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Sample records for immunodominant viral epitopes

  1. Collection of phage-peptide probes for HIV-1 immunodominant loop-epitope.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Rodríguez, Yadira; Gazarian, Tatiana; Rowley, Merrill; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Gazarian, Karlen

    2007-02-01

    Early diagnosis and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, which remains a serious public health threat, is inhibited by the lack of reagents that elicit antiviral responses in the immune system. To create mimotopes (peptide models of epitopes) of the most immunodominant epitope, CSGKLIC, that occurs as a loop on the envelope gp41 glycoprotein and is a key participant in infection, we used phage-display technology involving biopanning of large random libraries with IgG of HIV-1-infected patients. Under the conditions used, library screening with IgG from patient serum was directed to the CSGKLIC epitope. Three rounds of selection converted a 12 mer library of 10(9) sequences into a population in which up to 79% of phage bore a family of CxxKxxC sequences ("x" designates a non-epitope amino acid). Twenty-one phage clones displaying the most frequently selected peptides were obtained and were shown to display the principal structural (sequence and conformational), antigenic and immunogenic features of the HIV-1 immunodominant loop-epitope. Notably, when the mixture of the phage mimotopes was injected into mice, it induced 2- to 3-fold higher titers of antibody to the HIV-1 epitope than could be induced from individual mimotopes. The described approach could be applicable for accurately reproducing HIV-1 epitope structural and immunological patterns by generation of specialized viral epitope libraries for use in diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Cross‐reactivity of hepatitis C virus specific vaccine‐induced T cells at immunodominant epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Christabel; Swadling, Leo; Brown, Anthony; Capone, Stefania; Folgori, Antonella; Salio, Mariolina; Klenerman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Viral diversity is a challenge to the development of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine. Following vaccination of humans with adenoviral vectors, we determined the capacity of T cells to target common viral variants at immundominant epitopes ex vivo. We identified two major variants for epitopes NS31073 and NS31446, and multiple variants for epitope NS31406 that occurred in >5% of genotype 1 and 3 sequences at a population level. Cross‐reactivity of vaccine‐induced T cells was determined using variant peptides in IFN‐γ ELISPOT assays. Vaccine‐induced T cells targeted approximately 90% of NS31073 genotype 1 sequences and 50% of NS31446 genotype 1 and 3 sequences. For NS31406, 62% of subtype‐1b sequences were targeted. Next, we assessed whether an in vitro priming system, using dendritic cells and T cells from healthy donors, could identify a variant of NS31406 that was maximally cross‐reactive. In vitro priming assays showed that of those tested the NS31406 vaccine variant was the most immunogenic. T cells primed with genotype 1 variants from subtype 1a or 1b were broadly cross‐reactive with other variants from the same subtype. We conclude that immunization with candidate HCV adenoviral vaccines generates cross‐reactive T cells at immunodominant epitopes. The degree of cross‐reactivity varies between epitopes and may be HCV‐subtype specific. PMID:25263407

  3. Cross-reactivity of hepatitis C virus specific vaccine-induced T cells at immunodominant epitopes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Christabel; Swadling, Leo; Brown, Anthony; Capone, Stefania; Folgori, Antonella; Salio, Mariolina; Klenerman, Paul; Barnes, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Viral diversity is a challenge to the development of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine. Following vaccination of humans with adenoviral vectors, we determined the capacity of T cells to target common viral variants at immundominant epitopes ex vivo. We identified two major variants for epitopes NS3(1073) and NS3(1446), and multiple variants for epitope NS3(1406) that occurred in >5% of genotype 1 and 3 sequences at a population level. Cross-reactivity of vaccine-induced T cells was determined using variant peptides in IFN-γ ELISPOT assays. Vaccine-induced T cells targeted approximately 90% of NS3(1073) genotype 1 sequences and 50% of NS3(1446) genotype 1 and 3 sequences. For NS3(1406), 62% of subtype-1b sequences were targeted. Next, we assessed whether an in vitro priming system, using dendritic cells and T cells from healthy donors, could identify a variant of NS3(1406) that was maximally cross-reactive. In vitro priming assays showed that of those tested the NS3(1406) vaccine variant was the most immunogenic. T cells primed with genotype 1 variants from subtype 1a or 1b were broadly cross-reactive with other variants from the same subtype. We conclude that immunization with candidate HCV adenoviral vaccines generates cross-reactive T cells at immunodominant epitopes. The degree of cross-reactivity varies between epitopes and may be HCV-subtype specific.

  4. Immunodominant epitopes in nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are dispensable for replication but play an important role in viral pathogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the largest protein of the virus. Besides its crucial role in viral replication, recent studies indicated its involvement in modulating host immunity. In this study, each of the six identified immu...

  5. Susceptibility to chronic hepatitis C virus infection is influenced by sequence differences in immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Susanne; Ruhl, Marianne; Tenckhoff, Hannelore; Wiese, Manfred; Heinemann, Falko M; Horn, Peter A; Spengler, Ulrich; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Nattermann, Jacob; Timm, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral immune response against HCV by CD8+ T cells plays a central role in viral containment. In a large HCV genotype 1b outbreak in Ireland, HLA-B(∗)08 was identified as a risk allele for chronic infection and HLA-A(∗)03 and HLA-B(∗)27 were associated with higher clearance rates. Here we took advantage of a similar large common source HCV genotype 1b outbreak (East-German cohort) to determine the role of HLA class I alleles and the sequence of the infection source, in immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitopes for disease outcome. HLA-type and IL28B genotype were determined in 216 patients with chronic and 95 with spontaneously resolved HCV infection. The viral sequence in immunodominant epitopes was determined in the infection source and in patients with chronic infection. In contrast to the Irish cohort, HLA-B(∗)08, HLA-A(∗)03 and HLA-B(∗)27 were neutral for disease outcome even when the cohort was stratified for the IL28B genotype. Sequence analysis of the immunodominant epitopes revealed that pre-existing substitutions in the infection source of both cohorts influenced the impact of the corresponding HLA-allele. The immunodominant epitopes presented by the "protective" alleles HLA-A(∗)03 and -B(∗)27 in the Irish cohort contained substitutions in the source virus of the East-German outbreak. Importantly, the pre-existing substitutions altered subsequent selection pressure and viral evolution in the East-German cohort. This study highlights that subtle sequence differences in the infection source may have profound effects on the ability to clear HCV infection in the presence of particular HLA class I alleles. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Localization of immunodominant epitopes within the "a" determinant of hepatitis B surface antigen using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Golsaz-Shirazi, Forough; Mohammadi, Hamed; Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Shokri, Fazel

    2016-10-01

    The common "a" determinant is the major immunodominant region of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) shared by all serotypes and genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Antibodies against this region are thought to confer protection against HBV and are essential for viral clearance. Mutations within the "a" determinant may lead to conformational changes in this region, which can affect the binding of neutralizing antibodies. There is an increasing concern about identification and control of mutant viruses which is possible by comprehensive structural investigation of the epitopes located within this region. Anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different epitopes of HBsAg are a promising tool to meet this goal. In the present study, 19 anti-HBs mAbs were employed to map epitopes localized within the "a" determinant, using a panel of recombinant mutant HBsAgs. The topology of the epitopes was analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results indicate that all of the mAbs seem to recognize epitopes within or in the vicinity of the "a" determinant of HBsAg. Different patterns of binding with mutant forms were observed with different mAbs. Amino acid substitutions at positions 123, 126, 129, 144, and 145 dramatically reduced the reactivity of antibodies with HBsAg. The T123N mutation had the largest impact on antibody binding to HBsAg. The reactivity pattern of our panel of mAbs with mutant forms of HBsAg could have important clinical implications for immunoscreening, diagnosis of HBV infection, design of a new generation of recombinant HB vaccines, and immunoprophylaxis of HBV infection as an alternative to therapy with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG).

  7. Divergent Paths for the Selection of Immunodominant Epitopes from Distinct Antigenic Sources

    PubMed Central

    Kim, AeRyon; Hartman, Isamu Z.; Poore, Brad; Boronina, Tatiana; Cole, Robert N.; Song, Nianbin; Ciudad, M. Teresa; Caspi, Rachel R.; Jaraquemada, Dolores; Sadegh-Nasseri, Scheherazade

    2014-01-01

    Immunodominant epitopes are few selected epitopes from complex antigens that initiate T cell responses. Here, to provide further insights into this process, we use a reductionist cell-free antigen processing system composed of defined components. We use the system to characterize steps in antigen processing of pathogen-derived proteins or autoantigens and we find distinct paths for peptide processing and selection. Autoantigen-derived immunodominant epitopes are resistant to digestion by cathepsins, whereas pathogen-derived epitopes are sensitive. Sensitivity to cathepsins enforces capture of pathogen-derived epitopes by Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHC class II) prior to processing, and resistance to HLA-DM-mediated-dissociation preserves the longevity of those epitopes. We show that immunodominance is established by higher relative abundance of the selected epitopes, which survive cathepsin digestion either by binding to MHC class II and resisting DM-mediated-dissociation, or being chemically resistant to cathepsins degradation. Non-dominant epitopes are sensitive to both DM and cathepsins and are destroyed. PMID:25413013

  8. Minute Time Scale Prolyl Isomerization Governs Antibody Recognition of an Intrinsically Disordered Immunodominant Epitope*

    PubMed Central

    Fassolari, Marisol; Chemes, Lucia B.; Gallo, Mariana; Smal, Clara; Sánchez, Ignacio E.; de Prat-Gay, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Conformational rearrangements in antibody·antigen recognition are essential events where kinetic discrimination of isomers expands the universe of combinations. We investigated the interaction mechanism of a monoclonal antibody, M1, raised against E7 from human papillomavirus, a prototypic viral oncoprotein and a model intrinsically disordered protein. The mapped 12-amino acid immunodominant epitope lies within a “hinge” region between the N-terminal intrinsically disordered and the C-terminal globular domains. Kinetic experiments show that despite being within an intrinsically disordered region, the hinge E7 epitope has at least two populations separated by a high energy barrier. Nuclear magnetic resonance traced the origin of this barrier to a very slow (t½ ∼4 min) trans-cis prolyl isomerization event involving changes in secondary structure. The less populated (10%) cis isomer is the binding-competent species, thus requiring the 90% of molecules in the trans configuration to isomerize before binding. The association rate for the cis isomer approaches 6 × 107 m−1 s−1, a ceiling for antigen-antibody interactions. Mutagenesis experiments showed that Pro-41 in E7Ep was required for both binding and isomerization. After a slow postbinding unimolecular rearrangement, a consolidated complex with KD = 1.2 × 10−7 m is reached. Our results suggest that presentation of this viral epitope by the antigen-presenting cells would have to be “locked” in the cis conformation, in opposition to the most populated trans isomer, in order to select the specific antibody clone that goes through affinity and kinetic maturation. PMID:23504368

  9. Presentation of an Immunodominant Immediate-Early CD8+ T Cell Epitope Resists Human Cytomegalovirus Immunoevasion

    PubMed Central

    Ameres, Stefanie; Mautner, Josef; Schlott, Fabian; Neuenhahn, Michael; Busch, Dirk H.; Plachter, Bodo; Moosmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Control of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) depends on CD8+ T cell responses that are shaped by an individual's repertoire of MHC molecules. MHC class I presentation is modulated by a set of HCMV-encoded proteins. Here we show that HCMV immunoevasins differentially impair T cell recognition of epitopes from the same viral antigen, immediate-early 1 (IE-1), that are presented by different MHC class I allotypes. In the presence of immunoevasins, HLA-A- and HLA-B-restricted T cell clones were ineffective, but HLA-C*0702-restricted T cell clones recognized and killed infected cells. Resistance of HLA-C*0702 to viral immunoevasins US2 and US11 was mediated by the alpha3 domain and C-terminal region of the HLA heavy chain. In healthy donors, HLA-C*0702-restricted T cells dominated the T cell response to IE-1. The same HLA-C allotype specifically protected infected cells from attack by NK cells that expressed a corresponding HLA-C-specific KIR. Thus, allotype-specific viral immunoevasion allows HCMV to escape control by NK cells and HLA-A- and HLA-B-restricted T cells, while the virus becomes selectively vulnerable to an immunodominant population of HLA-C-restricted T cells. Our work identifies a T cell population that may be of particular efficiency in HCMV-specific immunotherapy. PMID:23717207

  10. DM determines the cryptic and immunodominant fate of T cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Nanda, N K; Sant, A J

    2000-09-18

    The ability of the immune system to focus T cell responses against a select number of potential epitopes of a complex antigen is termed immunodominance. Epitopes that trigger potent T cell activation, after in vivo priming, are classified as immunodominant. By contrast, determinants that fail to elicit any response are called cryptic. DM, a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) heterodimer, plays a pivotal role in the presentation of MHC class II-restricted epitopes by catalyzing the exchange of class II-associated invariant chain peptide with the antigen-derived peptides within the MHC class II binding groove. Using L cells transfected with genes for MHC class II, invariant chain, and DM, we have studied the contribution of DM in the presentation of two cryptic (peptide 11-25 and peptide 20-35) and one dominant (peptide 106-116) epitope of hen egg white lysozyme (HEL). Cells lacking DM heterodimers efficiently display the determinants HEL 11-25 and HEL 20-35 to T cells. Strikingly, however, cells expressing DM are severely compromised in their ability to present the cryptic HEL 11-25/A(d) and 20-35/A(d) epitopes. DM-mediated antagonism of HEL 11-25/A(d) and 20-35/A(d) presentation could thus be central to 11-25/A(d) and 20-35/A(d) being cryptic epitopes in the HEL system. Interestingly, the display of the immunodominant epitope of HEL, 106-116/E(d), and of a dominant epitope of sperm whale myoglobin (SWM), 102-118/A(d), is entirely dependent on the expression of DM. Thus, cells lacking DM molecules are unable to efficiently express HEL 106-116/E(d) and SWM 102-118/A(d) determinants. We conclude that the DM heterodimers direct the immunodominant and cryptic fate of antigenic epitopes in vivo.

  11. Dm Determines the Cryptic and Immunodominant Fate of T Cell Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Navreet K.; Sant, Andrea J.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of the immune system to focus T cell responses against a select number of potential epitopes of a complex antigen is termed immunodominance. Epitopes that trigger potent T cell activation, after in vivo priming, are classified as immunodominant. By contrast, determinants that fail to elicit any response are called cryptic. DM, a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) heterodimer, plays a pivotal role in the presentation of MHC class II–restricted epitopes by catalyzing the exchange of class II–associated invariant chain peptide with the antigen-derived peptides within the MHC class II binding groove. Using L cells transfected with genes for MHC class II, invariant chain, and DM, we have studied the contribution of DM in the presentation of two cryptic (peptide 11–25 and peptide 20–35) and one dominant (peptide 106–116) epitope of hen egg white lysozyme (HEL). Cells lacking DM heterodimers efficiently display the determinants HEL 11–25 and HEL 20–35 to T cells. Strikingly, however, cells expressing DM are severely compromised in their ability to present the cryptic HEL 11–25/Ad and 20–35/Ad epitopes. DM-mediated antagonism of HEL 11–25/Ad and 20–35/Ad presentation could thus be central to 11–25/Ad and 20–35/Ad being cryptic epitopes in the HEL system. Interestingly, the display of the immunodominant epitope of HEL, 106–116/Ed, and of a dominant epitope of sperm whale myoglobin (SWM), 102–118/Ad, is entirely dependent on the expression of DM. Thus, cells lacking DM molecules are unable to efficiently express HEL 106–116/Ed and SWM 102–118/Ad determinants. We conclude that the DM heterodimers direct the immunodominant and cryptic fate of antigenic epitopes in vivo. PMID:10993909

  12. Rapid identification of novel immunodominant proteins and characterization of a specific linear epitope of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Sebastian; Bier, Frank F; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus V

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains one of the major gut pathogens of our time. Its zoonotic nature and wide-spread distribution in industrialized countries calls for a quick and reliable diagnostic tool. Antibody-based detection presents a suitable means to identify pathogenic bacteria. However, the knowledge about immunodominant targets is limited. Thus, an approach is presented, which allows for the rapid screening of numerous cDNA derived expression clones to identify novel antigens. The deeper understanding of immunodominant proteins assists in the design of diagnostic tools and furthers the insight into the bacterium's pathogenicity as well as revealing potential candidates for vaccination. We have successfully screened 1536 clones of an expression library to identify 22 proteins that have not been described as immunodominant before. After subcloning the corresponding 22 genes and expression of full-length proteins, we investigated the immunodominant character by microarrays and ELISA. Subsequently, seven proteins were selected for epitope mapping. For cj0669 and cj0920c linear epitopes were identified. For cj0669, specificity assays revealed a specific linear epitope site. Consequently, an eleven amino acid residue sequence TLIKELKRLGI was analyzed via alanine scan, which revealed the glycine residue to be significant for binding of the antibody. The innovative approach presented herein of generating cDNAs of prokaryotes in combination with a microarray platform rendering time-consuming purification steps obsolete has helped to illuminate novel immunodominant proteins of C.jejuni. The findings of a specific linear epitope pave the way for a plethora of future research and the potential use in diagnostic applications such as serological screenings. Moreover, the current approach is easily adaptable to other highly relevant bacteria making it a formidable tool for the future discovery of antigens and potential biomarkers. Consequently, it is desirable to simplify the

  13. Vertical T cell immunodominance and epitope entropy determine HIV-1 escape

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Michael K.P.; Hawkins, Natalie; Ritchie, Adam J.; Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Whale, Victoria; Brackenridge, Simon; Li, Hui; Pavlicek, Jeffrey W.; Cai, Fangping; Rose-Abrahams, Melissa; Treurnicht, Florette; Hraber, Peter; Riou, Catherine; Gray, Clive; Ferrari, Guido; Tanner, Rachel; Ping, Li-Hua; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Swanstrom, Ronald; B, CHAVI Core; Cohen, Myron; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Haynes, Barton; Borrow, Persephone; Perelson, Alan S.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Williamson, Carolyn; Korber, Bette T.; Gao, Feng; Self, Steve; McMichael, Andrew; Goonetilleke, Nilu

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 accumulates mutations in and around reactive epitopes to escape recognition and killing by CD8+ T cells. Measurements of HIV-1 time to escape should therefore provide information on which parameters are most important for T cell–mediated in vivo control of HIV-1. Primary HIV-1–specific T cell responses were fully mapped in 17 individuals, and the time to virus escape, which ranged from days to years, was measured for each epitope. While higher magnitude of an individual T cell response was associated with more rapid escape, the most significant T cell measure was its relative immunodominance measured in acute infection. This identified subject-level or “vertical” immunodominance as the primary determinant of in vivo CD8+ T cell pressure in HIV-1 infection. Conversely, escape was slowed significantly by lower population variability, or entropy, of the epitope targeted. Immunodominance and epitope entropy combined to explain half of all the variability in time to escape. These data explain how CD8+ T cells can exert significant and sustained HIV-1 pressure even when escape is very slow and that within an individual, the impacts of other T cell factors on HIV-1 escape should be considered in the context of immunodominance. PMID:23221345

  14. Circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium berghei: gene cloning and identification of the immunodominant epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, D J; Arnot, D E; Tam, J P; Nussenzweig, V; Enea, V

    1986-01-01

    The gene encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei was cloned and characterized. A cDNA library made from P. berghei sporozoite RNA was screened with a monoclonal antibody for expression of CS protein epitopes. The resulting cDNA clone was used to isolate the CS protein gene from a lambda library containing parasite blood-stage DNA. The CS protein gene contains a central region encoding two types of tandemly repeated amino acid units, flanked by nonrepeated regions encoding amino- and carboxy-terminal signal and anchorlike sequences, respectively. One of the central repeated amino acid unit types contains the immunodominant epitopes. Images PMID:2432395

  15. Mapping of the immunodominant T cell epitopes of the protein topoisomerase I

    PubMed Central

    Veeraraghavan, S; Renzoni, E; Jeal, H; Jones, M; Hammer, J; Wells, A; Black, C; Welsh, K; du Bois, R M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the immunodominant T cell epitopes of the topoisomerase I protein in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and control subjects, using computational analysis software (TEPITOPE) and T cell proliferation assays. Methods: Six oligopeptides, predicted by TEPITOPE software as potential topoisomerase protein epitopes, were used to perform T cell proliferation assays in 21 patients with SSc and 15 healthy controls. Results: A positive response to at least one of the peptides was seen in 10/21 patients and 7/15 healthy controls. Among responders, the proliferative response was limited to a single peptide in 6/7 healthy controls, whereas 5/10 patients responded to more than one peptide. In responding patients a significant correlation was found between disease duration and number of peptides inducing a response (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Several T cell epitopes of the topoisomerase I protein have been identified and evidence has been found to suggest epitope spreading in patients with SSc. PMID:15249326

  16. Mapping of B-Cell Epitopes in a Trypanosoma cruzi Immunodominant Antigen Expressed in Natural Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lesénéchal, Mylène; Becquart, Laurence; Lacoux, Xavier; Ladavière, Laurent; Baida, Renata C. P.; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; da Silveira, José Franco

    2005-01-01

    Tc40 is an immunodominant antigen present in natural Trypanosoma cruzi infections. This immunogen was thoroughly mapped by using overlapping amino acid sequences identified by gene cloning and chemical peptide synthesis. To map continuous epitopes of the Tc40 antigen, an epitope expression library was constructed and screened with sera from human chagasic patients. A major, linear B-cell epitope spanning residues 403 to 426 (PAKAAAPPAA) was identified in the central domain of Tc40. A synthetic peptide spanning this region reacted strongly with 89.8% of the serum samples from T. cruzi-infected individuals. This indicates that the main antigenic site is defined by the linear sequence of the peptide rather than a conformation-dependent structure. The major B-cell epitope of Tc40 shares a high degree of sequence identity with T. cruzi ribosomal and RNA binding proteins, suggesting the existence of cross-reactivity among these molecules. PMID:15699429

  17. Acinetobacter baumannii rOmpA Vaccine Dose Alters Immune Polarization and Immunodominant Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Tan, Brandon; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Ho, Tiffany; Hujer, Andrea M.; Taracila, Magdalena A.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Spellberg, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Background The rOmpA vaccine has been shown to protect mice from lethal infection caused by extreme-drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. The role of dose in immunology of the rOmpA vaccine was explored. Methods Mice were vaccinated with various doses of rOmpA plus aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) adjuvant. The impact of dose on antibody titers, cytokine production, and immunodominant epitopes were defined. Results Anti-rOmpA IgG and IgG subtype titers were higher at larger vaccine doses (30 and 100 µg vs. 3 µg). The 3 µg dose induced a balanced IFN-γ-IL-4 immune response while the 100 µg dose induced a polarized IL-4/Type 2 response. Epitope mapping revealed distinct T cell epitopes that activated IFN-γ-, IL-4-, and IL-17-producing splenocytes. Vaccination with the 100 µg dose caused epitope spreading among IL-4-producing splenocytes, while it induced fewer reactive epitopes among IFN-γ-producing splenocytes. Conclusions Vaccine dose escalation resulted in an enhanced Type 2 immune response, accompanied by substantial IL-4-inducing T cell epitope spreading and restricted IFN-γ-inducing epitopes. These results inform continued development of the rOmpA vaccine against A. baumannii, and also are of general importance in that they indicate that immune polarization and epitope selectivity can be modulated by altering vaccine dose. PMID:23153442

  18. T-Cell Proliferation Assay: Determination of Immunodominant T-Cell Epitopes of Food Allergens.

    PubMed

    Masilamani, Madhan; Pascal, Mariona; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of allergen-specific T cells is critical to understand their contribution to disease pathogenesis. The identification of immunodominant T-cell epitopes is crucial for development of T-cell-based vaccines. Peptide-specific T-cell proliferation studies are usually performed in a library of short synthetic peptides (15mer or 20mer) with 3 or 5 offset spanning the entire length of the allergen. T-cell peptide epitopes lack the primary and tertiary structure of the native protein to cross-link IgE, but retain the ability to stimulate T cells. The peptides sequences can also be obtained either by in silico approaches and in vitro binding assays. The efficacy of T-cell epitope-based peptide immunotherapy has been proven in certain allergies. The present methodology describes T-cell proliferation assays using whole blood sample from allergic subjects.

  19. Protective Effect of Human Leukocyte Antigen B27 in Hepatitis C Virus Infection Requires the Presence of a Genotype-Specific Immunodominant CD8+ T-Cell Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Kersting, Nadine; Fitzmaurice, Karen; Oniangue-Ndza, Cesar; Kemper, Michael N.; Humphreys, Isla; McKiernan, Susan; Kelleher, Dermot; Lohmann, Volker; Bowness, Paul; Huzly, Daniela; Rosen, Hugo R.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Lauer, Georg M.; Allen, Todd M.; Barnes, Eleanor; Roggendorf, Michael; Blum, Hubert E.; Thimme, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) is associated with protection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This protective role is linked to single immunodominant HLA-B27-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes in both infections. In order to define the relative contribution of a specific HLA-B27-restricted epitope to the natural course of HCV infection, we compared the biological impact of the highly conserved HCV genotype 1 epitope, for which the protective role has been described, with the corresponding region in genotype 3 that differs in its sequence by three amino acid residues. The genotype 3a peptide was not recognized by CD8+ T cells specific for the genotype 1 peptide. Furthermore, patients with acute or chronic infection with HCV genotype 3a did not mount T-cell responses to this epitope region, and their autologous viral sequences showed no evidence of T-cell pressure. Finally, we found a significantly higher frequency of HLA-B27 positivity in patients with chronic HCV genotype 3a infection compared to genotype 1 infection, indicating that there is no protection by HLA-B27 in HCV genotype 3 infection. Conclusion Our data indicate that the protective effect of HLA-B27 is limited to HCV genotype 1 infection and does not expand to other genotypes such as genotype 3a. This can most likely be explained by intergenotype sequence diversity leading to the loss of the immunodominant HLA-B27 epitope in viral strains other than genotype 1. Our results underline the central role of a single HLA-B27-restricted epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell response in mediating protection in HCV genotype 1 infection. PMID:20034048

  20. Searching immunodominant epitopes prior to epidemic: HLA class II-restricted SARS-CoV spike protein epitopes in unexposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junbao; James, Eddie; Roti, Michelle; Huston, Laurie; Gebe, John A; Kwok, William W

    2009-01-01

    Identification of dominant T cell epitopes within newly emerging and re-emerging infectious organisms is valuable in understanding pathogenic immune responses and potential vaccine designs. However, difficulties in obtaining samples from patients or convalescent subjects have hampered research in this direction. We demonstrated a strategy, tetramer-guided epitope mapping, that specific CD4+ T cell epitopes can be identified by using PBMC from subjects that have not been exposed to the infectious organism. Sixteen HLA-DR0401- and 14 HLA-DR0701-restricted epitopes within spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were identified. Among these, spike protein residues 159-171, 166-178, 449-461 and 1083-1097 were identified to contain naturally processed immunodominant epitopes based on strong in vitro T cell responses of PBMC (as assayed by tetramer staining) to intact spike protein stimulation. These immunodominant epitopes were confirmed in vivo in HLA-DR0401 transgenic mice by immunizing with spike protein. Furthermore, the epitope-specific T cells from naive donors secreted IFN-gamma and IL-13 upon re-stimulation with corresponding tetramers. Our study demonstrates a strategy to determine potential immunodominant epitopes for emerging infectious pathogens prior to their epidemic circulation.

  1. Searching immunodominant epitopes prior to epidemic: HLA class II-restricted SARS-CoV spike protein epitopes in unexposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junbao; James, Eddie; Roti, Michelle; Huston, Laurie; Gebe, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of dominant T cell epitopes within newly emerging and re-emerging infectious organisms is valuable in understanding pathogenic immune responses and potential vaccine designs. However, difficulties in obtaining samples from patients or convalescent subjects have hampered research in this direction. We demonstrated a strategy, tetramer-guided epitope mapping, that specific CD4+ T cell epitopes can be identified by using PBMC from subjects that have not been exposed to the infectious organism. Sixteen HLA-DR0401- and 14 HLA-DR0701-restricted epitopes within spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were identified. Among these, spike protein residues 159–171, 166–178, 449–461 and 1083–1097 were identified to contain naturally processed immunodominant epitopes based on strong in vitro T cell responses of PBMC (as assayed by tetramer staining) to intact spike protein stimulation. These immunodominant epitopes were confirmed in vivo in HLA-DR0401 transgenic mice by immunizing with spike protein. Furthermore, the epitope-specific T cells from naive donors secreted IFN-γ and IL-13 upon re-stimulation with corresponding tetramers. Our study demonstrates a strategy to determine potential immunodominant epitopes for emerging infectious pathogens prior to their epidemic circulation. PMID:19050106

  2. A human monoclonal antibody against HPV16 recognizes an immunodominant and neutralizing epitope partially overlapping with that of H16.V5

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lin; Xian, Yangfei; Wang, Daning; Chen, Yuanzhi; Huang, Xiaofen; Bi, Xingjian; Yu, Hai; Fu, Zheng; Liu, Xinlin; Li, Shaowei; An, Zhiqiang; Luo, Wenxin; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    The presence of neutralizing epitopes in human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) is the structural basis of prophylactic vaccines. An anti-HPV16 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (N-mAb) 26D1 was isolated from a memory B cell of a human vaccinee. The pre-binding of heparan sulfate to VLPs inhibited the binding of both N-mAbs to the antigen, indicating that the epitopes are critical for viral cell attachment/entry. Hybrid VLP binding with surface loop swapping between types indicated the essential roles of the DE and FG loops for both 26D1 (DEa in particular) and H16.V5 binding. Specifically, Tyr135 and Val141 on the DEa loop were shown to be critical residues for 26D1 binding via site-directed mutagenesis. Partially overlap between the epitopes between 26D1 and H16.V5 was shown using pairwise epitope mapping, and their binding difference is demonstrated to be predominantly in DE loop region. In addition, 26D1 epitope is immunodominant epitope recognized by both antibodies elicited by the authentic virus from infected individuals and polyclonal antibodies from vaccinees. Overall, a partially overlapping but distinct neutralizing epitope from that of H16.V5 was identified using a human N-mAb, shedding lights to the antibody arrays as part of human immune response to vaccination and infection. PMID:26750243

  3. Defining species-specific immunodominant B cell epitopes for molecular serology of Chlamydia species.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U; Poudel, Anil; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Urgently needed species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia spp. have been elusive due to high cross-reactivity of chlamydial antigens. To identify Chlamydia species-specific B cell epitopes for such assays, we ranked the potential epitopes of immunodominant chlamydial proteins that are polymorphic among all Chlamydia species. High-scoring peptides were synthesized with N-terminal biotin, followed by a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer, immobilized onto streptavidin-coated microtiter plates, and tested with mono-specific mouse hyperimmune sera against each Chlamydia species in chemiluminescent ELISAs. For each of nine Chlamydia species, three to nine dominant polymorphic B cell epitope regions were identified on OmpA, CT618, PmpD, IncA, CT529, CT442, IncG, Omp2, TarP, and IncE proteins. Peptides corresponding to 16- to 40-amino-acid species-specific sequences of these epitopes reacted highly and with absolute specificity with homologous, but not heterologous, Chlamydia monospecies-specific sera. Host-independent reactivity of such epitopes was confirmed by testing of six C. pecorum-specific peptides from five proteins with C. pecorum-reactive sera from cattle, the natural host of C. pecorum. The probability of cross-reactivity of peptide antigens from closely related chlamydial species or strains correlated with percent sequence identity and declined to zero at <50% sequence identity. Thus, phylograms of B cell epitope regions predict the specificity of peptide antigens for rational use in the genus-, species-, or serovar-specific molecular serology of Chlamydia spp. We anticipate that these peptide antigens will improve chlamydial serology by providing easily accessible assays to nonspecialist laboratories. Our approach also lends itself to the identification of relevant epitopes of other microbial pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Defining Species-Specific Immunodominant B Cell Epitopes for Molecular Serology of Chlamydia Species

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, K. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Poudel, Anil; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Urgently needed species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia spp. have been elusive due to high cross-reactivity of chlamydial antigens. To identify Chlamydia species-specific B cell epitopes for such assays, we ranked the potential epitopes of immunodominant chlamydial proteins that are polymorphic among all Chlamydia species. High-scoring peptides were synthesized with N-terminal biotin, followed by a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer, immobilized onto streptavidin-coated microtiter plates, and tested with mono-specific mouse hyperimmune sera against each Chlamydia species in chemiluminescent ELISAs. For each of nine Chlamydia species, three to nine dominant polymorphic B cell epitope regions were identified on OmpA, CT618, PmpD, IncA, CT529, CT442, IncG, Omp2, TarP, and IncE proteins. Peptides corresponding to 16- to 40-amino-acid species-specific sequences of these epitopes reacted highly and with absolute specificity with homologous, but not heterologous, Chlamydia monospecies-specific sera. Host-independent reactivity of such epitopes was confirmed by testing of six C. pecorum-specific peptides from five proteins with C. pecorum-reactive sera from cattle, the natural host of C. pecorum. The probability of cross-reactivity of peptide antigens from closely related chlamydial species or strains correlated with percent sequence identity and declined to zero at <50% sequence identity. Thus, phylograms of B cell epitope regions predict the specificity of peptide antigens for rational use in the genus-, species-, or serovar-specific molecular serology of Chlamydia spp. We anticipate that these peptide antigens will improve chlamydial serology by providing easily accessible assays to nonspecialist laboratories. Our approach also lends itself to the identification of relevant epitopes of other microbial pathogens. PMID:25761461

  5. Immunodominant epitope and properties of pyroglutamate-modified Abeta-specific antibodies produced in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Acero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Vasilevko, V; Munguia, M E; Govezensky, T; Coronas, G; Luz-Madrigal, A; Cribbs, D H; Gevorkian, G

    2009-08-18

    N-truncated and N-modified forms of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide are found in diffused and dense core plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome patients as well as transgenic mouse models of AD. Although the pathological significance of these shortened forms Abeta is not completely understood, previous studies have demonstrated that these peptides are significantly more resistant to degradation, aggregate more rapidly in vitro and exhibit similar or, in some cases, increased toxicity in hippocampal neuronal cultures compared to the full length peptides. In the present study we further investigated the mechanisms of toxicity of one of the most abundant N-truncated/modified Abeta peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3 (AbetaN3(pE)). We demonstrated that AbetaN3(pE) oligomers induce phosphatidyl serine externalization and membrane damage in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, we produced AbetaN3(pE)-specific polyclonal antibodies in rabbit and identified an immunodominant epitope recognized by anti-AbetaN3(pE) antibodies. Our results are important for developing new immunotherapeutic compounds specifically targeting AbetaN3(pE) aggregates since the most commonly used immunogens in the majority of vaccines for AD have been shown to induce antibodies that recognize the N-terminal immunodominant epitope (EFRH) of the full length Abeta, which is absent in N-amino truncated peptides.

  6. IMMUNODOMINANT EPITOPE AND PROPERTIES OF PYROGLUTAMATE-MODIFIED Aβ-SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES PRODUCED IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Acero, G.; Manoutcharian, K.; Vasilevko, V.; Munguia, M.E.; Govezensky, T.; Coronas, G.; Luz-Madrigal, A.; Cribbs, DH.; Gevorkian, G.

    2009-01-01

    N-truncated and N-modified forms of amyloid beta (Aß) peptide are found in diffused and dense core plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Down’s syndrome patients as well as transgenic mouse models of AD. Although the pathological significance of these shortened forms Aβ is not completely understood, previous studies have demonstrated that these peptides are significantly more resistant to degradation, aggregate more rapidly in vitro and exhibit similar or, in some cases, increased toxicity in hippocampal neuronal cultures compared to the full-length peptides. In the present study we further investigated the mechanisms of toxicity of one of the most abundant Ntruncated/modified Aβ peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3 (AβN3(pE)). We demonstrated that AβN3(pE) oligomers induce phosphatidyl serine externalization and membrane damage in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, we produced AβN3(pE)-specific polyclonal antibodies in rabbit and identified an immunodominant epitope recognized by anti-AβN3(pE) antibodies. Our results are important for developing new immunotherapeutic compounds specifically targeting AβN3(pE) aggregates since the most commonly used immunogens in the majority of vaccines for AD have been shown to induce antibodies that recognize the N-terminal immunodominant epitope (EFRH) of the full length Aβ, which is absent in N-amino truncated peptides. PMID:19545911

  7. Immunodominant T-cell epitopes of MOG reside in its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains in EAE

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Aparna; Gupta, Sheena G.; Varrin-Doyer, Michel; Weber, Martin S.; Prod'homme, Thomas; Molnarfi, Nicolas; Ji, Niannian; Nelson, Patricia A.; Patarroyo, Juan C.; Schulze-Topphoff, Ulf; Fogal, Stephen E.; Forsthuber, Thomas; Sobel, Raymond A.; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Slavin, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Studies evaluating T-cell recognition of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have focused mostly on its 117 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain, especially peptide (p) 35-55. We characterized T-cell responses to the entire 218 aa MOG sequence, including its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Methods: T-cell recognition in mice was examined using overlapping peptides and intact full-length mouse MOG. EAE was evaluated by peptide immunization and by adoptive transfer of MOG epitope-specific T cells. Frequency of epitope-specific T cells was examined by ELISPOT. Results: Three T-cell determinants of MOG were discovered in its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, p119–132, p181–195, and p186–200. Transmembrane MOG p119-132 induced clinical EAE, CNS inflammation, and demyelination as potently as p35-55 in C57BL/6 mice and other H-2b strains. p119-128 contained its minimal encephalitogenic epitope. p119-132 did not cause disease in EAE-susceptible non-H-2b strains, including Biozzi, NOD, and PL/J. MOG p119-132–specific T cells produced Th1 and Th17 cytokines and transferred EAE to wild-type recipient mice. After immunization with full-length MOG, a significantly higher frequency of MOG-reactive T cells responded to p119-132 than to p35-55, demonstrating that p119-132 is an immunodominant encephalitogenic epitope. MOG p181-195 did not cause EAE, and MOG p181-195–specific T cells could not transfer EAE into wild-type or highly susceptible T- and B-cell–deficient mice. Conclusions: Transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of MOG contain immunodominant T-cell epitopes in EAE. A CNS autoantigen can also contain nonpathogenic stimulatory T-cell epitopes. Recognition that a myelin antigen contains multiple encephalitogenic and nonencephalitogenic determinants may have implications for therapeutic development in MS. PMID:25340074

  8. Identification of a novel cancer-specific immunodominant glycopeptide epitope in the MUC1 tandem repeat.

    PubMed

    Tarp, Mads A; Sørensen, Anne Louise; Mandel, Ulla; Paulsen, Hans; Burchell, Joy; Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joyce; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-02-01

    The cell membrane mucin MUC1 is over-expressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many cancers, and cancer-associated MUC1 glycoforms represent potential targets for immunodiagnostic and therapeutic measures. We have recently shown that MUC1 with GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr (Tn) and NeuAcalpha2-6GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr (STn) O-glycosylation is a cancer-specific glycoform, and that Tn/STn-MUC1 glycopeptide-based vaccines can override tolerance in human MUC1 transgenic mice and induce humoral immunity with high specificity for MUC1 cancer-specific glycoforms (Sorensen AL, Reis CA, Tarp MA, Mandel U, Ramachandran K, Sankaranarayanan V, Schwientek T, Graham R, Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Hollingsworth MA, et al. 2006. Chemoenzymatically synthesized multimeric Tn/STn MUC1 glycopeptides elicit cancer-specific anti-MUC1 antibody responses and override tolerance. Glycobiology. 16:96-107). In order to further characterize the immune response to Tn/STn-MUC1 glycoforms, we generated monoclonal antibodies with specificity similar to the polyclonal antibody response found in transgenic mice. In the present study, we define the immunodominant epitope on Tn/STn-MUC1 glycopeptides to the region including the amino acids GSTA of the MUC1 20-amino acid tandem repeat (HGVTSAPDTRPAPGSTAPPA). Most other MUC1 antibodies are directed to the PDTR region, although patients with antibodies to the GSTA region have been identified. A panel of other MUC1 glycoform-specific monoclonal antibodies was included for comparison. The study demonstrates that the GSTA region of the MUC1 tandem repeat contains a highly immunodominant epitope when presented with immature short O-glycans. The cancer-specific expression of this glycopeptide epitope makes it a prime candidate for immunodiagnostic and therapeutic measures.

  9. Subdominant CD8 T-cell epitopes account for protection against cytomegalovirus independent of immunodomination.

    PubMed

    Holtappels, Rafaela; Simon, Christian O; Munks, Michael W; Thomas, Doris; Deegen, Petra; Kühnapfel, Birgit; Däubner, Torsten; Emde, Simone F; Podlech, Jürgen; Grzimek, Natascha K A; Oehrlein-Karpi, Silke A; Hill, Ann B; Reddehase, Matthias J

    2008-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection continues to be a complication in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Preexisting donor immunity is recognized as a favorable prognostic factor for the reconstitution of protective antiviral immunity mediated primarily by CD8 T cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CMV-specific memory CD8 T (CD8-T(M)) cells is a therapeutic option for preventing CMV disease in HSCT recipients. Given the different CMV infection histories of donor and recipient, a problem may arise from an antigenic mismatch between the CMV variant that has primed donor immunity and the CMV variant acquired by the recipient. Here, we have used the BALB/c mouse model of CMV infection in the immunocompromised host to evaluate the importance of donor-recipient CMV matching in immundominant epitopes (IDEs). For this, we generated the murine CMV (mCMV) recombinant virus mCMV-DeltaIDE, in which the two memory repertoire IDEs, the IE1-derived peptide 168-YPHFMPTNL-176 presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecule L(d) and the m164-derived peptide 257-AGPPRYSRI-265 presented by the MHC-I molecule D(d), are both functionally deleted. Upon adoptive transfer, polyclonal donor CD8-T(M) cells primed by mCMV-DeltaIDE and the corresponding revertant virus mCMV-revDeltaIDE controlled infection of immunocompromised recipients with comparable efficacy and regardless of whether or not IDEs were presented in the recipients. Importantly, CD8-T(M) cells primed under conditions of immunodomination by IDEs protected recipients in which IDEs were absent. This shows that protection does not depend on compensatory expansion of non-IDE-specific CD8-T(M) cells liberated from immunodomination by the deletion of IDEs. We conclude that protection is, rather, based on the collective antiviral potential of non-IDEs independent of the presence or absence of IDE-mediated immunodomination.

  10. Immunodominant IgM and IgG Epitopes Recognized by Antibodies Induced in Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aw-Yong, Kam Leng; Sam, I-Ching; Koh, Mia Tuang

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike other enteroviruses that cause HFMD, EV-A71 is more frequently associated with severe neurological complications and fatality. To date, no effective licensed antivirals are available to combat EV-A71 infection. Little is known about the immunogenicity of viral non-structural proteins in humans. Previous studies have mainly focused on characterization of epitopes of EV-A71 structural proteins by using immunized animal antisera. In this study, we have characterized human antibody responses against the structural and non-structural proteins of EV-A71. Each viral protein was cloned and expressed in either bacterial or mammalian systems, and tested with antisera by western blot. Results revealed that all structural proteins (VP1-4), and non-structural proteins 2A, 3C and 3D were targets of EV-A71 IgM, whereas EV-A71 IgG recognized all the structural and non-structural proteins. Sixty three synthetic peptides predicted to be immunogenic in silico were synthesized and used for the characterization of EV-A71 linear B-cell epitopes. In total, we identified 22 IgM and four IgG dominant epitopes. Synthetic peptide PEP27, corresponding to residues 142–156 of VP1, was identified as the EV-A71 IgM-specific immunodominant epitope. PEP23, mapped to VP1 41–55, was recognized as the EV-A71 IgG cross-reactive immunodominant epitope. The structural protein VP1 is the major immunodominant site targeted by anti-EV-A71 IgM and IgG antibodies, but epitopes against non-structural proteins were also detected. These data provide new understanding of the immune response to EV-A71 infection, which benefits the development of diagnostic tools, potential therapeutics and subunit vaccine candidates. PMID:27806091

  11. Definition of a discontinuous immunodominant epitope at the NH2 terminus of the La/SS-B ribonucleoprotein autoantigen.

    PubMed Central

    McNeilage, L J; Umapathysivam, K; Macmillan, E; Guidolin, A; Whittingham, S; Gordon, T

    1992-01-01

    High-titer IgG autoantibodies to the La/SS-B ribonucleoprotein (RNP) are a hallmark of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Anti-La/SS-B-positive human sera bind to multiple epitopes on recombinant La/SS-B, although the initial response is against an immunodominant epitope within the first 107 NH2-terminal amino acids (aa). Sequence analysis has identified a striking homology between aa 88-101 in this NH2-terminal region of La/SS-B and a feline retroviral gag polypeptide suggesting the anti-La/SS-B response may be initiated by cross-reactivity with an exogenous agent. In the present study, detailed mapping of this NH2-terminal epitope, using recombinant La/SS-B purified from the expression of overlapping DNA fragments spanning aa 1-107, has shown that this immunodominant epitope is a complex conformational or discontinuous epitope dependent upon both aa 12-28 and 82-99 for expression, even though these regions share no homology with each other. This requirement questions the significance of the homology between La/SS-B and a retroviral gag polypeptide in the generation of the B cell response to La/SS-B and is in accord with the general concept that B cells recognize conformational epitopes on antigens rather than small linear peptide sequences. The finding also reinforces the notion that native autoantigen could be the initiator of the autoimmune response. Images PMID:1373741

  12. Immunodominant T-Cell Epitopes in the VP1 Capsid Protein of Rhinovirus Species A and C

    PubMed Central

    Gaido, Cibele M.; Stone, Shane; Chopra, Abha; Thomas, Wayne R.; Le Souëf, Peter N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhinovirus (RV) species A and C are the most frequent cause of respiratory viral illness worldwide, and RV-C has been linked to more severe exacerbations of asthma in young children. Little is known about the immune responses to the different RV species, although studies comparing IgG1 antibody titers found impaired antibody responses to RV-C. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether T-cell immunity to RV-C is similarly impaired. We measured T-cell proliferation to overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire VP1 capsid protein of an RV-A and RV-C genotype for 20 healthy adult donors. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was typed in all the donors in order to investigate possible associations between the HLA type and RV peptide recognition. Total and specific IgG1 antibody titers to the VP1 proteins of both RV-A and RV-C were also measured to examine associations between the antibody and T-cell responses. We identified T-cell epitopes that are specific to and representative of each RV-A and RV-C species. These epitopes stimulated CD4+-specific T-cell proliferation, with similar magnitudes of response for both RV species. All the donors, independent of their HLA-DR or -DQ type, were able to recognize the immunodominant RV-A and -C regions of VP1. Furthermore, the presence or absence of specific antibody titers was not related to changes in T-cell recognition. Our results indicate a dissociation between the antibody and T-cell responses to rhinoviruses. The species-representative T-cell epitopes identified in this study are valuable tools for future studies investigating T-cell responses to the different RV species. IMPORTANCE Rhinoviruses (RVs) are mostly associated with the common cold and asthma exacerbations, although their contributions to most upper and lower respiratory tract diseases have increasingly been reported. Species C (RV-C) has been associated with more frequent and severe asthma exacerbations in young children and, along with

  13. Deimination of membrane-bound myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis exposes an immunodominant epitope

    PubMed Central

    Musse, Abdiwahab A.; Boggs, Joan M.; Harauz, George

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of myelin in the CNS is the hallmark of multiple sclerosis. Reduction in the net positive charge of myelin basic protein (MBP), through deimination, correlates strongly with disease severity and may mediate myelin instability and loss of compaction. Using Cys scanning, spin labeling, EPR spectroscopy, and site-specific proteolysis, we show that in the membrane-bound state the primary immunodominant epitope, V83-T92, of the less cationic recombinant murine MBP C8 mimic (rmC8) forms a more highly surface-exposed and shorter amphipathic α-helix than in the unmodified form, recombinant murine MBP C1 mimic (rmC1), analogous to the most cationic and abundant isomer of MBP in normal myelin. Moreover, cathepsin D digested lipid-associated rmC8 3-fold faster than rmC1, and cleavage at F86–F87 occurred more readily in rmC8 than rmC1. These findings suggest a mechanism for initial loss of myelin stability and the autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:16537438

  14. Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Wei, Chao; Yang, Liu-Yang; Zuo, Qian-Fei; Zhuang, Yuan; Feng, You-Jun; Srinivas, Swaminath; Zeng, Hao; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination strategies for Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have attracted much research attention. Recent efforts have been made to select manganese transport protein C, or manganese binding surface lipoprotein C (MntC), which is a metal ion associated with pathogen nutrition uptake, as potential candidates for an S. aureus vaccine. Although protective humoral immune responses to MntC are well-characterised, much less is known about detailed MntC-specific B cell epitope mapping and particularly epitope vaccines, which are less-time consuming and more convenient. In this study, we generated a recombinant protein rMntC which induced strong antibody response when used for immunisation with CFA/IFA adjuvant. On the basis of the results, linear B cell epitopes within MntC were finely mapped using a series of overlapping synthetic peptides. Further studies indicate that MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 might be the original linear B-cell immune dominant epitope of MntC, furthermore, three-dimensional (3-d) crystal structure results indicate that the three immunodominant epitopes were displayed on the surface of the MntC antigen. On the basis of immunodominant MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 peptides, the epitope vaccine for S. aureus induces a high antibody level which is biased to TH2 and provides effective immune protection and strong opsonophagocytic killing activity in vitro against MRSA infection. In summary, the study provides strong proof of the optimisation of MRSA B cell epitope vaccine designs and their use, which was based on the MntC antigen in the development of an MRSA vaccine. PMID:26895191

  15. Oral administration of an immunodominant T-cell epitope downregulates Th1/Th2 cytokines and prevents experimental myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Baggi, Fulvio; Andreetta, Francesca; Caspani, Elisabetta; Milani, Monica; Longhi, Renato; Mantegazza, Renato; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Antozzi, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    The mucosal administration of the native antigen or peptide fragments corresponding to immunodominant regions is effective in preventing or treating several T cell–dependent models of autoimmune disease. No data are yet available on oral tolerance with immunodominant T-cell peptides in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of B cell–dependent disease. We report that oral administration of the T-cell epitope α146-162 of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (TAChR) α-subunit suppressed T-cell responses to AChR and ameliorated the disease in C57Bl/6 (B6) mice. Protection from EAMG was associated with reduced serum Ab’s to mouse AChR and reduced AChR loss in muscle. The effect of Tα146-162 feeding was specific; treatment with a control peptide did not affect EAMG manifestations. The protective effect induced by peptide Tα146-162 was mediated by reduced production of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 by TAChR-reactive cells, suggesting T-cell anergy. TGF-β–secreting Th3 cells did not seem to be involved in tolerance induction. We therefore demonstrate that feeding a single immunodominant epitope can prevent an Ab-mediated experimental model of autoimmune disease. PMID:10545527

  16. A Nanoparticle Based Sp17 Peptide Vaccine Exposes New Immuno-Dominant and Species Cross-reactive B Cell Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Sue D; Gao, Qian; Wilson, Kirsty L; Heyerick, Arne; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2015-10-29

    Sperm protein antigen 17 (Sp17), expressed in primary as well as in metastatic lesions in >83% of patients with ovarian cancer, is a promising ovarian cancer vaccine candidate. Herein we describe the formulation of nanoparticle based vaccines based on human Sp17 (hSp17) sequence derived peptides, and map the immuno-dominant T cell and antibody epitopes induced using such formulations. The primary T and B cell immuno-dominant region within Sp17 was found to be the same when using biocompatible nanoparticle carriers or the conventional "mix-in" pro-inflammatory adjuvant CpG, both mapping to amino acids (aa) 111-142. However, delivery of hSp17111-142 as a nanoparticle conjugate promoted a number of new properties, changing the dominant antibody isotype induced from IgG2a to IgG1 and the fine specificity of the B cell epitopes within hSp17111-142, from an immuno-dominant region 134-142 aa for CpG, to region 121-138 aa for nanoparticles. Associated with this change in specificity was a substantial increase in antibody cross-reactivity between mouse and human Sp17. These results indicate conjugation of antigen to nanoparticles can have major effects on fine antigen specificity, which surprisingly could be beneficially used to increase the cross-reactivity of antibody responses.

  17. Recombinant subunit ORF2.1 antigen and induction of antibody against immunodominant epitopes in the hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Riddell, M A; Seow, H F; Takeda, N; Miyamura, T; Anderson, D A

    2000-04-01

    A recombinant subunit antigen (ORF2.1), representing the carboxy-terminal 267 amino acids of the 660-amino-acid hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli and used for the immunisation of rats. Purified antigen formulated with either Aluminium Hydroxide Gel Adjuvant (Alum) or Titermax gave high and equivalent levels of antibody after three doses. Responses to two doses of 15, 75, or 150 microg antigen, formulated with Alum and given at 0 and 4 weeks, were also equivalent by 17 weeks after immunisation. Rats initially developed antibody to a wide range of linear epitopes in the ORF2.1 region, but by 27 weeks the predominant response detected by Western immunoblotting was restricted to the conformational epitope unique to ORF2.1 [Li et al. (1997) Journal of Medical Virology 52:289-300], a pattern that was also observed when comparing acute-phase patient serum samples with serum samples from convalescing patients. Antibody from immunised rats blocked the majority of patients' serum reactivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against both ORF2.1 (57-92% inhibition) and virus-like particles of HEV produced using the baculovirus system (74-97% inhibition). Together, these results suggest that the ORF2.1 subunit vaccine induces an antibody response against immunodominant, conformational epitopes in the viral capsid, which largely mimics that seen in convalescent patients, who are presumed to be immune to HEV infection.

  18. Excavating the surface-associated and secretory proteome of Mycobacterium leprae for identifying vaccines and diagnostic markers relevant immunodominant epitopes.

    PubMed

    Rana, Aarti; Thakur, Shweta; Bhardwaj, Nupur; Kumar, Devender; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    For centuries, Mycobacterium leprae, etiological agent of leprosy, has been afflicting mankind regardless of extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines and antibiotics. Surface-associated and secretory proteins (SASPs) are attractive targets against bacteria. We have integrated biological knowledge with computational approaches and present a proteome-wide identification of SASPs. We also performed computational assignment of immunodominant epitopes as coordinates of prospective antigenic candidates in most important class of SASPs, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Exploiting the known protein sequence and structural characteristics shared by the SASPs from bacteria, 17 lipoproteins, 11 secretory and 19 novel OMPs (including 4 essential proteins) were identified in M. leprae As OMPs represent the most exposed antigens on the cell surface, their immunoinformatics analysis showed that the identified 19 OMPs harbor T-cell MHC class I epitopes and class II epitopes against HLA-DR alleles (54), while 15 OMPs present potential T-cell class II epitopes against HLA-DQ alleles (6) and 7 OMPs possess T-cell class II epitopes against HLA-DP alleles (5) of humans. Additionally, 11 M. leprae OMPs were found to have B-cell epitopes and these may be considered as prime candidates for the development of new immunotherapeutics against M. leprae.

  19. Immunodominant epitopes mapped by synthetic peptides on the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus are non-protective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hailong; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X J

    2008-03-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) was recently discovered in chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States. The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) protein of avian HEV has been shown to cross-react with human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, and immunodominant antigenic epitopes on avian HEV ORF2 protein were identified in the predicted antigenic domains by synthetic peptides. However, whether these epitopes are protective against avian HEV infection has not been investigated. In this study, groups of chickens were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugated peptides and recombinant avian HEV ORF2 antigen followed by challenge with avian HEV virus to assess the protective capacity of these peptides containing the epitopes. While avian HEV ORF2 protein showed complete protection against infection, viremia and fecal virus shedding were found in all peptide-immunized chickens. Using purified IgY from normal, anti-peptide, and anti-avian HEV ORF2 chicken sera, an in-vitro neutralization and in-vivo monitoring assay was performed to further evaluate the neutralizing ability of anti-peptide IgY. Results showed that none of the anti-peptide IgY can neutralize avian HEV in vitro, as viremia, fecal virus shedding, and seroconversion appeared similarly in chickens inoculated with avian HEV mixed with anti-peptide IgY and chickens inoculated with avian HEV mixed with normal IgY. As expected, chickens inoculated with the avian HEV and anti-avian HEV ORF2 IgY mixture did not show detectable avian HEV infection. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that immunodominant epitopes on avian HEV ORF2 protein identified by synthetic peptides are non-protective, suggesting protective neutralizing epitope on avian HEV ORF2 may not be linear as is human HEV.

  20. Plant-based production of two chimeric monoclonal IgG antibodies directed against immunodominant epitopes of Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Kara J; Giffen, Samantha R; Pauly, Michael H; Kim, Do H; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-07-01

    We have produced and characterized two chimeric human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that bind different immunodominant epitopes on Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MAb 2D6 IgG1 recognizes Ogawa O-polysaccharide antigen, while mAb ZAC-3 IgG1 recognizes core/lipid A moiety of Ogawa and Inaba LPS. Both antibodies were expressed using a Nicotiana benthamiana-based rapid antibody-manufacturing platform (RAMP) and evaluated in vitro for activities associated with immunity to V. cholerae, including vibriocidal activity, bacterial agglutination and motility arrest.

  1. Plant-based Production of Two Chimeric Monoclonal IgG Antibodies Directed against Immunodominant Epitopes of Vibrio cholerae Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kara J.; Giffen, Samantha R.; Pauly, Michael H.; Kim, Do H.; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Whaley, Kevin J.; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    We have produced and characterized two chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that bind different immunodominant epitopes on Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MAb 2D6 IgG1 recognizes Ogawa O-polysaccharide antigen, while mAb ZAC-3 IgG1 recognizes core/lipid A moiety of Ogawa and Inaba LPS. Both antibodies were expressed using a Nicotiana benthamiana-based rapid antibody-manufacturing platform (RAMP) and evaluated in vitro for activities associated with immunity to V. cholerae, including vibriocidal activity, bacterial agglutination and motility arrest. PMID:25865265

  2. Recovery of known T-cell epitopes by computational scanning of a viral genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logean, Antoine; Rognan, Didier

    2002-04-01

    A new computational method (EpiDock) is proposed for predicting peptide binding to class I MHC proteins, from the amino acid sequence of any protein of immunological interest. Starting from the primary structure of the target protein, individual three-dimensional structures of all possible MHC-peptide (8-, 9- and 10-mers) complexes are obtained by homology modelling. A free energy scoring function (Fresno) is then used to predict the absolute binding free energy of all possible peptides to the class I MHC restriction protein. Assuming that immunodominant epitopes are usually found among the top MHC binders, the method can thus be applied to predict the location of immunogenic peptides on the sequence of the protein target. When applied to the prediction of HLA-A*0201-restricted T-cell epitopes from the Hepatitis B virus, EpiDock was able to recover 92% of known high affinity binders and 80% of known epitopes within a filtered subset of all possible nonapeptides corresponding to about one tenth of the full theoretical list. The proposed method is fully automated and fast enough to scan a viral genome in less than an hour on a parallel computing architecture. As it requires very few starting experimental data, EpiDock can be used: (i) to predict potential T-cell epitopes from viral genomes (ii) to roughly predict still unknown peptide binding motifs for novel class I MHC alleles.

  3. Diagnosis of AIDS Using Designed Amino Acid Peptides Representing Immunodominant Epitopes of HIV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-03

    completed two main areas of research. First, we mapped the immune response during primary acute infection to the HIV-1 immunodominant domain GP41 12...Generation and analysis of monoclonal antibodies to the HIV-1 and HIV-2 immunodominant GP41 domains. ii. Analysis of monoclonal antibody(s) that see...both GP41 HIV-1 and HIV-2; study of sera from a subset of African patients •n which individuals show a positive serologic response to both specific

  4. In silico prediction of Ebola Zaire GP(1,2) immuno-dominant epitopes for the Balb/c mouse.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debargh K; Rhodes, Kelly; Wood, Steven C

    2015-10-06

    Ebola is a Filovirus (FV) that induces a highly communicable and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Currently, there are no approved vaccines to treat FV infections. Protection from FV infection requires cell mediated and humoral immunity. Glycoprotein GP(1,2) Fc Zaire, a recombinant FV human Fc fusion protein, has been shown to confer protection against mouse adapted Zaire Ebola virus. The present studies are focused upon identifying immunodominant epitopes using in silico methods and developing tetramers as a diagnostic reagent to detect cell mediated immune responses to GP(1,2) Fc. The GP(1,2) Ebola Zaire sequence from the 1976 outbreak was analyzed by both BIMAS and SYFPEITHI algorithms to identify potential immuno-dominant epitopes. Several peptides were synthesized and screened in flow-based MHC stability studies. Three candidate peptides, P8, P9 and P10, were identified and, following immunization in Balb/c mice, all three peptides induced IFN-γ as detected by ELISpot and intracellular staining. Significantly, P8, P9 and P10 generated robust cytotoxic T-cell responses (CTL) as determined by a flow cytometry-based Caspase assay. Antigen specific cells were also detected, using tetramers. Both P9 and P10 have sequence homology with highly conserved regions of several strains of FV. In sum, three immunodominant sequences of the Ebola GP(1,2) have been identified using in silico methods that may confer protection against mouse adapted Ebola Zaire. The development of tetramer reagents will provide unique insight into the potency and durability of medical countermeasure vaccines for known bioterrorism threat agents in preclinical models.

  5. Identification of Zika virus epitopes reveals immunodominant and protective roles for dengue virus cross-reactive CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jinsheng; Tang, William Weihao; Sheets, Nicholas; Ellison, Julia; Sette, Alessandro; Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2017-03-13

    CD8(+) T cells play an important role in controlling Flavivirus infection, including Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we have identified 25 HLA-B*0702-restricted epitopes and 1 HLA-A*0101-restricted epitope using interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in ZIKV-infected IFN-α/β receptor-deficient HLA transgenic mice. The cross-reactivity of ZIKV epitopes to dengue virus (DENV) was tested using IFN-γ-ELISPOT and IFN-γ-ICS on CD8(+) T cells from DENV-infected mice, and five cross-reactive HLA-B*0702-binding peptides were identified by both assays. ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive CD8(+) T cells in DENV-immune mice expanded post ZIKV challenge and dominated in the subsequent CD8(+) T cell response. ZIKV challenge following immunization of mice with ZIKV-specific and ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive epitopes elicited CD8(+) T cell responses that reduced infectious ZIKV levels, and CD8(+) T cell depletions confirmed that CD8(+) T cells mediated this protection. These results identify ZIKV-specific and ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive epitopes and demonstrate both an altered immunodominance pattern in the DENV-immune setting relative to naive, as well as a protective role for epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells against ZIKV. These results have important implications for ZIKV vaccine development and provide a mouse model for evaluating anti-ZIKV CD8(+) T cell responses of human relevance.

  6. Characterization and Epitope Mapping of Human Monoclonal Antibodies to PDC-E2, the Immunodominant Autoantigen of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Patrick S. C.; Krams, Sheri; Munoz, Santiago; Surh, Charles P.; Ansari, Aftab; Kenny, Thomas; Robbins, Dick L.; Fung, John; Starzl, Thomas E.; Maddrey, Willis; Coppel, Ross L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2010-01-01

    Further to define the epitopes of PDC-E2, the major autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), we have developed and characterized five human monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were derived by fusing a regional hepatic lymph node from a patient with PBC with the mouse human heterohybrid cell line F3B6. Previous studies of epitope mapping ofPDC-E2 have relied on whole sera and have suggested that the immunodominant epitope lies within the inner lipoyl domain of the molecule. However, selective absorption studies using whole sera and a series of overlapping recombinant peptides of PDC-E2 have suggested that the epitope may also include a large conformational component. Moreover, several laboratories have suggested that autoantibodies against the 2-oxo acids dehydrogenase autoantigens are cross-reactive. The five Inonoclonal antibodies generated included three IgG2a and two IgM antibodies and were studied for antigen specificity using recombinant PDC-E2, recombinant BCKD-E2, histone, dsDNA, IgG (Fe), collagen and a recombinant irrelevant liver specific control, the F alloantigen. The antibodies were also used to probe blots of human, bovine, mouse and rat mitochondria. Finally, fine specificity was studied by selective ELISA and absorption against overlapping expressing fragments of PDC-E2. All five monoclonals, but none of the other mitochondrial auto antigens were specific for PDC-E2. In fact, although affinity purified antibodies to PDC-E2 from patients with PBC cross-reacted with protein X, the human monoclonals did not, suggesting that protein X contains an epitope distinct from that found on PDC-E2. Additionally, all three IgG2 monoclonals recognized distinct epitopes within the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2. PMID:1283300

  7. Identification of a human immunodominant B-cell epitope within the immunoglobulin A1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    De Paolis, Francesca; Beghetto, Elisa; Spadoni, Andrea; Montagnani, Francesca; Felici, Franco; Oggioni, Marco R; Gargano, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background The IgA1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a proteolytic enzyme that specifically cleaves the hinge regions of human IgA1, which dominates most mucosal surfaces and is the major IgA isotype in serum. This protease is expressed in all of the known pneumococcal strains and plays a major role in pathogen's resistance to the host immune response. The present work was focused at identifying the immunodominant regions of pneumococcal IgA1 protease recognized by the human antibody response. Results An antigenic sequence corresponding to amino acids 420–457 (epiA) of the iga gene product was identified by screening a pneumococcal phage display library with patients' sera. The epiA peptide is conserved in all pneumococci and in two out of three S. mitis strains, while it is not present in other oral streptococci so far sequenced. This epitope was specifically recognized by antibodies present in sera from 90% of healthy adults, thus representing an important target of the humoral response to S. pneumoniae and S. mitis infection. Moreover, sera from 68% of children less than 4 years old reacted with the epiA peptide, indicating that the human immune response against streptococcal antigens occurs during childhood. Conclusion The broad and specific recognition of the epiA polypeptide by human sera demonstrate that the pneumococcal IgA1 protease contains an immunodominant B-cell epitope. The use of phage display libraries to identify microbe or disease-specific antigens recognized by human sera is a valuable approach to epitope discovery. PMID:18088426

  8. Characterization of the banana streak virus capsid protein and mapping of the immunodominant continuous B-cell epitopes to the surface-exposed N terminus.

    PubMed

    Vo, Jenny N; Campbell, Paul R; Mahfuz, Nur N; Ramli, Ras; Pagendam, Daniel; Barnard, Ross; Geering, Andrew D W

    2016-12-01

    This study identified the structural proteins of two badnavirus species, Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) and Banana streak OL virus (BSOLV), and mapped the distribution of continuous B-cell epitopes. Two different capsid protein (CP) isoforms of about 44 and 40 kDa (CP1 and CP2) and the virion-associated protein (VAP) were consistently associated with purified virions. For both viral species, the N terminus of CP2 was successfully sequenced by Edman degradation but that of CP1 was chemically blocked. De novo peptide sequencing of tryptic digests suggested that CP1 and CP2 derive from the same region of the P3 polyprotein but differ in the length of either the N or the C terminus. A three-dimensional model of the BSMYV-CP was constructed, which showed that the CP is a multi-domain structure, containing homologues of the retroviral capsid and nucleocapsid proteins, as well as a third, intrinsically disordered protein region at the N terminus, henceforth called the NID domain. Using the Pepscan approach, the immunodominant continuous epitopes were mapped to the NID domain for five different species of banana streak virus. Anti-peptide antibodies raised against these epitopes in BSMYV were successfully used for detection of native virions and denatured CPs in serological assays. Immunoelectron microscopy analysis of the virion surface using the anti-peptide antibodies confirmed that the NID domain is exposed on the surface of virions, and that the difference in mass of the two CP isoforms is due to variation in length of the NID domain.

