. These results indicate that FIV-infected cats exhibit sleep abnormalities similar to the sleep disturbances previously described in AIDS patients and further support the feline preparation as a valuable animal model of HIV infection of the central nervous system. PMID:7809152

  14. [Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Abar, A Elmi; Jlizi, A; Darar, H Youssouf; Ben Nasr, M; Abid, S; Kacem, M Ali Ben Hadj; Slim, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors had for aim to study the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in a cohort of HIV positive patients in the hospital General Peltier of Djibouti. An epidemiological study was made on 40 HIV-1 positive patients followed up in the Infectious Diseases Department over three months. All patients sample were subtyped by genotyping. Thirty-five patients (15 men and 20 women) were found infected by an HIV-1 strain belonging to the M group. Genotyping revealed that - 66% of samples were infected with subtype C, 20% with CRF02_AG, 8.5% with B, 2.9% with CRF02_AG/C and 2.9% with K/C. In fact, Subtype C prevalence has been described in the Horn of Africa and a similar prevalence was previously reported in Djibouti. However our study describes the subtype B in Djibouti for the first time. It is the predominant subtype in the Western world. The detection of CRF02_AG strains indicates that they are still circulating in Djibouti, the only country in East Africa in which this recombinant virus was found. CRF02_AG recombinant isolates were primarily described in West and Central Africa. The presence of this viral heterogeneity, probably coming from the mixing of populations in Djibouti, which is an essential economic and geographical crossroads, incites us to vigilance in the surveillance of this infection.

  15. Multiple effects of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase on viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, A; Englund, G; Orenstein, J M; Martin, M A; Craigie, R

    1995-01-01

    The integration of a DNA copy of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into a chromosome of an infected cell is a pivotal step in virus replication. Integration requires the activity of the virus-encoded integrase, which enters the cell as a component of the virion. Results of numerous mutagenesis studies have identified amino acid residues and protein domains of HIV-1 integrase critical for in vitro activity, but only a few of these mutants have been studied for their effects on HIV replication. We have introduced site-directed changes into an infectious DNA clone of HIV-1 and show that integrase mutations can affect virus replication at a variety of steps. We identified mutations that altered virion morphology, levels of particle-associated integrase and reverse transcriptase, and viral DNA synthesis. One replication-defective mutant virus which had normal morphology and protein composition displayed increased levels of circular viral DNA following infection of a T-cell line. This virus also had a significant titer in a CD4-positive indicator cell assay, which requires the viral Tat protein. Although unintegrated viral DNA can serve as a template for Tat expression in infected indicator cells, this level of expression is insufficient to support a spreading viral infection in CD4-positive lymphocytes. PMID:7535863

  16. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population.

  17. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  18. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus subtypes with distinct patterns of sensitivity to serum neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng-Mayer, C; Homsy, J; Evans, L A; Levy, J A

    1988-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 displays a high degree of genetic variation, especially in the glycoprotein (gp120) domain of the envelope gene. To determine whether this genomic heterogeneity leads to the expression of independent HIV subtypes, 12 sera from HIV type 1 antibody-positive individuals were tested for their ability to neutralize 20 HIV isolates of various origins. Four distinct HIV subtypes with different sensitivity to serum neutralization were identified. These results suggest that a finite number of HIV subtypes exist and that the combined use of selected HIV isolates representing several subtypes may be necessary for the development of an effective vaccine. Images PMID:3357892

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and diffuse polyneuropathy. Implications for rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Mukand, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Patients at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require rehabilitation services. These patients present problems for each of the disciplines in a rehabilitation team, and all team members must confront the psychosocial and ethical issues involved with the disease. Patients with HIV infection may have polyneuropathy with multisystem involvement, including dysphagia, autonomic dysfunction, respiratory failure, bowel and bladder dysfunction, generalized weakness, a painful sensory neuropathy, and depression. Guidelines are presented for determining if inpatient rehabilitation or other settings are appropriate. Case management is a valuable strategy for the rehabilitation of patients with this complicated disorder. PMID:1866948

  20. Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic on detection of Mycobacterium isolates in a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Albadalejo, J; Cercenado, E; Ruiz Serrano, M J; Vicente, T; Ortega, A

    1997-04-01

    The number of human samples processed in our mycobacteriology laboratory ranged from 148 per 1,000 admissions in 1988 to 263 per 1,000 admissions in 1995 (5.2% were positive). The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population contributed 33.3% of all samples, 43.3% of all isolates, and 36% of all new patients. Given that the ratios of the total number of samples to the number of Mycobacterium-positive samples were 18.3:1 in HIV-positive patients and 28:1 in HIV-negative patients, efforts to reduce the laboratory workload should begin with the HIV-negative population.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus infection with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis complicated by symptomatic lactic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Springer, Sandra A; Altice, Frederick L

    2003-06-15

    Lactic acidosis has been reported as a complication associated with antiretroviral therapy; in particular, usually with use of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. We describe a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient with a history of lipodystrophy who presented with hepatic insult associated with documented human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). Despite a normal serum lactate level before the onset of acute coinfection, the patient developed symptomatic hyperlactatemia while receiving appropriate treatment for HGE. To date, this is the first presentation of symptomatic hyperlactatemia in a patient with HIV infection and HGE.

  2. Gonadal function and reproductive health in women with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yalamanchi, Swaytha; Dobs, Adrian; Greenblatt, Ruth M

    2014-09-01

    Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among women occur early in reproductive life, which highlights the importance of understanding the impact of HIV on reproductive functions, and also the potential implications of reproductive function and aging on the course of HIV disease. Ovarian function is a crucial component of reproductive biology in women, but standard assessment methods are of limited applicability to women with chronic diseases such as HIV. Pregnancy can now be achieved without transmission of HIV to sexual partner or newborn, but complications of pregnancy may be more common in women infected with HIV than uninfected women.

  3. [Sepsis, cardiomyopathy and human immunodeficiency virus infection: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Llagunes, J; Arastey, S; Cobo Del Prado, I; Carmona, P; Peña, J J; Mínguez, C

    2014-04-01

    Sepsis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be associated with the appearance of cardiac dysfunction. This is a challenge, both when making the differential diagnosis and determining the proper treatment, as there are numerous risk factors: Myocarditis due to the HIV itself, the presence or absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy, toxic substances, and cardiomyopathy associated with sepsis. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to an HIV positive patient with septic shock and cardiac dysfunction is described, as well as a brief review of the different causes of cardiomyopathy which may affect this group of patients is also presented.

  4. The CD4 molecule, the human immunodeficiency virus and anti-idiotypic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Del Guercio, P; Zanetti, M

    1987-01-01

    The CD4 molecule is the cellular receptor for human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Administration of antibodies to the equivalent molecule in mice (L3T4) induces unresponsiveness to antigens given to or around the same time. Here Paolo del Guercio and Maurizio Zanetti suggest that in AIDS patients anti-idiotypic antibodies elicited to anti-HIV antibodies may bind to CD4 molecules, inducing unresponsiveness to viral and other antigens as anti-L3T4 antibodies do in mice. This possibility may hinder attempts to establish anti-HIV immunity by vaccination.

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections; Strain and Type Variations; Diagnosis and Prevention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-26

    Thorstensson, R, Chiodi , F, and Norrby, E: Hyperimmune antisera against synthetic peptides representing the glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus...Syndr, 5:177-187, 1992. 19. Barbas III, C F, Bj6rling E, Chiodi , F, Dunlop, N, Cababa, D, Jones T M, Zebedee, S L, Persson, M A A, Nara, P L, Norrby E...20. Chiodi , F, Keys, B, Albert, J, Hagberg, L, Lundeberg, J, Uhldn M, Feny6, E M, and Norkrans, G. HIV-1 is present in the cerebrospinal fluid of the

  6. Role of dendritic cells in immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, D; Fauci, A S

    1997-01-01

    The role of dendritic cells (DC) in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has been a subject of considerable interest for several years. Initial studies focused on the infection, dysfunction, and depletion of DC in HIV-infected individuals. More recent studies have begun to identify the functional role of DC in the initiation and propagation of viral replication in T cells in HIV-infected individuals. This review discusses recent data regarding the role of DC in HIV disease with the aim of delineating basic immunopathogenic principles of infection and the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:9105759

  7. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  8. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected infant

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, E. D.; Smith, A.; Golitko, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY World Health Organization-classified very severe pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is recognized as a life-threatening condition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected infants. We recount the use of nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) in an HIV-infected African infant with very severe pneumonia and treatment failure due to suspected infection with P. jirovecii. We also examine the potential implications of BCPAP use in resource-poor settings with a high case index of acute respiratory failure due to HIV-related pneumonia, but limited access to mechanical ventilation. PMID:21396221

  9. Topically applied recombinant chemokine analogues fully protect macaques from vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Ling, Binhua; Green, Linda C; Ribka, Erin P; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Piatak, Michael; Lederman, Michael M; Mosier, Donald; Offord, Robin; Hartley, Oliver

    2009-05-15

    Effective strategies for preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection are urgently needed, but recent failures in key clinical trials of vaccines and microbicides highlight the need for new approaches validated in relevant animal models. Here, we show that 2 new chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 inhibitors, 5P12-RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and 6P4-RANTES, fully protect against infection in the rhesus vaginal challenge model. These highly potent molecules, which are amenable to low-cost production, represent promising new additions to the microbicides pipeline.

  10. Ring Expanded Nucleoside Analogues Inhibit RNA Helicase and Intracellular Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yedavalli, Venkat S.R.K; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Hongyi; Zhang, Peng; Starost, Matthew F.; Hosmane, Ramachandra S.; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2008-01-01

    A series of ring expanded nucleoside (REN) analogues were synthesized and screened for inhibition of cellular RNA helicase activity and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We identified two compounds 1 and 2 that inhibited the ATP dependent activity of human RNA helicase DDX3. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed HIV-1 replication in T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Neither compound at therapeutic doses was significantly toxic in ex vivo cell culture or in vivo in mice. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that a cellular factor, an RNA helicase, could be targeted for inhibiting HIV-1 replication. PMID:18680273

  11. Recent Recommendations for Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Miriam R

    2017-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic condition. HIV is not a valid reason to deny, delay, or withhold dental treatment. There are no absolute contraindications and few complications associated with comprehensive oral health care treatment delivered in an outpatient setting for asymptomatic HIV-infected patients and clinically stable patients with AIDS. Consultation with the patient's medical provider and modifications in the delivery of dental treatment may be necessary when treating patients with advanced HIV disease or other comorbid conditions. Oral health care is an integral and important part of comprehensive health care for all patients with HIV/AIDS.

  12. Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 15.1 million children have been orphaned because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They face significant vulnerabilities, including stigma and discrimination, trauma and stress, illness, food insecurity, poverty, and difficulty accessing education. Millions of additional children who have living parents are vulnerable because their parents or other relatives are infected. This article reviews the current situation of orphans and vulnerable children, explores the underlying determinants of vulnerability and resilience, describes the response by the global community, and highlights the challenges as the HIV pandemic progresses through its fourth decade.

  13. Mixed Infection Caused by Two Species of Fusarium in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Nucci, Marcio; Akiti, Tiyomi; Gené, Josepa

    2000-01-01

    We report on a case of mixed infection caused by two species of Fusarium in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with lymphoma who was neutropenic due to chemotherapy. The patient showed the typical signs of a disseminated fusarial infection, with Fusarium solani isolated from skin lesions and F. verticillioides isolated from blood. The report discusses how difficult it is to make an accurate diagnosis when an immunosuppressed patient is infected with more than one fungal species, especially when the species are morphologically very similar. PMID:10970404

  14. Severe Thrombocytopenia and Acute Cytomegalovirus Colitis during Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Furuhata, Masanori; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Nishiki, Shingo; Sasaki, Shugo; Suganuma, Akihiko; Imamura, Akifumi; Ajisawa, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 25-year-old man who was referred to our hospital due to acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis. The initial blood tests showed that the patient had concurrent primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and severe thrombocytopenia. Raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) was initiated without the use of ganciclovir or corticosteroids and resulted in a rapid clinical improvement. Platelet transfusions were only necessary for a short period, and subsequent colonoscopy revealed a completely healed ulcer. This case implies that ART alone could be effective for treating severe thrombocytopenia during primary HIV and CMV coinfection. PMID:27980271

  15. Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Melissa J; Wesselingh, Steven L; Cowley, Daniel; Pardo, Carlos A; McArthur, Justin C; Brew, Bruce J; Gorry, Paul R

    2009-08-01

    Astrocyte infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered rare, so astrocytes are thought to play a secondary role in HIV neuropathogenesis. By combining double immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, and highly sensitive multiplexed polymerase chain reaction to detect HIV DNA in single astrocytes in vivo, we showed that astrocyte infection is extensive in subjects with HIV-associated dementia, occurring in up to 19% of GFAP+ cells. In addition, astrocyte infection frequency correlated with the severity of neuropathological changes and proximity to perivascular macrophages. Our data indicate that astrocytes can be extensively infected with HIV, and suggest an important role for HIV-infected astrocytes in HIV neuropathogenesis.

  16. Simian immunodeficiency virus confounds T follicular helper T cells and the germinal centre

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Henry, Tom N.

    2016-01-01

    Yamamoto et al. have studied T follicular helper (TFH) and germinal centre (GC) responses after infection of rhesus macaques (RM) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In this study the authors examined the behaviour of TFH, reproducing infection-associated TFH accumulation and their association with the quality of antibody responses against cross-clade viral epitopes. The authors correlate TFH IL4 and CD154 expression with superior antibody responses. Accumulation of TFH was accompanied by aberrant expression of non-TFH transcriptional regulators such as BLIMP1 in TFH, suggesting viral induced abnormalities may affect TFH function. PMID:28149882

  17. Subdural hematoma occurred after spinal anesthesia in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Jun Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A 25-year-old male patient who was infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) underwent a condyloma excision under spinal anesthesia. The patient complained of suspicious postdural puncture headache. The patient did not respond to conservative management. Subsequently, the subdural hematoma (SDH) was found through magnetic resonance imaging. In response, an epidural blood patch was used to improve the symptoms and inhibit the enlargement of the SDH. The patient was discharged after it was confirmed that a headache had subsided without increasing SDH. Anesthesiologist should be aware of other causes of headaches after spinal anesthesia in HIV-infected patients and should carefully and accurately identify the cause. PMID:28217066

  18. Provider-initiated testing and counselling for human immunodeficiency virus among tuberculosis patients in Guangxi.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-W; Liu, Y; Dong, B-Q; Liu, F-Y; Chen, Q

    2010-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of TB-HIV (tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus) co-infection and the effect of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) strategy among TB patients, we applied the PITC strategy to recruit and investigate 2795 newly registered TB patients from 15 TB institutes in Guangxi Province, Southern China. HIV test acceptance rate and HIV positivity were respectively 99.1% and 2.2%. This study indicates that it is feasible and effective to implement PITC HIV testing in TB patients. Guangxi Province had a high burden of HIV infection among TB patients.

  19. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, P.D.; Sarin, P.S.; Humphreys, J.C.; Eubanks, W.G.; Sun, D.; Hocken, D.G.; Thornton, A.; Adams, D.E.; Simic, M.G. )

    1989-11-01

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 associated nephropathy (HIVAN): epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, diagnosis, and medical management.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Michelle L; Wolf, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a very distinct, unique, clinico-pathological syndrome, and a structural type of renal failure that is the most common cause of chronic renal failure in patients who are HIV-seropositive. Early referral and a long-term, primary care approach can improve patient outcomes. Careful adjustments of prescription doses with regularly scheduled, and at times frequent, laboratory testing will yield, optimal health, improve the quality of life, and most importantly, will decrease the incidence of morbidity and mortality in those individuals afflicted with both HIV and HIVAN.

  1. Endocarditis caused by Rochalimaea quintana in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Spach, D H; Callis, K P; Paauw, D S; Houze, Y B; Schoenknecht, F D; Welch, D F; Rosen, H; Brenner, D J

    1993-01-01

    Rochalimaea quintana and Rochalimaea henselae are closely related, fastidious, gram-negative rickettsiae. Thus far, the spectrum of human Rochalimaea sp. infections has not included endocarditis. We describe a 50-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man who developed endocarditis caused by R. quintana. DNA relatedness studies, which compared our patient's blood culture isolate with known Rochalimaea species, identified the organism as R. quintana. Our report expands the spectrum of Rochalimaea sp. infections and identifies a new infectious cause of endocarditis. PMID:8458964

  2. Mucocutaneous presentation of Kaposi sarcoma in an asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-positive man.

    PubMed

    Martorano, Lisa M; Cannella, Jonathan D; Lloyd, Jenifer R

    2015-04-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a malignant proliferation of endothelial cells within the skin. The clinical presentation is characterized by clusters of violaceous macules and papules that often appear on the distal extremities or trunk with or without oral mucosal involvement. Mucocutaneous lesions are present at onset of diagnosis in a minority of cases. The lesions can evolve to include the mucous membranes of the gastric mucosa and the lungs. We present a unique case of KS in a 45-year-old, asymptomatic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive man with mucocutaneous involvement to highlight the importance of recognizing KS in immunocompromised patients.