  9. Transnuclear CD8 T cells specific for the immunodominant epitope Gra6 lower acute-phase Toxoplasma gondii burden.

    PubMed

    Sanecka, Anna; Yoshida, Nagisa; Dougan, Stephanie K; Jackson, John; Shastri, Nilabh; Ploegh, Hidde; Blanchard, Nicolas; Frickel, Eva-Maria

    2016-11-01

    We generated a CD8 T-cell receptor (TCR) transnuclear (TN) mouse specific to the L(d) -restricted immunodominant epitope of GRA6 from Toxoplasma gondii as a source of cells to facilitate further investigation into the CD8 T-cell-mediated response against this pathogen. The TN T cells bound L(d) -Gra6 tetramer and proliferated upon unspecific and peptide-specific stimulation. The TCR beta sequence of the Gra6-specific TN CD8 T cells is identical in its V- and J-region to the TCR-β harboured by a hybridoma line generated in response to Gra6 peptide. Adoptively transferred Gra6 TN CD8 T cells proliferated upon Toxoplasma infection in vivo and exhibited an activated phenotype similar to host CD8 T cells specific to Gra6. The brain of Toxoplasma-infected mice carried Gra6 TN cells already at day 8 post-infection. Both Gra6 TN mice as well as adoptively transferred Gra6 TN cells were able to significantly reduce the parasite burden in the acute phase of Toxoplasma infection. Overall, the Gra6 TN mouse represents a functional tool to study the protective and immunodominant specific CD8 T-cell response to Toxoplasma in both the acute and the chronic phases of infection. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Limited effect on NS3-NS4A protein cleavage after alanine substitutions within the immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope of the hepatitis C virus genotype 3a non-structural 3/4A protease.

    PubMed

    Ahlén, Gustaf; Chen, Antony; Roe, Barbara; Falkeborn, Tina; Frelin, Lars; Hall, William W; Sällberg, Matti; Söderholm, Jonas

    2012-08-01

    It has been well established that immunological escape mutations within the hepatitis C virus genotype (gt) 1a non-structural (NS) 3/4A protease are partly prevented by a reduction in viral protease fitness. Surprisingly little is known about whether similar mutations affect proteases from other genotypes. In the present study, we assessed both the HLA-A2-restricted CTL response and gt3a NS3/4A protease fitness. Similar to gt1, the 1073-1081 epitope was immunodominant within the gt3a-specific HLA-A2-restricted CTL response, despite sequence similarity of only 56 % between the gt1a and gt3a genes. However, unlike the gt1a NS3/4A protease, all residues within the gt3a 1073-1081 epitope could be replaced sequentially by alanine while retaining protease activity, at least in part.

  11. Identification of immunodominant epitopes of alpha-gliadin in HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice following oral immunization.

    PubMed

    Senger, Stefania; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzeo, Maria F; Gaita, Marcello; Fierro, Olga; David, Chella S; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore; Siciliano, Rosa A; Rossi, Mauro

    2005-12-15

    Celiac disease, triggered by wheat gliadin and related prolamins from barley and rye, is characterized by a strong association with HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 genes. Gliadin is a mixture of many proteins that makes difficult the identification of major immunodominant epitopes. To address this issue, we expressed in Escherichia coli a recombinant alpha-gliadin (r-alpha-gliadin) showing the most conserved sequence among the fraction of alpha-gliadins. HLA-DQ8 mice, on a gluten-free diet, were intragastrically immunized with a chymotryptic digest of r-alpha-gliadin along with cholera toxin as adjuvant. Spleen and mesenteric lymph node T cell responses were analyzed for in vitro proliferative assay using a panel of synthetic peptides encompassing the entire sequence of r-alpha-gliadin. Two immunodominant epitopes corresponding to peptide p13 (aa 120-139) and p23 (aa 220-239) were identified. The response was restricted to DQ and mediated by CD4+ T cells. In vitro tissue transglutaminase deamidation of both peptides did not increase the response; furthermore, tissue transglutaminase catalyzed extensive deamidation in vitro along the entire r-alpha-gliadin molecule, but failed to elicit new immunogenic determinants. Surprisingly, the analysis of the cytokine profile showed that both deamidated and native peptides induced preferentially IFN-gamma secretion, despite the use of cholera toxin, a mucosal adjuvant that normally induces a Th2 response to bystander Ags. Taken together, these data suggest that, in this model of gluten hypersensitivity, deamidation is not a prerequisite for the initiation of gluten responses.

  12. Tetramer-guided epitope mapping: rapid identification and characterization of immunodominant CD4+ T cell epitopes from complex antigens.

    PubMed

    Novak, E J; Liu, A W; Gebe, J A; Falk, B A; Nepom, G T; Koelle, D M; Kwok, W W

    2001-06-01

    T cell responses to Ags involve recognition of selected peptide epitopes contained within the antigenic protein. In this report, we describe a new approach for direct identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes of complex Ags that uses human class II tetramers to identify reactive cells. With a panel of 60 overlapping peptides covering the entire sequence of the VP16 protein, a major Ag for HSV-2, we generated a panel of class II MHC tetramers loaded with peptide pools that were used to stain peripheral lymphocytes of an HSV-2 infected individual. With this approach, we identified four new DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401- and two DRA1*0101/DRB1*0404-restricted, VP16-specific epitopes. By using tetramers to sort individual cells, we easily obtained a large number of clones specific to these epitopes. Although DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401 and DRA1*0101/DRB1*0404 are structurally very similar, nonoverlapping VP16 epitopes were identified, illustrating high selectivity of individual allele polymorphisms within common MHC variants. This rapid approach to detecting CD4+ T cell epitopes from complex Ags can be applied to any known Ag that gives a T cell response.

  13. Immunodominant SARS Coronavirus Epitopes in Humans Elicited both Enhancing and Neutralizing Effects on Infection in Non-human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qidi; Zhang, Lianfeng; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Li, Li; Liu, Zijie; Li, Taisheng; Zhu, Hua; Liu, Jiangning; Xu, Yanfeng; Xie, Jing; Morioka, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Qin, Chuan; Liu, Gang

    2016-05-13

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and has the potential to threaten global public health and socioeconomic stability. Evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of SARS-CoV infection in vitro and in non-human primates clouds the prospects for a safe vaccine. Using antibodies from SARS patients, we identified and characterized SARS-CoV B-cell peptide epitopes with disparate functions. In rhesus macaques, the spike glycoprotein peptides S471-503, S604-625, and S1164-1191 elicited antibodies that efficiently prevented infection in non-human primates. In contrast, peptide S597-603 induced antibodies that enhanced infection both in vitro and in non-human primates by using an epitope sequence-dependent (ESD) mechanism. This peptide exhibited a high level of serological reactivity (64%), which resulted from the additive responses of two tandem epitopes (S597-603 and S604-625) and a long-term human B-cell memory response with antisera from convalescent SARS patients. Thus, peptide-based vaccines against SARS-CoV could be engineered to avoid ADE via elimination of the S597-603 epitope. We provide herein an alternative strategy to prepare a safe and effective vaccine for ADE of viral infection by identifying and eliminating epitope sequence-dependent enhancement of viral infection.

  14. Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from HIV-1 subtype C-infected Indian patients recognize CTL epitopes from a conserved immunodominant region of HIV-1 Gag and Nef.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Madhuri R; Bhonge, Leena S; Lakhashe, Samir K; Shankarkumar, U; Sane, Suvarna S; Kulkarni, Smita S; Mahajan, Bharati A; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2005-09-01

    Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes recognized by the targeted population is critical for HIV-1 vaccine design. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 47 Indian subjects at different stages of HIV-1 infection were tested for HIV-1 Gag-, Nef-, and Env-specific T cell responses by interferon (IFN)- gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, using pools of overlapping peptides. The Gag and Nef antigens were targeted by 83% and 36% of responders. Five immunodominant regions, 4 in Gag and 1 in Nef, were identified in the study; these regions are conserved across clades, including the African subtype C clade. Three antigenic regions were also found to be recognized by CTLs of the study participants. These regions were not identified as immunodominant regions in studies performed in Africa, which highlights the importance of differential clustering of responses within HIV-1 subtype C. Twenty-six putative epitopes--15 Gag (10 in p24 and 5 in p17), 10 Nef, and 1 Env (gp 41)--were predicted using a combination of peptide matrix ELISPOT assay and CTL epitope-prediction software. Ninety percent of the predicted epitopes were clustered in the conserved immunodominant regions of the Gag and Nef antigens. Of 26 predicted epitopes, 8 were promiscuous, 3 of which were highly conserved across clades. Three Gag and 4 Nef epitopes were novel. The identification of conserved epitopes will be important in the planning of an HIV-1 vaccine strategy for subtype C-affected regions.

  15. Extensive HLA class I allele promiscuity among viral CTL epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, Nicole; Yusim, Karina; Suscovich, Todd J.; Adams, Sharon; Sidney, John; Hraber, Peter; Hewitt, Hannah S.; Linde, Caitlyn H.; Kavanagh, Daniel G.; Woodberry, Tonia; Henry, Leah M.; Faircloth, Kellie; Listgarten, Jennifer; Kadie, Carl; Jojic, Nebojsa; Sango, Kaori; Brown, Nancy V.; Pae, Eunice; Zaman, M. Tauheed; Bihl, Florian; Khatri, Ashok; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Marincola, Francesco M.; Walker, Bruce D.; Sette, Alessandro; Heckerman, David; Korber, Bette T.; Brander, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Summary Promiscuous binding of T helper epitopes to MHC class II molecules has been well established, but few examples of promiscuous class I restricted epitopes exist. To address the extent of promiscuity of HLA class I peptides, responses to 242 well-defined viral epitopes were tested in 100 subjects regardless of the individuals’ HLA type. Surprisingly, half of all detected responses were seen in the absence of the originally reported restricting HLA class I allele, and only 3% of epitopes were recognized exclusively in the presence of their original allele. Functional assays confirmed the frequent recognition of HLA class I-restricted T cell epitopes on several alternative alleles across HLA class I supertypes and encoded on different class I loci. These data have significant implications for the understanding of MHC class I restricted antigen presentation and vaccine development. PMID:17705138

  16. Chemical Modification of Influenza CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes Enhances Their Immunogenicity Regardless of Immunodominance

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Josine; Hoppes, Rieuwert; Jacobi, Ronald H. J.; Hendriks, Marion; Kapteijn, Kim; Ouwerkerk, Casper; Rodenko, Boris; Ovaa, Huib; de Jonge, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    T cells are essential players in the defense against infection. By targeting the MHC class I antigen-presenting pathway with peptide-based vaccines, antigen-specific T cells can be induced. However, low immunogenicity of peptides poses a challenge. Here, we set out to increase immunogenicity of influenza-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes. By substituting amino acids in wild type sequences with non-proteogenic amino acids, affinity for MHC can be increased, which may ultimately enhance cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. Since preventive vaccines against viruses should induce a broad immune response, we used this method to optimize influenza-specific epitopes of varying dominance. For this purpose, HLA-A*0201 epitopes GILGFVFTL, FMYSDFHFI and NMLSTVLGV were selected in order of decreasing MHC-affinity and dominance. For all epitopes, we designed chemically enhanced altered peptide ligands (CPLs) that exhibited greater binding affinity than their WT counterparts; even binding scores of the high affinity GILGFVFTL epitope could be improved. When HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice were vaccinated with selected CPLs, at least 2 out of 4 CPLs of each epitope showed an increase in IFN-γ responses of splenocytes. Moreover, modification of the low affinity epitope NMLSTVLGV led to an increase in the number of mice that responded. By optimizing three additional influenza epitopes specific for HLA-A*0301, we show that this strategy can be extended to other alleles. Thus, enhancing binding affinity of peptides provides a valuable tool to improve the immunogenicity and range of preventive T cell-targeted peptide vaccines. PMID:27333291

  17. Chemical Modification of Influenza CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes Enhances Their Immunogenicity Regardless of Immunodominance.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl Huber, Sietske K; Luimstra, Jolien J; van Beek, Josine; Hoppes, Rieuwert; Jacobi, Ronald H J; Hendriks, Marion; Kapteijn, Kim; Ouwerkerk, Casper; Rodenko, Boris; Ovaa, Huib; de Jonge, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    T cells are essential players in the defense against infection. By targeting the MHC class I antigen-presenting pathway with peptide-based vaccines, antigen-specific T cells can be induced. However, low immunogenicity of peptides poses a challenge. Here, we set out to increase immunogenicity of influenza-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes. By substituting amino acids in wild type sequences with non-proteogenic amino acids, affinity for MHC can be increased, which may ultimately enhance cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. Since preventive vaccines against viruses should induce a broad immune response, we used this method to optimize influenza-specific epitopes of varying dominance. For this purpose, HLA-A*0201 epitopes GILGFVFTL, FMYSDFHFI and NMLSTVLGV were selected in order of decreasing MHC-affinity and dominance. For all epitopes, we designed chemically enhanced altered peptide ligands (CPLs) that exhibited greater binding affinity than their WT counterparts; even binding scores of the high affinity GILGFVFTL epitope could be improved. When HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice were vaccinated with selected CPLs, at least 2 out of 4 CPLs of each epitope showed an increase in IFN-γ responses of splenocytes. Moreover, modification of the low affinity epitope NMLSTVLGV led to an increase in the number of mice that responded. By optimizing three additional influenza epitopes specific for HLA-A*0301, we show that this strategy can be extended to other alleles. Thus, enhancing binding affinity of peptides provides a valuable tool to improve the immunogenicity and range of preventive T cell-targeted peptide vaccines.

  18. Selective Pressure to Increase Charge in Immunodominant Epitopes of the H3 Hemagglutinin Influenza Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Keyao; Long, Jinxue; Sun, Haoxin; Tobin, Gregory J.; Nara, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary speed and the consequent immune escape of H3N2 influenza A virus make it an interesting evolutionary system. Charged amino acid residues are often significant contributors to the free energy of binding for protein–protein interactions, including antibody–antigen binding and ligand–receptor binding. We used Markov chain theory and maximum likelihood estimation to model the evolution of the number of charged amino acids on the dominant epitope in the hemagglutinin protein of circulating H3N2 virus strains. The number of charged amino acids increased in the dominant epitope B of the H3N2 virus since introduction in humans in 1968. When epitope A became dominant in 1989, the number of charged amino acids increased in epitope A and decreased in epitope B. Interestingly, the number of charged residues in the dominant epitope of the dominant circulating strain is never fewer than that in the vaccine strain. We propose these results indicate selective pressure for charged amino acids that increase the affinity of the virus epitope for water and decrease the affinity for host antibodies. The standard PAM model of generic protein evolution is unable to capture these trends. The reduced alphabet Markov model (RAMM) model we introduce captures the increased selective pressure for charged amino acids in the dominant epitope of hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza (R2 > 0.98 between 1968 and 1988). The RAMM model calibrated to historical H3N2 influenza virus evolution in humans fit well to the H3N2/Wyoming virus evolution data from Guinea pig animal model studies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9405-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21086120

  19. Identification of an immunodominant epitope in glycoproteins B and G of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) using synthetic peptides as antigens in assay of antibodies to HSV in herpes simplex encephalitis patients.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, S S; Chandak, N H; Baheti, N N; Purohit, H J; Taori, G M; Daginawala, H F; Kashyap, R S

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Assay of antibody response is widely used in diagnostics of HSE. The aim of this study was to identify an immunodominant epitope determining the antibody response to herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HSE patients. The synthetic peptides that resembled type-common as well as type-specific domains of glycoproteins B (gB) and G (gG) of these viruses were evaluated for binding with IgM and IgG antibodies in CSF samples from HSE and non-HSE patients in ELISA. The QLHDLRF peptide, derived from gB of HSV was found to be an immunodominant epitope in the IgM and IgG antibody response. The patients with confirmed and suspected HSE showed in ELISA against this peptide 26% and 23% positivities for IgM, 43% and 37% positivities for IgG and 17% and 15% for both IgM and IgG antibodies, respectively. The total positivities of 86% and 75% for both IgM and IgG antibodies were obtained in the patients with confirmed and suspected HSE, respectively. These results demonstrate that a synthetic peptide-based diagnostics of HSE can be an efficient and easily accessible alternative. This is the first report describing the use of synthetic peptides derived from HSVs in diagnostics of HSE using patientsʹ CSF samples.

  20. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in spike 1 domain and membrane protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Kohji; Tomizawa, Keisuke; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV) causes a fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. The development of an FIP-preventive vaccine requires an antigen that does not induce antibody-dependent enhancement, and T helper (Th)1 activity plays an important role in protect against FIPV infection. In the present study, we identified synthetic peptides including Th1 and a linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope in the S1 domain and M protein of FIPV. We also identified peptides that strongly induce Th1 activity from those derived from the structural proteins (S, M, and N proteins) of FIPV based on this and previous studies (Satoh et al. [19]). No Th1 epitope-containing peptide was identified in the peptides derived from the S1 domain of type I FIPV. In contrast, 7 Th1 epitope-containing peptides were identified in the S1 domain of type II FIPV, and no linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope was contained in any of these peptides. Eleven Th1 epitope-containing peptides common to each serotype were identified in the M protein-derived peptides, and 2 peptides (M-11 and M-12) contained the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope. Of the peptides derived from the S, M, and N proteins of FIPV, those that induced significantly stronger Th1 activity than that of the FIPV antigen were rescreened, and 4 peptides were identified. When 3 of these peptides (M-9, I-S2-15, and II-S1-24) were selected and administered with CpG-ODNs to SPF cats, M-9 and II-S1-24 induced Th1 activity. Our results may provide important information for the development of a peptide-based vaccine against FIPV infection.

  1. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in the spike 2 domain and the nucleocapsid protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Ryoichi; Furukawa, Tomoko; Kotake, Masako; Takano, Tomomi; Motokawa, Kenji; Gemma, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Rie; Arai, Setsuo; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-02-17

    The antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection has been recognized in experimentally infected cats, and cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in preventing the onset of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). In the present study, we synthesized eighty-one kinds of peptides derived from the spike (S)2 domain of type I FIPV KU-2 strain, the S2 domain of type II FIPV 79-1146 strain, and the nucleocapcid (N) protein of FIPV KU-2 strain. To detect the T helper (Th)1 epitope, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from FIPV-infected cats were cultured with each peptide, and Th1-type immune responses were measured using feline interferon (fIFN)-γ production as an index. To detect the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope, we investigated the reactivity of plasma collected from FIPV-infected cats against each peptide by ELISA. Four and 2 peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in the heptad repeat (HR)1 and inter-helical (IH) regions of the S2 domain of type I FIPV, respectively, and these were located on the N-terminal side of the regions. In the S2 domain of type II FIPV, 2, 3, and 2 peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in the HR1, IH, and HR2 regions, respectively, and these were mainly located on the C-terminal side of the regions. In the S2 domain of type I FIPV, 3 and 7 peptides containing linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were identified in the IH and HR2 regions, respectively. In the S2 domain of type II FIPV, 4 peptides containing linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were identified in the HR2 region. The Th1 epitopes in the S2 domain of type I and II FIPV were located in different regions, but the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were mostly located in the HR2 region. Eight peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in N protein, and 3 peptides derived from residues 81 to 100 and 137 to 164 showed strong

  2. Characterization of an Immunodominant Antigenic Epitope from Trypanosoma cruzi as a Biomarker of Chronic Chagas' Disease Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M. Carmen; Fernández-Villegas, Ana; Carrilero, Bartolomé; Marañón, Concepción; Saura, Daniel; Noya, Oscar; Segovia, Manuel; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyolé; Alonso, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the techniques available for chronic Chagas' disease diagnosis are very sensitive; however, they do not allow discrimination of the patient's clinical stages of the disease. The present paper describes that three out of the five different repeats contained in the Trypanosoma cruzi TcCA-2 membrane protein (3972-FGQAAAGDKPPP, 6303-FGQAAAGDKPAP, and 3973-FGQAAAGDKPSL) are recognized with high sensitivity (>90%) by sera from chronic Chagas' disease patients and that they are not recognized by sera from patients in the acute phase of the disease. A total of 133 serum samples from chagasic patients and 50 serum samples from healthy donors were tested. In addition, sera from 15 patients with different autoimmune diseases, 43 serum samples from patients suffering an infectious disease other than Chagas' disease, and 38 serum samples from patients with nonchagasic cardiac disorders were also included in this study. The residue 3973 peptide shows a specificity of >98%, as it is not recognized by individuals with autoimmune and inflammatory processes or by patients with a nonchagasic cardiomyopathy. Remarkably, the levels of antibody against the 3973 epitope detected by the sera from Chagas' disease patients in the symptomatic chronic phase, involving cardiac or digestive alterations, are higher than those detected by the sera from Chagas' disease patients in the indeterminate phase of the disease. It is suggested that the diagnostic technique described could also be used to indicate the degree of pathology. The amino acids F, Q, and DKP located in the peptide at positions 1, 3, and 8 to 10, respectively, are essential to conform to the immunodominant antigenic epitope. PMID:22155766

  3. Mapping of immunodominant B-cell epitopes and the human serum albumin-binding site in natural hepatitis B virus surface antigen of defined genosubtype.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, D; Sominskaya, I; Jansons, J; Meisel, H; Schmitt, S; Heermann, K H; Kaluza, G; Pumpens, P; Gerlich, W H

    2000-02-01

    Twelve MAbs were generated by immunization of BALB/c mice with plasma-derived hepatitis B virus surface spherical antigen particles subtype ayw2 (HBsAg/ayw2 genotype D). Their epitopes were mapped by analysis of reactivity with plasma-derived HBsAg/ayw2 and HBsAg/adw2 (genotype A) in enzyme immunoassays and blots. Mapping was supported by nested sets of truncated preS2 proteins and preS2 peptides. Five antibodies were S domain-specific, seven were preS2-specific and 11 had a preference for genotype D. According to our data, group I of the three known epitope groups of preS2 has to be divided into IA and IB. Three preS2-specific MAbs forming the new group IA reacted with genotype D residues 3-15 which have not yet been described as an epitope region. IA antibodies strongly inhibited the binding of polymerized human serum albumin. Two antibodies (group II) reacted with the glycosylated N-terminal region of preS2 in plasma-derived HBsAg, but not with a preparation from transfected murine cells. One group III antibody was subtype-specific and reacted with the highly variable preS2 sequence 38-48. Only one antibody (group IB) mapped to the region (old group I) which was believed to be immunodominant and genotype-independent. Geno(sub)type-specific epitopes of preS2 are obviously the immunodominant components of natural HBsAg in BALB/c mice, but these epitopes may be masked by serum albumins in humans. The data may explain why it is difficult to detect anti-preS2 antibodies in human recipients of preS2-containing vaccines, in spite of the preS2 immunodominance in mice.

  4. Amyloid-β-Anti-Amyloid-β Complex Structure Reveals an Extended Conformation in the Immunodominant B-Cell Epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Luke A; Wun, Kwok S; Crespi, Gabriela A.N.; Fodero-Tavoletti, Michelle T; Galatis, Denise; Bagley, Christopher J; Beyreuther, Konrad; Masters, Colin L; Cappai, Roberto; McKinstry, William J; Barnham, Kevin J; Parker, Michael W

    2012-04-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein, is central to AD pathogenesis. Most pharmaceutical activity in AD research has focused on Aβ, its generation and clearance from the brain. In particular, there is much interest in immunotherapy approaches with a number of anti-Aβ antibodies in clinical trials. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, called WO2, which recognises the Aβ peptide. To this end, we have determined the three-dimensional structure, to near atomic resolution, of both the antibody and the complex with its antigen, the Aβ peptide. The structures reveal the molecular basis for WO2 recognition and binding of Aβ. The Aβ peptide adopts an extended, coil-like conformation across its major immunodominant B-cell epitope between residues 2 and 8. We have also studied the antibody-bound Aβ peptide in the presence of metals known to affect its aggregation state and show that WO2 inhibits these interactions. Thus, antibodies that target the N-terminal region of Aβ, such as WO2, hold promise for therapeutic development.

  5. Amyloid-β-Anti-Amyloid-β Complex Structure Reveals an Extended Conformation in the Immunodominant B-Cell Epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Luke A; Wun, Kwok S; Crespi, Gabriela A.N.; Fodero-Tavoletti, Michelle T; Galatis, Denise; Bagley, Christopher J; Beyreuther, Konrad; Masters, Colin L; Cappai, Roberto; McKinstry, William J; Barnham, Kevin J; Parker, Michael W

    2008-04-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein, is central to AD pathogenesis. Most pharmaceutical activity in AD research has focused on Aβ, its generation and clearance from the brain. In particular, there is much interest in immunotherapy approaches with a number of anti-Aβ antibodies in clinical trials. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, called WO2, which recognises the Aβ peptide. To this end, we have determined the three-dimensional structure, to near atomic resolution, of both the antibody and the complex with its antigen, the Aβ peptide. The structures reveal the molecular basis for WO2 recognition and binding of Aβ. The Aβ peptide adopts an extended, coil-like conformation across its major immunodominant B-cell epitope between residues 2 and 8. We have also studied the antibody-bound Aβ peptide in the presence of metals known to affect its aggregation state and show that WO2 inhibits these interactions. Thus, antibodies that target the N-terminal region of Aβ, such as WO2, hold promise for therapeutic development.

  6. Antigen-specific therapy of EAE via intranasal delivery of filamentous phage displaying a myelin immunodominant epitope.

    PubMed

    Rakover, Idan S; Zabavnik, Natalia; Kopel, Rela; Paz-Rozner, Miri; Solomon, Beka

    2010-08-25

    The presence of anti-myelin antibodies (Abs) in patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS) and in MS animal models has led to renewed interest in the role of B cells, plasma cells and their products in the pathogenesis of the disease, and in their therapeutic potential. Here, we present a novel strategy based on filamentous phage display of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunodominant epitope (MOG 36-44) fused to the main coat protein. Filamentous phages are well characterized, both structurally and genetically. We found that the fibrous shape of the phage (1000 nm long and 6 nm wide) enables penetration into the central nervous system (CNS) when administered nasally. Thus, intranasal treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, with phage MOG, showed improved neuronal function, reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-6, but no change in IL-10 or IL-12 levels. Moreover, the treatment induced depletion of the autoantibodies against MOG and prevented demyelination resulting in improved clinical scores and the reduced inflammation in the CNS and periphery in EAE mice compared to untreated sick animals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Response to Major Immunodominant Epitopes after Vaginal Exposure to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: Too Late and Too Little

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Rakasz, Eva; Skinner, Pamela J.; White, Cara; Abel, Kristina; Ma, Zhong-Min; Compton, Lara; Napoé, Gnankang; Wilson, Nancy; Miller, Christopher J.; Haase, Ashley; Watkins, David I.

    2005-01-01

    In the acute stage of infection following sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), virus-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses partially control but do not eradicate infection from the lymphatic tissues (LTs) or prevent the particularly massive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes in gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT). We explored hypothetical explanations for this failure to clear infection and prevent CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss in the SIV/rhesus macaque model of intravaginal transmission. We examined the relationship between the timing and magnitude of the CD8+ T-lymphocyte response to immunodominant SIV epitopes and viral replication, and we show first that the failure to contain infection is not because the female reproductive tract is a poor inductive site. We documented robust responses in cervicovaginal tissues and uterus, but only several days after the peak of virus production. Second, while we also documented a modest response in the draining genital and peripheral lymph nodes, the response at these sites also lagged behind peak virus production in these LT compartments. Third, we found that the response in GALT was surprisingly low or undetectable, possibly contributing to the severe and sustained depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the GALT. Thus, the virus-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte response is “too late and too little” to clear infection and prevent CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss. However, the robust response in female reproductive tissues may be an encouraging sign that vaccines that rapidly induce high-frequency CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses might be able to prevent acquisition of HIV-1 infection by the most common route of transmission. PMID:15994817

  8. HLA-DQ tetramers identify epitope-specific T cells in peripheral blood of herpes simplex virus type 2-infected individuals: direct detection of immunodominant antigen-responsive cells.

    PubMed

    Kwok, W W; Liu, A W; Novak, E J; Gebe, J A; Ettinger, R A; Nepom, G T; Reymond, S N; Koelle, D M

    2000-04-15

    Ag-specific CD4+ T cells are present in peripheral blood in low frequency, where they undergo recruitment and expansion during immune responses and in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune diseases. MHC tetramers, which constitute a labeled MHC-peptide ligand suitable for binding to the Ag-specific receptor on T cells, provide a novel approach for the detection and characterization of such rare cells. In this study, we utilized this technology to identify HLA DQ-restricted Ag-specific T cells in the peripheral blood of human subjects and to identify immunodominant epitopes associated with viral infection. Peptides representing potential epitope regions of the VP16 protein from HSV-2 were loaded onto recombinant DQ0602 molecules to generate a panel of Ag-specific DQ0602 tetramers. VP16 Ag-specific DQ-restricted T cells were identified and expanded from the peripheral blood of HSV-2-infected individuals, representing two predominant epitope specificities. Although the VP16 369-380 peptide has a lower binding affinity for DQ0602 molecules than the VP16 33-52 peptide, T cells that recognized the VP16 369-380 peptide occurred at a much higher frequency than those that were specific for the VP16 33-52 peptide.

  9. An immunodominant epitope of myelin basic protein is an amphipathic alpha-helix.

    PubMed

    Bates, Ian R; Feix, Jimmy B; Boggs, Joan M; Harauz, George

    2004-02-13

    Myelin basic protein is a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis. One of its dominant antigenic epitopes is segment Pro85 to Pro96 (human sequence numbering, corresponding to Pro82 to Pro93 in the mouse). There have been several, contradictory predictions of secondary structure in this region; either beta-sheet, alpha-helix, random coil, or combinations thereof have all been proposed. In this paper, molecular dynamics and site-directed spin labeling in aqueous solution indicate that this segment forms a transient alpha-helix, which is stabilized in 30% trifluoroethanol. When bound to a myelin-like membrane surface, this antigenic segment exhibits a depth profile that is characteristic of an amphipathic alpha-helix, penetrating up to 12 A into the bilayer. The alpha-helix is tilted approximately 9 degrees, and the central lysine is in an ideal snorkeling position for side-chain interaction with the negatively charged phospholipid head groups.

  10. HLA-B*27 subtype specificity determines targeting and viral evolution of a hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T-cell epitope

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Katja; Barriga, Alejandro; Schmidt, Julia; Timm, Jörg; Viazov, Sergei; Kuntzen, Thomas; Kim, Arthur Y.; Lauer, Georg M.; Allen, Todd M.; Gaudieri, Silvana; Rauch, Andri; Lange, Christian M.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Eiermann, Thomas; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Thimme, Robert; López, Daniel; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims HLA-B*27 is associated with spontaneous HCV genotype 1 clearance. HLA-B*27-restricted CD8+ T-cells target three NS5B epitopes. Two of these epitopes are dominantly targeted in the majority of HLA-B*27+ patients. In chronic infection, viral escape occurs consistently in these two epitopes. The third epitope (NS5B2820) was dominantly targeted in an acutely infected patient. This was in contrast, however, to the lack of recognition and viral escape in the large majority of HLA-B*27+ patients. Here, we set out to determine the host factors contributing to selective targeting of this epitope. Methods Four-digit HLA class I typing and viral sequence analyses were performed in 78 HLA-B*27+ patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. CD8+ T-cell analyses were performed in a subset of patients. In addition, HLA/peptide affinity was compared for HLA-B*27:02 and 05. Results The NS5B2820 epitope is only restricted by the HLA-B*27 subtype HLA-B*27:02 (that is frequent in Mediterranean populations), but not by the prototype HLA-B*27 subtype B*27:05. Indeed, the epitope is very dominant in HLA-B*27:02+ patients and is associated with viral escape mutations at the anchor position for HLA-binding in 12 out of 13 HLA-B*27:02+ chronically infected patients. Conclusions The NS5B2820 epitope is immunodominant in the context of HLA-B*27:02, but is not restricted by other HLA-B*27 subtypes. This finding suggests an important role of HLA subtypes in the restriction of HCV-specific CD8+ responses. With minor HLA subtypes covering up to 39% of specific populations, these findings may have important implications for the selection of epitopes for global vaccines. PMID:23978718

  11. The value of HIV protective epitope research for informed vaccine design against diverse viral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Victor G; Byrareddy, Siddappa N

    2014-08-01

    The success of vaccine regimens against viral pathogens hinges on the elicitation of protective responses. Hypervariable pathogens such as HIV avoid neutralization by masking protective epitopes with more immunogenic decoys. The identification of protective, conserved epitopes is crucial for future vaccine candidate design. The strategies employed for identification of HIV protective epitopes will also aid towards rational vaccine design for other viral pathogens.

  12. Targeting of Conserved Gag-Epitopes in Early HIV Infection Is Associated with Lower Plasma Viral Load and Slower CD4+ T Cell Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Carina L.; Milush, Jeffrey M.; Buggert, Marcus; Eriksson, Emily M.; Larsen, Mette V.; Liegler, Teri; Hartogensis, Wendy; Bacchetti, Peter; Lund, Ole; Hecht, Frederick M.; Nixon, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to investigate whether the character of the immunodominant HIV-Gag peptide (variable or conserved) targeted by CD8+ T cells in early HIV infection would influence the quality and quantity of T cell responses, and whether this would affect the rate of disease progression. Treatment-naive HIV-infected study subjects within the OPTIONS cohort at the University of California, San Francisco, were monitored from an estimated 44 days postinfection for up to 6 years. CD8+ T cells responses targeting HLA-matched HIV-Gag-epitopes were identified and characterized by multicolor flow cytometry. The autologous HIV gag sequences were obtained. We demonstrate that patients targeting a conserved HIV-Gag-epitope in early infection maintained their epitope-specific CD8+ T cell response throughout the study period. Patients targeting a variable epitope showed decreased immune responses over time, although there was no limitation of the functional profile, and they were likely to target additional variable epitopes. Maintained immune responses to conserved epitopes were associated with no or limited sequence evolution within the targeted epitope. Patients with immune responses targeting conserved epitopes had a significantly lower median viral load over time compared to patients with responses targeting a variable epitope (0.63 log10 difference). Furthermore, the rate of CD4+ T cell decline was slower for subjects targeting a conserved epitope (0.85% per month) compared to subjects targeting a variable epitope (1.85% per month). Previous studies have shown that targeting of antigens based on specific HLA types is associated with a better disease course. In this study we show that categorizing epitopes based on their variability is associated with clinical outcome. PMID:23140171

  13. Identification of a Novel Immunodominant HLA-B*07: 02-restricted Adenoviral Peptide Epitope and Its Potential in Adoptive Transfer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Günther, Patrick S; Peper, Janet K; Faist, Benjamin; Kayser, Simone; Hartl, Lena; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Jahn, Gerhard; Neuenhahn, Michael; Busch, Dirk H; Stevanović, Stefan; Dennehy, Kevin M

    2015-09-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients, particularly following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, are associated with morbidity and mortality. Immunotherapy by adoptive transfer of hexon-specific and penton-specific T cells has been successfully applied, but many approaches are impeded by the low number of HLA class I-restricted adenoviral peptide epitopes described to date. We use a novel method to identify naturally presented adenoviral peptide epitopes from infected human cells, ectopically expressing defined HLA, using peptide elution and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We show that the previously described HLA-A*01:01-restricted peptide epitope LTDLGQNLLY from hexon protein is naturally presented, and demonstrate the functionality of LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells. We further identify a novel immunodominant HLA-B*07:02-restricted peptide epitope VPATGRTLVL from protein 13.6 K, and demonstrate the high proliferative, cytotoxic, and IFN-γ-producing capacity of peptide-specific T cells. Lastly, LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells can be detected ex vivo following adoptive transfer therapy, and LTDLGQNLLY-specific and VPATGRTLVL-specific T cells have memory phenotypes ex vivo. Given their proliferative and cytotoxic capacity, such epitope-specific T cells are promising candidates for adoptive T-cell transfer therapy of adenovirus infection.

  14. Fine Epitope Mapping of the Central Immunodominant Region of Nucleoprotein from Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongliang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Deng, Fei; Duan, Xiaomei; Kou, Chun; Wu, Ting; Li, Yijie; Wang, Yongxing; Ma, Ji; Yang, Jianhua; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Yujiang; Sun, Surong

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), a severe viral disease known to have occurred in over 30 countries and distinct regions, is caused by the tick-borne CCHF virus (CCHFV). Nucleocapsid protein (NP), which is encoded by the S gene, is the primary antigen detectable in infected cells. The goal of the present study was to map the minimal motifs of B-cell epitopes (BCEs) on NP. Five precise BCEs (E1, 247FDEAKK252; E2a, 254VEAL257; E2b, 258NGYLNKH264; E3, 267EVDKA271; and E4, 274DSMITN279) identified through the use of rabbit antiserum, and one BCE (E5, 258NGYL261) recognized using a mouse monoclonal antibody, were confirmed to be within the central region of NP and were partially represented among the predicted epitopes. Notably, the five BCEs identified using the rabbit sera were able to react with positive serum mixtures from five sheep which had been infected naturally with CCHFV. The multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed high conservation of the identified BCEs among ten CCHFV strains from different areas. Interestingly, the identified BCEs with only one residue variation can apparently be recognized by the positive sera of sheep naturally infected with CCHFV. Computer-generated three-dimensional structural models indicated that all the antigenic motifs are located on the surface of the NP stalk domain. This report represents the first identification and mapping of the minimal BCEs of CCHFV-NP along with an analysis of their primary and structural properties. Our identification of the minimal linear BCEs of CCHFV-NP may provide fundamental data for developing rapid diagnostic reagents and illuminating the pathogenic mechanism of CCHFV. PMID:25365026

  15. Exclusion of two major areas on thyroid peroxidase from the immunodominant region containing the conformational epitopes recognized by human autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, T; Rapoport, B; McLachlan, S M

    1994-12-01

    We have used a chimeric molecule between thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) as well as new information on the three-dimensional structure of MPO to refine further our understanding of the location of the TPO-immunodominant region recognized by TPO autoantibodies in patients' sera. In TPO-MPO chimera A, the amino-terminal 146 amino acids of MPO substitute for the amino-terminal 121 amino acids of TPO. We performed fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing TPO-MPO-A on their surface using four monoclonal human autoantibody F(ab) (WR1.7, TR1.8, TR1.9, and SP1.4) that define the immunodominant region. All four F(ab) recognized the TPO-MPO-A chimeric molecule to the same extent. In a second approach to refine the location on the TPO-immunodominant region, we compared the ability of the TPO autoantibody F(ab) to inhibit the binding of serum autoantibodies to the monomeric and dimeric forms of human TPO. The F(ab) inhibited equally (approximately 80%) the binding to the TPO monomer and dimer by autoantibodies in the sera of six individual patients. The present observations exclude two major regions of TPO from the autoantibody-immunodominant region, namely the amino-terminal 121 amino acids of the TPO extracellular domain and the contact region between the two TPO monomers. These findings together with previous data on the Mab47/C21 region of TPO and the recently elucidated 3-dimensional structure of highly homologous MPO, narrow, by a process of exclusion, the site on TPO comprising the immunodominant region. The data provide further support for the thesis, still controversial, that the majority of TPO autoantibodies recognize the native molecule.

  16. Age-Dependent Loss of Tolerance to an Immunodominant Epitope of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in Diabetic prone RIP-B7/DR4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gebe, John A.; Unrath, Kellee A; Falk, Ben A.; Ito, Kouichi; Wen, Li; Daniels, Terri L.; Lernmark, Åke; Nepom, Gerald T.

    2007-01-01

    We have identified for the first time an age-dependent spontaneous loss of tolerance to two self-antigenic epitopes derived from putative diabetes associated antigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in RIP-B7/DRB1*0404 HLA transgenic mice. Diabetic and older non-diabetic mice exhibited a proliferative response to an immunodominant epitope from GAD65 (555-567) and also from GFAP (240-252) but not from an immunogenic epitope from diabetes associated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. The response to both of these self-antigens is not observed in young mice but is observed in older non-diabetic mice, and is accompanied by histological evidence of insulitis in the absence of overt diabetes. Islet infiltrates in older non-diabetic mice and diabetic mice contain CD4+/FoxP3+ cells and suggest the presence of a regulatory mechanism prior and during diabetic disease. Diabetes penetrance in RIP-B7/DR0404 mice is 23% with a mean onset age of 40 weeks and is similar to that reported for RIP-B7/DR0401 mice. A gender preference is observed in that 38% of female mice become diabetic compared to 8% of male mice. PMID:16979383

  17. Age-dependent loss of tolerance to an immunodominant epitope of glutamic acid decarboxylase in diabetic-prone RIP-B7/DR4 mice.

    PubMed

    Gebe, John A; Unrath, Kellee A; Falk, Ben A; Ito, Kouichi; Wen, Li; Daniels, Terri L; Lernmark, Ake; Nepom, Gerald T

    2006-12-01

    We have identified for the first time an age-dependent spontaneous loss of tolerance to two self-antigenic epitopes derived from putative diabetes-associated antigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in RIP-B7/DRB1*0404 HLA transgenic mice. Diabetic and older non-diabetic mice exhibited a proliferative response to an immunodominant epitope from GAD65 (555-567) and also from GFAP (240-252) but not from an immunogenic epitope from diabetes-associated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. The response to both of these self-antigens is not observed in young mice but is observed in older non-diabetic mice and is accompanied by histological evidence of insulitis in the absence of overt diabetes. Islet infiltrates in older non-diabetic mice and diabetic mice contain CD4(+)/FoxP3(+) cells and suggest the presence of a regulatory mechanism prior and during diabetic disease. Diabetes penetrance in RIP-B7/DR0404 mice is 23% with a mean onset age of 40 weeks and is similar to that reported for RIP-B7/DR0401 mice. A gender preference is observed in that 38% of female mice become diabetic compared to 8% of male mice.

  18. T-cell lines reactive to an immunodominant epitope of the tyrosine phosphatase-like autoantigen IA-2 in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, C J; Schloot, N C; Marks, J; Willemen, S J; Drijfhout, J W; Mayer, E K; Christie, M R; Roep, B O

    2000-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes is the result of destruction of the insulin-secreting beta-cells of the pancreas by a process in which T-cells play a central role. A tyrosine phosphatase-like protein, IA-2, is a major target for autoantibodies and T-cells in the disease. In this study, we have further characterized the T-cell response to IA-2 by the generation and characterization of T-cell lines. T-cell lines responsive to IA-2 antigen were generated from 17 of 32 patients and 3 of 10 control subjects. Antigen specificity was confirmed in lines from six diabetic patients and one control individual by demonstration of responses to synthetic IA-2 peptides and epitope mapping. Five lines from diabetic patients responded to one of two peptides representing amino acids 831-850 and 841-860 of IA-2. The overlapping portion may therefore represent an immunodominant region of the molecule. The sixth patient-derived line responded to a peptide representing amino acids 751-770 of IA-2 presented by the DR 4 (DRB1*0401) allele that confers susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Primary T-cell responses to peptides of the immunodominant region were detected in 9 of 19 (47%) type 1 diabetic patients and 16 of 22 (73%) nondiabetic siblings, consistent with this region having immunostimulatory properties. The study reports for the first time T-cell lines reactive to IA-2 from diabetic patients and defines an immunodominant region of the molecule.

  19. Gene Expression Driven by a Strong Viral Promoter in MVA Increases Vaccination Efficiency by Enhancing Antibody Responses and Unmasking CD8⁺ T Cell Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Pablo D; Nörder, Miriam; Weissmann, Sebastian; Ljapoci, Ronny; Erfle, Volker; Drexler, Ingo; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-07-22

    Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8⁺ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags) are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5). Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5) and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector.

  20. Patterns of Immunodominance in HIV-1–specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses in Two Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)-identical Siblings with HLA-A*0201 Are Influenced by Epitope Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Goulder, P.J.R.; Sewell, A.K.; Lalloo, D.G.; Price, D.A.; Whelan, J.A.; Evans, J.; Taylor, G.P.; Luzzi, G.; Giangrande, P.; Phillips, R.E.; McMichael, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is controlled principally by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to a steady-state level of virus load, which strongly influences the ultimate rate of progression to disease. Epitope selection by CTL may be an important determinant of the degree of immune control over the virus. This report describes the CTL responses of two HLA-identical hemophiliac brothers who were exposed to identical batches of Factor VIII and became seropositive within 10 wk of one another. Both have HLA-A*0201. The CTL responses of the two siblings were very dissimilar, one donor making strong responses to two epitopes within p17 Gag (HLA-A*0201–restricted SLYNTVATL and HLA-A3–restricted RLRPGGKKK). The sibling responded to neither epitope, but made strong responses to two epitopes presented by HLA-B7. This was not the result of differences in presentation of the epitopes. However, mutations in both immunodominant epitopes of the p17 Gag responder were seen in proviral sequences of the nonresponder. We then documented the CTL responses to two HLA-A*0201–restricted epitopes, in Gag (SLYNTVATL) and Pol (ILKEPVHGV) in 22 other HIV-infected donors with HLA-A*0201. The majority (71%) generated responses to the Gag epitope. In the 29% of donors failing to respond to the Gag epitope in standard assays, there was evidence of low frequency memory CTL responses using peptide stimulation of PBMC, and most of these donors also showed mutations in or around the Gag epitope. We concluded that HLA class I genotype determines epitope selection initially but that mutation in immunodominant epitopes can profoundly alter the pattern of CTL response. PMID:9126923

  1. Relationship between thyroid peroxidase T cell epitope restriction and antibody recognition of the autoantibody immunodominant region in human leukocyte antigen DR3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin; McLachlan, Sandra M; Pichurin, Pavel N; Chen, Chun-Rong; Pham, Nancy; Aliesky, Holly A; David, Chella S; Rapoport, Basil

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody and T lymphocyte epitopes in TPO-adenovirus (TPO-Ad) immunized BALB/c mice and mice transgenic for the human class II molecule DR3 associated with human thyroid autoimmunity. TPO autoantibodies are largely restricted to an immunodominant region (IDR). BALB/c mice immunized with fewer (10(7) vs. 10(9)) TPO-Ad particles developed TPO antibodies with lower titers that displayed greater restriction to the IDR. However, as with higher-dose TPO-Ad immunization, T cell epitopes (assessed by splenocyte interferon-gamma response to TPO in vitro) were highly diverse and variable in different animals. In contrast, DR3 mice immunized the higher TPO-Ad dose (10(9) particles) had high TPO antibody levels that showed relative focus on the IDR. Moreover, T cell epitopes recognized by splenocytes from DR3 mice showed greater restriction than BALB/c mice. Antibody affinities for TPO were higher in DR3 than in BALB/c mice. The present study indicates that weak TPO-Ad immunization of BALB/c mice (with consequent low TPO antibody titers) is required for enhanced IDR focus yet is not associated with T cell epitopic restriction. Humanized DR3 transgenic mice, despite stronger TPO-Ad immunization, develop higher titer TPO antibodies that do focus on the autoantibody IDR with T cells that recognize a more limited range of TPO peptides. These data suggest a relationship between major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and the development of antibodies to the IDR, a feature of human thyroid autoimmunity.

  2. IGHV1-69-Encoded Antibodies Expressed in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia React with Malondialdehyde–Acetaldehyde Adduct, an Immunodominant Oxidation-Specific Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Shahzada; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Hansen, Lotte F.; Woelkers, Douglas; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Binder, Christoph J.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Witztum, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulins expressed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells are highly restricted, suggesting they are selected for binding either self or foreign antigen. Of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) genes expressed in CLL, IGHV1-69 is the most common, and often is expressed with little or no somatic mutation, and restricted IGHD and IGHJ gene usage. We found that antibodies encoded by one particular IGHV1-69 subset, designated CLL69C, with the HCDR3 encoded by the IGHD3-3 gene in reading frame 2 and IGHJ6, specifically bound to oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE), which are products of enhanced lipid peroxidation and a major target of innate natural antibodies. Specifically, CLL69C bound immunodominant OSE adducts termed MAA (malondialdehyde–acetaldehyde-adducts), which are found on apoptotic cells, inflammatory tissues, and atherosclerotic lesions. It also reacted specifically with MAA-specific peptide mimotopes. Light chain shuffling indicated that non-stochastically paired L chain of IGLV3-9 contributes to the antigen binding of CLL69C. A nearly identical CLL69C Ig heavy chain was identified from an MAA-enriched umbilical cord phage displayed Fab library, and a derived Fab with the same HCDR3 rearrangement displayed identical MAA-binding properties. These data support the concept that OSE (MAA-epitopes), which are ubiquitous products of inflammation, may play a role in clonal selection and expansion of CLL B cells. PMID:23840319

  3. Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Protein Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, EnCheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, QingYuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, YongLi; Wang, WenShi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, DongLai

    2013-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211–226 and 331–352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11–26, 30–45 and 151–166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

  4. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, Qingyuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, Yongli; Wang, Wenshi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, Donglai

    2013-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein.

  5. Vaccine Targeting of Subdominant CD8+ T Cell Epitopes Increases the Breadth of the T Cell Response upon Viral Challenge, but May Impair Immediate Virus Control.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Maria A; Pedersen, Louise H; Jahn, Marie L; Nielsen, Karen N; Christensen, Jan P; Thomsen, Allan R

    2016-03-15

    As a result of the difficulties in making efficient vaccines against genetically unstable viruses such as HIV, it has been suggested that future vaccines should preferentially target subdominant epitopes, the idea being that this should allow a greater breadth of the induced T cell response and, hence, a greater efficiency in controlling escape variants. However, to our knowledge the evidence supporting this concept is limited at best. To improve upon this, we used the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model and adenoviral vectors to compare a vaccine expressing unmodified Ag to a vaccine expressing the same Ag without its immunodominant epitope. We found that removal of the dominant epitope allowed the induction of CD8(+) T cell responses targeting at least two otherwise subdominant epitopes. Importantly, the overall magnitude of the induced T cell responses was similar, allowing us to directly compare the efficiency of these vaccines. Doing this, we observed that mice vaccinated with the vaccine expressing unmodified Ag more efficiently controlled an acute viral challenge. In the course of a more chronic viral infection, mice vaccinated using the vaccine targeting subdominant epitopes caught up with the conventionally vaccinated mice, and analysis of the breadth of the CD8(+) T cell response revealed that this was notably greater in the former mice. However, under the conditions of our studies, we never saw any functional advantage of this. This may represent a limitation of our model, but clearly our findings underscore the importance of carefully weighing the pros and cons of changes in epitope targeting before any implementation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Expression of the Plasmodium falciparum Immunodominant Epitope (NANP)4 on the Surface of Salmonella enterica Using the Autotransporter MisL

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Fernando; León-Kempis, Rocío; Santiago-Machuca, Araceli; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Barry, Eileen; Levine, Myron; González-Bonilla, César

    2002-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial proteins which are exported from the cytosol to the external environment by the type V secretion system are also known as autotransporters. Once translocated to the periplasmic compartment by the sec-dependent general secretory pathway, their C-terminal domain forms a pore through which the N-terminal domain travels to the outer membrane without the need of other accessory proteins. MisL (protein of membrane insertion and secretion) is a protein of unknown function located in the pathogenicity island SPI-3 of Salmonella enterica and classified as an autotransporter due to its high homology to Escherichia coli AIDA-I. In the present work, the MisL C-terminal translocator domain was used to display the immunodominant B-cell epitope of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from Plasmodium falciparum on the surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium SL3261) and serovar Typhi (serovar Typhi CVD 908). The MisL β domain was predicted by alignment with AIDA-I, amplified from serovar Typhimurium SL3261, cloned in a plasmid fused to four repeats of the tetrapeptide NANP behind the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit signal peptide to ensure periplasmic traffic, and expressed under the control of the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. The fusion protein was translocated to the outer membrane of both bacterial strains, although the foreign epitope was displayed more efficiently in serovar Typhimurium SL3261, which elicited a better specific antibody response in BALB/c mice. More importantly, antibodies were able to recognize the native CSP in P. falciparum sporozoites. These results confirm that MisL is indeed an autotransporter and that it can be used to express foreign immunogenic epitopes on the surface of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:12065502

  7. Structures of HLA-A*1101 complexed with immunodominant nonamer and decamer HIV-1 epitopes clearly reveal the presence of a middle, secondary anchor residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Lenong; Bouvier, Marlene

    2004-05-15

    HLA-A*1101 is one of the most common human class I alleles worldwide. An increased frequency of HLA-A*1101 has been observed in cohorts of female sex workers from Northern Thailand who are highly exposed to HIV-1 and yet have remained persistently seronegative. In view of this apparent association of HLA-A*1101 with resistance to acquisition of HIV-1 infection, and given the importance of eliciting strong CTL responses to control and eliminate HIV-1, we have determined the crystal structure of HLA-A*1101 complexed with two immunodominant HIV-1 CTL epitopes: the nonamer reverse transcriptase(313-321) (AIFQSSMTK) and decamer Nef(73-82) (QVPLRPMTYK) peptides. The structures confirm the presence of primary anchor residues P2-Ile/-Val and P9-/P10-Lys, and also clearly reveal the presence of secondary anchor residues P6-Ser for reverse transcriptase and P7-Met for Nef. The overall backbone conformation of both peptides is defined as two bulges that are separated by a more buried middle residue. In this study, we discuss how this topology may offer functional advantages in the selection and presentation of HIV-1 CTL epitopes by HLA-A*1101. Overall, this structural analysis permits a more accurate definition of the peptide-binding motif of HLA-A*1101, the characterization of its antigenic surface, and the correlation of molecular determinants with resistance to HIV-1 infection. These studies are relevant for the rational design of HLA-A*1101-restricted CTL epitopes with improved binding and immunological properties for the development of HIV-1 vaccines.

  8. The signal sequence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus contains an immunodominant cytotoxic T cell epitope that is restricted by both H-2D(b) and H-2K(b) molecules.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, D; Oldstone, M B; Gairin, J E

    1997-07-21

    Infection of H-2b mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) generates three well-characterized H-2D(b)-restricted immunodominant epitopes delineated in the NP, GP1, and GP2 proteins. Here we report that the H-2D(b)-restricted GP1 epitope GP33-41/43 (KAVYNFATC/GI) located in the signal sequence of LCMV is also the immunodominant epitope recognized by CTL at the surface of the same infected cells in the context of H-2K(b) restriction. The GP1 epitope bound to H-2D(b) and H-2K(b) molecules with comparable affinities. The respective binding processes involved different sets of peptide anchoring residues and required dramatically different conformations of the peptide backbone as well as rearrangement of residue side chains. The 10-mer peptide GP34-43 (AVYNFATCGI) was the optimal H-2K(b)-binding sequence and the 8-mer peptide GP34-41 (AVYNFATC) the minimal sequence for optimal H-2K(b)-restricted CTL recognition. Comparison of lytic activities of primary splenic anti-LCMV CTL from C57BL/6 (D(b+)/K(b+)), B10A.[5R] (D(b-)/K(b+)), and B10A.[2R] (D(b+)/K(b-)) mice against LCMV-infected or peptide-coated target cells expressing either one or the two MHC alleles revealed that the H-2K(b)-restricted component of the anti-GP1 CTL response was mounted independently of but as efficiently as its H-2D(b) counterpart. Analysis of the immune response against a GP1 variant that escapes CTL recognition showed that the GP1 epitope: (i) was likely the only immunodominant LCMV epitope in the context of H-2K(b), and (ii) could efficiently evade H-2D(b) and H-2K(b)-restricted CTL mediated lysis.

  9. In Silico Prediction of Peptides Binding to Multiple HLA-DR Molecules Accurately Identifies Immunodominant Epitopes from gp43 of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Frequently Recognized in Primary Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Responses from Sensitized Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Leo Kei; Yoshida, Márcia; Sidney, John; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Hammer, Jurgen; Juliano, Luiz; Sette, Alessandro; Kalil, Jorge; Travassos, Luiz Rodolpho; Cunha-Neto, Edecio

    2003-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks limiting the use of synthetic peptide vaccines in genetically distinct populations is the fact that different epitopes are recognized by T cells from individuals displaying distinct major histocompatibility complex molecules. Immunization of mice with peptide (181-195) from the immunodominant 43 kDa glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (gp43), the causative agent of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), conferred protection against infectious challenge by the fungus. To identify immunodominant and potentially protective human T-cell epitopes in gp43, we used the TEPITOPE algorithm to select peptide sequences that would most likely bind multiple HLA-DR molecules and tested their recognition by T cells from sensitized individuals. The 5 most promiscuous peptides were selected from the gp43 sequence and the actual promiscuity of HLA binding was assessed by direct binding assays to 9 prevalent HLA-DR molecules. Synthetic peptides were tested in proliferation assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from PCM patients after chemotherapy and healthy controls. PBMC from 14 of 19 patients recognized at least one of the promiscuous peptides, whereas none of the healthy controls recognized the gp43 promiscuous peptides. Peptide gp43(180-194) was recognized by 53% of patients, whereas the other promiscuous gp43 peptides were recognized by 32% to 47% of patients. The frequency of peptide binding and peptide recognition correlated with the promiscuity of HLA-DR binding, as determined by TEPITOPE analysis. In silico prediction of promiscuous epitopes led to the identification of naturally immunodominant epitopes recognized by PBMC from a significant proportion of a genetically heterogeneous patient population exposed to P. brasiliensis. The combination of several such epitopes may increase the frequency of positive responses and allow the immunization of genetically distinct populations. PMID:15208742

  10. Cross-genotype-reactivity of the immunodominant HCV CD8 T-cell epitope NS3-1073.

    PubMed

    Fytili, P; Dalekos, G N; Schlaphoff, V; Suneetha, P V; Sarrazin, C; Zauner, W; Zachou, K; Berg, T; Manns, M P; Klade, C S; Cornberg, M; Wedemeyer, H

    2008-07-23

    The HCV-specific HLA-A2-restricted NS3(1073) epitope is one of the most frequently recognized epitopes in hepatitis C. NS3(1073)-specific T-cell responses are associated with clearance of acute HCV-infection. Therefore this epitope is an interesting candidate for a HCV-peptide vaccine. However, heterogeneity between genotypes and mutations in the epitope has to be considered as an obstacle. We here identified 34 naturally occurring NS3(1073)-variants, as compared with the wild type genotype-1 variants (CVNGVCWTV/CINGVCWTV) by sequencing sera of 251 Greek and German patients and searching for published HCV-genomes. The frequency of variants among genotype-1 patients was 10%. Importantly, HLA-A2 binding was reduced only in 3 genotype 1 mutants while all non-genotype 1 variants showed strong HLA-A2-binding. By screening 28 variants in ELISPOT assays from T cell lines we could demonstrate that HCV-NS3(1073)-wild-type-specific T-cells displayed cross-genotype-reactivity, in particular against genotypes 4-6 variants. However, single aa changes within the TCR-binding domain completely abolished recognition even in case of conservative aa exchanges within genotype-1. NS3(1073)-specific T-cell lines from recovered, chronically infected, and HCV-negative individuals showed no major difference in the pattern of cross-recognition although the proliferation of NS3(1073)-specific T-cells differed significantly between the groups. Importantly, the recognition pattern against the 28 variants was also identical directly ex vivo in a patient with acute HCV infection and a healthy volunteer vaccinated with the peptide vaccine IC41 containing the NS3(1073)-wild-type peptide. Thus, partial cross-genotype recognition of HCV NS3(1073)-specific CD8 T cells is possible; however, even single aa exchanges can significantly limit the potential efficacy of vaccines containing the NS3(1073)-wild-type peptide.

  11. Computational prediction of MHC class I epitopes for most common viral diseases in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Tanmaya Kumar; Rao, A R; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Sahoo, Bishnu Charan; Gupta, Satakshi; Rai, Anil

    2015-02-01

    Viral diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), calf scour (CS), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) etc. affect the growth and milk production of cattle (Bos taurus) causing severe economic loss. Epitope-based vaccine designing have been evolved to provide a new strategy for therapeutic application of pathogen-specific immunity in animals. Therefore, identification of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding peptides as potential T-cell epitopes is widely applied in peptide vaccine designing and immunotherapy. In this study, MetaMHCI tool was used with seven different algorithms to predict the potential T-cell epitopes for FMD, BVD, IBR and CS in cattle. A total of 54 protein sequences were filtered out from a total set of 6351 sequences of the pathogens causing the said diseases using bioinformatics approaches. These selected protein sequences were used as the key inputs for MetaMHCI tool to predict the epitopes for the BoLA-All MHC class I allele of B. taurus. Further, the epitopes were ranked based on a proposed principal component analysis based epitope score (PbES). The best epitope for each disease based on its predictability through maximum number of predictors and low PbES was modeled in PEP-FOLD server and docked with the BoLA-A11 protein for understanding the MHC-epitope interaction. Finally, a total of 78 epitopes were predicted, out of which 27 were for FMD, 25 for BVD, 12 for CS and 14 for IBR. These epitopes could be artificially synthesized and recommended to vaccinate the cattle for the considered diseases. Besides, the methodology adapted here could also be used to predict and analyze the epitopes for other microbial diseases of important animal species.

  12. Restricted V gene usage and VH/VL pairing of mouse humoral response against the N-terminal immunodominant epitope of the amyloid β peptide

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Remy; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Agadjanyan, Michael G.; Cribbs, David H.; Van Nostrand, William E.; Wark, Kim L.; Dolezal, Olan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the potential of antibodies as therapeutic strategies to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been growing, based on successful experimental and clinical trials in transgenic mice. Despite, undesirable side effects in humans using an active immunization approach, immunotherapy still remains one of the most promising treatments for AD. In this study, we analyzed the V genes of twelve independently isolated monoclonal antibodies raised against the N-terminal immunodominant epitope of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ or A beta). Surprisingly, we found a high and unusual level of restriction in the VH/VL pairing of these antibodies. Moreover, these antibodies mostly differ in their heavy chain complementary determining region 3 (HCDR3) and the residues in the antibodies which contact Aβ are already present in the germline V-genes. Based on these observations and or co-crystal structures of antibodies with Aβ, the aim of the current study was to better understand the role of antibody V-domains, HCDR3 regions, key contact residue (H58) and germline encoded residues in Aβ recognition. For that purpose, we designed and produced a range of recombinant Fab constructs. All the Fabs were tested and compared by surface plasmon resonance on Aβ1–16, Aβ1–42 high molecular weight and Aβ1–42 low molecular weight soluble oligomers. Although all the Fabs recognized the Aβ1–16 peptide and the Aβ1–42 high molecular weight soluble oligomers, they did not bind the Aβ1–42 low molecular weight soluble oligomers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that: (1) an aromatic residue at position H58 in the antibody is essential in the recognition of Aβ and (2) Fabs based on germline V-genes bind to Aβ monomers with a low affinity. These findings may have important implications in designing more effective therapeutic antibodies against Aβ. PMID:20970857

  13. Identification of an immunodominant epitope in the C terminus of glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Fominaya, J; Cortés, E; Sanz, A; Casal, J I

    2001-05-01

    Glycoprotein 5 (GP(5)) is the major glycoprotein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Expression of GP(5) has been improved by removing the transmembrane regions. Vectors were constructed encoding complete GP(5) plus three mutants: GP(5) Ns (residues 28--201), GP(5)[30--67] (residues 30--67) and GP(5)[30--201] (residues 30--67/130--201). The three deletion mutants were expressed at levels 20--30 times higher than complete GP(5). GP(5)[30--201] was well recognized in ELISA or immunoblotting by a collection of pig sera. All the fragments were tested for the generation of MAbs, but only the polyhistidine-tagged fragment GP(5)[30--201]H elicited an antibody response sufficient to produce MABS: The two MAbs were positive for PRRSV in ELISA and immunoblotting, but negative for virus neutralization. MAb 4BE12 reacted with residues 130--170 and MAb 3AH9 recognized residues 170--201. This region was recognized strongly in immunoblotting by a collection of infected-pig sera. These results indicate diagnostic potential for this epitope.

  14. Identification of Immunodominant B-cell Epitope Regions of Reticulocyte Binding Proteins in Plasmodium vivax by Protein Microarray Based Immunoscreening.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Hee; Li, Jian; Wang, Bo; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Na, Sunghun; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.

  15. Antigen presentation of the immunodominant T-cell epitope of the major mugwort pollen allergen, Art v 1, is associated with the expression of HLA-DRB1 *01.

    PubMed

    Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Fischer, Gottfried F; Bohle, Barbara; Faé, Ingrid; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Dedic, Azra; Ferreira, Fatima; Ebner, Christof

    2005-02-01

    Mugwort pollen allergens are the main cause of pollinosis in late summer in Europe. Ninety-five percent of patients allergic to mugwort are sensitized to the major allergen Art v 1. In contrast to other common pollen allergens that contain multiple T-cell epitopes, Art v 1 contains only 1 immunodominant T-cell epitope (Art v 1 25-36 ). To characterize the minimal epitope of Art v 1 25-36 and to investigate a possible association of Art v 1 reactivity with HLA class II phenotypes. Art v 1-specific T-cell lines and clones were established from 51 patients with clinically defined mugwort pollen allergy and IgE specific for Art v 1. To define minimal epitopes and binding sites within Art v 1 25-36 , truncated and single-substitution analog peptides were used for T-cell stimulation. To study HLA restriction, monoclonal anti-HLA antibodies and antigen-presenting cells with defined HLA-DRB and -DQB1 alleles were used. HLA typing of patients with allergy was performed by hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotides, PCR, and nucleotide sequencing. In 96% of the patients, a cellular response to Art v 1 25-36 was obtained, and a core region of 5 to 10 amino acids containing 3 to 5 amino acids essential for T-cell reactivity was defined. The frequency of HLA-DRB1 * 01 in patients recognizing Art v 1 25-36 was significantly increased as compared with healthy controls (69% vs 21%; odds ratio, 8.45; P < 10 -6 ), and HLA-DRB1 * 01 was identified as the main restriction element for the presentation of the immunodominant epitope. Allergy to Art v 1 is characterized by a uniform T-cell response. The disease is apparently associated with the HLA-DR1 phenotype. Therefore, mugwort pollinosis is an ideal candidate for a peptide-based immunotherapy.

  16. Bags of words models of epitope sets: HIV viral load regression with counting grids.

    PubMed

    Perina, Alessandro; Lovato, Pietro; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2014-01-01

    The immune system gathers evidence of the execution of various molecular processes, both foreign and the cells' own, as time- and space-varying sets of epitopes, small linear or conformational segments of the proteins involved in these processes. Epitopes do not have any obvious ordering in this scheme: The immune system simply sees these epitope sets as disordered "bags" of simple signatures based on whose contents the actions need to be decided. The immense landscape of possible bags of epitopes is shaped by the cellular pathways in various cells, as well as the characteristics of the internal sampling process that chooses and brings epitopes to cellular surface. As a consequence, upon the infection by the same pathogen, different individuals' cells present very different epitope sets. Modeling this landscape should thus be a key step in computational immunology. We show that among possible bag-of-words models, the counting grid is most fit for modeling cellular presentation. We describe each patient by a bag-of-peptides they are likely to present on the cellular surface. In regression tests, we found that compared to the state-of-the-art, counting grids explain more than twice as much of the log viral load variance in these patients. This is potentially a significant advancement in the field, given that a large part of the log viral load variance also depends on the infecting HIV strain, and that HIV polymorphisms themselves are known to strongly associate with HLA types, both effects beyond what is modeled here.

  17. Reconstitution of CD8 T Cells Protective against Cytomegalovirus in a Mouse Model of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Dynamics and Inessentiality of Epitope Immunodominance

    PubMed Central

    Holtappels, Rafaela; Lemmermann, Niels A. W.; Podlech, Jürgen; Ebert, Stefan; Reddehase, Matthias J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful reconstitution of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T cells by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) gives a favorable prognosis for the control of CMV reactivation and prevention of CMV disease after hematoablative therapy of hematopoietic malignancies. In the transient immunocompromised state after HCT, pre-emptive cytoimmunotherapy with viral epitope-specific effector or memory CD8+ T cells is a promising option to speed up antiviral control. Despite high-coding capacity of CMVs and a broad CD8+ T-cell response on the population level, which reflects polymorphism in major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I) glycoproteins, the response in terms of quantity of CD8+ T cells in any individual is directed against a limited set of CMV-encoded epitopes selected for presentation by the private repertoire of MHC-I molecules. Such epitopes are known as “immunodominant” epitopes (IDEs). Besides host immunogenetics, genetic variance in CMV strains harbored as latent viruses by an individual HCT recipient can also determine the set of IDEs, which complicates a “personalized immunotherapy.” It is, therefore, an important question if IDE-specific CD8+ T-cell reconstitution after HCT is critical or dispensable for antiviral control. As viruses with targeted mutations of IDEs cannot be experimentally tested in HCT patients, we employed the well-established mouse model of HCT. Notably, control of murine CMV (mCMV) after HCT was comparably efficient for IDE-deletion mutant mCMV-Δ4IDE and the corresponding IDE-expressing revertant virus mCMV-Δ4IDE-rev. Thus, antigenicity-loss mutations in IDEs do not result in loss-of-function of a polyclonal CD8+ T-cell population. Although IDE deletion was not associated with global changes in the response to non-IDE epitopes, the collective of non-IDE-specific CD8+ T-cells infiltrates infected tissue and confines infection within nodular inflammatory foci. We conclude from the model, and predict also for human

  18. Viral Epitopes and Monoclonal Antibodies: Isolation of Blocking Antibodies that Inhibit Virus Neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Richard J.; Schochetman, Gerald

    1981-07-01

    The inability of pathogenic animal viruses to be completely neutralized by antibodies can lead to chronic viral infections in which infectious virus persists even in the presence of excess neutralizing antibody. A mechanism that results in this nonneutralized fraction of virus was defined by the topographical relationships of viral epitopes identified with monoclonal antibodies wherein monoclonal antibodies bind to virus and sterically block the binding of neutralizing antibodies.