  3. Influence of immune activation and inflammatory response on cardiovascular risk associated with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Luis M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Egido, Jesús; García-Puig, Juan; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection.

  4. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis.

  5. Electrospun fibers for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Cameron

    HIV/AIDS education, testing, and treatment have thus far failed to cease the pandemic spread of the HIV virus. HIV prevention is hindered by a lack of protective options beyond the ABC approach of abstinence, being faithful, and using condoms. One approach to address this inadequacy is to develop antiviral products for vaginal or rectal application that provide receptive partner-initiated protection against viral infection during sex. Such products, termed anti-HIV microbicides, can especially empower young women to take control over their sexual health. This work explored a new approach to anti-HIV microbicides: electrospun fibers for the delivery of small-molecule antiretroviral drugs. Electrospun microbicides are nonwoven fabrics made from polymer-based nanofibers. The wide array of polymers available for electrospinning allowed for the incorporation and release of chemically diverse agents. Since electrospun fibers have an extremely high surface area to volume ratio, they serve as excellent delivery systems for rapid drug delivery of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents. The flexibility in the design of electrospun fibers afforded by coaxial electrospinning further enabled the formulation of sustained-release microbicides. To demonstrate the power of electrospinning to deliver drugs over multiple timescales, composite microbicide fabrics were created to provide both rapid and sustained drug release from a single device. This work has produced alternative microbicide formulations, while establishing methods for the thorough characterization of these systems and solutions for the needs of people at risk of HIV infection. By addressing problems in both HIV prevention and drug delivery, this work has expanded our capacity to engineer elegant solutions to complex and pressing global health challenges.

  6. Altered plasma concentrations of sex hormones in cats infected by feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Tejerizo, G; Doménech, A; Illera, J-C; Silván, G; Gómez-Lucía, E

    2012-02-01

    Gender differences may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and may be related to fluctuations in sex hormone concentration. The different percentage of male and female cats observed to be infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been traditionally explained through the transmission mechanisms of both viruses. However, sexual hormones may also play a role in this different distribution. To study this possibility, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were analyzed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay in the plasma of 258 cats naturally infected by FIV (FIV(+)), FeLV (FeLV(+)), or FeLV and FIV (F(-)F(+)) or negative for both viruses, including both sick and clinically healthy animals. Results indicated that the concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were significantly higher in animals infected with FIV or FeLV (P < 0.05) than in negative cats. Plasma concentrations of DHEA in cats infected by either retrovirus were lower than in negative animals (P < 0.05), and F(-)F(+) cats had significantly lower plasma values than monoinfected cats (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in the plasma concentration of progesterone of the four groups. No relevant differences were detected in the hormone concentrations between animal genders, except that FIV(+) females had higher DHEA concentrations than the corresponding males (P < 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed in the hormone concentrations between retrovirus-infected and noninfected animals with and without clinical signs. These results suggest that FIV and FeLV infections are associated with an important deregulation of steroids, possibly from early in the infection process, which might have decisive consequences for disease progression.

  7. Risks and prevention of severe RS virus infection among children with immunodeficiency and Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masaaki; Morio, Tomohiro; Ito, Shuichi; Morimoto, Akira; Ota, Setsuo; Mizuta, Koichi; Iwata, Tsutomu; Hara, Toshiro; Saji, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    By the age of two years, almost all infants are infected with the Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). One of the main causes of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis and pneumonia at this age is RSV infection. In addition to well-known risks for severe RSV disease, such as prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and congenital heart disease, immunodeficiencies, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome or neuromuscular diseases have also been identified as risks. While the medical needs for RSV prevention in these risk groups are high, clinical evidence to support this is limited. Palivizumab was recently approved in Japan for prophylaxis in children with immunodeficiency or Down's syndrome. A clinical guidance protocol for the prevention of RSV infection using Palivizumab in these risk groups is provided here on the basis of a review of the available literature and on expert opinion. Thus, the present article reviews the published literature related to RSV infections in infants and children with immunodeficiencies or Down's syndrome in order to outline the risks, pathology and physiology of severe RSV disease in these patient groups. The purpose of this article is to facilitate understanding of the medical scientific bases for the clinical guidance.

  8. Preventing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: implications for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J E; Hu, D J; Holmes, K K; Jaffe, H W; Masur, H; De Cock, K M

    1996-07-01

    More than 18 million persons in the world are estimated to have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As immunodeficiency progresses, these persons become susceptible to a wide variety of opportunistic infections (OIs) The spectrum of OIs varies among regions of the world. Tuberculosis is the most common serious OI in sub-Saharan Africa and is also more common in Latin America and in Asia than in the United States. Bacterial and parasitic infections are prevalent in Africa; protozoal infections such as toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, and isosporiasis are also common in Latin America. Fungal infections, including cryptococcosis and Penicillium marneffei infection, appear to be prevalent in Southeast Asia. Despite limited health resources in these regions, some measures that are recommended to prevent OIs in the United States may be useful for prolonging and improving the quality of life of HIV-infected persons. These include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections; isoniazid to prevent tuberculosis; and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to prevent disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Research is needed to determine the spectrum of OIs and the efficacy of various prevention measures in resource-poor nations, and health officials need to determine a minimum standard of care for HIV-infected persons. An increasing problem in the developing world, HIV/AIDS should receive attention comparable to other tropical diseases.

  9. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Prime and Intramuscular Protein Boost Provides Protection against Intrarectal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Thippeshappa, Rajesh; Tian, Baoping; Cleveland, Brad; Guo, Wenjin; Polacino, Patricia; Hu, Shiu-Lok

    2015-12-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition occurs predominantly through mucosal transmission. We hypothesized that greater mucosal immune responses and protective efficacy against mucosal HIV-1 infection may be achieved by prime-boost immunization at mucosal sites. We used a macaque model to determine the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of orally delivered, replication-competent but attenuated recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing full-length HIV-1 SF162 envelope (Env) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol proteins. We examined the dose and route that are suitable for oral immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses. We showed that sublingual inoculation of two vaccinia virus-naive pigtailed macaques with 5 × 10(8) PFU of recombinant vaccinia viruses was safe. However, sublingual inoculation with a higher dose or tonsillar inoculation resulted in secondary oral lesions, indicating the need to optimize the dose and route for oral immunization with replication-competent vaccinia virus vectors. Oral priming alone elicited antibody responses to vaccinia virus and to the SF162 Env protein. Intramuscular immunization with the SF162 gp120 protein at either 20 or 21 weeks postpriming resulted in a significant boost in antibody responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments. Furthermore, we showed that immune responses induced by recombinant vaccinia virus priming and intramuscular protein boosting provided protection against intrarectal challenge with the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162-P4.

  10. Association of torque teno virus (TTV) and torque teno mini virus (TTMV) with liver disease among patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, M; Berenguer, J; Alvarez, E; Guzmán-Fulgencio, M; Cosín, J; Miralles, P; Catalán, P; López, J C; Rodríguez, J Ma; Micheloud, D; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma A; Resino, S

    2013-02-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV) and torque teno mini virus (TTMV) have been potentially related to liver diseases. The aim of the study was to quantify TTV and TTMV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients to study the relationship between the TTV and TTMV viral loads and the severity of liver disease. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 245 patients coinfected with HIV and HCV (HIV/HCV-group), 114 patients monoinfected with HIV (HIV-group), and 100 healthy blood donors (Control-group). Plasma samples were tested for TTV and TTMV by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalences of TTV and TTMV infections in the HIV/HCV-group and the HIV-group were significantly higher than the Control-group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, TTV and TTMV coinfections were found in 92.2 % (226/245) in the HIV/HCV-group, 84.2 % (96/114) in the HIV-group, and 63 % (63/100 %) in the Control-group (p ≤ 0.05). HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with HIV viral load ≥50 copies/mL and patients with severe activity grade had the highest viral loads of TTV and TTMV (p ≤ 0.05). HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with high TTV load (>2.78 log copies/μL) had increased odds of having advanced fibrosis or severe necroinflammatory activity grade in the liver biopsy. Moreover, HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with high TTMV load (>1.88 log copies/μL) had decreased odds of having no/minimal fibrosis and no/mild activity grade, and increased odds of having a high fibrosis progression rate. In conclusion, TTV and TTMV might play a role in the development of liver disease in immunodeficiency patients, such as the patients coinfected with HIV and HCV.

  11. Macaques immunized with HLA-DR are protected from challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, L O; Bess, J W; Urban, R G; Strominger, J L; Morton, W R; Mann, D L; Henderson, L E; Benveniste, R E

    1995-01-01

    Macaques immunized with uninfected human cells have been shown to be protected from challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) propagated in human cells. To identify the potential antigens involved in this protection, macaques were immunized with uninfected human cells, sucrose density gradient-purified culture fluid from uninfected human cells (mock virus), beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2M), immunoaffinity-purified HLA class I and class II proteins from these human cells, and adjuvant. Although all macaques immunized with beta 2M and HLA class I developed high antibody titers to beta 2M, these animals were not protected from a subsequent challenge with infectious SIV grown in human cells. In contrast, the macaques immunized with class II protein (HLA-DR) and mock virus developed antibodies to class II protein and were protected from the intravenous infectious virus challenge. The class II protein- and mock virus-immunized animals which were protected from challenge were given boosters of the appropriate antigen and challenged with the same SIV propagated in macaque cells. All animals became infected, indicating that the protection seen with human class II protein did not extend to protection from infection with SIV containing macaque class II proteins. Since the virus released from SIV-infected macaque cells would contain macaque class II proteins, our results suggest that the initial SIV infected was completely prevented. In addition, the lack of protection from challenge with SIV propagated in macaque cells provided strong evidence that the protection was due to an immune response to the cellular proteins and not to epitopes cross-reactive between class II proteins and the viral proteins, since the identical virus proteins were present in both challenge stocks. These results are the first demonstration that immunization with a purified cellular protein can protect from virus infection. PMID:7707540

  12. Molecular Investigation of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in a Criminal Case

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Roberto; Jørgensen, Louise B.; Theilade, Peter; Nielsen, Claus

    2001-01-01

    Very few criminal cases involving human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission have been described. We report on an HIV-1 transmission case with a child being infected by an HIV-1-positive man. The objective was to determine through molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analyses whether HIV-1 from the HIV-1-positive man could be the source of infection in the HIV-1-positive child, as claimed by the authorities. We conducted genetic analysis of three different parts of the HIV-1 genome (gag, pol, and env) by PCR, direct-sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. We used maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining methods for the phylogenetic analyses to investigate whether the sequences from the man and the child were related. We found that the viral sequences from the man and the child formed separate clusters in all of the phylogenetic analyses compared to the local controls. A unique amino acid deletion was identified in the C2-V3-C3 region of the env gene in the virus from the man and the child. These results were used in the criminal court to elucidate whether the virus from the man was related to the virus from the child. In summary, the results from the phylogenetic analyses, the sequence distances between the virus from the man and the virus from the child, and the identification of the unique molecular fingerprint in the env gene together indicated that the virus from the man and the virus from the child were epidemiologically linked. PMID:11527797

  13. Investigating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type One-Infected Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Ciborowski, Pawel; Kadiu, Irena; Rozek, Wojciech; Smith, Lynette; Bernhardt, Kristen; Fladseth, Melissa; Ricardo-Dukelow, Mary; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2007-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages, alveolar macrophages, perivascular macrophages, and microglia) are reservoirs and vehicles of dissemination for the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). How virus alters mononuclear phagocyte immunoregulatory activities to complete its life cycle and influence disease is incompletely understood. In attempts to better understanding the influence of virus on macrophage functions, we used one-dimensional electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the secretome of HIV-1 infected human monocyte-derived macrophages. We identified 111 proteins in culture supernatants of control (uninfected) and virus-infected cells. Differentially expressed cytoskeletal, enzymes, redox, and immunoregulatory protein classes were discovered and validated by Western-blot tests. These included, but were not limited to, cystatin C, cystatin B, chitinase 3-like 1 protein, cofilin-1, L-plastin, superoxide dismutase, leukotriene A4 hydrolase, and α-enolase. This study, through the use of a unique proteomics platform, provides novel insights into virus-host cell interactions that affect the functional role of macrophages in HIV disease. PMID:17320137

  14. Activation of tat-defective human immunodeficiency virus by ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Sadaie, M.R.; Tschachler, E.; Valerie, K.; Rosenberg, M.; Felber, B.K.; Pavlakis, G.N.; Klotman, M.E.; Wong-Staal, F. )

    1990-05-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is known to cause activation of gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) promoter. To address the question of whether tat-defective HIV-1 provirus could be rescued by UV irradiation we examined its effect on HeLa cells containing integrated proviruses with tat mutations. Exposure of these cells to an optimal dose of UV resulted in the production of infectious viruses. The degree of UV activation and reversion to infectious virus appeared to depend on the nature of the original tat mutation. Two of the mutants required cocultivation with tat-expressing cells to fully generate replication competent viruses, while a third mutant required only cocultivation with H9 cells. Sequencing of cDNA from cells infected with this last mutant demonstrated that the parental mutant sequence was retained and that genotypic revertants to the wild-type as well as new mutant sequences were generated. These results suggest that tat-defective HIV-1 provirus can be activated by UV and can subsequently revert to wild-type virus. This study raises the possibility that UV exposure of immune cells in the skin plays a role in the activation of defective HIV-1 in vivo.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in HIV-exposed seronegative persons.

    PubMed

    Bernard, N F; Yannakis, C M; Lee, J S; Tsoukas, C M

    1999-03-01

    Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not always result in seroconversion. Understanding the conditions that permit or protect against progressive infection with HIV is important for vaccine development. Nineteen subjects at risk for HIV infection were CCR-5 genotyped and screened for virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). None had the Delta32CCR-5/Delta32CCR-5 genotype associated with HIV resistance. HIV-specific CTL were detected in 7 (41.1%) of 17 exposed uninfected subjects versus 0 of 14 seronegative subjects with no HIV risk factors (P=.006, chi2 test). Recognition of virus by CTL in exposed uninfected subjects was major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted and multispecific, and specificity could change with time. Activity could persist up to 34 months after the last virus exposure. The presence of HIV-specific CTL in a greater proportion of seronegative HIV-exposed versus unexposed subjects supports the notion that in some cases, virus exposure induces HIV immunity without seroconversion or disease progression.

  16. Development of AIDS in a chimpanzee infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Novembre, F J; Saucier, M; Anderson, D C; Klumpp, S A; O'Neil, S P; Brown, C R; Hart, C E; Guenthner, P C; Swenson, R B; McClure, H M

    1997-01-01

    The condition of a chimpanzee (C499) infected with three different isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for over 10 years progressed to AIDS. Disease development in this animal was characterized by (i) a decline in CD4+ cells over the last 3 years; (ii) an increase in viral loads in plasma; (iii) the presence of a virus, termed HIV-1JC, which is cytopathic for chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells; and (iv) the presence of an opportunistic infection and blood dyscrasias. Genetic analysis of the V1-V2 region of the envelope gene of HIV-1JC showed that the virus present in C499 was significantly divergent from all inoculating viruses (> or = 16% divergent at the amino acid level) and was suggestive of a large quasispecies. Blood from C499 transfused into an uninfected chimpanzee (C455) induced a rapid and sustained CD4+-cell decline in the latter animal, concomitant with high plasma viral loads. These results show that HIV-1 can induce AIDS in chimpanzees and suggest that long-term passage of HIV-1 in chimpanzees can result in the development of a more pathogenic virus. PMID:9094687

  17. Nevirapine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus: kinetics of replication and estimated prevalence in untreated patients.