  19. New Viral Vector for Superproduction of Epitopes of Vaccine Proteins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tyulkina, L.G.; Skurat, E.V.; Frolova, O.Yu.; Komarova, T.V.; Karger, E.M.; Atabekov, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    The novel viral vectors PVX-CP AltMV and PVXdt-CP AltMV are superexpressors of the capsid protein (CP). These viral vectors were constructed on the basis of the potato virus X (PVX) genome andAlternantheramosaic virus (AltMV) CP gene. The expression, based on the hybrid viral vectors, is genetically safe, since the systemic transport and formation of infective viral particles are blocked. CP AltMV can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in the absence of genomic RNA. The vectors can be used for the presentation of foreign peptides (including epitopes of human pathogens) on the surface of the VLP. The N-terminal extracellular domain (M2e) of the influenza virus A M2 protein and its truncated variant (ΔM2e) were used as model heterologous peptides for the construction of the chimeric CP AltMV. Chimeric CP AltMV retains its ability to self-assemble into VLP. The epitopes of the M2 influenza virus protein were not eliminated during the process of accumulation, polymerization and purification of chimeric VLP AltMV, providing evidence of the stability of chimeric VLP with C-terminal heterologous epitopes. It appears that VLP produced by the vectors PVX-CP AltMV and PVXdt-CP AltMV can be used in the field of biotechnology for the presentation of the epitopes of vaccine proteins on their surfaces. The chimeric VLP AltMV with the presented foreign epitopes can be used as candidate vaccines. PMID:22649706

  20. Identification of immunodominant VP1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (EV71) using synthetic peptides for detecting human anti-EV71 IgG antibodies in Western blots.

    PubMed

    Foo, D G W; Ang, R X; Alonso, S; Chow, V T K; Quak, S H; Poh, C L

    2008-03-01

    A major IgG-specific immunodominant VP1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain 41 (5865/SIN/00009), defined by the core sequence LEGTTNPNG, was identified by Pepscan analysis. Oligonucleotides corresponding to the amino-acid sequence of synthetic peptide SP32 were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-SP32 fusion protein. In ELISAs, this protein did not react with human anti-EV71 IgG antibodies, but there was significant immunoreactivity according to western blot analysis. The amino-acid sequence of SP32 was highly specific for detecting EV71 strains in western blot analysis, and showed no immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies raised against other enteroviruses, e.g., CA9 and Echo 6.

  1. Definition of MHC and T cell receptor contacts in the HLA-DR4restricted immunodominant epitope in type II collagen and characterization of collagen-induced arthritis in HLA-DR4 and human CD4 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ellen Christina; Hansen, Bjarke Endel; Jacobsen, Helle; Madsen, Lars S.; Andersen, Claus B.; Engberg, Jan; Rothbard, Jonathan B.; McDevitt, Grete Sønderstrup; Malmström, Vivianne; Holmdahl, Rikard; Svejgaard, Arne; Fugger, Lars

    1998-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease associated with the HLA-DR4 and DR1 alleles. The target autoantigen(s) in RA is unknown, but type II collagen (CII) is a candidate, and the DR4- and DR1-restricted immunodominant T cell epitope in this protein corresponds to amino acids 261–273 (CII 261–273). We have defined MHC and T cell receptor contacts in CII 261–273 and provide strong evidence that this peptide corresponds to the peptide binding specificity previously found for RA-associated DR molecules. Moreover, we demonstrate that HLA-DR4 and human CD4 transgenic mice homozygous for the I-Abβ0 mutation are highly susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis and describe the clinical course and histopathological changes in the affected joints. PMID:9636191

  2. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Shayla K; Schnell, Frederick J; McMaster, Sean R; Pinelli, David F; Andargachew, Rakieb; Evavold, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC) or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL), have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant.

  3. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Shayla K.; Schnell, Frederick J.; McMaster, Sean R.; Pinelli, David F.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Evavold, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC) or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL), have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant. PMID:26915099

  4. The universal epitope of influenza A viral neuraminidase fundamentally contributes to enzyme activity and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Tracey M; Jaentschke, Bozena; Van Domselaar, Gary; Hashem, Anwar M; Farnsworth, Aaron; Forbes, Nicole E; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; He, Runtao; Brown, Earl G; Li, Xuguang

    2013-06-21

    The only universally conserved sequence among all influenza A viral neuraminidases is located between amino acids 222 and 230. However, the potential roles of these amino acids remain largely unknown. Through an array of experimental approaches including mutagenesis, reverse genetics, and growth kinetics, we found that this sequence could markedly affect viral replication. Additional experiments revealed that enzymes with mutations in this region demonstrated substantially decreased catalytic activity, substrate binding, and thermostability. Consistent with viral replication analyses and enzymatic studies, protein modeling suggests that these amino acids could either directly bind to the substrate or contribute to the formation of the active site in the enzyme. Collectively, these findings reveal the essential role of this unique region in enzyme function and viral growth, which provides the basis for evaluating the validity of this sequence as a potential target for antiviral intervention and vaccine development.

  5. Novel immunodominant peptide presentation strategy: a featured HLA-A*2402-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope stabilized by intrachain hydrogen bonds from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wu, Peng; Gao, Feng; Qi, Jianxun; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Xie, Jing; Vavricka, Christopher J; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Li, Taisheng; Gao, George F

    2010-11-01

    Antigenic peptides recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC; or human leukocyte antigen [HLA] in humans) molecules, and the peptide selection and presentation strategy of the host has been studied to guide our understanding of cellular immunity and vaccine development. Here, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein-derived CTL epitope, N1 (QFKDNVILL), restricted by HLA-A*2402 was identified by a series of in vitro studies, including a computer-assisted algorithm for prediction, stabilization of the peptide by co-refolding with HLA-A*2402 heavy chain and β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)m), and T2-A24 cell binding. Consequently, the antigenicity of the peptide was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), proliferation assays, and HLA-peptide complex tetramer staining using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors who had recovered from SARS donors. Furthermore, the crystal structure of HLA-A*2402 complexed with peptide N1 was determined, and the featured peptide was characterized with two unexpected intrachain hydrogen bonds which augment the central residues to bulge out of the binding groove. This may contribute to the T-cell receptor (TCR) interaction, showing a host immunodominant peptide presentation strategy. Meanwhile, a rapid and efficient strategy is presented for the determination of naturally presented CTL epitopes in the context of given HLA alleles of interest from long immunogenic overlapping peptides.

  6. An immunodominant epitope in a functional domain near the N-terminus of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor identified by cross-reaction of synthetic peptides with neutralizing anti-protein and anti-peptide antibodies.

    PubMed

    Beffy, P; Rovero, P; Di Bartolo, V; Laricchia Robbio, L; Dané, A; Pegoraro, S; Bertolero, F; Revoltella, R P

    1994-12-01

    We produced polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against recombinant human (rh) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and performed studies of epitope mapping by ELISA, using five synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences along this molecule. Additionally, anti-peptide MAbs were generated. The antibody ability to inhibit rhGM-CSF activity was determined using as bioassay the MO7e cell line, which is dependent on hGM-CSF for growth in vitro. An immunodominant epitope able to induce the highest neutralization antibody titers was identified near the N terminus of hGM-CSF. A synthetic peptide 14-24, homologous to a sequence including part of the first alpha-helix of the molecule, was recognized by neutralizing anti-protein antibodies. Similarly, MAbs anti- 14-24 cross-reacted with rhGM-CSF and specifically blocked its function. Replacement of Val16 or Asn17 with alanine greatly reduced the antibody-binding capacity to peptide 14-24, whereas substitution of Gln20 or Glu21 was less critical. Monoclonal antibodies generated against residues 30-41 (corresponding to an intrahelical loop) and 79-91 (homologous to a sequence including part of the third alpha-helix) or its analog [Ala88](79-91)beta Ala-Cys, were conformation dependent and nonneutralizing: they failed to react or bound poorly to rhGM-CSF in ELISA, but readily recognized the homologous sequence in the denatured protein, by Western blotting.

  7. Human serum antibodies to a major defined epitope of human herpesvirus 8 small viral capsid antigen.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, R; De Paoli, P; Schulz, T F; Dillner, J

    1999-04-01

    The major antibody-reactive epitope of the small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was defined by use of overlapping peptides. Strong IgG reactivity was found among approximately 50% of 44 human immunodeficiency virus-positive or -negative patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and 13 subjects who were seropositive by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the latent HHV-8 nuclear antigen. Only 1 of 106 subjects seronegative for both lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens and 10 of 81 subjects IFA-seropositive only for the lytic HHV-8 antigen had strong IgG reactivity to this epitope. Among 534 healthy Swedish women, only 1.3% were strongly seropositive. Comparison of the peptide-based and purified sVCA protein-based ELISAs found 55% sensitivity and 98% specificity. However, only 1 of 452 serum samples from healthy women was positive in both tests. In conclusion, the defined sVCA epitope was a specific, but not very sensitive, serologic marker of active HHV-8 infection. Such infection appears to be rare among Swedish women, even with sexual risk-taking behavior.

  8. A viral epitope that mimics a self antigen can accelerate but not initiate autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Christen, Urs; Edelmann, Kurt H.; McGavern, Dorian B.; Wolfe, Tom; Coon, Bryan; Teague, Meghann K.; Miller, Stephen D.; Oldstone, Michael B.A.; von Herrath, Matthias G.

    2004-01-01

    We document here that infection of prediabetic mice with a virus expressing an H-2Kb–restricted mimic ligand to a self epitope present on β cells accelerates the development of autoimmune diabetes. Immunization with the mimic ligand expanded autoreactive T cell populations, which was followed by their trafficking to the islets, as visualized in situ by tetramer staining. In contrast, the mimic ligand did not generate sufficient autoreactive T cells in naive mice to initiate disease. Diabetes acceleration did not occur in H-2Kb–deficient mice or in mice tolerized to the mimic ligand. Thus, arenavirus-expressed mimics of self antigens accelerate a previously established autoimmune process. Sequential heterologous viral infections might therefore act in concert to precipitate clinical autoimmune disease, even if single exposure to a viral mimic does not always cause sufficient tissue destruction. PMID:15520861

  9. B-cell epitopes in the immunodominant p34 antigen of mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis recognized by antibodies from infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, M; Mundo, S L; Harris, N B; Barletta, R G; Lopez, O J

    2003-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic and fatal enteritis in ruminants. In the last stage of the disease, antibody titres rise and levels of interferon-gamma decrease, suggesting that the host-immune response is switching from a T helper 1 (Th1) to a Th2 profile. In infected cattle, the membrane protein p34 elicits the predominant humoral response against M. paratuberculosis. To map the B-cell epitopes of this antigen, affinity-purified bovine antibodies against the carboxy-terminal region of p34 were used to screen a 12-mer phage display library. Several phage clones carrying peptides resembling fragments of p34 were affinity selected. Based on the predicted amino acid sequence, peptides were chemically synthesized, which demonstrated reactivity with serum from naturally infected and p34-vaccinated cattle. Immunization of mice with these peptides elicited an anti-p34 antibody response. Two B-cell epitopes were identified and characterized. Based on the reactivity and the type of immune response elicited, epitope A was determined to be conformational, whereas epitope B was demonstrated to be sequential. Both epitopes were shown to be present in p34 proteins from M. avium ssp. avium or M. paratuberculosis but absent from M. intracellulare, the other member of the M. avium complex. Furthermore, both epitopes were mapped to regions of p34 that display high variability when compared to homologous proteins from other mycobacterial species of public and animal health importance. We hypothesize that these variable regions of p34 may play a role in the immunobiology of M. paratuberculosis infections.

  10. Shifting immunodominance pattern of two cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in the F glycoprotein of the Long strain of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolina; de León, Patricia; Medina, Francisco; Melero, José A; García-Barreno, Blanca; Del Val, Margarita

    2004-11-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infection in children and in the elderly. The RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein has long been recognized as a vaccine candidate as it elicits cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses. Two murine H-2K(d)-restricted CTL epitopes (F85-93 and F92-106) are known in the F protein of the A2 strain of RSV. F-specific CTL lines using BCH4 fibroblasts that are persistently infected with the Long strain of human RSV as stimulators were generated, and it was found that in this strain only the F85-93 epitope is conserved. Motif based epitope prediction programs and an F2 chain deleted F protein encoded in a recombinant vaccinia virus enabled identification of a new epitope in the Long strain, F249-258, which is presented by K(d) as a 9-mer (TYMLTNSEL) or a 10-mer (TYMLTNSELL) peptide. The results suggest that the 10-mer might be a naturally processed endogenous K(d) ligand. The CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses to epitopes F85-93 and F249-258 present in the F protein of RSV Long were found to be strongly skewed to F85-93 in in vitro multispecific CTL lines and in vivo during a secondary response to a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the entire F protein. However, no hierarchy in CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses to F85-93 and F249-258 epitopes was observed in vivo during a primary response.

  11. Diversified phenotype of antigen specific CD8+ T cells responding to the immunodominant epitopes of IE and pp65 antigens of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Rong; Xiang, Fenfen; Kong, Qianqian; Hong, Jian; Kang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-01

    To study the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T cells in individuals with HLA A*1101, A*0201 and A*2402, our findings showed that peptide SK-10-2, KI-10 and KV-10 of CMV IE and pp65 antigens were immunodominant in 198 individuals with HLA A*1101, A*0201 and A*2402, the most frequent genotypes in Chinese. Interestingly, SK-10-2 induced the strongest T cell response to produce IFN-γ whereas the others did not induce prominent IFN-γ production despite they all induced remarkable T cell proliferation. The peptides induced different phenotypes including IFN-γ(high)TNF-α(low) and TNF-α(low)Foxp3(low). It suggests that only some of CMV-reactive CD8+ T cells are real protective IFN-γ(high) cytotoxic T cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relevance of viral context and diversity of antigen-processing routes for respiratory syncytial virus cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolina; Guil, Sara; Rico, Miguel A; García-Barreno, Blanca; López, Daniel; Melero, José A; Del Val, Margarita

    2008-09-01

    Antigen processing of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein epitopes F85-93 and F249-258 presented to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) by the murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule Kd was studied in different viral contexts. Epitope F85-93 was presented through a classical endogenous pathway dependent on the transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) when the F protein was expressed from either RSV or recombinant vaccinia virus (rVACV). At least in cells infected with rVACV encoding either natural or cytosolic F protein, the proteasome was required for epitope processing. In cells infected with rVACV encoding the natural F protein, an additional endogenous TAP-independent presentation pathway was found for F85-93. In contrast, epitope F249-258 was presented only through TAP-independent pathways, but presentation was brefeldin A sensitive when the F protein was expressed from RSV, or mostly resistant when expressed from rVACV. Therefore, antigen-processing pathways with different mechanisms and subcellular localizations are accessible to individual epitopes presented by the same MHC class I molecule and processed from the same protein but in different viral contexts. This underscores both the diversity of pathways available and the influence of virus infection on presentation of epitopes to CTLs.

  13. Identification of Critical Amino Acids in an Immunodominant IgE Epitope of Pen c 13, a Major Allergen from Penicillium citrinum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jui-Chieh; Chiu, Li-Li; Lee, Kuang-Lun; Huang, Wei-Ning; Chuang, Jiing-Guang; Liao, Hsin-Kai; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Pen c 13, identified as a 33-kDa alkaline serine protease, is a major allergen secreted by Penicillium citrinum. Detailed knowledge about the epitopes responsible for IgE binding would help inform the diagnosis/prognosis of fungal allergy and facilitate the rational design of hypoallergenic candidate vaccines. The goal of the present study was to characterize the IgE epitopes of Pen c 13. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum samples were collected from 10 patients with mold allergy and positive Pen c 13 skin test results. IgE-binding epitopes on rPen c 13 were mapped using an enzymatic digestion and chemical cleavage method, followed by dot-blotting and mass spectrometry. A B-cell epitope-predicting server and molecular modeling were used to predict the residues most likely involved in IgE binding. Theoretically predicted IgE-binding regions were further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis assays. At least twelve different IgE-binding epitopes located throughout Pen c 13 were identified. Of these, peptides S16 (A148–E166) and S22 (A243–K274) were recognized by sera from 90% and 100% of the patients tested, and were further confirmed by inhibition assays. Peptide S22 was selected for further analysis of IgE-binding ability. The results of serum screening showed that the majority of IgE-binding ability resided in the C-terminus. One Pen c 13 mutant, G270A (T261–K274), exhibited clearly enhanced IgE reactivity, whereas another, K274A, exhibited dramatically reduced IgE reactivity. Conclusions/Significance Experimental analyses confirmed in silico-predicted residues involved in an important antigenic region of Pen c 13. The G270A mutant of Pen c 13 has the potential to serve as an additional tool for the diagnosis/prognosis of mold allergy, and the K274A mutant, as a hypoallergenic form of the epitope, may provide a framework for the design and development of a safe and efficient therapeutic strategy for treating human allergic diseases. PMID

  14. Identification of critical amino acids in an immunodominant IgE epitope of Pen c 13, a major allergen from Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Chieh; Chiu, Li-Li; Lee, Kuang-Lun; Huang, Wei-Ning; Chuang, Jiing-Guang; Liao, Hsin-Kai; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Pen c 13, identified as a 33-kDa alkaline serine protease, is a major allergen secreted by Penicillium citrinum. Detailed knowledge about the epitopes responsible for IgE binding would help inform the diagnosis/prognosis of fungal allergy and facilitate the rational design of hypoallergenic candidate vaccines. The goal of the present study was to characterize the IgE epitopes of Pen c 13. Serum samples were collected from 10 patients with mold allergy and positive Pen c 13 skin test results. IgE-binding epitopes on rPen c 13 were mapped using an enzymatic digestion and chemical cleavage method, followed by dot-blotting and mass spectrometry. A B-cell epitope-predicting server and molecular modeling were used to predict the residues most likely involved in IgE binding. Theoretically predicted IgE-binding regions were further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis assays. At least twelve different IgE-binding epitopes located throughout Pen c 13 were identified. Of these, peptides S16 (A(148)-E(166)) and S22 (A(243)-K(274)) were recognized by sera from 90% and 100% of the patients tested, and were further confirmed by inhibition assays. Peptide S22 was selected for further analysis of IgE-binding ability. The results of serum screening showed that the majority of IgE-binding ability resided in the C-terminus. One Pen c 13 mutant, G270A (T(261)-K(274)), exhibited clearly enhanced IgE reactivity, whereas another, K274A, exhibited dramatically reduced IgE reactivity. Experimental analyses confirmed in silico-predicted residues involved in an important antigenic region of Pen c 13. The G270A mutant of Pen c 13 has the potential to serve as an additional tool for the diagnosis/prognosis of mold allergy, and the K274A mutant, as a hypoallergenic form of the epitope, may provide a framework for the design and development of a safe and efficient therapeutic strategy for treating human allergic diseases.

  15. Molecular dynamics at the receptor level of immunodominant myelin basic protein epitope 87-99 implicated in multiple sclerosis and its antagonists altered peptide ligands: triggering of immune response.

    PubMed

    Mantzourani, Efthimia D; Platts, James A; Brancale, Andrea; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M; Tselios, Theodore V

    2007-09-01

    This work reports molecular dynamics studies at the receptor level of the immunodominant myelin basic protein (MBP) epitope 87-99 implicated in multiple sclerosis, and its antagonists altered peptide ligands (APLs), namely [Arg91, Ala96] MBP87-99 and [Ala91,96] MBP87-99. The interaction of each peptide ligand with the receptor human leukocyte antigen HLA-DR2b was studied, starting from X-ray structure with pdb code: 1ymm. This is the first such study of APL-HLA-DR2b complexes, and hence the first attempt to gain a better understanding of the molecular recognition mechanisms that underlie TCR antagonism by these APLs. The amino acids His88 and Phe89 serve as T-cell receptor (TCR) anchors in the formation of the trimolecular complex TCR-peptide-HLA-DR2b, where the TCR binds in a diagonal, off-centered mode to the peptide-HLA complex. The present findings indicate that these two amino acids have a different orientation in the APLs [Arg91, Ala96] MBP87-99 and [Ala91,96] MBP87-99: His88 and Phe89 remain buried in HLA grooves and are not available for interaction with the TCR. We propose that this different topology could provide a possible mechanism of action for TCR antagonism.

  16. Fine specificity analysis of an HLA-A2.1-restricted immunodominant T cell epitope derived from human alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Meng, W S; Butterfield, L H; Ribas, A; Heller, J B; Dissette, V B; Glaspy, J A; McBride, W H; Economou, J S

    2000-11-01

    Human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a potentially important target for the immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AFP(542-550) (GVALQTMKQ) is one of several HLA-A2.1-restricted immunodominant AFP peptides that consistently generate AFP-specific T cell responses in human T cell cultures and in HLA-A2.1/K(b) transgenic (A2.1 tg) mice. We performed a fine specificity analysis of this nonamer to determine which amino acid side chains were critical for T cell priming and recognition. Using peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) as an immunization strategy, we characterized the effects of AFP(542-550) amino acid substitutions on priming and recognition in A2.1 tg mice. Replacing the glutamine at anchor position 9 with a leucine enhanced MHC binding and AFP-specific T cell responses. Substitution of leucine at non-anchor position 4 with an alanine did not alter binding but greatly diminished T cell recognition. Computer-generated three-dimensional models provided the structural rationale for these observed effects in MHC binding and T cell responses resulted from the modifications in the AFP(542-550) sequence.

  17. H5N1 strain-specific hemagglutinin CD4+ T cell epitopes restricted by HLA DR4.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junbao; Gebe, John A; Huston, Laurie; James, Eddie; Tan, Venus; Yue, Betty B; Nepom, Gerald T; Kwok, William W

    2009-06-12

    CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the viral immunity, and as such identification of unique strain-specific HLA class II restricted epitopes is essential for monitoring cellular strain-specific viral immunity. Using Tetramer-Guided Epitope Mapping technique, we identified HLA-DR0401 restricted HA epitopes that are strain-specific to H5N1 virion. Two immunodominant epitopes H5HA(441-460) and H5HA(57-76) were identified from in vitro stimulated human PBMC. Both epitopes elicit strong cellular immune responses when HLA-DR0401 transgenic mice are immunized with H5N1 subvirion indicating in vivo naturally processed immunodominant epitopes. The H5HA(57-76) epitope is unique for the H5N1 strain but conserved among all H5N1 clades recommended for vaccine development by World Health Organization. The unique H5HA(57-76) response was uncommon in unexposed individuals and only observed in the naïve T cell subset. Thus, H5N1 strain-specific H5HA(57-76) immunogenic epitope represents a unique marker for monitoring the efficacy of vaccination or as a candidate vaccine peptide.

  18. H5N1 Strain-Specific Hemagglutinin CD4+ T cell Epitopes Restricted by HLA DR4

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junbao; Gebe, John A.; Huston, Laurie; James, Eddie; Tan, Venus; Yue, Betty B.; Nepom, Gerald T.; Kwok, William W.

    2009-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the viral immunity, and as such identification of unique strain specific HLA class II restricted epitopes is essential for monitoring cellular strain specific viral immunity. Using Tetramer-Guided Epitope Mapping technique, we identified HLA-DR0401 restricted HA epitopes that are strain-specific to H5N1 virion. Two immunodominant epitopes H5HA441-460 and H5HA57-76 were identified from in vitro stimulated human PBMC. Both epitopes elicit strong cellular immune responses when HLA-DR0401 transgenic mice are immunized with H5N1 subvirion indicating in vivo naturally processed immunodominant epitopes. The H5HA57-76 epitope is unique for the H5N1 strain but conserved among all H5N1 clades recommended for vaccine development by World Health Organization. The unique H5HA57-76 response was uncommon in unexposed individuals and only observed in the naïve T cell subset. Thus, H5N1 strain-specific H5HA57-76 immunogenic epitope represents a unique marker for monitoring the efficacy of vaccination or as a candidate vaccine peptide. PMID:19446935

  19. Crystal Structure of West Nile Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Reveals Viral Surface Epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai,R.; Kar, K.; Anthony, K.; Gould, L.; Ledizet, M.; Fikrig, E.; Marasco, W.; Koski, R.; Modis, Y.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as that of the E proteins from dengue and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The conformation of domain II is different from that in other prefusion E structures, however, and resembles the conformation of domain II in postfusion E structures. The epitopes of neutralizing West Nile virus-specific antibodies map to a region of domain III that is exposed on the viral surface and has been implicated in receptor binding. In contrast, we show that certain recombinant therapeutic antibodies, which cross-neutralize West Nile and dengue viruses, bind a peptide from domain I that is exposed only during the membrane fusion transition. By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics.

  20. Immunodominant epitope in the C-terminus of a variable major protein in Borrelia duttonii, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Norihiko; Tomoda, Koichiro; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Fukunaga, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    Borrelia duttonii strain Ly was isolated from a child with tick-borne relapsing fever in Tanzania. B. duttonii produces variable major proteins (Vmps), which undergo antigenic variation. We previously reported transcription of the vmpP gene, which is one of the Vmp genes in strain Ly, detected in vitro cultivation. In the current study, we purified the recombinant non-lipidated VmpP protein by affinity chromatography and produced VmpP polyclonal antibodies. Antigenicity of VmpP was examined by Western immunoblot analysis and peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Antigenic epitopes were shown to comprise five regions interspersed within the VmpP primary amino acid sequence. Synthetic peptides spanning residues of three of five regions, 232-237 (LASIVD), 280-285 (AGGIAL), and 350-355 (KAADQQ), reacted strongly with the VmpP-specific antibody and these residues were identified as epitopes. In particular, the C-terminal domain (KAADQQ) of this protein was immunoreactive. Further research based on our results will promote the development of a recombinant vaccine for B. duttonii infection.

  1. Autoimmunity in Chagas disease cardiopathy: biological relevance of a cardiac myosin-specific epitope crossreactive to an immunodominant Trypanosoma cruzi antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Neto, E; Duranti, M; Gruber, A; Zingales, B; De Messias, I; Stolf, N; Bellotti, G; Patarroyo, M E; Pilleggi, F; Kalil, J

    1995-01-01

    Heart tissue destruction in chronic Chagas disease cardiopathy (CCC) may be caused by autoimmune recognition of heart tissue by a mononuclear cell infiltrate decades after Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Indirect evidence suggests that there is antigenic crossreactivity between T. cruzi and heart tissue. As there is evidence for immune recognition of cardiac myosin in CCC, we searched for a putative myosin-crossreactive T. cruzi antigen. T. cruzi lysate immunoblots were probed with anti-cardiac myosin heavy chain IgG antibodies (AMA) affinity-purified from CCC or asymptomatic Chagas disease patient-seropositive sera. A 140/116-kDa doublet was predominantly recognized by AMA from CCC sera. Further, recombinant T. cruzi protein B13--whose native protein is also a 140- and 116-kDa double band--was identified by crossreactive AMA. Among 28 sera tested in a dot-blot assay, AMA from 100% of CCC sera but only 14% of the asymptomatic Chagas disease sera recognized B13 protein (P = 2.3 x 10(-6)). Sequence homology to B13 protein was found at positions 8-13 and 1442-1447 of human cardiac myosin heavy chain. Competitive ELISA assays that used the correspondent myosin synthetic peptides to inhibit serum antibody binding to B13 protein identified the heart-specific AAALDK (1442-1447) sequence of human cardiac myosin heavy chain and the homologous AAAGDK B13 sequence as the respective crossreactive epitopes. The recognition of a heart-specific T. cruzi crossreactive epitope, in strong association with the presence of chronic heart lesions, suggests the involvement of crossreactivity between cardiac myosin and B13 in the pathogenesis of CCC. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7536937

  2. TCR Affinity Associated with Functional Differences between Dominant and Subdominant SIV Epitope-Specific CD8+ T Cells in Mamu-A*01+ Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Christa E.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Hung, Amy Shi; Ehlinger, Elizabeth; Anasti, Kara; Alam, S. Munir; Letvin, Norman L.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the factors that contribute to CD8+ T cell immunodominance hierarchies during viral infection are known. However, the functional differences that exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the phenotypic and functional differences between dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) epitope-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-A*01 during acute and chronic SIV infection. Whole genome expression analyses during acute infection revealed that dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells had a gene expression profile consistent with greater maturity and higher cytotoxic potential than subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Flow-cytometric measurements of protein expression and anti-viral functionality during chronic infection confirmed these phenotypic and functional differences. Expression analyses of exhaustion-associated genes indicated that LAG-3 and CTLA-4 were more highly expressed in the dominant epitope-specific cells during acute SIV infection. Interestingly, only LAG-3 expression remained high during chronic infection in dominant epitope-specific cells. We also explored the binding interaction between peptide:MHC (pMHC) complexes and their cognate TCRs to determine their role in the establishment of immunodominance hierarchies. We found that epitope dominance was associated with higher TCR:pMHC affinity. These studies demonstrate that significant functional differences exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells within MHC-restricted immunodominance hierarchies and suggest that TCR:pMHC affinity may play an important role in determining the frequency and functionality of these cell populations. These findings advance our understanding of the regulation of T cell immunodominance and will aid HIV vaccine design. PMID:24743648

  3. TCR affinity associated with functional differences between dominant and subdominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in Mamu-A*01+ rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Christa E; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Hung, Amy Shi; Ehlinger, Elizabeth; Anasti, Kara; Alam, S Munir; Letvin, Norman L

    2014-04-01

    Many of the factors that contribute to CD8+ T cell immunodominance hierarchies during viral infection are known. However, the functional differences that exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the phenotypic and functional differences between dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) epitope-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-A*01 during acute and chronic SIV infection. Whole genome expression analyses during acute infection revealed that dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells had a gene expression profile consistent with greater maturity and higher cytotoxic potential than subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Flow-cytometric measurements of protein expression and anti-viral functionality during chronic infection confirmed these phenotypic and functional differences. Expression analyses of exhaustion-associated genes indicated that LAG-3 and CTLA-4 were more highly expressed in the dominant epitope-specific cells during acute SIV infection. Interestingly, only LAG-3 expression remained high during chronic infection in dominant epitope-specific cells. We also explored the binding interaction between peptide:MHC (pMHC) complexes and their cognate TCRs to determine their role in the establishment of immunodominance hierarchies. We found that epitope dominance was associated with higher TCR:pMHC affinity. These studies demonstrate that significant functional differences exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells within MHC-restricted immunodominance hierarchies and suggest that TCR:pMHC affinity may play an important role in determining the frequency and functionality of these cell populations. These findings advance our understanding of the regulation of T cell immunodominance and will aid HIV vaccine design.

  4. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Sette, Alessandro; Chisari, Francis V.; Penna, Amalia; Levrero, Massimo; Carli, Marco De; Fiaccadori, Franco; Ferrari, Carlo

    1994-06-01

    IT has been suggested that mutations within immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes may be exploited by viruses to evade protective immune responses critical for clearance1-4. Viral escape could originate from passive mechanisms, such as mutations within crucial CTL epitopes, either affecting major histocompatibility complex binding or T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognition. Additionally, it has recently been shown that substitutions of TCR contact sites can yield analogue peptides that can still interact with the T-cell receptor but be unable to deliver a full stimulatory signal, thus inducing anergy5 or acting as an antagonist for the TCR6-8. We report here that hepatitis B virus isolates derived from two chronically infected patients display variant epitopes that act as natural TCR antagonists with the capacity to inhibit the CTL response to the wild-type epitope. During natural infection, TCR antagonist mutations of CTL epitopes could contribute to the development of viral persistence, especially if the antiviral CTL response is monospecific or the epitope is strongly immunodominant.

  5. Towards peptide vaccines against Zika virus: Immunoinformatics combined with molecular dynamics simulations to predict antigenic epitopes of Zika viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Usman Mirza, Muhammad; Rafique, Shazia; Ali, Amjad; Munir, Mobeen; Ikram, Nazia; Manan, Abdul; Salo-Ahen, Outi M. H.; Idrees, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Brazil has developed to a global health concern due to its likely association with birth defects (primary microcephaly) and neurological complications. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine to prevent or a medicine to treat the infection. In this study, immunoinformatics approach was employed to predict antigenic epitopes of Zika viral proteins to aid in development of a peptide vaccine against ZIKV. Both linear and conformational B-cell epitopes as well as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes were predicted for ZIKV Envelope (E), NS3 and NS5 proteins. We further investigated the binding interactions of altogether 15 antigenic CTL epitopes with three class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC I) proteins after docking the peptides to the binding groove of the MHC I proteins. The stability of the resulting peptide-MHC I complexes was further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results highlight the limits of rigid-body docking methods. Some of the antigenic epitopes predicted and analyzed in this work might present a preliminary set of peptides for future vaccine development against ZIKV. PMID:27934901

  6. Generation of T-cell receptors targeting a genetically stable and immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope within hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3.

    PubMed

    Pasetto, Anna; Frelin, Lars; Brass, Anette; Yasmeen, Anila; Koh, Sarene; Lohmann, Volker; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Magalhaes, Isabelle; Maeurer, Markus; Sällberg, Matti; Chen, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of severe liver disease, and one major contributing factor is thought to involve a dysfunction of virus-specific T-cells. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy with HCV-specific TCRs would increase the number of effector T-cells to promote virus clearance. We therefore took advantage of HLA-A2 transgenic mice to generate multiple TCR candidates against HCV using DNA vaccination followed by generation of stable T-cell-BW (T-BW) tumour hybrid cells. Using this approach, large numbers of non-structural protein 3 (NS3)-specific functional T-BW hybrids can be generated efficiently. These predominantly target the genetically stable HCV genotype 1 NS3(1073-1081) CTL epitope, frequently associated with clearance of HCV in humans. These T-BW hybrid clones recognized the NS3(1073) peptide with a high avidity. The hybridoma effectively recognized virus variants and targeted cells with low HLA-A2 expression, which has not been reported previously. Importantly, high-avidity murine TCRs effectively redirected human non-HCV-specific T-lymphocytes to recognize human hepatoma cells with HCV RNA replication driven by a subgenomic HCV replicon. Taken together, TCR candidates with a range of functional avidities, which can be used to study immune recognition of HCV-positive targets, have been generated. This has implications for TCR-related immunotherapy against HCV.

  7. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Mealey, Robert H.; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined. PMID:12954220

  8. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Robert H; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R; Littke, Matt H; McGuire, Travis C

    2003-09-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined.

  9. Mechanisms of HIV Protein Degradation into Epitopes: Implications for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Rucevic, Marijana; Boucau, Julie; Dinter, Jens; Kourjian, Georgio; Le Gall, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of HIV-derived proteins into epitopes displayed by MHC-I or MHC-II are the first events leading to the priming of HIV-specific immune responses and to the recognition of infected cells. Despite a wealth of information about peptidases involved in protein degradation, our knowledge of epitope presentation during HIV infection remains limited. Here we review current data on HIV protein degradation linking epitope production and immunodominance, viral evolution and impaired epitope presentation. We propose that an in-depth understanding of HIV antigen processing and presentation in relevant primary cells could be exploited to identify signatures leading to efficient or inefficient epitope presentation in HIV proteomes, and to improve the design of immunogens eliciting immune responses efficiently recognizing all infected cells. PMID:25196483

  10. Kinetics of Antigen Expression and Epitope Presentation during Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Nathan P.; Smith, Stewart A.; Wong, Yik Chun; Tan, Chor Teck; Dudek, Nadine L.; Flesch, Inge E. A.; Lin, Leon C. W.; Tscharke, David C.; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge about the dynamics of antigen presentation to T cells during viral infection is very poor despite being of fundamental importance to our understanding of anti-viral immunity. Here we use an advanced mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify the presentation of eight vaccinia virus peptide-MHC complexes (epitopes) on infected cells and the amounts of their source antigens at multiple times after infection. The results show a startling 1000-fold range in abundance as well as strikingly different kinetics across the epitopes monitored. The tight correlation between onset of protein expression and epitope display for most antigens provides the strongest support to date that antigen presentation is largely linked to translation and not later degradation of antigens. Finally, we show a complete disconnect between the epitope abundance and immunodominance hierarchy of these eight epitopes. This study highlights the complexity of viral antigen presentation by the host and demonstrates the weakness of simple models that assume total protein levels are directly linked to epitope presentation and immunogenicity. PMID:23382674

  11. Detection of Aichi virus with antibody targeting of conserved viral protein 1 epitope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Bao-Chen; Lin, You-Sheng; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-10-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.

  12. Promiscuous CTL recognition of viral epitopes on multiple human leukocyte antigens: biological validation of the proposed HLA A24 supertype.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Scott R; Elkington, Rebecca A; Miles, John J; Green, Katherine J; Walker, Susan; Haryana, Sofia M; Moss, Denis J; Dunckley, Heather; Burrows, Jacqueline M; Khanna, Rajiv

    2003-08-01

    Multiple HLA class I alleles can bind peptides with common sequence motifs due to structural similarities in the peptide binding cleft, and these groups of alleles have been classified into supertypes. Nine major HLA supertypes have been proposed, including an A24 supertype that includes A*2301, A*2402, and A*3001. Evidence for this A24 supertype is limited to HLA sequence homology and/or similarity in peptide binding motifs for the alleles. To investigate the immunological relevance of this proposed supertype, we have examined two viral epitopes (from EBV and CMV) initially defined as HLA-A*2301-binding peptides. The data clearly demonstrate that each peptide could be recognized by CTL clones in the context of A*2301 or A*2402; thus validating the inclusion of these three alleles within an A24 supertype. Furthermore, CTL responses to the EBV epitope were detectable in both A*2301(+) and A*2402(+) individuals who had been previously exposed to this virus. These data substantiate the biological relevance of the A24 supertype, and the identification of viral epitopes with the capacity to bind promiscuously across this supertype could aid efforts to develop CTL-based vaccines or immunotherapy. The degeneracy in HLA restriction displayed by some T cells in this study also suggests that the dogma of self-MHC restriction needs some refinement to accommodate foreign peptide recognition in the context of multiple supertype alleles.

  13. Intestinal digestive resistance of immunodominant gliadin peptides.

    PubMed

    Hausch, Felix; Shan, Lu; Santiago, Nilda A; Gray, Gary M; Khosla, Chaitan

    2002-10-01

    Two recently identified immunodominant epitopes from alpha-gliadin account for most of the stimulatory activity of dietary gluten on intestinal and peripheral T lymphocytes in patients with celiac sprue. The proteolytic kinetics of peptides containing these epitopes were analyzed in vitro using soluble proteases from bovine and porcine pancreas and brush-border membrane vesicles from adult rat intestine. We showed that these proline-glutamine-rich epitopes are exceptionally resistant to enzymatic processing. Moreover, as estimated from the residual peptide structure and confirmed by exogenous peptidase supplementation, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I were identified as the rate-limiting enzymes in the digestive breakdown of these peptides. A similar conclusion also emerged from analogous studies with brush-border membrane from a human intestinal biopsy. Supplementation of rat brush-border membrane with trace quantities of a bacterial prolyl endopeptidase led to the rapid destruction of the immunodominant epitopes in these peptides. These results suggest a possible enzyme therapy strategy for celiac sprue, for which the only current therapeutic option is strict exclusion of gluten-containing food.

  14. Pleiotropic effects of post-translational modifications on the fate of viral glycopeptides as cytotoxic T cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, D; Riond, J; Mazarguil, H; Gairin, J E

    2001-10-12

    The fate of viral glycopeptides as cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes is unclear. We have dissected the mechanisms of antigen presentation and CTL recognition of the peptide GP392-400 (WLVTNGSYL) from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and compared them with those of the previously reported GP92-101 antigen (CSANNSHHYI). Both GP392-400 and GP92-101 bear a glycosylation motif, are naturally N-glycosylated in the mature viral glycoproteins, bind to major histocompatibility complex H-2D(b) molecules, and are immunogenic. However, post-translational modifications differentially affected GP92-101 and GP392-400. Upon N-glycosylation or de-N-glycosylation, a marked decrease in major histocompatibility complex binding was observed for GP392-400 but not for GP92-101. Further, under its N-glycosylated or de-N-glycosylated form, GP392-400 then lost its initial ability to generate a CTL response in mice, whereas GP92-101 was still immunogenic under the same conditions. The genetically encoded form of GP392-400, which on the basis of its immunogenicity could still be presented with H-2D(b) during the course of LCMV infection, does not in fact appear at the surface of LCMV-infected cells. Our results show that post-translational modifications of viral glycopeptides can have pleiotropic effects on their presentation to and recognition by CTL that contribute to either creation of neo-epitopes or destruction of potential epitopes.

  15. Viral Escape from HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Drives Increased Plasma Neutralization Breadth through Sequential Recognition of Multiple Epitopes and Immunotypes

    PubMed Central

    Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Bhiman, Jinal N.; Gray, Elin S.; Tumba, Nancy; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Williamson, Carolyn; Morris, Lynn; Moore, Penny L.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the targets of broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and understanding how these antibodies develop remain important goals in the quest to rationally develop an HIV-1 vaccine. We previously identified a participant in the CAPRISA Acute Infection Cohort (CAP257) whose plasma neutralized 84% of heterologous viruses. In this study we showed that breadth in CAP257 was largely due to the sequential, transient appearance of three distinct broadly neutralizing antibody specificities spanning the first 4.5 years of infection. The first specificity targeted an epitope in the V2 region of gp120 that was also recognized by strain-specific antibodies 7 weeks earlier. Specificity for the autologous virus was determined largely by a rare N167 antigenic variant of V2, with viral escape to the more common D167 immunotype coinciding with the development of the first wave of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Escape from these broadly neutralizing V2 antibodies through deletion of the glycan at N160 was associated with exposure of an epitope in the CD4 binding site that became the target for a second wave of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization by these CD4 binding site antibodies was almost entirely dependent on the glycan at position N276. Early viral escape mutations in the CD4 binding site drove an increase in wave two neutralization breadth, as this second wave of heterologous neutralization matured to recognize multiple immunotypes within this site. The third wave targeted a quaternary epitope that did not overlap any of the four known sites of vulnerability on the HIV-1 envelope and remains undefined. Altogether this study showed that the human immune system is capable of generating multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies in response to a constantly evolving viral population that exposes new targets as a consequence of escape from earlier neutralizing antibodies. PMID:24204277

  16. Analysis of epitopes in the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus by using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shiwei; Zhao, Qin; Lu, Mingzhe; Sun, Peiming; Qiu, Hongkai; Zhang, Lu; Lv, Junhua; Zhou, En-Min

    2011-02-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is related genetically and antigenically to human and swine HEVs and capsid protein of avian HEV shares approximately 48-49% amino acid sequence identities with those of human and swine HEVs. Six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced and used to locate different epitopes in the ORF2 region of aa 339-570 of avian HEV Chinese isolate. The results showed that five epitopes were located in the aa 339-414 region and one in the aa 510-515 region. Two epitopes located in aa 339-355 and aa 384-414 regions are the immunodominant epitopes on the surface of the avian HEV particles as demonstrated by immune capture of viral particles and immunohistochemical detection of the ORF2 antigens with two MAbs.

  17. The two-faced T cell epitope

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Leonard; Gutierrez, Andres H.; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Terry, Frances; Leng, Qibin; Abdel Hady, Karim M.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Losikoff, Phyllis T.; Martin, William D.; Rothman, Alan L; De Groot, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the field of T cell immunology have contributed to the understanding that cross-reactivity is an intrinsic characteristic of the T cell receptor (TCR), and that each TCR can potentially interact with many different T cell epitopes. To better define the potential for TCR cross-reactivity between epitopes derived from the human genome, the human microbiome, and human pathogens, we developed a new immunoinformatics tool, JanusMatrix, that represents an extension of the validated T cell epitope mapping tool, EpiMatrix. Initial explorations, summarized in this synopsis, have uncovered what appear to be important differences in the TCR cross-reactivity of selected regulatory and effector T cell epitopes with other epitopes in the human genome, human microbiome, and selected human pathogens. In addition to exploring the T cell epitope relationships between human self, commensal and pathogen, JanusMatrix may also be useful to explore some aspects of heterologous immunity and to examine T cell epitope relatedness between pathogens to which humans are exposed (Dengue serotypes, or HCV and Influenza, for example). In Hand-Foot-Mouth disease (HFMD) for example, extensive enterovirus and human microbiome cross-reactivity (and limited cross-reactivity with the human genome) seemingly predicts immunodominance. In contrast, more extensive cross-reactivity with proteins contained in the human genome as compared to the human microbiome was observed for selected Treg epitopes. While it may be impossible to predict all immune response influences, the availability of sequence data from the human genome, the human microbiome, and an array of human pathogens and vaccines has made computationally–driven exploration of the effects of T cell epitope cross-reactivity now possible. This is the first description of JanusMatrix, an algorithm that assesses TCR cross-reactivity that may contribute to a means of predicting the phenotype of T cells responding to selected T cell

  18. An immunodominant HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T-cell response targeting hepatitis B surface antigen in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Shufeng; Meng, Gang; Zhang, Mengjun; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang; Wang, Li

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. HBV-specific CD8(+) CTLs are vital for viral clearance. Identification of immunodominant CTL epitopes from HBV-associated antigens is necessary for therapeutic vaccine development. We showed that the HLA-A*1101 allele is one of the most common alleles in both healthy individuals and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in the Chongqing area, China. However, less than 10% of epitopes of HBV-associated antigens have been identified in an HLA-A*1101 context. Here, we describe an immunodominant CD8(+) T-cell response targeting a hepatitis B surface antigen determinant (HBs(295-304)) restricted by HLA-A*1101 in both healthy individuals and CHB patients. Moreover, HBs(295-304) is more immunogenic for CTL induction than a known naturally HLA-A*1101-processed epitope from hepatitis B core antigen (HBc(88-96)). Therefore, the newly identified epitope, HBs(295-304), will benefit the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for HBV infection.

  19. Epitope-specific CD8+ T cell kinetics rather than viral variability determine the timing of immune escape in simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Martyushev, Alexey P; Petravic, Janka; Grimm, Andrew J; Alinejad-Rokny, Hamid; Gooneratne, Shayarana L; Reece, Jeanette C; Cromer, Deborah; Kent, Stephen J; Davenport, Miles P

    2015-05-01

    CD8(+) T cells are important for the control of chronic HIV infection. However, the virus rapidly acquires "escape mutations" that reduce CD8(+) T cell recognition and viral control. The timing of when immune escape occurs at a given epitope varies widely among patients and also among different epitopes within a patient. The strength of the CD8(+) T cell response, as well as mutation rates, patterns of particular amino acids undergoing escape, and growth rates of escape mutants, may affect when escape occurs. In this study, we analyze the epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells in 25 SIV-infected pigtail macaques responding to three SIV epitopes. Two epitopes showed a variable escape pattern and one had a highly monomorphic escape pattern. Despite very different patterns, immune escape occurs with a similar delay of on average 18 d after the epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells reach 0.5% of total CD8(+) T cells. We find that the most delayed escape occurs in one of the highly variable epitopes, and that this is associated with a delay in the epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells responding to this epitope. When we analyzed the kinetics of immune escape, we found that multiple escape mutants emerge simultaneously during the escape, implying that a diverse population of potential escape mutants is present during immune selection. Our results suggest that the conservation or variability of an epitope does not appear to affect the timing of immune escape in SIV. Instead, timing of escape is largely determined by the kinetics of epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells.

  20. A blocking ELISA for detection of antibody to a subgroup-reactive epitope of African horsesickness viral protein 7 (VP7) using a novel gamma-irradiated antigen.

    PubMed

    House, J A; Stott, J L; Blanchard, M T; LaRocco, M; Llewellyn, M E

    1996-07-23

    A novel gamma irradiated inactivated cell culture derived African horsesickness viral (AHSV) antigen was used in a blocking ELISA (B-ELISA) for detecting antibody to a subgroup-reactive epitope of AHSV. A monoclonal antibody (MAB), class IgM, against an epitope on African horsesickness (AHS) viral protein 7 (VP7) was developed in BALBc mice and used in the B-ELISA. The MAB, designated F9H, was blocked by 69 serums from equidae with antibody to AHS, but its binding activity was not appreciably affected by 301 serums that did not contain antibodies to AHS virus. An ELISA protocol using a blocking format is described.

  1. Pulmonary Dendritic Cell Subsets Shape the Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Immunodominance Hierarchy in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Allison M W; Ruckwardt, Tracy J; Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Lau-Kilby, Annie W; Graham, Barney S

    2017-01-01

    Young infants are generally more susceptible to viral infections and experience more severe disease than do adults. CD8(+) T cells are important for viral clearance, and although often ineffective in neonates they can be protective when adequately stimulated. Using a murine CB6F1/J hybrid model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we previously demonstrated that the CD8(+) T cell immunodominance hierarchy to two RSV-derived epitopes, K(d)M282-90 and D(b)M187-195, was determined by the age at infection. To determine whether age-dependent RSV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses could be modified through enhanced innate signaling, we used TLR4 or TLR9 agonist treatment at the time of infection, which remarkably changed the neonatal codominant response to an adult-like K(d)M282-90 CD8(+) T cell immunodominant response. This shift was associated with an increase in the number of conventional dendritic cells, CD11b(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells, in the lung-draining lymph node, as well as increased expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86. The magnitude of the K(d)M282-90 CD8(+) T cell response in TLR agonist-treated neonates could be blocked with Abs against CD80 and CD86. These studies demonstrate the age-dependent function of conventional dendritic cells, their role in determining immunodominance hierarchy, and epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell requirements for costimulation, all of which influence the immune response magnitude. The unique impact of TLR agonists on neonatal T cell responses is important to consider for RSV vaccines designed for young infants.

  2. Atomic-level mapping of antibody epitopes on a GPCR.

    PubMed

    Paes, Cheryl; Ingalls, Jada; Kampani, Karan; Sulli, Chidananda; Kakkar, Esha; Murray, Meredith; Kotelnikov, Valery; Greene, Tiffani A; Rucker, Joseph B; Doranz, Benjamin J

    2009-05-27

    Epitopes that define the immunodominant regions of conformationally complex integral membrane proteins have been difficult to reliably delineate. Here, a high-throughput approach termed shotgun mutagenesis was used to map the binding epitopes of five different monoclonal antibodies targeting the GPCR CCR5. The amino acids, and in some cases the atoms, that comprise the critical contact points of each epitope were identified, defining the immunodominant structures of this GPCR and their physicochemistry.

  3. CD8 epitope escape and reversion in acute HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Timm, Joerg; Lauer, Georg M; Kavanagh, Daniel G; Sheridan, Isabelle; Kim, Arthur Y; Lucas, Michaela; Pillay, Thillagavathie; Ouchi, Kei; Reyor, Laura L; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Chung, Raymond T; Bhardwaj, Nina; Klenerman, Paul; Walker, Bruce D; Allen, Todd M

    2004-12-20

    In the setting of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, robust HCV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses are associated with initial control of viremia. Despite these responses, 70-80% of individuals develop persistent infection. Although viral escape from CD8 responses has been illustrated in the chimpanzee model of HCV infection, the effect of CD8 selection pressure on viral evolution and containment in acute HCV infection in humans remains unclear. Here, we examined viral evolution in an immunodominant human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B8-restricted NS3 epitope in subjects with acute HCV infection. Development of mutations within the epitope coincided with loss of strong ex vivo tetramer and interferon gamma enzyme-linked immunospot responses, and endogenous expression of variant NS3 sequences suggested that the selected mutations altered processing and presentation of the variant epitope. Analysis of NS3 sequences from 30 additional chronic HCV-infected subjects revealed a strong association between sequence variation within this region and expression of HLA-B8, supporting reproducible allele-specific selection pressures at the population level. Interestingly, transmission of an HLA-B8-associated escape mutation to an HLA-B8 negative subject resulted in rapid reversion of the mutation. Together, these data indicate that viral escape from CD8+ T cell responses occurs during human HCV infection and that acute immune selection pressure is of sufficient magnitude to influence HCV evolution.

  4. Positive Selection in CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes of Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein Revealed by a Comparative Analysis of Human and Swine Viral Lineages.

    PubMed

    Machkovech, Heather M; Bedford, Trevor; Suchard, Marc A; Bloom, Jesse D

    2015-11-01

    Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that CD8(+) T cells contribute to immunity against influenza by limiting viral replication. It is therefore surprising that rigorous statistical tests have failed to find evidence of positive selection in the epitopes targeted by CD8(+) T cells. Here we use a novel computational approach to test for selection in CD8(+) T-cell epitopes. We define all epitopes in the nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein (M1) with experimentally identified human CD8(+) T-cell responses and then compare the evolution of these epitopes in parallel lineages of human and swine influenza viruses that have been diverging since roughly 1918. We find a significant enrichment of substitutions that alter human CD8(+) T-cell epitopes in NP of human versus swine influenza virus, consistent with the idea that these epitopes are under positive selection. Furthermore, we show that epitope-altering substitutions in human influenza virus NP are enriched on the trunk versus the branches of the phylogenetic tree, indicating that viruses that acquire these mutations have a selective advantage. However, even in human influenza virus NP, sites in T-cell epitopes evolve more slowly than do nonepitope sites, presumably because these epitopes are under stronger inherent functional constraint. Overall, our work demonstrates that there is clear selection from CD8(+) T cells in human influenza virus NP and illustrates how comparative analyses of viral lineages from different hosts can identify positive selection that is otherwise obscured by strong functional constraint. There is a strong interest in correlates of anti-influenza immunity that are protective against diverse virus strains. CD8(+) T cells provide such broad immunity, since they target conserved viral proteins. An important question is whether T-cell immunity is sufficiently strong to drive influenza virus evolution. Although many studies have shown that T cells limit viral replication in animal

  5. Positive Selection in CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes of Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein Revealed by a Comparative Analysis of Human and Swine Viral Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Machkovech, Heather M.; Bedford, Trevor; Suchard, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that CD8+ T cells contribute to immunity against influenza by limiting viral replication. It is therefore surprising that rigorous statistical tests have failed to find evidence of positive selection in the epitopes targeted by CD8+ T cells. Here we use a novel computational approach to test for selection in CD8+ T-cell epitopes. We define all epitopes in the nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein (M1) with experimentally identified human CD8+ T-cell responses and then compare the evolution of these epitopes in parallel lineages of human and swine influenza viruses that have been diverging since roughly 1918. We find a significant enrichment of substitutions that alter human CD8+ T-cell epitopes in NP of human versus swine influenza virus, consistent with the idea that these epitopes are under positive selection. Furthermore, we show that epitope-altering substitutions in human influenza virus NP are enriched on the trunk versus the branches of the phylogenetic tree, indicating that viruses that acquire these mutations have a selective advantage. However, even in human influenza virus NP, sites in T-cell epitopes evolve more slowly than do nonepitope sites, presumably because these epitopes are under stronger inherent functional constraint. Overall, our work demonstrates that there is clear selection from CD8+ T cells in human influenza virus NP and illustrates how comparative analyses of viral lineages from different hosts can identify positive selection that is otherwise obscured by strong functional constraint. IMPORTANCE There is a strong interest in correlates of anti-influenza immunity that are protective against diverse virus strains. CD8+ T cells provide such broad immunity, since they target conserved viral proteins. An important question is whether T-cell immunity is sufficiently strong to drive influenza virus evolution. Although many studies have shown that T cells limit viral replication in animal

  6. Suppression of Immunodominant Antitumor and Antiviral CD8+ T Cell Responses by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Atef Yekta, Maryam; Szabo, Peter A.; Garg, Nitan; Schell, Todd D.; Jevnikar, Anthony M.; Sharif, Shayan; Singh, Bhagirath; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-degrading enzyme known to suppress antitumor CD8+ T cells (TCD8). The role of IDO in regulation of antiviral TCD8 responses is far less clear. In addition, whether IDO controls both immunodominant and subdominant TCD8 is not fully understood. This is an important question because the dominance status of tumor- and virus-specific TCD8 may determine their significance in protective immunity and in vaccine design. We evaluated the magnitude and breadth of cross-primed TCD8 responses to simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen as well as primary and recall TCD8 responses to influenza A virus (IAV) in the absence or presence of IDO. IDO−/− mice and wild-type mice treated with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a pharmacological inhibitor of IDO, exhibited augmented responses to immunodominant epitopes encoded by T antigen and IAV. IDO-mediated suppression of these responses was independent of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, which remained numerically and functionally intact in IDO−/− mice. Treatment with L-kynurenine failed to inhibit TCD8 responses, indicating that tryptophan metabolites are not responsible for the suppressive effect of IDO in our models. Immunodominant T antigen-specific TCD8 from IDO−/− mice showed increased Ki-67 expression, suggesting that they may have acquired a more vigorous proliferative capacity in vivo. In conclusion, IDO suppresses immunodominant TCD8 responses to tumor and viral antigens. Our work also demonstrates that systemic primary and recall TCD8 responses to IAV are controlled by IDO. Inhibition of IDO thus represents an attractive adjuvant strategy in boosting anticancer and antiviral TCD8 targeting highly immunogenic antigens. PMID:24587363

  7. Relation between viral fitness and immune escape within the hepatitis C virus protease.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, J; Ahlén, G; Kaul, A; Frelin, L; Alheim, M; Barnfield, C; Liljeström, P; Weiland, O; Milich, D R; Bartenschlager, R; Sällberg, M

    2006-02-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) mutates within human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted immunodominant epitopes of the non-structural (NS) 3/4A protease to escape cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition and promote viral persistence. However, variability is not unlimited, and sometimes almost absent, and factors that restrict viral variability have not been defined experimentally. We wished to explore whether the variability of the immunodominant CTL epitope at residues 1073-1081 of the NS3 protease was limited by viral fitness. Venous blood was obtained from six patients (four HLA-A2+) with chronic HCV infection and from one HLA-A2+ patient with acute HCV infection. NS3/4A genes were amplified from serum, cloned in a eukaryotic expression plasmid, sequenced, and expressed. CTL recognition of naturally occurring and artificially introduced escape mutations in HLA-A2-restricted NS3 epitopes were determined using CTLs from human blood and genetically immunised HLA-A2-transgenic mice. HCV replicons were used to test the effect of escape mutations on HCV protease activity and RNA replication. Sequence analysis of NS3/4A confirmed low genetic variability. The major viral species had functional proteases with 1073-1081 epitopes that were generally recognised by cross reactive human and murine HLA-A2 restricted CTLs. Introduction of mutations at five positions of the 1073-1081 epitope prevented CTL recognition but three of these reduced protease activity and RNA replication. Viral fitness can indeed limit the variability of HCV within immunological epitopes. This helps to explain why certain immunological escape variants never appear as a major viral species in infected humans.

  8. Definition of encephalitogenic and immunodominant epitopes of guinea pig myelin basic protein (Gp-BP) in Lewis rats tolerized neonatally with Gp-BP or Gp-BP peptides.

    PubMed

    Vandenbark, A A; Vainiene, M; Celnik, B; Hashim, G A; Buenafe, A; Offner, H

    1994-07-15

    Two distinct epitopes of guinea pig basic protein (Gp-BP), residues 72-89 and 87-99, possess encephalitogenic activity in Lewis rats. The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree the 87-99 epitope functions in rats that have been injected with whole Gp-BP, and whether additional epitopes in Gp-BP are encephalitogenic. To address these questions, we induced neonatal tolerance to the dominant synthetic (S)72-89 peptide or to the combination of both S72-89 and S87-99 peptides, and evaluated resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by Gp-BP, as well as T cell responses to peptides that encompassed most of the Gp-BP molecule. The results demonstrated that virtually all of the encephalitogenic activity of Gp-BP resides within the two described encephalitogenic epitopes. Moreover, deletion of responses to the dominant epitopes prompted T cell responses to other nonencephalitogenic epitopes of Gp-BP, a pattern of response observed previously in rats that had recovered from EAE and in those protected from EAE by vaccination with TCR peptides. These data may have relevance to human autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis in that naturally or immunologically regulated responses to dominant epitopes that are likely to be encephalitogenic may be obscured by increased responses to relatively innocuous determinants of basic protein. Elevated responses to potentially pathogenic autoantigens will likely involve both types of determinants, thus, underscoring the importance of distinguishing encephalitogenic from nonencephalitogenic determinants.

  9. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71.

    PubMed

    Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S; Toosa, Haryanti; Foo, Hooi Ling; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Arbab, Ali S; Yusoff, Khatijah; Abdul Rahim, Raha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1) gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  10. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S.; Toosa, Haryanti; Foo, Hooi Ling; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Arbab, Ali S.; Yusoff, Khatijah; Abdul Rahim, Raha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1) gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle. PMID:23476790

  11. T cell receptor repertoire for a viral epitope in humans is diversified by tolerance to a background major histocompatibility complex antigen

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Two unusual characteristics of the memory response to the immunodominant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) epitope FLRGRAYGL, which associates with HLA B8, have provided an unique opportunity to investigate self tolerance and T cell receptor (TCR) plasticity in humans. First, the response is exceptionally restricted, dominated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) with identical TCR protein sequences (Argaet, V. P., C. W. Schmidt, S. R. Burrows, S. L. Silins, M. G. Kurilla, D. L. Doolan, A. Suhrbier, D. J. Moss, E. Kieff, T. B. Sculley, and I. S. Misko. 1994. J. Exp. Med. 180:2335-2340). Second, CTL expressing this receptor are cross-reactive with the alloantigen HLA B* 4402 on uninfected cells (Burrows, S. R., R. Khanna, J. M. Burrows, and D. J. Moss. 1994. J. Exp. Med. 179:1155-1161). No CTL using this conserved public TCR could be reactivated from the peripheral blood of EBV exposed individuals expressing both HLA B8 and B*4402, demonstrating the clonal inactivation of potentially self- reactive T cells in humans. A significant FLRGRAYGL-specific response was still apparent, however, and TCR sequence analysis of multiple CTL clones revealed an oligoclonal TCR repertoire for this determinant within these individuals, using diverse V and J gene segments and CDR3 regions. In addition, a significant public TCR component was identified in which several distinct alpha/beta rearrangements are shared by CTL clones from a number of unrelated HLA B8+, B*4402+ donors. The striking dominance of public TCR in the response to this EBV epitope suggests a strong genetic bias in TCR gene recombination. Fine specificity analysis using peptide analogues showed that, of six different antigen receptors for FLRGRAYGL/HLA B8, none associate closely with the peptide's full array of potential TCR contact residues. Whereas the HLA B*4402-cross-reactive receptor binds amino acids toward the COOH terminus of the peptide, others preferentially favor an NH2-terminal determinant, presumably evading an area

  12. Early immunization induces persistent tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells against an immunodominant epitope and promotes lifelong control of pancreatic tumor progression in SV40 tumor antigen transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Otahal, Pavel; Schell, Todd D; Hutchinson, Sandra C; Knowles, Barbara B; Tevethia, Satvir S

    2006-09-01

    The ability to recruit the host's CD8+ T lymphocytes (T(CD8)) against cancer is often limited by the development of peripheral tolerance toward the dominant tumor-associated Ags. Because multiple epitopes derived from a given tumor Ag (T Ag) can be targeted by T(CD8), vaccine approaches should be directed toward those T(CD8) that are more likely to survive under conditions of persistent Ag expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of peripheral tolerance on the endogenous T(CD8) response toward two epitopes, designated epitopes I and IV, from the SV40 large T Ag. Using rat insulin promoter (RIP) 1-Tag4 transgenic mice that express T Ag from the RIP and develop pancreatic insulinomas, we demonstrate that epitope IV- but not epitope I-specific T(CD8) are maintained long term in tumor-bearing RIP1-Tag4 mice. Even large numbers of TCR-transgenic T cells specific for epitope I were rapidly eliminated from RIP1-Tag4 mice after adoptive transfer and recognition of the endogenous T Ag. Importantly, immunization of RIP1-Tag4 mice at 5 wk of age against epitope IV resulted in complete protection from tumor progression over a 2-year period despite continued expression of T Ag in the pancreas. This extensive control of tumor progression was associated with the persistence of functional epitope IV-specific T(CD8) within the pancreas for the lifetime of the mice without the development of diabetes. This study indicates that an equilibrium is reached in which immune surveillance for spontaneous cancer can be achieved for the lifespan of the host while maintaining normal organ function.