    PubMed Central

    Havlir, D V; Eastman, S; Gamst, A; Richman, D D

    1996-01-01

    The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine rapidly selects for mutant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vivo. The most common mutation occurs at amino acid residue 181 in patients receiving monotherapy. After the initiation of nevirapine therapy, plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples were collected at frequent intervals and assayed for HIV RNA levels and the proportion of virus containing a mutation at residue 181. HIV RNA levels remained stable for the first 24 h after initiation of therapy and rapidly declined between 1 and 7 days. There was a consistent maximum decrease of 2 log10 HIV RNA copies per ml of plasma (range, 1.96 to 2.43) from baseline after 2 weeks in all monotherapy subjects. The estimated median half-life of HIV RNA was 1.11 days (range, 0.63 to 1.61). After 14 days of therapy, HIV RNA levels began to increase and 181 mutant virus was detected. The estimated doubling time of the emerging virus population ranged from 1.80 to 5.73 days. Viral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells turned over from wild type to the mutant with a mutation at residue 181 significantly more slowly than did HIV RNA in plasma. In two subjects, the calculated prevalence of the 181 mutant virus prior to treatment was 7 and 133 per 10,000 copies of plasma HIV RNA. PMID:8892912

  18. Inhibition of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particle formation by Gag protein-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Niedrig, M; Gelderblom, H R; Pauli, G; März, J; Bickhard, H; Wolf, H; Modrow, S

    1994-06-01

    Sequential overlapping Gag protein-derived oligopeptides of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) 22 to 24 amino acids long, were synthesized and tested in vitro for antiviral activity. Two synthetic peptides, one derived from the matrix protein p17 (NPGLLETSEGCRQ, amino acids 47 to 59) and one located in the capsid protein p24 (PAATLEEMMTA, amino acids 339 to 349) inhibited the production of infectious virus when added to HIV-1-infected cultures when used in the range of 20 to 200 micrograms/ml. As shown by thin section electron microscopy, peptide treatment resulted in the release of immature, deformed virus particles suggesting that the two peptides interfered with assembly and maturation. Other Gag protein-derived oligopeptides had little or no influence on virus production. To characterize further the functionally active regions we synthesized peptide derivatives with three consecutive amino acids substituted by alanine; they did not cause inhibition. Therefore the regions responsible for inhibition were located between amino acids 50 to 61 in p17, and 342 to 350 in p24. These observations might lead to the development of a new antiviral strategy affecting the late stage of virus replication.

  19. Serum Vpr regulates productive infection and latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; MacGregor, R R; Weiner, D B

    1994-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals, the vast majority of infected peripheral blood cells and lymph node cells may be latently or nonproductively infected. The vpr open reading frame of HIV-1 encodes a 15-kDa virion-associated protein, Vpr. The vpr gene has been shown to increase virus replication in T cells and monocyte/macrophages in vitro. We have previously reported that vpr expression in various tumor lines leads to growth inhibition and differentiation, indicating that Vpr may function as a regulator of cellular permissiveness to HIV replication. Here we show that Vpr protein is present in significant amounts in the serum of AIDS patients. Purified serum Vpr activated virus expression from five latently infected cell lines, U1, OM.10.1, ACH-2, J1.1, and LL58. Serum Vpr also activated virus expression from resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected individuals. Together, these findings implicate serum Vpr in the activation of HIV replication in vivo and in the control of latency. Anti-Vpr antibodies inhibited Vpr activity, suggesting that humoral immunity modulates Vpr activity in vivo. These results have broad implications for the virus life cycle and for the prospective control of HIV replication and pathogenesis. Images PMID:7971975

  20. Serum Vpr regulates productive infection and latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; MacGregor, R R; Weiner, D B

    1994-11-08

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals, the vast majority of infected peripheral blood cells and lymph node cells may be latently or nonproductively infected. The vpr open reading frame of HIV-1 encodes a 15-kDa virion-associated protein, Vpr. The vpr gene has been shown to increase virus replication in T cells and monocyte/macrophages in vitro. We have previously reported that vpr expression in various tumor lines leads to growth inhibition and differentiation, indicating that Vpr may function as a regulator of cellular permissiveness to HIV replication. Here we show that Vpr protein is present in significant amounts in the serum of AIDS patients. Purified serum Vpr activated virus expression from five latently infected cell lines, U1, OM.10.1, ACH-2, J1.1, and LL58. Serum Vpr also activated virus expression from resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected individuals. Together, these findings implicate serum Vpr in the activation of HIV replication in vivo and in the control of latency. Anti-Vpr antibodies inhibited Vpr activity, suggesting that humoral immunity modulates Vpr activity in vivo. These results have broad implications for the virus life cycle and for the prospective control of HIV replication and pathogenesis.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Resistant to the Protease Inhibitor Darunavir

    SciTech Connect

    Sasková, Klára Grantz; Koíek, Milan; Rezácová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jirí; Yashina, Tatyana; Kagan, Ron M.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2010-03-04

    Darunavir is the most recently approved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease (PR) inhibitor (PI) and is active against many HIV type 1 PR variants resistant to earlier-generation PIs. Darunavir shows a high genetic barrier to resistance development, and virus strains with lower sensitivity to darunavir have a higher number of PI resistance-associated mutations than viruses resistant to other PIs. In this work, we have enzymologically and structurally characterized a number of highly mutated clinically derived PRs with high levels of phenotypic resistance to darunavir. With 18 to 21 amino acid residue changes, the PR variants studied in this work are the most highly mutated HIV PR species ever studied by means of enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography. The recombinant proteins showed major defects in substrate binding, while the substrate turnover was less affected. Remarkably, the overall catalytic efficiency of the recombinant PRs (5% that of the wild-type enzyme) is still sufficient to support polyprotein processing and particle maturation in the corresponding viruses. The X-ray structures of drug-resistant PRs complexed with darunavir suggest that the impaired inhibitor binding could be explained by change in the PR-inhibitor hydrogen bond pattern in the P2 binding pocket due to a substantial shift of the aminophenyl moiety of the inhibitor. Recombinant virus phenotypic characterization, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray structural analysis thus help to explain darunavir resistance development in HIV-positive patients.

  2. Past, present and future molecular diagnosis and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Ou, Chin-Yih

    2012-01-01

    Substantive and significant advances have been made in the last two decades in the characterization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections using molecular techniques. These advances include the use of real-time measurements, isothermal amplification, the inclusion of internal quality assurance protocols, device miniaturization and the automation of specimen processing. The result has been a significant increase in the availability of results to a high level of accuracy and quality. Molecular assays are currently widely used for diagnostics, antiretroviral monitoring and drug resistance characterization in developed countries. Simple and cost-effective point-of-care versions are also being vigorously developed with the eventual goal of providing timely healthcare services to patients residing in remote areas and those in resource-constrained countries. In this review, we discuss the evolution of these molecular technologies, not only in the context of the virus, but also in the context of tests focused on human genomics and transcriptomics. PMID:26038427

  3. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America.

  4. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome.

    PubMed

    Handley, Scott A; Thackray, Larissa B; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew D; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C; Permar, Sallie R; Schmitz, Joern E; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M; Veazey, Ronald S; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2012-10-12

    Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy, which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next-generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence by using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis.

  5. Feline immunodeficiency virus can be experimentally transmitted via milk during acute maternal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sellon, R K; Jordan, H L; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Tompkins, M B; Tompkins, W A

    1994-01-01

    Postnatal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in neonates nursed by acutely infected mothers and infection resulting from oral inoculation of kittens with FIV were evaluated. Ten of 16 kittens nursed by four queens with FIV infection established immediately postpartum developed FIV infection. Five of 11 neonates orally administered cell-free FIV culture supernatant developed FIV infection. Kittens that developed FIV infection had greater proportions of CD4+ and Pan-T+ lymphocytes at birth than negative kittens. Infectious virus was recovered from the milk of acutely infected mothers. We conclude that FIV may be experimentally transmitted via milk from queens with acute infections and that oral administration of FIV to neonatal kittens results in infection. Images PMID:8151797

  6. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Cross-Species Transmission: Implications for Emergence of New Lentiviral Infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin; Malmberg, Jennifer L; Wood, Britta A; Hladky, Sahaja; Troyer, Ryan; Roelke, Melody; Cunningham, Mark; McBride, Roy; Vickers, Winston; Boyce, Walter; Boydston, Erin; Serieys, Laurel; Riley, Seth; Crooks, Kevin; VandeWoude, Sue

    2017-03-01

    Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) for a small number of animals in California and Florida. In this study, we investigate host-specific selection pressures, within-host viral fitness, and inter- versus intraspecies transmission patterns among a larger collection of PLV isolates from free-ranging bobcats and mountain lions. Analyses of proviral and viral RNA levels demonstrate that PLVA fitness is severely restricted in mountain lions compared to that in bobcats. We document evidence of diversifying selection in three of six PLVA genomes from mountain lions, but we did not detect selection among 20 PLVA isolates from bobcats. These findings support the hypothesis that PLVA is a bobcat-adapted virus which is less fit in mountain lions and under intense selection pressure in the novel host. Ancestral reconstruction of transmission events reveals that intraspecific PLVA transmission has occurred among panthers (Puma concolor coryi) in Florida following the initial cross-species infection from bobcats. In contrast, interspecific transmission from bobcats to mountain lions predominates in California. These findings document outcomes of cross-species lentiviral transmission events among felids that compare to the emergence of HIV from nonhuman primates.IMPORTANCE Cross-species transmission episodes can be singular, dead-end events or can result in viral replication and spread in the new species. The factors that determine which outcome

  7. Heterogeneity in neutralization sensitivities of viruses comprising the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmE660 isolate and vaccine challenge stock.

    PubMed

    Lopker, Michael; Easlick, Juliet; Sterrett, Sarah; Decker, Julie M; Barbian, Hannah; Learn, Gerald; Keele, Brandon F; Robinson, James E; Li, Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Bar, Katharine J

    2013-05-01

    The sooty mangabey-derived simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain E660 (SIVsmE660) is a genetically heterogeneous, pathogenic isolate that is commonly used as a vaccine challenge strain in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Though it is often employed to assess antibody-based vaccine strategies, its sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization has not been well characterized. Here, we utilize single-genome sequencing and infectivity assays to analyze the neutralization sensitivity of the uncloned SIVsmE660 isolate, individual viruses comprising the isolate, and transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses arising from low-dose mucosal inoculation of macaques with the isolate. We found that the SIVsmE660 isolate overall was highly sensitive to neutralization by SIV-infected macaque plasma samples (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] < 10(-5)) and monoclonal antibodies targeting V3 (IC50 < 0.01 μg/ml), CD4-induced (IC50 < 0.1 μg/ml), CD4 binding site (IC50 ~ 1 μg/ml), and V4 (IC50, ~5 μg/ml) epitopes. In comparison, SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were highly resistant to neutralization by these same antibodies. Differences in neutralization sensitivity between SIVsmE660 and SIVmac251/239 were not dependent on the cell type in which virus was produced or tested. These findings indicate that in comparison to SIVmac251/239 and primary HIV-1 viruses, SIVsmE660 generally exhibits substantially less masking of antigenically conserved Env epitopes. Interestingly, we identified a minor population of viruses (~10%) in both the SIVsmE660 isolate and T/F viruses arising from it that were substantially more resistant (>1,000-fold) to antibody neutralization and another fraction (~20%) that was intermediate in neutralization resistance. These findings may explain the variable natural history and variable protection afforded by heterologous Env-based vaccines in rhesus macaques challenged by high-dose versus low-dose SIVsmE660

  8. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus in urban stray cats in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Dorny, P; Speybroeck, N; Verstraete, S; Baeke, M; De Becker, A; Berkvens, D; Vercruysse, J

    2002-11-23

    Three hundred and forty-six serum samples taken between 1998 and 2000 from urban stray cats in the city of Ghent were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and antigens of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Of these 346 samples, 243 (70.2 per cent) were seropositive for Tgondii. Thirty-nine cats (11.3 per cent) had antibodies against FIV and 13 (3.8 per cent) had circulating antigens of FeLV. Fewer of the female cats had FIV and heavier cats had a higher seroprevalence of FIV. Exact logistic regression showed that cats that were infected with FIV were more likely to be infected with T gondii (P = 0.04), and the cats with FIV had a higher titre of Tgondii antibodies than FIV-negative animals. However, FeLV was not associated with either T gondii or FIV.

  9. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry into human primary macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Elena; Calistri, Arianna; Salata, Cristiano; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    Epidemiological and clinical data indicate that genital ulcer disease (GUD) pathogens are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and/or transmission. Among them, genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seems to play a relevant role. Indeed, the ability of HSV-2 to induce massive infiltration at the genital level of cells which are potential targets for HIV-1 infection may represent one of the mechanisms involved in this process. Here we show that infection of human primary macrophages (MDMs) by HSV-2 results in an increase of CCR5 expression levels on cell surface and allows higher efficiency of MDMs to support entry of R5 HIV-1 strains. This finding could strengthen, at the molecular level, the evidence linking HSV-2 infection to an increased susceptibility to HIV-1 acquisition.

  10. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Danner, Raymond M; Goltz, Daniel M; Hess, Steven C; Banko, Paul C

    2007-04-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

  11. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  12. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 33 Final Diagnosis: Tuberculous meningitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Lumbar puncture Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. Case Report: A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while antiretroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Conclusions: A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  13. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Lombardi, S; Poli, A; Garzelli, C; Matteucci, D; Ceccherini-Nelli, L; Malvaldi, G; Tozzini, F

    1995-01-01

    The lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many respects. Similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organization and great variability of the genome, the life cycle in the infected host, and most importantly, the pathogenic potential. Infection is associated with laboratory signs of immunosuppression as well as with a large variety of superinfections, tumors, and neurological manifestations. Our understanding of FIV is steadily improving and is providing important clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses. The cellular receptor for FIV is different from the feline equivalent of the human CD4 molecule used by HIV; nevertheless, the major hallmark of infection is a progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as in HIV infection. The mechanisms by which FIV escapes the host's immune responses are being actively investigated. FIV causes lysis of infected T cells and also appears to predispose these cells to apoptosis. Infection of macrophages and other cell types has also been documented. For reasons yet to be understood, antibody-mediated neutralization of fresh FIV isolates is very inefficient both in vitro and in vivo. Vaccination studies have provided some encouraging results, but the difficulties encountered appear to match those met in HIV vaccine development. FIV susceptibility to antiviral agents is similar to that of HIV, thus providing a valuable system for in vivo preclinical evaluation of therapies. It is concluded that in many respects FIV is an ideal model for AIDS studies. PMID:7704896

  14. Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus encodes factors which trans activate the long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Pallansch, L A; Lackman-Smith, C S; Gonda, M A

    1992-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known to encode factors which trans activate expression from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR); the primary trans activator is the tat gene product. One of the putative accessory genes (tat) of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) bears sequence similarity to other lentivirus tat genes. This finding suggests that BIV may encode a trans-activating protein capable of stimulating LTR-directed gene expression. To test this hypothesis in vitro, BIV LTR-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene plasmids were constructed and transfected into three cell lines established from canine, bovine, or lapine tissues that are susceptible to BIV infection. The level of BIV LTR-directed CAT gene expression was significantly elevated in BIV-infected cells compared with uninfected cells. The relatively high basal-level expression of BIV LTR-CAT in uninfected canine and bovine cell lines suggests that cellular factors play a role in regulating BIV LTR-directed gene expression. Additionally, by using a clonal canine cell line in which the BIV LTR-CAT plasmid is stably expressed, BIV LTR-directed CAT expression is elevated 15- to 80-fold by cocultivation with BIV-infected cells, supporting the notion that BIV encodes a trans activator. The relative specificity of this viral activation was assessed by coculturing the clonal BIV LTR-CAT cell line with bovine leukemia virus- or bovine syncytial virus-infected cells; these bovine retroviruses increased expression from the BIV LTR only two- to threefold. Thus, BIV LTR regulatory elements in infected cells, like those of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other lentiviruses, are trans activated, presumably through the action of a Tat-like protein and cellular factors. PMID:1313891

  15. Visualization and quantification of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells using non-invasive molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiasheng; Cai, Zhengxin; White, Alexander G.; Jin, Tao; Wang, Xiaolei; Kadayakkara, Deepak; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Ambrose, Zandrea

    2015-01-01

    In vivo imaging can provide real-time information and three-dimensional (3D) non-invasive images of deep tissues and organs, including the brain, whilst allowing longitudinal observation of the same animals, thus eliminating potential variation between subjects. Current in vivo imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of target cells, which is urgently needed for revealing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination in real-time and HIV-1 reservoirs during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). To demonstrate that in vivo imaging can be used to visualize and quantify simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-transduced cells, we genetically engineered SIV to carry different imaging reporters. Based on the expression of the reporter genes, we could visualize and quantify the SIV-transduced cells via vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyping in a mouse model using BLI, PET-CT or MRI. We also engineered a chimeric EcoSIV for in vivo infection study. Our results demonstrated that BLI is sensitive enough to detect as few as five single cells transduced with virus, whilst PET-CT can provide 3D images of the spatial location of as few as 10 000 SIV-infected cells. We also demonstrated that MRI can provide images with high spatial resolution in a 3D anatomical context to distinguish a small population of SIV-transduced cells. The in vivo imaging platform described here can potentially serve as a powerful tool to visualize lentiviral infection, including when and where viraemia rebounds, and how reservoirs are formed and maintained during latency or suppressive ART. PMID:26297664

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution in vivo tracked by DNA heteroduplex mobility assays.

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, E L; Sheppard, H W; Walker, B D; Goudsmit, J; Mullins, J I

    1994-01-01

    High mutation rates and strong selective pressures imposed on human immunodeficiency viruses in vivo result in the formation of pools of genetic variants known as quasispecies. DNA heteroduplex mobility and tracking analyses were used to monitor the generation of HIV sequence diversity, to estimate quasispecies complexity, and to assess the turnover of genetic variants to approach an understanding of the relationship between viral quasispecies evolution in vivo and disease progression. Proviral DNA pools were nearly homogeneous soon after sexual transmission. The emergence and clearance of individual variants then occurred at different rates in different individuals. High quasispecies complexity was found in long-term-infected, asymptomatic individuals, while rapid CD4+ cell decline and AIDS were often, but not always, associated with lower quasispecies complexity. Proviral genetic variation was often low following in vitro culture, because of the outgrowth of one or a few variants that often became more abundant only later as proviruses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These studies provide insight into the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus sequence changes in vivo and illustrate the utility of heteroduplex analysis for the study of phenomena associated with rapid genetic changes. Images PMID:8084001

  17. RNase H activity associated with reverse transcriptase from feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Cronn, R C; Whitmer, J D; North, T W

    1992-01-01

    Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes requires the action of an RNase H for template switching and primer generation. In this report, we compare enzymatic properties of the RNase H associated with the reverse transcriptase (RT) from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and that from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both enzymes displayed substrate preference for poly[3H](rG) . poly(dC) hybird over poly[3H](rA) . poly(dT) and cation preference for Mg2+ over Mn2+. Activity of the FIV RNase H upon poly(rG) . poly(dC) produced hydrolysis products from 1 to 6 nucleotides in length, similar to that reported for HIV. Dextran sulfates were effective inhibitors of both the FIV and HIV RNase H and RT activities. Nearly identical inhibition constants (0.12 nM) were obtained for all enzyme activities with dextran sulfate 500,000, while different inhibition constants were observed with dextran sulfate 8,000. Our results suggest that FIV and HIV RTs contain a conserved region that is sensitive to the larger dextran sulfate and that dextran sulfate 8,000 may interact at a different site or by a different mechanism. Images PMID:1370549

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag proteins are processed in two cellular compartments.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, A H; Swanstrom, R

    1991-01-01

    The structural proteins of the retroviral capsid are translated as a polyprotein (the Gag precursor) that is cleaved by a virally encoded protease. Processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag precursor Pr55 was analyzed through a combination of pulse-chase labeling, cell fractionation, and immunoprecipitation. We observed a membrane-associated processing pathway for the Gag precursor that gives rise to virions. In addition, we found that a significant amount of processing occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells resulting in the intracellular accumulation of appropriately processed viral proteins. This observation suggests the viral protease is active in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell. Processing of the Gag protein was blocked in both compartments by the addition of a viral protease inhibitor. A comparison of the amount of cytoplasmic processing seen in lytically infected cells with that seen in chronically infected cells showed that cytoplasmic processing was associated with the lytic infection. These observations raise the possibility that activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease in the cytoplasm of lytically infected cells might result in the cleavage of cellular proteins and thus contribute to cytotoxicity. Images PMID:2034693

  19. Genetic analysis of simian immunodeficiency virus expressed in milk and selectively transmitted through breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Jenna; Lacour, Nedra; Amedee, Angela Martin

    2006-04-01

    To develop effective intervention strategies that prevent breast milk transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we must understand the specific viral properties and mechanisms responsible for infant infection. We have used lactating rhesus macaques infected with a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) stock to analyze the viral genotypes expressed in plasma and milk throughout the disease course and to identify those variants ultimately transmitted to infants through breastfeeding. In these studies we observed mother-to-infant transmission of SIV/Delta(B670) by eight females during the chronic phase of disease, and we analyzed by heteroduplex tracking assays and sequence analysis the distribution and fluctuations in viral genotypes expressed. Each female expressed multiple V1 envelope genotypes in milk near the time of transmission, while a single genotype was found in each of the infants. Variants transmitted to infants were not expressed throughout the maternal disease course but were only detected near the time of transmission. The emergence of the transmitted genotype in the dam typically occurred in plasma before milk and was coincident with increased milk viral loads. Transmitted genotypes tended to be longer and more glycosylated and had a less negative charge over the V1 region compared to viral genotypes expressed in milk but not transmitted. These observations demonstrate that specific viral genotypes are selectively transmitted to infants through breastfeeding and support the hypothesis that transmission occurs as genotypes adapt for efficient expression in milk.

  20. Examination of brains of AIDS cases for human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D G; Itagaki, S; Berry, K; McGeer, P L

    1989-01-01

    The role of direct virus infection as a determining factor in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia was investigated using in situ hybridisation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Four of the five AIDS dementia patients in this series demonstrated HIV infected cells distributed in widely different parts of the brain, but only one case showed HCMV infected cells. The greater abundance of HIV was in subcortical white matter in nodular areas consisting of monocyte/macrophage infiltrates. The cells were occasionally arranged as a multinucleated syncitium. In two cases, a few large cells with the appearance of neurons were positive for HIV hybridisation. By appropriate treatment with ribonuclease, it was shown that hybridisation was primarily to HIV RNA. HCMV infected cells were observed in small numbers in only one of the positive cases, suggesting that HCMV is not a determining factor in AIDS dementia. HCMV positive cells were located in the grey matter, with an appearance suggestive of neurons. Cells expressing the MHC-class II antigen HLA-DR, a marker of reactive microglia and macrophages, were observed to be extensive in affected brain sections in the one case examined. These cells were present in greater number than HIV infected cells. In this case, extensive numbers of HIV infected cells were noticed along the peripheral margin of the substantia innominata. This could indicate infection in this case of a critical brain region from the cerebrospinal fluid. Images PMID:2543795

  1. Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Sefa; Yayla, Çağrı; Açar, Burak; Ertem, Ahmet G; Akboğa, Mehmet K; Gökaslan, Serkan; Erdöl, Mehmet A; Sönmezer, Meliha Ç; Kaya Kiliç, Esra; Ataman Hatipoğlu, Çiğdem; Aydoğdu, Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet

    2017-03-09

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS are known to cause cardiovascular diseases such as premature coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Recently, Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio has been shown as a novel marker of ventricular repolarization. We aimed to evaluate the ventricular repolarization using Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Totally 48 patients with HIV and 60 control subjects were enrolled to the study. Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT ratio and Tp-e/QTc ratio were significantly higher in patients with HIV than control subjects (all p<0.01). In correlation analysis, there were positive correlation between Tp-e interval and disease duration (r=0.298, p=0.048). and inverse correlation between Tp-e interval and CD4 count(r=-0.303, p=0.036). Our study showed that Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were increased in patients with HIV than control subjects.

  2. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.

  3. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Liang; Li, Jing; Kelly, Patrick; Price, Stuart; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou) of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction) and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes. Overall, 1.3% (8/615) of the cats were positive for provirus DNA with nucleotide analysis using PCRs for the gag and env sequences showing the cats were infected with FIV subtype A. This is the first molecular characterization of FIV in mainland China and the first description of subtype A in continental Asia. PMID:28107367

  4. Prevalence of feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hosie, M J; Robertson, C; Jarrett, O

    1989-09-09

    A representative sample of the pet cat population of the United Kingdom was surveyed. Blood samples from 1204 sick and 1007 healthy cats of known breed, age and sex were tested for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV). The prevalence of FIV was 19 per cent in sick cats and 6 per cent in healthy cats, and the prevalence of FeLV was 18 per cent in sick cats and 5 per cent in healthy cats; both infections were more common in domestic cats than in pedigree cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus was more prevalent in older cats but FeLV was more prevalent in younger cats. There was no difference between the prevalence of FeLV in male and female cats but male cats were more likely to be infected with FIV than female cats. No interaction was demonstrated between FIV and FeLV infections. Of the cats which were in contact with FIV in households with more than one cat, 21 per cent had seroconverted. The prevalence of FeLV viraemia in cats in contact with FeLV was 14 per cent. The clinical signs associated with FIV were pyrexia, gingivitis/stomatitis and respiratory signs, and with FeLV, pyrexia and anaemia. It was concluded that both viruses were significant causes of disease, and that the cats most likely to be infected with FIV were older, free-roaming male cats and for FeLV, younger, free-roaming cats.

  5. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Influence on innate and acquired immunity

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Mercedes; Fernández Gutiérrez del Álamo, Clotilde; Girón-González, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Even in cases where viral replication has been controlled by antiretroviral therapy for long periods of time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have several non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related co-morbidities, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which have a clear impact on survival. It has been considered that persistent innate and acquired immune activation contributes to the pathogenesis of these non-AIDS related diseases. Immune activation has been related with several conditions, remarkably with the bacterial translocation related with the intestinal barrier damage by the HIV or by hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis. Consequently, increased morbidity and mortality must be expected in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Disrupted gut barrier lead to an increased passage of microbial products and to an activation of the mucosal immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators, which in turn might increase barrier dysfunction. In the present review, the intestinal barrier structure, measures of intestinal barrier dysfunction and the modifications of them in HIV monoinfection and in HIV-HCV coinfection will be considered. Both pathogenesis and the consequences for the progression of liver disease secondary to gut microbial fragment leakage and immune activation will be assessed. PMID:26819512

  6. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Influence on innate and acquired immunity.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Mercedes; Fernández Gutiérrez del Álamo, Clotilde; Girón-González, José Antonio

    2016-01-28

    Even in cases where viral replication has been controlled by antiretroviral therapy for long periods of time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have several non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related co-morbidities, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which have a clear impact on survival. It has been considered that persistent innate and acquired immune activation contributes to the pathogenesis of these non-AIDS related diseases. Immune activation has been related with several conditions, remarkably with the bacterial translocation related with the intestinal barrier damage by the HIV or by hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis. Consequently, increased morbidity and mortality must be expected in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Disrupted gut barrier lead to an increased passage of microbial products and to an activation of the mucosal immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators, which in turn might increase barrier dysfunction. In the present review, the intestinal barrier structure, measures of intestinal barrier dysfunction and the modifications of them in HIV monoinfection and in HIV-HCV coinfection will be considered. Both pathogenesis and the consequences for the progression of liver disease secondary to gut microbial fragment leakage and immune activation will be assessed.

  7. Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a patient co-infected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kaung, Aung; Sundaram, Vinay; Tran, Tram T

    2014-09-01

    The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unclear. Spontaneous HCV clearance with initiation of HAART in non-cirrhotic HCV patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been reported. We describe an HIV/HCV patient with decompensated cirrhosis, who had spontaneous HCV clearance after an episode of elevated liver enzymes and a change in HAART regimen. His HCV RNA level remained undetectable for six months by quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The disappearance of HCV RNA may be due to a combination of host immune recovery, genetic polymorphism and direct effect of HAART against HCV.

  8. Avian influenza: potential impact on sub-Saharan military populations with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-07-01

    Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease. Two possible scenarios have been postulated regarding how such a coinfection of HIV and H5N1 might present. (1) Soldiers already weakened by HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome rapidly succumb to H5N1. The cause of death is a "cytokine storm," essentially a runaway inflammatory response. (2) The weakened immune system prevents the cytokine storm from occurring; however, H5N1 is still present, replicating, and being shed, leading to the infection of others. A cytokine storm is particularly dangerous for individuals of military age, as evidenced by the large number of soldiers who died during the 1918 influenza epidemic. If large numbers of sub-Saharan soldiers suffer a similar fate from avian influenza, then military and political instability could develop.

  9. Epidemiology, genetic diversity, and evolution of endemic feline immunodeficiency virus in a population of wild cougars.

    PubMed

    Biek, Roman; Rodrigo, Allen G; Holley, David; Drummond, Alexei; Anderson, Charles R; Ross, Howard A; Poss, Mary

    2003-09-01

    Within the large body of research on retroviruses, the distribution and evolution of endemic retroviruses in natural host populations have so far received little attention. In this study, the epidemiology, genetic diversity, and molecular evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus specific to cougars (FIVpco) was examined using blood samples collected over several years from a free-ranging cougar population in the western United States. The virus prevalence was 58% in this population (n = 52) and increased significantly with host age. Based on phylogenetic analysis of fragments of envelope (env) and polymerase (pol) genes, two genetically distinct lineages of FIVpco were found to cooccur in the population but not in the same individuals. Within each of the virus lineages, geographically nearby isolates formed monophyletic clusters of closely related viruses. Sequence diversity for env within a host rarely exceeded 1%, and the evolution of this gene was dominated by purifying selection. For both pol and env, our data indicate mean rates of molecular evolution of 1 to 3% per 10 years. These results support the premise that FIVpco is well adapted to its cougar host and provide a basis for comparing lentivirus evolution in endemic and epidemic infections in natural hosts.

  10. Repair and evolution of nef in vivo modulates simian immunodeficiency virus virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Whatmore, A M; Cook, N; Hall, G A; Sharpe, S; Rud, E W; Cranage, M P

    1995-01-01

    Experimental evidence from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of AIDS has shown that the nef gene is critical in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Consequently, nef is of considerable interest in both antiviral drug and vaccine development. Preliminary findings in two rhesus macaques indicated that a deletion of only 12 bp found in the overlapping nef/3' long terminal repeat (LTR) region (9501 to 9512) of the SIVmacC8 molecular clone was associated with reduced virus isolation frequency. We show that this deletion can be repaired in vivo by a sequence duplication event and that sequence evolution continues until the predicted amino acid sequence of the repair is virtually indistinguishable from that of the virulent wild type. These changes occurred concomitantly with reversion to virulence, evidenced by a high virus isolation frequency and load, decline in anti-p27 antibody, substantial reduction in the CD4/CD8 ratio, and development of opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. These findings clearly illustrate the capacity for repair of small attenuating deletions in primate lentiviruses and also strongly suggest that the region from 9501 to 9512 in the SIV nef/3' LTR region is of biological relevance. In addition, the ability of attenuated virus to revert to virulence raises fundamental questions regarding the nature of superinfection immunity. PMID:7609080

  11. Recombinant human Fab fragments neutralize human type 1 immunodeficiency virus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, C F; Björling, E; Chiodi, F; Dunlop, N; Cababa, D; Jones, T M; Zebedee, S L; Persson, M A; Nara, P L; Norrby, E

    1992-01-01

    A panel of 20 recombinant Fab fragments reactive with the surface glycoprotein gp120 of human type 1 immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) were examined for their ability to neutralize MN and IIIB strains of the virus. Neutralization was determined as the ability of the Fab fragments to inhibit infection as measured in both a p24 ELISA and a syncytium-formation assay. One group of closely sequence-related Fab fragments was found to neutralize virus in both assays with a 50% neutralization titer at approximately 1 micrograms/ml. Another Fab neutralized in the p24 ELISA but not in the syncytium assay. The other Fab fragments showed weak or no neutralizing ability. The results imply that virion aggregation or crosslinking of gp120 molecules on the virion surface is not an absolute requirement for HIV-1 neutralization. Further, all of the Fab fragments were shown to be competitive with soluble CD4 for binding to gp120 and yet few neutralized the virus effectively, implying that the mechanism of neutralization in this case may not involve receptor blocking. The observation of a preponderance of high-affinity Fab fragments with poor or no neutralizing ability could have implications for vaccine strategies. PMID:1384050

  12. Nevirapine resistance mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 selected during therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Richman, D D; Havlir, D; Corbeil, J; Looney, D; Ignacio, C; Spector, S A; Sullivan, J; Cheeseman, S; Barringer, K; Pauletti, D

    1994-01-01

    Drug susceptibility and mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene were analyzed with 167 virus isolates from 38 patients treated with nevirapine, a potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT. Resistant isolates emerged quickly and uniformly in all patients administered nevirapine either as monotherapy or in combination with zidovudine (AZT). Resistance developed as early as 1 week, indicating rapid turnover of the virus population. The development of resistance was associated with the loss of antiviral drug activity as measured by CD4 lymphocyte counts and levels of HIV p24 antigen and RNA in serum. In addition to mutations at amino acid residues 103, 106, and 181 that had been identified by selection in cell culture, mutations at residues 108, 188, and 190 were also found in the patient isolates. Sequences from patient clones documented cocirculating mixtures of populations of different mutants. The most common mutation with monotherapy, tyrosine to cysteine at residue 181, was prevented from emerging by coadministration of AZT, which resulted in the selection of alternative mutations. The observations documented that, under selective drug pressure, the circulating virus population can change rapidly, and many alternative mutants can emerge, often in complex mixtures. The addition of a second RT inhibitor, AZT, significantly altered the pattern of mutations in the circulating population of HIV. PMID:7509000

  13. The molecular biology and evolution of feline immunodeficiency viruses of cougars.

    PubMed

    Poss, Mary; Ross, Howard; Rodrigo, Allen; Terwee, Julie; Vandewoude, Sue; Biek, Roman

    2008-05-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that has been identified in many members of the family Felidae but domestic cats are the only FIV host in which infection results in disease. We studied FIVpco infection of cougars (Puma concolor) as a model for asymptomatic lentivirus infections to understand the mechanisms of host-virus coexistence. Several natural cougar populations were evaluated to determine if there are any consequences of FIVpco infection on cougar fecundity, survival, or susceptibility to other infections. We have sequenced full-length viral genomes and conducted a detailed analysis of viral molecular evolution on these sequences and on genome fragments of serially sampled animals to determine the evolutionary forces experienced by this virus in cougars. In addition, we have evaluated the molecular genetics of FIVpco in a new host, domestic cats, to determine the evolutionary consequences to a host-adapted virus associated with cross-species infection. Our results indicate that there are no significant differences in survival, fecundity or susceptibility to other infections between FIVpco-infected and uninfected cougars. The molecular evolution of FIVpco is characterized by a slower evolutionary rate and an absence of positive selection, but also by proviral and plasma viral loads comparable to those of epidemic lentiviruses such as HIV-1 or FIVfca. Evolutionary and recombination rates and selection profiles change significantly when FIVpco replicates in a new host.