  13. Costimulatory Effects of an Immunodominant Parasite Antigen Paradoxically Prevent Induction of Optimal CD8 T Cell Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Jose R.; Motz, R. Geoffrey; Sullivan, Nicole L.; Gohara, David W.; Blase, Jennifer R.; Di Cera, Enrico; Hoft, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is controlled but not eliminated by host immunity. The T. cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) gene superfamily encodes immunodominant protective antigens, but expression of altered peptide ligands by different TS genes has been hypothesized to promote immunoevasion. We molecularly defined TS epitopes to determine their importance for protection versus parasite persistence. Peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination experiments demonstrated that one pair of immunodominant CD4+ and CD8+ TS peptides alone can induce protective immunity (100% survival post-lethal parasite challenge). TS DNA vaccines have been shown by us (and others) to protect BALB/c mice against T. cruzi challenge. We generated a new TS vaccine in which the immunodominant TS CD8+ epitope MHC anchoring positions were mutated, rendering the mutant TS vaccine incapable of inducing immunity to the immunodominant CD8 epitope. Immunization of mice with wild type (WT) and mutant TS vaccines demonstrated that vaccines encoding enzymatically active protein and the immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope enhance subdominant pathogen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. More specifically, CD8+ T cells from WT TS DNA vaccinated mice were responsive to 14 predicted CD8+ TS epitopes, while T cells from mutant TS DNA vaccinated mice were responsive to just one of these 14 predicted TS epitopes. Molecular and structural biology studies revealed that this novel costimulatory mechanism involves CD45 signaling triggered by enzymatically active TS. This enhancing effect on subdominant T cells negatively regulates protective immunity. Using peptide-pulsed DC vaccination experiments, we have shown that vaccines inducing both immunodominant and subdominant epitope responses were significantly less protective than vaccines inducing only immunodominant-specific responses. These results have important implications for T. cruzi vaccine development. Of broader significance, we demonstrate that increasing breadth of T

  14. Costimulatory Effects of an Immunodominant Parasite Antigen Paradoxically Prevent Induction of Optimal CD8 T Cell Protective Immunity.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Christopher S; Zhang, Xiuli; Vasconcelos, Jose R; Motz, R Geoffrey; Sullivan, Nicole L; O'Shea, Kelly; Pozzi, Nicola; Gohara, David W; Blase, Jennifer R; Di Cera, Enrico; Hoft, Daniel F

    2016-09-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is controlled but not eliminated by host immunity. The T. cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) gene superfamily encodes immunodominant protective antigens, but expression of altered peptide ligands by different TS genes has been hypothesized to promote immunoevasion. We molecularly defined TS epitopes to determine their importance for protection versus parasite persistence. Peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination experiments demonstrated that one pair of immunodominant CD4+ and CD8+ TS peptides alone can induce protective immunity (100% survival post-lethal parasite challenge). TS DNA vaccines have been shown by us (and others) to protect BALB/c mice against T. cruzi challenge. We generated a new TS vaccine in which the immunodominant TS CD8+ epitope MHC anchoring positions were mutated, rendering the mutant TS vaccine incapable of inducing immunity to the immunodominant CD8 epitope. Immunization of mice with wild type (WT) and mutant TS vaccines demonstrated that vaccines encoding enzymatically active protein and the immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope enhance subdominant pathogen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. More specifically, CD8+ T cells from WT TS DNA vaccinated mice were responsive to 14 predicted CD8+ TS epitopes, while T cells from mutant TS DNA vaccinated mice were responsive to just one of these 14 predicted TS epitopes. Molecular and structural biology studies revealed that this novel costimulatory mechanism involves CD45 signaling triggered by enzymatically active TS. This enhancing effect on subdominant T cells negatively regulates protective immunity. Using peptide-pulsed DC vaccination experiments, we have shown that vaccines inducing both immunodominant and subdominant epitope responses were significantly less protective than vaccines inducing only immunodominant-specific responses. These results have important implications for T. cruzi vaccine development. Of broader significance, we demonstrate that increasing breadth of T

  15. Conservancy of mAb Epitopes in Ebolavirus Glycoproteins of Previous and 2014 Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Julia; Vaughan, Kerrie; Sette, Alessandro; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are being evaluated as treatment options for the current 2014 Ebola outbreak. But they were derived from and tested for protection against the older 1976 Mayinga or 1995 Kikwit Zaire Ebolaviruses (EBOV). The EBOV sequences reported for the current outbreak contain several mutations whose significance remained to be established. Methods: We analyzed sequence and structural conservation of the Ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) epitopes for all experimentally identified protective mAbs published to date. Results: The conservancy analysis of protective mAb epitopes in the Ebolavirus glycoprotein sequences spanning all Ebola virus lineages since 1976 showed that conservancy within the Zaire EBOV lineage was high, with only one immunodominant epitope of mAb 13F6-1-2 acquiring two novel mutations in the 2014 outbreak that might potentially change the antibody specificity and neutralization activity. However, the conservation to other Ebola viruses was unexpectedly low. Conclusion: Low conservancy of Zaire EBOV mAb epitopes to other EBOV lineages suggests that these epitopes are not indispensable for viral fitness, and that alternative mAbs could be developed to broadly target all EBOV. However, average percent sequence identity of the epitopes for mAbs used in current cocktails to the Zaire EBOV is high with only one epitope differing in the 2014 outbreak. These data bode well for general usefulness of these antibodies in the context of the current outbreak. PMID:25642381

  16. Systematic identification of immunodominant CD8+ T-cell responses to influenza A virus in HLA-A2 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Zanker, Damien; Valkenburg, Sophie; Kedzierska, Katherine; Zou, Quan Ming; Doherty, Peter C.; Chen, Weisan

    2011-01-01

    Immunodominant T-cell responses are important for virus clearance. However, the identification of immunodominant T-cell peptide + HLA glycoprotein epitopes has been hindered by the extent of HLA polymorphism and the limitations of predictive algorithms. A simple, systematic approach has been used here to screen for immunodominant CD8+ T-cell specificities. The analysis targeted healthy HLA-A2+ donors to allow comparison with responses to the well-studied influenza matrix protein 1 epitope. Although influenza matrix protein 1 was consistently detected in all individual samples in our study, the response to this epitope was only immunodominant in three of eight, whereas for the other five, prominent CD8+ T-cell responses tended to focus on various peptides from the influenza nucleoprotein that were not presented by HLA-A2. Importantly, with the four immunodominant T-cell epitopes identified here, only one would have been detected by the current prediction programs. The other three peptides would have been either considered too long or classified as not containing typical HLA binding motifs. Our data stress the importance of systematic analysis for discovering HLA-dependent, immunodominant CD8+ T-cell epitopes derived from viruses and tumors. Focusing on HLA-A2 and predictive algorithms may be too limiting as we seek to develop targeted immunotherapy and vaccine strategies that depend on T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:21562214

  17. Correlates of spontaneous viral control among long-term survivors of perinatal HIV-1 infection expressing HLA-B57

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Yanhua; HUANG, SiHong; DUNKLEY-THOMPSON, Jacqueline; STEEL-DUNCAN, Julianne C.; RYLAND, Elizabeth G.; JOHN, M. Anne ST.; HAZRA, Rohan; CHRISTIE, Celia D. C.; FEENEY, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to identify immunologic and virologic correlates of spontaneous viral control among long-term survivors of perinatal HIV infection expressing the protective HLA-B57 allele. Design The frequency, epitope specificity, and functional attributes of HIV-specific T cells and sequence variation within B57-restricted epitopes were compared between “spontaneous controllers” who maintained normal CD4 percentages and viral loads <3000 copies/ml without antiretroviral therapy, and “treated progressors” who had initiated HAART. Methods Recognition of HIV optimal epitopes was assessed by IFNγ Elispot. Functional characterization of CD8 cells targeting B57 epitopes was performed by staining for cytokine production (intracellular IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα) and degranulation. Sequencing of autologous RNA was performed to determine the prevalence of viral escape mutations within B57-restricted epitopes and associated compensatory mutations. Results HLA-B57 remained immunodominant during chronic infection in both controllers and progressors, but controllers recognized fewer epitopes and targeted epitopes within Gag and RT only, whereas progressors demonstrated a broader response targeting additional proteins. No individual epitope was targeted more frequently by spontaneous controllers. CD8 cytokine production patterns were heterogeneous among individuals and even among different epitopes in the same individual, and did not correlate with spontaneous viral control. Extensive sequence variation within B57 epitopes was observed in both groups, but only progressors displayed additional capsid mutations that are known to offset the viral fitness cost of B57-driven immune escape. Conclusions Among HLA-B57+ long-term survivors, spontaneous control of viremia is not associated with a qualitatively or quantitatively superior T cell response, but with uncompensated fitness-attenuating mutations in the viral capsid. PMID:20539088

  18. Dengue virus-reactive CD8+ T cells display quantitative and qualitative differences in their response to variant epitopes of heterologous viral serotypes.

    PubMed

    Bashyam, Hema S; Green, Sharone; Rothman, Alan L

    2006-03-01

    Reactivation of serotype cross-reactive CD8+ memory T lymphocytes is thought to contribute to the immunopathogenesis of dengue disease during secondary infection by a heterologous serotype. Using cytokine flow cytometry, we have defined four novel HLA-A*02-restricted dengue viral epitopes recognized by up to 1.5% of circulating CD8+ T cells in four donors after primary vaccination. All four donors had the highest cytokine response to the epitope NS4b 2353. We also studied the effect of sequence differences in heterologous dengue serotypes on dengue-reactive CD8+ memory T cell cytokine and proliferative responses. The D3 variant of a different NS4b epitope 2423 and the D2 variant of the NS4a epitope 2148 induced the largest cytokine response, compared with their respective heterologous sequences in all donors regardless of the primary vaccination serotype. Stimulation with variant peptides also altered the relative frequencies of the various subsets of cells that expressed IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, MIP-1beta, and combinations of these cytokines. These results indicate that the prior infection history of the individual as well as the serotypes of the primary and heterologous secondary viruses influence the nature of the secondary response. These differences in the effector functions of serotype cross-reactive memory T cells induced by heterologous variant epitopes, which are both quantitative and qualitative, may contribute to the clinical outcome of secondary dengue infection.

  19. Prediction of G gene epitopes of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus and eukaryotic expression of major antigen determinant sequence.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Yin, W-L; Fang, B-H; Wang, Q; Liang, C-Z; Yue, Z-Q

    2017-08-15

    This study aims to express fish Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) G main antigen domain by using Bac-to-bac expression system. Using bioinformatics tools, B cell epitope of VHSV G gene was predicted, and G main antigen domain was optimized. GM gene was inserted into pFastBac1 vector, then transferred recombinant plasmid into DH10Bac to get recombinant rBacmid-GM. Obtained shuttle plasmid rBacmid-GM was transfected into sf9 cells. GM expression was examined using by PCR and western-blot. Results indicated that G main antigen domain gene of VHSV was successfully cloned and sequenced which contains 1209 bp. PCR proved that shuttle plasmid rBacmid-GM was constructed correctly. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis analysis detected a band of protein about 45kD in expression product of G gene. Obtained recombinant G protein reacted with VHSV-positive serum that was substantiated by western-blot analysis. In conclusion, the main antigen domain of VHSV G was successfully expressed in the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus system.

  20. Peptide-pulsed dendritic cells induce the hepatitis C viral epitope-specific responses of naïve human T cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sasmita; Losikoff, Phyllis T; Self, Alyssa A; Terry, Frances; Ardito, Matthew T; Tassone, Ryan; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S; Gregory, Stephen H

    2014-05-30

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. Spontaneous resolution of infection is associated with broad, MHC class I- (CD8(+)) and class II-restricted (CD4(+)) T cell responses to multiple viral epitopes. Only 20% of patients clear infection spontaneously, however, most develop chronic disease. The response to chemotherapy varies; therapeutic vaccination offers an additional treatment strategy. To date, therapeutic vaccines have demonstrated only limited success in clinical trials. Vector-mediated vaccination with multi-epitope-expressing DNA constructs provides an improved approach. Highly-conserved, HLA-A2-restricted HCV epitopes and HLA-DRB1-restricted immunogenic consensus sequences (ICS, each composed of multiple overlapping and highly conserved epitopes) were predicted using bioinformatics tools and synthesized as peptides. HLA binding activity was determined in competitive binding assays. Immunogenicity and the ability of each peptide to stimulate naïve human T cell recognition and IFN-γ production were assessed in cultures of total PBMCs and in co-cultures composed of peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) and purified T lymphocytes, cell populations derived from normal blood donors. Essentially all predicted HLA-A2-restricted epitopes and HLA-DRB1-restricted ICS exhibited HLA binding activity and the ability to elicit immune recognition and IFN-γ production by naïve human T cells. The ability of DCs pulsed with these highly-conserved HLA-A2- and -DRB1-restricted peptides to induce naïve human T cell reactivity and IFN-γ production ex vivo demonstrates the potential efficacy of a multi-epitope-based HCV vaccine targeted to dendritic cells.

  1. Variable processing and cross-presentation of HIV by dendritic cells and macrophages shapes CTL immunodominance and immune escape.

    PubMed

    Dinter, Jens; Duong, Ellen; Lai, Nicole Y; Berberich, Matthew J; Kourjian, Georgio; Bracho-Sanchez, Edith; Chu, Duong; Su, Hang; Zhang, Shao Chong; Le Gall, Sylvie

    2015-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Møs) internalize and process exogenous HIV-derived antigens for cross-presentation by MHC-I to cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells (CTL). However, how degradation patterns of HIV antigens in the cross-presentation pathways affect immunodominance and immune escape is poorly defined. Here, we studied the processing and cross-presentation of dominant and subdominant HIV-1 Gag-derived epitopes and HLA-restricted mutants by monocyte-derived DCs and Møs. The cross-presentation of HIV proteins by both DCs and Møs led to higher CTL responses specific for immunodominant epitopes. The low CTL responses to subdominant epitopes were increased by pretreatment of target cells with peptidase inhibitors, suggestive of higher intracellular degradation of the corresponding peptides. Using DC and Mø cell extracts as a source of cytosolic, endosomal or lysosomal proteases to degrade long HIV peptides, we identified by mass spectrometry cell-specific and compartment-specific degradation patterns, which favored the production of peptides containing immunodominant epitopes in all compartments. The intracellular stability of optimal HIV-1 epitopes prior to loading onto MHC was highly variable and sequence-dependent in all compartments, and followed CTL hierarchy with immunodominant epitopes presenting higher stability rates. Common HLA-associated mutations in a dominant epitope appearing during acute HIV infection modified the degradation patterns of long HIV peptides, reduced intracellular stability and epitope production in cross-presentation-competent cell compartments, showing that impaired epitope production in the cross-presentation pathway contributes to immune escape. These findings highlight the contribution of degradation patterns in the cross-presentation pathway to HIV immunodominance and provide the first demonstration of immune escape affecting epitope cross-presentation.

  2. A Novel CD8-Independent High-Avidity Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Response Directed against an Epitope in the Phosphoprotein of the Paramyxovirus Simian Virus 5

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter M.; Parks, Griffith D.; Alexander-Miller, Martha A.

    2001-01-01

    Adoptive transfer studies have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) of high avidity, capable of recognizing low levels of peptide-MHC I molecules, are more efficient at reducing viral titers than are low-avidity CTL, thus establishing CTL avidity as a critical parameter for the ability of a CTL to clear virus in vivo. It has been well documented that CTL of high avidity are relatively CD8 independent, whereas low-avidity CTL require CD8 engagement in order to become activated. In this study we have analyzed the antiviral CTL response elicited following infection with the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5). We have identified the immunodominant and subdominant CTL responses and subsequently assessed the avidity of these responses by their CD8 dependence. This is the first study in which the relationship between immunodominance and CTL avidity has been investigated. The immunodominant response was directed against an epitope present in the viral M protein, and subdominant responses were directed against epitopes present in the P, F, and HN proteins. Similarly to other CTL responses we have analyzed, the immunodominant response and the subdominant F and HN responses were comprised of both high- and low-avidity CTL. However, the subdominant response directed against the epitope present in the P protein is novel, as it is exclusively high avidity. This high-avidity response is independent of both the route of infection and expression by recombinant SV5. A further understanding of the inherent properties of P that elicit only high-avidity CTL may allow for the design of more efficacious vaccine vectors that preferentially elicit high-avidity CTL in vivo. PMID:11581375

  3. Mechanistic Basis for Epitope Proofreading in the Peptide-Loading Complex.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Gerda; Fisette, Olivier; Thomas, Christoph; Wieneke, Ralph; Tumulka, Franz; Schneeweiss, Clemens; Springer, Sebastian; Schäfer, Lars V; Tampé, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The peptide-loading complex plays a pivotal role in Ag processing and is thus central to the efficient immune recognition of virally and malignantly transformed cells. The underlying mechanism by which MHC class I (MHC I) molecules sample immunodominant peptide epitopes, however, remains poorly understood. In this article, we delineate the interaction between tapasin (Tsn) and MHC I molecules. We followed the process of peptide editing in real time after ultra-fast photoconversion to pseudoempty MHC I molecules. Tsn discriminates between MHC I loaded with optimal and MHC I bound to suboptimal cargo. This differential interaction is key to understanding the kinetics of epitope proofreading. To elucidate the underlying mechanism at the atomic level, we modeled the Tsn/MHC I complex using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We present a catalytic working cycle, in which Tsn binds to MHC I with suboptimal cargo and thereby adjusts the energy landscape in favor of MHC I complexes with immunodominant epitopes. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy as a sensitive and useful tool for revealing potential overlaps between the epitopes of monoclonal antibodies on viral particles.

    PubMed

    Richert, Ludovic; Humbert, Nicolas; Larquet, Eric; Girerd-Chambaz, Yves; Manin, Catherine; Ronzon, Frédéric; Mély, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Although the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is well established for quantitating epitopes on inactivated virions used as vaccines, it is less suited for detecting potential overlaps between the epitopes recognized by different antibodies raised against the virions. We used fluorescent correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to detect the potential overlaps between 3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 4B7-1H8-2E10, 1E3-3G4, 4H8-3A12-2D3) selected for their ability to specifically recognize poliovirus type 3. Competition of the Alexa488-labeled mAbs with non-labeled mAbs revealed that mAbs 4B7-1H8-2E10 and 4H8-3A12-2D3 compete strongly for their binding sites on the virions, suggesting an important overlap of their epitopes. This was confirmed by the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo EM) structure of the poliovirus type 3 complexed with the corresponding antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) of the mAbs, which revealed that Fabs 4B7-1H8-2E10 and 4H8-3A12-2D3 epitopes share common amino acids. In contrast, a less efficient competition between mAb 1E3-3G4 and mAb 4H8-3A12-2D3 was observed by FCS, and there was no competition between mAbs 1E3-3G4 and 4B7-1H8-2E10. The Fab 1E3-3G4 epitope was found by cryoEM to be close to but distinct from the epitopes of both Fabs 4H8-3A12-2D3 and 4B7-1H8-2E10. Therefore, the FCS data additionally suggest that mAbs 4H8-3A12-2D3 and 4B7-1H8-2E10 bind in a different orientation to their epitopes, so that only the former sterically clashes with the mAb 1E3-3G4 bound to its epitope. Our results demonstrate that FCS can be a highly sensitive and useful tool for assessing the potential overlap of mAbs on viral particles.

  5. Immunization with cross-conserved H1N1 influenza CD4+ T-cell epitopes lowers viral burden in HLA DR3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Moise, Leonard; Tassone, Ryan; Latimer, Howard; Terry, Frances; Levitz, Lauren; Haran, John P; Ross, Ted M; Boyle, Christine M; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of the pandemic H1N1 strain of influenza in 2009 was associated with a unique w-shaped age-related susceptibility curve, with higher incidence of morbidity and mortality among young persons and lower incidence among older persons, also observed during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Pre-existing H1N1 antibodies were not cross-reactive with the prior seasonal vaccine, forcing influenza experts to scramble to develop a new vaccine specific for the pandemic virus. We hypothesized that response to T-cell epitopes that are cross-conserved between pandemic H1N1 and the 2008 seasonal influenza vaccine strains might have contributed to partial protection from clinical illness among older adults, despite the lack of cross-reactive humoral immunity. Using immunoinformatics tools, we previously identified hemagglutinin and neuraminidase epitopes that were highly conserved between seasonal and pandemic H1N1. Here, we validated predicted CD4(+) T-cell epitopes for their ability to bind HLA and to stimulate interferon-γ production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a cohort of donors presenting with influenza-like illness during the 2009 pandemic and a separate cohort immunized with trivalent influenza vaccine in 2011. A limited-epitope heterologous DNA-prime/peptide-boost vaccine composed of these sequences stimulated immune responses and lowered lung viral loads in HLA DR3 transgenic mice challenged with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza. Cross-priming with conserved influenza T-cell epitopes such as these may be critically important to T cell-mediated protection against pandemic H1N1 in the absence of cross-protective antibodies.

  6. Identification of a Highly Conserved H1 Subtype-Specific Epitope with Diagnostic Potential in the Hemagglutinin Protein of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Wu, Chao; Gonzalez, Richard; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vernet, Guy; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Subtype specificity of influenza A virus (IAV) is determined by its two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). For HA, 16 distinct subtypes (H1–H16) exist, while nine exist for NA. The epidemic strains of H1N1 IAV change frequently and cause annual seasonal epidemics as well as occasional pandemics, such as the notorious 1918 influenza pandemic. The recent introduction of pandemic A/H1N1 IAV (H1N1pdm virus) into humans re-emphasizes the public health concern about H1N1 IAV. Several studies have identified conserved epitopes within specific HA subtypes that can be used for diagnostics. However, immune specific epitopes in H1N1 IAV have not been completely assessed. In this study, linear epitopes on the H1N1pdm viral HA protein were identified by peptide scanning using libraries of overlapping peptides against convalescent sera from H1N1pdm patients. One epitope, P5 (aa 58–72) was found to be immunodominant in patients and to evoke high titer antibodies in mice. Multiple sequence alignments and in silico coverage analysis showed that this epitope is highly conserved in influenza H1 HA [with a coverage of 91.6% (9,860/10,767)] and almost completely absent in other subtypes [with a coverage of 3.3% (792/23,895)]. This previously unidentified linear epitope is located outside the five well-recognized antigenic sites in HA. A peptide ELISA method based on this epitope was developed and showed high correlation (χ2 = 51.81, P<0.01, Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.741) with a hemagglutination inhibition test. The highly conserved H1 subtype-specific immunodominant epitope may form the basis for developing novel assays for sero-diagnosis and active surveillance against H1N1 IAVs. PMID:21886787

  7. The immunodominant proteins of reticuloendotheliosis virus.

    PubMed

    Davidson, I; Yang, H; Witter, R L; Malkinson, M

    1996-04-01

    The antigenic profiles of three REV prototype strains, CSV, SNV and REV-T and eight Israeli isolates were analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with convalescent chicken serum, three mAbs, 11A25, 11C237 and 11C100, a rabbit antiserum to REV-T whole virus (Cui et al., 1986) and a rabbit antiserum to REV-A p30 gag protein (Tsai et al., 1985). Under both reducing (+DTT) and non-reducing conditions of SDS-PAGE, a major immunodominant 75-100 kDa band was shared by all strains examined. In contrast to the chicken serum that recognized both continuous and discontinuous epitopes on the 75-100 kDa band of all the isolates, the mAbs and the two rabbit sera behaved otherwise. Only the DTT-resistant epitopes on the 75-100 kDa band of REV-T were recognized by the rabbit antisera and the mAb 11C237, and only the DTT-labile epitopes of REV-T 75-100 kDa antigen were detected by mAb 11C100. The two mAbs 11A25 and 11C237 detected discontinuous epitopes of all the strains except SNV, while the rabbit antisera recognized the discontinuous epitopes on the 75-100 kDa band of all the 11 strains. The rabbit antisera and mAb 11C237 detected additional lower molecular weight proteins and the mAb 11C237 also detected three proteins of high molecular weight under non-reducing conditions only. The p30 antiserum detected the low molecular weight proteins demonstrating their gag gene-encoded identity. From these results we conclude that the major immunogen of REV is the 75-100 kDa protein that contains both continuous and discontinuous epitopes. With this panel of antibodies the eight new isolates appeared to belong antigenically to REV subtype 3 (Chen et al., 1987).

  8. Dengue Virus prM-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies with Virus Replication-Enhancing Properties Recognize a Single Immunodominant Antigenic Site

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott A.; Nivarthi, Usha K.; de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Kose, Nurgun; Sapparapu, Gopal; Bombardi, Robin; Kahle, Kristen M.; Pfaff, Jennifer M.; Lieberman, Sherri; Doranz, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proposed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mechanism for severe dengue virus (DENV) disease suggests that non-neutralizing serotype cross-reactive antibodies generated during a primary infection facilitate entry into Fc receptor bearing cells during secondary infection, resulting in enhanced viral replication and severe disease. One group of cross-reactive antibodies that contributes considerably to this serum profile target the premembrane (prM) protein. We report here the isolation of a large panel of naturally occurring human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) obtained from subjects following primary DENV serotype 1, 2, or 3 or secondary natural DENV infections or following primary DENV serotype 1 live attenuated virus vaccination to determine the antigenic landscape on the prM protein that is recognized by human antibodies. We isolated 25 prM-reactive human MAbs, encoded by diverse antibody-variable genes. Competition-binding studies revealed that all of the antibodies bound to a single major antigenic site on prM. Alanine scanning-based shotgun mutagenesis epitope mapping studies revealed diverse patterns of fine specificity of various clones, suggesting that different antibodies use varied binding poses to recognize several overlapping epitopes within the immunodominant site. Several of the antibodies interacted with epitopes on both prM and E protein residues. Despite the diverse genetic origins of the antibodies and differences in the fine specificity of their epitopes, each of these prM-reactive antibodies was capable of enhancing the DENV infection of Fc receptor-bearing cells. IMPORTANCE Antibodies may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of enhanced DENV infection and disease during secondary infections. A substantial proportion of enhancing antibodies generated in response to natural dengue infection are directed toward the prM protein. The fine specificity of human prM antibodies is not understood. Here, we isolated a panel of dengue pr

  9. A vaccine-elicited, single viral epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response does not protect against intravenous, cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Yasutomi, Y; Koenig, S; Woods, R M; Madsen, J; Wassef, N M; Alving, C R; Klein, H J; Nolan, T E; Boots, L J; Kessler, J A

    1995-01-01

    Protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge was assessed in rhesus monkeys with a vaccine-elicited, single SIV epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in the absence of SIV-specific antibody. Strategies were first explored for eliciting an optimal SIV Gag epitope-specific CTL response. These studies were performed in rhesus monkeys expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene Mamu-A*01, a haplotype associated with a predominant SIV CTL epitope mapped to residues 182 to 190 of the Gag protein (p11C). We demonstrated that a combined modality immunization strategy using a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG-SIV Gag construct for priming, and peptide formulated in liposome for boosting, elicited a greater p11C-specific CTL response than did a single immunization with peptide-liposome alone. Vaccinated and control monkeys were then challenged with cell-free SIVmne by an intravenous route of inoculation. Despite a vigorous p11C-specific CTL response at the time of virus inoculation, all monkeys became infected with SIV. gag gene sequencing of the virus isolated from these monkeys demonstrated that the established viruses had no mutations in the p11C-coding region. Thus, the preexisting CTL response did not select for a viral variant that might escape T-cell immune recognition. These studies demonstrate that a potent SIV-specific CTL response can be elicited by combining live vector and peptide vaccine modalities. However, a single SIV Gag epitope-specific CTL response in the absence of SIV-specific antibody did not provide protection against a cell-free, intravenous SIV challenge. PMID:7884874

  10. A DNA vaccine encoding foot-and-mouth disease virus B and T-cell epitopes targeted to class II swine leukocyte antigens protects pigs against viral challenge.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Belén; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Dominguez, Javier; Pérez-Filgueira, Mariano; Escribano, José M; Sobrino, Francisco; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2011-11-01

    Development of efficient and safer vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a must. Previous results obtained in our laboratory have demonstrated that DNA vaccines encoding B and T cell epitopes from type C FMDV, efficiently controlled virus replication in mice, while they did not protect against FMDV challenge in pigs, one of the FMDV natural hosts. The main finding of this work is the ability to improve the protection afforded in swine using a new DNA-vaccine prototype (pCMV-APCH1BTT), encoding FMDV B and T-cell epitopes fused to the single-chain variable fragment of the 1F12 mouse monoclonal antibody that recognizes Class-II Swine Leukocyte antigens. Half of the DNA-immunized pigs were fully protected upon viral challenge, while the remaining animals were partially protected, showing a delayed, shorter and milder disease than control pigs. Full protection in a given vaccinated-pig correlated with the induction of specific IFNγ-secreting T-cells, detectable prior to FMDV-challenge, together with a rapid development of neutralizing antibodies after viral challenge, pointing towards the relevance that both arms of the immune response can play in protection. Our results open new avenues for developing future FMDV subunit vaccines.

  11. Putative phage-display epitopes of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus S1 protein and their anti-viral activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a pathogen of swine that causes severe diarrhea and dehydration resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality in newborn piglets. Phage display is a technique with wide application, in particular, the identification of key antigen epitopes for the develop...

  12. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi restricts the repertoire of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells leading to immunodominance.

    PubMed

    Tzelepis, Fanny; de Alencar, Bruna C G; Penido, Marcus L O; Claser, Carla; Machado, Alexandre V; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2008-02-01

    Interference or competition between CD8(+) T cells restricted by distinct MHC-I molecules can be a powerful means to establish an immunodominant response. However, its importance during infections is still questionable. In this study, we describe that following infection of mice with the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, an immunodominant CD8(+) T cell immune response is developed directed to an H-2K(b)-restricted epitope expressed by members of the trans-sialidase family of surface proteins. To determine whether this immunodominance was exerted over other non-H-2K(b)-restricted epitopes, we measured during infection of heterozygote mice, immune responses to three distinct epitopes, all expressed by members of the trans-sialidase family, recognized by H-2K(b)-, H-2K(k)-, or H-2K(d)-restricted CD8(+) T cells. Infected heterozygote or homozygote mice displayed comparably strong immune responses to the H-2K(b)-restricted immunodominant epitope. In contrast, H-2K(k)- or H-2K(d)-restricted immune responses were significantly impaired in heterozygote infected mice when compared with homozygote ones. This interference was not dependent on the dose of parasite or the timing of infection. Also, it was not seen in heterozygote mice immunized with recombinant adenoviruses expressing T. cruzi Ags. Finally, we observed that the immunodominance was circumvented by concomitant infection with two T. cruzi strains containing distinct immunodominant epitopes, suggesting that the operating mechanism most likely involves competition of T cells for limiting APCs. This type of interference never described during infection with a human parasite may represent a sophisticated strategy to restrict priming of CD8(+) T cells of distinct specificities, avoiding complete pathogen elimination by host effector cells, and thus favoring host parasitism.

  13. Cooperation between Strain-Specific and Broadly Neutralizing Responses Limited Viral Escape and Prolonged the Exposure of the Broadly Neutralizing Epitope.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Colin; York, Talita; Bekker, Valerie; Matten, David; Selhorst, Philippe; Ferreria, Roux-Cil; Garrett, Nigel J; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Morris, Lynn; Wood, Natasha T; Moore, Penny L; Williamson, Carolyn

    2017-09-15

    V3-glycan-targeting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are a focus of HIV-1 vaccine development. Understanding the viral dynamics that stimulate the development of these antibodies can provide insights for immunogen design. We used a deep-sequencing approach, together with neutralization phenotyping, to investigate the rate and complexity of escape from V3-glycan-directed bNAbs compared to overlapping early strain-specific neutralizing antibody (ssNAb) responses to the V3/C3 region in donor CAP177. Escape from the ssNAb response occurred rapidly via an N334-to-N332 glycan switch, which took just 7.5 weeks to reach >50% frequency. In contrast, escape from the bNAbs was mediated via multiple pathways and took longer, with escape first occurring through an increase in V1 loop length, which took 46 weeks to reach 50% frequency, followed by an N332-to-N334 reversion, which took 66 weeks. Importantly, bNAb escape was incomplete, with contemporaneous neutralization observed up to 3 years postinfection. Both the ssNAb response and the bNAb response were modulated by the presence/absence of the N332 glycan, indicating an overlap between the two epitopes. Thus, selective pressure by ssNAbs to maintain the N332 glycan may have constrained the bNAb escape pathway. This slower and incomplete viral escape resulted in prolonged exposure of the bNAb epitope, which may in turn have aided the maturation of the bNAb lineage.IMPORTANCE The development of an HIV-1 vaccine is of paramount importance, and broadly neutralizing antibodies are likely to be a key component of a protective vaccine. The V3-glycan-targeting bNAb responses are among the most promising vaccine targets, as they are commonly elicited during infection. Understanding the interplay between viral evolution and the development of these antibodies provides insights that may guide immunogen design. Our work contrasted the dynamics of the early strain-specific antibodies and the later broadly neutralizing responses to

  14. Epitope peptides and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Soichi

    2007-02-01

    Allergic diseases affect atopic individuals, who synthesize specific Immunoglobulins E (IgE) to environmental allergens, usually proteins or glycoproteins. These allergens include grass and tree pollens, indoor allergens such as house dust mites and animal dander, and various foods. Because allergen-specific IgE antibodies are the main effector molecules in the immune response to allergens, many studies have focused on the identification of IgE-binding epitopes (called B cell epitopes), specific and minimum regions of allergen molecules that binds to IgE. Our initial studies have provided evidence that only four to five amino acid residues are enough to comprise an epitope, since pentapeptide QQQPP in wheat glutenin is minimally required for IgE binding. Afterwards, various kinds of B cell epitope structures have been clarified. Such information contributes greatly not only to the elucidation of the etiology of allergy, but also to the development of strategies for the treatment and prevention of allergy. Allergen-specific T cells also play an important role in allergy and are obvious targets for intervention in the disease. Currently, the principle approach is to modify B cell epitopes to prevent IgE binding while preserving T cell epitopes to retain the capacity for immunotherapy. There is mounting evidence that the administration of peptide(s) containing immunodominant T cell epitopes from an allergen can induce T cell nonresponsiveness (immunotherapy). There have been clinical studies of peptide immunotherapy performed, the most promising being for bee venom sensitivity. Clinical trials of immunotherapy for cat allergen peptide have also received attention. An alternative strategy for the generation of an effective but hypoallergenic preparation for immunotherapy is to modify T cell epitope peptides by, for example, single amino acid substitution. In this article, I will present an overview of epitopes related to allergic disease, particularly stress on

  15. Long-Term Immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi in the Absence of Immunodominant trans-Sialidase-Specific CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Charles S.; Zhang, Weibo; Bustamante, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection drives the expansion of remarkably focused CD8+ T cell responses targeting epitopes encoded by variant trans-sialidase (TS) genes. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with T. cruzi results in up to 40% of all CD8+ T cells committed to recognition of the dominant TSKB20 and subdominant TSKB18 TS epitopes. However, despite this enormous response, these mice fail to clear T. cruzi infection and subsequently develop chronic disease. One possible reason for the failure to cure T. cruzi infection is that immunodomination by these TS-specific T cells may interfere with alternative CD8+ T cell responses more capable of complete parasite elimination. To address this possibility, we created transgenic mice that are centrally tolerant to these immunodominant epitopes. Mice expressing TSKB20, TSKB18, or both epitopes controlled T. cruzi infection and developed effector CD8+ T cells that maintained an activated phenotype. Memory CD8+ T cells from drug-cured TSKB-transgenic mice rapidly responded to secondary T. cruzi infection. In the absence of the response to TSKB20 and TSKB18, immunodominance did not shift to other known subdominant epitopes despite the capacity of these mice to expand epitope-specific T cells specific for the model antigen ovalbumin expressed by engineered parasites. Thus, CD8+ T cell responses tightly and robustly focused on a few epitopes within variant TS antigens appear to neither contribute to, nor detract from, the ability to control T. cruzi infection. These data also indicate that the relative position of an epitope within a CD8+ immunodominance hierarchy does not predict its importance in pathogen control. PMID:27354447

  16. Inadequate Reference Datasets Biased toward Short Non-epitopes Confound B-cell Epitope Prediction*

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Kh. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan Ullah; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has shown that an antibody paratope typically binds 15–22 amino acids (aa) of an epitope, of which 2–5 randomly distributed amino acids contribute most of the binding energy. In contrast, researchers typically choose for B-cell epitope mapping short peptide antigens in antibody binding assays. Furthermore, short 6–11-aa epitopes, and in particular non-epitopes, are over-represented in published B-cell epitope datasets that are commonly used for development of B-cell epitope prediction approaches from protein antigen sequences. We hypothesized that such suboptimal length peptides result in weak antibody binding and cause false-negative results. We tested the influence of peptide antigen length on antibody binding by analyzing data on more than 900 peptides used for B-cell epitope mapping of immunodominant proteins of Chlamydia spp. We demonstrate that short 7–12-aa peptides of B-cell epitopes bind antibodies poorly; thus, epitope mapping with short peptide antigens falsely classifies many B-cell epitopes as non-epitopes. We also show in published datasets of confirmed epitopes and non-epitopes a direct correlation between length of peptide antigens and antibody binding. Elimination of short, ≤11-aa epitope/non-epitope sequences improved datasets for evaluation of in silico B-cell epitope prediction. Achieving up to 86% accuracy, protein disorder tendency is the best indicator of B-cell epitope regions for chlamydial and published datasets. For B-cell epitope prediction, the most effective approach is plotting disorder of protein sequences with the IUPred-L scale, followed by antibody reactivity testing of 16–30-aa peptides from peak regions. This strategy overcomes the well known inaccuracy of in silico B-cell epitope prediction from primary protein sequences. PMID:27189949

  17. Extent of systemic spread determines CD8+ T cell immunodominance for laboratory strains, smallpox vaccines and zoonotic isolates of vaccinia virus1

    PubMed Central

    Flesch, Inge E.A.; Hollett, Natasha A.; Wong, Yik Chun; Quinan, Bárbara Resende; Howard, Debbie; da Fonseca, Flávio G.; Tscharke, David C.

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cells that recognize virus-derived peptides presented on MHC class I (pMHC) are vital anti-viral effectors. The pMHC presented by any given virus vary greatly in immunogenicity allowing them to be ranked in an immunodominance hierarchy. However, the full range of parameters that determine immunodominance and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show across a range of vaccinia virus (VACV) strains, including the current clonal smallpox vaccine, that the ability of a strain to spread systemically correlated with reduced immunodominance. Reduction in immunodominance was observed both in the lymphoid system and at the primary site of infection. Mechanistically, reduced immunodominance was associated with more robust priming and especially priming in the spleen. Finally, we show this is not just a property of vaccine and laboratory strains of virus, because an association between virulence and immunodominance was also observed in isolates from an outbreak of zoonotic VACV that occurred in Brazil. PMID:26195812

  18. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Protein Epitopes: The Basis of Antigenic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Maino; Bürckert, Jean-Philippe; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Maenaka, Katsumi; Muller, Claude P.; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Globally eliminating measles using available vaccines is biologically feasible because the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) protein is antigenically stable. The H protein is responsible for receptor binding, and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. The immunodominant epitope, known as the hemagglutinating and noose epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS). The RBS also contains an immunodominant epitope. Loss of receptor binding correlates with an escape from the neutralization by antibodies that target the epitope at RBS. Another neutralizing epitope is located near RBS and is shielded by an N-linked sugar in certain genotype strains. However, human sera from vaccinees and measles patients neutralized all MV strains with similar efficiencies, regardless of the N-linked sugar modification or mutations at these epitopes. Two other major epitopes exist at a distance from RBS. One has an unstructured flexible domain with a linear neutralizing epitope. When MV-H forms a tetramer (dimer of dimers), these epitopes may form the dimer-dimer interface, and one of the two epitopes may also interact with the F protein. The neutralization mechanisms of antibodies that recognize these epitopes may involve inhibiting the H-F interaction or blocking the fusion cascade after MV-H binds to its receptors. PMID:27490564

  19. Characterization of the Viral O-Glycopeptidome: a Novel Tool of Relevance for Vaccine Design and Serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cló, Emiliano; Kračun, Stjepan K.; Nudelman, Aaron S.; Jensen, Knud J.; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Olofsson, Sigvard; Bergström, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Viral envelope proteins mediate interactions with host cells, leading to internalization and intracellular propagation. Envelope proteins are glycosylated and are known to serve important functions in masking host immunity to viral glycoproteins. However, the viral infectious cycle in cells may also lead to aberrant glycosylation that may elicit immunity. Our knowledge of immunity to aberrant viral glycans and glycoproteins is limited, potentially due to technical limitations in identifying immunogenic glycans and glycopeptide epitopes. This work describes three different complementary methods for high-throughput screening and identification of potential immunodominant O-glycopeptide epitopes on viral envelope glycoproteins: (i) on-chip enzymatic glycosylation of scan peptides, (ii) chemical glycopeptide microarray synthesis, and (iii) a one-bead-one-compound random glycopeptide library. We used herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a model system and identified a simple O-glycopeptide pan-epitope, 501PPA(GalNAc)TAPG507, on the mature gG-2 glycoprotein that was broadly recognized by IgG antibodies in HSV-2-infected individuals but not in HSV-1-infected or noninfected individuals. Serum reactivity to the extended sialyl-T glycoform was tolerated, suggesting that self glycans can participate in immune responses. The methods presented provide new insight into viral immunity and new targets for immunodiagnostic and therapeutic measures. PMID:22491453

  20. Preserving immunogenicity of lethally irradiated viral and bacterial vaccine epitopes using a radio- protective Mn2+-Peptide complex from Deinococcus.

    PubMed

    Gaidamakova, Elena K; Myles, Ian A; McDaniel, Dennis P; Fowler, Cedar J; Valdez, Patricia A; Naik, Shruti; Gayen, Manoshi; Gupta, Paridhi; Sharma, Anuj; Glass, Pamela J; Maheshwari, Radha K; Datta, Sandip K; Daly, Michael J

    2012-07-19

    Although pathogen inactivation by γ-radiation is an attractive approach for whole-organism vaccine development, radiation doses required to ensure sterility also destroy immunogenic protein epitopes needed to mount protective immune responses. We demonstrate the use of a reconstituted manganous peptide complex from the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans to protect protein epitopes from radiation-induced damage and uncouple it from genome damage and organism killing. The Mn(2+) complex preserved antigenic structures in aqueous preparations of bacteriophage lambda, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and Staphylococcus aureus during supralethal irradiation (25-40 kGy). An irradiated vaccine elicited both antibody and Th17 responses, and induced B and T cell-dependent protection against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in mice. Structural integrity of viruses and bacteria are shown to be preserved at radiation doses far above those which abolish infectivity. This approach could expedite vaccine production for emerging and established pathogens for which no protective vaccines exist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Epitope Recognized by Monoclonal Antibody 2B6 in the B/C Domains of Classical Swine Fever Virus Glycoprotein E2 Affects Viral Binding to Hyperimmune Sera and Replication.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chao; Chen, Ning; Liao, Xun; Xie, Wenqi; Li, Dejiang; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-04-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by CSF virus (CSFV). E2 is the major viral envelope protein of immune dominance that induces neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against CSFV infection. The B/C domains of E2 are variable among CSFV isolates, which could affect immunogenicity and binding to antibodies. We attempted to characterize the epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody 2B6 (mAb-2B6) raised against the E2 B/C domains of the vaccine C-strain and to examine if mutations in the epitope region would affect antibody binding and viral neutralization. The epitope specific for mAb-2B6 recognition is linear, spanning five residues (774)DGXNP(778) in the B/C domains. The residue N777 is indispensable for the specificity. The epitope exists only in group 1 strains, but not in those of group 2. The recombinant viruses containing individual mutations on the epitope region lost the reactivity to mAb-2B6. The mutant virus RecC-N777S had low replication potential, about 10-fold decrease in the yield of progeny virus particles, whereas the mutant virus RecC-P778A reverted to proline upon continuous passaging. The mutations on the mAb-2B6 epitope region did not affect neutralization by anti-C-strain polyclonal sera from pigs. Deletion from aa774 covering the mAb-2B6 epitope, but not that from aa781, also affected binding with the polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated pigs, although the major binding region for the vaccinated antibodies is aa690-773.

  2. Loss of viral fitness and cross-recognition by CD8+ T cells limit HCV escape from a protective HLA-B27–restricted human immune response

    PubMed Central

    Dazert, Eva; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Fitzmaurice, Karen; Kort, Julia; Timm, Jörg; McKiernan, Susan; Kelleher, Dermot; Gruener, Norbert; Tavis, John E.; Rosen, Hugo R.; Shaw, Jaqueline; Bowness, Paul; Blum, Hubert E.; Klenerman, Paul; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Thimme, Robert

    2009-01-01

    There is an association between expression of the MHC class I molecule HLA-B27 and protection following human infection with either HIV or HCV. In both cases, protection has been linked to HLA-B27 presentation of a single immunodominant viral peptide epitope to CD8+ T cells. If HIV mutates the HLA-B27–binding anchor of this epitope to escape the protective immune response, the result is a less-fit virus that requires additional compensatory clustered mutations. Here, we sought to determine whether the immunodominant HLA-B27–restricted HCV epitope was similarly constrained by analyzing the replication competence and immunogenicity of different escape mutants. Interestingly, in most HLA-B27–positive patients chronically infected with HCV, the escape mutations spared the HLA-B27–binding anchor. Instead, the escape mutations were clustered at other sites within the epitope and had only a modest impact on replication competence. Further analysis revealed that the cluster of mutations is required for efficient escape because a combination of mutations is needed to impair T cell recognition of the epitope. Artificially introduced mutations at the HLA-B27–binding anchors were found to be either completely cross-reactive or to lead to substantial loss of fitness. These results suggest that protection by HLA-B27 in HCV infection can be explained by the requirement to accumulate a cluster of mutations within the immunodominant epitope to escape T cell recognition. PMID:19139562

  3. A Simple Proteomics-Based Approach to Identification of Immunodominant Antigens from a Complex Pathogen: Application to the CD4 T Cell Response against Human Herpesvirus 6B

    PubMed Central

    Becerra-Artiles, Aniuska; Dominguez-Amorocho, Omar; Stern, Lawrence J.; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Most of humanity is chronically infected with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), with viral replication controlled at least in part by a poorly characterized CD4 T cell response. Identification of viral epitopes recognized by CD4 T cells is complicated by the large size of the herpesvirus genome and a low frequency of circulating T cells responding to the virus. Here, we present an alternative to classical epitope mapping approaches used to identify major targets of the T cell response to a complex pathogen like HHV-6B. In the approach presented here, extracellular virus preparations or virus-infected cells are fractionated by SDS-PAGE, and eluted fractions are used as source of antigens to study cytokine responses in direct ex vivo T cell activation studies. Fractions inducing significant cytokine responses are analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify viral proteins, and a subset of peptides from these proteins corresponding to predicted HLA-DR binders is tested for IFN-γ production in seropositive donors with diverse HLA haplotypes. Ten HHV-6B viral proteins were identified as immunodominant antigens. The epitope-specific response to HHV-6B virus was complex and variable between individuals. We identified 107 peptides, each recognized by at least one donor, with each donor having a distinctive footprint. Fourteen peptides showed responses in the majority of donors. Responses to these epitopes were validated using in vitro expanded cells and naturally expressed viral proteins. Predicted peptide binding affinities for the eight HLA-DRB1 alleles investigated here correlated only modestly with the observed CD4 T cell responses. Overall, the response to the virus was dominated by peptides from the major capsid protein U57 and major antigenic protein U11, but responses to other proteins including glycoprotein H (U48) and tegument proteins U54 and U14 also were observed. These results provide a means to follow and potentially modulate the CD4 T-cell immune response to HHV-6

  4. Mutation of neutralizing/antibody-dependent enhancing epitope on spike protein and 7b gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus: influences of viral replication in monocytes/macrophages and virulence in cats.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Tomiyama, Yoshika; Katoh, Yasuichiroh; Nakamura, Michiyo; Satoh, Ryoichi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-03-01

    We previously prepared neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb)-resistant (mar) mutant viruses using a laboratory strain feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) 79-1146 (Kida et al., 1999). Mar mutant viruses are mutated several amino acids of the neutralizing epitope of Spike protein, compared with the parent strain, FIPV 79-1146. We clarified that MAb used to prepare mar mutant viruses also lost its activity to enhance homologous mar mutant viruses, strongly suggesting that neutralizing and antibody-dependent enhancing epitopes are present in the same region in the strain FIPV 79-1146. We also discovered that amino acid mutation in the neutralizing epitope reduced viral replication in monocytes/macrophages. We also demonstrated that the mutation or deletion of two nucleotides in 7b gene abrogate the virulence of strain FIPV 79-1146.

  5. DNA Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimen To Increase Breadth, Magnitude, and Cytotoxicity of the Cellular Immune Responses to Subdominant Gag Epitopes of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus and HIV.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xintao; Valentin, Antonio; Dayton, Frances; Kulkarni, Viraj; Alicea, Candido; Rosati, Margherita; Chowdhury, Bhabadeb; Gautam, Rajeev; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Martin, Malcolm A; Mullins, James I; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K

    2016-11-15

    HIV sequence diversity and the propensity of eliciting immunodominant responses targeting variable regions of the HIV proteome are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. An HIV-derived conserved element (CE) p24(gag) plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine is able to redirect immunodominant responses to otherwise subdominant and often more vulnerable viral targets. By homology to the HIV immunogen, seven CE were identified in SIV p27(Gag) Analysis of 31 rhesus macaques vaccinated with full-length SIV gag pDNA showed inefficient induction (58% response rate) of cellular responses targeting these CE. In contrast, all 14 macaques immunized with SIV p27CE pDNA developed robust T cell responses recognizing CE. Vaccination with p27CE pDNA was also critical for the efficient induction and increased the frequency of Ag-specific T cells with cytotoxic potential (granzyme B(+) CD107a(+)) targeting subdominant CE epitopes, compared with the responses elicited by the p57(gag) pDNA vaccine. Following p27CE pDNA priming, two booster regimens, gag pDNA or codelivery of p27CE+gag pDNA, significantly increased the levels of CE-specific T cells. However, the CE+gag pDNA booster vaccination elicited significantly broader CE epitope recognition, and thus, a more profound alteration of the immunodominance hierarchy. Vaccination with HIV molecules showed that CE+gag pDNA booster regimen further expanded the breadth of HIV CE responses. Hence, SIV/HIV vaccine regimens comprising CE pDNA prime and CE+gag pDNA booster vaccination significantly increased cytotoxic T cell responses to subdominant highly conserved Gag epitopes and maximized response breadth. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. DNA Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimen To Increase Breadth, Magnitude, and Cytotoxicity of the Cellular Immune Responses to Subdominant Gag Epitopes of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus and HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xintao; Valentin, Antonio; Dayton, Frances; Kulkarni, Viraj; Alicea, Candido; Rosati, Margherita; Chowdhury, Bhabadeb; Gautam, Rajeev; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Martin, Malcolm A.; Mullins, James I.

    2016-01-01

    HIV sequence diversity and the propensity of eliciting immunodominant responses targeting variable regions of the HIV proteome are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. An HIV-derived conserved element (CE) p24gag plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine is able to redirect immunodominant responses to otherwise subdominant and often more vulnerable viral targets. By homology to the HIV immunogen, seven CE were identified in SIV p27Gag. Analysis of 31 rhesus macaques vaccinated with full-length SIV gag pDNA showed inefficient induction (58% response rate) of cellular responses targeting these CE. In contrast, all 14 macaques immunized with SIV p27CE pDNA developed robust T cell responses recognizing CE. Vaccination with p27CE pDNA was also critical for the efficient induction and increased the frequency of Ag-specific T cells with cytotoxic potential (granzyme B+ CD107a+) targeting subdominant CE epitopes, compared with the responses elicited by the p57gag pDNA vaccine. Following p27CE pDNA priming, two booster regimens, gag pDNA or codelivery of p27CE+gag pDNA, significantly increased the levels of CE-specific T cells. However, the CE+gag pDNA booster vaccination elicited significantly broader CE epitope recognition, and thus, a more profound alteration of the immunodominance hierarchy. Vaccination with HIV molecules showed that CE+gag pDNA booster regimen further expanded the breadth of HIV CE responses. Hence, SIV/HIV vaccine regimens comprising CE pDNA prime and CE+gag pDNA booster vaccination significantly increased cytotoxic T cell responses to subdominant highly conserved Gag epitopes and maximized response breadth. PMID:27733554

  7. B-cell epitopes of canine parvovirus: distribution on the primary structure and exposure on the viral surface.

    PubMed Central

    Langeveld, J P; Casal, J I; Vela, C; Dalsgaard, K; Smale, S H; Puijk, W C; Meloen, R H

    1993-01-01

    Ten antigenic sites on canine parvovirus (CPV) were mapped with a complete set of overlapping nonapeptides of the capsid proteins VP1 and VP2: five of these sites were recognized by sera from CPV-infected dogs, three were recognized by a rabbit anti-CPV antiserum, and two were recognized by murine monoclonal anti-CPV antibodies. A region covering the first 21 amino-terminal amino acid residues of VP2 was recognized by three sera from infected dogs, one neutralizing rabbit antiserum, and one neutralizing murine monoclonal antibody. Immunoabsorption experiments with full virions indicated that at least 6 of the 10 antigenic sites are located on the surface. Of these six, three sites occur in the amino terminus of VP2. When superimposed on the three-dimensional structure of canine parvovirus (J. Tsao, M. S. Chapman, M. Agbandje, W. Keller, K. Smith, H. Wu, M. Luo, T. J. Smith, M. G. Rossmann, R. W. Compans, and C. R. Parrish, Science 251:1456-1464, 1991), the other three epitopes are located on two loops of VP2 which form the highly exposed "spike" around the threefold-symmetry axis of the virus. Thus, these regions (amino terminus and loops 1 and 3) are of interest as major target sites for induction of neutralizing antibodies. Images PMID:7678305

  8. Insertion of exogenous epitopes in the E3-19K of oncolytic adenoviruses to enhance TAP-independent presentation and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, A; Svensson, E; Gil-Hoyos, R; Fajardo, C A; Rojas, L A; Arias-Badia, M; Loskog, A S I; Alemany, R

    2015-07-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses can promote immune responses against tumors by expressing and/or displaying tumor-associated antigens. However, the strong immunodominance of viral antigens mask responses against tumor epitopes. In addition, defects in major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation pathway such as the downregulation of the transporter-associated with antigen processing (TAP) are frequently associated with immune evasion of tumor cells. To promote the immunogenicity of exogenous epitopes in the context of an oncolytic adenovirus, we have taken advantage of the ER localization of the viral protein E3-19K. We have inserted tumor-associated epitopes after the N-terminal signal sequence for membrane insertion of this protein and flanked them with linkers cleavable by the protease furin to facilitate their TAP-independent presentation. This strategy allowed an enhanced presentation of the exogenous epitopes in TAP-deficient tumor cells in vitro and the generation of higher specific immune responses in vivo that were able to significantly control tumor growth.

  9. Identification of three immunodominant motifs with atypical isotype profile scattered over the Onchocerca volvulus proteome

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Stuyver, Lieven J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune response upon infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the mechanisms that evolved in this parasite to evade immune mediated elimination is essential to expand the toolbox available for diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines development. Using high-density peptide microarrays we scanned the proteome-wide linear epitope repertoire in Cameroonian onchocerciasis patients and healthy controls from Southern Africa which led to the identification of 249 immunodominant antigenic peptides. Motif analysis learned that 3 immunodominant motifs, encompassing 3 linear epitopes, are present in 70, 43, and 31 of these peptides, respectively and appear to be scattered over the entire proteome in seemingly non-related proteins. These linear epitopes are shown to have an atypical isotype profile dominated by IgG1, IgG3, IgE and IgM, in contrast to the commonly observed IgG4 response in chronic active helminth infections. The identification of these linear epitope motifs may lead to novel diagnostic development but further evaluation of cross-reactivity against common co-infecting human nematode infections will be needed. PMID:28125577

  10. Identification of three immunodominant motifs with atypical isotype profile scattered over the Onchocerca volvulus proteome.

    PubMed

    Lagatie, Ole; Van Dorst, Bieke; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune response upon infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the mechanisms that evolved in this parasite to evade immune mediated elimination is essential to expand the toolbox available for diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines development. Using high-density peptide microarrays we scanned the proteome-wide linear epitope repertoire in Cameroonian onchocerciasis patients and healthy controls from Southern Africa which led to the identification of 249 immunodominant antigenic peptides. Motif analysis learned that 3 immunodominant motifs, encompassing 3 linear epitopes, are present in 70, 43, and 31 of these peptides, respectively and appear to be scattered over the entire proteome in seemingly non-related proteins. These linear epitopes are shown to have an atypical isotype profile dominated by IgG1, IgG3, IgE and IgM, in contrast to the commonly observed IgG4 response in chronic active helminth infections. The identification of these linear epitope motifs may lead to novel diagnostic development but further evaluation of cross-reactivity against common co-infecting human nematode infections will be needed.

  11. Identification of immunodominant regions of Brassica juncea glyoxalase I as potential antitumor immunomodulation targets.

    PubMed

    Deswal, Renu; Singh, Rohini; Lynn, Andrew M; Frank, Ronald

    2005-03-01

    Glyoxalase I activity has been shown to be directly related to cancer and its inhibitors have been used as anti-cancer drugs. Immunochemical studies have shown immunochemical relatedness among animal and plant glyoxalase I, but its potential application for biomedical research has not been investigated. In order to understand the conserved immunochemical regions of the protein and to determine probable immunomodulation targets, a cellulose-bound scanning peptide library for Brassica juncea glyoxalase I was made using the spot synthesis method. Immuno-probing of the library, using B. juncea anti-glyoxalase I monospecific polyclonal antibodies, revealed three immunodominant regions, epitope I, II, and III. In the homology model of B. juncea glyoxalase I generated by threading its sequence onto the human glyoxalase I, the high accessible surface area and the hydrophilic nature of the epitopes confirmed their surface localization and hence their accessibility for antigen-antibody interaction. Epitopes I and II were specific to B. juncea glyoxalase I. Localizing the epitopes on available glyoxalase I sequences showed that epitope III containing the active site region was conserved across phyla. Therefore, this could be used as a potential immunomodulation target for cancer therapy. Moreover, as the most immunogenic epitopes were mapped on the surface of the protein, this method could be used to discover potential therapeutic targets. It is a simple and fast approach for such investigations. This study, to our knowledge, is the first in epitope mapping of glyoxalase I and has great biomedical potential.

  12. The generation of CD8+ T-cell population specific for vaccinia virus epitope involved in the antiviral protection against ectromelia virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Gierynska, Malgorzata; Szulc-Dabrowska, Lidia; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Golke, Anna; Schollenberger, Ada

    2015-12-01

    Eradication of smallpox has led to cessation of vaccination programs. This has rendered the human population increasingly susceptible not only to variola virus infection but also to infections with other representatives of Poxviridae family that cause zoonotic variola-like diseases. Thus, new approaches for designing improved vaccine against smallpox are required. Discovering that orthopoxviruses, e.g. variola virus, vaccinia virus, ectromelia virus, share common immunodominant antigen, may result in the development of such a vaccine. In our study, the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in mice during the acute and memory phase of the immune response was induced using the vaccinia virus immunodominant TSYKFESV epitope and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants. The role of the generated TSYKFESV-specific CD8(+) T cells was evaluated in mice during ectromelia virus infection using systemic and mucosal model. Moreover, the involvement of dendritic cells subsets in the adaptive immune response stimulation was assessed. Our results indicate that the TSYKFESV epitope/TLR9 agonist approach, delivered systemically or mucosally, generated strong CD8(+) T-cell response when measured 10 days after immunization. Furthermore, the TSYKFESV-specific cell population remained functionally active 2 months post-immunization, and gave cross-protection in virally challenged mice, even though the numbers of detectable antigen-specific T cells decreased.

  13. Unique epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against HP-PRRSV: deep understanding of antigenic structure and virus-antibody interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Peng, Jinmei; Sun, Yan; Chen, Jiazeng; An, Tongqing; Leng, Chaoliang; Li, Lin; Zhao, Hongyuan; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun; Tian, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a member of the genus Arterivirus within the family Arteriviridae. N and GP3 proteins are the immunodominance regions of the PRRSV viral proteins. To identify the B-cell linear antigenic epitopes within HP-PRRSV N and GP3 proteins, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against N and GP3 proteins were generated and characterized, designated as 3D7 and 1F10 respectively. The mAb 3D7 recognized only HuN4-F112 not the corresponding virulent strain (HuN4-F5). It also recognized two other commercial vaccines (JXA1-R and TJM-F92), but not two other HP-PRRSV strains (HNZJJ-F1 and HLJMZ-F2). The B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb 3D7 was localized to N protein amino acids 7-33. Western blot showed that the only difference amino acid between HuN4-F112-N and HuN4-F5-N did not change the mAb 3D7 recognization to N protein. The epitope targeted by the mAb 1F10 was mapped by truncated proteins. We found a new epitope (68-76aa) can be recognized by the mAb. However, the epitope could not be recognized by the positive sera, suggesting the epitope could not induce antibody in pigs. These results should extend our understanding of the antigenic structure of the N protein and antigen-antibody reactions of the GP3 protein in different species.

  14. Broad-Based CD4(+) T Cell Responses to Influenza A Virus in a Healthy Individual Who Lacks Typical Immunodominance Hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Anthony, Anjaleena; Oveissi, Sara; Huang, Miaojuan; Zanker, Damien; Xiao, Kun; Wu, Chao; Zou, Quanming; Chen, Weisan

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. CD4(+) T cell responses have been shown to be important for influenza protection in mouse models and in human volunteers. IAV antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses were found to focus on matrix 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP) at the protein antigen level. At the epitope level, only several epitopes within M1 and NP were recognized by CD4(+) T cells. And the epitope-specific CD4(+) T cell responses showed a typical immunodominance hierarchy in most of the healthy individuals studied. In this study, we reported one case of atypical immunodominance hierarchy of CD4(+) T cell responses to IAV. M1 and NP were still the immunodominant targets of CD4(+) T cell responses. However, CD4(+) T cell responses specific to 11 epitopes derived from M1 and NP were detected and showed no significant immunodominance hierarchy. Such an atypical pattern is likely determined by the individual's HLA alleles. These findings will help us better understand the anti-IAV immunity as a whole and improve future vaccines against IAV.

  15. Identification of Continuous Human B-Cell Epitopes in the VP35, VP40, Nucleoprotein and Glycoprotein of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Becquart, Pierre; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly virulent human pathogen. Recovery of infected patients is associated with efficient EBOV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses, whereas fatal outcome is associated with defective humoral immunity. As B-cell epitopes on EBOV are poorly defined, we sought to identify specific epitopes in four EBOV proteins (Glycoprotein (GP), Nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix Viral Protein (VP)40 and VP35). For the first time, we tested EBOV IgG+ sera from asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic Gabonese survivors, collected during the early humoral response (seven days after the end of symptoms) and the late memory phase (7–12 years post-infection). We also tested sera from EBOV-seropositive patients who had never had clinical signs of hemorrhagic fever or who lived in non-epidemic areas (asymptomatic subjects). We found that serum from asymptomatic individuals was more strongly reactive to VP40 peptides than to GP, NP or VP35. Interestingly, anti-EBOV IgG from asymptomatic patients targeted three immunodominant regions of VP40 reported to play a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. In contrast, serum from most survivors of the three outbreaks, collected a few days after the end of symptoms, reacted mainly with GP peptides. However, in asymptomatic subjects the longest immunodominant domains were identified in GP, and analysis of the GP crystal structure revealed that these domains covered a larger surface area of the chalice bowl formed by three GP1 subunits. The B-cell epitopes we identified in the EBOV VP35, VP40, NP and GP proteins may represent important tools for understanding the humoral response to this virus and for developing new antibody-based therapeutics or detection methods. PMID:24914933

  16. Identification of continuous human B-cell epitopes in the VP35, VP40, nucleoprotein and glycoprotein of Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Becquart, Pierre; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly virulent human pathogen. Recovery of infected patients is associated with efficient EBOV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses, whereas fatal outcome is associated with defective humoral immunity. As B-cell epitopes on EBOV are poorly defined, we sought to identify specific epitopes in four EBOV proteins (Glycoprotein (GP), Nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix Viral Protein (VP)40 and VP35). For the first time, we tested EBOV IgG+ sera from asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic Gabonese survivors, collected during the early humoral response (seven days after the end of symptoms) and the late memory phase (7-12 years post-infection). We also tested sera from EBOV-seropositive patients who had never had clinical signs of hemorrhagic fever or who lived in non-epidemic areas (asymptomatic subjects). We found that serum from asymptomatic individuals was more strongly reactive to VP40 peptides than to GP, NP or VP35. Interestingly, anti-EBOV IgG from asymptomatic patients targeted three immunodominant regions of VP40 reported to play a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. In contrast, serum from most survivors of the three outbreaks, collected a few days after the end of symptoms, reacted mainly with GP peptides. However, in asymptomatic subjects the longest immunodominant domains were identified in GP, and analysis of the GP crystal structure revealed that these domains covered a larger surface area of the chalice bowl formed by three GP1 subunits. The B-cell epitopes we identified in the EBOV VP35, VP40, NP and GP proteins may represent important tools for understanding the humoral response to this virus and for developing new antibody-based therapeutics or detection methods.

  17. Identification of Dominant Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Epitopes on the Hemagglutinin Antigen of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vikram; Yang, Zheng; Hung, Ivan Fan Ngai; Xu, Jianqing; Zheng, Bojian

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) bridges innate and adaptive immunity, and it involves both humoral and cellular immune responses. ADCC has been found to be a main route of immune protection against viral infections in vivo. Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is highly immunogenic and considered the most important target for immune protection. Several potent cross-reactive HA-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been reported, and their conserved neutralizing epitopes have been revealed, but there has been no report so far about ADCC epitopes on HA. Here we identified two dominant ADCC epitopes, designated E1 (amino acids [aa] 92 to 117) and E2 (aa 124 to 159), on HA of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus by epitope mapping of convalescent-phase plasma IgG antibodies from six H1N1-infected human subjects in China that exhibited different levels of ADCC activity. The E1 and E2 ADCC epitopes overlapped with immunodominant epitopes of HA. Depletion of purified patient plasma IgG antibodies with EBY100 yeast cells expressing E1 or E2 decreased the ADCC activity of the IgG antibodies. E1 and E2 sequences were found to be highly conserved in H1N1 strains but less so in other subtypes of influenza A viruses. Our study may aid in designing immunogens that can elicit antibodies with high ADCC activity. Vaccine immunogens designed to include the structural determinants of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies and ADCC epitopes may confer comprehensive immune protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:23487456

  18. Comprehensive epitope analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome demonstrate broadly directed responses, but no correlation to viral load.

    PubMed

    Addo, M M; Yu, X G; Rathod, A; Cohen, D; Eldridge, R L; Strick, D; Johnston, M N; Corcoran, C; Wurcel, A G; Fitzpatrick, C A; Feeney, M E; Rodriguez, W R; Basgoz, N; Draenert, R; Stone, David R; Brander, C; Goulder, P J R; Rosenberg, E S; Altfeld, M; Walker, B D

    2003-02-01

    Cellular immune responses play a critical role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the breadth of these responses at the single-epitope level has not been comprehensively assessed. We therefore screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 57 individuals at different stages of HIV-1 infection for virus-specific T-cell responses using a matrix of 504 overlapping peptides spanning all expressed HIV-1 proteins in a gamma interferon-enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot) assay. HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detectable in all study subjects, with a median of 14 individual epitopic regions targeted per person (range, 2 to 42), and all 14 HIV-1 protein subunits were recognized. HIV-1 p24-Gag and Nef contained the highest epitope density and were also the most frequently recognized HIV-1 proteins. The total magnitude of the HIV-1-specific response ranged from 280 to 25,860 spot-forming cells (SFC)/10(6) PBMC (median, 4,245) among all study participants. However, the number of epitopic regions targeted, the protein subunits recognized, and the total magnitude of HIV-1-specific responses varied significantly among the tested individuals, with the strongest and broadest responses detectable in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Neither the breadth nor the magnitude of the total HIV-1-specific CD8+-T-cell responses correlated with plasma viral load. We conclude that a peptide matrix-based Elispot assay allows for rapid, sensitive, specific, and efficient assessment of cellular immune responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome. These data also suggest that the impact of T-cell responses on control of viral replication cannot be explained by the mere quantification of the magnitude and breadth of the CD8+-T-cell response, even if a comprehensive pan-genome screening approach is applied.

  19. Identification and characterization of a cross-neutralization epitope of Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lien, Shu-Pei; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Guo, Meng-Shin; Chow, Yen-Hung; Yang, Wun-Syue; Chang, Kate Hsuen-Wen; Sia, Charles; Chong, Pele

    2011-06-10

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections in children manifest as exanthema and are most commonly known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Because it can cause severe neurological complications like poliomyelitis, EV71 has now emerged as an important neurotropic virus in Asia. EV71 virus has been shown to consist of 3 (A, B and C) genotypes and many subgenotypes. Although EV71 vaccine development has recently yielded promising preclinical results, yet the correlation between the content of antigen(s) in vaccine candidates and the level of protective antibody responses is not established. The neutralization epitope(s) of EV71 antigens could be used as the surrogate biomarker of vaccine potency. Using peptide ELISA, antisera generated from animals immunized with formalin-inactivated EV71 virion vaccine formulated in alum, EV71-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMAb) and a panel of 153 overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire sequences of VP1, VP2 and VP3 of EV71, we screened for immunodominant linear neutralization epitope(s). Synthetic peptide VP2-28, corresponding to residues 136-150 of VP2, was found to bind to and inhibit the binding to EV71 of nMAb MAB979 that was found to have cross-neutralizing activity against different genotypes of EV71 virus. In addition, VP2-28 was found to be recognized only by neutralizing antisera generated from rabbits immunized with the formalin-inactivated whole EV71 virion vaccine but not by antisera from immunized mice and rats. During the epitope mapping, a murine EV71 genotype- and strain-specific linear neutralization epitope VP1-43 was identified within residues 211-220 of VP1. Furthermore, based on sequence alignment and structure prediction analysis using poliovirus as the template for molecular modeling, the VP1-43 and VP2-28 epitopes were shown to run in parallel within 0.1 nm and form a rim of the canyon at the junction site of VP1 and VP2 in the viral capsid. In mouse, rat and rabbit immunogenicity studies

  20. T cell Receptor Alpha Variable 12-2 bias in the immunodominant response to Yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Bovay, Amandine; Zoete, Vincent; Dolton, Garry; Bulek, Anna M; Cole, David K; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Fuller, Anna; Beck, Konrad; Michielin, Olivier; Speiser, Daniel E; Sewell, Andrew K; Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A

    2017-10-03

    The repertoire of human αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) is generated via somatic recombination of germline gene segments. Despite this enormous variation, certain epitopes can be immunodominant, associated with high frequencies of antigen-specific T cells and/or exhibit bias towards a TCR gene segment. Here, we studied the TCR repertoire of the HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope LLWNGPMAV (hereafter, A2/LLW) from Yellow Fever virus, which generates an immunodominant CD8(+) T cell response to the highly effective YF-17D vaccine. We discover that these A2/LLW-specific CD8(+) T cells are highly biased for the TCR α chain TRAV12-2. This bias is already present in A2/LLW-specific naïve T cells before vaccination with YF-17D. Using CD8(+) T cell clones, we show that TRAV12-2 does not confer a functional advantage on a per cell basis. Molecular modeling indicated that the germline-encoded complementarity determining region (CDR) 1α loop of TRAV12-2 critically contributes to A2/LLW binding, in contrast to the conventional dominant dependence on somatically rearranged CDR3 loops. This germline component of antigen recognition may explain the unusually high precursor frequency, prevalence and immunodominance of T-cell responses specific for A2/LLW epitope. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunodominant regions for T helper-cell sensitization on the human nicotinic receptor alpha subunit in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Protti, M P; Manfredi, A A; Straub, C; Howard, J F; Conti-Tronconi, B M

    1990-01-01

    In myasthenia gravis an autoimmune response against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) occurs. The alpha subunit of the AChR contains both the epitope(s) that dominates the antibody response (main immunogenic region) and epitopes involved in T helper cell sensitization. In this study, overlapping synthetic peptides corresponding to the complete AChR alpha-subunit sequence were used to propagate polyclonal AChR-specific T helper cell lines from four myasthenic patients of different HLA types. Response of the T helper lines to the individual peptides was studied. Four immunodominant sequence segments were identified--i.e., residues 48-67, 101-120, 304-322, and 419-437. These regions did not include residues known to form the main immunogenic region or the cholinergic binding site, and they frequently contained sequence motifs that have been proposed to be related to T-epitope formation. Images PMID:2145582

  2. Development of recombinant capsid antigen/transmembrane epitope fusion proteins for serological diagnosis of animal lentivirus infections.