  14. Detection of feline immunodeficiency virus in saliva and plasma by cultivation and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, D; Baldinotti, F; Mazzetti, P; Pistello, M; Bandecchi, P; Ghilarducci, R; Poli, A; Tozzini, F; Bendinelli, M

    1993-03-01

    The rates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolation from saliva, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of infected cats were compared; isolation rates were 18, 14, and 81%, respectively, in naturally infected cats and 25, 57, and 100%, respectively, in experimentally infected animals. There was no obvious relationship between isolation rate and clinical stage or between isolation rate and the titer of neutralizing antibody in serum. Virus could be isolated from one salivary gland as early as 1 week postinfection and, on a more regular basis, starting at 3 weeks postinfection, when, however, most other tissues were also positive. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that FIV genomes are present in saliva and plasma more frequently than expected on the basis of isolation data. Saliva was also found to contain viral DNA, indicating that it may harbor virus-infected cells as well as free virus. The addition of plasma but not of saliva to PBMC cultures delayed FIV growth. Isolation from plasma may be hampered by FIV neutralizing antibody and by the cytotoxic activity of this fluid for the PBMC used as a cell substrate.

  15. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood samples stored as high-salt lysates.

    PubMed

    Zolg, J W; Lanciotti, R S; Wendlinger, M; Meyer, W A

    1990-09-01

    Blood samples to be tested for the presence of parasite DNA by using specific DNA probes are routinely stored in our laboratory as high-salt lysates (HSL). To safeguard against the risk of accidental infection with etiological agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) while manipulating large numbers of blood samples in preparation for DNA probing, we determined the residual infectivity of HIV-1 after exposure to HSL components. Both high-titer virus stocks or provirus-carrying cells, suspended either in tissue culture medium or freshly drawn blood, were completely inactivated upon contact with the HSL components. This was verified by the absence of any detectable HIV-1-specific antigen in the supernatants of long-term cultures and the absence of virus-specific DNA fragments after amplification by polymerase chain reaction with DNA from such cultures as target DNA. These results support the conclusion that the virus is in fact completely inactivated by contact with the HSL components, rendering blood specimens stored as HSL noninfectious in regard to HIV-1.

  16. Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated opportunistic diseases and the effect of treatment on a cohort of 1115 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, 1989-1997.

    PubMed

    San-Andrés, Francisco-Javier; Rubio, Rafael; Castilla, Jesús; Pulido, Federico; Palao, Guillermo; de Pedro, Inmaculada; Costa, José-Ramón; del Palacio, Angel

    2003-05-01

    Temporal trends in the incidence of opportunistic diseases (ODs) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied during 1989-1997 in 1115 outpatients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (331 of whom had AIDS) in a hospital in Madrid, Spain. We analyzed the effect of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis on the incidence of OD. Diseases that showed a significant decreasing trend were esophageal candidiasis, pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and cerebral toxoplasmosis. Patients who adhered to antiretroviral therapy had a smaller risk of OD. Patients who adhered to PCP prophylaxis had a reduced risk of cerebral toxoplasmosis and PCP. A reduction in the incidence of AIDS-related ODs was observed, mainly in patients who underwent prophylaxis. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment and PCP prophylaxis was associated with a reduction in the risk of disease.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention in injection drug users and their partners and children: lessons learned in Latin America--the Argentinean case.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diana; Goltzman, Paula; Cymerman, Pablo; Touzé, Graciela; Weissenbacher, Mercedes

    2003-12-15

    Thirty-nine percent of Argentineans living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were infected with human immunodeficiency virus through the injection of drugs. However, it was not until the 1990s that harm reduction programs were created. Research and outreach projects have been developed to identify and interact with the hidden injection drug user (IDU) population. Implementation of rapid assessment and response methodology contributed to the founding of Argentina's first syringe exchange program. Community-based outreach is the appropriate method for working with the impoverished population of Buenos Aires. Seroprevalence studies and focused prevention campaigns targeting IDUs and their sex partners and children have been developed. Collaborations between government and nongovernmental organizations in various cities supported the distribution of prevention and harm reduction messages to 900 IDUs within a 3-month period. Ongoing research, community-based interventions, and collaborative work among different organizations allow for more frequent and more consistent contact with the IDU population of Argentina.

  18. Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Cancer: Proceedings of the 8(th) Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, Smrithi; Kashyap, Meghana V; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2013-10-05

    The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2013 Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts, in research, patient care and community outreach, on the "Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Cancer". Smoking, HIV/AIDS and cancer are three individual areas of public health concern, each with its own set of disparities and risk factors based on race, ethnicity, gender, geography and socio-economic status. Disparities among patient populations, in which these issues are found to be comorbid, provide valuable information on goals for patient care. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing "Comorbidities and Treatment", "Public Health Perspectives", and "Best Practices". This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates and public health data presented by the speakers.

  19. Identification of a uniquely immunodominant, cross-reacting site in the human immunodeficiency virus endonuclease protein.

    PubMed Central

    Björling, E; Utter, G; Stålhandske, P; Norrby, E; Chiodi, F

    1991-01-01

    One of the features of the life cycle of retroviruses is insertion of the proviral DNA into host chromosomes. A protein encoded by the 3' end of the pol gene of the virus genome has been shown to possess endonuclease activity (D. P. Grandgenett, A. C. Vora, and R. D. Schiff, Virology 89:119-132, 1978), which is necessary for DNA integration. Sera from the majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals react with endonuclease protein p31 in serological tests (J. S. Allan, J. E. Coligan, T.-H. Lee, F. Barin, P. J. Kanki, S. M'Boup, M. F. McLane, J. E. Groopman, and M. Essex, Blood 69:331-333, 1987; E. F. Lillehoj, F. H. R. Salazar, R. J. Mervis, M. G. Raum, H. W. Chan, N. Ahmad, and S. Venkatesan, J. Virol. 62:3053-3058, 1988; K. S. Steimer, K. W. Higgins, M. A. Powers, J. C. Stephans, A. Gyenes, G. George-Nascimento, P. A. Liciw, P. J. Barr, R. A. Hallewell, and R. Sanchez-Pescador, J. Virol. 58:9-16, 1986). It is not known, however, which part of the protein represents the target(s) for antibody response. To study this, we synthesized peptides and used them in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to map the reactivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody-positive sera to the different regions of the HIV endonuclease. A uniquely antigenic, HIV-1- and HIV-2-cross-reacting site was identified in the central part of this protein from Phe-663 to Trp-670. PMID:2072463

  20. Characterization of a "kissing" hairpin complex derived from the human immunodeficiency virus genome.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, K Y; Tinoco, I

    1994-01-01

    Base-pair formation between two hairpin loops--a "kissing" complex--is an RNA-folding motif that links two elements of RNA secondary structure. It is also a unique protein recognition site involved in regulation of ColE1 plasmid DNA replication. The trans-activation response element (TAR), a hairpin and bulge at the 5' end of the untranslated leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 mRNA, enhances the transcription of the virus and is necessary for viral replication. Gel electrophoresis and absorbance melting curves indicate that a synthesized RNA hairpin (Tar*-16) with a loop sequence complementary to the TAR loop sequence (CUGGGA) associates specifically with a 16-nucleotide TAR hairpin (Tar-16) to form a stable complex. RNase T1 probing indicates that the three guanines in the Tar-16 loop become inaccessible in the complex. NMR imino proton spectra reveal that 5 base pairs are formed between the two hairpin loops (Tar-16 and Tar*-16); only the adenine at the 3' terminus of the TAR loop does not form a base pair with the 5'-terminal uracil of the complementary loop. A 14-nucleotide hairpin [CCUA(UCCCAG)UAGG] with a loop sequence complementary to the TAR loop is conserved within the gag gene of human immunodeficiency virus 1. A synthesized RNA hairpin corresponding to this conserved sequence also binds to the Tar-16 hairpin with high affinity. It is possible that the same RNA loop-loop interaction occurs during the viral life cycle. Images PMID:8078946

  1. Expression from second-generation feline immunodeficiency virus vectors is impaired in human hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Price, Mary A; Case, Scott S; Carbonaro, Denise A; Yu, Xiao-Jin; Petersen, Denise; Sabo, Kathleen M; Curran, Michael A; Engel, Barbara C; Margarian, Hovanes; Abkowitz, Janis L; Nolan, Garry P; Kohn, Donald B; Crooks, Gay M

    2002-11-01

    Vectors based on the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have been developed as an alternative to those based on another lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), because of theoretical safety advantages. We compared the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in human and feline hematopoietic progenitors using second-generation HIV-1 and FIV-based vectors. Vector pairs were tested using either human cytomegalovirus or murine phospho-glycerate kinase (PGK) internal promoters and were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). Vector proviral copy numbers were similar in human and feline hematopoietic primary cells and cell lines transduced by HIV-1 or FIV vectors, demonstrating that both vectors are able to transfer genes efficiently to these cell types. HIV-1 vectors were well expressed in human primary hematopoietic cells and cell lines. However, transgene expression from FIV vectors was almost undetectable in human hematopoietic cells. In contrast, the FIV vector was expressed well in primary hematopoietic feline cells and human non-hematopoietic cells, demonstrating that low transgene expression from the FIV vector is a phenomenon specific to human hematopoietic cells. Northern blot analysis demonstrated decreased vector transcript levels in human CEM cells transduced with FIV relative to cells transduced with HIV-1, despite high vector copy numbers. No evidence of vector transcript instability was seen in studies of transduced CEM cells treated with actinomycin D. We conclude that FIV vectors can transfer genes into human hematopoietic cells as effectively as HIV-1 vectors, but that unknown elements in the current FIV backbone inhibit expression from FIV vectors in human hematopoietic cells.

  2. Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk…

  3. Coinfection with Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Giardia intestinalis, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Case Report with Complex Immunologic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Pocaterra, Leonor A; Rojas, Elsy; Hernán, Aurora; Jiménez, Juan Carlos; Núñez, Luz

    2017-02-20

    We describe the case of a 43-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected man receiving combined antiretroviral therapy and coinfected with Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Giardia intestinalis, presenting as chronic diarrhea and critical weight loss. Immunological aspects of these interactions are reviewed.

  4. Mycobacterium microti Llama-Type Infection Presenting as Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Horstkotte, Matthias A.; Sobottka, Ingo; Schewe, Carl K.; Schäfer, Peter; Laufs, Rainer; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Niemann, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    A rare case of Mycobacterium microti infection in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient is described. Because of unusual morphological and cultural features, the pathogen was analyzed by spoligotyping and identified as the Mycobacterium microti llama type. Although culture of M. microti is difficult, drug susceptibility testing could be performed, which correlated with the clinical outcome. PMID:11136815

  5. A One-Session Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk-Reduction Intervention in Adolescents with Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurstone, Christian; Riggs, Paula D.; Klein, Constance; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore change in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among teens in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: From December 2002 to August 2004, 50 adolescents (13-19 years) with major depressive disorder, conduct disorder, and one or more non-nicotine SUD completed the Teen Health Survey (THS) at the…

  6. What Is New in Prevention of Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission?: Best Articles From the Past Year.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-12-01

    This month we focus on current research in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Dr. Jamieson discusses four recent publications, which are concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts.

  7. An in vitro study of antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus seronegative individuals in Lucknow population Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Mohammad Shafi; Sreedar, Gadiputi; Shukla, Abhilasha; Gupta, Prashant; Rehan, Ahmad Danish; George, Jiji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms and gradual colonization of non-albicans in patients with advanced immunosuppression leads to resistance for azole group of antifungal drugs with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To isolate the Candida species and determine of antifungal drug susceptibility against fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B, and clotrimazolein HIV seropositive and control individuals, with or without clinical oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Materials and Methods: Includes samples from faucial region of 70 subjects with and without clinical candidiasis in HIV seropositive and controls were aseptically inoculated onto Sabaraud's Dextrose Agar media and yeasts were identified for the specific species by Corn Meal Agar, sugar fermentation and heat tolerance tests. Antifungal drug susceptibility of the isolated species was done against above-mentioned drugs by E-test and disc diffusion method. Results: The commonly isolated species in HIV seropositive and controls were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis Candida guilliermondii and Candida dubliniensis isolated only in HIV seropositive patients. Susceptibility against selected antifungal drugs was observed more in HIV-negative individuals whereas susceptible dose-dependent and resistance were predominant in HIV-positive patients. Conclusion: Resistance is the major problem in the therapy of OPC, especially in HIV seropositive patients due to aggressive and prolonged use of antifungal agents, therefore, our study emphasizes the need for antifungal drug susceptibility testing whenever antifungal treatment is desired, especially in HIV-infected subjects. PMID:26604498

  8. Generation of hybrid human immunodeficiency virus utilizing the cotransfection method and analysis of cellular tropism.

    PubMed Central

    Velpandi, A; Nagashunmugam, T; Murthy, S; Cartas, M; Monken, C; Srinivasan, A

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) isolated from infected individuals show tremendous genetic and biologic diversity. To delineate the genetic determinants underlying specific biologic characteristics, such as rate of replication, cytopathic effects, and ability to infect macrophages and T4 lymphoid cells, generation of hybrid HIV using viruses which exhibit distinct biologic features is essential. To develop methods for generating hybrid HIV, we constructed truncated HIV proviral DNA plasmids. Upon digestion with restriction enzymes, these plasmid DNAs were cotransfected into human rhabdomyosarcoma cells to generate hybrid HIV. The hybrid HIVs derived by this method were infectious upon transmission to both phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes and established human leukemic T-cell lines. The virus derived from molecular clone pHXB2 (HIVHTLV-III) productively infected CEMx174 cells. On the other hand, molecular clone pARV (HIVSF2)-derived virus did not show productive infection of CEMx174 cells when used as a cell-free virus. The hybrid HIV containing the 3' end of the genome from pARV and the 5' end of the genome from pHXB2 was effective in infecting CEMx174 cells, but the converse hybrid containing 5' pARV and 3' pHXB2 was not effective in infecting CEMx174 cells. These results suggest that differences in the genes outside of env and nef play a role in the ability of the virus to infect a certain cell type. The intracellular ligation method should be useful in the analysis of related and unrelated HIV-1 isolates with common restriction enzyme cleavage sites. Images PMID:1678438

  9. Five recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus pseudotypes lead to exclusive transduction of retinal pigmented epithelium in rat.

    PubMed

    Duisit, Ghislaine; Conrath, Hervé; Saleun, Sylvie; Folliot, Sebastien; Provost, Nathalie; Cosset, François-Loïc; Sandrin, Virginie; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate lentiviral vector-mediated rat retinal transduction using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pseudotyped with envelope proteins from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G), Mokola virus G protein (MK-G), amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope (4070A-Env), influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus G protein (LCMV-G), and RD114 retrovirus envelope (RD114-Env). The six pseudotyped lentivirus vectors carried CMV-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) or beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter genes. Intravitreal and subretinal injections of each pseudotyped recombinant SIV were performed in cohorts of Wistar rats. Our results showed that no transgene expression was detected after intravitreal injection of each pseudotyped SIV vector. Also, no transduction could be detected following subretinal injection of RD114 pseudotyped SIV vectors. However, selective transduction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells was repeatedly obtained after subretinal delivery of VSV-G, MK-G, 4070A-Env, HA, and LCMV-G pseudotyped SIV. GFP expression was maximum as soon as 4 days postadministration for VSV-G, MK-G, 4070A-Env, and HA pseudotypes, with no evidence of pseudotransduction for VSV-G. Maximum transgene expression was observed 3 weeks postinjection for LCMV-6. Importantly, HA and VSV-G pseudotyped SIV lead to such a high level of transgene expression that GFP-related toxicity occurred. Therefore, when a high level of GFP synthesis is achieved, replacement of enhanced GFP (egfp, Aequorea victoria) by a low-toxicity GFP (Renilla reniformis) cDNA is necessary to allow long-term expression.