    PubMed

    Rosati, S; Profiti, M; Lorenzetti, R; Bandecchi, P; Mannelli, A; Ortoffi, M; Tolari, F; Ciabatti, I M

    2004-10-01

    Among animal lentiviruses, Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) and Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are important pathogens associated with a variety of clinical pictures including immunodeficiency, anaemia, arthritis, pneumonia. The detection of viral antibody response represents a practical diagnostic approach in all lentivirus infections since they remain detectable long life. Capsid antigen (CA) is the major viral core protein and specific antibodies against this antigen are usually first recognised in infected sheep, goat and horse, remaining detectable for long period. Transmembrane (TM) domain of envelope glycoprotein contains a well conserved motif known to form an immunodominant epitope in several lentiviruses. In this study a simple strategy was developed to express the entire CA and the TM epitope in a single fusion protein from equine, feline and small ruminant lentiviruses in prokaryotic system and evaluated the diagnostic utility of a purified preparation in an indirect ELISA for each of the three infections. Results demonstrate that, for FIV and SRLV infections, the combination of CA and TM fractions increases the sensitivity of diagnostic tests based only on CA. The corresponding CA/TM antigen from EIAV showed excellent agreement with Coggins test.

  3. Synthetic Long Peptide Influenza Vaccine Containing Conserved T and B Cell Epitopes Reduces Viral Load in Lungs of Mice and Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Rosendahl Huber, S. K.; Camps, M. G. M.; Jacobi, R. H. J.; Mouthaan, J.; van Dijken, H.; van Beek, J.; Ossendorp, F.; de Jonge, J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently licensed influenza vaccines mainly induce antibodies against highly variable epitopes. Due to antigenic drift, protection is subtype or strain-specific and regular vaccine updates are required. In case of antigenic shifts, which have caused several pandemics in the past, completely new vaccines need to be developed. We set out to develop a vaccine that provides protection against a broad range of influenza viruses. Therefore, highly conserved parts of the influenza A virus (IAV) were selected of which we constructed antibody and T cell inducing peptide-based vaccines. The B epitope vaccine consists of the highly conserved HA2 fusion peptide and M2e peptide coupled to a CD4 helper epitope. The T epitope vaccine comprises 25 overlapping synthetic long peptides of 26-34 amino acids, thereby avoiding restriction for a certain MHC haplotype. These peptides are derived from nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1) and matrix protein 1 (M1). C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice, and ferrets were vaccinated with the B epitopes, 25 SLP or a combination of both. Vaccine-specific antibodies were detected in sera of mice and ferrets and vaccine-specific cellular responses were measured in mice. Following challenge, both mice and ferrets showed a reduction of virus titers in the lungs in response to vaccination. Summarizing, a peptide-based vaccine directed against conserved parts of influenza virus containing B and T cell epitopes shows promising results for further development. Such a vaccine may reduce disease burden and virus transmission during pandemic outbreaks. PMID:26046664

  4. Antigenicity and predefined specificities of the multi-epitope vaccine in candidate consisting of neutralizing epitope and mutated epitopes suggested a new way against HIV-1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; Xiao, Y; Qin, L; Chen, Y H

    2001-12-01

    A seven-amino acid epitope GPGRAFY located inside the V3 loop on envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1 is the principal neutralizing epitope (PNE), and a subset of anti-V3 antibodies specific for this epitope show a broad range of neutralizing activity. But this epitope undergoes restricted mutation. In this study, three epitope peptides [C-(GPGRAFY)2, C-(GPGQTFY)2 and C-(GPGQAWY)2] that contain neutralizing epitope GPGRAFY and its two mutated epitope GPGQTFY and GPGQAWY, were synthesized and then conjugated to carrier protein KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin). the epitope-vaccines C-(GPGRAFY)2-KLH, C-(GPGQTFY)2-KLH and C-(GPGQAWY)2-KLH induced high levels of antibodies to three V3 loop peptides that contain these epitopes respectively, and the antibody response induced by each epitope-vaccine showed predefined epitope-specific. When these three epitope-peptides mixed together and conjugated to carrier protein, or conjugated to carrier protein separately and then mixed together, high levels of epitope-specific antibodies which respectively recognized these epitopes on V3 loop peptide and both mutated peptides all can be induced by both of them. In blotting assay, these epitope-specific antibodies all recognized the neutralizing epitope and mutated epitopes on peptides respectively. In addition, the reactivity of the antibodies with whole gp120 molecule which contained the epitope GPGRAFY was tested. Only the GPGRAFY-epitope-specific antibodies but not the other antibodies recognized the gp120 molecule. These results provide experimental evidence that the candidate multi-epitope-vaccine containing neutralizing epitope and mutated epitopes may bring new hope against viral mutation resulting in HIV-1 immune evasion and may be developed as an effective vaccine with a broad neutralizing activity against HIV-1 infection.

  5. Systematic identification of immunodominant CD4+ T cell responses to HpaA in Helicobacter pylori infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Chen, Li; Yang, Wuchen; Li, Bin; Sun, Heqiang; Wei, Shanshan; He, Yafei; Zhao, Zhuo; Yang, Shiming; Zou, Quanming; Chen, Weisan; Guo, Hong; Wu, Chao

    2016-08-23

    In mice, antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response is indispensible for the protective immunity against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It has been demonstrated that neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin (HpaA) immunization protected mice from H. pylori infection in a CD4+ T cell dependent manner. However, much remains unclear concerning the human CD4+ T cell responses to HpaA. We conducted a systematic study here to explore the immunodominant, HpaA-specific CD4+ T cell responses in H. pylori infected individuals. We found that HpaA-specific CD4+ T cell responses varied remarkably in their magnitude and had broad epitope-specificity. Importantly, the main responses focused on two regions: HpaA76-105 and HpaA130-159. The HLA-DRB1*0901 restricted HpaA142-159 specific CD4+ T cell response was the most immunodominant response at a population level. The immunodominant epitope HpaA142-159 was naturally presented and highly conserved. We also demonstrated that it was not the broad peptide specificity, but the strength of HpaA specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with gastric diseases potentially caused by H. pylori infection. Such investigation will aid development of novel vaccines against H. pylori infection.

  6. Systematic identification of immunodominant CD4+ T cell responses to HpaA in Helicobacter pylori infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wuchen; Li, Bin; Sun, Heqiang; Wei, Shanshan; He, Yafei; Zhao, Zhuo; Yang, Shiming; Zou, Quanming; Chen, Weisan; Guo, Hong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In mice, antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response is indispensible for the protective immunity against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It has been demonstrated that neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin (HpaA) immunization protected mice from H. pylori infection in a CD4+ T cell dependent manner. However, much remains unclear concerning the human CD4+ T cell responses to HpaA. We conducted a systematic study here to explore the immunodominant, HpaA-specific CD4+ T cell responses in H. pylori infected individuals. We found that HpaA-specific CD4+ T cell responses varied remarkably in their magnitude and had broad epitope-specificity. Importantly, the main responses focused on two regions: HpaA76-105 and HpaA130-159. The HLA-DRB1*0901 restricted HpaA142-159 specific CD4+ T cell response was the most immunodominant response at a population level. The immunodominant epitope HpaA142-159 was naturally presented and highly conserved. We also demonstrated that it was not the broad peptide specificity, but the strength of HpaA specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with gastric diseases potentially caused by H. pylori infection. Such investigation will aid development of novel vaccines against H. pylori infection. PMID:27509059

  7. Universal influenza DNA vaccine encoding conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes protects against lethal viral challenge in HLA-DR transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jeff; Bilsel, Pamuk; del Guercio, Marie-France; Stewart, Stephani; Marinkovic-Petrovic, Aleksandra; Southwood, Scott; Crimi, Claire; Vang, Lo; Walker, Les; Ishioka, Glenn; Chitnis, Vivek; Sette, Alessandro; Assarsson, Erika; Hannaman, Drew; Botten, Jason; Newman, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to design a vaccine that would provide universal protection against infection of humans with diverse influenza A viruses. Accordingly, protein sequences from influenza A virus strains currently in circulation (H1N1, H3N2), agents of past pandemics (H1N1, H2N2, H3N2) and zoonotic infections of man (H1N1, H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H9N2) were evaluated for the presence of amino acid sequences, motifs, that are predicted to mediate peptide epitope binding with high affinity to the most frequent HLA-DR allelic products. Peptides conserved among diverse influenza strains were then synthesized, evaluated for binding to purified HLA-DR molecules and for their capacity to induce influenza-specific immune recall responses using human donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Accordingly, 20 epitopes were selected for further investigation based on their conservancy among diverse influenza strains, predicted population coverage in diverse ethnic groups and capacity to recall influenza-specific responses. A DNA plasmid encoding the epitopes was constructed using amino acid spacers between epitopes to promote optimum processing and presentation. Immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine was measured using HLA-DR4 transgenic mice and the TriGrid™ in vivo electroporation device. Vaccination resulted in peptide-specific immune responses, augmented HA-specific antibody responses and protection of HLA-DR4 transgenic mice from lethal PR8 influenza virus challenge. These studies demonstrate the utility of this vaccine format and the contribution of CD4+ T cell responses to protection against influenza infection. PMID:19895924

  8. Identification of Immunodominant Peptides from Gnathostoma binucleatum

    PubMed Central

    Campista-León, Samuel; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Landa, Abraham; Willms, Kaethe; López-Moreno, Hector Samuel; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Ríos-Sicairos, Julian; Bojórquez-Contreras, Ángel Noel; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz

    2012-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is now recognized as a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. In the Americas, it is caused by the third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma binucleatum and in Asia mainly by G. spinigerum. The availability and preparation of specific antigens are among the main obstacles for developing reliable immunodiagnostic tests. In this study, six immunodominant peptides were identified and characterized from G. binucleatum, somatic antigens (AgS: 24, 32, and 40 kDa) and excretory-secretory antigens (AgES: 42, 44, and 56 kDa) by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Among those immunodominant peptides, two AgS spots were characterized by mass spectrometric analysis (32 kDa; pI 6.3 and 6.5) and identified as type 1 galectins. In accordance with this finding, a fraction of AgS exhibited affinity to lactose and displayed a 100% specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of human gnathostomiasis. PMID:22949520

  9. Differential targeting of viral components by CD4+ versus CD8+ T lymphocytes in dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rivino, Laura; Kumaran, Emmanuelle A P; Jovanovic, Vojislav; Nadua, Karen; Teo, En Wei; Pang, Shyue Wei; Teo, Guo Hui; Gan, Victor Chih Hao; Lye, David C; Leo, Yee Sin; Hanson, Brendon J; Smith, Kenneth G C; Bertoletti, Antonio; Kemeny, David M; MacAry, Paul A

    2013-03-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the principal arthropod-borne viral pathogen afflicting human populations. While repertoires of antibodies to DENV have been linked to protection or enhanced infection, the role of T lymphocytes in these processes remains poorly defined. This study provides a comprehensive overview of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell epitope reactivities against the DENV 2 proteome in adult patients experiencing secondary DENV infection. Dengue virus-specific T cell responses directed against an overlapping 15mer peptide library spanning the DENV 2 proteome were analyzed ex vivo by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, and recognition of individual peptides was further characterized in specific T cell lines. Thirty novel T cell epitopes were identified, 9 of which are CD4(+) and 21 are CD8(+) T cell epitopes. We observe that whereas CD8(+) T cell epitopes preferentially target nonstructural proteins (NS3 and NS5), CD4(+) epitopes are skewed toward recognition of viral components that are also targeted by B lymphocytes (envelope, capsid, and NS1). Consistently, a large proportion of dengue virus-specific CD4(+) T cells have phenotypic characteristics of circulating follicular helper T cells (CXCR5 expression and production of interleukin-21 or gamma interferon), suggesting that they are interacting with B cells in vivo. This study shows that during a dengue virus infection, the protein targets of human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are largely distinct, thus highlighting key differences in the immunodominance of DENV proteins for these two cell types. This has important implications for our understanding of how the two arms of the human adaptive immune system are differentially targeted and employed as part of our response to DENV infection.

  10. Soluble Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL/pUL128-131 Pentameric Complex, but Not gH/gL, Inhibits Viral Entry to Epithelial Cells and Presents Dominant Native Neutralizing Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Loughney, John W; Rustandi, Richard R; Wang, Dai; Troutman, Matthew C; Dick, Lawrence W; Li, Guanghua; Liu, Zhong; Li, Fengsheng; Freed, Daniel C; Price, Colleen E; Hoang, Van M; Culp, Timothy D; DePhillips, Pete A; Fu, Tong-Ming; Ha, Sha

    2015-06-26

    Congenital infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of nongenetic birth defects, and development of a prophylactic vaccine against HCMV is of high priority for public health. The gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex mediates HCMV entry into endothelial and epithelial cells, and it is a major target for neutralizing antibody responses. To better understand the mechanism by which antibodies interact with the epitopes of the gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex resulting in viral neutralization, we expressed and purified soluble gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex and gH/gL from Chinese hamster ovary cells to >95% purity. The soluble gH/gL, which exists predominantly as (gH/gL)2 homodimer with a molecular mass of 220 kDa in solution, has a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a pI of 6.0-6.5. The pentameric complex has a molecular mass of 160 kDa, a stoichiometry of 1:1:1:1:1, and a pI of 7.4-8.1. The soluble pentameric complex, but not gH/gL, adsorbs 76% of neutralizing activities in HCMV human hyperimmune globulin, consistent with earlier reports that the most potent neutralizing epitopes for blocking epithelial infection are unique to the pentameric complex. Functionally, the soluble pentameric complex, but not gH/gL, blocks viral entry to epithelial cells in culture. Our results highlight the importance of the gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex in HCMV vaccine design and emphasize the necessity to monitor the integrity of the pentameric complex during the vaccine manufacturing process.

  11. Soluble Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL/pUL128–131 Pentameric Complex, but Not gH/gL, Inhibits Viral Entry to Epithelial Cells and Presents Dominant Native Neutralizing Epitopes*

    PubMed Central

    Loughney, John W.; Rustandi, Richard R.; Wang, Dai; Troutman, Matthew C.; Dick, Lawrence W.; Li, Guanghua; Liu, Zhong; Li, Fengsheng; Freed, Daniel C.; Price, Colleen E.; Hoang, Van M.; Culp, Timothy D.; DePhillips, Pete A.; Fu, Tong-Ming; Ha, Sha

    2015-01-01

    Congenital infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of nongenetic birth defects, and development of a prophylactic vaccine against HCMV is of high priority for public health. The gH/gL/pUL128–131 pentameric complex mediates HCMV entry into endothelial and epithelial cells, and it is a major target for neutralizing antibody responses. To better understand the mechanism by which antibodies interact with the epitopes of the gH/gL/pUL128–131 pentameric complex resulting in viral neutralization, we expressed and purified soluble gH/gL/pUL128–131 pentameric complex and gH/gL from Chinese hamster ovary cells to >95% purity. The soluble gH/gL, which exists predominantly as (gH/gL)2 homodimer with a molecular mass of 220 kDa in solution, has a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a pI of 6.0–6.5. The pentameric complex has a molecular mass of 160 kDa, a stoichiometry of 1:1:1:1:1, and a pI of 7.4–8.1. The soluble pentameric complex, but not gH/gL, adsorbs 76% of neutralizing activities in HCMV human hyperimmune globulin, consistent with earlier reports that the most potent neutralizing epitopes for blocking epithelial infection are unique to the pentameric complex. Functionally, the soluble pentameric complex, but not gH/gL, blocks viral entry to epithelial cells in culture. Our results highlight the importance of the gH/gL/pUL128–131 pentameric complex in HCMV vaccine design and emphasize the necessity to monitor the integrity of the pentameric complex during the vaccine manufacturing process. PMID:25947373

  12. In vivo immunogenicity of Tax(11-19) epitope in HLA-A2/DTR transgenic mice: implication for dendritic cell-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Divya; Masih, Shet; Schell, Todd; Jacobson, Steven; Comber, Joseph D; Philip, Ramila; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K

    2014-05-30

    Viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells leading to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and is the key antigen recognized during HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). In HLA-A2+ asymptomatic carriers as well as ATL and HAM patients, Tax(11-19) epitope exhibits immunodominance. Here, we evaluate CD8 T-cell immune response against this epitope in the presence and absence of dendritic cells (DCs) given the recent encouraging observations made with Phase 1 DC-based vaccine trial for ATL. To facilitate these studies, we first generated an HLA-A2/DTR hybrid mouse strain carrying the HLA-A2.1 and CD11c-DTR genes. We then studied CD8 T-cell immune response against Tax(11-19) epitope delivered in the absence or presence of Freund's adjuvant and/or DCs. Overall results demonstrate that naturally presented Tax epitope could initiate an antigen-specific CD8T cell response in vivo but failed to do so upon DC depletion. Presence of adjuvant potentiated Tax(11-19)-specific response. Elevated serum IL-6 levels coincided with depletion of DCs whereas decreased TGF-β was associated with adjuvant use. Thus, Tax(11-19) epitope is a potential candidate for the DC-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine and the newly hybrid mouse strain could be used for investigating DC involvement in human class-I-restricted immune responses.

  13. Protection against lethal enterovirus 71 challenge in mice by a recombinant vaccine candidate containing a broadly cross-neutralizing epitope within the VP2 EF loop.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Li, Zhiqun; Zheng, Jun; Yang, Lisheng; Yu, Miao; Yu, Hai; Chen, Yixin; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with several severe neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. Here, we evaluated that while passive transfer of neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMAb) against the VP2 protein protect against lethal EV71 infection in BALB/c mice. Protective nMAb were mapped to residues 141-155 of VP2 by peptide ELISA. High-resolution structural analysis showed that the epitope is part of the VP2 EF loop, which is the "puff" region that forms the "southern rim" of the canyon. Moreover, a three-dimensional structural characterization for the puff region with prior neutralizing epitopes and receptor-binding sites that can serve to inform vaccine strategies. Interestingly, using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, we demonstrated that the cross-neutralizing EV71 antibodies were induced, and the VP2 epitope immunized mice serum also conferred 100% in vivo passive protection. The mechanism of in vivo protection conferred by VP2 nMAb is in part attributed to the in vitro neutralizing titer and ability to bind authentic viral particles. Importantly, the anti-VP2(aa141-155) antibodies could inhibit the binding of human serum to EV71 virions showed that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant. Collectively, our results suggest that a broad-spectrum vaccine strategy targeting the high-affinity epitope of VP2 EF loop may elicits effective immune responses against EV71 infection.

  14. Protection against Lethal Enterovirus 71 Challenge in Mice by a Recombinant Vaccine Candidate Containing a Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Epitope within the VP2 EF Loop

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Li, Zhiqun; Zheng, Jun; Yang, Lisheng; Yu, Miao; Yu, Hai; Chen, Yixin; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with several severe neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. Here, we evaluated that while passive transfer of neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMAb) against the VP2 protein protect against lethal EV71 infection in BALB/c mice. Protective nMAb were mapped to residues 141-155 of VP2 by peptide ELISA. High-resolution structural analysis showed that the epitope is part of the VP2 EF loop, which is the “puff” region that forms the “southern rim” of the canyon. Moreover, a three-dimensional structural characterization for the puff region with prior neutralizing epitopes and receptor-binding sites that can serve to inform vaccine strategies. Interestingly, using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, we demonstrated that the cross-neutralizing EV71 antibodies were induced, and the VP2 epitope immunized mice serum also conferred 100% in vivo passive protection. The mechanism of in vivo protection conferred by VP2 nMAb is in part attributed to the in vitro neutralizing titer and ability to bind authentic viral particles. Importantly, the anti-VP2(aa141-155) antibodies could inhibit the binding of human serum to EV71 virions showed that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant. Collectively, our results suggest that a broad-spectrum vaccine strategy targeting the high-affinity epitope of VP2 EF loop may elicits effective immune responses against EV71 infection. PMID:24669278

  15. In vivo immunogenicity of Tax 11-19 epitope in HLA-A2/DTR transgenic mice: implication for dendritic cell-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Divya; Masih, Shet; Schell, Todd; Jacobson, Steven; Comber, Joseph D.; Philip, Ramila; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells leading to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and is the key antigen recognized during HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). In HLA-A2+ asymptomatic carriers as well as ATL and HAM patients, Tax(11-19) epitope exhibits immunodominance. Here, we evaluate CD8 T-cell immune response against this epitope in the presence and absence of dendritic cells (DCs) given the recent encouraging observations made with Phase 1 DC-based vaccine trial for ATL. To facilitate these studies, we first generated an HLA-A2/DTR hybrid mouse strain carrying the HLA-A2.1 and CD11c-DTR genes. We then studied CD8 T-cell immune response against Tax(11-19) epitope delivered in the absence or presence of Freund’s adjuvant and/or DCs. Overall results demonstrate that naturally presented Tax epitope could initiate an antigen-specific CD8 T cell response in vivo but failed to do so upon DC depletion. Presence of adjuvant potentiated Tax(11-19)-specific response. Elevated serum IL-6 levels coincided with depletion of DCs whereas decreased TGF-β was associated with adjuvant use. Thus, Tax(11-19) epitope is a potential candidate for the DC-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine and the newly hybrid mouse strain could be used for investigating DC involvement in human class-I-restricted immune responses. PMID:24739247

  16. Subdominant/Cryptic CD8 T Cell Epitopes Contribute to Resistance against Experimental Infection with a Human Protozoan Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Mariana R.; Silveira, Eduardo L. V.; de Vasconcelos, José Ronnie C.; de Alencar, Bruna C. G.; Machado, Alexandre V.; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2011-01-01

    During adaptive immune response, pathogen-specific CD8+ T cells recognize preferentially a small number of epitopes, a phenomenon known as immunodominance. Its biological implications during natural or vaccine-induced immune responses are still unclear. Earlier, we have shown that during experimental infection, the human intracellular pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi restricts the repertoire of CD8+ T cells generating strong immunodominance. We hypothesized that this phenomenon could be a mechanism used by the parasite to reduce the breath and magnitude of the immune response, favoring parasitism, and thus that artificially broadening the T cell repertoire could favor the host. Here, we confirmed our previous observation by showing that CD8+ T cells of H-2a infected mice recognized a single epitope of an immunodominant antigen of the trans-sialidase super-family. In sharp contrast, CD8+ T cells from mice immunized with recombinant genetic vaccines (plasmid DNA and adenovirus) expressing this same T. cruzi antigen recognized, in addition to the immunodominant epitope, two other subdominant epitopes. This unexpected observation allowed us to test the protective role of the immune response to subdominant epitopes. This was accomplished by genetic vaccination of mice with mutated genes that did not express a functional immunodominant epitope. We found that these mice developed immune responses directed solely to the subdominant/cryptic CD8 T cell epitopes and a significant degree of protective immunity against infection mediated by CD8+ T cells. We concluded that artificially broadening the T cell repertoire contributes to host resistance against infection, a finding that has implications for the host-parasite relationship and vaccine development. PMID:21779365

  17. Broad and persistent Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are associated with viral control but rarely drive viral escape during primary HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Radebe, Mopo; Gounder, Kamini; Mokgoro, Mammekwa; Ndhlovu, Zaza M.; Mncube, Zenele; Mkhize, Lungile; van der Stok, Mary; Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung’u, Thumbi

    2015-01-01

    Objective We characterized protein-specific CD8+ T-cell immunodominance patterns during the first year of HIV-1 infection, and their impact on viral evolution and immune control. Methods We analyzed CD8+ T-cell responses to the full HIV-1 proteome during the first year of infection in eighteen antiretroviral-naïve individuals with acute HIV-1 subtype C infection, all identified prior to seroconversion. Ex vivo and cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT assays were performed and viruses from plasma were sequenced within defined CTL Gag epitopes. Results Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were dominant during the first 4 weeks post infection and made up 40% of total responses at this time, yet by 1 year responses against this region had declined and Gag responses made up to 47% of all T-cell responses measured. An inverse correlation between the breadth of Gag-specific responses and viral load set point was evident at 26 weeks post infection (p=0.0081; r= −0.60) and beyond. An inverse correlation between the number of persistent responses targeting Gag and viral set point was also identified (p=0.01; r=−0.58). Gag-specific responses detectable by the cultured ELISPOT assay correlated negatively with viral load set point (p=0.0013; r=−0.91). Sequence evolution in targeted and non-targeted Gag epitopes in this cohort was infrequent. Conclusions These data underscore the importance of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, particularly to the Gag protein, in the maintenance of low viral load levels during primary infection and show that these responses are initially poorly elicited by natural infection. These data have implications for vaccine design strategies. PMID:25387316

  18. Structural and functional identification of major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted self-peptides as naturally occurring molecular mimics of viral antigens. Possible role in CD8+ T cell-mediated, virus-induced autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, D; Riond, J; Burlet-Schiltz, O; von Herrath, M G; Lewicki, H; Monsarrat, B; Oldstone, M B; Gairin, J E

    2001-06-01

    Structural similarity (molecular mimicry) between viral epitopes and self-peptides can lead to the induction of autoaggressive CD4(+) as well as CD8(+) T cell responses. Based on the flexibility of T cell receptor/antigen/major histocompatibility complex recognition, it has been proposed that a self-peptide could replace a viral epitope for T cell recognition and therefore participate in pathophysiological processes in which T cells are involved. To address this issue, we used, as a molecular model of viral antigen, the H-2D(b)-restricted immunodominant epitope nucleoprotein (NP)-(396-404) (FQPQNGQFI) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We identified peptide sequences from murine self-proteins that share structural and functional homology with LCMV NP-(396-404) and that bound to H-2D(b) with high affinity. One of these self-peptides, derived from tumor necrosis factor receptor I (FGPSNWHFM, amino acids 302-310), maintained LCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells in an active state as observed both in vitro in cytotoxic assays and in vivo in a model of virus-induced autoimmune diabetes, the rat insulin promoter-LCMV NP transgenic mouse. The natural occurrence and molecular concentration at the surface of H-2(b) spleen cells of tumor necrosis factor receptor I-(302-310) were determined by on-line micro-high pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and supported its biological relevance.

  19. CD4+ T Cells Targeting Dominant and Cryptic Epitopes from Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Chu, Karen K. Y.; Musson, Julie A.; Moore, Stephen J.; Gallagher, Theresa; Baillie, Les; Williamson, Ethel D.; Robinson, John H.; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J.; Altmann, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is an endemic infection in many countries, particularly in the developing world. The causative agent, Bacillus anthracis, mediates disease through the secretion of binary exotoxins. Until recently, research into adaptive immunity targeting this bacterial pathogen has largely focused on the humoral response to these toxins. There is, however, growing recognition that cellular immune responses involving IFNγ producing CD4+ T cells also contribute significantly to a protective memory response. An established concept in adaptive immunity to infection is that during infection of host cells, new microbial epitopes may be revealed, leading to immune recognition of so called ‘cryptic’ or ‘subdominant’ epitopes. We analyzed the response to both cryptic and immunodominant T cell epitopes derived from the toxin component lethal factor and presented by a range of HLA-DR alleles. Using IFNγ-ELISpot assays we characterized epitopes that elicited a response following immunization with synthetic peptide and the whole protein and tested their capacities to bind purified HLA-DR molecules in vitro. We found that DR1 transgenics demonstrated T cell responses to a greater number of domain III cryptic epitopes than other HLA-DR transgenics, and that this pattern was repeated with the immunodominant epitopes, as a greater proportion of these epitopes induced a T cell response when presented within the context of the whole protein. Immunodominant epitopes LF457-476 and LF467-487 were found to induce a T cell response to the peptide, as well as to the whole native LF protein in DR1 and DR15, but not in DR4 transgenics. The analysis of Domain I revealed the presence of several unique cryptic epitopes all of which showed a strong to moderate relative binding affinity to HLA-DR4 molecules. However, none of the cryptic epitopes from either domain III or I displayed notably high binding affinities across all HLA-DR alleles assayed. These responses were influenced by the

  20. Identifying Novel B Cell Epitopes within Toxoplasma gondii GRA6

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Cai, Jian Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study of antigenic epitopes from Toxoplasma gondii has not only enhanced our understanding of the structure and function of antigens, the reactions between antigens and antibodies, and many other aspects of immunology, but it also plays a significant role in the development of new diagnostic reagents and vaccines. In the present study, T. gondii GRA6 epitopes were identified using bioinformatics tools and a synthetic peptide technique. The potential B cell epitopes of GRA6 predicted by bioinformatics tools concentrated upon 3 regions of GRA6, 1-20 aa, 44-103 aa, and 172-221 aa. Ten shorter peptides from the 3 regions were synthesized and assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Three of the 10 peptides (amino acids 44-63, 172-191, and 192-211) tested were recognized by all sera and determined to be immunodominant B-cell epitopes of GRA6. The results indicated that we precisely and accurately located the T. gondii GRA6 epitopes using pig sera collected at different time points after infection. The identified epitopes may be very useful for further studies of epitope-based vaccines and diagnostic reagents. PMID:27658594

  1. Hypoxia Induces an Immunodominant Target of Tuberculosis Specific T Cells Absent from Common BCG Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, Hannah Priyadarshini; Wilkinson, Katalin Andrea; Rustad, Tige R.; Oni, Tolu; Guio, Heinner; Kozak, Robert Andrew; Sherman, David R.; Meintjes, Graeme; Behr, Marcel A.; Vordermeier, Hans Martin; Young, Douglas Brownlee; Wilkinson, Robert John

    2010-01-01

    M. tuberculosis (MTB) species-specific antigenic determinants of the human T cell response are important for immunodiagnosis and vaccination. As hypoxia is a stimulus in chronic tuberculosis infection, we analyzed transcriptional profiles of MTB subject to 168 hours of hypoxia to test the hypothesis that upregulation by hypoxia might result in gene products being recognized as antigens. We identified upregulation of two region of difference (RD) 11 (Rv2658C and Rv2659c), and one RD2 (Rv1986) absent from commonly used BCG strains. In MTB infected persons, the IL-2 ELISpot response to Rv1986 peptides was several times greater than the corresponding IFN-γ response to the reference immunodominant ESAT-6 or CFP-10 antigens. The IL-2 response was confined to two epitopic regions containing residues 61–80 and 161–180. The biggest population of IL-2 secreting T cells was single cytokine positive central memory T cells. The IL-2 response to live MTB bacilli lacking Rv1986 was significantly lower than the response to wild type or mutant complemented with Rv1986. In addition, the IL-2 response to Rv1986 was significantly lower in HIV-TB co-infected persons than in HIV uninfected persons, and significantly increased during antiretroviral therapy. These findings demonstrate that Rv1986 is an immunodominant target of memory T cells and is therefore of relevance when considering the partial efficacy of currently used BCG vaccines and provide evidence for a clinical trial comparing BCG strains. PMID:21203487

  2. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes within Tarp of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanli; Feng, Yan; Chen, Jun; Lin, Xiaoyun; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Zhong, Xiaozhi; Li, WenShu; Zhang, Lifang

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted pathogens. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. Chlamydial translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp) can induce cellular and humoral immune responses in murine models and has been regarded as a potential vaccine candidate. In this report, the amino acid sequence of Tarp was analyzed using computer-assisted techniques to scan B-cell epitopes, and six possible linear B-cell epitopes peptides (aa80-95, aa107-123, aa152-170, aa171-186, aa239-253 and aa497-513) with high predicted antigenicity and high conservation were investigated. Sera from mice immunized with these potential immunodominant peptides was analyzed by ELISA, which showed that epitope 152-170 elicited serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and epitope 171-186 elicited both serum IgG and mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A response. The response of immune sera of epitope 171-186 to endogenous Tarp antigen obtained from the Hela229 cells infected with C. trachomatis was confirmed by Western blot and indirect fluorescence assay. In addition, binding of the antibodies against epitope 171-186 to endogenous Tarp was further confirmed by competitive ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the putative epitope (aa171-186) was an immunodominant B-cell epitope of Tarp. If proven protective and safe, this epitope, in combination with other well-documented epitopes, might be included into a candidate epitope-based vaccine against C. trachomatis.

  3. HIV-1 CD4-induced (CD4i) gp120 epitope vaccines promote B and T-cell responses that contribute to reduced viral loads in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael A; Tuero, Iskra; Demberg, Thorsten; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Musich, Thomas; Xiao, Peng; Venzon, David; LaBranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; DiPasquale, Janet; Reed, Steven G; DeVico, Anthony; Fouts, Timothy; Lewis, George K; Gallo, Robert C; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2014-12-01

    To target the HIV CD4i envelope epitope, we primed rhesus macaques with replicating Ad-rhFLSC (HIV-1BaLgp120 linked to macaque CD4 D1 and D2), with or without Ad-SIVgag and Ad-SIVnef. Macaques were boosted with rhFLSC protein. Memory T-cells in PBMC, bronchoalveolar lavage and rectal tissue, antibodies with neutralizing and ADCC activity, and Env-specific secretory IgA in rectal secretions were elicited. Although protective neutralizing antibody levels were induced, SHIVSF162P4 acquisition following rectal challenge was not prevented. Rapid declines in serum ADCC activity, Env-specific memory B cells in PBMC and bone marrow, and systemic and mucosal memory T cells were observed immediately post-challenge together with delayed anamnestic responses. Innate immune signaling resulting from persisting Ad replication and the TLR-4 booster adjuvant may have been in conflict and reoriented adaptive immunity. A different adjuvant paired with replicating Ad, or a longer post-prime interval allowing vector clearance before boosting might foster persistent T- and B-cell memory.

  4. A Broadly Cross-protective Vaccine Presenting the Neighboring Epitopes within the VP1 GH Loop and VP2 EF Loop of Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Yang, Lisheng; Li, Zhiqun; Ye, Xiangzhong; Yu, Hai; zhao, Huan; Li, Shuxuan; Yuan, Lunzhi; Qian, Hongliu; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Zhu, Hua; Li, Yimin; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-08-05

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and are often associated with neurological complications. Currently, several vaccine types are being developed for EV71 and CA16. In this study, we constructed a bivalent chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) presenting the VP1 (aa208-222) and VP2 (aa141-155) epitopes of EV71 using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, designated HBc-E1/2. Immunization with the chimeric VLPs HBc-E1/2 induced higher IgG titers and neutralization titers against EV71 and CA16 in vitro than immunization with only one epitope incorporated into HBc. Importantly, passive immunization with the recombinant HBc-E2 particles protected neonatal mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infections. We demonstrate that anti-VP2 (aa141-155) sera bound authentic CA16 viral particles, whereas anti-VP1 (aa208-222) sera could not. Moreover, the anti-VP2 (aa141-155) antibodies inhibited the binding of human serum to virions, which demonstrated that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant between EV71 and CA16. These results illustrated that the chimeric VLP HBc-E1/2 is a promising candidate for a broad-spectrum HFMD vaccine, and also reveals mechanisms of protection by the neighboring linear epitopes of the VP1 GH and VP2 EF loops.

  5. A Broadly Cross-protective Vaccine Presenting the Neighboring Epitopes within the VP1 GH Loop and VP2 EF Loop of Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Yang, Lisheng; Li, Zhiqun; Ye, Xiangzhong; Yu, Hai; zhao, Huan; Li, Shuxuan; Yuan, Lunzhi; Qian, Hongliu; Que, Yuqiong; Kuo Shih, James Wai; Zhu, Hua; Li, Yimin; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and are often associated with neurological complications. Currently, several vaccine types are being developed for EV71 and CA16. In this study, we constructed a bivalent chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) presenting the VP1 (aa208-222) and VP2 (aa141-155) epitopes of EV71 using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, designated HBc-E1/2. Immunization with the chimeric VLPs HBc-E1/2 induced higher IgG titers and neutralization titers against EV71 and CA16 in vitro than immunization with only one epitope incorporated into HBc. Importantly, passive immunization with the recombinant HBc-E2 particles protected neonatal mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infections. We demonstrate that anti-VP2 (aa141-155) sera bound authentic CA16 viral particles, whereas anti-VP1 (aa208-222) sera could not. Moreover, the anti-VP2 (aa141-155) antibodies inhibited the binding of human serum to virions, which demonstrated that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant between EV71 and CA16. These results illustrated that the chimeric VLP HBc-E1/2 is a promising candidate for a broad-spectrum HFMD vaccine, and also reveals mechanisms of protection by the neighboring linear epitopes of the VP1 GH and VP2 EF loops. PMID:26243660

  6. Immunological and Biochemical Characterization of Coxsackie Virus A16 Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pele; Guo, Meng-Shin; Lin, Fion Hsiao-Yu; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Weng, Shu-Yang; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Wang, Jen-Ren; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Su, Ih-Jen; Liu, Chia-Chyi

    2012-01-01

    Background Coxsackie virus A16 (CVA16) infections have become a serious public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region. It manifests most often in childhood exanthema, commonly known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). There are currently no vaccine or effective medical treatments available. Principal Finding In this study, we describe the production, purification and characterization of CVA16 virus produced from Vero cells grown on 5 g/L Cytodex 1 microcarrier beads in a five-liter serum-free bioreactor system. The viral titer was found to be >106 the tissue culture's infectious dose (TCID50) per mL within 7 days post-infection when a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10−5 was used for initial infection. Two CVA16 virus fractions were separated and detected when the harvested CVA16 viral concentrate was purified by a sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The viral particles detected in the 24–28% sucrose fractions had low viral infectivity and RNA content. The viral particles obtained from 35–38% sucrose fractions were found to have high viral infectivity and RNA content, and composed of four viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4), as shown by SDS-PAGE analyses. These two virus fractions were formalin-inactivated and only the infectious particle fraction was found to be capable of inducing CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses in both mouse and rabbit immunogenicity studies. But these antisera failed to neutralize enterovirus 71. In addition, rabbit antisera did not react with any peptides derived from CVA16 capsid proteins. Mouse antisera recognized a single linear immunodominant epitope of VP3 corresponding to residues 176–190. Conclusion These results provide important information for cell-based CVA16 vaccine development. To eliminate HFMD, a bivalent EV71/CVA16 vaccine formulation is necessary. PMID:23226233

  7. Immunodominance: a new hypothesis to explain parasite escape and host/parasite equilibrium leading to the chronic phase of Chagas' disease?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Alencar, B C G de; Claser, C; Tzelepis, F

    2009-03-01

    Intense immune responses are observed during human or experimental infection with the digenetic protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The reasons why such immune responses are unable to completely eliminate the parasites are unknown. The survival of the parasite leads to a parasite-host equilibrium found during the chronic phase of chagasic infection in most individuals. Parasite persistence is recognized as the most likely cause of the chagasic chronic pathologies. Therefore, a key question in Chagas' disease is to understand how this equilibrium is established and maintained for a long period. Understanding the basis for this equilibrium may lead to new approaches to interventions that could help millions of individuals at risk for infection or who are already infected with T. cruzi. Here, we propose that the phenomenon of immunodominance may be significant in terms of regulating the host-parasite equilibrium observed in Chagas' disease. T. cruzi infection restricts the repertoire of specific T cells generating, in some cases, an intense immunodominant phenotype and in others causing a dramatic interference in the response to distinct epitopes. This immune response is sufficiently strong to maintain the host alive during the acute phase carrying them to the chronic phase where transmission usually occurs. At the same time, immunodominance interferes with the development of a higher and broader immune response that could be able to completely eliminate the parasite. Based on this, we discuss how we can interfere with or take advantage of immunodominance in order to provide an immunotherapeutic alternative for chagasic individuals.

  8. Immunodominance of CD4 T cells to foreign antigens is peptide intrinsic and independent of molecular context: Implications for vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Jason M.; Lazarski, Christopher A.; Richards, Katherine A.; Chaves, Francisco A.; Jenks, Scott A.; Menges, Paula R.; Sant, Andrea J.

    2009-01-01

    Immunodominance refers to the restricted peptide specificity of T cells that are detectable after an adaptive immune response. For CD4 T cells, many of the mechanisms used to explain this selectivity suggest that events related to antigen processing play a major role in determining a peptide’s ability to recruit CD4 T cells. Implicit in these models is the prediction that the molecular context in which an antigenic peptide is contained will impact significantly on its immunodominance. Here, we present evidence that the selectivity of CD4 T cell responses to peptides contained within protein antigens is not detectably influenced by the location of the peptide in a given protein or the primary sequence of the protein that bears the test peptide. We have used molecular approaches to change the location of peptides within complex protein antigens and to change the flanking sequences that border the peptide epitope to now include a protease site and find that immunodominance or crypticity of a peptide observed in its native protein context is preserved. Collectively, these results suggest immunodominance of peptides contained in complex antigens is due to an intrinsic factor of the peptide, based upon the affinity of that peptide for MHC class II molecules. These findings are discussed with regard to implications for vaccine design. PMID:18713974

  9. Stochastic humoral expression of human growth hormone epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverrigaray, M; Paladini, A C; Retegui, L A

    1988-01-01

    Competition experiments between insolubilized monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and polyclonal antisera has led to the description of the humoral expression of human growth hormone (hGH) epitopes. This study was carried out with sera from mice and hamsters submitted to different immunization schedules: chronic administration of the antigen, secondary response and conventional hyperimmunization. The results indicated the absence of a unique immunodominant epitope in hGH; a significant individual variation of antibody (Ab) population titres with time; changes with time in the relative proportion of one Ab population with respect to the others; and the occurrence of Ab enhancing the 125I-hGH binding to five mAb depending upon the individuals and the time of immunization. Heterocliticity towards non-human GH was also detected. Although most of the animals showed cross-reacting Ab, two out of 12 mice, chronically injected, developed heteroclitic Ab. The data suggest that the humoral response to different epitopes of a protein antigen during the maturation of the immune response is a stochastic process leading to transient humoral immunodominance, enhancing Ab populations and heterocliticity, depending upon individual characteristics, either in outbred or inbred populations. PMID:2452789

  10. Myelin basic protein-specific T lymphocyte repertoire in multiple sclerosis. Complexity of the response and dominance of nested epitopes due to recruitment of multiple T cell clones.

    PubMed Central

    Meinl, E; Weber, F; Drexler, K; Morelle, C; Ott, M; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G; Goebels, N; Ertl, B; Jechart, G; Giegerich, G

    1993-01-01

    The human T cell response to the myelin basic protein (MBP) has been studied with respect to T cell receptor (TCR) usage, HLA class II restriction elements, and epitope specificity using a total of 215 long-term MBP-specific T cell lines (TCL) isolated from the peripheral blood of 13 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 healthy donors. In most donors, the anti-MBP response was exceedingly heterogeneous. Using a panel of overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the entire length of human MBP, at least 26 epitopes recognized by human TCL could be distinguished. The MBP domain most commonly recognized was sequence 80-105 (31% of MS TCL, and 24% of control TCL). Sequence 29-48 was recognized more frequently by control-derived TCL (24%) than by TCL from MS patients (5%). The MBP epitopes were recognized in the context of DRB1 *0101, DRB5*0101, DRB1*1501, DRB1*0301, DRB1*0401, DRB1*1402, and DRB3*0102, as demonstrated using a panel of DR gene-transfected L cells. The TCR gene usage was also heterogeneous. V beta 5.2, a peptide of which is currently being used in a clinical trial for treatment of MS patients, was expressed by only one of our TCL. However, within this complex pattern of MBP-specific T cell responses, a minority of MS patients were found to exhibit a more restricted response with respect to their TCL epitope specificity. In these patients 75-87% of the TCL responded to a single, patient-specific cluster of immunodominant T cell epitopes located within a small (20-amino acid) domain of MBP. These nested clusters of immunodominant epitopes were noted within the amino acids 80-105, 108-131, and 131-153. The T cell response to the immunodominant epitopes was not monoclonal, but heterogeneous, with respect to fine specificity, TCR usage, and even HLA restriction. In one patient (H.K.), this restricted epitope profile remained stable for > 2 yr. The TCR beta chain sequences of TCL specific for the immunodominant region of HK are consistent with an

  11. Linear Epitopes in Vaccinia Virus A27 Are Targets of Protective Antibodies Induced by Vaccination against Smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Kaever, Thomas; Matho, Michael H.; Meng, Xiangzhi; Crickard, Lindsay; Schlossman, Andrew; Xiang, Yan; Crotty, Shane; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus (VACV) A27 is a target for viral neutralization and part of the Dryvax smallpox vaccine. A27 is one of the three glycosaminoglycan (GAG) adhesion molecules and binds to heparan sulfate. To understand the function of anti-A27 antibodies, especially their protective capacity and their interaction with A27, we generated and subsequently characterized 7 murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which fell into 4 distinct epitope groups (groups I to IV). The MAbs in three groups (groups I, III, and IV) bound to linear peptides, while the MAbs in group II bound only to VACV lysate and recombinant A27, suggesting that they recognized a conformational and discontinuous epitope. Only group I antibodies neutralized the mature virion in a complement-dependent manner and protected against VACV challenge, while a group II MAb partially protected against VACV challenge but did not neutralize the mature virion. The epitope for group I MAbs was mapped to a region adjacent to the GAG binding site, a finding which suggests that group I MAbs could potentially interfere with the cellular adhesion of A27. We further determined the crystal structure of the neutralizing group I MAb 1G6, as well as the nonneutralizing group IV MAb 8E3, bound to the corresponding linear epitope-containing peptides. Both the light and the heavy chains of the antibodies are important in binding to their antigens. For both antibodies, the L1 loop seems to dominate the overall polar interactions with the antigen, while for MAb 8E3, the light chain generally appears to make more contacts with the antigen. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus is a powerful model to study antibody responses upon vaccination, since its use as the smallpox vaccine led to the eradication of one of the world's greatest killers. The immunodominant antigens that elicit the protective antibodies are known, yet for many of these antigens, little information about their precise interaction with antibodies is available. In an

  12. Identification of an immunodominant peptide from citrullinated tenascin-C as a major target for autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Schwenzer, Anja; Jiang, Xia; Mikuls, Ted R; Payne, Jeffrey B; Sayles, Harlan R; Quirke, Anne-Marie; Kessler, Benedikt M; Fischer, Roman; Venables, Patrick J; Lundberg, Karin; Midwood, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether citrullinated tenascin-C (cTNC), an extracellular matrix protein expressed at high levels in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is a target for the autoantibodies in RA. Methods Citrullinated sites were mapped by mass spectrometry in the fibrinogen-like globe (FBG) domain of tenascin-C treated with peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD) 2 and 4. Antibodies to cyclic peptides containing citrullinated sites were screened in sera from patients with RA by ELISA. Potential cross-reactivity with well-established anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) epitopes was tested by inhibition assays. The autoantibody response to one immunodominant cTNC peptide was then analysed in 101 pre-RA sera (median 7 years before onset) and two large independent RA cohorts. Results Nine arginine residues within FBG were citrullinated by PAD2 and PAD4. Two immunodominant peptides cTNC1 (VFLRRKNG-cit-ENFYQNW) and cTNC5 (EHSIQFAEMKL-cit-PSNF-cit-NLEG-cit-cit-KR) were identified. Antibodies to both showed limited cross-reactivity with ACPA epitopes from α-enolase, vimentin and fibrinogen, and no reactivity with citrullinated fibrinogen peptides sharing sequence homology with FBG. cTNC5 antibodies were detected in 18% of pre-RA sera, and in 47% of 1985 Swedish patients with RA and 51% of 287 North American patients with RA. The specificity was 98% compared with 160 healthy controls and 330 patients with osteoarthritis. Conclusions There are multiple citrullination sites in the FBG domain of tenascin-C. Among these, one epitope is recognised by autoantibodies that are detected years before disease onset, and which may serve as a useful biomarker to identify ACPA-positive patients with high sensitivity and specificity in established disease. PMID:26659718

  13. The identification and characterization of epitopes in the 30-34 kDa Trypanosoma cruzi proteins recognized by antibodies in the serum samples of chagasic patients.

    PubMed

    Verissimo da Costa, Giovani Carlo; Lery, Leticia Miranda Santos; da Silva, Manuela Leal; Moura, Hércules; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; von Krüger, Wanda Maria Almeida; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Barr, John R; Peralta, José Mauro

    2013-03-27

    Trypanosoma cruzi proteins with molecular weight between 30 and 34 kDa have shown high reactivity in western blot assays with serum samples from chagasic individuals. However, in-depth analysis of the constituents of these protein fractions has not been performed. This is the first report of an immunoaffinity proteomic approach to identify the immunodominant 30-34 kDa proteins of T. cruzi that could eventually be used for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. We used two different sample preparation protocols for protein digestion coupled to mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the protein fraction. The immunodominant proteins and their respective epitopes were then identified by co-immunoprecipitation and excision-epitope mapping/mass spectrometry, using human sera followed by the prediction and three-dimensional structural modeling of reactive epitopes. The use of different sample preparation methods allowed the identification of a relatively high number of proteins, some of which were only identified after one or multiple sample preparation and digestion protocols. Seven immunodominant proteins were identified by co-immunoprecipitation with purified IgGs from chagasic serum samples. Moreover, six reactive peptide epitopes were detected in four of these proteins by excision-epitope mapping/mass spectrometry. Three-dimensional structural models were obtained for the immunoreactive peptides, which correlated well with the linear B-cell epitope prediction tools. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. H5N1 vaccine-elicited memory B cells are genetically constrained by the IGHV locus in the recognition of a neutralizing epitope in the HA stem

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Adam K; Whittle, James RR; Lingwood, Daniel; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Yassine, Hadi M; Ma, Steven S; Narpala, Sandeep R; Prabhakaran, Madhu S; Matus-Nicodemos, Rodrigo A; Bailer, Robert T; Nabel, Gary J; Graham, Barney S; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Koup, Richard A; McDermott, Adrian B

    2015-01-01

    Due to significant viral diversity, vaccines that elicit durable and broad protection against influenza have been elusive. Recent research has focused on the potential of highly conserved regions of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) as targets for broadly neutralizing antibody responses. Antibodies that bind the highly conserved stem or stalk of HA can be elicited by vaccination in humans and animal models and neutralize diverse influenza strains. However, the frequency and phenotype of HA stem-specific B cells in vivo remains unclear. Here we characterize HA stem-specific B cell responses following H5N1 vaccination and describe the re-expansion of a pre-existing population of memory B cells specific for stem epitopes. This population utilizes primarily, but not exclusively, IGHV1-69-based immunoglobulins for HA recognition. However within some subjects, allelic polymorphism at the ighv1-69 locus can limit IGHV1-69 immunodominance and may reduce circulating frequencies of stem-reactive B cells in vivo. The accurate definition of allelic selection, recombination requirements and ontogeny of neutralizing antibody responses to influenza will aid rational influenza vaccine design. PMID:26078272

  15. Bcipep: A database of B-cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sudipto; Bhasin, Manoj; Raghava, Gajendra PS

    2005-01-01

    Background Bcipep is a database of experimentally determined linear B-cell epitopes of varying immunogenicity collected from literature and other publicly available databases. Results The current version of Bcipep database contains 3031 entries that include 763 immunodominant, 1797 immunogenic and 471 null-immunogenic epitopes. It covers a wide range of pathogenic organisms like viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The database provides a set of tools for the analysis and extraction of data that includes keyword search, peptide mapping and BLAST search. It also provides hyperlinks to various databases such as GenBank, PDB, SWISS-PROT and MHCBN. Conclusion A comprehensive database of B-cell epitopes called Bcipep has been developed that covers information on epitopes from a wide range of pathogens. The Bcipep will be source of information for investigators involved in peptide-based vaccine design, disease diagnosis and research in allergy. It should also be a promising data source for the development and evaluation of methods for prediction of B-cell epitopes. The database is available at . PMID:15921533

  16. The context of gene expression defines the immunodominance hierarchy of cytomegalovirus antigens.

    PubMed

    Dekhtiarenko, Iryna; Jarvis, Michael A; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Čičin-Šain, Luka

    2013-04-01

    Natural immunity to CMV dominates the CD4 and CD8 memory compartments of the CMV-seropositive host. This property has been recently exploited for experimental CMV-based vaccine vector strategies, and it has shown promise in animal models of AIDS and Ebola disease. Although it is generally agreed that CMV-based vaccine vectors may induce highly protective and persistent memory T cells, the influence of the gene expression context on Ag-specific T cell memory responses and immune protection induced by CMV vectors is not known. Using murine CMV (MCMV) recombinants expressing a single CD8 T cell epitope from HSV-1 fused to different MCMV genes, we show that magnitude and kinetics of T cell responses induced by CMV are dependent on the gene expression of CMV Ags. Interestingly, the kinetics of the immune response to the HSV-1 epitope was paralleled by a reciprocal depression of immune responses to endogenous MCMV Ags. Infection with a recombinant MCMV inducing a vigorous initial immune response to the recombinant peptide resulted in a depressed early response to endogenous MCMV Ag. Another recombinant virus, which induced a slowly developing "inflationary" T cell response to the HSV-1 peptide, induced weaker long-term responses to endogenous CMV Ags. Importantly, both mutants were able to protect mice from a challenge with HSV-1, mediating strong sterilizing immunity. Our data suggest that the context of gene expression markedly influences the T cell immunodominance hierarchy of CMV Ags, but the immune protection against HSV-1 does not require inflationary CD8 responses against the recombinant CMV-expressed epitope.

  17. A novel monoclonal antibody to a defined peptide epitope in MUC16.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Silva, Lara; Ricardo, Sara; Chen, Kowa; Blixt, Ola; Arigi, Emma; Pereira, Daniela; Høgdall, Estrid; Mandel, Ulla; Bennett, Eric P; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; David, Leonor; Clausen, Henrik

    2015-11-01

    The MUC16 mucin is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in ovarian carcinomas. Immunodetection of circulating MUC16 is one of the most used cancer biomarker assays, but existing antibodies to MUC16 fail to distinguish normal and aberrant cancer glycoforms. Although all antibodies react with the tandem-repeat region, their epitopes appear to be conformational dependent and not definable by a short peptide. Aberrant glycoforms of MUC16 may constitute promising targets for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic intervention, and it is important to develop well-defined immunogens for induction of potent MUC16 immunity. Here, we developed a MUC16 vaccine based on a 1.7TR (264 aa) expressed in Escherichia coli and in vitro enzymatically glycosylated to generate the aberrant cancer-associated glycoform Tn. This vaccine elicited a potent serum IgG response in mice and we identified two major immunodominant linear peptide epitopes within the tandem repeat. We developed one monoclonal antibody, 5E11, reactive with a minimum epitope with the sequence FNTTER. This sequence contains potential N- and O-glycosylation sites and, interestingly, glycosylation blocked binding of 5E11. In immunochemistry of ovarian benign and cancer lesions, 5E11 showed similar reactivity as traditional MUC16 antibodies, suggesting that the epitope is not efficiently glycosylated. The study provides a vaccine design and immunodominant MUC16 TR epitopes.

  18. Induction of memory cytotoxic T cells to influenza A virus and subsequent viral clearance is not modulated by PB1-F2-dependent inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patricia (Hoi Yee); Bird, Nicola; MacKenzie-Kludas, Charley; Mansell, Ashley; Kedzierska, Katherine; Brown, Lorena; McAuley, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the viral virulence protein PB1-F2 during infection has been linked to NLRP3 inflammasome complex activation in macrophages and induction of early inflammatory events enhancing immunopathology during influenza disease. We sought to determine whether PB1-F2-specific NLRP3 inflammasome activation influenced the magnitude and/or robustness of the CD8+ T-cell responses specific for conserved viral antigens and subsequent virus elimination. Using murine heterosubtypic viral infection models, we showed that mice infected with virus unable to produce PB1-F2 protein showed no deficit in the overall magnitude and functional memory responses of CD8+ T cells established during the effector phase compared with those infected with wild-type PB1-F2-expressing virus and were equally capable of mounting robust recall responses. These data indicate that while expression of PB1-F2 protein can induce inflammatory events, the capacity to generate memory CD8+ T cells specific for immunodominant viral epitopes remains uncompromised. PMID:26667784

  19. Definition of Human Epitopes Recognized in Tetanus Toxoid and Development of an Assay Strategy to Detect Ex Vivo Tetanus CD4+ T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    da Silva Antunes, Ricardo; Paul, Sinu; Sidney, John; Weiskopf, Daniela; Dan, Jennifer M; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Crotty, Shane; Sette, Alessandro; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S

    2017-01-01

    Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly characterized. Herein we defined the human CD4+ T cell epitope repertoire by reevaluation of previously described epitopes and evaluation of those derived from prediction of HLA Class II binding. Forty-seven epitopes were identified following in vitro TT stimulation, with 28 epitopes accounting for 90% of the total response. Despite this diverse range of epitopes, individual responses were associated with only a few immunodominant epitopes, with each donor responding on average to 3 epitopes. For the top 14 epitopes, HLA restriction could be inferred based on HLA typing of the responding donors. HLA binding predictions re-identified the vast majority of known epitopes, and identified 24 additional novel epitopes. With these epitopes, we created a TT epitope pool, which allowed us to characterize TT responses directly ex vivo using a cytokine-independent Activation Induced Marker (AIM) assay. These TT responses were highly Th1 or Th2 polarized, which was dependent upon the original priming vaccine, either the cellular DTwP or acellular DTaP formulation. This polarization remained despite the original priming having occurred decades past and a recent booster immunization with a reduced acellular vaccine formulation. While TT responses following booster vaccination were not durably increased in magnitude, they were associated with a relative expansion of CD4+ effector memory T cells.

  20. Definition of Human Epitopes Recognized in Tetanus Toxoid and Development of an Assay Strategy to Detect Ex Vivo Tetanus CD4+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Antunes, Ricardo; Paul, Sinu; Sidney, John; Weiskopf, Daniela; Dan, Jennifer M.; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Crotty, Shane; Sette, Alessandro; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly characterized. Herein we defined the human CD4+ T cell epitope repertoire by reevaluation of previously described epitopes and evaluation of those derived from prediction of HLA Class II binding. Forty-seven epitopes were identified following in vitro TT stimulation, with 28 epitopes accounting for 90% of the total response. Despite this diverse range of epitopes, individual responses were associated with only a few immunodominant epitopes, with each donor responding on average to 3 epitopes. For the top 14 epitopes, HLA restriction could be inferred based on HLA typing of the responding donors. HLA binding predictions re-identified the vast majority of known epitopes, and identified 24 additional novel epitopes. With these epitopes, we created a TT epitope pool, which allowed us to characterize TT responses directly ex vivo using a cytokine-independent Activation Induced Marker (AIM) assay. These TT responses were highly Th1 or Th2 polarized, which was dependent upon the original priming vaccine, either the cellular DTwP or acellular DTaP formulation. This polarization remained despite the original priming having occurred decades past and a recent booster immunization with a reduced acellular vaccine formulation. While TT responses following booster vaccination were not durably increased in magnitude, they were associated with a relative expansion of CD4+ effector memory T cells. PMID:28081174

  1. Immunodominance changes as a function of the infecting dengue virus serotype and primary versus secondary infection.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Angelo, Michael A; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Shresta, Sujan; Sette, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue fever (DF). This disease can be caused by any of four DENV serotypes (DENV1 to -4) which share 67 to 75% sequence homology with one another. The effect of subsequent infections with different serotypes on the T cell repertoire is not fully understood. We utilized mice transgenic for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) lacking the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) receptor to study responses to heterologous DENV infection. First, we defined the primary T cell response to DENV3 in the context of a wide range of HLA molecules. The primary DENV3 immune response recognized epitopes derived from all 10 DENV proteins, with a significant fraction of the response specific for structural proteins. This is in contrast to primary DENV2 infection, in which structural proteins are a minor component of the response, suggesting differential antigen immunodominance as a function of the infecting serotype. We next investigated the effect of secondary heterologous DENV infection on the T cell repertoire. In the case of both DENV2/3 and DENV3/2 heterologous infections, recognition of conserved/cross-reactive epitopes was either constant or expanded compared to that in homologous infection. Furthermore, in heterologous infection, previous infection with a different serotype impaired the development of responses directed to serotype-specific but not conserved epitopes. Thus, a detrimental effect of previous heterotypic responses might not be due to dysfunctional and weakly cross-reactive epitopes dominating the response. Rather, responses to the original serotype might limit the magnitude of responses directed against epitopes that are either cross-reactive to or specific for the most recently infecting serotype. DENV transmission occurs in more than 100 countries and is an increasing public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. At present, no effective antiviral therapy or licensed vaccine exists, and treatment is largely

  2. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Christopher; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Multiple major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for research and development of a human RSV vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as HIV and influenza. PMID:24499818

  3. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  4. Purification and Characterization of Enterovirus 71 Viral Particles Produced from Vero Cells Grown in a Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Chyi; Guo, Meng-Shin; Lin, Fion Hsiao-Yu; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Chang, Kate Hsuen-Wen; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Wang, Yu-Chao; Chen, Yu-Ching; Yang, Chung-Shi; Chong, Pele Choi-Sing

    2011-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections manifest most commonly as a childhood exanthema known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and can cause neurological disease during acute infection. Principal Finding In this study, we describe the production, purification and characterization of EV71 virus produced from Vero cells grown in a five-liter serum-free bioreactor system containing 5 g/L Cytodex 1 microcarrier. The viral titer was >106 TCID50/mL by 6 days post infection when a MOI of 10−5 was used at the initial infection. Two EV71 virus fractions were separated and detected when the harvested EV71 virus concentrate was purified by sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The EV71 viral particles detected in the 24–28% sucrose fractions had an icosahedral structure 30–31 nm in diameter and had low viral infectivity and RNA content. Three major viral proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were observed by SDS-PAGE. The EV71 viral particles detected in the fractions containing 35–38% sucrose were 33–35 nm in size, had high viral infectivity and RNA content, and were composed of four viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4), as shown by SDS-PAGE analyses. The two virus fractions were formalin-inactivated and induced high virus neutralizing antibody responses in mouse immunogenicity studies. Both mouse antisera recognized the immunodominant linear neutralization epitope of VP1 (residues 211–225). Conclusion These results provide important information for cell-based EV71 vaccine development, particularly for the preparation of working standards for viral antigen quantification. PMID:21603631

  5. Epitope mapping of the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Sanz, A; Plana-Durán, J; Ignacio Casal, J

    1997-09-01

    Two major genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been described, which correspond to the European and North American isolates. PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N genes from two PRRSV isolates, Olot/91 (European) and Québec 807/94 (North American), were cloned and expressed in: (i) baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter and (ii) Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The N protein from both isolates was expressed much more efficiently in E. coli as a fusion protein than in baculovirus. The antigenicity of the protein was similar in both systems and it was recognized by a collection of 48 PRRSV-positive pig sera. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was investigated using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E. coli. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein, or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50-66). This region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin and is the most hydrophilic region of the protein. However, this epitope, although recognized by the MAbs and many pig sera, is not useful for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire protein.

  6. Structural basis for clonal diversity of the human T cell response to a dominant influenza virus epitope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinbo; Chen, Guobing; Weng, Nan-Ping; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2017-09-20

    Influenza A virus (IAV) causes an acute infection in humans that is normally eliminated by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Individuals expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule HLA-A2 produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes bearing T cell receptors (TCRs) that recognize the immunodominant IAV epitope GILGFVFTL (GIL). Most GIL-specific TCRs utilize α/β pairs encoded by the TRAV27/TRBV19 gene combination to recognize this relatively featureless peptide epitope (canonical TCRs). However, ~40% of GIL-specific TCRs express a wide variety of other TRAV/TRBV combinations (non-canonical TCRs). To investigate the structural underpinnings of this remarkable diversity, we determined the crystal structure of a non-canonical GIL-specific TCR (F50) expressing the TRAV13-1/TRBV27 gene combination bound to GIL-HLA-A2 to 1.7 Å resolution. Comparison of the F50-GIL-HLA-A2 complex with the previously publishedcomplex formed by a canonical TCR (JM22) revealed that F50 and JM22 engage GIL-HLA-A2 in markedly different orientations. These orientations are distinguished by crossing angles of TCR to peptide-MHC of 29o for F50 versus 69o for JM22, and by a focus by F50 on the C-terminus rather than the center of the MHC α1 helix for JM22. In addition, F50, unlike JM22, uses a tryptophan instead of an arginine to fill a critical notch between GIL and the HLA-A2 α 2 helix. The F50-GIL-HLA-A2 complex shows that there are multiple structurally distinct solutions to recognizing an identical peptide-MHC ligand with sufficient affinity to elicit a broad anti-IAV response that protects against viral escape and T cell clonal loss. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Antibody responses to an immunodominant nonstructural 1 synthetic peptide in patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Huang, J H; Wey, J J; Sun, Y C; Chin, C; Chien, L J; Wu, Y C

    1999-01-01

    Two flaviviruses, dengue (DEN) virus and Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, are important because of their global distribution and the frequency of epidemics in tropical and subtropical areas. To study the B-cell epitopes of nonstructural 1 (NS1) glycoprotein and anti-NS1 antibody response in DEN infection, a series of 15-mer synthetic peptides from the predicted B-cell linear epitopes of DEN-2 NS1 protein were prepared. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to analyze antibody responses to these peptides from sera of both DEN and JE patients. One peptide derived from DEN-2 NS1, D2 NS1-P1 (amino acids 1-15), was identified as the immunodominant epitope that reacted with sera from dengue fever (DF) patients but not JE patients. The isotype of D2 NS1-P1-specific antibodies was mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) in all sera that tested positive. A specificity study demonstrated that sera from all four DEN types reacted with D2 NS1-P1. A dynamics study showed that specific antibodies to this peptide could be detected as early as 2 days after the onset of symptoms. We observed significant anti-D2 NS1-P1 antibody responses in 45% of patients with primary and secondary infections with DF or with dengue hemorrhagic fever. This is the first report demonstrating that significant anti-DEN NS1 antibodies can be induced in the sera of patients with primary DEN infection.

  8. Mucosal Tolerance Induced by an Immunodominant Peptide from Rat α3(IV)NC1 in Established Experimental Autoimmune Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John; Abbott, Danielle S.; Karegli, Julieta; Evans, David J.; Pusey, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG), an animal model of Goodpasture’s disease, can be induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by immunization with the noncollagenous domain of the α 3 chain of type IV collagen, α3(IV)NC1. Recent studies have identified an immunodominant peptide, pCol (24-38), from the N-terminus of rat α3(IV)NC1; this peptide contains the major B- and T-cell epitopes in EAG and can induce crescentic nephritis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of mucosal tolerance in EAG by examining the effects of the nasal administration of this peptide after the onset of disease. A dose-dependent effect was observed: a dose of 300 μg had no effect, a dose of 1000 μg resulted in a moderate reduction in EAG severity, and a dose of 3000 μg produced a marked reduction in EAG severity accompanied by diminished antigen-specific, T-cell proliferative responses. These results demonstrate that mucosal tolerance in EAG can be induced by nasal administration of an immunodominant peptide from the N-terminus of α3(IV)NC1 and should be of value in designing new therapeutic strategies for patients with Goodpasture’s disease and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:19406992

  9. A human inferred germline antibody binds to an immunodominant epitope and neutralizes Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardi, Michael J.; Pedreño-Lopez, Núria; Gutman, Martin J.; Bailey, Varian K.; Maxwell, Helen S.; Domingues, Aline; Gonzalez-Nieto, Lucas; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I.; Trindade, Mateus; Nogueira, Juliana; Oliveira, Consuelo S.; Maestri, Alvino; Felix, Alvina Clara; Levi, José Eduardo; Nogueira, Mauricio L.; Martins, Mauricio A.; Martinez-Navio, José M.; Fuchs, Sebastian P.; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Burton, Dennis R.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Kallas, Esper G.; Watkins, David I.

    2017-01-01

    The isolation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) against the Zika virus (ZIKV) might lead to novel preventative strategies for infections in at-risk individuals, primarily pregnant women. Here we describe the characterization of human mAbs from the plasmablasts of an acutely infected patient. One of the 18 mAbs had the unusual feature of binding to and neutralizing ZIKV despite not appearing to have been diversified by affinity maturation. This mAb neutralized ZIKV (Neut50 ~ 2 μg/ml) but did not react with any of the four dengue virus serotypes. Except for the expected junctional diversity created by the joining of the V-(D)-J genes, there was no deviation from immunoglobulin germline genes. This is a rare example of a human mAb with neutralizing activity in the absence of detectable somatic hypermutation. Importantly, binding of this mAb to ZIKV was specifically inhibited by human plasma from ZIKV-exposed individuals, suggesting that it may be of value in a diagnostic setting. PMID:28604797

  10. Plasmodium vivax Promiscuous T-Helper Epitopes Defined and Evaluated as Linear Peptide Chimera Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Aguilar, Ivette; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio; Guzmán, Fanny; De la Vega, Patricia; Elkin Patarroyo, Manuel; Galinski, Mary R.; Moreno, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trials of malaria vaccines have confirmed that parasite-derived T-cell epitopes are required to elicit consistent and long-lasting immune responses. We report here the identification and functional characterization of six T-cell epitopes that are present in the merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1) and bind promiscuously to four different HLA-DRB1∗ alleles. Each of these peptides induced lymphoproliferative responses in cells from individuals with previous P. vivax infections. Furthermore, linear-peptide chimeras containing the promiscuous PvMSP-1 T-cell epitopes, synthesized in tandem with the Plasmodium falciparum immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP) B-cell epitope, induced high specific antibody titers, cytokine production, long-lasting immune responses, and immunoglobulin G isotype class switching in BALB/c mice. A linear-peptide chimera containing an allele-restricted P. falciparum T-cell epitope with the CSP B-cell epitope was not effective. Two out of the six promiscuous T-cell epitopes exhibiting the highest anti-peptide response also contain B-cell epitopes. Antisera generated against these B-cell epitopes recognize P. vivax merozoites in immunofluorescence assays. Importantly, the anti-peptide antibodies generated to the CSP B-cell epitope inhibited the invasion of P. falciparum sporozoites into human hepatocytes. These data and the simplicity of design of the chimeric constructs highlight the potential of multimeric, multistage, and multispecies linear-peptide chimeras containing parasite promiscuous T-cell epitopes for malaria vaccine development. PMID:12065487

  11. Identification of an immunodominant antigenic site involving the capsid protein VP3 of hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Ping, L H; Jansen, R W; Stapleton, J T; Cohen, J I; Lemon, S M

    1988-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus, an hepatotropic picornavirus, is a common cause of acute hepatitis in man for which there is no available vaccine. Competitive binding studies carried out in solid phase suggest that neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis A virus recognize a limited number of epitopes on the capsid surface, although the polypeptide locations of these epitopes are not well defined. Neutralization-escape mutants, selected for resistance to monoclonal antibodies, demonstrate broad cross-resistance to other monoclonal antibodies. Sequencing of virion RNA from several of these mutants demonstrated that replacement of aspartic acid residue 70 of capsid protein VP3 (residue 3070) with histidine or alanine confers resistance to neutralization by monoclonal antibody K2-4F2 and prevents binding of this antibody and other antibodies with similar solid-phase competition profiles. These results indicate that residue 3070 contributes to an immunodominant antigenic site. Mutation at residue 102 of VP1 (residue 1102) confers partial resistance against antibody B5-B3 and several other antibodies but does not prevent antibody attachment. Both VP3 and VP1 sites align closely in the linear peptide sequences with sites of neutralization-escape mutations in poliovirus and human rhinovirus, suggesting conservation of structure among these diverse picornaviruses. However, because partial neutralization resistance to several monoclonal antibodies (2D2, 3E1, and B5-B3) was associated with mutation at either residue 3070 or residue 1102, these sites appear more closely related functionally in hepatitis A virus than in these other picornaviruses. PMID:2460866

  12. TCR contact residue hydrophobicity is a hallmark of immunogenic CD8+ T cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Diego; Krishna, Sri; Cocita, Clément; Shu, Jack; Tan, Xuefang; Greenberg, Philip D.; Klavinskis, Linda S.; Blattman, Joseph N.; Anderson, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-binding peptide prediction algorithms, the development of T-cell vaccines against pathogen and tumor antigens remains challenged by inefficient identification of immunogenic epitopes. CD8+ T cells must distinguish immunogenic epitopes from nonimmunogenic self peptides to respond effectively against an antigen without endangering the viability of the host. Because this discrimination is fundamental to our understanding of immune recognition and critical for rational vaccine design, we interrogated the biochemical properties of 9,888 MHC class I peptides. We identified a strong bias toward hydrophobic amino acids at T-cell receptor contact residues within immunogenic epitopes of MHC allomorphs, which permitted us to develop and train a hydrophobicity-based artificial neural network (ANN-Hydro) to predict immunogenic epitopes. The immunogenicity model was validated in a blinded in vivo overlapping epitope discovery study of 364 peptides from three HIV-1 Gag protein variants. Applying the ANN-Hydro model on existing peptide-MHC algorithms consistently reduced the number of candidate peptides across multiple antigens and may provide a correlate with immunodominance. Hydrophobicity of TCR contact residues is a hallmark of immunogenic epitopes and marks a step toward eliminating the need for empirical epitope testing for vaccine development. PMID:25831525

  13. Epitope spreading of the anti-CYP2D6 antibody response in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and in the CYP2D6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hintermann, Edith; Holdener, Martin; Bayer, Monika; Loges, Stephanie; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Granier, Claude; Manns, Michael P; Christen, Urs

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the liver with yet unknown etiology and largely uncertain immunopathology. The hallmark of type 2 AIH is the generation of liver kidney microsomal-1 (LKM-1) autoantibodies, which predominantly react to cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The identification of disease initiating factors has been hampered in the past, since antibody epitope mapping was mostly performed using serum samples collected late during disease resulting in the identification of immunodominant epitopes not necessarily representing those involved in disease initiation. In order to identify possible environmental triggers for AIH, we analyzed for the first time the spreading of the anti-CYP2D6 antibody response over a prolonged period of time in AIH patients and in the CYP2D6 mouse model, in which mice infected with Adenovirus-human CYP2D6 (Ad-h2D6) develop antibodies with a similar specificity than AIH patients. Epitope spreading was analyzed in six AIH-2-patients and in the CYP2D6 mouse model using SPOTs membranes containing peptides covering the entire CYP2D6 protein. Despite of a considerable variation, both mice and AIH patients largely focus their humoral immune response on an immunodominant epitope early after infection (mice) or diagnosis (patients). The CYP2D6 mouse model revealed that epitope spreading is initiated at the immunodominant epitope and later expands to neighboring and remote regions. Sequence homologies to human pathogens have been detected for all identified epitopes. Our study demonstrates that epitope spreading does indeed occur during the pathogenesis of AIH and supports the concept of molecular mimicry as a possible initiating mechanism for AIH.

  14. Intein-mediated backbone cyclization of VP1 protein enhanced protection of CVB3-induced viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingmei; Xiong, Sidong

    2017-01-01

    CVB3 is a common human pathogen to be highly lethal to newborns and causes viral myocarditis and pancreatitis in adults. However, there is no vaccine available for clinical use. CVB3 capsid protein VP1 is an immunodominant structural protein, containing several B- and T-cell epitopes. However, immunization of mice with VP1 protein is ineffective. Cyclization of peptide is commonly used to improve their in vivo stability and biological activity. Here, we designed and synthesizd cyclic VP1 protein by using engineered split Rma DnaB intein and the cyclization efficiency was 100% in E. coli. As a result, the cyclic VP1 was significantly more stable against irreversible aggregation upon heating and against carboxypeptidase in vitro and the degradation rate was more slowly in vivo. Compared with linear VP1, immunization mice with circular VP1 significantly increased CVB3-specific serum IgG level and augmented CVB3-specific cellular immune responses, consequently afforded better protection against CVB3-induced viral myocarditis. The cyclic VP1 may be a novel candidate protein vaccine for preventing CVB3 infection and similar approaches could be employed to a variety of protein vaccines to enhance their protection effect. PMID:28148910

  15. Identification and immunogenicity of an immunodominant mimotope of Avibacterium paragallinarum from a phage display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjun; Gao, Yaping; Gong, Yumei; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Chuan; Zhou, Xuemei; Blackall, P J; Zhang, Peijun; Yang, Hanchun

    2007-01-31

    Avibacterium paragallinarum is the causative agent of infectious coryza. The protective antigens of this important pathogen have not yet been clearly identified. In this paper, we applied phage display technique to screen the immunodominant mimotopes of a serovar A strain of A. paragallinarum by using a random 12-peptide library, and evaluated the immunogenicity in chickens of the selected mimotope. Polyclonal antibody directed against A. paragallinarum strain 0083 (serovar A) was used as the target antibody and phage clones binding to this target were screened from the 12-mer random peptide library. More than 50% of the phage clones selected in the third round carried the consensus peptide motif sequence A-DP(M)L. The phage clones containing the peptide motif reacted with the target antibody and this interaction could be blocked, in a dose-dependent manner, by A. paragallinarum. One of the peptide sequences, YGLLAVDPLFKP, was selected and the corresponding oligonucleotide sequence was synthesized and then inserted into the expression vector pFliTrx. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into an expression host Escherichia coli GI826 by electroporation, resulting in a recombinant E. coli expressing the peptide on the bacterial surface. Intramuscular injection of the epitope-expressing recombinant bacteria into chickens induced a specific serological response to serovar A. A. paragallinarum. The chickens given the recombinant E. coli showed significant protection against challenge with A. paragallinarum 0083. These results indicated a potential for the use of the mimotope in the development of molecular vaccines for infectious coryza.

  16. Conformational studies of immunodominant myelin basic protein 1-11 analogues using NMR and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Laimou, Despina; Lazoura, Eliada; Troganis, Anastassios N; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Deraos, Spyros N; Katsara, Maria; Matsoukas, John; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Tselios, Theodore V

    2011-11-01

    Τwo dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies complimented by molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the conformation of the immunodominant epitope of acetylated myelin basic protein residues 1-11 (Ac-MBP(1-11)) and its altered peptide ligands, mutated at position 4 to an alanine (Ac-MBP(1-11)[4A]) or a tyrosine residue (Ac-MBP(1-11)[4Y]). Conformational analysis of the three analogues indicated that they adopt an extended conformation in DMSO solution as no long distance NOE connectivities were observed and seem to have a similar conformation when bound to the active site of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC II). The interaction of each peptide with MHC class II I-A(u) was further investigated in order to explore the molecular mechanism of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction/inhibition in mice. The present findings indicate that the Gln(3) residue, which serves as a T-cell receptor (TCR) contact site in the TCR/peptide/I-A(u) complex, has a different orientation in the mutated analogues especially in the Ac-MBP(1-11)[4A] peptide. In particular the side chain of Gln(3) is not solvent exposed as for the native Ac-MBP(1-11) and it is not available for interaction with the TCR.

  17. Conformational studies of immunodominant myelin basic protein 1-11 analogues using NMR and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laimou, Despina; Lazoura, Eliada; Troganis, Anastassios N.; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Deraos, Spyros N.; Katsara, Maria; Matsoukas, John; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Tselios, Theodore V.

    2011-11-01

    Τwo dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies complimented by molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the conformation of the immunodominant epitope of acetylated myelin basic protein residues 1-11 (Ac-MBP1-11) and its altered peptide ligands, mutated at position 4 to an alanine (Ac-MBP1-11[4A]) or a tyrosine residue (Ac-MBP1-11[4Y]). Conformational analysis of the three analogues indicated that they adopt an extended conformation in DMSO solution as no long distance NOE connectivities were observed and seem to have a similar conformation when bound to the active site of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC II). The interaction of each peptide with MHC class II I-Au was further investigated in order to explore the molecular mechanism of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction/inhibition in mice. The present findings indicate that the Gln3 residue, which serves as a T-cell receptor (TCR) contact site in the TCR/peptide/I-Au complex, has a different orientation in the mutated analogues especially in the Ac-MBP1-11[4A] peptide. In particular the side chain of Gln3 is not solvent exposed as for the native Ac-MBP1-11 and it is not available for interaction with the TCR.

  18. An immunodominant class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces CD4 class II-restricted help for itself

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We have observed that a peptide corresponding to an immunodominant epitope of the HIV-1 envelope protein recognized by class I MHC- restricted CD8+ CTL can also induce T cell help for itself. The help is necessary for restimulation of CTL precursors in vitro with peptide alone in the absence of exogenous lymphokines, can be removed by depletion of CD4+ T cells, and can be replaced by exogenous IL-2. Whereas the CTL in BALB/c or B10. D2 mice are restricted by the class I molecule Dd, the Th cells are restricted by the class II molecule Ad, and the help can be blocked by anti-Ad mAb. To examine the genetic regulation of the induction of help, we studied B10.A mice that share the class I Dd molecule, but have different class II molecules, Ak and Ek. Spleen cells of immune B10.A mice behave like CD4-depleted BALB/c spleen cells in that they cannot be restimulated in vitro by the peptide alone, but can with peptide plus IL-2. Therefore, in the absence of exogenous lymphokines, peptide-specific help is necessary for restimulation with this immunodominant CTL epitope peptide, and in H-2d mice, this peptide stimulates help for itself as well as CTL. We speculate on the implications of these findings for the immunodominance of this peptide in H-2d mice, and for the selective advantage of pairing certain class I and class II molecules in an MHC haplotype. PMID:1689366

  19. Epitope-vaccine strategy against HIV-1: today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuqiang; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2003-01-01

    Vaccines play important roles in preventing infectious diseases caused by different pathogens. However, some pathogens such as HIV-1 challenge current vaccine strategy. Poor immunogenicity and the high mutation rate of HIV-1 make great difficulties in inducing potent immune responses strong enough to prevent infection via vaccination. Epitope-vaccine, which could intensively enhance predefined epitope-specific immune responses, was suggested as a new strategy against HIV-1 and HIV-1 mutation. Epitope-vaccines afford powerful approaches to elicit potent, broad and complete immune protection against not only primary homologous viral isolates but also heterologous viral mutants. Although most studies are still preliminary now, epitope-vaccine as a novel strategy against the AIDS epidemic has great developmental potential. To trigger T-cell-dependent IgG antibody responses and improve affinities of the epitope-specific antibodies, approaches such as recombinant multi-epitope-vaccination and prime-boosting vaccination were suggested. Cellular immune responses, especially CTL responses, could also be elicited and enhanced in addition to humoral immune responses. Developed epitope-vaccines activating both arms of the immune system would benefit prevention and immunotherapy not only against HIV but also other chronic infections.

  20. Identification of Continuous Human B-Cell Epitopes in the Envelope Glycoprotein of Dengue Virus Type 3 (DENV-3)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Andréa N. M. Rangel; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Montenegro, Silvia M. L.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is a growing global public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Dengue vaccine development has been hampered by concerns that cross-reactive immunological memory elicited by a candidate vaccine could increase the risk of development of more severe clinical forms. One possible strategy to reduce risks associated with a dengue vaccine is the development of a vaccine composed of selected critical epitopes of each of the serotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Synthetic peptides were used to identify B-cell epitopes in the envelope (E) glycoprotein of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3). Eleven linear, immunodominant epitopes distributed in five regions at amino acid (aa) positions: 51–65, 71–90, 131–170, 196–210 and 246–260 were identified by employing an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using a pool of human sera from dengue type 3 infected individuals. Peptides 11 (aa51–65), 27 and 28 (aa131–150) also reacted with dengue 1 (DENV-1) and dengue 2 (DENV-2) patient sera as analyzed through the ROC curves generated for each peptide by ELISA and might have serotype specific diagnostic potential. Mice immunized against each one of the five immunogenic regions showed epitopes 51–65, 131–170, 196–210 and 246–260 elicited the highest antibody response and epitopes131–170, 196–210 and 246–260, elicited IFN-γ production and T CD4+ cell response, as evaluated by ELISA and ELISPOT assays respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified several useful immunodominant IgG-specific epitopes on the envelope of DENV-3. They are important tools for understanding the mechanisms involved in antibody dependent enhancement and immunity. If proven protective and safe, in conjunction with others well-documented epitopes, they might be included into a candidate epitope-based vaccine. PMID:19826631

  1. Identification and characterization of nematode specific protective epitopes of Brugia malayi TRX towards development of synthetic vaccine construct for lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Anugraha, Gandhirajan; Kiran, Pote; Rao, Donthamsetty Nageswara; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-07-12

    Although multi-epitope vaccines have been evaluated for various diseases, they have not yet been investigated for lymphatic filariasis. Here, we report for the first time identification of two immunodominant B epitopes (TRXP1 and TRXP2) from the antioxidant Brugia malayi thioredoxin by studying their immune responses in mice model and human subjects. TRXP1 was also found to harbor a T epitope recognized by human PBMCs and mice splenocytes. Further, the epitopic peptides were synthesized as a single peptide conjugate (PC1) and their prophylactic efficacy was tested in a murine model of filariasis with L3 larvae. PC1 conferred a significantly high protection (75.14%) (P < 0.0001) compared to control (3.7%) and recombinant TRX (63.03%) (P < 0.018) in experimental filariasis. Our results suggest that multi-epitope vaccines could be a promising strategy in the control of lymphatic filariasis.

  2. Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes on swine viruses: multi-epitope design for universal T cell vaccine.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Chieh-Hua; Chung, Wen-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are the primary diseases affecting the pig industry globally. Vaccine induced CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune response might be long-lived and cross-serotype and thus deserve further attention. Although large panels of synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the polyproteins of a virus facilitate the detection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, it is an exceedingly costly and cumbersome approach. Alternatively, computational predictions have been proven to be of satisfactory accuracy and are easily performed. Such a method enables the systematic identification of genome-wide CTL epitopes by incorporating epitope prediction tools in analyzing large numbers of viral sequences. In this study, we have implemented an integrated bioinformatics pipeline for the identification of CTL epitopes of swine viruses including the CSF virus (CSFV), FMD virus (FMDV) and PRRS virus (PRRSV) and assembled these epitopes on a web resource to facilitate vaccine design. Identification of epitopes for cross protections to different subtypes of virus are also reported in this study and may be useful for the development of a universal vaccine against such viral infections among the swine population. The CTL epitopes identified in this study have been evaluated in silico and possibly provide more and wider protection in compared to traditional single-reference vaccine design. The web resource is free and open to all users through http://sb.nhri.org.tw/ICES.

  3. Immunodominant fragments of myelin basic protein initiate T cell-dependent pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    to the generation of tactile allodynia, neuroinflammation, and the immunodominant MBP digest peptides in nerve. These MBP peptides initiate mechanical allodynia in both a T cell-dependent and -independent manner. In the course of Wallerian degeneration, the repeated exposure of the cryptic MBP epitopes, which are normally sheltered from immunosurveillance, may induce the MBP-specific T cell clones and a self-sustaining immune reaction, which may together contribute to the transition of acute pain into a chronic neuropathic pain state. PMID:22676642

  4. Analyses of p53 antibodies in sera of patients with lung carcinoma define immunodominant regions in the p53 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Schlichtholz, B.; Trédaniel, J.; Lubin, R.; Zalcman, G.; Hirsch, A.; Soussi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Antibodies specific for human p53 were analysed in sera of lung cancer patients. We detected p53 antibodies in the sera of 24% (10/42) of patients with lung carcinoma. The distribution was as follows: 4/9 small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 2/18 squamous cell lung carcinomas (SCCs), 2/10 adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 2/5 large-cell lung carcinomas (LCCs). p53 antibodies were always present at the time of diagnosis and did not appear during progression of the disease. Using an original peptide-mapping procedure, we precisely localised the p53 epitopes recognised by p53 antibodies. Immunodominant epitopes reacting with antibodies were localised in the amino and carboxy termini of the protein, similar to those found in breast carcinoma patients or in animals immunised with p53. In light of these data, we suggest that p53 antibodies occur via a self-immunisation process that is the consequence of p53 accumulation in tumour cells. p53 antibodies were also detected in two patients without detected malignant disease. One of these patients died 6 months later of lung carcinoma, suggesting that p53 antibodies may be a precocious marker of p53 alteration. Images Figure 2 PMID:7514026

  5. Design of immunogenic and effective multi-epitope DNA vaccines for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2012-03-01

    Plasmid DNA vaccination is an attractive way to elicit T cell responses against infectious agents and tumor cells. DNA constructs can be designed to contain multiple T cell epitopes to generate a diverse immune response to incorporate numerous antigens and to reduce limitations due to MHC restriction into a single entity. We have prepared cDNA plasmid constructs containing several mouse T cell epitopes connected by either furin-sensitive or furin-resistant linkers and studied the effects of a cationic cell-penetrating sequence from HIV-tat. Significant CD8 T cell responses were obtained with multi-epitope DNA vaccines followed by in vivo electroporation regardless of the type of linker used and whether the construct had the HIV-tat sequence. The magnitude of immune responses was very similar to all CD8 T cell epitopes contained within each vaccine construct, indicating the absence of immunodominance. Incorporating a T helper epitope into the constructs increased the T cell responses. Prophylactic and therapeutic antitumor responses against B16 melanoma were obtained using a construct containing epitopes from melanosomal proteins, indicating that this vaccination was successful in generating responses to self-antigens that potentially may be subjected to immune tolerance. These findings are useful for designing DNA vaccines for a multitude of diseases where T lymphocytes play a protective or therapeutic role.

  6. Epitope specificity determines pathogenicity and detectability in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Aleeza J.; Ooi, Joshua D.; Hess, Jacob J.; van Timmeren, Mirjan M.; Berg, Elisabeth A.; Poulton, Caroline E.; McGregor, JulieAnne; Burkart, Madelyn; Hogan, Susan L.; Hu, Yichun; Winnik, Witold; Nachman, Patrick H.; Stegeman, Coen A.; Niles, John; Heeringa, Peter; Kitching, A. Richard; Holdsworth, Stephen; Jennette, J. Charles; Preston, Gloria A.; Falk, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated (ANCA-associated) small vessel necrotizing vasculitis is caused by immune-mediated inflammation of the vessel wall and is diagnosed in some cases by the presence of myeloperoxidase-specific antibodies (MPO-ANCA). This multicenter study sought to determine whether differences in ANCA epitope specificity explain why, in some cases, conventional serologic assays do not correlate with disease activity, why naturally occurring anti-MPO autoantibodies can exist in disease-free individuals, and why ANCA are undetected in patients with ANCA-negative disease. Autoantibodies from human and murine samples were epitope mapped using a highly sensitive epitope excision/mass spectrometry approach. Data indicated that MPO autoantibodies from healthy individuals had epitope specificities different from those present in ANCA disease. Importantly, this methodology led to the discovery of MPO-ANCA in ANCA-negative disease that reacted against a sole linear sequence. Autoantibodies against this epitope had pathogenic properties, as demonstrated by their capacity to activate neutrophils in vitro and to induce nephritis in mice. The confounder for serological detection of these autoantibodies was the presence of a fragment of ceruloplasmin in serum, which was eliminated in purified IgG, allowing detection. These findings implicate immunodominant epitopes in the pathology of ANCA-associated vasculitis and suggest that autoantibody diversity may be common to other autoimmune diseases. PMID:23549081

  7. B epitope multiplicity and B/T epitope orientation influence immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease peptide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Esther; Cubillos, Carolina; Moreno, Noelia; Bárcena, Juan; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Andreu, David; Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic peptides incorporating protective B- and T-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines. We have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a B-cell epitope (VP1 136 to 154) linked to a T-cell epitope (3A 21 to 35) of FMD virus (FMDV) elicit potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. To assess the relevance of B-cell epitope multivalency, dendrimers bearing two (B2T) or four (B4T) copies of the B-cell epitope from type O FMDV (a widespread circulating serotype) were tested in CD1 mice and showed that multivalency is advantageous over simple B-T-epitope juxtaposition, resulting in efficient induction of neutralizing antibodies and optimal release of IFN γ . Interestingly, the bivalent B2T construction elicited similar or even better B- and T-cell specific responses than tetravalent B4T. In addition, the presence of the T-cell epitope and its orientation were shown to be critical for the immunogenicity of the linear juxtaposed monovalent peptides analyzed in parallel. Taken together, our results provide useful insights for a more accurate design of FMD subunit vaccines.

  8. Thymic selection and adaptability of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in transgenic mice expressing a viral protein in the thymus.

    PubMed

    von Herrath, M G; Dockter, J; Nerenberg, M; Gairin, J E; Oldstone, M B

    1994-11-01

    Upon primary challenge with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), H-2d (BALB/cByJ) mice mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to a single immunodominant domain of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) but no detectable response to the viral glycoprotein (GP). To manipulate this CTL response, the viral NP gene was expressed in the thymus and peripheral T lymphocytes using the murine Thy1.2 promoter. As a result, such Thy1.2-NP (H-2d) transgenic (tg) mice deleted their high-affinity anti-LCMV-NP CTL, but generated equal numbers of lower-affinity NP CTL. Further, they made an alternative anti-LCMV-GP CTL response that is not normally found in non-tg mice indicating a hierarchial control of the CTL response. Unlike the H-2d mice, H-2b (C57Bl/6J) mice normally mount a CTL response to both LCMV-GP and -NP. When the LCMV-NP was expressed using the Thy1.2 promoter in these H-2b mice, the LCMV-NP-specific CTL response was completely aborted and no CTL to new, alternative viral epitopes were generated. Dilutions of H-2b or H-2d NP peptides indicated that 3-4 logs less H-2b NP peptide was required to sensitize syngeneic target cells for CTL-specific lysis, suggesting that the differing affinities of H-2b and H-2d major histocompatibility complex molecules for their peptides likely account for the total removal of NP CTL in the H-2b mice but only partial removal in H-2d mice made to express thymic NP. Thymic grafting experiments done with thymi from newborn Thy1.2-NP tg mice show that selection processes studied in this model are of central (thymic) origin and are not caused by Thy1.2-positive LCMV-NP-expressing T lymphocytes in the periphery.

  9. Epitope reactions can be gauged by relative antibody discriminating specificity (RADS) values supported by deletion, substitution and cysteine bridge formation analyses: potential uses in pathogenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Falconar, Andrew K I

    2012-07-05

    increased its binding activity. These results: i) were readily obtained using a standard 96-well ELISA format, ii) showed the LX1 epitope to be the immuno-dominant DENV complex determinant in the NS1 glycoprotein, iii) supported an antigenic co-evolution of the DENV NS1 and E glycoproteins, and iv) identified methods that made it possible to determine the role of anti-DENV PAb reactions in viral pathogenesis.

  10. Immunogenicity and specificity of the candidate multi-epitope-vaccines against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Ding, J; Chen, Y H

    2001-11-01

    The failure of some candidate HIV-1 vaccines may result from inducing very weak neutralization activity against representative primary viral isolates. Based on our hypothesis that epitope-vaccine may be a new strategy to induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1, we designed two candidate multi-epitope-vaccines, EP1 [C-G-(ELDKWA-GPGRAFY)2-K] and EP2 (CG-GPGRAFY-G-ELDKWA-G-RILAVERYLKD), containing three neutralizing epitopes (GPGRAFY, ELDKWA and RILAVERYLKD) on HIV-1 envelope protein, and expected them to induce epitope-specific antibodies of predefined epitope-specificity. The two peptides were conjugated to carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and used for immunization of rabbits. Proteins were purified from the rabbit sera induced by both candidate multi-epitope-vaccines (EP1-BSA and EP2-BSA) through affinity chromatography with epitope-peptide-conjugated sepharose-column, and identified as antibodies in silver-staining and immunoblotting. These antibodies were demonstrated to recognize three neutralizing epitopes on peptides and the recombinant gp41 in ELISA-assay and immunoblotting. These results indicated that both candidate multi-epitope-vaccines could induce high levels of antibodies of predefined epitope-specificity which recognized a few of neutralizing epitopes on peptides and protein, providing experimental evidence for the new strategy to develop an effective neutralizing-antibody-based multi-epitope-vaccine against HIV-1.

  11. Orchestration of CD4 T cell epitope preferences after multi-peptide immunization

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jacqueline; Sant, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie epitope preferences in T cell priming is important for vaccines designed to elicit a broad T cell response. Protein vaccinations generally elicit CD4 T cell responses that are skewed toward a small fraction of epitopes, a phenomenon known as immunodominance. This characteristic of T cell responses, that limits the diversity of CD4 T cell recognition, is generally attributed to intracellular antigen processing. However, we recently discovered that immunodominance hierarchies persist even after vaccination with synthetic peptides. In this study, we probed the regulatory mechanisms that cause diminished CD4 T cell responses to subdominant peptides after such multi-peptide immunization in mice. We have found that the delivery of subdominant and dominant epitopes on separate dendritic cells rescues expansion of less favored CD4 T cells. Furthermore, through the use of genetic models and inhibitors, we have found that selective losses in CD4 T cell responses are mediated by an IFN-γ-induced pathway, involving indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and that regulatory T cell (Treg) activities may also regulate preferences in CD4 T cell specificity. We propose that after multi-peptide immunization, the expansion and differentiation of dominant T cells initiate complex regulatory events that determine the final peptide specificity of the elicited CD4 T cell response. PMID:23772029

  12. Comprehensive, quantitative mapping of T cell epitopes in gluten in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tye-Din, Jason A; Stewart, Jessica A; Dromey, James A; Beissbarth, Tim; van Heel, David A; Tatham, Arthur; Henderson, Kate; Mannering, Stuart I; Gianfrani, Carmen; Jewell, Derek P; Hill, Adrian V S; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie; Anderson, Robert P

    2010-07-21

    Celiac disease is a genetic condition that results in a debilitating immune reaction in the gut to antigens in grain. The antigenic peptides recognized by the T cells that cause this disease are incompletely defined. Our understanding of the epitopes of pathogenic CD4(+ )T cells is based primarily on responses shown by intestinal T-cells in vitro to hydrolysates or polypeptides of gluten, the causative antigen. A protease-resistant 33-amino acid peptide from wheat alpha-gliadin is the immunodominant antigen, but little is known about the spectrum of T cell epitopes in rye and barley or the hierarchy of immunodominance and consistency of recognition of T-cell epitopes in vivo. We induced polyclonal gluten-specific T cells in the peripheral blood of celiac patients by feeding them cereal and performed a comprehensive, unbiased analysis of responses to all celiac toxic prolamins, a class of plant storage protein. The peptides that stimulated T cells were the same among patients who ate the same cereal, but were different after wheat, barley and rye ingestion. Unexpectedly, a sequence from omega-gliadin (wheat) and C-hordein (barley) but not alpha-gliadin was immunodominant regardless of the grain consumed. Furthermore, T cells specific for just three peptides accounted for the majority of gluten-specific T cells, and their recognition of gluten peptides was highly redundant. Our findings show that pathogenic T cells in celiac disease show limited diversity, and therefore suggest that peptide-based therapeutics for this disease and potentially other strongly HLA-restricted immune diseases should be possible.

  13. Nanoparticle orientationally displayed antigen epitopes improve neutralizing antibody level in a model of porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Peiyang; Zhang, Teng; Li, Yafei; Teng, Man; Sun, Yaning; Liu, Xiao; Chai, Shujun; Zhou, Enmin; Jin, Qianyue; Zhang, Gaiping

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in biotechnology have enabled the rapid identification and subsequent expression of pathogenic microbial major antigens that induce protective immune responses. However, subunit vaccines have not been successfully commercialized mainly due to the lack of sufficient levels of neutralizing antibodies (NAs). High levels of NA rely on the efficient recognition and cross-linking of multiple neutralizing epitopes with B-cell receptors (BCRs). Nanoparticles are able to display coupled antigenic arrays at high density and provide multiple binding molecular scenarios with BCRs. The high-resolution antigenic structure makes it possible to accurately display stable neutralizing epitopes. Therefore, the development of a nanovaccine that orientationally displays neutralizing epitopes is a feasible strategy. To address this hypothesis, the capsid (Cap) protein of porcine circovirus type 2 as model antigen was conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through direct reaction of the mercapto group of the unique cysteines with AuNPs, rendering Cap-AuNPs to have neutralizing epitopes on outer surface and an immunodominant epitope buried within the inner surface. In vitro studies showed that AuNPs promoted the phagocytosis of Cap protein and NA levels were significantly improved, meanwhile antibody levels against the immunodominant epitope was significantly reduced. In mouse studies, Cap-AuNP-immunized mice displayed a high production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon-γ, suggesting that Cap-AuNPs can effectively activate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and balance Th1 and Th2 cellular responses. This study presents a new vaccine design strategy based on antigen structure, where nanoparticles are coupled to antigens in well-ordered arrays and orientationally display neutralizing epitopes to enhance NA levels. PMID:28769561

  14. Identification of immunodominant antigens for the laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Bin; Ajmera, Ravi; Geiger, Stefan Michael; Gonçalves, Marco Túlio Porto; Liu, Zhuyun; Wei, Junfei; Wilkins, Patricia P; Fujiwara, Ricardo; Gazzinelli-Guimaraes, Pedro Henrique; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter

    2015-12-01

    To identify immunodominant antigens of Toxocara canis recognised by Toxocara-infected sera as recombinant reagents for immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis. Pooled sera from human cases of toxocariasis were used to identify immunodominant antigens by immunoscreening a T. canis larval expression cDNA library. The positive clones were sequenced to reveal the identity of the antigens. The recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli and then used to confirm their immunoreaction with sera of humans with toxocariasis. Two chosen antigens were also used to differentiate Toxocara infection from other helminth infections in mice. Eleven antigens with immunodiagnostic potential were identified, including two C-type lectins (CTLs) that reacted strongly with the Toxocara-positive serum pool. The first CTL (Tc-CTL-1) is the same as TES-32, previously identified as a major immunodominant component of TES; the second CTL (Tc-CTL-2) is a novel C-type lectin sharing 83% amino acid sequence identity within the functional domain of Tc-CTL-1. The E. coli-expressed recombinant Tc-CTL-1 was strongly recognised by the Toxocara-positive serum pool or sera from animals experimentally infected with T. canis. Reactivity with recombinant Tc-CTL-1 was higher when the unreduced protein was used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-blot assay or Western blot test compared to the protein under reduced condition. Both recombinant Tc-CTL-1- and Tc-CTL-2-based ELISAs were able to differentiate T. canis infection from other helminth infections in experimentally infected mice. Both Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-CTL-2 were able to differentiate Toxocara infection from other helminth infections and could potentially be used as sensitive and specific immunodiagnostic antigens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Epitopemap: a web application for integrated whole proteome epitope prediction.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Damien; Gordon, Stephen V

    2015-07-14

    Predictions of MHC binding affinity are commonly used in immunoinformatics for T cell epitope prediction. There are multiple available methods, some of which provide web access. However there is currently no convenient way to access the results from multiple methods at the same time or to execute predictions for an entire proteome at once. We designed a web application that allows integration of multiple epitope prediction methods for any number of proteins in a genome. The tool is a front-end for various freely available methods. Features include visualisation of results from multiple predictors within proteins in one plot, genome-wide analysis and estimates of epitope conservation. We present a self contained web application, Epitopemap, for calculating and viewing epitope predictions with multiple methods. The tool is easy to use and will assist in computational screening of viral or bacterial genomes.

  16. Epitope discovery and their use in peptide based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Nadine L; Perlmutter, Patrick; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Croft, Nathan P; Purcell, Anthony W

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in the design and delivery of peptide-based therapeutics there has been a growing interest on the use of peptides in vaccine design. Moreover, functional dissection and proteomic analysis of the immunogenic epitopes of proteins from pathogenic micro-organisms, cancers and self-tissues targeted by autoimmune responses, have broadened the range of target epitopes and given clues to enhancing peptide immunogenicity. Consistent with these observations; peptides can be synthesised with defined chemical modifications to mimic natural epitopes and/or deliberately introduce protease resistant peptide bonds to regulate their processing independent of tissue specific proteolysis and to stabilize these compounds in vivo. We discuss the potential of peptide-based vaccines for the treatment of chronic viral diseases and cancer and review recent developments in the field of epitope discovery and peptide-based vaccines.

  17. The role of a glycoprotein K (gK) CD8+ T-cell epitope of herpes simplex virus on virus replication and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Mott, Kevin R; Chentoufi, Aziz A; Carpenter, Dale; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Wechsler, Steven L; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2009-06-01

    The authors recently reported that a recombinant HSV-1 expressing two extra copies of glycoprotein K (gK) exacerbated corneal scarring (CS) in mice. The authors also identified a peptide, STVVLITAYGLVLVW, within the signal sequence of gK as an immunodominant gK T-cell-stimulatory region both in vitro and in vivo and identified a highly conserved potential CD8(+) T-cell epitope (ITAYGLVL) within the peptide. In this study, the effect of giving this octamer (8mer) as an eye drop 1 hour before ocular infection with HSV-1 was investigated. Naive mice and rabbits received the gK 8mer or control peptides as eye drops and were then ocularly infected with HSV-1. Virus replication in the eye and trigeminal ganglia (TG), survival, CS, and relative amounts of gB, gK, CD4, CD8, IFN-gamma, and granzyme A/B transcripts were determined in the cornea and TG of infected animals at various times after infection. The effect of the gK 8mer was also analyzed in immunized HLA transgenic mice. The gK 8mer resulted in a short-term significant increase in virus replication in the eyes of BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, and NZW rabbits. gK 8mer treatment also increased viral neurovirulence and viral induced CS in ocularly infected mice. Moreover, in HSV-infected humanized HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, the gK 8mer epitope induced strong IFN-gamma-producing cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell responses, as assessed by CD107a/b expression and IFN-gamma ELISAs. gK 8mer induced CD8(+) T-cell responses were unlikely to occur soon enough to account for increased virus replication on day 1 after infection. In contrast, the data are consistent with CD8(+) T cells being involved in the appearance of CS at late times after infection. In addition, the gK peptide may affect viral replication and innate immune responses through other undefined mechanisms.

  18. Highly conserved influenza A virus epitope sequences as candidates of H3N2 flu vaccine targets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ko-Wen; Chien, Chih-Yi; Li, Shiao-Wen; King, Chwan-Chuen; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung

    2012-08-01

    This study focused on identifying the conserved epitopes in a single subtype A (H3N2)-as candidates for vaccine targets. We identified a total of 32 conserved epitopes in four viral proteins [22 HA, 4PB1, 3 NA, 3 NP]. Evaluation of conserved epitopes in coverage during 1968-2010 revealed that (1) 12 HA conserved epitopes were highly present in the circulating viruses; (2) the remaining 10 HA conserved epitopes appeared with lower percentage but a significantly increasing trend after 1989 [p<0.001]; and (3) the conserved epitopes in NA, NP and PB1 are also highly frequent in wild-type viruses. These conserved epitopes also covered an extremely high percentage of the 16 vaccine strains during the 42 year period. The identification of highly conserved epitopes using our approach can also be applied to develop broad-spectrum vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural analysis of the principal immunodominant domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Pancino, G; Camoin, L; Sonigo, P

    1995-01-01

    In the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (TM) of lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), two cysteine residues, conserved in most retroviruses, are thought to form a loop containing five to seven amino acids. These elements make up a B-cell epitope recognized by nearly 100% of sera from infected patients or animals, designated the principal immunodominant domain (PID). The PID amino acid sequences are highly conserved between isolates of the same lentivirus but are unrelated, except for the two cysteines, when divergent lentiviruses are compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between amino acid sequence in the PID and envelope function. We introduced two kinds of mutations in the PID of FIV: mutations which impeded the formation of a loop and mutations which substituted the sequence of FIV with the corresponding sequences from other lentiviruses, HIV-1, visna virus, and equine infectious anemia virus. We analyzed antibody recognition, processing, and fusogenic properties of the modified envelopes, using two methods of Env expression: a cell-free expression system and transfection of a feline fibroblast cell line with gag-pol-deleted FIV proviruses. Most mutations in the PID of FIV severely affected envelope processing and abolished syncytium formation. Only the chimeric envelope containing the HIV-1 PID sequence was correctly processed and maintained the capacity to induce syncytium formation, although less efficiently than the wild-type envelope. We computed three-dimensional structural models of the PID, which were consistent with mutagenesis data and confirmed the similarity of FIV and HIV-1 PID structures, despite their divergence in amino acid sequence. Considering these results, we discussed the respective importance of selection exerted by functional requirements or host antibodies to explain the observed variations of the PIDs in lentiviruses. PMID:7884857

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-03-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-01-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained. PMID:9067645

  2. Epitope-specific immune recognition of the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane protein 26.

    PubMed

    Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Novotny, Laura A; Massa, Helen M; Ulett, Glen C; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Kyd, Jennelle M; Cripps, Allan W

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies using rodent respiratory infection models of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infection have established the 26-kDa outer membrane protein of the bacterium, OMP26, as a potential vaccine antigen for NTHi. This study undertook a comprehensive immunological identification of OMP26 T- and B-cell epitopes. A series of OMP26 peptides were constructed and regions of the OMP26 antigen involved in recognition by lymphocyte receptors and induction of acquired immune responses were identified. The dominant T-cell epitopes for OMP26 were located toward the C-terminus between amino acid residues 95 and 197 (T3+T4 region) as mapped using antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation assays. The newly identified T-cell epitopes exhibited strong capacity for efficient T-cell activation, suggesting that, compared with other OMP26 regions; epitopes within the T3+T4 region have the highest affinity for binding to major histocompatibility complex molecules. In contrast, the predominant B-cell epitopes of OMP26 were located more centrally within the molecule between amino acid residues 45 and 145 (T2+T3 region) as determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance assays. The T2+T3 region was immunodominant in several species including chinchilla, mice and rats when assessed using both mucosal and parenteral immunization regimes. In addition, the antibodies directed against the T2+T3 region bound to intact NTHi cell surface, according to flow cytometry. Collectively, these results specifically locate the amino acid sequences containing the OMP26 T- and B-cell epitopes, which, as newly mapped antigenic epitopes for lymphocyte recognition, will be useful to improve existing NTHi vaccine strategies. Comprehensive definition of the minimum epitope length required for optimal B- and T-cell responses requires further study.

  3. Epitope mapping of Campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) sera.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Telli, Arife Ezgi; Jagne, Jarra F; Benson, Christopher L; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibodies against the homologous serotype. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the flagellar capping protein (FliD) is an immunodominant protein that reacted strongly to sera from field chickens. In this communication, we mapped linear immunoreactive epitopes on FliD using a set of 158 synthetic peptides of 15-mer overlapping with 11 amino acid residues on peptide microarrays with sera from field chickens. The results from peptide microarrays showed (1) no cross-reactivity of the immobilized peptides with the secondary anti-chicken antibody in the control incubation, and (2) heterogeneous patterns of sera reacting to the immobilized peptides. The peptides that reacted to more than three chicken sera and had higher averages of fluorescence units were selected for further validation by the peptide ELISA. The results showed peptides 24, 91 and 92 had relatively high reactivity and less variation among 64 individual serum samples, indicating these peptides represented the shared immunodominant epitopes on the C. jejuni FliD protein. These peptides were also recognized by sera from chickens immunized with the purified recombinant FliD protein. The findings of the specific shared linear immunodominant epitopes on FliD in this study provide a rationale for further evaluation to determine their utility as epitope vaccines covering multiple serotypes for chicken immunization, and subsequently, for providing safer poultry products for human consumption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Identification of common immunodominant antigens of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima by immunoproteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianhua; Li, Wenyu; Ji, Yihong; Tian, Di; Tian, Lu; Yang, Xinchao; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui; Song, Xiaokai

    2017-01-01

    Clinical chicken coccidiosis is mostly caused by simultaneous infection of several Eimeria species, and host immunity against Eimeria is species-specific. It is urgent to identify common immunodominant antigen of Eimeria for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines. In this study, sporozoite proteins of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Western bot analysis was performed on the yielded 2DE gel using antisera of E. tenella E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Next, the detected immunodominant spots were identified by comparing the data from MALDI-TOF-MS/MS with available databases. Finally, Eimeria common antigens were identified by comparing amino acid sequence between the three Eimeria species. The results showed that analysis by 2DE of sporozoite proteins detected 629, 626 and 632 protein spots from E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Western bot analysis revealed 50 (E. tenella), 64 (E. acervulina) and 57 (E. maxima) immunodominant spots from the sporozoite 2DE gels of the three Eimeria species. The immunodominant spots were identified as 33, 27 and 25 immunodominant antigens of E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Fifty-four immunodominant proteins were identified as 18 ortholog proteins among the three Eimeria species. Finally, 5 of the 18 ortholog proteins were identified as common immunodominant antigens including elongation factor 2 (EF-2), 14-3-3 protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme domain-containing protein (UCE) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In conclusion, our results not only provide Eimeria sporozoite immunodominant antigen map and additional immunodominant antigens, but also common immunodominant antigens for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines. PMID:28432276

  5. Proteoliposomal formulations of an HIV-1 gp41-based miniprotein elicit a lipid-dependent immunodominant response overlapping the 2F5 binding motif

    PubMed Central

    Molinos-Albert, Luis M.; Bilbao, Eneritz; Agulló, Luis; Marfil, Silvia; García, Elisabet; Concepción, Maria Luisa Rodríguez de la; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Vilaplana, Cristina; Nieto-Garai, Jon A.; Contreras, F.-Xabier; Floor, Martin; Cardona, Pere J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Clotet, Bonaventura; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Lorizate, Maier; Carrillo, Jorge; Blanco, Julià

    2017-01-01

    The HIV-1 gp41 Membrane Proximal External Region (MPER) is recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies and represents a promising vaccine target. However, MPER immunogenicity and antibody activity are influenced by membrane lipids. To evaluate lipid modulation of MPER immunogenicity, we generated a 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)-based proteoliposome collection containing combinations of phosphatidylserine (PS), GM3 ganglioside, cholesterol (CHOL), sphingomyelin (SM) and the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). A recombinant gp41-derived miniprotein (gp41-MinTT) exposing the MPER and a tetanus toxoid (TT) peptide that favors MHC-II presentation, was successfully incorporated into lipid mixtures (>85%). Immunization of mice with soluble gp41-MinTT exclusively induced responses against the TT peptide, while POPC proteoliposomes generated potent anti-gp41 IgG responses using lower protein doses. The combined addition of PS and GM3 or CHOL/SM to POPC liposomes greatly increased gp41 immunogenicity, which was further enhanced by the addition of MPLA. Responses generated by all proteoliposomes targeted the N-terminal moiety of MPER overlapping the 2F5 neutralizing epitope. Our data show that lipids impact both, the epitope targeted and the magnitude of the response to membrane-dependent antigens, helping to improve MPER-based lipid carriers. Moreover, the identification of immunodominant epitopes allows for the redesign of immunogens targeting MPER neutralizing determinants. PMID:28084464

  6. Proteoliposomal formulations of an HIV-1 gp41-based miniprotein elicit a lipid-dependent immunodominant response overlapping the 2F5 binding motif.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Albert, Luis M; Bilbao, Eneritz; Agulló, Luis; Marfil, Silvia; García, Elisabet; Concepción, Maria Luisa Rodríguez de la; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Vilaplana, Cristina; Nieto-Garai, Jon A; Contreras, F-Xabier; Floor, Martin; Cardona, Pere J; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Clotet, Bonaventura; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Lorizate, Maier; Carrillo, Jorge; Blanco, Julià

    2017-01-13

    The HIV-1 gp41 Membrane Proximal External Region (MPER) is recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies and represents a promising vaccine target. However, MPER immunogenicity and antibody activity are influenced by membrane lipids. To evaluate lipid modulation of MPER immunogenicity, we generated a 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)-based proteoliposome collection containing combinations of phosphatidylserine (PS), GM3 ganglioside, cholesterol (CHOL), sphingomyelin (SM) and the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). A recombinant gp41-derived miniprotein (gp41-MinTT) exposing the MPER and a tetanus toxoid (TT) peptide that favors MHC-II presentation, was successfully incorporated into lipid mixtures (>85%). Immunization of mice with soluble gp41-MinTT exclusively induced responses against the TT peptide, while POPC proteoliposomes generated potent anti-gp41 IgG responses using lower protein doses. The combined addition of PS and GM3 or CHOL/SM to POPC liposomes greatly increased gp41 immunogenicity, which was further enhanced by the addition of MPLA. Responses generated by all proteoliposomes targeted the N-terminal moiety of MPER overlapping the 2F5 neutralizing epitope. Our data show that lipids impact both, the epitope targeted and the magnitude of the response to membrane-dependent antigens, helping to improve MPER-based lipid carriers. Moreover, the identification of immunodominant epitopes allows for the redesign of immunogens targeting MPER neutralizing determinants.

  7. Genetic and epitopic analysis of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies: markers of the human thyroid autoimmune response.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, S M; Rapoport, B

    1995-01-01

    TPO autoantibodies, the hallmark of human autoimmune thyroid disease, are of IgG class and are associated with thyroid destruction and hypothyroidism. Using the immunoglobulin gene combinatorial library approach, a panel of human monoclonal TPO autoantibodies (expressed as Fab) has been generated from thyroid tissue-infiltrating B cells. TPO-specific Fab closely resemble patients' serum autoantibodies in terms of L chain type, IgG subclass, affinities for TPO as well as epitopes recognized by > 80% of TPO autoantibodies in an individual's serum. TPO autoantibody V region genes are not unique; H chain V genes are usually mutated, while L chain V genes are sometimes in germ-line conformation. The autoantibodies recognize an immunodominant region involving conformational, overlapping epitopes in domains A and B. Finally, TPO autoantibody epitopic fingerprints are distinctive for individual sera, are not associated with hypothyroidism, but are conserved over time (indicating a lack of B cell epitope spreading). Evidence for conservation as well as inheritance of the fingerprints in some families, together with VH gene polymorphisms, may provide insight into the genetic basis of human autoimmune thyroid disease. Furthermore, monoclonal human TPO autoantibodies will be invaluable for B cell presentation of TPO to determine the T cell epitopes involved in TPO autoantibody production. PMID:7544244

  8. Antibody biomarker discovery through in vitro directed evolution of consensus recognition epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ballew, John T; Murray, Joseph A; Collin, Pekka; Mäki, Markku; Kagnoff, Martin F; Kaukinen, Katri; Daugherty, Patrick S

    2013-11-26

    To enable discovery of serum antibodies indicative of disease and simultaneously develop reagents suitable for diagnosis, in vitro directed evolution was applied to identify consensus peptides recognized by patients' serum antibodies. Bacterial cell-displayed peptide libraries were quantitatively screened for binders to serum antibodies from patients with celiac disease (CD), using cell-sorting instrumentation to identify two distinct consensus epitope families specific to CD patients (PEQ and (E)/DxFV(Y)/FQ). Evolution of the (E)/DxFV(Y)/FQ consensus epitope identified a celiac-specific epitope, distinct from the two CD hallmark antigens tissue transglutaminase-2 and deamidated gliadin, exhibiting 71% sensitivity and 99% specificity (n = 231). Expansion of the first-generation PEQ consensus epitope via in vitro evolution yielded octapeptides QPEQAFPE and PFPEQxFP that identified ω- and γ-gliadins, and their deamidated forms, as immunodominant B-cell epitopes in wheat and related cereal proteins. The evolved octapeptides, but not first-generation peptides, discriminated one-way blinded CD and non-CD sera (n = 78) with exceptional accuracy, yielding 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Because this method, termed antibody diagnostics via evolution of peptides, does not require prior knowledge of pathobiology, it may be broadly useful for de novo discovery of antibody biomarkers and reagents for their detection.

  9. Common Antiviral Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitope for Diverse Arenaviruses†

    PubMed Central

    Oldstone, Michael B. A.; Lewicki, Hanna; Homann, Dirk; Nguyen, Christophe; Julien, Sylvianne; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2001-01-01

    Members of the Arenaviridae family have been isolated from mammalian hosts in disparate geographic locations, leading to their grouping as Old World types (i.e., lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV], Lassa fever virus [LFV], Mopeia virus, and Mobala virus) and New World types (i.e., Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, and Sabia viruses) (C. J. Peters, M. J. Buchmeier, P. E. Rollin, and T. G. Ksiazek, p. 1521–1551, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996; P. J. Southern, p. 1505–1519, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996). Several types in both groups—LFV, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia viruses—cause severe and often lethal human diseases. By sequence comparison, we noted that eight Old World and New World arenaviruses share several amino acids with the nucleoprotein (NP) that consists of amino acids (aa) 118 to 126 (NP 118–126) (RPQASGVYM) of LCMV that comprise the immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope for H-2d mice (32). This Ld-restricted epitope constituted >97% of the total bulk CTLs produced in the specific antiviral or clonal responses of H-2d BALB mice. NP 118–126 of the Old World arenaviruses LFV, Mopeia virus, and LCMV and the New World arenavirus Sabia virus bound at high affinity to Ld. The primary H-2d CTL anti-LCMV response as well as that of a CTL clone responsive to LCMV NP 118–126 recognized target cells coated with NP 118–126 peptides derived from LCMV, LFV, and Mopeia virus but not Sabia virus, indicating that a common functional NP epitope exists among Old World arenaviruses. Use of site-specific amino acid exchanges in the NP CTL epitope among these arenaviruses identified amino acids involved in major histocompatibility complex binding and CTL recognition. PMID:11413293

  10. Common antiviral cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitope for diverse arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Oldstone, M B; Lewicki, H; Homann, D; Nguyen, C; Julien, S; Gairin, J E

    2001-07-01

    Members of the Arenaviridae family have been isolated from mammalian hosts in disparate geographic locations, leading to their grouping as Old World types (i.e., lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV], Lassa fever virus [LFV], Mopeia virus, and Mobala virus) and New World types (i.e., Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, and Sabia viruses) (C. J. Peters, M. J. Buchmeier, P. E. Rollin, and T. G. Ksiazek, p. 1521-1551, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996; P. J. Southern, p. 1505-1519, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996). Several types in both groups-LFV, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia viruses-cause severe and often lethal human diseases. By sequence comparison, we noted that eight Old World and New World arenaviruses share several amino acids with the nucleoprotein (NP) that consists of amino acids (aa) 118 to 126 (NP 118-126) (RPQASGVYM) of LCMV that comprise the immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope for H-2(d) mice (32). This L(d)-restricted epitope constituted >97% of the total bulk CTLs produced in the specific antiviral or clonal responses of H-2(d) BALB mice. NP 118-126 of the Old World arenaviruses LFV, Mopeia virus, and LCMV and the New World arenavirus Sabia virus bound at high affinity to L(d). The primary H-2(d) CTL anti-LCMV response as well as that of a CTL clone responsive to LCMV NP 118-126 recognized target cells coated with NP 118-126 peptides derived from LCMV, LFV, and Mopeia virus but not Sabia virus, indicating that a common functional NP epitope exists among Old World arenaviruses. Use of site-specific amino acid exchanges in the NP CTL epitope among these arenaviruses identified amino acids involved in major histocompatibility complex binding and CTL recognition.

  11. Quantifying and imaging NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-derived epitopes on tumor cells using high affinity T cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Purbhoo, Marco A; Sutton, Deborah H; Brewer, Joanna E; Mullings, Rebecca E; Hill, Maxine E; Mahon, Tara M; Karbach, Julia; Jäger, Elke; Cameron, Brian J; Lissin, Nikolai; Vyas, Paresh; Chen, Ji-Li; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Jakobsen, Bent K

    2006-06-15

    Presentation of intracellular tumor-associated Ags (TAAs) in the context of HLA class I molecules offers unique cancer-specific cell surface markers for the identification and targeting of tumor cells. For most peptide Ags, the levels of and variations in cell surface presentation remain unknown, yet these parameters are of crucial importance when considering specific TAAs as targets for anticancer therapy. Here we use a soluble TCR with picomolar affinity for the HLA-A2-restricted 157-165 epitope of the NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 TAAs to investigate presentation of this immunodominant epitope on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. By single molecule fluorescence microscopy, we directly visualize HLA-peptide presentation for the first time, demonstrating that NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-positive tumor cells present 10-50 NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1(157-165) epitopes per cell.

  12. Shifting Hierarchies of Interleukin-10-Producing T Cell Populations in the Central Nervous System during Acute and Persistent Viral Encephalomyelitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Puntambekar, Shweta S.; Bergmann, Cornelia C.; Savarin, Carine; Karp, Christopher L.; Phares, Timothy W.; Parra, Gabriel I.; Hinton, David R.; Stohlman, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA is rapidly upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with neurotropic coronavirus and remains elevated during persistent infection. Infection of transgenic IL-10/green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice revealed that CNS-infiltrating T cells were the major source of IL-10, with minimal IL-10 production by macrophages and resident microglia. The proportions of IL-10-producing cells were initially similar in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells but diminished rapidly in CD8+ T cells as the virus was controlled. Overall, the majority of IL-10-producing CD8+ T cells were specific for the immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitope. Unlike CD8+ T cells, a large proportion of CD4+ T cells within the CNS retained IL-10 production throughout persistence. Furthermore, elevated frequencies of IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells in the spinal cord supported preferential maintenance of IL-10 production at the site of viral persistence and tissue damage. IL-10 was produced primarily by the CD25+ CD4+ T cell subset during acute infection but prevailed in CD25− CD4+ T cells during the transition to persistent infection and thereafter. Overall, these data demonstrate significant fluidity in the T-cell-mediated IL-10 response during viral encephalitis and persistence. While IL-10 production by CD8+ T cells was limited primarily to the time of acute effector function, CD4+ T cells continued to produce IL-10 throughout infection. Moreover, a shift from predominant IL-10 production by CD25+ CD4+ T cells to CD25− CD4+ T cells suggests that a transition to nonclassical regulatory T cells precedes and is retained during CNS viral persistence. PMID:21525347

  13. Shifting hierarchies of interleukin-10-producing T cell populations in the central nervous system during acute and persistent viral encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Puntambekar, Shweta S; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Savarin, Carine; Karp, Christopher L; Phares, Timothy W; Parra, Gabriel I; Hinton, David R; Stohlman, Stephen A

    2011-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA is rapidly upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with neurotropic coronavirus and remains elevated during persistent infection. Infection of transgenic IL-10/green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice revealed that CNS-infiltrating T cells were the major source of IL-10, with minimal IL-10 production by macrophages and resident microglia. The proportions of IL-10-producing cells were initially similar in CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells but diminished rapidly in CD8(+) T cells as the virus was controlled. Overall, the majority of IL-10-producing CD8(+) T cells were specific for the immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitope. Unlike CD8(+) T cells, a large proportion of CD4(+) T cells within the CNS retained IL-10 production throughout persistence. Furthermore, elevated frequencies of IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells in the spinal cord supported preferential maintenance of IL-10 production at the site of viral persistence and tissue damage. IL-10 was produced primarily by the CD25(+) CD4(+) T cell subset during acute infection but prevailed in CD25(-) CD4(+) T cells during the transition to persistent infection and thereafter. Overall, these data demonstrate significant fluidity in the T-cell-mediated IL-10 response during viral encephalitis and persistence. While IL-10 production by CD8(+) T cells was limited primarily to the time of acute effector function, CD4(+) T cells continued to produce IL-10 throughout infection. Moreover, a shift from predominant IL-10 production by CD25(+) CD4(+) T cells to CD25(-) CD4(+) T cells suggests that a transition to nonclassical regulatory T cells precedes and is retained during CNS viral persistence.

  14. Induction of protective anti-CTL epitope responses against HER-2-positive breast cancer based on multivalent T7 phage nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Bamdad, Taravat; Hashemi, Hamidreza; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Kazemi, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    We report here the development of multivalent T7 bacteriophage nanoparticles displaying an immunodominant H-2k(d)-restricted CTL epitope derived from the rat HER2/neu oncoprotein. The immunotherapeutic potential of the chimeric T7 nanoparticles as anti-cancer vaccine was investigated in BALB/c mice in an implantable breast tumor model. The results showed that T7 phage nanoparticles confer a high immunogenicity to the HER-2-derived minimal CTL epitope, as shown by inducing robust CTL responses. Furthermore, the chimeric nanoparticles protected mice against HER-2-positive tumor challenge in both prophylactic and therapeutic setting. In conclusion, these results suggest that CTL epitope-carrying T7 phage nanoparticles might be a promising approach for development of T cell epitope-based cancer vaccines.

  15. Characterization of the IgA and subclass IgG responses to neutralizing epitopes after infection of pregnant sows with the transmissible gastroenteritis virus or the antigenically related porcine respiratory coronavirus.

    PubMed

    De Diego, M; Rodríguez, F; Alcaraz, C; Gómez, N; Alonso, C; Escribano, J M

    1994-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the characteristics of secreted IgA and other classes of Ig induced after vaccination of sows with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) or the antigenically related porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). Both viruses induced the secretion of neutralizing antibodies of different classes in the sows' milk, but these protected suckling piglets against TGEV to different degrees. Quantitative differences in the induction of IgA by both viruses were found among the different viral antigenic sites and subsites of glycoprotein S. In TGEV-vaccinated sows, antigenic subsite A was the best inducer of IgA, followed by antigenic site D. After vaccination with PRCV, lower levels of IgA were detected on colostrum and milk, antigenic site D and subsite Ab being the immunodominant sites. This quantitative difference in epitope recognition could explain the differences in newborn piglet protection found using Ig classes purified from the milk of sows immunized with both viruses. Apparently only IgA recognizing at least antigenic sites A and D confers good protection in vivo, whereas any Ig class recognizing only one antigenic site may neutralize the virus in cell culture. These results indicate that the formulation of a subunit vaccine against TGEV has to consider the inclusion of more than one antigenic site involved in virus neutralization.

  16. Chimeric bacteriophage fr virus-like particles harboring the immunodominant C-terminal region of hamster polyomavirus VP1 induce a strong VP1-specific antibody response in rabbits and mice.

    PubMed

    Voronkova, Tatyana; Grosch, Adrian; Kazaks, Andris; Ose, Velta; Skrastina, Dace; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Jandrig, Burkhard; Arnold, Wolfgang; Scherneck, Siegfried; Pumpens, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer

    2002-01-01

    The late region of the hamster polyomavirus (HaPyV, former HaPV) genome encodes three structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3, where VP1 represents the major capsid protein of 384 amino acids. Screening of sera from HaPyV-infected papilloma-bearing and papilloma-free hamsters demonstrated the immunodominant features of all three capsid proteins. For both groups of hamsters in the C-terminal region of VP1 immunodominant B-cell epitopes were identified in the regions between amino acids 305 and 351 and amino acids 351 and 384. The high flexibility of the C-terminal region of VP1 was confirmed by the formation of chimeric virus-like particles based on the coat protein of the RNA bacteriophage fr which was previously found to tolerate only very short-sized foreign insertions. Phage fr coat protein-derived virus-like particles tolerated the N-terminal fusion of amino acids 333-384, 351-384, 351-374, and 364-384, respectively, of VP1. The induction of VP1-specific antibodies in rabbits and mice by immunization with chimeric virus-like particles harboring amino acids 333-384, 351-384, and 364-384, respectively, of VP1 suggested the immunodominant nature of the C-terminal region of VP1.

  17. Expanding specificity of class 1 restricted CD8+ T cells for viral epitopes following multiple inoculations of swine with a human adenivorus vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The immune response to the highly acute foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is routinely reported as a measure of serum antibody. However, a critical effector function of immune responses combating viral infection of mammals is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, mediated by virus specific ...

  18. Design and Characterization of Epitope-Scaffold Immunogens That Present the Motavizumab Epitope from Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Correia, Bruno E.; Chen, Man; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S.; Schief, William R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-06-28

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, but an effective vaccine has not yet been developed. An ideal vaccine would elicit protective antibodies while avoiding virus-specific T-cell responses, which have been implicated in vaccine-enhanced disease with previous RSV vaccines. We propose that heterologous proteins designed to present RSV-neutralizing antibody epitopes and to elicit cognate antibodies have the potential to fulfill these vaccine requirements, as they can be fashioned to be free of viral T-cell epitopes. Here we present the design and characterization of three epitope-scaffolds that present the epitope of motavizumab, a potent neutralizing antibody that binds to a helix-loop-helix motif in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Two of the epitope-scaffolds could be purified, and one epitope-scaffold based on a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain bound motavizumab with kinetic and thermodynamic properties consistent with the free epitope-scaffold being stabilized in a conformation that closely resembled the motavizumab-bound state. This epitope-scaffold was well folded as assessed by circular dichroism and isothermal titration calorimetry, and its crystal structure (determined in complex with motavizumab to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution) was similar to the computationally designed model, with all hydrogen-bond interactions critical for binding to motavizumab preserved. Immunization of mice with this epitope-scaffold failed to elicit neutralizing antibodies but did elicit sera with F binding activity. The elicitation of F binding antibodies suggests that some of the design criteria for eliciting protective antibodies without virus-specific T-cell responses are being met, but additional optimization of these novel immunogens is required.

  19. Design and characterization of epitope-scaffold immunogens that present the motavizumab epitope from respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Jason S; Correia, Bruno E; Chen, Man; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S; Schief, William R; Kwong, Peter D

    2011-06-24

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, but an effective vaccine has not yet been developed. An ideal vaccine would elicit protective antibodies while avoiding virus-specific T-cell responses, which have been implicated in vaccine-enhanced disease with previous RSV vaccines. We propose that heterologous proteins designed to present RSV-neutralizing antibody epitopes and to elicit cognate antibodies have the potential to fulfill these vaccine requirements, as they can be fashioned to be free of viral T-cell epitopes. Here we present the design and characterization of three epitope-scaffolds that present the epitope of motavizumab, a potent neutralizing antibody that binds to a helix-loop-helix motif in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Two of the epitope-scaffolds could be purified, and one epitope-scaffold based on a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain bound motavizumab with kinetic and thermodynamic properties consistent with the free epitope-scaffold being stabilized in a conformation that closely resembled the motavizumab-bound state. This epitope-scaffold was well folded as assessed by circular dichroism and isothermal titration calorimetry, and its crystal structure (determined in complex with motavizumab to 1.9 Å resolution) was similar to the computationally designed model, with all hydrogen-bond interactions critical for binding to motavizumab preserved. Immunization of mice with this epitope-scaffold failed to elicit neutralizing antibodies but did elicit sera with F binding activity. The elicitation of F binding antibodies suggests that some of the design criteria for eliciting protective antibodies without virus-specific T-cell responses are being met, but additional optimization of these novel immunogens is required. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A new EV71 VP3 epitope in norovirus P particle vector displays neutralizing activity and protection in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liping; Fan, Rongjun; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; Su, Weiheng; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Feng; Xu, Fei; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-11-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), as the main agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), have become a serious public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 were identified as targets for promising vaccine candidates. Structural studies of Picornaviridae indicated that potent immunodominant epitopes typically lie in the hypervariable loop of capsid surfaces. However, cross-neutralizing antibodies and cross-protection between EV71 and CVA16 have not been observed. Therefore, we speculated that divergent sequences of the two viruses are key epitopes for inducing protective neutralizing responses. In this study, we selected 10 divergent epitope candidates based on alignment of the EV71 and CVA16 P1 amino acid sequences using the Multalin interface page, and these epitopes are conserved among all subgenotypes of EV71. Simultaneously, by utilizing the norovirus P particle as a novel vaccine delivery carrier, we identified the 71-6 epitope (amino acid 176-190 of VP3) as a conformational neutralizing epitope against EV71 in an in vitro micro-neutralization assay as well as an in vivo protection assay in mice. Altogether, these results indicated that the incorporation of the 71-6 epitope into the norovirus P domain can provide a promising candidate for an effective synthetic peptide-based vaccine against EV71.