  10. In vitro human immunodeficiency virus eradication by autologous CD8(+) T cells expanded with inactivated-virus-pulsed dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Andrieu, J M

    2001-10-01

    Despite significant immune recovery with potent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from the bodies of infected individuals represents a challenge. We hypothesized that an inadequate or inappropriate signal in virus-specific antigen presentation might contribute to the persistent failure to mount efficient anti-HIV immunity in most HIV-infected individuals. Here, we conducted an in vitro study with untreated (n = 10) and HAART-treated (n = 20) HIV type 1 (HIV-1) patients which showed that pulsing of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) with aldrithiol-2-inactivated autologous virus resulted in the expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells which were capable of killing HIV-1-infected cells and eradicating the virus from cultured patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells independently of the disease stages and HAART response statuses of the patients. This in vitro anti-HIV effect was further enhanced by the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir (at a nonantiviral concentration), which has been shown previously to be able to up-regulate directly patient T-cell proliferation following immune stimulation. However, following a 2-day treatment with culture supernatant derived from immune-activated T cells (which mimics an in vivo environment of HIV-disseminated and immune-activated lymphoid tissues), DC lost their capacity to present de novo inactivated-virus-derived antigens. These findings provide important information for understanding the establishment of chronic HIV infection and indicate a perspective for clinical use of DC-based therapeutic vaccines against HIV.

  11. Vaccination with Inactivated Virus but Not Viral DNA Reduces Virus Load following Challenge with a Heterologous and Virulent Isolate of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, Margaret J.; Dunsford, Thomas; Klein, Dieter; Willett, Brian J.; Cannon, Celia; Osborne, Robert; MacDonald, Julie; Spibey, Norman; Mackay, Nancy; Jarrett, Oswald; Neil, James C.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that cats can be protected against infection with the prototypic Petaluma strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPET) using vaccines based on either inactivated virus particles or replication-defective proviral DNA. However, the utility of such vaccines in the field is uncertain, given the absence of consistent protection against antigenically distinct strains and the concern that the Petaluma strain may be an unrepresentative, attenuated isolate. Since reduction of viral pathogenicity and dissemination may be useful outcomes of vaccination, even in the absence of complete protection, we tested whether either of these vaccine strategies ameliorates the early course of infection following challenge with heterologous and more virulent isolates. We now report that an inactivated virus vaccine, which generates high levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, confers reduced virus loads following challenge with two heterologous isolates, FIVAM6 and FIVGL8. This vaccine also prevented the marked early decline in CD4/CD8 ratio seen in FIVGL8-infected cats. In contrast, DNA vaccines based on either FIVPET or FIVGL8, which induce cell-mediated responses but no detectable antiviral antibodies, protected a fraction of cats against infection with FIVPET but had no measurable effect on virus load when the infecting virus was FIVGL8. These results indicate that the more virulent FIVGL8 is intrinsically more resistant to vaccinal immunity than the FIVPET strain and that a broad spectrum of responses which includes virus neutralizing antibodies is a desirable goal for lentivirus vaccine development. PMID:11000209

  12. [An epidemiological and immunological study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the southern area of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Cervero, M; Medina Asensio, J; Rubio, R; Costa, J R

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics and immunological parameters are characterized in different groups of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients infected by HIV, and the prognostic markers of survival in patients diagnosed of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was carried out in 312 patients from June 1984 to March 1989. The most common risk group was intravenous drug addicts (IVDA) 80.9%. We observed that during the last years there was an increase in the number of cases of heterosexual transmission. Through follow up, 17.6% of patients developed acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). The incidence rate for AIDS was higher amongst homosexuals than IVDA (35.4/14.6). Esophageal candidiasis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis were the AIDS indicators most frequently encountered. Once the study period was over, with a follow up of 19.3 +/- 3.4 months, the probability of survival after 12 months was 70 +/- 0.07% and after 24 months was 42% +/- 0.09%. The risk group (homosexuals), the appearance of a neoplasia as the first diagnosis of AIDS, and the immunological parameters (CD3 less than 500, CD4 less than 400, CD4/CD8 ratio less than 0.5 and total lymphocyte count of less than 1700 were the markers with worst prognosis which correlated with survival rates (p less than 0.01). We confirmed that when comparing immunologic parameters amongst HIV infection groups, IgA levels were higher (p less than 0.05); the total number of lymphocytes, the number of helper lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio were lower (p less than 0.01) in IV and AIDS group with respect to group II and III, in patients with AIDS with respect to group IV-non-AIDS and in those who died with relation to AIDS.

  13. Characterization of a highly pathogenic molecular clone of feline immunodeficiency virus clade C.

    PubMed

    de Rozières, Sohela; Mathiason, Candace K; Rolston, Matthew R; Chatterji, Udayan; Hoover, Edward A; Elder, John H

    2004-09-01

    We have derived and characterized a highly pathogenic molecular isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus subtype C (FIV-C) CABCpady00C. Clone FIV-C36 was obtained by lambda cloning from cats that developed severe immunodeficiency disease when infected with CABCpady00C (Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada). Clone FIV-C36 Env is 96% identical to the noninfectious FIV-C isolate sequence deposited in GenBank (FIV-Cgb; GenBank accession number AF474246) (A. Harmache et al.) but is much more divergent in Env when compared to the subgroup A clones Petaluma (34TF10) and FIV-PPR (76 and 78% divergence, respectively). Clone FIV-C36 was able to infect freshly isolated feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary T-cell lines but failed to productively infect CrFK cells, as is typical of FIV field isolates. Two-week-old specific-pathogen-free cats infected with FIV-C36 tissue culture supernatant became PCR positive and developed severe acute immunodeficiency disease similar to that caused by the uncloned CABCpady00C parent. At 4 to 5 weeks postinfection (PI), 3 of 4 animals developed CD4(+)-T-cell depletion, fever, weight loss, diarrhea, and opportunistic infections, including ulcerative stomatitis and tonsillitis associated with abundant bacterial growth, pneumonia, and pyelonephritis, requiring euthanasia. Histopathology confirmed severe thymic and systemic lymphoid depletion. Interestingly, the dam also became infected with a high viral load at 5 weeks PI of the kittens and developed a similar disease syndrome, requiring euthanasia at 11 weeks PI of the kittens. This constitutes the first report of a replication-competent, infectious, and pathogenic molecular clone of FIV-C. Clone FIV-C36 will facilitate dissection of the pathogenic determinants of FIV.

  14. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Yesuf, Yohannes Amede

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection. Results The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674). The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5.25), patients who ever had intercourse with penetration (AOR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.11–28.57), and those who had marriage experience (AOR: 11.65; 95% CI: 4.2–32.3) were more infected with HIV. Conclusion The trend of HIV infection significantly reduced in the last 10 years in Kombolcha area. However, the HIV infection still remains high (4.5%) that needs intervention of those who had marriage experience, risky sexual behavior, and urban dwellers. PMID:27462177

  15. Quantitation of Productively Infected Monocytes and Macrophages of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Claudia R.; Price, Sarah L.; Forsyth, Ellen R.; Pin, Julia N.; Shirk, Erin N.; Bullock, Brandon T.; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Gellerup, Dane; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Gama, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a lifelong infection because of latent viral reservoirs in infected patients. The contribution of CD4+ T cells to infection and disease progression has been extensively studied. However, during early HIV infection, macrophages in brain and other tissues are infected and contribute to tissue-specific diseases, such as encephalitis and dementia in brain and pneumonia in lung. The extent of infection of monocytes and macrophages has not been rigorously assessed with assays comparable to those used to study infection of CD4+ T cells and to evaluate the number of CD4+ T cells that harbor infectious viral genomes. To assess the contribution of productively infected monocytes and macrophages to HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells in vivo, we developed a quantitative virus outgrowth assay (QVOA) based on similar assays used to quantitate CD4+ T cell latent reservoirs in HIV- and SIV-infected individuals in whom the infection is suppressed by ART. Myeloid cells expressing CD11b were serially diluted and cocultured with susceptible cells to amplify virus. T cell receptor β RNA was measured as a control to assess the potential contribution of CD4+ T cells in the assay. Virus production in the supernatant was quantitated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Productively infected myeloid cells were detected in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, spleen, and brain, demonstrating that these cells persist throughout SIV infection and have the potential to contribute to the viral reservoir during ART. IMPORTANCE Infection of CD4+ T cells and their role as latent reservoirs have been rigorously assessed; however, the frequency of productively infected monocytes and macrophages in vivo has not been similarly studied. Myeloid cells, unlike lymphocytes, are resistant to the cytopathic effects of HIV. Moreover, tissue

  16. Morphological changes in the digestive system of 93 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: an autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Lucinda Calheiros; Silva, Ana Cristina Araujo Lemos; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Moura, Everton Nunes Melo; Silva-Vergara, Mario Leon; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Involvement of the digestive system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is frequent and many changes in these patients are diagnosed only at autopsy. There are few studies of autopsy with detailed analysis of this system and only one was conducted in Brazil. We evaluated each segment of the digestive system in 93 consecutive autopsies of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the importance of these lesions to death. Of these, 90 (96.8%) patients had AIDS. We reviewed medical records, autopsy reports and histological sections from tongue to rectum stained with hematoxylin-eosin. When necessary, we analyzed special stains and immunohistochemistry to investigate infections. There was damage to the digestive system in 73 (78.5%) cases. The most common infections were candidiasis (42%), cytomegalovirus (29%), histoplasmosis (11.8%), toxoplasmosis (9.7%) and mycobacterial infection (9.7%). Malignancies were rare, present in four (4.3%) cases (two Kaposi's sarcoma, one adenocarcinoma and one metastatic embryonal carcinoma). All segments showed lesions: tongue (48.6%), esophagus (44.8%), stomach (44.7%), colon (43.2%) and small intestine (28.9%). The lesions found were immediate cause of death in five (5.4%) cases. In another 36 (38.7%) cases the basic disease was systemic and also compromised the digestive system.

  17. Gene Therapy Model of X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Using a Modified Foamy Virus Vector

    PubMed Central

    Horino, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Toru; So, Takanori; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Sun, Shu-lan; Sato, Miki; Asao, Atsuko; Haji, Yoichi; Sasahara, Yoji; Candotti, Fabio; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kure, Shigeo; Sugamura, Kazuo; Ishii, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is an inherited genetic immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) gene, and characterized by a complete defect of T and natural killer (NK) cells. Gene therapy for SCID-X1 using conventional retroviral (RV) vectors carrying the γc gene results in the successful reconstitution of T cell immunity. However, the high incidence of vector-mediated T cell leukemia, caused by vector insertion near or within cancer-related genes has been a serious problem. In this study, we established a gene therapy model of mouse SCID-X1 using a modified foamy virus (FV) vector expressing human γc. Analysis of vector integration in a human T cell line demonstrated that the FV vector integration sites were significantly less likely to be located within or near transcriptional start sites than RV vector integration sites. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, bone marrow cells from γc-knockout (γc-KO) mice were infected with the FV vector and transplanted into γc-KO mice. Transplantation of the FV-treated cells resulted in the successful reconstitution of functionally active T and B cells. These data suggest that FV vectors can be effective and may be safer than conventional RV vectors for gene therapy for SCID-X1. PMID:23990961

  18. Social interventions in the care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Levine, C; Allen, M H

    1995-08-01

    The incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing among women of childbearing age. Women now account for 18% of the total number of cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), compared with 9% a decade ago. The medical care of pregnant HIV-infected women must take into account the high prevalence of substance abuse, preceded and often accompanied by significant levels of physical, emotional, and sexual trauma, and the concomitant stigmatization of these women in their families and communities. Pregnancy is often a time when women are motivated to make major positive behavioral and life-style changes. To do this, they need ongoing, multidisciplinary counseling and support, with recognition that progress may be intermittent and slow. The Special Prenatal Care Program at Bellevue Hospital is described to show the level of resource commitment that is needed as well as the nearly universal acceptance of voluntary HIV counseling and testing in these conditions. Trends in permanency planning for the children of HIV-infected women are described. Future research needs are outlined, including female-specific drug treatment and more effective contraceptive technology for both men and women.

  19. Progressive human immunodeficiency virus-associated vasculopathy: time to revise antiretroviral therapy guidelines?

    PubMed

    Ntusi, N B A; Taylor, D; Naidoo, N G; Mendelson, M

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities were appreciated early in the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), even before the aetiological agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was isolated and characterised. The aetiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in HIV infection is still the subject of intense speculation, and is likely multi-factorial. HIV affects every aspect of the cardiac axis, causing pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease and microvascular dysfunction, valvular heart disease, pulmonary vascular disease and pulmonary hypertension, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. HIV-associated vasculopathy is an increasingly recognised clinical entity, causing high morbidity and increasing mortality in southern Africa, particularly from stroke and cardiovascular disease. HIV causes disease of the vascular tree, either by a direct effect on vascular or perivascular tissue, or indirectly via immune complex-mediated mechanisms, associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. As a result, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may have an important role in controlling disease progression. We report a case of histologically defined primary HIV vasculopathy in which the chance to start HAART was initially missed and in which the patient progressed to require bilateral amputations, but obtained disease quiescence upon commencement of HAART.

  20. Gene therapy model of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency using a modified foamy virus vector.

    PubMed

    Horino, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Toru; So, Takanori; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Sun, Shu-Lan; Sato, Miki; Asao, Atsuko; Haji, Yoichi; Sasahara, Yoji; Candotti, Fabio; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kure, Shigeo; Sugamura, Kazuo; Ishii, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is an inherited genetic immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) gene, and characterized by a complete defect of T and natural killer (NK) cells. Gene therapy for SCID-X1 using conventional retroviral (RV) vectors carrying the γc gene results in the successful reconstitution of T cell immunity. However, the high incidence of vector-mediated T cell leukemia, caused by vector insertion near or within cancer-related genes has been a serious problem. In this study, we established a gene therapy model of mouse SCID-X1 using a modified foamy virus (FV) vector expressing human γc. Analysis of vector integration in a human T cell line demonstrated that the FV vector integration sites were significantly less likely to be located within or near transcriptional start sites than RV vector integration sites. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, bone marrow cells from γc-knockout (γc-KO) mice were infected with the FV vector and transplanted into γc-KO mice. Transplantation of the FV-treated cells resulted in the successful reconstitution of functionally active T and B cells. These data suggest that FV vectors can be effective and may be safer than conventional RV vectors for gene therapy for SCID-X1.

  1. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  2. Effect of sexual behavior change on long-term human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Morris, M; Dean, L

    1994-08-01

    Substantial changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sexual behavior have been reported by virtually every survey of homosexual/bisexual men in the last decade. This paper uses a behavior-based simulation to examine how such changes are likely to affect the long-term future of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among homosexual men. Data from the Longitudinal AIDS Impact Project in New York City are used to estimate age-specific patterns of unprotected anogenital contact and behavioral change from 1980 to 1991. Model projections are validated using New York City surveillance data on AIDS incidence from 1981 to 1991. The current levels of unsafe sex reported in the Longitudinal AIDS Impact Project are shown to be almost exactly on the epidemic threshold. If this behavior were maintained, HIV prevalence would slowly decline in the population, but with just one additional unsafe sexual partner per year HIV would instead become endemic, with seroprevalence of about 65% in the oldest group and about 25% in the youngest. Transmission dynamics in the youngest group are analyzed in detail. For this group, the assortative age-matching bias in partner selection patterns raises the unsafe behavior threshold slightly in the long run.

  3. Toward an AIDS vaccine: lessons from natural simian immunodeficiency virus infections of African nonhuman primate hosts.

    PubMed

    Sodora, Donald L; Allan, Jonathan S; Apetrei, Cristian; Brenchley, Jason M; Douek, Daniel C; Else, James G; Estes, Jacob D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Kaur, Amitinder; Kirchhoff, Frank; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela; Pandrea, Ivona; Schmitz, Jörn E; Silvestri, Guido

    2009-08-01

    The design of an effective AIDS vaccine has eluded the efforts of the scientific community to the point that alternative approaches to classic vaccine formulations have to be considered. We propose here that HIV vaccine research could greatly benefit from the study of natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections of African nonhuman primates. Natural SIV hosts (for example, sooty mangabeys, African green monkeys and mandrills) share many features of HIV infection of humans; however, they usually do not develop immunodeficiency. These natural, nonprogressive SIV infections represent an evolutionary adaptation that allows a peaceful coexistence of primate lentiviruses and the host immune system. This adaptation does not result in reduced viral replication but, rather, involves phenotypic changes to CD4(+) T cell subsets, limited immune activation and preserved mucosal immunity, all of which contribute to the avoidance of disease progression and, possibly, to the reduction of vertical SIV transmission. Here we summarize the current understanding of SIV infection of African nonhuman primates and discuss how unraveling these evolutionary adaptations may provide clues for new vaccine designs that might induce effective immune responses without the harmful consequences of excessive immune activation.

  4. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia.

  5. [Infections with human immunodeficiency viruses. Part II: Antiretroviral drugs, therapeutic options, and diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2011-07-01

    Infections with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV- 1) lead to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), resulting in the establishment of a wide range of severe opportunistic infections. Since the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) into the treatment of HIV infections, in many cases a delayed appearance of AIDS-defining diseases is achievable. Life expectancy of antiretrovirally treated HIV-infected people applying HAART could be considerably extended and now resembles that of several other chronic diseases. For the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection, an adjunction with three antiretroviral agents is generally used. In most cases, the application of two nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) together with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), a protease inhibitor (PI) or an integrase inhibitor (II) is recommended. Before and during antiretroviral treatment, antiretroviral drug resistances, individual tolerance profiles and the needs of the individual patient, as well as several interactions with other drugs have to be considered. Diagnostics of HIV infection is based upon the proof of specific antibodies.

  6. Diagnostic implications of Ga-67 chest-scan patterns in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.H.; Garay, S.M.; Grossman, R.J.; Tiu, S.; Banner, H.

    1989-03-01

    Consecutive gallium-67 scans (n = 237) of 180 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients with suspected pulmonary infections were evaluated for intensity and pattern of gallium distribution. Scan findings were correlated with the history, chest radiographic findings, and clinicopathologic diagnoses. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) occurred significantly more often with heterogeneous diffuse uptake than with homogeneous diffuse uptake. Heterogeneous diffuse uptake had an 87% positive predictive value for PCP, which was higher than that of other patterns. Localized pulmonary uptake was most commonly due to bacterial pneumonia or PCP; ill-defined, perihilar uptake, to cytomegalovirus or PCP; and focal (lymph node) uptake, to tuberculosis or lymphoma. The positive predictive value of any pulmonary uptake for lung pathology was 93%, and the negative predictive value of a negative scan was 96%. These findings confirm the utility of gallium scanning in the detection of lung pathology related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, particularly PCP. Furthermore, identification of a diffuse pattern may permit the use of a less invasive test more specifically directed at the confirmation of a diagnosis of PCP.

  7. Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in primary dendritic cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Langhoff, E; Terwilliger, E F; Bos, H J; Kalland, K H; Poznansky, M C; Bacon, O M; Haseltine, W A

    1991-01-01

    The ability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to replicate in primary blood dendritic cells was investigated. Dendritic cells compose less than 1% of the circulating leukocytes and are nondividing cells. Highly purified preparations of dendritic cells were obtained using recent advances in cell fractionation. The results of these experiments show that dendritic cells, in contrast to monocytes and T cells, support the active replication of all strains of HIV-1 tested, including T-cell tropic and monocyte/macrophage tropic isolates. The dendritic cell cultures supported much more virus production than did cultures of primary unseparated T cells, CD4+ T cells, and adherent as well as nonadherent monocytes. Replication of HIV-1 in dendritic cells produces no noticeable cytopathic effect nor does it decrease total cell number. The ability of the nonreplicating dendritic cells to support high levels of replication of HIV-1 suggests that this antigen-presenting cell population, which is also capable of supporting clonal T-cell growth, may play a central role in HIV pathogenesis, serving as a source of continued infection of CD4+ T cells and as a reservoir of virus infection. Images PMID:1910172

  8. Characterization of peripheral blood human immunodeficiency virus isolates from Hispanic women with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Dianedis M Toro; Plaud, Marinés; Wojna, Valerie; Skolasky, Richard; Meléndez, Loyda M

    2007-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tropism plays an important role in HIV-associated dementia. In this study, aimed at determining if the tropism and coreceptor usage of circulating viruses correlates with cognitive function, the authors isolated and characterized HIV from the peripheral blood of 21 Hispanic women using antiretroviral therapy. Macrophage tropism was determined by inoculation of HIV isolates onto monocyte-derived macrophages and lymphocyte cultures. To define coreceptor usage, the HIV isolates were inoculated onto the U87.CD4 glioma cell lines with specific CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors. HIV isolates from cognitively impaired patients showed higher levels of replication in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells than did isolates from patients with normal cognition (P < .05). The viral growth of HIV primary isolates in macrophages and lymphocytes did not differ between patients with and those without cognitive impairment. However, isolates from the cognitively impaired women preferentially used the X4 coreceptor (P < .05). These phenotypic studies suggest that cognitively impaired HIV-infected women receiving treatment may have a more highly replicating and more pathogenic X4 virus in the circulation that could contribute to their neuropathogenesis.

  9. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C in blood donations in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are infections which are common in some communities in Southern Africa. It is important to screen blood donations for these infections. Methods This is a retrospective study which involved reviewing of previous blood donation records for the year 2012 in Namibia. The records were analyzed to determine the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, Hepatitis B and C among blood donations with regard to gender, age and geographical region of the donors. Results The findings indicated a significantly low prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis C among the blood donations. A low infection rate of 1.3% by any of the four tested TTIs was found among the blood donations given by the donor population in Namibia in 2012. Conclusion The blood donations given by the donor population in Namibia has a low infection rate with the HIV, syphilis, HBsAg and anti-HCV. A strict screening regime must continue to be used as the infections are still present albeit in small numbers. PMID:24884633

  10. Assembly, processing, and infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag mutants.

    PubMed

    Wang, C T; Barklis, E

    1993-07-01

    We studied the effects of gag mutations on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly, processing, and infectivity by using a replication-defective HIV expression system. HIV mutants were screened for infectivity by transduction of a selectable marker and were examined for assembly by monitoring particle release from transfected cells. Gag protein processing and reverse transcriptase activities of mutant particles were also assayed. Surprisingly, most Gag protein mutants were assembled and processed. The two exceptions to this rule were a myristylation-minus mutant, and one gag matrix domain mutant which expressed proteins that were trapped intracellularly. Interestingly, a mutant with a 56-amino-acid deletion within the HIV gag capsid domain still could assemble and process virus particles, exhibited a wild-type retrovirus particle density, and had wild-type reverse transcriptase activity. Indeed, although most HIV-1 gag mutants were noninfectious or poorly infectious, they produced apparently normal particles which possessed significant reverse transcriptase activities. These results strongly support the notion that the HIV-1 Gag proteins are functionally involved in post-assembly, postprocessing stages of virus infectivity.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R localization in infected cells and virions.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y L; Spearman, P; Ratner, L

    1993-01-01

    The subcellular localization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) was examined by subcellular fractionation. In HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Vpr was found in the nuclear and membrane fractions as well as the conditioned medium. Expression of Vpr without other HIV-1 proteins, in two different eukaryotic expression systems, demonstrated a predominant localization of Vpr in the nuclear matrix and chromatin extract fractions. Deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 19-amino-acid arginine-rich sequence impaired Vpr nuclear localization. Indirect immunofluorescence confirmed the nuclear localization of Vpr and also indicated a perinuclear location. Expression of Vpr alone did not result in export of the protein from the cell, but when coexpressed with the Gag protein, Vpr was exported and found in virus-like particles. A truncated Gag protein, missing the p6 sequence and a portion of the p9 sequence, was incapable of exporting Vpr from the cell. Regulation of Vpr localization may be important in the influence of this protein on virus replication. Images PMID:8411357

  12. Peripheral immunophenotype and viral promoter variants during the asymptomatic phase of feline immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, B.; Hillman, C.; McDonnel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats enter a clinically asymptomatic phase during chronic infection. Despite the lack of overt clinical disease, the asymptomatic phase is characterized by persistent immunologic impairment. In the peripheral blood obtained from cats experimentally infected with FIV-C for approximately 5 years, we identified a persistent inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio. We cloned and sequenced the FIV-C long terminal repeat containing the viral promoter from cells infected with the inoculating virus and from in vivo-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4 T cells isolated at multiple time points throughout the asymptomatic phase. Relative to the inoculating virus, viral sequences amplified from cells isolated from all of the infected animals demonstrated multiple single nucleotide mutations and a short deletion within the viral U3, R and U5 regions. A transcriptionally inactivating proviral mutation in the U3 promoter AP-1 site was identified at multiple time points from all of the infected animals but not within cell-associated viral RNA. In contrast, no mutations were identified within the sequence of the viral dUTPase gene amplified from PBMC isolated at approximately 5 years post-infection relative to the inoculating sequence. The possible implications of these mutations to viral pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:24291288

  13. A feline immunodeficiency virus vif-deletion mutant remains attenuated upon infection of newborn kittens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoying; Leutenegger, Christian M; Stefano Cole, Kelly; Pedersen, Niels C; Sparger, Ellen E

    2007-10-01

    This report characterizes lentivirus attenuation associated with a vif mutation by inoculation of newborn kittens with a vif-deleted feline immunodeficiency virus provirus plasmid (FIV-pPPRDeltavif). Virus in peripheral blood, antiviral antibody or CD4 T-cell count alterations were not detected in kittens inoculated with FIV-pPPRDeltavif plasmid, with the exception of one kitten that demonstrated FIV Gag antibody production at 42 weeks after inoculation. In contrast, wild-type FIV-pPPR-infected kittens were viraemic, seropositive and exhibited a decrease in the CD4 T-cell subset in peripheral blood. Interestingly, FIV-specific T-cell proliferative responses detected at 32 and 36 weeks after infection were comparable for both FIV-pPPRDeltavif- and wild-type FIV-pPPR-inoculated kittens and suggested the possibility of a discreet tissue reservoir supporting sustained FIV-pPPRDeltavif expression or replication. Overall, these findings confirmed that the severe virus attenuation for both replication and pathogenicity exhibited by a vif-deleted FIV mutant is similar for both neonatal and adult hosts.

  14. Identification of Cellular Proteins Required for Replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Dziuba, Natallia; Ferguson, Monique R.; O'Brien, William A.; Sanchez, Anthony; Prussia, Andrew J.; McDonald, Natalie J.; Friedrich, Brian M.; Li, Guangyu; Shaw, Michael W.; Sheng, Jinsong; Hodge, Thomas W.; Rubin, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cellular proteins are essential for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and may serve as viable new targets for treating infection. Using gene trap insertional mutagenesis, a high-throughput approach based on random inactivation of cellular genes, candidate genes were found that limit virus replication when mutated. Disrupted genes (N=87) conferring resistance to lytic infection with several viruses were queried for an affect on HIV-1 replication by utilizing small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens in TZM-bl cells. Several genes regulating diverse pathways were found to be required for HIV-1 replication, including DHX8, DNAJA1, GTF2E1, GTF2E2, HAP1, KALRN, UBA3, UBE2E3, and VMP1. Candidate genes were independently tested in primary human macrophages, toxicity assays, and/or Tat-dependent β-galactosidase reporter assays. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that several host factors present in this study participate in canonical pathways and functional processes implicated in prior genome-wide studies. However, the genes presented in this study did not share identity with those found previously. Novel antiviral targets identified in this study should open new avenues for mechanistic investigation. PMID:22404213

  15. Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-05-14

    Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients' life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer "whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients", but "who are the patients who can be safely transplanted" and "when is the best time to perform LT". Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients' selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients.

  16. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia. PMID:25613718

  17. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope confers higher rates of replicative fitness to perinatally transmitted viruses than to nontransmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaohong; West, John T; Zhang, Hong; Shea, Danielle M; M'soka, Tendai J; Wood, Charles

    2008-12-01

    Selection of a minor viral genotype during perinatal transmission of human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been observed, but there is a lack of information on the correlation of the restrictive transmission with biological properties of the virus, such as replicative fitness. Recombinant viruses expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein or the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent (DsRed2) protein carrying the V1 to V5 regions of env from seven mother-infant pairs (MIPs) infected by subtype C HIV-1 were constructed, and competition assays were carried out to compare the fitness between the transmitted and nontransmitted viruses. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the frequency of infected cells, and the replicative fitness was determined based on a calculation that takes into account replication of competing viruses in a single infection versus dual infections. Transmitted viruses from five MIPs with the mothers chronically infected showed a restrictive env genotype, and all the recombinant viruses carrying the infants' Env had higher replicative fitness than those carrying the Env from the mothers. This growth fitness is lineage specific and can be observed only within the same MIP. In contrast, in two MIPs where the mothers had undergone recent acute infection, the viral Env sequences were similar between the mothers and infants and showed no further restriction in quasispecies during perinatal transmission. The recombinant viruses carrying the Env from the infants' viruses also showed replication fitness similar to those carrying the mothers' Env proteins. Our results suggest that newly transmitted viruses from chronically infected mothers have been selected to have higher replicative fitness to favor transmission, and this advantage is conferred by the V1 to V5 region of Env of the transmitted viruses. This finding has important implications for vaccine design or development of strategies to prevent HIV-1 transmission.

  18. Identification of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein variant resistant to cold inactivation.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Aemro; Finzi, Andrés; Pancera, Marie; Courter, Joel R; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein trimer consists of gp120 and gp41 subunits and undergoes a series of conformational changes upon binding to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4, that promote virus entry. Surprisingly, we found that the envelope glycoproteins of some HIV-1 strains are functionally inactivated by prolonged incubation on ice. Serial exposure of HIV-1 to extremes of temperature, followed by expansion of replication-competent viruses, allowed selection of a temperature-resistant virus. The envelope glycoproteins of this virus resisted cold inactivation due to a single passage-associated change, H66N, in the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. Histidine 66 is located within the gp41-interactive inner domain of gp120 and, in other studies, has been shown to decrease the sampling of the CD4-bound conformation by unliganded gp120. Substituting asparagine or other amino acid residues for histidine 66 in cold-sensitive HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins resulted in cold-stable phenotypes. Cold inactivation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins occurred even at high pH, indicating that protonation of histidine 66 is not necessary for this process. Increased exposure of epitopes in the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein accompanied cold inactivation, but shedding of gp120 did not. An amino acid change in gp120 (S375W) that promotes the CD4-bound state or treatment with soluble CD4 or a small-molecule CD4 mimic resulted in increased cold sensitivity. These results indicate that the CD4-bound intermediate of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins is cold labile; avoiding the CD4-bound state increases temperature stability.

  19. Nucleocapsid and matrix protein contributions to selective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA packaging.

    PubMed

    Poon, D T; Li, G; Aldovini, A

    1998-03-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) of retroviruses plays a major role in genomic RNA packaging, and some evidence has implicated the matrix protein (MA) of certain retroviruses in viral RNA binding. To further investigate the role of NC in the selective recognition of genomic viral RNA and to address the potential contribution of MA in this process, we constructed chimeric and deletion human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants that alter the NC or MA protein. Both HIV and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) NC proteins have two zinc-binding domains and similar basic amino acid compositions but differ substantially in total length, amino acid sequence, and spacing of the zinc-binding motifs. When the entire NC coding sequence of HIV was replaced with the MMTV NC coding sequence, we found that the HIV genome was incorporated into virions at 50% of wild-type levels. Viruses produced from chimeric HIV genomes with complete NC replacements, or with the two NC zinc-binding domains replaced with MMTV sequences, preferentially incorporated HIV genomes when both HIV and MMTV genomes were simultaneously present in the cell. Viruses produced from chimeric MMTV genomes in which the MMTV NC had been replaced with HIV NC preferentially incorporated MMTV genomes when both HIV and MMTV genomes were simultaneously present in the cell. In contrast, viruses produced from chimeric HIV genomes containing the Moloney NC, which contains a single zinc-binding motif, were previously shown to preferentially incorporate Moloney genomic RNA. Taken together, these results indicate that an NC protein with two zinc-binding motifs is required for specific HIV RNA packaging and that the amino acid context of these motifs, while contributing to the process, is less crucial for specificity. The data also suggest that HIV NC may not be the exclusive determinant of RNA selectivity. Analysis of an HIV MA mutant revealed that specific RNA packaging does not require MA protein.

  20. In vitro suppression of normal human bone marrow progenitor cells by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, H N; Crumpacker, C S; Chatis, P A

    1991-01-01

    Incubation of normal human nonadherent and T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells with HIVIIIB at multiplicities of infection (MOI) ranging from 0.0001:1 to 1:1 reverse transcriptase (RT) units resulted in the dose-dependent suppression of the in vitro growth of erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), and T-lymphocyte (CFU-TL) colonies of progenitor cells. Maximum inhibition of colony formation was observed at a 1:1 ratio of virus to bone marrow cells. At this MOI, BFU-E and CFU-GM colonies were inhibited by 60 to 80%, while CFU-TL colonies were totally suppressed. Inhibition of colony formation was also observed at an MOI of 0.1:1 but not with further log dilutions of the virus. Incubation of the virus with antibody to gp160 resulted in the complete reversal of stem cell suppression and the normalization of colony growth in vitro. For BFU-E and CFU-GM colonies, this reversal was observed with dilutions of antibody up to 1:100 and was no longer observed at titers greater than 1:500. The CFU-TL colony number normalized at titers between 1:10 and 1:50. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) also suppressed by 50% the growth of colonies derived from CD34+ stem cell fractions. Infection of CD34+ cells and T-cell-depleted, nonadherent cell fractions was demonstrated by detection with HIV-specific DNA probe following amplification by polymerase chain reaction. The results suggest that HIV can directly infect human bone marrow progenitor cells and affect their ability to proliferate and give rise to colonies in vitro. The results indicate a direct role for the virus in bone marrow suppression and a possible mechanism for the cytopenias observed in patients with AIDS. Images PMID:2002542

  1. Co-infections with hepatitis B and C viruses in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Rebbani, K; Ouladlahsen, A; Bensghir, A; Akil, A; Lamdini, H; Issouf, H; Brahim, I; Kitab, B; Fakhir, F Z; Wakrim, L; Marhoum El Filali, K; Himmich, H; Ezzikouri, S; Benjelloun, S

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major public health concerns. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected patients, and to identify the main circulating hepatitis strains in Morocco. The study was carried out in 503 HIV-infected patients. Our survey indicated that the prevalence of HIV/hepatitis co-infection was 10.6%; 5.2% of patients were HBV surface antigen positive, and 5.4% of patients were anti-HCV positive. Among the HBV surface antigen-positive group, HBV DNA sequencing identified exclusively genotype D (D1: 26.7%; D7: 73.3%) in accordance with what is found in the general population. In contrast, sequencing of HCV isolates produced an unusual subtype distribution with a decreasing order of prevalence: 1a, 3a (both 23.5%), 1b, 4a (both 17.6%), 1c (11.8%) and 6h (6%).