  1. Vaccines targeting the cancer-testis antigen SSX-2 elicit HLA-A2 epitope-specific cytolytic T cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heath A; McNeel, Douglas G

    2011-10-01

    The cancer-testis antigen synovial sarcoma X breakpoint-2 (SSX-2) is a potentially attractive target for tumor immunotherapy based upon its tissue-restricted expression to germline cells and its frequent expression in malignancies. The goal of this study was to evaluate genetic vaccine encoding SSX-2 to prioritize human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-specific epitopes and determine if a DNA vaccine can elicit SSX-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) capable of lysing prostate cancer cells. HLA-A2-restricted epitopes were identified based on their in vitro binding affinity for HLA-A2 and by the ability of a genetic vaccine to elicit peptide-specific CTL in A2/DR1 (HLA-A2.1+/HLA-DR1+/H-2 class I-/class II-knockout) transgenic mice. We found that SSX-2 peptides p41-49 (KASEKIFYV) and p103-111 (RLQGISPKI) had high affinity for HLA-A2 and were immunogenic in vivo; however, peptide p103-111 was immunodominant with robust peptide-specific immune responses elicited in mice vaccinated with a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding SSX-2. Furthermore, p103-111-specific CTLs were able to lyse an HLA-A2+ prostate cancer cell line. The immunodominance of this epitope was found not to be due to a putative HLA-DR1 epitope (p98-112) flanking p103-111. Finally, we demonstrated that SSX-2 epitope-specific CTLs could be detected and cultured from the peripheral blood of HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients, notably patients with advanced prostate cancer. Overall, we conclude that SSX-2 peptide p103-111 is an immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted epitope, and epitope-specific CD8 T cells can be detected in patients with prostate cancer, suggesting that tolerance to SSX-2 can be circumvented in vivo. Together, these findings suggest that SSX-2 may be a relevant target antigen for prostate cancer vaccine approaches.

  2. Conformational IgE epitopes of peanut allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueni; Negi, Surendra S; Liao, Sumei; Gao, Valerie; Braun, Werner; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Cross-linking of IgE antibody by specific epitopes on the surface of mast cells is a prerequisite for triggering symptoms of peanut allergy. IgE epitopes are frequently categorized as linear or conformational epitopes. Although linear IgE-binding epitopes of peanut allergens have been defined, little is known about conformational IgE-binding epitopes. To identify clinically relevant conformational IgE epitopes of the two most important peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, using phage peptide library. A phage 12mer peptide library was screened with allergen-specific IgE from 4 peanut-allergic patients. Binding of the mimotopes to IgE from a total of 29 peanut-allergic subjects was measured by ELISA. The mimotope sequences were mapped on the surface areas of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 using EpiSearch. Forty-one individual mimotopes were identified that specifically bind anti- Ara h 2/Ara h 6 IgE as well as rabbit anti-Ara h 2 and anti-Ara h 6 IgG. Sequence alignment showed that none of the mimotope sequences match a linear segment of the Ara h 2 or Ara h 6 sequences. EpiSearch analysis showed that all the mimotopes mapped to surface patches of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. Eight of the mimotopes were recognized by more than 90% of the patients, suggesting immunodominance. Each patient had distinct IgE recognition patterns but the recognition frequency was not correlated to the concentration of peanut specific IgE or to clinical history. The mimotopes identified in this study represent conformational epitopes. Identification of similar surface patches on Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 further underscores the similarities between these two potent allergens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Emergence of a Norovirus GII.4 Strain Correlates with Changes in Evolving Blockade Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Costantini, Verónica; Swanstrom, Jesica; Debbink, Kari; Donaldson, Eric F.; Vinjé, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The major capsid protein of norovirus GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in epidemic strains with altered antigenicity. GII.4.2006 Minerva strains circulated at pandemic levels in 2006 and persisted at lower levels until 2009. In 2009, a new GII.4 variant, GII.4.2009 New Orleans, emerged and since then has become the predominant strain circulating in human populations. To determine whether changes in evolving blockade epitopes correlate with the emergence of the GII.4.2009 New Orleans strains, we compared the antibody reactivity of a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both anti-GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 MAbs effectively differentiated the two strains by VLP-carbohydrate ligand blockade assay. Most of the GII.4.2006 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2006, while all of the GII.4.2009 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2009, although 8 of 12 tested blockade MAbs blocked both VLPs. Using mutant VLPs designed to alter predicted antigenic epitopes, binding of seven of the blockade MAbs was impacted by alterations in epitope A, identifying residues 294, 296, 297, 298, 368, and 372 as important antigenic sites in these strains. Convalescent-phase serum collected from a GII.4.2009 outbreak confirmed the immunodominance of epitope A, since alterations of epitope A affected serum reactivity by 40%. These data indicate that the GII.4.2009 New Orleans variant has evolved a key blockade epitope, possibly allowing for at least partial escape from protective herd immunity and provide epidemiological support for the utility of monitoring changes in epitope A in emergent strain surveillance. PMID:23269783

  4. A comparison of two methods for T cell epitope mapping: “cell free” in vitro versus immunoinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Messitt, Timothy J.; Terry, Frances; Moise, Leonard; Martin, William

    2014-01-01

    Background Methods for identifying physiologically relevant T-cell epitopes are critically important for development of vaccines and the design of therapeutic proteins. As the number of proteins that are being evaluated for putative immunogenicity expands, rapid and accurate tools are in great demand. Several methods to identify T-cell epitopes have been developed, the most recent of which is a cell free system consisting of a minimal set of proteases incubated with HLA DRB1*0101, HLA-DM and whole antigen. Isolation and sequencing of the HLA bound peptides using mass spectrometry allows for the prospective identification of immunodominant T-cell epitopes. Results We present here, a comparison of this cell free in vitro antigen processing system to an immunoinformatics approach using the EpiMatrix algorithm. Our comparison reveals that in addition to identifying a similar set of epitopes to the cell-free system, the immunoinformatics approach prospectively identifies more HLA-DRB1*0101 epitopes and can simultaneously analyze multiple HLA alleles. Conclusions Although the cell-free system incorporates antigen processing and MHC binding, the immunoinformatics approach identifies many validated epitopes with a very high degree of accuracy and can be performed much faster with far fewer resources. PMID:25346774

  5. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  6. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE68-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes for tuberculosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhi-Liang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Sina; Chen, Xin-Yu; Liu, Hui-Fang; Chen, Bo-Kun; Li, De-Zhou; Huang, Xi; Wen, Jin-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    PPE68 is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific protein which is absent from the vaccine strains of BCG. A panel of 14 PPE68-derived peptides predicted to bind to HLA-A*0201 was synthesized. The HLA-A*0201 restriction of these peptides was determined in T2 cell line and HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. The specificity of peptides was assessed in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, and immunodominant peptides were further used to evaluate their diagnostic potential in HLA-A*0201-positive pulmonary TB patients. 13 out of 14 peptides were identified as high-affinity binders. Of these peptides, 12 peptides induced significant IFN-γ-secreting T cell response in transgenic mice and 9 peptides were efficiently recognized by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 HLA-A*0201-positive TB patients. Four immunodominant HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes (PPE68126-134, PPE68133-141, PPE68140-148, and PPE68148-156) were recognized by the most of 80 HLA-A*0201-positive TB patients (81, 86, 74, and 84 %, respectively). These epitopes may be used for a potential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection.

  7. Recognition of peptide epitopes of the 16,000 MW antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by murine T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vordermeier, H M; Harris, D P; Lathigra, R; Roman, E; Moreno, C; Ivanyi, J

    1993-01-01

    The T-cell repertoire to a prominent immunogen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been investigated on the assumption that differences in epitope specificity could influence the protective and pathogenic host reactions. Proliferative responses of lymph node and spleen cells to overlapping peptides, spanning the entire sequence of the 16,000 MW protein antigen were analysed in C57BL/10 and B10.BR mice. Following footpad priming and in vitro challenge with homologous peptide, 12 out of the 14 peptides tested were found to be immunogenic. However, only two peptides of residues 31-40 and 71-91 stimulated strong proliferative responses of T cells from mice which had been presensitized with either killed or live M. tuberculosis organisms; another three peptides were only weakly stimulatory. These epitopes have been immunodominant in both H-2b and H-2k mouse strains, indicating the genetically permissive nature of their recognition. Furthermore, both major immunodominant epitopes were found to be species specific for the M. tuberculosis complex and therefore potentially suitable for the early diagnosis of tuberculous infection. PMID:7503946

  8. Reduction of human anti-tetanus toxoid antibody in hu-PBL-SCID mice by immunodominant peptides of tetanus toxoid

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, D J; Elson, C J; Kumpel, B M

    2004-01-01

    Immunotherapy of murine autoimmune and allergic diseases by administration of peptides corresponding to the dominant T cell epitope is a reality. However, problems remain in applying this therapy to reduce antibody responses in humans. To overcome these difficulties, a preclinical system was developed to test the effect of immunodominant peptides from a common antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT), on the long-term human anti-TT response. Individuals whose T cells proliferated against dominant TT peptides were identified. Peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) from these donors were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) that had been depleted of murine natural killer (NK) cells (hu-PBL-SCID mice). Peptides or PBS were injected i.p. before a further injection of PBL and immunization with TT. The concentration of human IgG and anti-TT in murine plasma was followed for 10 weeks. The total IgG was similar in both groups. By contrast, there was a statistically significant reduction in IgG anti-TT from eight weeks onwards. It is considered that the hu-PBL-SCID model system may provide a means by which the efficacy of peptide immunotherapy for reduction of pathological antibodies in humans can be examined. PMID:15270840

  9. Evaluation of a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup J in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2015-12-02

    The intricate sequence and antigenic variability of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have led to unprecedented difficulties in the development of vaccines. Much experimental evidence demonstrates that ALV-J mutants have caused immune evasion and pose a challenge for traditional efforts to develop effective vaccines. To investigate the potential of a multi-epitope vaccination strategy to prevent chickens against ALV-J infections, a recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) containing both immunodominant B and T epitope concentrated domains selected from the major structural protein of ALV-J using bioinformatics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy was studied in chickens. The results showed that rCMEPX could elicit neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses, and antibodies induced by rCMEPX could specifically recognize host cell naturally expressed ALV-J proteins, which indicated that the rCMEPX is a good immunogen. Challenge experiments showed 80% chickens that received rCMEPX were well protected against ALV-J challenge. This is the first report of a chimeric multi-epitope protein as a potential immunogen against ALV-J.

  10. Frequent associations between CTL and T-Helper epitopes in HIV-1 genomes and implications for multi-epitope vaccine designs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epitope vaccines have been suggested as a strategy to counteract viral escape and development of drug resistance. Multiple studies have shown that Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte (CTL) and T-Helper (Th) epitopes can generate strong immune responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1). However, not much is known about the relationship among different types of HIV epitopes, particularly those epitopes that can be considered potential candidates for inclusion in the multi-epitope vaccines. Results In this study we used association rule mining to examine relationship between different types of epitopes (CTL, Th and antibody epitopes) from nine protein-coding HIV-1 genes to identify strong associations as potent multi-epitope vaccine candidates. Our results revealed 137 association rules that were consistently present in the majority of reference and non-reference HIV-1 genomes and included epitopes of two different types (CTL and Th) from three different genes (Gag, Pol and Nef). These rules involved 14 non-overlapping epitope regions that frequently co-occurred despite high mutation and recombination rates, including in genomes of circulating recombinant forms. These epitope regions were also highly conserved at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels indicating strong purifying selection driven by functional and/or structural constraints and hence, the diminished likelihood of successful escape mutations. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive systematic survey of CTL, Th and Ab epitopes that are both highly conserved and co-occur together among all subtypes of HIV-1, including circulating recombinant forms. Several co-occurring epitope combinations were identified as potent candidates for inclusion in multi-epitope vaccines, including epitopes that are immuno-responsive to different arms of the host immune machinery and can enable stronger and more efficient immune responses, similar to responses achieved with adjuvant therapies. Signature of strong

  11. Viral Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to fight it off. For most viral infections, treatments can only help with symptoms while you wait ... for viral infections. There are antiviral medicines to treat some viral infections. Vaccines can help prevent you ...

  12. Conserved B-Cell Epitopes among Human Bocavirus Species Indicate Potential Diagnostic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaying; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vernet, Guy; Guo, Li; Wang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Human bocavirus species 1–4 (HBoV1–4) have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated HBoV1–3 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs) and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptides–P1 (1MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT20), and P2 (162EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL180)–that are conserved among HBoV1–4. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 1–4 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4). Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. Conclusions/Significance The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools. PMID:24475201

  13. Mapping of a Mycoplasma-Neutralizing Epitope on the Mycoplasmal p37 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Won-Tae; Lee, Hyun Min; Choi, Hong Seo; Jo, Yu Ra; Lee, Yangsoon; Jeong, Jaemin; Choi, Dongho; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Shick; Jang, Young-Joo; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the mycoplasmal membrane protein p37 enhances cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Previously, we generated 6 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the mycoplasmal protein p37 and showed the presence of mycoplasma-infected circulating tumor cells in the blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by using CA27, one of the six MAbs. When mycoplasmas were incubated with cancer cells in the presence of CA27, mycoplasma infection was completely inhibited, suggesting that CA27 is a neutralizing antibody inhibiting mycoplasma infection. To examine the neutralizing epitope of CA27, we generated a series of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused p37 deletion mutant proteins in which p37 was partly deleted. To express p37-coding sequences in E.coli, mycoplasmal TGA codons were substituted with TGG in the p37 deletion mutant genes. GST-fused p37 deletion mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitope targeted by CA27. Western blots showed that CA27 bound to the residues 216–246 on the middle part of the p37 protein while it did not bind to the residues 183–219 and 216–240. Fine mapping showed that CA27 was able to bind to the residues 226–246, but its binding activity was relatively weakened as compared to that to the residues 216–246, suggesting that the residues 226–246 is essential for optimal binding activity of CA27. Interestingly, the treatment of the purified GST-tagged epitopes with urea showed that CA27 binding to the epitope was sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant but urea-sensitive. The same 226–246 residues were also recognized by two other anti-p37 MAbs, suggesting that the epitope is immunodominant. The identification of the novel neutralizing epitope may provide new insight into the interaction between the p37 protein and host receptors. PMID:28036384

  14. Major histocompatibility complex and T cell interactions of a universal T cell epitope from Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein.

    PubMed

    Parra-López, Carlos; Calvo-Calle, J Mauricio; Cameron, Thomas O; Vargas, Luis E; Salazar, Luz Mary; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Nardin, Elizabeth; Stern, Lawrence J

    2006-05-26

    A 20-residue sequence from the C-terminal region of the circumsporozoite protein of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is considered a universal helper T cell epitope because it is immunogenic in individuals of many major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes. Subunit vaccines containing T* and the major B cell epitope of the circumsporozoite protein induce high antibody titers to the malaria parasite and significant T cell responses in humans. In this study we have evaluated the specificity of the T* sequence with regard to its binding to the human class II MHC protein DR4 (HLA-DRB1*0401), its interactions with antigen receptors on T cells, and the effect of natural variants of this sequence on its immunogenicity. Computational approaches identified multiple potential DR4-binding epitopes within T*, and experimental binding studies confirmed the following two tight binding epitopes: one located toward the N terminus (the T*-1 epitope) and one at the C terminus (the T*-5 epitope). Immunization of a human DR4 volunteer with a peptide-based vaccine containing the T* sequence elicited CD4+ T cells that recognize each of these epitopes. Here we present an analysis of the immunodominant N-terminal epitope T*-1. T*-1 residues important for interaction with DR4 and with antigen receptors on T*-specific T cells were mapped. MHC tetramers carrying DR4/T*-1 MHC-peptide complexes stained and efficiently stimulated these cells in vitro. T*-1 overlaps a region of the protein that has been described as highly polymorphic; however, the particular T*-1 residues required for anchoring to DR4 were highly conserved in Plasmodium sequences described to date.

  15. T cell memory to evolutionarily conserved and shared hemagglutinin epitopes of H1N1 viruses: a pilot scale study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009 pandemic influenza was milder than expected. Based on the apparent lack of pre-existing cross-protective antibodies to the A (H1N1)pdm09 strain, it was hypothesized that pre-existing CD4+ T cellular immunity provided the crucial immunity that led to an attenuation of disease severity. We carried out a pilot scale study by conducting in silico and in vitro T cellular assays in healthy population, to evaluate the pre-existing immunity to A (H1N1)pdm09 strain. Methods Large-scale epitope prediction analysis was done by examining the NCBI available (H1N1) HA proteins. NetMHCIIpan, an eptiope prediction tool was used to identify the putative and shared CD4+ T cell epitopes between seasonal H1N1 and A (H1N1)pdm09 strains. To identify the immunogenicity of these putative epitopes, human IFN-γ-ELISPOT assays were conducted using the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from fourteen healthy human donors. All donors were screened for the HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results Epitope-specific CD4+ T cellular memory responses (IFN-γ) were generated to highly conserved HA epitopes from majority of the donors (93%). Higher magnitude of the CD4+ T cell responses was observed in the older adults. The study identified two HA2 immunodominant CD4+ T cell epitopes, of which one was found to be novel. Conclusions The current study provides a compelling evidence of HA epitope specific CD4+ T cellular memory towards A (H1N1)pdm09 strain. These well-characterized epitopes could recruit alternative immunological pathways to overcome the challenge of annual seasonal flu vaccine escape. PMID:23641949

  16. A Homology Model Reveals Novel Structural Features and an Immunodominant Surface Loop/Opsonic Target in the Treponema pallidum BamA Ortholog TP_0326

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Amit; Anand, Arvind; Hawley, Kelly L.; LeDoyt, Morgan; La Vake, Carson J.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Cruz, Adriana R.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently demonstrated that TP_0326 is a bona fide rare outer membrane protein (OMP) in Treponema pallidum and that it possesses characteristic BamA bipartite topology. Herein, we used immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) to show that only the β-barrel domain of TP_0326 contains surface-exposed epitopes in intact T. pallidum. Using the solved structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae BamA, we generated a homology model of full-length TP_0326. Although the model predicts a typical BamA fold, the β-barrel harbors features not described in other BamAs. Structural modeling predicted that a dome comprised of three large extracellular loops, loop 4 (L4), L6, and L7, covers the barrel's extracellular opening. L4, the dome's major surface-accessible loop, contains mainly charged residues, while L7 is largely neutral and contains a polyserine tract in a two-tiered conformation. L6 projects into the β-barrel but lacks the VRGF/Y motif that anchors L6 within other BamAs. IFA and opsonophagocytosis assay revealed that L4 is surface exposed and an opsonic target. Consistent with B cell epitope predictions, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed that L4 is an immunodominant loop in T. pallidum-infected rabbits and humans with secondary syphilis. Antibody capture experiments using Escherichia coli expressing OM-localized TP_0326 as a T. pallidum surrogate further established the surface accessibility of L4. Lastly, we found that a naturally occurring substitution (Leu593 → Gln593) in the L4 sequences of T. pallidum strains affects antibody binding in sera from syphilitic patients. Ours is the first study to employ a “structure-to-pathogenesis” approach to map the surface topology of a T. pallidum OMP within the context of syphilitic infection. IMPORTANCE Previously, we reported that TP_0326 is a bona fide rare outer membrane protein (OMP) in Treponema pallidum and that it possesses the bipartite topology characteristic of a BamA ortholog

  17. Magnitude and Frequency of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses: Identification of Immunodominant Regions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C

    PubMed Central

    Novitsky, V.; Cao, H.; Rybak, N.; Gilbert, P.; McLane, M. F.; Gaolekwe, S.; Peter, T.; Thior, I.; Ndung'u, T.; Marlink, R.; Lee, T. H.; Essex, M.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic analysis of immune responses on a population level is critical for a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine design. Our studies in Botswana on (i) molecular analysis of the HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) epidemic, (ii) frequencies of major histocompatibility complex class I HLA types, and (iii) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in the course of natural infection allowed us to address HIV-1C-specific immune responses on a population level. We analyzed the magnitude and frequency of the gamma interferon ELISPOT-based CTL responses and translated them into normalized cumulative CTL responses. The introduction of population-based cumulative CTL responses reflected both (i) essentials of the predominant virus circulating locally in Botswana and (ii) specificities of the genetic background of the Botswana population, and it allowed the identification of immunodominant regions across the entire HIV-1C. The most robust and vigorous immune responses were found within the HIV-1C proteins Gag p24, Vpr, Tat, and Nef. In addition, moderately strong responses were scattered across Gag p24, Pol reverse transcriptase and integrase, Vif, Tat, Env gp120 and gp41, and Nef. Assuming that at least some of the immune responses are protective, these identified immunodominant regions could be utilized in designing an HIV vaccine candidate for the population of southern Africa. Targeting multiple immunodominant regions should improve the overall vaccine immunogenicity in the local population and minimize viral escape from immune recognition. Furthermore, the analysis of HIV-1C-specific immune responses on a population level represents a comprehensive systematic approach in HIV vaccine design and should be considered for other HIV-1 subtypes and/or different geographic areas. PMID:12239290

  18. HIV-1 Epitope Variability Is Associated with T Cell Receptor Repertoire Instability and Breadth.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Arumugam; Claiborne, Deon; Ng, Hwee L; Yang, Otto O

    2017-08-15

    Mutational escape of HIV-1 from HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a major barrier for effective immune control. Each epitope typically is targeted by multiple clones with distinct T cell receptors (TCRs). While the clonal repertoire may be important for containing epitope variation, determinants of its composition are poorly understood. We investigate the clonal repertoire of 29 CTL responses against 23 HIV-1 epitopes longitudinally in nine chronically infected untreated subjects with plasma viremia of <3,000 RNA copies/ml over 17 to 179 weeks. The composition of TCRs targeting each epitope varied considerably in stability over time, although clonal stability (Sorensen index) was not significantly time dependent within this interval. However, TCR stability inversely correlated with epitope variability in the Los Alamos HIV-1 Sequence Database, consistent with TCR evolution being driven by epitope variation. Finally, a robust inverse correlation of TCR breadth against each epitope versus epitope variability further suggested that this variability drives TCR repertoire diversification. In the context of studies demonstrating rapidly shifting HIV-1 sequences in vivo, our findings support a variably dynamic process of shifting CTL clonality lagging in tandem with viral evolution and suggest that preventing escape of HIV-1 may require coordinated direction of the CTL clonal repertoire to simultaneously block escape pathways.IMPORTANCE Mutational escape of HIV-1 from HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a major barrier to effective immune control. The number of distinct CTL clones targeting each epitope is proposed to be an important factor, but the determinants are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the clonal stability and number of clones for the CTL response against an epitope are inversely associated with the general variability of the epitope. These results show that CTLs constantly lag epitope mutation, suggesting that preventing HIV

  19. Evaluation of conformational epitopes on thyroid peroxidase by antipeptide antibody binding and mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    GORA, M; GARDAS, A; WIKTOROWICZ, W; HOBBY, P; WATSON, P F; WEETMAN, A P; SUTTON, B J; BANGA, J P

    2004-01-01

    Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) recognize predominantly conformational epitopes, which are restricted to two distinct determinants, termed immunodominant domain region (IDR) A and B. These dominant determinants reside in the region with structural homology to myeloperoxidase (MPO)-like domain and may extend into the adjacent complement control protein (CCP) domain. We have explored the location of these determinants on the MPO-like domain of the structural model of TPO, by identifying exposed hydrophilic loops that are potential candidates for the autoantigenic sites, generating rabbit antipeptide antisera, and competing with well characterized murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for these two IDRs. We recently defined the location of IDR-B, and here report our findings on the location of IDR-A and its relationship to IDR-B, defined with a new panel of 15 antipeptide antisera. Moreover, in combination with single amino acid replacements by in vitro mutagenesis, we have defined the limits of the IDR-B region on the TPO model. The combination of antisera to peptides P12 (aa 549–563), P14 (aa 599–617) and P18 (aa 210–225) inhibited the binding of the mab specific for IDR-A (mab 2) by 75. The same combination inhibited the binding of autoantibodies to native TPO from 67 to 94% (mean 81·5%) at autoantibody levels of 5 IU. Fabs prepared from the antipeptide IgG and pooled in this combination were also effective in competition assays, thus defining the epitopes more precisely. IDR-A was found to lie immediately adjacent to IDR-B and thus the two immunodominant epitopes form an extended patch on the surface of TPO. Finally, by single amino acid mutagenesis, we show that IDR-B extends to residue N642, thus further localizing the boundary of this autoantigenic region on the structural model. PMID:15030525

  20. Conjugated anionic PEG-citrate G2 dendrimer with multi-epitopic HIV-1 vaccine candidate enhance the cellular immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Asghar; Radmehr, Nina; Bolhassani, Azam; Eidi, Akram; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Kianmehr, Zahra; Chiani, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Yazdani, Shaghayegh; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Kandi, Mohammad Reza; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-02-20

    Multi-epitope vaccines might cause immunity against multiple antigenic targets. Four immunodominant epitopes of HIV-1 genome were used to construct a polytope vaccine, formulated by dendrimer. Two regimens of polytopes mixture with dendrimer were utilized to immunize BALB/c mice. Adjuvants were also used to boost immune responses. The conjugated polytope could arouse significant cellular immune responses (P < 0.05) and Th1 response showed higher intensity compared to Th2 (P < 0.05). Our study depicted that conjugated dendrimer with multi-epitopic rHIVtop4 would efficiently induce cell-mediated immune responses and might be considered as promising delivery system for vaccines formulation.

  1. Variable HIV peptide stability in human cytosol is critical to epitope presentation and immune escape

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Estibaliz; Kadie, Carl; Stamegna, Pamela; Zhang, Shao Chong; Gourdain, Pauline; Lai, Nicole Y.; Zhang, Mei; Martinez, Sergio A.; Heckerman, David; Le Gall, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Induction of virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses is critical for the success of vaccines against chronic viral infections. Despite the large number of potential MHC-I–restricted epitopes located in viral proteins, MHC-I–restricted epitope generation is inefficient, and factors defining the production and presentation of MHC-I–restricted viral epitopes are poorly understood. Here, we have demonstrated that the half-lives of HIV-derived peptides in cytosol from primary human cells were highly variable and sequence dependent, and significantly affected the efficiency of cell recognition by CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, multiple clinical isolates of HLA-associated HIV epitope variants displayed reduced half-lives relative to consensus sequence. This decreased cytosolic peptide stability diminished epitope presentation and CTL recognition, illustrating a mechanism of immune escape. Chaperone complexes including Hsp90 and histone deacetylase HDAC6 enhanced peptide stability by transient protection from peptidase degradation. Based on empirical results with 166 peptides, we developed a computational approach utilizing a sequence-based algorithm to estimate the cytosolic stability of antigenic peptides. Our results identify sequence motifs able to alter the amount of peptide available for loading onto MHC-I, suggesting potential new strategies to modulate epitope production from vaccine immunogens. PMID:21555856

  2. Self-adjuvanting influenza candidate vaccine presenting epitopes for cell-mediated immunity on a proteinaceous multivalent nanoplatform.

    PubMed

    Szurgot, Inga; Szolajska, Ewa; Laurin, David; Lambrecht, Benedicte; Chaperot, Laurence; Schoehn, Guy; Chroboczek, Jadwiga

    2013-09-13

    We exploit the features of a virus-like particle, adenoviral dodecahedron (Ad Dd), for engineering a multivalent vaccination platform carrying influenza epitopes for cell-mediated immunity. The delivery platform, Ad Dd, is a proteinaceous, polyvalent, and biodegradable nanoparticle endowed with remarkable endocytosis activity that can be engineered to carry 60 copies of a peptide. Influenza M1 is the most abundant influenza internal protein with the conserved primary structure. Two different M1 immunodominant epitopes were separately inserted in Dd external positions without destroying the particles' dodecahedric structure. Both kinds of DdFluM1 obtained through expression in baculovirus system were properly presented by human dendritic cells triggering efficient activation of antigen-specific T cells responses. Importantly, the candidate vaccine was able to induce cellular immunity in vivo in chickens. These results warrant further investigation of Dd as a platform for candidate vaccine, able to stimulate cellular immune responses.

  3. Significance of the immune response to a major, conformational B-cell epitope on the hepatitis C virus NS3 region defined by a human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, M U; Cerino, A; Boender, P; Oudshoorn, P; Middeldorp, J; Fipaldini, C; La Monica, N; Habets, W

    1994-01-01

    The nonstructural protein NS3 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) possesses two enzymatic domains which are thought to be essential for the virus life cycle: an N-terminal serine-type proteinase, responsible for the processing of nonstructural polypeptides, and a C-terminal nucleoside triphosphatase/helicase, presumably involved in the unwinding of the viral genome. The human antibody response to NS3 usually appears early in the course of HCV infection and is predominantly directed against the carboxyl-terminal portion; however, its fine specificity and clinical significance are largely unknown. We have generated a human monoclonal antibody (hMAb), designated CM3.B6, from a cloned B-cell line obtained from the peripheral blood of a patient with chronic HCV infection, which selectively recognized the purified NS3 protein expressed in bacteria or in eukaryotic cells transfected with full-length or NS3 cDNA. Fine-specificity studies revealed that CM3.B6 recognized a 92-amino-acid sequence (clone 8, amino acids 1363 to 1454) selected from an NS3 DNase fragment library but failed to bind to 12-mer peptides synthesized from the same region, suggesting recognition of a conformational B-cell epitope. Experiments using deletion mutants of clone 8 and competitive inhibition studies using a panel of NS3 peptide-specific murine MAbs indicated that limited N-terminal and C-terminal deletions resulted in a significant reduction of hMAb binding to clone 8, thus identifying a minimal antibody binding domain within clone 8. Competition experiments showed that binding of CM3.B6 to the NS3 protein was efficiently inhibited by 39 of 44 (89%) sera from HCV-infected patients, suggesting that the hMAb recognized an immunodominant epitope within the NS3 region. More importantly, recognition of the sequence defined by CM3.B6 appeared to accurately discriminate between viremic and nonviremic anti-HCV positive sera, suggesting potentially relevant clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment

  4. Approaching rational epitope vaccine design for hepatitis C virus with meta-server and multivalent scaffolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Linling; Cheng, Yushao; Kong, Leopold; Azadnia, Parisa; Giang, Erick; Kim, Justin; Wood, Malcolm R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun; Zhu, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Development of a prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been hampered by the extraordinary viral diversity and the poor host immune response. Scaffolding, by grafting an epitope onto a heterologous protein scaffold, offers a possible solution to epitope vaccine design. In this study, we designed and characterized epitope vaccine antigens for the antigenic sites of HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 (residues 314-324) and E2 (residues 412-423), for which neutralizing antibody-bound structures are available. We first combined six structural alignment algorithms in a “scaffolding meta-server” to search for diverse scaffolds that can structurally accommodate the HCV epitopes. For each antigenic site, ten scaffolds were selected for computational design, and the resulting epitope scaffolds were analyzed using structure-scoring functions and molecular dynamics simulation. We experimentally confirmed that three E1 and five E2 epitope scaffolds bound to their respective neutralizing antibodies, but with different kinetics. We then investigated a “multivalent scaffolding” approach by displaying 24 copies of an epitope scaffold on a self-assembling nanoparticle, which markedly increased the avidity of antibody binding. Our study thus demonstrates the utility of a multi-scale scaffolding strategy in epitope vaccine design and provides promising HCV immunogens for further assessment in vivo.

  5. Approaching rational epitope vaccine design for hepatitis C virus with meta-server and multivalent scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    He, Linling; Cheng, Yushao; Kong, Leopold; Azadnia, Parisa; Giang, Erick; Kim, Justin; Wood, Malcolm R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun; Zhu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Development of a prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been hampered by the extraordinary viral diversity and the poor host immune response. Scaffolding, by grafting an epitope onto a heterologous protein scaffold, offers a possible solution to epitope vaccine design. In this study, we designed and characterized epitope vaccine antigens for the antigenic sites of HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 (residues 314–324) and E2 (residues 412–423), for which neutralizing antibody-bound structures are available. We first combined six structural alignment algorithms in a “scaffolding meta-server” to search for diverse scaffolds that can structurally accommodate the HCV epitopes. For each antigenic site, ten scaffolds were selected for computational design, and the resulting epitope scaffolds were analyzed using structure-scoring functions and molecular dynamics simulation. We experimentally confirmed that three E1 and five E2 epitope scaffolds bound to their respective neutralizing antibodies, but with different kinetics. We then investigated a “multivalent scaffolding” approach by displaying 24 copies of an epitope scaffold on a self-assembling nanoparticle, which markedly increased the avidity of antibody binding. Our study thus demonstrates the utility of a multi-scale scaffolding strategy in epitope vaccine design and provides promising HCV immunogens for further assessment in vivo. PMID:26238798

  6. Synthesis and comparison of antibody recognition of conjugates containing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D epitope VII.

    PubMed

    Mezö, Gábor; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Krikorian, Dimitrios; Feijlbrief, Matty; Jakab, Annamária; Tsikaris, Vassilios; Sakarellos, Constantinos; Welling-Wester, Sytske; Andreu, David; Hudecz, Ferenc

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic oligopeptides comprising linear or continuous topographic B-cell epitope sequences of proteins might be considered as specific and small size antigens. It has been demonstrated that the strength and specificity of antibody binding could be altered by conjugation to macromolecules or by modification in the flanking regions. However, no systematic studies have been reported to describe the effect of different carrier macromolecules in epitope conjugates. To this end, the influence of carrier structure and topology on antibody recognition of attached epitope has been studied by comparing the antibody binding properties of a new set of conjugates with tetratuftsin analogue (H-[Thr-Lys-Pro-Lys-Gly](4)-NH(2), T20) sequential oligopeptide carrier (SOC(n)), branched chain polypeptide, poly[Lys(Ser(i)-DL-Ala(m))] (SAK), multiple antigenic peptide (MAP), and keyhole limpet hemocyanine (KLH). In these novel constructs, peptide (9)LKNleADPNRFRGKDL(22) ([Nle(11)]-9-22) representing an immunodominant B cell epitope of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D (HSV-1 gD) was conjugated to polypeptides through a thioether or amide bond. Here we report on the preparation of sequential and polymeric polypeptides possessing chloroacetyl groups in multiple copies at the alpha- and/or epsilon-amino group of the polypeptides and its use for the conjugation of epitope peptides possessing Cys at C-terminal position. We have performed binding studies (direct and competitive ELISA) with monoclonal antibody (Mab) A16, recognizing the HSV gD-related epitope, [Nle(11)]-9-22, and conjugates containing identical and uniformly oriented epitope peptide in multiple copies attached to five different macromolecules as carrier. Data suggest that the chemical nature of the carrier and the degree of substitution have marked influence on the strength of antibody binding.

  7. Epitope structure of the Bordetella pertussis protein P.69 pertactin, a major vaccine component and protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Hijnen, Marcel; Mooi, Frits R; van Gageldonk, Pieter G M; Hoogerhout, Peter; King, Audrey J; Berbers, Guy A M

    2004-07-01

    Bordetella pertussis is reemerging in several countries with a traditionally high vaccine uptake. An analysis of clinical isolates revealed antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains with respect to P.69 pertactin. Polymorphisms in P.69 pertactin are mainly limited to regions comprised of amino acid repeats, designated region 1 and region 2. Region 1 flanks the RGD motif, which is involved in adherence. Although antibodies against P.69 pertactin are implicated in protective immunity, little is known about the structure and location of its epitopes. Here we describe the identification by pepscan analysis of the locations of mainly linear epitopes recognized by human sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). A total of 24 epitopes were identified, and of these only 2 were recognized by both MAbs and human antibodies in serum. A number of immunodominant epitopes were identified which were recognized by 78 to 93% of the human sera tested. Blocking experiments indicated the presence of high-avidity human antibodies against conformational epitopes. Human antibodies against linear epitopes had much lower avidities, as they were unable to block MAbs. Pepscan analyses revealed several MAbs which bound to both region 1 and region 2. The two regions are separated by 289 amino acids in the primary structure, and we discuss the possibility that they form a single conformational epitope. Thus, both repeat regions may serve to deflect the immune response targeted to the functional domain of P.69 pertactin. This may explain why the variation in P.69 pertactin is so effective, despite the fact that it is limited to only two small segments of the molecule.

  8. Mapping epitopes of U1-70K autoantibodies at single-amino acid resolution.

    PubMed

    Haddon, David James; Jarrell, Justin Ansel; Diep, Vivian K; Wand, Hannah E; Price, Jordan V; Tangsombatvisit, Stephanie; Credo, Grace M; Mackey, Sally; Dekker, Cornelia L; Baechler, Emily C; Liu, Chih Long; Varma, Madoo; Utz, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying development of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) autoantibodies are unclear. The U1-70K protein is the predominant target of RNP autoantibodies, and the RNA binding domain has been shown to be the immunodominant autoantigenic region of U1-70K, although the specific epitopes are not known. To precisely map U1-70K epitopes, we developed silicon-based peptide microarrays with >5700 features, corresponding to 843 unique peptides derived from the U1-70K protein. The microarrays feature overlapping peptides, with single-amino acid resolution in length and location, spanning amino acids 110-170 within the U1-70K RNA binding domain. We evaluated the serum IgG of a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 26) using the microarrays, and identified multiple reactive epitopes, including peptides 116-121 and 143-148. Indirect peptide ELISA analysis of the sera of patients with SLE (n = 88) revealed that ∼14% of patients had serum IgG reactivity to 116-121, while reactivity to 143-148 appeared to be limited to a single patient. SLE patients with serum reactivity to 116-121 had significantly lower SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores at the time of sampling, compared to non-reactive patients. Minimal reactivity to the peptides was observed in the sera of healthy controls (n = 92). Competitive ELISA showed antibodies to 116-121 bind a common epitope in U1-70K (68-72) and the matrix protein M1 of human influenza B viruses. Institutional Review Boards approved this study. Knowledge of the precise epitopes of U1-70K autoantibodies may provide insight into the mechanisms of development of anti-RNP, identify potential clinical biomarkers and inform ongoing clinical trails of peptide-based therapeutics.

  9. Mapping epitopes of U1-70K autoantibodies at single-amino acid resolution

    PubMed Central

    Haddon, David James; Jarrell, Justin Ansel; Diep, Vivian K.; Wand, Hannah E.; Price, Jordan V.; Tangsombatvisit, Stephanie; Credo, Grace M.; Mackey, Sally; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Baechler, Emily C.; Liu, Chih Long; Varma, Madoo; Utz, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying development of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) autoantibodies are unclear. The U1-70K protein is the predominant target of RNP autoantibodies, and the RNA binding domain has been shown to be the immunodominant autoantigenic region of U1-70K, although the specific epitopes are not known. To precisely map U1-70K epitopes, we developed silicon-based peptide microarrays with >5700 features, corresponding to 843 unique peptides derived from the U1-70K protein. The microarrays feature overlapping peptides, with single-amino acid resolution in length and location, spanning amino acids 110–170 within the U1-70K RNA binding domain. We evaluated the serum IgG of a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 26) using the microarrays, and identified multiple reactive epitopes, including peptides 116–121 and 143–148. Indirect peptide ELISA analysis of the sera of patients with SLE (n = 88) revealed that ~14% of patients had serum IgG reactivity to 116–121, while reactivity to 143–148 appeared to be limited to a single patient. SLE patients with serum reactivity to 116–121 had significantly lower SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores at the time of sampling, compared to non-reactive patients. Minimal reactivity to the peptides was observed in the sera of healthy controls (n = 92). Competitive ELISA showed antibodies to 116–121 bind a common epitope in U1-70K (68–72) and the matrix protein M1 of human influenza B viruses. Institutional Review Boards approved this study. Knowledge of the precise epitopes of U1-70K autoantibodies may provide insight into the mechanisms of development of anti-RNP, identify potential clinical biomarkers and inform ongoing clinical trails of peptide-based therapeutics. PMID:26333287

  10. Chaperonin GroEL a Brucella immunodominant antigen identified using Nanobody and MALDI-TOF-MS technologies.

    PubMed

    Abbady, A Q; Al-Daoude, A; Al-Mariri, A; Zarkawi, M; Muyldermans, S

    2012-05-15

    The deployment of today's antibodies that are able to distinguish Brucella from the closely similar pathogens, such as Yersinia, is still considered a great challenge since both pathogens share identical LPS (lipopolysaccharide) O-ring epitopes. In addition, because of the great impact of Brucella on health and economy in many countries including Syria, much effort is going to the development of next generation vaccines, mainly on the identification of new immunogenic proteins of this pathogen. In this context, Brucella-specific nanobodies (Nbs), camel genetic engineered heavy-chain antibody fragments, could be of great value. Previously, a large Nb library was constructed from a camel immunized with heat-killed Brucella. Phage display panning of this 'immune' library with Brucella total lysate resulted in a remarkable fast enrichment for a Nb referred to as NbBruc02. In the present work, we investigated the main characteristics of this Nb that can efficiently distinguish under well-defined conditions the Brucella from other bacteria including Yersinia. NbBruc02 showed a strong and specific interaction with its antigen within the crude lysate as tested by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and it was also able to pull down its cognate antigen from such lysate by immuno-capturing. Using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), NbBruc02 specific antigen was identified as chaperonin GroEL, also known as heat shock protein of 60 kDa (HSP-60), which represents a Brucella immunodominant antigen responsible of maintaining proteins folding during stress conditions. Interestingly, the antigen recognition by NbBruc02 was found to be affected by the state of GroEL folding. Thus, the Nb technology applied in the field of infectious diseases, e.g. brucellosis, yields two outcomes: (1) it generates specific binders that can be used for diagnosis, and perhaps treatment, and (2) it identifies the immunogenic candidate

  11. Neutralization epitopes on rotavirus SA11 4fM outer capsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gorziglia, M; Larralde, G; Ward, R L

    1990-01-01

    The VP7 and VP4 genes of seven antigenic mutants of simian rotavirus SA11 4fM (serotype 3) selected after 39 passages in the presence of SA11 4fM hyperimmune antiserum, were sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated the following. (i) Twice as many amino acid substitutions occurred in the VP7 protein than in VP4, which has a molecular weight twice that of VP7. (ii) Most amino acid changes that occurred clustered in six variable regions of VP7 and in two variable regions of VP4; these variable regions may represent immunodominant epitopes. (iii) Most amino acid substitutions that occurred in VP7 and VP4 of these mutants were also observed in antigenic mutants selected with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NMAbs); however, some amino acid substitutions occurred that were not selected for NMAbs. (iv) On VP7, some of the neutralization epitopes appeared to be interrelated because amino acid substitution in one site affected binding of specific NMAbs to other sites, while other neutralization epitopes on VP7 appeared to be independent, in that amino acid substitution in one site did not affect the binding of NMAbs to another distant site. Images PMID:1696640

  12. Analysis of amino acid sequence variations and immunoglobulin E-binding epitopes of German cockroach tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2004-09-01

    The allergenicities of tropomyosins from different organisms have been reported to vary. The cDNA encoding German cockroach tropomyosin (Bla g 7) was isolated, expressed, and characterized previously. In the present study, the amino acid sequence variations in German cockroach tropomyosin were analyzed in order to investigate its influence on allergenicity. We also undertook the identification of immunodominant peptides containing immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes which may facilitate the development of diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies based on the recombinant proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis with mouse anti-recombinant German cockroach tropomyosin serum was performed to investigate the isoforms at the protein level. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to examine the sequence diversity. Eleven different variants of the deduced amino acid sequences were identified by RT-PCR. German cockroach tropomyosin has only minor sequence variations that did not seem to affect its allergenicity significantly. These results support the molecular basis underlying the cross-reactivities of arthropod tropomyosins. Recombinant fragments were also generated by PCR, and IgE-binding epitopes were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera from seven patients revealed heterogeneous IgE-binding responses. This study demonstrates multiple IgE-binding epitope regions in a single molecule, suggesting that full-length tropomyosin should be used for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.

  13. Diversity of PR3-ANCA epitope specificity in Wegener's granulomatosis. Analysis using the biosensor technology.

    PubMed

    Rarok, Agnieszka A; van der Geld, Ymke M; Stegeman, Coen A; Limburg, Pieter C; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2003-11-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic disease characterized by the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies specific for proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA). The functional characteristics of PR3-ANCA differ between quiescent and active disease, suggesting changes in the properties of the autoantibodies in time. Using biosensor technology, we found that PR3-ANCA of different patients (n = 8) recognize a limited number of overlapping regions on PR3 at the time of diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. This area might cover an immunodominant epitope, common for PR3-ANCA from all patients, irrespective of the size of the total area recognized by an individual autoantibody. Experiments with sera (n = 4) collected at the moment of diagnosis and at the time of relapse showed that the individual epitope specificities of PR3-ANCA change during the course of the disease. These changes in epitope specificity of PR3-ANCA may be responsible for the differences in functional properties of these autoantibodies between various stages of the disease.

  14. Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Terminal and Internal O-Antigen Epitopes of Francisella tularensis Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Marly I.; Lu, Zhaohua; Hui, Julia H.

    2011-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Francisella tularensis (Ft), the Gram negative bacterium that causes tularemia, has been shown to be a main protective antigen in mice and humans; we have previously demonstrated that murine anti-Ft LPS IgG2a monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can protect mice against otherwise lethal intranasal infection with the Ft live vaccine strain (LVS). Here we show that four IgG2a anti-LPS MAbs are specific for the O-polysaccharide (O-antigen [OAg]) of Ft LPS. But whereas three of the MAbs bind to immunodominant repeating internal epitopes, one binds to a unique terminal epitope of Ft OAg. This was deduced from its even binding to both long and short chains of the LPS ladder in Western blots, its rapid decrease in ELISA binding to decreasing solid-phase LPS concentrations, its inability to compete for LPS binding with a representative of the other three MAbs, and its inability to immunoprecipitate OAg despite its superior agglutination titer. Biacore analysis showed the end-binding MAb to have higher bivalent avidity for Ft OAg than the internal-binding MAbs and provided an immunogenicity explanation for the predominance of internal-binding anti-Ft OAg MAbs. These findings demonstrate that non-overlapping epitopes can be targeted by antibodies to Ft OAg, which may inform the design of vaccines and immunotherapies against tularemia. PMID:21466282

  15. T-cell epitope mapping of the Borrelia garinii outer surface protein A in lyme neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Widhe, M; Ekerfelt, C; Jarefors, S; Skogman, B H; Peterson, E M; Bergström, S; Forsberg, P; Ernerudh, J

    2009-08-01

    We studied the T-cell reactivity to overlapping peptides of B. garinii OspA, in order to locate possible immunodominant T-cell epitopes in neuroborreliosis. Cells from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood from 39 patients with neuroborreliosis and 31 controls were stimulated with 31 overlapping peptides, and interferon-gamma secreting cells were detected by ELISPOT. The peptides OspA(17-36), OspA(49-68), OspA(105-124), OspA(137-156), OspA(193-212) and OspA(233-252) showed the highest frequency of positive responses, being positive in CSF from 38% to 50% of patients with neuroborreliosis. These peptides also elicited higher responses in CSF compared with controls (P = 0.004). CSF cells more often showed positive responses to these peptides than blood cells (P = 0.001), in line with a compartmentalization to the central nervous system. Thus, a set of potential T-cell epitopes were identified in CSF cells from patients with neuroborreliosis. Further studies may reveal whether these epitopes can be used diagnostically and studies involving HLA interactions may show their possible pathogenetic importance.

  16. Novel, in-natural-infection subdominant HIV-1 CD8+ T-cell epitopes revealed in human recipients of conserved-region T-cell vaccines.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Nicola; Lin, Zhansong; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Llano, Anuska; Silva-Arrieta, Sandra; Ahmed, Tina; Dorrell, Lucy; Brander, Christian; Murakoshi, Hayato; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Hanke, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Fine definition of targeted CD8+ T-cell epitopes and their human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I restriction informs iterative improvements of HIV-1 T-cell vaccine designs and may predict early vaccine success or failure. Here, lymphocytes from volunteers, who had received candidate HIVconsv vaccines expressing conserved sub-protein regions of HIV-1, were used to define the optimum-length target epitopes and their HLA restriction. In HIV-1-positive patients, CD8+ T-cell responses predominantly recognize immunodominant, but hypervariable and therefore less protective epitopes. The less variable, more protective epitopes in conserved regions are typically subdominant. Therefore, induction of strong responses to conserved regions by vaccination provides an opportunity to discover novel important epitopes. Cryopreserved lymphocytes from vaccine recipients were expanded by stimulation with 15-mer responder peptides for 10 days to establish short term-cell-line (STCL) effector cells. These were subjected to intracellular cytokine staining using serially truncated peptides and peptide-pulsed 721.221 cells expressing individual HLA class I alleles to define minimal epitope length and HLA restriction by stimulation of IFN-γ and TNF-α production and surface expression of CD107a. Using lymphocyte samples of 12 vaccine recipients, we defined 14 previously unreported optimal CD8+ T-cell HIV-1 epitopes and their four-digit HLA allele restriction (6 HLA-A, 7 HLA-B and 1 HLA-C alleles). Further 13 novel targets with incomplete information were revealed. The high rate of discovery of novel CD8+ T-cell effector epitopes warrants further epitope mining in recipients of the conserved-region vaccines in other populations and informs development of HIV-1/AIDS vaccines. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01151319.

  17. Kinetics of HIV-1 CTL epitopes recognized by HLA I alleles in HIV-infected individuals at times near primary infection: the Provir/Latitude45 study.

    PubMed

    Papuchon, Jennifer; Pinson, Patricia; Guidicelli, Gwenda-Line; Bellecave, Pantxika; Thomas, Réjean; LeBlanc, Roger; Reigadas, Sandrine; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Baril, Jean Guy; Routy, Jean Pierre; Wainberg, Mark; Fleury, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    In patients responding successfully to ART, the next therapeutic step is viral cure. An interesting strategy is antiviral vaccination, particularly involving CD8 T cell epitopes. However, attempts at vaccination are dependent on the immunogenetic background of individuals. The Provir/Latitude 45 project aims to investigate which CTL epitopes in proviral HIV-1 will be recognized by the immune system when HLA alleles are taken into consideration. A prior study (Papuchon et al, PLoS ONE 2013) showed that chronically-infected patients under successful ART exhibited variations of proviral CTL epitopes compared to a reference viral strain (HXB2) and that a generic vaccine may not be efficient. Here, we investigated viral and/or proviral CTL epitopes at different time points in recently infected individuals of the Canadian primary HIV infection cohort and assessed the affinity of these epitopes for HLA alleles during the study period. An analysis of the results confirms that it is not possible to fully predict which epitopes will be recognized by the HLA alleles of the patients if the reference sequences and epitopes are taken as the basis of simulation. Epitopes may be seen to vary in circulating RNA and proviral DNA. Despite this confirmation, the overall variability of the epitopes was low in these patients who are temporally close to primary infection.

  18. Viral pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Pneumonia - viral; Walking pneumonia - viral Images Lungs Respiratory system References Lee FE, Treanor JJ. Viral infections. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  19. Prediction of Pan-Specific B-Cell Epitopes From Nucleocapsid Protein of Hantaviruses Causing Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, Sagadevan; Sankar, Sathish; Ramamurthy, Mageshbabu; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Nandagopal, Balaji; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2017-01-20

    Hantaviruses are emerging viral pathogens that causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas, a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans with a case fatality rate of ≥50%. IgM and IgG-based serological detection methods are the most common approaches used for laboratory diagnosis of hantaviruses. Such emerging viral pathogens emphasizes the need for improved rapid diagnostic devices and vaccines incorporating pan-specific epitopes of genotypes. We predicted linear B-cell epitopes for hantaviruses that are specific to genotypes causing HCPS in humans using in silico prediction servers. We modeled the Andes and Sin Nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein to locate the identified epitopes. Based on the mean percent prediction probability score, epitope IMASKSVGS/TAEEKLKKKSAF was identified as the best candidate B-cell epitope specific for hantaviruses causing HCPS. Promiscuous epitopes were identified in the C-terminal of the protein. Our study for the first time has reported pan-specific B-cell epitopes for developing immunoassays in the detection of antibodies to hantaviruses causing HCPS. Identification of epitopes with pan-specific recognition of all genotypes causing HCPS could be valuable for the development of immunodiagnositic tools toward pan-detection of hantavirus antibodies in ELISA. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-5, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Autoantibodies to human endogenous retrovirus-K are frequently detected in health and disease and react with multiple epitopes

    PubMed Central

    HERVÉ, C A; LUGLI, E B; BRAND, A; GRIFFITHS, D J; VENABLES, P J W

    2002-01-01

    A number of studies have found increased levels of antibodies to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. It is not clear whether this immune response is driven by the HERV itself or by cross-reactions with an exogenous virus or an autoantigen. To address this question, we examined the antibody response to the Env protein of two closely related members of the HERV-K family, HERV-K10 and IDDMK1,222. By immunoblotting of recombinant proteins, antibodies were found in 32–47% of 84 sera from patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease, and 29% of 35 normal controls. Epitope mapping with overlapping 15mers identified multiple reactive peptides on both antigens, with one (GKTCPKEIPKGSKNT) containing immunodominant epitope(s). By ELISA, the median titre of antibody to this peptide was significantly increased in 39 patients with SLE compared to 39 healthy controls and 86 patients with other rheumatic diseases (P < 0·003). We have shown that there is a high frequency of IgG antibodies to HERV-K env sequences in human sera, both in health and autoimmune rheumatic disease, and that the response is to multiple epitopes. This supports the hypothesis that the autoimmune response to HERV-K is antigen-driven and may be an early stage in the chain of events that leads to tolerance breakdown to other autoantigens. PMID:11982593

  1. Epitope mapping of B-cell determinants on the 15-kilodalton lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum (Tpp15) with synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Baughn, R E; Demecs, M; Taber, L H; Musher, D M

    1996-01-01

    The antigenicity of the 15-kDa lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum (Tpp15 or TpN15) was comprehensively evaluated in epitope-scanning studies with overlapping deca- and octapeptides and polygonal rabbit and human infant immunoglobulins (Igs) and antisera. This approach enabled us to identify potentially important regions and to determine the optimal dilutions of Igs or antisera for use in further studies. IgM and IgG from both species were capable of recognizing multiple, continuous epitopes. A total of 13 peptides, principally clustered in the central regions of the protein, were recognized by all syphilitic sera and Ig fractions. On the basis of window analyses, frequency profiles, and alanine substitution studies, five heptapeptides were selected for mimetic studies. Two of these five immunodominant, continuous epitopes initially appeared to be species specific; however, antisera elicited against mimetics of all five epitopes were polyspecific, recognizing similar motifs on several other treponemal proteins, including those of avirulent organisms. The only mimetic which yielded positive reactions with infant IgM and syphilitic sera in the absence of cross-reactions with rabbit antisera to avirulent treponemes was the variant of the VMYASSG motif. These findings are relevant to the development of simple, inexpensive assays for the serodiagnosis of active syphilis. PMID:8698467

  2. Intact Transition Epitope Mapping (ITEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yefremova, Yelena; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Danquah, Bright D.; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Glocker, Michael O.

    2017-08-01

    Intact transition epitope mapping (ITEM) enables rapid and accurate determination of protein antigen-derived epitopes by either epitope extraction or epitope excision. Upon formation of the antigen peptide-containing immune complex in solution, the entire mixture is electrosprayed to translate all constituents as protonated ions into the gas phase. There, ions from antibody-peptide complexes are separated from unbound peptide ions according to their masses, charges, and shapes either by ion mobility drift or by quadrupole ion filtering. Subsequently, immune complexes are dissociated by collision induced fragmentation and the ion signals of the "complex-released peptides," which in effect are the epitope peptides, are recorded in the time-of-flight analyzer of the mass spectrometer. Mixing of an antibody solution with a solution in which antigens or antigen-derived peptides are dissolved is, together with antigen proteolysis, the only required in-solution handling step. Simplicity of sample handling and speed of analysis together with very low sample consumption makes ITEM faster and easier to perform than other experimental epitope mapping methods.

  3. Identification of overlapping HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell epitopes in a conserved region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein: definition of minimum epitopes and analysis of the effects of sequence variation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Although the immunologic basis of protective immunity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has not yet been defined, virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are likely to be an important host defense and may be a critical feature of an effective vaccine. These observations, along with the inclusion of the HIV-1 envelope in the majority of vaccine candidates presently in clinical trials, underscore the importance of the precise characterization of the cellular immune responses to this protein. Although humoral immune responses to the envelope protein have been extensively characterized, relatively little information is available regarding the envelope epitopes recognized by virus-specific CTL and the effects of sequence variation within these epitopes. Here we report the identification of two overlapping CTL epitopes in a highly conserved region of the HIV-1 transmembrane envelope protein, gp41, using CTL clones derived from two seropositive subjects. An eight-amino acid peptide was defined as the minimum epitope recognized by HLA-B8-restricted CTL derived from one subject, and in a second subject, an overlapping nine-amino acid peptide was identified as the minimal epitope for HLA-B14-restricted CTL clones. Selected single amino acid substitutions representing those found in naturally occurring HIV-1 isolates resulted in partial to complete loss of recognition of these epitopes. These data indicate the presence of a highly conserved region in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein that is immunogenic for CTL responses. In addition, they suggest that natural sequence variation may lead to escape from immune detection by HIV-1-specific CTL. Since the region containing these epitopes has been previously shown to contain an immunodominant B cell epitope and also overlaps with a major histocompatibility complex class II T cell epitope recognized by CD4+ CTL from HIV-1 rgp160 vaccine recipients, it may be particularly important for HIV-1 vaccine

  4. Molecular fingerprinting of complex grass allergoids: size assessments reveal new insights in epitope repertoires and functional capacities.

    PubMed

    Starchenka, S; Bell, A J; Mwange, J; Skinner, M A; Heath, M D

    2017-01-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-documented treatment for allergic disease which involves injections of native allergen or modified (allergoid) extracts. The use of allergoid vaccines is a growing sector of the allergy immunotherapy market, associated with shorter-course therapy. The aim of this study was the structural and immunological characterisation of group 1 (Lol p 1) IgG-binding epitopes within a complex mix grass allergoid formulation containing rye grass. HP-SEC was used to resolve a mix grass allergoid preparation of high molecular weight into several distinct fractions with defined molecular weight and elution profiles. Allergen verification of the HP-SEC allergoid fractions was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. IgE and IgG immunoreactivity of the allergoid preparations was explored and Lol p 1 specific IgG-binding epitopes mapped by SPOT synthesis technology (PepSpot™) with structural analysis based on a Lol p 1 homology model. Grass specific IgE reactivity of the mix grass modified extract (allergoid) was diminished in comparison with the mix grass native extract. A difference in IgG profiles was observed between an intact mix grass allergoid preparation and HP-SEC allergoid fractions, which indicated enhancement of accessible reactive IgG epitopes across size distribution profiles of the mix grass allergoid formulation. Detailed analysis of the epitope specificity showed retention of six Lol p 1 IgG-binding epitopes in the mix grass modified extract. The structural and immunological changes which take place following the grass allergen modification process was further unravelled revealing distinct IgG immunological profiles. All epitopes were mapped on the solvent exposed area of Lol p 1 homology model accessible for IgG binding. One of the epitopes was identified as an 'immunodominant' Lol p 1 IgG-binding epitope (62-IFKDGRGCGSCFEIK-76) and classified as a novel epitope. The results from this study support the concept

  5. Designing an efficient multi-epitope peptide vaccine against Vibrio cholerae via combined immunoinformatics and protein interaction based approaches.

    PubMed

    Nezafat, Navid; Karimi, Zeinab; Eslami, Mahboobeh; Mohkam, Milad; Zandian, Sanam; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Cholera continues to be a major global health concern. Among different Vibrio cholerae strains, only O1 and O139 cause acute diarrheal diseases that are related to epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. The currently available cholera vaccines are mainly lived and attenuated vaccines consisting of V. cholerae virulence factors such as toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), outer membrane proteins (Omps), and nontoxic cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Nowadays, there is a great interest in designing an efficient epitope vaccine against cholera. Epitope vaccines consisting of immunodominant epitopes and adjuvant molecules enhance the possibility of inciting potent protective immunity. In this study, V. cholerae protective antigens (OmpW, OmpU, TcpA and TcpF) and the CTB, which is broadly used as an immunostimulatory adjuvant, were analyzed using different bioinformatics and immunoinformatics tools. The common regions between promiscuous epitopes, binding to various HLA-II supertype alleles, and B-cell epitopes were defined based upon the aforementioned protective antigens. The ultimately selected epitopes and CTB adjuvant were fused together using proper GPGPG linkers to enhance vaccine immunogenicity. A three-dimensional model of the thus constructed vaccine was generated using I-TASSER. The model was structurally validated using the ProSA-web error-detection software and the Ramachandran plot. The validation results indicated that the initial 3D model needed refinement. Subsequently, a high-quality model obtained after various refinement cycles was used for defining conformational B-cell epitopes. Several linear and conformational B-cell epitopes were determined within the epitope vaccine, suggesting likely antibody triggering features of our designed vaccine. Next, molecular docking was performed between the 3D vaccine model and the tertiary structure of the toll like receptor 2 (TLR2). To gain further insight into the interaction between vaccine and TLR2, molecular dynamics

  6. Computational Prediction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody Epitopes from Neutralization Activity Data

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Andrew L.; Falkowska, Emilia; Walker, Laura M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Burton, Dennis R.; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2013-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies effective against the majority of circulating isolates of HIV-1 have been isolated from a small number of infected individuals. Definition of the conformational epitopes on the HIV spike to which these antibodies bind is of great value in defining targets for vaccine and drug design. Drawing on techniques from compressed sensing and information theory, we developed a computational methodology to predict key residues constituting the conformational epitopes on the viral spike from cross-clade neutralization activity data. Our approach does not require the availability of structural information for either the antibody or antigen. Predictions of the conformational epitopes of ten broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies are shown to be in good agreement with new and existing experimental data. Our findings suggest that our approach offers a means to accelerate epitope identification for diverse pathogenic antigens. PMID:24312481

  7. Epitope specific T-cell responses against influenza A in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Savic, Miloje; Dembinski, Jennifer L; Kim, Yohan; Tunheim, Gro; Cox, Rebecca J; Oftung, Fredrik; Peters, Bjoern; Mjaaland, Siri

    2016-02-01

    Pre-existing human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity may be a useful correlate of protection against severe influenza disease. Identification and evaluation of common epitopes recognized by T cells with broad cross-reactivity is therefore important to guide universal influenza vaccine development, and to monitor immunological preparedness against pandemics. We have retrieved an optimal combination of MHC class I and class II restricted epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database (www.iedb.org), by defining a fitness score function depending on prevalence, sequence conservancy and HLA super-type coverage. Optimized libraries of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell epitopes were selected from influenza antigens commonly present in seasonal and pandemic influenza strains from 1934 to 2009. These epitope pools were used to characterize human T-cell responses in healthy donors using interferon-γ ELISPOT assays. Upon stimulation, significant CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses were induced, primarily recognizing epitopes from the conserved viral core proteins. Furthermore, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were phenotypically characterized regarding functionality, cytotoxic potential and memory phenotype using flow cytometry. Optimized sets of T-cell peptide epitopes may be a useful tool to monitor the efficacy of clinical trials, the immune status of a population to predict immunological preparedness against pandemics, as well as being candidates for universal influenza vaccines.

  8. Lessons learned from successful human vaccines: Delineating key epitopes by dissecting the capsid proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Xin, Lu; Li, Shaowei; Fang, Mujin; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Zhao, Qinjian

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant VLP-based vaccines have been successfully used against 3 diseases caused by viral infections: Hepatitis B, cervical cancer and hepatitis E. The VLP approach is attracting increasing attention in vaccine design and development for human and veterinary use. This review summarizes the clinically relevant epitopes on the VLP antigens in successful human vaccines. These virion-like epitopes, which can be delineated with molecular biology, cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallographic methods, are the prerequisites for these efficacious vaccines to elicit functional antibodies. The critical epitopes and key factors influencing these epitopes are discussed for the HEV, HPV and HBV vaccines. A pentamer (for HPV) or a dimer (for HEV and HBV), rather than a monomer, is the basic building block harboring critical epitopes for the assembly of VLP antigen. The processing and formulation of VLP-based vaccines need to be developed to promote the formation and stabilization of these epitopes in the recombinant antigens. Delineating the critical epitopes is essential for antigen design in the early phase of vaccine development and for critical quality attribute analysis in the commercial phase of vaccine manufacturing. PMID:25751641

  9. Immunodominant regions of a Chlamydia trachomatis type III secretion effector protein, Tarp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yingqian; Yu, Ping; Zhong, Guangming

    2010-09-01

    We have previously shown that individuals infected with Chlamydia trachomatis can develop a robust antibody response to a Chlamydia type III secretion effector protein called Tarp and that immunization with Tarp induces protection against challenge infection in mice. The current study aimed to map the immunodominant regions of the Tarp protein by expressing 11 fragments of Tarp as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and detecting the reactivity of these fusion proteins with antisera from patients infected with C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract or in the ocular tissue and from rabbits immunized with C. trachomatis organisms. A major immunodominant region was strongly recognized by all antibodies. This region covers amino acids 152 to 302, consisting of three repeats (amino acids 152 to 201, 202 to 251, and 252 to 302). Each of the repeats contains multiple tyrosine residues that are phosphorylated by host cell kinases when Tarp is injected into host cells. Several other minor immunodominant regions were also identified, including those comprising amino acids 1 to 156, 310 to 431, and 582 to 682 (recognized by antisera from both humans and rabbits), that comprising amino acids 425 to 581 (recognized only by human antisera), and that comprising amino acids 683 to 847 (preferentially recognized by rabbit antisera). This immunodominance was also confirmed by the observations that six out of the nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) bound to the major immunodominant region and that the other three each bound to one of the minor fragments, comprising amino acids 1 to 119, 120 to 151, and 310 to 431. The antigenicity analyses have provided important information for further understanding the structure and function of Tarp.