  2. Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus in human term syncytiotrophoblast cells coinfected with both viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, F D; Mosborg-Petersen, P; Kiss, J; Aboagye-Mathiesen, G; Hager, H; Juhl, C B; Gergely, L; Zdravkovic, M; Aranyosi, J; Lampé, L

    1995-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may interact in the pathogenesis of AIDS. The placental syncytiotrophoblast layer serves as the first line of defense of the fetus against viruses. We analyzed the patterns of replication of HIV-1 and HCMV in singly an dually infected human term syncytiotrophoblast cells cultured in vitro. Syncytiotrophoblast cells exhibited restricted permissiveness for HIV-1, while HCMV replication was restricted at the level of immediate-early and early gene products in the singly infected cells. We found that the syncytiotrophoblasts as an overlapping cell population could be coinfected with HIV-1 and HCMV. HIV-1 replication was markedly upregulated by previous or simultaneous infection of the cells with HCMV, whereas prior HIV-1 infection of the cells converted HCMV infection from a nonpermissive to a permissive one. No simultaneous enhancement of HCMV and HIV-1 expression was observed in the dually infected cell cultures. Major immediate-early proteins of HCMV were necessary for enhancement of HIV-1 replication, and interleukin-6 production induced by HCMV and further increased by replicating HIV-1 synergized with these proteins to produce this effect. Permissive replication cycle of HCMV was induced by the HIV-1 tat gene product. We were unable to detect HIV-1 (HCMV) or HCMV (HIV-1) pseudotypes in supernatant fluids from dually infected cell cultures. Our results suggest that interactions between HIV-1 and HCMV in coinfected syncytiotrophoblast cells may contribute to the transplacental transmission of both viruses. PMID:7884869

  3. Shared alterations in NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ute-Christiane; Owen, Rachel E; Taylor, Elizabeth; Worth, Andrew; Naoumov, Nikolai; Willberg, Christian; Tang, Kwok; Newton, Phillipa; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Klenerman, Paul; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause clinically important persistent infections. The effects of virus persistence on innate immunity, including NK cell responses, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood CD3- CD56+ NK subsets in HIV+ and HCV+ patients and identified significantly reduced numbers of total NK cells and a striking shift in NK subsets, with a marked decrease in the CD56(dim) cell fraction compared to CD56(bright) cells, in both infections. This shift influenced the phenotype and functional capacity (gamma interferon production, killing) of the total NK pool. In addition, abnormalities in the functional capacity of the CD56(dim) NK subset were observed in HIV+ patients. The shared NK alterations were found to be associated with a significant reduction in serum levels of the innate cytokine interleukin 15 (IL-15). In vitro stimulation with IL-15 rescued NK cells of HIV+ and HCV+ patients from apoptosis and enhanced proliferation and functional activity. We hypothesize that the reduced levels of IL-15 present in the serum during HIV and HCV infections might impact NK cell homeostasis, contributing to the common alterations of the NK pool observed in these unrelated infections.

  4. The comparison of genetic variation in the envelope protein between various immunodeficiency viruses and equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Liu, Chang; Liang, Zhipin; Chen, Xueqing; Diao, Danhong; Kong, Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    The envelope protein (Env) of lentiviruses such as HIV, SIV, FIV and EIAV is larger than that of other retroviruses. The Chinese EIAV attenuated vaccine is based on Env and has helped to successfully control this virus, demonstrating that envelope is crucial for vaccine. We compared Env variation of the four kinds of lentiviruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the evolutionary relationship of Env between HIV and SIV was the closest and they appeared to descend from a common ancestor, and the relationship of HIV and EIAV was the furthest. EIAV had the shortest Env length and the least number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) as well as glycosylation density compared to various immunodeficiency viruses. However, HIV had the longest Env length and the most PNGS. Moreover, the alignment of HIV and SIV showed that PNGS were primarily distributed within extracellular membrane protein gp120 rather than transmembrane gp41. It implies that the size difference among these viruses is associated with a lentivirus specific function and also the diversity of env. There are low levels of modification of glycosylation sites of Env and selection of optimal protective epitopes might be useful for development of an effective vaccine against HIV/AIDS.

  5. Virus entry via the alternative coreceptors CCR3 and FPRL1 differs by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype.

    PubMed

    Nedellec, R; Coetzer, M; Shimizu, N; Hoshino, H; Polonis, V R; Morris, L; Mårtensson, U E A; Binley, J; Overbaugh, J; Mosier, D E

    2009-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects target cells by binding to CD4 and a chemokine receptor, most commonly CCR5. CXCR4 is a frequent alternative coreceptor (CoR) in subtype B and D HIV-1 infection, but the importance of many other alternative CoRs remains elusive. We have analyzed HIV-1 envelope (Env) proteins from 66 individuals infected with the major subtypes of HIV-1 to determine if virus entry into highly permissive NP-2 cell lines expressing most known alternative CoRs differed by HIV-1 subtype. We also performed linear regression analysis to determine if virus entry via the major CoR CCR5 correlated with use of any alternative CoR and if this correlation differed by subtype. Virus pseudotyped with subtype B Env showed robust entry via CCR3 that was highly correlated with CCR5 entry efficiency. By contrast, viruses pseudotyped with subtype A and C Env proteins were able to use the recently described alternative CoR FPRL1 more efficiently than CCR3, and use of FPRL1 was correlated with CCR5 entry. Subtype D Env was unable to use either CCR3 or FPRL1 efficiently, a unique pattern of alternative CoR use. These results suggest that each subtype of circulating HIV-1 may be subject to somewhat different selective pressures for Env-mediated entry into target cells and suggest that CCR3 may be used as a surrogate CoR by subtype B while FPRL1 may be used as a surrogate CoR by subtypes A and C. These data may provide insight into development of resistance to CCR5-targeted entry inhibitors and alternative entry pathways for each HIV-1 subtype.

  6. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted. PMID:26560977

  7. Optic neuritis heralding varicella zoster virus retinitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meenken, C; van den Horn, G J; de Smet, M D; van der Meer, J T

    1998-04-01

    We report on a 29-year-old severely compromised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient who developed retrobulbar optic neuritis 5 weeks after an episode of cutaneous herpes zoster infection. During the optic neuritis, varicella zoster virus could be demonstrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The neuritis responded well to treatment with foscarnet, but, 3 weeks into therapy, varicella zoster retinitis developed. Additional treatment with intravenous acyclovir stopped progression of the retinitis and resulted in healing of the retinal lesions. This case suggests that retrobulbar optic neuritis can be regarded as a prodrome of imminent acute retinal necrosis. Early recognition and prompt therapy with combined antivirals may prevent the development of this devastating ocular complication of varicella zoster infection.

  8. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia.

  9. Relationship of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequence heterogeneity to stage of disease.

    PubMed Central

    McNearney, T; Hornickova, Z; Markham, R; Birdwell, A; Arens, M; Saah, A; Ratner, L

    1992-01-01

    V3 envelope sequences were determined from amplified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences of uncultivated leukocytes obtained sequentially from four infected adults over the course of infection. Lower levels of sequence heterogeneity were noted in samples obtained early in HIV-1 infection, prior to CD4 depletion, than in samples obtained at later times during disease. The pattern of amino acid sequence divergence included nonrandom changes, with evidence of sequence variants arising from HIV-1 quasi-species present earlier in infection. Consensus sequences for isolates obtained early after infection from different patients demonstrated a high level of conservation with one another and a consensus sequence for macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates. These findings suggest that a highly restricted subset of HIV-1 quasi-species can be transmitted and can establish infection. PMID:1438212

  10. Identification and analysis of antisense RNA target regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Rittner, K; Sczakiel, G

    1991-01-01

    Antisense RNA, transcribed intracellularly from constitutive expression cassettes, inhibits the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as demonstrated by a quantitative microinjection assay in human SW480 cells. Infectious proviral HIV-1 DNA was co-microinjected together with a fivefold molar excess of plasmids expressing antisense RNA complementary to a set of ten different HIV-1 target regions. The most inhibitory antisense RNA expression plasmids were targeted against a 1 kb region within the gag open reading frame and against a 562 base region containing the coding sequences for the regulatory viral proteins tat and rev. Experimental evidence is presented that the antisense principle is the inhibitory mechanism in this assay system. PMID:2027749

  11. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Injection Drug Users Released from Jail

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Emdadi, Abbas; Soori, Bahram; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Background Injecting drug users (IDUs) and prisoners are considered to be highly vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Iran. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among IDUs released from jail in Bahar (Hamadan, Iran). Methods In a cross-sectional study, 118 IDUs who were prisoners during 2001-07 were evaluated. Their demographic and personal characteristics were assessed by a questionnaire. In order to determine HIV-positive individuals, blood samples were obtained from the participants and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot technique. Findings Overall, 20.3% of the subjects had used non-sterile injecting equipment during their imprisonment. The prevalence of HIV infection among the studied population was 4.2%. Conclusion As the prevalence of HIV among IDUs released from jail is high, it is necessary for prison authorities to take measures against the increase in the prevalence of HIV among this group. PMID:24494150

  12. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis occurring in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, Tricia L; Srinivasan, Shashi K; DiMaio, Dominick J M

    2007-04-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is an uncommon dermatosis associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in association with defects in cell-mediated immunity. Malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma has been associated with lesions caused by HPV-5, HPV-8, and HPV-14. Clinically, the disease may be confused with verruca plana, seborrheic keratosis, and pityriasis versicolor. We present an unusual case of EV occurring in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive man and discuss the clinical and histologic findings. Clinically, the patient had 1- to 3-mm hypopigmented smooth macules covering the entire body. Histopathologic examination of the skin biopsy results demonstrated enlarged keratinocytes with prominent blue-gray cytoplasm and clumping of keratohyalin granules within the granular layer of the epidermis. Although EV typically is viewed as a disease of childhood, sometimes presenting in patients with a family history of the disease, it rarely may be seen in immunocompromised adults.

  13. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-11-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.

  14. Relative concordance of human immunodeficiency virus oligomeric and monomeric envelope in CCR5 coreceptor usage

    SciTech Connect

    Teeravechyan, Samaporn; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Essex, Max; Lee, Tun-Hou

    2008-01-20

    A major difference between binding and fusion assays commonly used to study the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope is the use of monomeric envelope for the former assay and oligomeric envelope for the latter. Due to discrepancies in their readouts for some mutants, envelope regions involved in CCR5 coreceptor usage were systematically studied to determine whether the discordance is due to inherent differences between the two assays or whether it genuinely reflects functional differences at each entry step. By adding the binding inhibitor TAK-779 to delay coreceptor binding kinetics in the fusion assay, the readouts were found comparable between the assays for the mutants analysed in this study. Our finding indicates that monomeric binding reflects oligomeric envelope-CCR5 interaction, thus discordant results between binding and fusion assays do not necessarily indicate differences in coreceptor usage by oligomeric envelope and monomeric gp120.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neoplasms: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and review of current therapy.

    PubMed

    Aboulafia, D M

    1994-01-01

    The development of cancer in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a devastating event and highlights the role of impaired immunity in the generation of various neoplasms. Improved strategies to suppress viral replication and prevent opportunistic infections generally have enabled patients with HIV to live longer and more productively. Unfortunately, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated neoplasia is increasing. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary central nervous system lymphoma, intermediate- and high-grade B-cell lymphoma, and invasive cervical carcinoma are AIDS-defining conditions and the most commonly encountered malignancies. Recent information suggests an indirect role for HIV in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Effective treatment involves addressing complex variables encountered specifically in patients with AIDS. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of KS and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the long terminal repeat of feline immunodeficiency viruses from Japan, Argentina and Australia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Miyazawa, T; Tomonaga, K; Kawaguchi, Y; Maeda, K; Castellano, M C; Kai, C; Tohya, Y; Mikami, T

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the long terminal repeat of five Japanese, five Argentine and three Australian isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were determined and compared with those of isolates previously described. The results revealed that the Japanese isolates were found to cluster with nucleotide sequence similarity of 95.6%-99.4%. The Australian isolates also clustered with nucleotide sequence similarity of 97.2%-99.4%. The Argentine isolates formed two groups; the LP9 isolate is closely related to the Japanese isolates, whereas the LP1, LP3, LP20 and LP24 isolates are distant from both the Japanese and Australian isolates. From these results, FIV can be divided into three groups, namely: (I) the Californian, Australian and British isolates; (II) the Japanese isolates and one Argentine LP9 isolate; (III) the other Argentine isolates.

  17. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Patient

    PubMed Central

    Regeti, Kalyani; Khan, Rafay; Jehangir, Waqas; Zafar, Shoaib; Yousif, Abdalla; Sen, Shuvendu

    2016-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a relatively common disease of adulthood characterized by a typical combination of clinical and radiological findings. In this report, we discuss a 54-year-old female presenting with symptoms suggestive of NPH and found to have a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. She was not treated as she was in denial state and developed NPH as a possible complication. In the literature, there has only been one reported case of HIV type 2 causing NPH; however, no relationship has been properly documented with HIV type 1. These findings bring about a question on whether NPH is associated or a complication of HIV with awareness of this association. Earlier screening of HIV can be done in patients presenting with such symptoms, thus to prevent further progression of its complications. PMID:27222676

  18. Laboratory diagnosis of infection status in infants perinatally exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Paul, M O; Tetali, S; Lesser, M L; Abrams, E J; Wang, X P; Kowalski, R; Bamji, M; Napolitano, B; Gulick, L; Bakshi, S

    1996-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of infection status in infants born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of paramount importance. The comparative accuracy of five diagnostic decision rules was evaluated in 208 HIV-exposed infants (32 infected, 176 uninfected) based on laboratory testing during the first 6 months of life. Diagnostic rules A and B, which required single blood samples analyzed by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (rule A) or culture, PCR, and p24 antigen detection (rule B) were more prone to incorrect diagnoses than were rules requiring 2 blood samples analyzed by a single assay (rule C) or combinations of culture and PCR (rules D and E). Rule D, which used PCR as the initial test, established the most useful algorithm: a positive PCR result followed by a positive culture in the second sample confirmed infected status, while two consecutive negative PCR results reconfirmed as negative at 6 months of age established uninfected status.

  19. Prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in bulls as determined by serology and proviral detection.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, R M; Jefferson, B J; Suarez, D L

    1998-01-01

    We found the rate of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) infection among bulls to be 9.6% using serology and 12.6% when tested by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BIV provirus in peripheral blood leukocytes. Previously, we determined the frequency of BIV infection among the general dairy cow population in Ontario to be 5.5% based on serological analysis. Apparently, serological testing detects only 77% of BIV-infected bulls. Since almost a quarter of BIV-infected bulls may be seronegative, it is recommended that the PCR test be used to identify BIV-infected individuals. It is clear from the data presented here and supported by experimental studies that the latent carrier state is a relatively common outcome in ruminants infected with BIV. PMID:9684054

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects have no altered myocardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Catzin-Kuhlmann, Andres; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Colín-Ramírez, Eloisa; Asz, Daniel; Aguirre, Víctor H; Herrera, Luis E; Valles, Victoria; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Sierra, Juan; Calva, Juan J

    2007-10-31

    We assessed myocardial perfusion (blinded interpretation of a single-photon emission computed tomography) and known risk factors for atherosclerosis in 105 randomly selected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in a clinic in Mexico City and in a community sample of 105 age and gender-matched infection-free subjects. An abnormal scan was obtained in 4.8% of the infected and in 7.6% of the non-infected subjects. Severity of scintigraphic abnormalities was similar in both groups. In these Mexican HIV-infected patients, despite a long time of infection and of exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy and to other classical risk factors for atherosclerosis, there was no evidence of increased risk for abnormal myocardial perfusion. Dissimilar magnitude in the hazard of coronary heart disease may occur among infected populations with different frequencies of traditional predisposing factors for cardiovascular illness.