  10. Viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Puigdomènech, Isabel; de Armas-Rillo, Laura; Machado, José-David

    2011-01-01

    Viruses have developed different survival strategies in host cells by crossing cell-membrane compartments, during different steps of their viral life cycle. In fact, the non-regenerative viral membrane of enveloped viruses needs to encounter the dynamic cell-host membrane, during early steps of the infection process, in which both membranes fuse, either at cell-surface or in an endocytic compartment, to promote viral entry and infection. Once inside the cell, many viruses accomplish their replication process through exploiting or modulating membrane traffic, and generating specialized compartments to assure viral replication, viral budding and spreading, which also serve to evade the immune responses against the pathogen. In this review, we have attempted to present some data that highlight the importance of membrane dynamics during viral entry and replicative processes, in order to understand how viruses use and move through different complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures and how they use them to persist. PMID:21966556

  11. Conservation of HIV-1 T cell epitopes across time and clades: validation of immunogenic HLA-A2 epitopes selected for the GAIA HIV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Lauren; Koita, Ousmane A; Sangare, Kotou; Ardito, Matthew T; Boyle, Christine M; Rozehnal, John; Tounkara, Karamoko; Dao, Sounkalo M; Koné, Youssouf; Koty, Zoumana; Buus, Soren; Moise, Leonard; Martin, William D; De Groot, Anne S

    2012-12-14

    HIV genomic sequence variability has complicated efforts to generate an effective globally relevant vaccine. Regions of the viral genome conserved in sequence and across time may represent the "Achilles' heel" of HIV. In this study, highly conserved T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinformatics tools combining HLA-A2 supertype binding predictions with relative global conservation. Analysis performed in 2002 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and again in 2009, on 43,822 sequences, yielded 38 HLA-A2 epitopes. These epitopes were experimentally validated for HLA binding and immunogenicity with PBMCs from HIV-infected patients in Providence, Rhode Island, and/or Bamako, Mali. Thirty-five (92%) stimulated an IFNγ response in PBMCs from at least one subject. Eleven of fourteen peptides (79%) were confirmed as HLA-A2 epitopes in both locations. Validation of these HLA-A2 epitopes conserved across time, clades, and geography supports the hypothesis that such epitopes could provide effective coverage of virus diversity and would be appropriate for inclusion in a globally relevant HIV vaccine.

  12. Conservation of HIV-1 T cell epitopes across time and clades: Validation of immunogenic HLA-A2 epitopes selected for the GAIA HIV vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, Lauren; Koita, Ousmane A.; Sangare, Kotou; Ardito, Matthew T.; Boyle, Christine M.; Rozehnal, John; Tounkara, Karamoko; Dao, Sounkalo M.; Koné, Youssouf; Koty, Zoumana; Buus, Soren; Moise, Leonard; Martin, William D.; De Groot, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    HIV genomic sequence variability has complicated efforts to generate an effective globally relevant vaccine. Regions of the viral genome conserved in sequence and across time may represent the “Achilles’ heel” of HIV. In this study, highly conserved T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinformatics tools combining HLA-A2 supertype binding predictions with relative global conservation. Analysis performed in 2002 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and again in 2009, on 43,822 sequences, yielded 38 HLA-A2 epitopes. These epitopes were experimentally validated for HLA binding and immunogenicity with PBMCs from HIV-infected patients in Providence, Rhode Island, and/or Bamako, Mali. Thirty-five (92%) stimulated an IFNγ response in PBMCs from at least one subject. Eleven of fourteen peptides (79%) were confirmed as HLA-A2 epitopes in both locations. Validation of these HLA-A2 epitopes conserved across time, clades, and geography supports the hypothesis that such epitopes could provide effective coverage of virus diversity and would be appropriate for inclusion in a globally relevant HIV vaccine. PMID:23102976

  13. Plant viral epitope display systems for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The 'easiest' vaccines, base on production of neutralizing antibodies, have been made. With the emergence of chronic diseases, vaccine developers have understood the importance to trigger an efficient cellular mediated immune response (CTL response) to respond to this medical need. Several options are currently in development and the utilization of plant virus as vaccine platform for the trigger of a CTL response is considered as an interesting avenue. The highly ordered structures of plant viruses are good triggers of the innate immune system, which in turn, is used to initiate an immune response to a vaccine target. It is likely that plant viruses will play an important role in the development of the vaccine of the futures even if there is still several challenges to face.

  14. Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

  15. Viral arthritides.

    PubMed

    Outhred, Alexander C; Kok, Jen; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2011-05-01

    Viral infections may manifest as acute or chronic arthritis. Joint involvement arises from either direct infection of the joint, through an immunological response directed towards the virus or autoimmunity. Epidemiological clues to the diagnosis include geographic location and exposure to vector-borne, blood-borne or sexually transmitted viruses. Although not always possible, it is important to diagnose the pathogenic virus, usually by serology, nucleic acid tests or rarely, viral culture. In general, viral arthritides are self-limiting and treatment is targeted at symptomatic relief. This article focuses on the causes, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of viral arthritides.

  16. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Recognize Vpr- and Rev-Derived Epitopes Early after Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sacha, Jonah B.; Buechler, Matthew B.; Newman, Laura P.; Reed, Jason; Wallace, Lyle T.; Loffredo, John T.; Wilson, Nancy A.; Watkins, David I.

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of CD8+ T cell epitope presentation contribute to the antiviral efficacy of these cells yet remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate presentation of virion-derived Vpr peptide epitopes early after viral penetration and prior to presentation of Vif-derived epitopes, which required de novo Vif synthesis. Two Rev epitopes exhibited differential presentation kinetics, with one Rev epitope presented within 1 h of infection. We also demonstrate that cytolytic activity mirrors the recognition kinetics of infected cells. These studies show for the first time that Vpr- and Rev-specific CD8+ T cells recognize and kill simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected CD4+ T cells early after SIV infection. PMID:20686015

  17. Identification of Two New HLA-A*1101-Restricted Tax Epitopes Recognized by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in an Adult T-Cell Leukemia Patient after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Harashima, Nanae; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kurihara, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Takao; Okamura, Jun; Kannagi, Mari

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that Tax-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), directed to single epitopes restricted by HLA-A2 or A24, expanded in vitro and in vivo in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from some adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients after but not before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here, we demonstrated similar Tax-specific CTL expansion in PBMC from another post-HSCT ATL patient without HLA-A2 or A24, whose CTLs equally recognized two newly identified epitopes, Tax88-96 and Tax272-280, restricted by HLA-A11, suggesting that these immunodominant Tax epitopes are present in the ATL patient in vivo. PMID:16014972

  18. Identification of two new HLA-A*1101-restricted tax epitopes recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in an adult T-cell leukemia patient after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Harashima, Nanae; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kurihara, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Takao; Okamura, Jun; Kannagi, Mari

    2005-08-01

    We previously reported that Tax-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), directed to single epitopes restricted by HLA-A2 or A24, expanded in vitro and in vivo in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from some adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients after but not before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here, we demonstrated similar Tax-specific CTL expansion in PBMC from another post-HSCT ATL patient without HLA-A2 or A24, whose CTLs equally recognized two newly identified epitopes, Tax88-96 and Tax272-280, restricted by HLA-A11, suggesting that these immunodominant Tax epitopes are present in the ATL patient in vivo.

  19. Antibody responses to the immunodominant Cryptosporidium gp15 antigen and gp15 polymorphisms in a case-control study of cryptosporidiosis in children in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Allison, Genève M; Rogers, Kathleen A; Borad, Anoli; Ahmed, Sabeena; Karim, Mohammad Mahbubul; Kane, Anne V; Hibberd, Patricia L; Naumova, Elena N; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Khan, Wasif A; Ward, Honorine D

    2011-07-01

    Although Cryptospridium hominis is the dominant Cryptosporidium species infecting humans, immune responses to cognate antigens in C. hominis-infected persons have not been reported. We investigated antibody responses to the immunodominant gp15 antigen from C. hominis and C. parvum, in C. hominis-infected Bangladeshi children less than five years of age with diarrhea (cases) and uninfected children with diarrhea (controls). We also investigated polymorphisms in the C. hominis gp15 sequence from cases. Serum IgG responses to gp15 from both species were significantly greater in cases than controls. In spite of polymorphisms in the gp15 sequence, there was a significant correlation between antibody levels to gp15 from both species, indicating cross-reactivity to conserved epitopes. Cases with acute diarrhea had a significantly greater serum IgA response to gp15 compared with those with persistent diarrhea, suggesting that this response may be associated with protection from prolonged disease. These findings support further investigation of gp15 as a vaccine candidate.

  20. Construction and immunological evaluation of truncated hepatitis B core particles carrying HBsAg amino acids 119-152 in the major immunodominant region (MIR).

    PubMed

    Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Guo, Minzhuo; Qiu, Feng; Jia, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xuexin; Meng, Qingling; Bi, Shengli

    2013-09-13

    Hepatitis B capsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli can reassemble into icosahedral particles, which could strongly enhance the immunogenicity of foreign epitopes, especially those inserted into its major immunodominant region. Herein, we inserted the entire 'α' antigenic determinant amino acids (aa) 119-152 of HBsAg into the truncated HBc (aa 1-144), between Asp(78) and Pro(79). Prokaryotic expression showed that the mosaic HBc was mainly in the form of inclusion bodies. After denaturation with urea, it was dialyzed progressively for protein renaturation. We observed that before and after renaturation, mosaic HBc was antigenic as determined by HBsAg ELISA and a lot of viruslike particles were observed after renaturation. Thus, we further purified the mosaic viruslike particles by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE chromatography, and Sepharose 4FF chromatography. Negative staining electron microscopy demonstrated the morphology of the viruslike particles. Immunization of Balb/c mice with mosaic particles induced the production of anti-HBs antibody and Th1 cell immune response supported by ELISPOT and CD4/CD8 proportions assay. In conclusion, we constructed mosaic hepatitis core particles displaying the entire 'α' antigenic determinant on the surface and laid a foundation for researching therapeutic hepatits B vaccines.

  1. In Vivo Validation of Predicted and Conserved T Cell Epitopes in a Swine Influenza Model

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Andres H.; Loving, Crystal; Moise, Leonard; Terry, Frances E.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Martin, William D.; De Groot, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection in pigs that is responsible for significant financial losses to pig farmers annually. Current measures to protect herds from infection include: inactivated whole-virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, and alpha replicon-based vaccines. As is true for influenza vaccines for humans, these strategies do not provide broad protection against the diverse strains of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in U.S. swine. Improved approaches to developing swine influenza vaccines are needed. Here, we used immunoinformatics tools to identify class I and II T cell epitopes highly conserved in seven representative strains of IAV in U.S. swine and predicted to bind to Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) alleles prevalent in commercial swine. Epitope-specific interferon-gamma (IFNγ) recall responses to pooled peptides and whole virus were detected in pigs immunized with multi-epitope plasmid DNA vaccines encoding strings of class I and II putative epitopes. In a retrospective analysis of the IFNγ responses to individual peptides compared to predictions specific to the SLA alleles of cohort pigs, we evaluated the predictive performance of PigMatrix and demonstrated its ability to distinguish non-immunogenic from immunogenic peptides and to identify promiscuous class II epitopes. Overall, this study confirms the capacity of PigMatrix to predict immunogenic T cell epitopes and demonstrate its potential for use in the design of epitope-driven vaccines for swine. Additional studies that match the SLA haplotype of animals with the study epitopes will be required to evaluate the degree of immune protection conferred by epitope-driven DNA vaccines in pigs. PMID:27411061

  2. Mapping of T cell epitopes of the 30-kDa {alpha} antigen of Mycobacterium bovis strain bacillus Calmette-Guerin in Purified Protein Derivative (PPD)-positive individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, R.F.; Wallis, R.S.; Ellner, J.J.

    1995-05-01

    The fibronectin-binding 30-kDa {alpha} Ag is a major secretory protein of growing mycobacteria that stimulates in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis in most healthy purified protein derivative-positive individuals, but only a minority of patients with active tuberculosis. T cell epitopes of the {alpha} Ag were assessed using blastogenic responses of PBMC from 12 healthy purified protein derivative-positive subjects to a set of synthetic peptides based on the 325-amino acid sequence of the {alpha} Ag of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Because epitope-specific precursor cells are infrequent and randomly distributed, we used Poisson analysis to determine positive responses to 10 {mu}g/ml of each peptide in 12 replicate culture wells. Seven immunodominant regions of the {alpha} Ag were identified. Each subject responded to at least one of the two most dominant epitopes, which correspond to amino acids 131-155 and 233-257 (from N terminus). Peptides of these two epitopes induced production of IFN-{gamma} by sorted CD4{sup +} T cells. The immuno-dominant peptides may have use as components of a vaccine and as tools to study the evolution of the immune response to M. tuberculosis. The two most dominant epitopes both occur in regions of the {alpha} Ag that differ from those of the atypical pathogens M. avium and M. kansasii. In addition, the M. bovis epitope of amino acids 133-155 differs from that of M. tuberculosis by a single amino acid. It may be possible to exploit the sequence differences for development of diagnostic tests with increased specificity. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Isolated Immunodominant Proteins of Naja Naja (Oxiana) Venom

    PubMed Central

    talebi mehrdar, Mahboobeh; madani, Rasool; hajihosseini, Reza; moradi bidhendi, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate antibacterial effects of immunodominant proteins isolated from the venom of Naja Naja Oxiana snake against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The innate immune system is an important line of defense against bacterial diseases. Antibacterial peptides and proteins produced by snake venoms have recently attracted significant attention due to their relevance to bacterial diseases and the potential of being converted into new therapeutic agents. Identification of immunodominant proteins of the venom of Naja Naja Oxiana snake was performed by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. Identified proteins were isolated directly from preparative gel electrophoresis by Electro-elution. In the next step, antibacterial effects of immunodominant proteins were tested against several strains of clinical isolates, including S.aureus, B.subtilis (Gram-positive bacteria) P.aeruginosa and E.coli (Gram-negative bacteria) using broth microdilution and disc-diffusion assays. In order to compare the results of the disc-diffusion assay, antibacterial effects of several antibiotics (Gentamicin, Ampicillin, Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin) were also examined using the same conditions. Results showed that immunodominant proteins of (14, and 65kDa) with high immunogenicity were very effective in inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria (S.aureus, B.sub) that were tested. However, they were only moderately effective in inhibiting the growth of the two tested Gram-negative bacteria (P.aeruginosa and E.coli). However, immunodominant proteins of 22 kDa and 32kDa with high immunogenicity, showed slight effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of two; the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that were tested. To the best of our knowledge, these immunodominant proteins are novel antigens for potent antimicrobial effects against two gram-positive bacteria (S.aureus, B.subtilis ) and less

  4. Macaque Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Novel Conserved Epitopes within Filovirus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Zhen-Yong; Enterlein, Sven G.; Howell, Katie A.; Vu, Hong; Shulenin, Sergey; Warfield, Kelly L.; Froude, Jeffrey W.; Araghi, Nazli; Douglas, Robin; Biggins, Julia; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Lau, Patrick; Wang, Yong; Herbert, Andrew S.; Dye, John M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses cause highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Current immunotherapeutic options for filoviruses are mostly specific to Ebola virus (EBOV), although other members of Filoviridae such as Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Marburg virus (MARV) have also caused sizeable human outbreaks. Here we report a set of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived from cynomolgus macaques immunized repeatedly with a mixture of engineered glycoproteins (GPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs) for three different filovirus species. The antibodies recognize novel neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on the filovirus glycoprotein, including conserved conformational epitopes within the core regions of the GP1 subunit and a novel linear epitope within the glycan cap. We further report the first filovirus antibody binding to a highly conserved epitope within the fusion loop of ebolavirus and marburgvirus species. One of the antibodies binding to the core GP1 region of all ebolavirus species and with lower affinity to MARV GP cross neutralized both SUDV and EBOV, the most divergent ebolavirus species. In a mouse model of EBOV infection, this antibody provided 100% protection when administered in two doses and partial, but significant, protection when given once at the peak of viremia 3 days postinfection. Furthermore, we describe novel cocktails of antibodies with enhanced protective efficacy compared to individual MAbs. In summary, the present work describes multiple novel, cross-reactive filovirus epitopes and innovative combination concepts that challenge the current therapeutic models. IMPORTANCE Filoviruses are among the most deadly human pathogens. The 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) led to more than 27,000 cases and 11,000 fatalities. While there are five species of Ebolavirus and several strains of marburgvirus, the current immunotherapeutics primarily target Ebola virus

  5. Molecular construction of HIV-gp120 discontinuous epitope mimics by assembly of cyclic peptides on an orthogonal alkyne functionalized TAC-scaffold.

    PubMed

    Werkhoven, P R; Elwakiel, M; Meuleman, T J; Quarles van Ufford, H C; Kruijtzer, J A W; Liskamp, R M J

    2016-01-14

    Mimics of discontinuous epitopes of for example bacterial or viral proteins may have considerable potential for the development of synthetic vaccines, especially if conserved epitopes can be mimicked. However, due to the structural complexity and size of discontinuous epitopes molecular construction of these mimics remains challeging. We present here a convergent route for the assembly of discontinuous epitope mimics by successive azide alkyne cycloaddition on an orthogonal alkyne functionalized scaffold. Here the synthesis of mimics of the HIV gp120 discontinuous epitope that interacts with the CD4 receptor is described. The resulting protein mimics are capable of inhibition of the gp120-CD4 interaction. The route is convergent, robust and should be applicable to other discontinuous epitopes.

  6. Aberrant CD8+ T-Cell Responses and Memory Differentiation upon Viral Infection of an Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mouse Model Driven by Hyper-Activated Akt and mTORC1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Anthony D.; Parish, Ian A.; McKay, Sharen E.; Kaech, Susan M.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2011-01-01

    Immune system-related pathology is common in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients and mice that lack the protein kinase, A-T mutated (ATM). However, it has not been studied how ATM influences immune responses to a viral infection. Using the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection model, we show that ATM−/− mice, despite having fewer naïve CD8+ T cells, effectively clear the virus. However, aberrant CD8+ T-cell responses are observed, including defective expansion and contraction, effector-to-memory differentiation, and a switch in viral-epitope immunodominance. T-cell receptor-activated, but not naïve, ATM−/− splenic CD8+ T cells have increased ribosomal protein S6 and Akt phosphorylation and do not proliferate well in response to IL-15, a cytokine important for memory T-cell development. Accordingly, pharmacological Akt or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition during T-cell receptor activation alone rescues the IL-15 proliferation defect. Finally, rapamycin treatment during LCMV infection in vivo increases the number of memory T cells in ATM−/− mice. Altogether, these results show that CD8+ T cells lacking ATM have hyperactive Akt and mTORC1 signaling in response to T-cell receptor activation, which results in aberrant cytokine responses and memory T-cell development. We speculate that similar signaling defects contribute to the immune system pathology of A-T, and that inhibition of Akt and/or mTORC1 may be of therapeutic value. PMID:21641396

  7. Lymphocryptovirus Infection of Nonhuman Primate B Cells Converts Destructive into Productive Processing of the Pathogenic CD8 T Cell Epitope in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Holtman, Inge R.; Hofman, Sam; Morandi, Elena; Heijmans, Nicole; Laman, Jon D.; Gran, Bruno; Faber, Bart W.; van Kasteren, Sander I.; Eggen, Bart J. L.

    2016-01-01

    EBV is the major infectious environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Patient studies do not allow manipulation in vivo. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models in the common marmoset and rhesus monkey to model the association of EBV and MS. We report that B cells infected with EBV-related lymphocryptovirus (LCV) are requisite APCs for MHC-E–restricted autoaggressive effector memory CTLs specific for the immunodominant epitope 40-48 of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). These T cells drive the EAE pathogenesis to irreversible neurologic deficit. The aim of this study was to determine why LCV infection is important for this pathogenic role of B cells. Transcriptome comparison of LCV-infected B cells and CD20+ spleen cells from rhesus monkeys shows increased expression of genes encoding elements of the Ag cross-presentation machinery (i.e., of proteasome maturation protein and immunoproteasome subunits) and enhanced expression of MHC-E and of costimulatory molecules (CD70 and CD80, but not CD86). It was also shown that altered expression of endolysosomal proteases (cathepsins) mitigates the fast endolysosomal degradation of the MOG40–48 core epitope. Finally, LCV infection also induced expression of LC3-II+ cytosolic structures resembling autophagosomes, which seem to form an intracellular compartment where the MOG40–48 epitope is protected against proteolytic degradation by the endolysosomal serine protease cathepsin G. In conclusion, LCV infection induces a variety of changes in B cells that underlies the conversion of destructive processing of the immunodominant MOG40–48 epitope into productive processing and cross-presentation to strongly autoaggressive CTLs. PMID:27412414

  8. Antibody recognition of synthetic peptides mimicking immunodominant regions of HIV-1 p24 and p17 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lottersberger, J; Salvetti, J L; Beltramini, L M; Tonarelli, G

    2004-01-01

    The gag gene of HIV-1 encodes a single open reading frame of 55 kDa that contains three subdomains: the matrix domain (p17), the capsid domain (p24) and the nucleocapsid domain (p15). The p24 and p17 proteins have a predominant alpha-helical structure and perform important functions throughout the viral life-cycle. The determination of gag-specific antibodies is important because declining titers of these antibodies herald clinical deterioration. In this work we present the results obtained on immunoreactiviy of synthetic peptides that mimic immunogenic alpha-helical regions of p24 and p17. The influence on the immunoreactivity of structural modifications in native sequences, including the addition of non immunogenic side chains: AAAC- and -CAAA on both side of minimal epitopes was evaluated in indirect and competitive enzyme immunoassays. The conformational characteristcs to the peptides were analysed by circular dichroism and these results were correlated with that obtained in the immunoassays. It was shown that the reactivity of peptides mimicking short alpha-helical regions of p24 and p17 is improved by adding short non immunogenic chains on both N- and C-terminus. These modifications enhanced the immobilization of the peptides onto the solid support and allowed more accessibility to the minimal epitopes by specific antibodies, in solution.

  9. Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 cashew allergens share cross-reactive CD4+ T-cell epitopes with other tree nuts

    PubMed Central

    Archila, Luis Diego; Chow, I-Ting; McGinty, John W.; Renand, Amedee; Jeong, David; Robinson, David; Farrington, Mary L.; Kwok, William.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Allergies to cashew are increasing in prevalence, with clinical symptoms ranging from oral pruritus to fatal anaphylactic reaction. Yet, cashew-specific T-cell epitopes and T-cell cross-reactivity amongst cashew and other tree nut allergens in humans remain uncharacterized. Objectives In this study, we characterized cashew specific T-cell responses in cashew allergic subjects and examined cross-reactivity of these cashew specific cells toward other tree nut allergens. Methods CD154 up-regulation assay was used to determine immunodominance hierarchy among cashew major allergens at the T cell level. The phenotype, magnitude and functionality of cashew-specific T-cells was determined by utilizing ex vivo staining with MHC class II tetramers. Dual tetramer staining and proliferation experiments were used to determine cross-reactivity to other tree nuts. Results CD4+ T-cell responses were directed towards cashew allergens Ana o 1 and Ana o 2. Multiple Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 T-cell epitopes were then identified. These epitopes elicited either TH2 or TH2/TH17 responses in allergic subjects, which were either cashew unique epitope or cross-reactive epitopes. For clones that recognized the cross-reactive epitope, T-cell clones responded robustly to cashew, hazelnut and/or pistachio but not to walnut. Conclusions Phylogenetically diverse tree nut allergens can activate cashew reactive T-cells and elicit a TH2 type response at an epitope specific level. Clinical relevance Lack of cross-reactivity between walnut and cashew suggest that cashew peptide immunotherapy approach may not be most effective for walnut. PMID:27129138

  10. Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 cashew allergens share cross-reactive CD4(+) T cell epitopes with other tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Archila, L D; Chow, I-T; McGinty, J W; Renand, A; Jeong, D; Robinson, D; Farrington, M L; Kwok, W W

    2016-06-01

    Allergies to cashew are increasing in prevalence, with clinical symptoms ranging from oral pruritus to fatal anaphylactic reaction. Yet, cashew-specific T cell epitopes and T cell cross-reactivity amongst cashew and other tree nut allergens in humans remain uncharacterized. In this study, we characterized cashew-specific T cell responses in cashew-allergic subjects and examined cross-reactivity of these cashew-specific cells towards other tree nut allergens. CD154 up-regulation assay was used to determine immunodominance hierarchy among cashew major allergens at the T cell level. The phenotype, magnitude and functionality of cashew-specific T cells were determined by utilizing ex vivo staining with MHC class II tetramers. Dual tetramer staining and proliferation experiments were used to determine cross-reactivity to other tree nuts. CD4(+) T cell responses were directed towards cashew allergens Ana o 1 and Ana o 2. Multiple Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 T cell epitopes were then identified. These epitopes elicited either TH 2 or TH 2/TH 17 responses in allergic subjects, which were either cashew unique epitope or cross-reactive epitopes. For clones that recognized the cross-reactive epitope, T cell clones responded robustly to cashew, hazelnut and/or pistachio but not to walnut. Phylogenetically diverse tree nut allergens can activate cashew-reactive T cells and elicit a TH 2-type response at an epitope-specific level. Lack of cross-reactivity between walnut and cashew suggests that cashew peptide immunotherapy approach may not be most effective for walnut. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. HLA-B7–Restricted Islet Epitopes Are Differentially Recognized in Type 1 Diabetic Children and Adults and Form Weak Peptide-HLA Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Scotto, Matthieu; Afonso, Georgia; Østerbye, Thomas; Larger, Etienne; Luce, Sandrine; Raverdy, Cécile; Novelli, Giulia; Bruno, Graziella; Gonfroy-Leymarie, Céline; Launay, Odile; Lemonnier, François A.; Buus, Søren; Carel, Jean-Claude; Boitard, Christian; Mallone, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The cartography of β-cell epitopes targeted by CD8+ T cells in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients remains largely confined to the common HLA-A2 restriction. We aimed to identify β-cell epitopes restricted by the HLA-B7 (B*07:02) molecule, which is associated with mild T1D protection. Using DNA immunization on HLA-B7–transgenic mice and prediction algorithms, we identified GAD and preproinsulin candidate epitopes. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assays on peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that most candidates were recognized by new-onset T1D patients, but not by type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects. Some epitopes were highly immunodominant and specific to either T1D children (GAD530–538; 44% T cell–positive patients) or adults (GAD311–320; 38%). All epitopes displayed weak binding affinity and stability for HLA-B7 compared with HLA-A2–restricted ones, a general feature of HLA-B7. Single-cell PCR analysis on β-cell–specific (HLA-B7 tetramer–positive) T cells revealed uniform IFN-γ and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA expression, different from HLA-A2–restricted T cells. We conclude that HLA-B7–restricted islet epitopes display weak HLA-binding profiles, are different in T1D children and adults, and are recognized by IFN-γ+TGF-β+CD8+ T cells. These features may explain the T1D-protective effect of HLA-B7. The novel epitopes identified should find valuable applications for immune staging of HLA-B7+ individuals. PMID:22997432

  12. Antigenic epitopes of MAP2694 homologous to T-cell receptor gamma-chain are highly recognized in multiple sclerosis Sardinian patients.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Davide; Masala, Speranza; Frau, Jessica; Mameli, Giuseppe; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cocco, Eleonora; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen recently associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Aiming to identify immunodominant epitopes belonging to MS related protein MAP2694 (UniProt accession no. Q73WG6), we investigated the binding activity of selected peptides against MS Sardinian sera. An overlapping 9-mers peptide library was synthesized spanning the entire aminoacidic sequence of the protein. Peripheral blood was collected from 47 MS patients and 42 sex and age matched healthy volunteers and subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to investigate the reaction against the linear peptides generated. Two out of 58 synthetic 9-mers were strongly recognized by MS patients' antibodies compared to controls. A competitive inhibition assay demonstrated that these two epitopes are immunodominant antibody targets within MAP2694 protein, as sera pre-adsorbed with these peptides were able to significantly block the antibody reaction to the MAP2694 protein, even if at a lesser extent than MAP2694 protein itself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Viral arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  14. Viral Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Viral Meningitis Language: ... Arboviruses Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen ... Disease Sepsis Language: English Spanish ...

  15. Localization of key amino acid residues in the dominant conformational epitopes on thyroid peroxidase recognized by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Marlena; Czarnocka, Barbara; Gora, Monika

    2012-09-01

    Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the major target autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases, recognize conformational epitopes limited to two immunodominant regions (IDRs) termed IDR-A and -B. The apparent restricted heterogeneity of TPO autoantibodies was discovered using TPO-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and later confirmed by human recombinant Fabs. In earlier studies we identified key amino acids crucial for the interaction of human autoantibodies with TPO. Here we show the critical residues that participate in binding of five mAbs to the conformational epitopes on the TPO surface. Using ELISA we tested the reactivity of single and multiple TPO mutants expressed in CHO cells with a panel of mAbs specifically recognizing IDR-A (mAb 2 and 9) and IDR-B (mAb 15, 18, 64). We show that antibodies recognizing very similar regions on the TPO surface may interact with different sets of residues. We found that residues K713 and E716 contribute to the interaction between mAb 2 and TPO. The epitope for mAb 9 is critically dependent on residues R646 and E716. Moreover, we demonstrate that amino acids E604 and D630 are part of the functional epitope for mAb 15, and amino acids D624 and K627 for mAb 18. Finally, residues E604, D620, D624, K627, and D630 constitute the epitope for mAb 64. This is the first detailed study identifying the key resides for binding of mAbs 2, 9, 15, 18, and 64. Better understanding of those antibodies' specificity will be helpful in elucidating the properties of TPO as an antigen in autoimmune disorders.

  16. T cell epitopes of insulin defined in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice are derived from preproinsulin and proinsulin

    PubMed Central

    Congia, Mauro; Patel, Salil; Cope, Andrew P.; De Virgiliis, Stefano; Sønderstrup, Grete

    1998-01-01

    Approximately one-half of Caucasians with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) have autoantibodies to insulin, and the majority of those express the HLA-DR4 genotype [Ziegler, R., Alper, C. A., Awdeh, Z. L., Castano, L., Brink, S. J., Soeldner, J. S., Jackson, R. A. & Eisenbarth, G. S. (1991) Diabetes 40, 709–714]. However, it has been difficult to demonstrate T cell proliferative responses to human insulin in IDDM patients [Durinovic-Bello, I., Hummel, M. & Ziegler, A. G. (1996) Diabetes 45, 795–800]. We have immunized transgenic mice expressing the susceptible HLA-DR (α1*0101,β1*0401) (hereafter called DRB1*0401) and human CD4 molecules on a murine major histocompatibility complex class II null background, with human preproinsulin (PPI), proinsulin (PI), and insulin and derived large panels of T cell hybridomas to determine the immunogenic epitopes of these proteins. These results show that the prohormones PI or PPI carry the major immunogenic T cell epitope in the DRB1*0401 transgenic mice. The PPI/PI immunodominant epitope LALEGSLQK was localized at the C-peptide/A-chain junction. This T cell epitope PPI/PI LALEGSLQK is unusual because, normally, it is proteolytically destroyed during the maturation of the insulin molecule. Additionally, this T cell epitope is both processed and presented by human DRB1*0401-positive Epstein–Barr virus transformed B cells, and it can also stimulate T cells from the peripheral blood of HLA-DR4-positive patients with type 1 diabetes. These findings may partly explain why susceptibility to type 1 diabetes is associated with HLA-DR4-positive individuals and why T cell responses to the mature insulin protein are rarely detected in IDDM patients. PMID:9520453

  17. Major Immunodominant Region of Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen as a Delivery Vector to Improve the Immunogenicity of the Fusion Antigen ROP2-SAG1 Multiepitope from Toxoplasma gondii in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhuan; Feng, Fangfang; Lv, Jinhui; Xie, Zixin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Lifang; Li, Wenshu

    2017-09-01

    To prepare the dominant multiepitope fusion antigen ROP2-SAG1 (RSmultiepitope) from Toxoplasma gondii in a prokaryotic system, the major immunodominant region (MIR) of the human hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg(MIR)) was used as a delivery vector. The gene encoding the RSmultiepitope was inserted into HBcAg(MIR), and rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope was prepared, purified, and administered to BALB/c mice through intradermal injection. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis based on a multiepitope peptide facilitated the specific differentiation of sera obtained from mice immunized with the rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope protein, and high titers (greater than 1:6,400) of specific anti-RSmultiepitope antibodies were obtained. Immunized splenocytes demonstrated enhanced IFN-γ production. Based on these results, the HBcAg(MIR) vector is easily applied in vitro for targeting the RSmultiepitope and efficiently presents this target epitope for the induction of significant humoral and cellular immune responses. This study offers a novel strategy for the design of a target epitope delivery system for a toxoplasmosis vaccine.

  18. Identification of T-cell epitopes of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen.

    PubMed

    Blaher, B; Suphioglu, C; Knox, R B; Singh, M B; McCluskey, J; Rolland, J M

    1996-07-01

    T-cell recognition of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass pollen, was investigated by using a T-cell line and T-cell clones generated from the peripheral blood of an atopic donor. The T-cell line reacted with purified Lol p 9, as well as with crude ryegrass pollen extract, but failed to cross-react with Bermuda grass pollen extract. All of six T-cell clones generated from this line proliferated in response to Lol p 9. Epitope mapping was carried out with a panel of 34 overlapping synthetic peptides, which spanned the entire sequence of the Lol p 9 12R isoform. The T-cell line responded to two of the peptides, Lol p 9 (105-116) and Lol p 9 (193-204), whereas reactivity with one or other of these peptides was shown by five T-cell clones. These two peptides contained sequences consistent with motifs previously reported for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted peptides. HLA antibody blocking studies showed that presentation of peptide Lol p 9 (105-116) to one T-cell clone was HLA-DR-restricted; this clone expressed a T helper cell phenotype (CD3+, CD4+) and the T-cell receptor alpha beta. The identification of immunodominant T-cell epitope(s) on allergens is essential for devising safer and more effective immunotherapy strategies, which can interrupt the chain of events leading to allergic disease.

  19. Deletion modification enhances anthrax specific immunity and protective efficacy of a hepatitis B core particle-based anthrax epitope vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ying; Zhang, Sheng; Cai, Chenguang; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Dayong; Guo, Qiang; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is one of the major virulence factors of anthrax and is also the major constituent of the current anthrax vaccine. Previously, we found that the 2β2-2β3 loop of PA contains a dominant neutralizing epitope, the SFFD. We successfully inserted the 2β2-2β3 loop of PA into the major immunodominant region (MIR) of hepatitis B virus core (HBc) protein. The resulting fusion protein, termed HBc-N144-PA-loop2 (HBcL2), can effectively produce anthrax specific protective antibodies in an animal model. However, the protective immunity caused by HBcL2 could still be improved. In this research, we removed amino acids 79-81 from the HBc MIR of the HBcL2. This region was previously reported to be the major B cell epitope of HBc, and in keeping with this finding, we observed that the short deletion in the MIR not only diminished the intrinsic immunogenicity of HBc but also stimulated a higher titer of anthrax specific immunity. Most importantly, this deletion led to the full protection of the immunized mice against a lethal dose anthrax toxin challenge. We supposed that the conformational changes which occurred after the short deletion and foreign insertion in the MIR of HBc were the most likely reasons for the improvement in the immunogenicity of the HBc-based anthrax epitope vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of the Neutralizing Epitopes of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Major Capsid Protein within the BC and EF Surface Loops

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Maxime J. J.; Nicol, Jérôme T. J.; Samimi, Mahtab; Arnold, Françoise; Cazal, Raphael; Ballaire, Raphaelle; Mercey, Olivier; Gonneville, Hélène; Combelas, Nicolas; Vautherot, Jean-Francois; Moreau, Thierry; Lorette, Gérard; Coursaget, Pierre; Touzé, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus clearly associated with a human cancer, i.e. the Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Polyomaviruses are small naked DNA viruses that induce a robust polyclonal antibody response against the major capsid protein (VP1). However, the polyomavirus VP1 capsid protein epitopes have not been identified to date. The aim of this study was to identify the neutralizing epitopes of the MCPyV capsid. For this goal, four VP1 mutants were generated by insertional mutagenesis in the BC, DE, EF and HI loops between amino acids 88-89, 150-151, 189-190, and 296-297, respectively. The reactivity of these mutants and wild-type VLPs was then investigated with anti-VP1 monoclonal antibodies and anti-MCPyV positive human sera. The findings together suggest that immunodominant conformational neutralizing epitopes are present at the surface of the MCPyV VLPs and are clustered within BC and EF loops. PMID:25812141

  1. Landscape of immunogenic tumor antigens in successful immunotherapy of virally induced epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Sanja; Pasetto, Anna; Helman, Sarah R; Gartner, Jared J; Prickett, Todd D; Howie, Bryan; Robins, Harlan S; Robbins, Paul F; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Hinrichs, Christian S

    2017-04-14

    Immunotherapy has clinical activity in certain virally associated cancers. However, the tumor antigens targeted in successful treatments remain poorly defined. We used a personalized immunogenomic approach to elucidate the global landscape of antitumor T cell responses in complete regression of human papillomavirus-associated metastatic cervical cancer after tumor-infiltrating adoptive T cell therapy. Remarkably, immunodominant T cell reactivities were directed against mutated neoantigens or a cancer germline antigen, rather than canonical viral antigens. T cells targeting viral tumor antigens did not display preferential in vivo expansion. Both viral and nonviral tumor antigen-specific T cells resided predominantly in the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)-expressing T cell compartment, which suggests that PD-1 blockade may unleash diverse antitumor T cell reactivities. These findings suggest a new paradigm of targeting nonviral antigens in immunotherapy of virally associated cancers. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. An Introduction to B-Cell Epitope Mapping and In Silico Epitope Prediction.

    PubMed

    Potocnakova, Lenka; Bhide, Mangesh; Pulzova, Lucia Borszekova

    2016-01-01

    Identification of B-cell epitopes is a fundamental step for development of epitope-based vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostic tools. Epitope-based antibodies are currently the most promising class of biopharmaceuticals. In the last decade, in-depth in silico analysis and categorization of the experimentally identified epitopes stimulated development of algorithms for epitope prediction. Recently, various in silico tools are employed in attempts to predict B-cell epitopes based on sequence and/or structural data. The main objective of epitope identification is to replace an antigen in the immunization, antibody production, and serodiagnosis. The accurate identification of B-cell epitopes still presents major challenges for immunologists. Advances in B-cell epitope mapping and computational prediction have yielded molecular insights into the process of biorecognition and formation of antigen-antibody complex, which may help to localize B-cell epitopes more precisely. In this paper, we have comprehensively reviewed state-of-the-art experimental methods for B-cell epitope identification, existing databases for epitopes, and novel in silico resources and prediction tools available online. We have also elaborated new trends in the antibody-based epitope prediction. The aim of this review is to assist researchers in identification of B-cell epitopes.

  3. An Introduction to B-Cell Epitope Mapping and In Silico Epitope Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Potocnakova, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Identification of B-cell epitopes is a fundamental step for development of epitope-based vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostic tools. Epitope-based antibodies are currently the most promising class of biopharmaceuticals. In the last decade, in-depth in silico analysis and categorization of the experimentally identified epitopes stimulated development of algorithms for epitope prediction. Recently, various in silico tools are employed in attempts to predict B-cell epitopes based on sequence and/or structural data. The main objective of epitope identification is to replace an antigen in the immunization, antibody production, and serodiagnosis. The accurate identification of B-cell epitopes still presents major challenges for immunologists. Advances in B-cell epitope mapping and computational prediction have yielded molecular insights into the process of biorecognition and formation of antigen-antibody complex, which may help to localize B-cell epitopes more precisely. In this paper, we have comprehensively reviewed state-of-the-art experimental methods for B-cell epitope identification, existing databases for epitopes, and novel in silico resources and prediction tools available online. We have also elaborated new trends in the antibody-based epitope prediction. The aim of this review is to assist researchers in identification of B-cell epitopes. PMID:28127568

  4. The molecular relationship between antigenic domains and epitopes on hCG.

    PubMed

    Berger, Peter; Lapthorn, Adrian J

    2016-08-01

    Antigenic domains are defined to contain a limited number of neighboring epitopes recognized by antibodies (Abs) but their molecular relationship remains rather elusive. We thoroughly analyzed the antigenic surface of the important pregnancy and tumor marker human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a cystine knot (ck) growth factor, and set antigenic domains and epitopes in molecular relationships to each other. Antigenic domains on hCG, its free hCGα and hCGβ subunits are dependent on appropriate inherent molecular features such as molecular accessibility and protrusion indices that determine bulging structures accessible to Abs. The banana-shaped intact hCG comprises ∼7500Å(2) of antigenic surface with minimally five antigenic domains that encompass a continuum of overlapping non-linear composite epitopes, not taking into account the C-terminal peptide extension of hCGβ (hCGβCTP). Epitopes within an antigenic domain are defined by specific Abs, that bury nearly 1000Å(2) of surface accessible area on the antigen and recognize a few up to 15 amino acid (aa) residues, whereby between 2 and 5 of these provide the essential binding energy. Variability in Ab binding modes to the contact aa residues are responsible for the variation in affinity and intra- and inter-species specificity, e.g. cross-reactions with luteinizing hormone (LH). Each genetically distinct fragment antigen binding (Fab) defines its own epitope. Consequently, recognition of the same epitope by different Abs is only possible in cases of genetically identical sequences of its binding sites. Due to combinatorial V(D)J gene segment variability of heavy and light chains, Abs defining numerous epitopes within an antigenic domain can be generated by different individuals and species. Far more than hundred Abs against the immuno-dominant antigenic domains of either subunit at both ends of the hCG-molecule, the tips of peptide loops one and three (Ł1+3) protruding from the central ck, encompassing h

  5. Evolution of viral life-cycle in response to cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Louzoun, Yoram; Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2012-10-07

    Viruses in mammals are constantly faced with the problem of elimination by the host immunity. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses are thought to play a major role in the control and clearance of several viral infections in mice and humans. It is therefore expected that over evolutionary time, viruses would be forced to evolve to avoid recognition by CTLs. Indeed, a number of studies have documented the accumulation of viral variants with escape mutations. These mutations allow viruses to hide from CTL responses common in the host population. CTLs recognize viruses by short protein sequences, named epitopes, derived from viral proteins. The efficiency of viral recognition by epitope-specific CTL responses depends on the expression pattern of the proteins carrying these epitopes, and the total amount of that protein (and thus epitopes) in the cell. When a virus replicates in a cell, some viral genes are expressed early in the life cycle of the virus, while other proteins are expressed late. For example, HIV infected cells first express Rev and Tat proteins, and the Gag proteins are expressed late. Here we propose a dynamical model of the viral life cycle to study how expression level of early vs. late genes may affect viral dynamics within the host and virus transmission over the course of infection. We find that for acute and chronic viral infections lower expression of early genes than that of the late genes is expected to give selective advantage and higher transmission to viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Viral arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Marks, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical and serological features is therefore required to guide clinicians in making diagnostic and treatment decisions. While most virally mediated arthritides are self-limiting some warrant the initiation of specific antiviral therapy. PMID:27037381

  7. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to a wild type hepatitis B virus epitope in patients chronically infected by variant viruses carrying substitutions within the epitope

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Mutations that abrogate recognition of a viral epitope by class I- restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) can lead to viral escape if the CTL response against that epitope is crucial for viral clearance. The likelihood of this type of event is low when the CTL response is simultaneously directed against multiple viral epitopes, as has been recently reported for patients with acute self-limited hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The CTL response to HBV is usually quite weak, however, during chronic HBV infection, and it is generally acknowledged that this is a major determinant of viral persistence in this disease. If such individuals were to produce a mono- or oligospecific CTL response, however, negative selection of the corresponding mutant viruses might occur. We have recently studied two HLA-A2-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B who, atypically, developed a strong HLA-A2-restricted CTL response against an epitope (FLPSDFFPSV) that contains an HLA-A2-binding motif located between residues 18-27 of the viral nucleocapsid protein, hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). These patients failed, however, to respond to any of other HLA-A2-restricted HBV-derived peptides that are generally immunogenic in acutely infected patients who successfully clear the virus. Interestingly, DNA sequence analysis of HBV isolates from these two patients demonstrated alternative residues at position 27 (V --> A and V --> I) and position 21 (S --> N, S --> A, and S --> V) that reduced the HLA and T cell receptor-binding capacities of the variant sequences, respectively. Synthetic peptides containing these alternative sequences were poorly immunogenic compared to the prototype HBc18-27 sequence, and they could not be recognized by CTL clones specific for the prototype peptide. While we do not know if the two patients were originally infected by these variant viruses or if the variants emerged subsequent to infection because of immune selection, the results are most consistent with

  8. Mutant MHC class II epitopes drive therapeutic immune responses to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kreiter, Sebastian; Vormehr, Mathias; van de Roemer, Niels; Diken, Mustafa; Löwer, Martin; Diekmann, Jan; Boegel, Sebastian; Schrörs, Barbara; Vascotto, Fulvia; Castle, John C.; Tadmor, Arbel D.; Schoenberger, Stephen P.; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-specific mutations are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy as they lack expression in healthy tissues and can potentially be recognized as neo-antigens by the mature T-cell repertoire. Their systematic targeting by vaccine approaches, however, has been hampered by the fact that every patient’s tumour possesses a unique set of mutations (‘the mutanome’) that must first be identified. Recently, we proposed a personalized immunotherapy approach to target the full spectrum of a patient’s individual tumour-specific mutations1. Here we show in three independent murine tumour models that a considerable fraction of non-synonymous cancer mutations is immunogenic and that, unexpectedly, the majority of the immunogenic mutanome is recognized by CD4+ T cells. Vaccination with such CD4+ immunogenic mutations confers strong antitumour activity. Encouraged by these findings, we established a process by which mutations identified by exome sequencing could be selected as vaccine targets solely through bioinformatic prioritization on the basis of their expression levels and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-binding capacity for rapid production as synthetic poly-neo-epitope messenger RNA vaccines. We show that vaccination with such polytope mRNA vaccines induces potent tumour control and complete rejection of established aggressively growing tumours in mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cell neo-epitope vaccination reshapes the tumour microenvironment and induces cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against an independent immunodominant antigen in mice, indicating orchestration of antigen spread. Finally, we demonstrate an abundance of mutations predicted to bind to MHC class II in human cancers as well by employing the same predictive algorithm on corresponding human cancer types. Thus, the tailored immunotherapy approach introduced here may be regarded as a universally applicable blueprint for comprehensive exploitation of the substantial neo-epitope

  9. Identification of Two Major Conformational Aquaporin-4 Epitopes for Neuromyelitis Optica Autoantibody Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Francesco; Mastrototaro, Mauro; Rossi, Andrea; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Tortorella, Carla; Ruggieri, Maddalena; Trojano, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by the presence of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies in the patient sera. We recently reported that these autoantibodies are able to bind AQP4 when organized in the supramolecular structure called the orthogonal array of particles (OAP). To map the antigenic determinants, we produced a series of AQP4 mutants based on multiple alignment sequence analysis between AQP4 and other OAP-forming AQPs. Mutations were introduced in the three extracellular loops (A, C, and E), and the binding capacity of NMO sera was tested on AQP4 mutants. Results indicate that one group of sera was able to recognize a limited portion of loop C containing the amino acid sequence 146GVT(T/M)V150. A second group of sera was characterized by a predominant role of loop A. Deletion of four AQP4-specific amino acids (61G(S/T)E(N/K)64) in loop A substantially affected the binding of this group of sera. However, the binding capacity was further reduced when amino acids in loop A were mutated together with those in loop E or when those in loop C were mutated in combination with loop E. Finally, a series of AQP0 mutants were produced in which the extracellular loops were progressively changed to make them identical to AQP4. Results showed that none of the mutants was able to reproduce in AQP0 the NMO-IgG epitopes, indicating that the extracellular loop sequence by itself was not sufficient to determine the rearrangement required to create the epitopes. Although our data highlight the complexity of the disease, this study identifies key immunodominant epitopes and provides direct evidence that the transition from AQP4 tetramers to AQP4-OAPs involves conformational changes of the extracellular loops. PMID:21212277

  10. Identification of two major conformational aquaporin-4 epitopes for neuromyelitis optica autoantibody binding.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Francesco; Mastrototaro, Mauro; Rossi, Andrea; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Tortorella, Carla; Ruggieri, Maddalena; Trojano, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria

    2011-03-18

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by the presence of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies in the patient sera. We recently reported that these autoantibodies are able to bind AQP4 when organized in the supramolecular structure called the orthogonal array of particles (OAP). To map the antigenic determinants, we produced a series of AQP4 mutants based on multiple alignment sequence analysis between AQP4 and other OAP-forming AQPs. Mutations were introduced in the three extracellular loops (A, C, and E), and the binding capacity of NMO sera was tested on AQP4 mutants. Results indicate that one group of sera was able to recognize a limited portion of loop C containing the amino acid sequence (146)GVT(T/M)V(150). A second group of sera was characterized by a predominant role of loop A. Deletion of four AQP4-specific amino acids ((61)G(S/T)E(N/K)(64)) in loop A substantially affected the binding of this group of sera. However, the binding capacity was further reduced when amino acids in loop A were mutated together with those in loop E or when those in loop C were mutated in combination with loop E. Finally, a series of AQP0 mutants were produced in which the extracellular loops were progressively changed to make them identical to AQP4. Results showed that none of the mutants was able to reproduce in AQP0 the NMO-IgG epitopes, indicating that the extracellular loop sequence by itself was not sufficient to determine the rearrangement required to create the epitopes. Although our data highlight the complexity of the disease, this study identifies key immunodominant epitopes and provides direct evidence that the transition from AQP4 tetramers to AQP4-OAPs involves conformational changes of the extracellular loops.

  11. Characterization and Epitope Mapping of the Polyclonal Antibody Repertoire Elicited by Ricin Holotoxin-Based Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ofer; Mechaly, Adva; Sabo, Tamar; Alcalay, Ron; Aloni-Grinstein, Ronit; Seliger, Nehama; Kronman, Chanoch

    2014-01-01

    Ricin, one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, is classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a select agent. Currently, there is no available antidote against ricin exposure, and the most promising therapy is based on neutralizing antibodies elicited by active vaccination or that are given passively. The aim of this study was to characterize the repertoire of anti-ricin antibodies generated in rabbits immunized with ricin toxoid. These anti-ricin antibodies exhibit an exceptionally high avidity (thiocyanate-based avidity index, 9 M) toward ricin and an apparent affinity of 1 nM. Utilizing a novel tissue culture-based assay that enables the determination of ricin activity within a short time period, we found that the anti-ricin antibodies also possess a very high neutralizing titer. In line with these findings, these antibodies conferred mice with full protection against pulmonary ricinosis when administered as a passive vaccination. Epitope mapping analysis using phage display random peptide libraries revealed that the polyclonal serum contains four immunodominant epitopes, three of which are located on the A subunit and one on the B subunit of ricin. Only two of the four epitopes were found to have a significant role in ricin neutralization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that characterizes these immunological aspects of the polyclonal response to ricin holotoxin-based vaccination. These findings provide useful information and a possible strategy for the development and design of an improved ricin holotoxin-based vaccine. PMID:25209559

  12. Characterization and epitope mapping of the polyclonal antibody repertoire elicited by ricin holotoxin-based vaccination.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ofer; Mechaly, Adva; Sabo, Tamar; Alcalay, Ron; Aloni-Grinstein, Ronit; Seliger, Nehama; Kronman, Chanoch; Mazor, Ohad

    2014-11-01

    Ricin, one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, is classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a select agent. Currently, there is no available antidote against ricin exposure, and the most promising therapy is based on neutralizing antibodies elicited by active vaccination or that are given passively. The aim of this study was to characterize the repertoire of anti-ricin antibodies generated in rabbits immunized with ricin toxoid. These anti-ricin antibodies exhibit an exceptionally high avidity (thiocyanate-based avidity index, 9 M) toward ricin and an apparent affinity of 1 nM. Utilizing a novel tissue culture-based assay that enables the determination of ricin activity within a short time period, we found that the anti-ricin antibodies also possess a very high neutralizing titer. In line with these findings, these antibodies conferred mice with full protection against pulmonary ricinosis when administered as a passive vaccination. Epitope mapping analysis using phage display random peptide libraries revealed that the polyclonal serum contains four immunodominant epitopes, three of which are located on the A subunit and one on the B subunit of ricin. Only two of the four epitopes were found to have a significant role in ricin neutralization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that characterizes these immunological aspects of the polyclonal response to ricin holotoxin-based vaccination. These findings provide useful information and a possible strategy for the development and design of an improved ricin holotoxin-based vaccine.

  13. Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Jacek, Elzbieta; Tang, Kevin S; Komorowski, Lars; Ajamian, Mary; Probst, Christian; Stevenson, Brian; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Alaedini, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Most immunogenic proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, are known or expected to contain multiple B cell epitopes. However, the kinetics of the development of human B cell responses toward the various epitopes of individual proteins during the course of Lyme disease has not been examined. Using the highly immunogenic VlsE as a model Ag, we investigated the evolution of humoral immune responses toward its immunodominant sequences in 90 patients with a range of early to late manifestations of Lyme disease. The results demonstrate the existence of asynchronous, independently developing, Ab responses against the two major immunogenic regions of the VlsE molecule in the human host. Despite their strong immunogenicity, the target epitopes were inaccessible to Abs on intact spirochetes, suggesting a lack of direct immunoprotective effect. These observations document the association of immune reactivity toward specific VlsE sequences with different phases of Lyme disease, demonstrating the potential use of detailed epitope mapping of Ags for staging of the infection, and offer insights regarding the pathogen's possible immune evasion mechanisms.

  14. Viral quasispecies.

    PubMed

    Andino, Raul; Domingo, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    New generation sequencing is greatly expanding the capacity to examine the composition of mutant spectra of viral quasispecies in infected cells and host organisms. Here we review recent progress in the understanding of quasispecies dynamics, notably the occurrence of intra-mutant spectrum interactions, and implications of fitness landscapes for virus adaptation and de-adaptation. Complementation or interference can be established among components of the same mutant spectrum, dependent on the mutational status of the ensemble. Replicative fitness relates to an optimal mutant spectrum that provides the molecular basis for phenotypic flexibility, with implications for antiviral therapy. The biological impact of viral fitness renders particularly relevant the capacity of new generation sequencing to establish viral fitness landscapes. Progress with experimental model systems is becoming an important asset to understand virus behavior in the more complex environments faced during natural infections.

  15. Viral quasispecies

    PubMed Central

    Andino, Raul; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    New generation sequencing is greatly expanding the capacity to examine the composition of mutant spectra of viral quasispecies in infected cells and host organisms. Here we review recent progress in the understanding of quasispecies dynamics, notably the occurrence of intra-mutant spectrum interactions, and implications of fitness landscapes for virus adaptation and de-adaptation. Complementation or interference can be established among components of the same mutant spectrum, dependent on the mutational status of the ensemble. Replicative fitness relates to an optimal mutant spectrum that provides the molecular basis for phenotypic flexibility, with implications for antiviral therapy. The biological impact of viral fitness renders particularly relevant the capacity of new generation sequencing to establish viral fitness landscapes. Progress with experimental model systems is becoming an important asset to understand virus behavior in the more complex environments faced during natural infections. PMID:25824477

  16. Significance of Monoclonal Antibodies against the Conserved Epitopes within Non-Structural Protein 3 Helicase of Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Yixin; Zhao, Shuoxian; Zhu, Shaomei; Zeng, Jinfeng; Li, Tingting; Fu, Yongshui; Wang, Yuanzhan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wenjing; Yang, Baocheng; Zhou, Yuanping; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2013-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of hepatitis C virus (HCV), codes for protease and helicase carrying NTPase enzymatic activities, plays a crucial role in viral replication and an ideal target for diagnosis, antiviral therapy and vaccine development. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to NS3 helicase were characterized by epitope mapping and biological function test. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies were produced to the truncated NS3 helicase of HCV-1b (T1b-rNS3, aa1192–1459). Six mAbs recognized 8/29 16mer peptides, which contributed to identify 5 linear and 1 discontinuous putative epitope sequences. Seven mAbs reacted with HCV-2a JFH-1 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells by immunofluorescent staining, of which 2E12 and 3E5 strongly bound to the exposed linear epitope 1231PTGSGKSTK1239 (EP05) or core motif 1373IPFYGKAI1380 (EP21), respectively. Five other mAbs recognized semi-conformational or conformational epitopes of HCV helicase. MAb 2E12 binds to epitope EP05 at the ATP binding site of motif I in domain 1, while mAb 3E5 reacts with epitope EP21 close to helicase nucleotide binding region of domain 2. Epitope EP05 is totally conserved and EP21 highly conserved across HCV genotypes. These two epitope peptides reacted strongly with 59–79% chronic and weakly with 30–58% resolved HCV infected blood donors, suggesting that these epitopes were dominant in HCV infection. MAb 2E12 inhibited 50% of unwinding activity of NS3 helicase in vitro. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognize highly conserved epitopes at crucial functional sites within NS3 helicase, which may become important antibodies for diagnosis and antiviral therapy in chronic HCV infection. PMID:23894620

  17. Epitope and Paratope Mapping Reveals Temperature-Dependent Alterations in the Dengue-Antibody Interface.

    PubMed

    Lim, Xin-Xiang; Chandramohan, Arun; Lim, Xin-Ying Elisa; Crowe, James E; Lok, Shee-Mei; Anand, Ganesh S

    2017-09-05

    Uncovering mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization for viral infections requires epitope and paratope mapping in the context of whole viral particle interactions with the antibody in solution. In this study, we use amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to describe the interface of a dengue virus-neutralizing antibody, 2D22, with its target epitope. 2D22 binds specifically to DENV2, a serotype showing strain-specific structural expansion at human host physiological temperatures of 37°C. Our results identify the heavy chain of 2D22 to be the primary determinant for binding DENV2. Temperature-mediated expansion alters the mode of interaction of 2D22 binding. Importantly, 2D22 interferes with the viral expansion process and offers a basis for its neutralization mechanism. The relative magnitude of deuterium exchange protection upon antibody binding across the various epitope loci allows a deconstruction of the antibody-viral interface in host-specific environments and offers a robust approach for targeted antibody engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A second neutralizing epitope of B19 parvovirus implicates the spike region in the immune response.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, K; Rosenfeld, S; Frickhofen, N; Kennedy, D; Hills, R; Kajigaya, S; Young, N S

    1991-01-01

    We used 18 monoclonal antibodies against B19 parvovirus to identify neutralizing epitopes on the viral capsid. Of the 18 antibodies, 9 had in vitro neutralizing activity in a bone marrow colony culture assay. The overlapping polypeptide fragments spanning the B19 structural proteins were produced in a pMAL-c Escherichia coli expression system and used to investigate the binding sites of the neutralizing antibodies. One of the nine neutralizing antibodies reacted with both VP1 and VP2 capsid proteins and a single polypeptide fragment on an immunoblot, identifying a linear neutralizing epitope between amino acids 57 and 77 of the VP2 capsid protein. Eight of nine neutralizing antibodies failed to react with either of the capsid proteins or any polypeptide fragments, despite reactivities with intact virions in a radioimmunoassay, suggesting that additional conformationally dependent neutralizing epitopes exist. Images PMID:1719240

  19. Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Qin, Liting; Zhu, Haibo; Sun, Yingjun; Cui, Xuezhi; Gao, Yadong; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-10-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is the group-specific antigen of ALV and has many viral antigen sites that are easy to detect. In this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3A9, that is specific for the P27 protein. A series of partially overlapping peptides were screened to define (181)PPSAR(185) as the minimal linear epitope recognized by mAb 3A9. The identified epitope could be recognized by chicken anti-ALV and mouse anti-ALV P27 sera. The epitope was highly conserved among a number of ALV-A, ALV-B and ALV-J strains. MAb 3A9 might be a valuable tool for the development of new immunodiagnostic approaches for ALV, and the defined linear epitope might help further our understanding of the antigenic structure of the P27 protein.

  20. Ligand-induced Epitope Masking

    PubMed Central

    Mould, A. Paul; Askari, Janet A.; Byron, Adam; Takada, Yoshikazu; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Humphries, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing ligand-mimetic inhibitors of integrins are unable to dissociate pre-formed integrin-fibronectin complexes (IFCs). These observations suggested that amino acid residues involved in integrin-fibronectin binding become obscured in the ligand-occupied state. Because the epitopes of some function-blocking anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) lie near the ligand-binding pocket, it follows that the epitopes of these mAbs may become shielded in the ligand-occupied state. Here, we tested whether function-blocking mAbs directed against α5β1 can interact with the integrin after it forms a complex with an RGD-containing fragment of fibronectin. We showed that the anti-α5 subunit mAbs JBS5, SNAKA52, 16, and P1D6 failed to disrupt IFCs and hence appeared unable to bind to the ligand-occupied state. In contrast, the allosteric anti-β1 subunit mAbs 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 could dissociate IFCs and therefore were able to interact with the ligand-bound state. However, another class of function-blocking anti-β1 mAbs, exemplified by Lia1/2, could not disrupt IFCs. This second class of mAbs was also distinguished from 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 by their ability to induce homotypic cell aggregation. Although the epitope of Lia1/2 was closely overlapping with those of 13, 4B4, and AIIB2, it appeared to lie closer to the ligand-binding pocket. A new model of the α5β1-fibronectin complex supports our hypothesis that the epitopes of mAbs that fail to bind to the ligand-occupied state lie within, or very close to, the integrin-fibronectin interface. Importantly, our findings imply that the efficacy of some therapeutic anti-integrin mAbs could be limited by epitope masking. PMID:27484800

  1. Automatic Generation of Validated Specific Epitope Sets.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Pro, Sebastian; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia; Weiskopf, Daniela; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of B and T cell responses is a valuable tool to study autoimmunity, allergies, immunity to pathogens, and host-pathogen interactions and assist in the design and evaluation of T cell vaccines and immunotherapies. In this context, it is desirable to elucidate a method to select validated reference sets of epitopes to allow detection of T and B cells. However, the ever-growing information contained in the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) and the differences in quality and subjects studied between epitope assays make this task complicated. In this study, we develop a novel method to automatically select reference epitope sets according to a categorization system employed by the IEDB. From the sets generated, three epitope sets (EBV, mycobacteria and dengue) were experimentally validated by detection of T cell reactivity ex vivo from human donors. Furthermore, a web application that will potentially be implemented in the IEDB was created to allow users the capacity to generate customized epitope sets.

  2. Strategies to Query and Display Allergy-Derived Epitope Data from the Immune Epitope Database

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Kerrie; Peters, Bjoern; Larche, Mark; Pomes, Anna; Broide, David; Sette, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of specific epitopes on allergens by antibodies and T cells is a key element in allergic processes. Analysis of epitope data may be of interest for basic immunopathology or for potential application in diagnostics or immunotherapy. The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) is a freely available repository of epitope data from infectious disease agents, as well as epitopes defined for allergy, autoimmunity, and transplantation. The IEDB curates the experiments associated with each epitope and thus provides a variety of different ways to search the data. This review aims to demonstrate the utility of the IEDB and its query strategies, including searching by epitope structure (peptidic/nonpeptidic), by assay methodology, by host, by the allergen itself, or by the organism from which the allergen was derived. Links to tools for visualization of 3-D structures, epitope prediction, and analyses of B and T cell reactivity by host response frequency score are also highlighted. PMID:23172234

  3. Identification of class I HLA T cell control epitopes for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Kaabinejadian, Saghar; Piazza, Paolo A; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Vernon, Stephen R; Cate, Steven J; Bardet, Wilfried; Schafer, Fredda B; Jackson, Kenneth W; Campbell, Diana M; Buchli, Rico; Rinaldo, Charles R; Hildebrand, William H

    2013-01-01

    The recent West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in the United States underscores the importance of understanding human immune responses to this pathogen. Via the presentation of viral peptide ligands at the cell surface, class I HLA mediate the T cell recognition and killing of WNV infected cells. At this time, there are two key unknowns in regards to understanding protective T cell immunity: 1) the number of viral ligands presented by the HLA of infected cells, and 2) the distribution of T cell responses to these available HLA/viral complexes. Here, comparative mass spectroscopy was applied to determine the number of WNV peptides presented by the HLA-A*11:01 of infected cells after which T cell responses to these HLA/WNV complexes were assessed. Six viral peptides derived from capsid, NS3, NS4b, and NS5 were presented. When T cells from infected individuals were tested for reactivity to these six viral ligands, polyfunctional T cells were focused on the GTL9 WNV capsid peptide, ligands from NS3, NS4b, and NS5 were less immunogenic, and two ligands were largely inert, demonstrating that class I HLA reduce the WNV polyprotein to a handful of immune targets and that polyfunctional T cells recognize infections by zeroing in on particular HLA/WNV epitopes. Such dominant HLA/peptide epitopes are poised to drive the development of WNV vaccines that elicit protective T cells as well as providing key antigens for immunoassays that establish correlates of viral immunity.

  4. A systematic review of T-cell epitopes in hepatitis B virus: identification, genotypic variation and relevance to antiviral therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Christopher P; Bartholomeusz, Angeline; Gaudieri, Silvana; Revill, Peter A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2008-01-01

    The immune response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) is important for both viral control and disease pathogenesis. A detailed understanding of the HBV-specific T-cell responses may potentially lead to novel therapeutic strategies for HBV. All English language journal articles (including articles in press) up to October 2007 were retrieved using searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Registry. An extensive database of HBV sequences (SeqHepB) and GenBank were used to assess the degree of sequence variation in each epitope. The new standardized nomenclature for HBV amino acid position number was applied to all previously defined epitopes. Forty-four HBV-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted and 32 HBV-specific HLA class II restricted epitopes have been defined and have been identified in all HBV genes. The majority of HLA class I restricted epitopes have been defined in HLA-A2-positive individuals in the setting of acute HBV infection. There is significant sequence variation of these epitopes within and between HBV genotypes. Newer HBV immunotherapeutics appear promising but are still in early phases of development. Identification of HBV-specific epitopes in non-HLA-A2-positive individuals and recognition of genotypic variation across epitopes are important for the future development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies for the management of chronic HBV infection.

  5. Superimposed epitopes restricted by the same HLA molecule drive distinct HIV-specific CD8+ T cell repertoires.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoming; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Shi, Yi; Kuse, Nozomi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Appay, Victor; Gao, George F; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2014-07-01

    Superimposed epitopes, in which a shorter epitope is embedded within a longer one, can be presented by the same HLA class I molecule. CD8(+) CTL responses against such epitopes and the contribution of this phenomenon to immune control are poorly characterized. In this study, we examined HLA-A*24:02-restricted CTLs specific for the superimposed HIV Nef epitopes RYPLTFGWCF (RF10) and RYPLTFGW (RW8). Unexpectedly, RF10-specific and RW8-specific CTLs from HIV-1-infected HLA-A*24:02+ individuals had no overlapping Ag reactivity or clonotypic compositions. Single-cell TCR sequence analyses demonstrated that RF10-specific T cells had a more diverse TCR repertoire than did RW8-specific T cells. Furthermore, RF10-specific CTLs presented a higher Ag sensitivity and HIV suppressive capacity compared with RW8-specific CTLs. Crystallographic analyses revealed important structural differences between RF10- and RW8-HLA-A*24:02 complexes as well, with featured and featureless conformations, respectively, providing an explanation for the induction of distinct T cell responses against these epitopes. The present study shows that a single viral sequence containing superimposed epitopes restricted by the same HLA molecule could elicit distinct CD8+ T cell responses, therefore enhancing the control of HIV replication. This study also showed that a featured epitope (e.g., RF10) could drive the induction of T cells with high TCR diversity and affinity. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  7. Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Hein C.; Salentijn, Elma M. J.; Dekking, Liesbeth; Bosch, Dirk; Hamer, Rob J.; Gilissen, Ludovicus J. W. J.; van der Meer, Ingrid M.; Smulders, Marinus J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the prevalence of CD. This may partly be attributed to an increase in awareness and to improved diagnostic techniques, but increased wheat and gluten consumption is also considered a major cause. To analyze whether wheat breeding contributed to the increase of the prevalence of CD, we have compared the genetic diversity of gluten proteins for the presence of two CD epitopes (Glia-α9 and Glia-α20) in 36 modern European wheat varieties and in 50 landraces representing the wheat varieties grown up to around a century ago. Glia-α9 is a major (immunodominant) epitope that is recognized by the majority of CD patients. The minor Glia-α20 was included as a technical reference. Overall, the presence of the Glia-α9 epitope was higher in the modern varieties, whereas the presence of the Glia-α20 epitope was lower, as compared to the landraces. This suggests that modern wheat breeding practices may have led to an increased exposure to CD epitopes. On the other hand, some modern varieties and landraces have been identified that have relatively low contents of both epitopes. Such selected lines may serve as a start to breed wheat for the introduction of ‘low CD toxic’ as a new breeding trait. Large-scale culture and consumption of such varieties would considerably aid in decreasing the prevalence of CD. PMID:20664999

  8. Specific epitopes of the structural and hypothetical proteins elicit variable humoral responses in SARS patients

    PubMed Central

    Chow, S C S; Ho, C Y S; Tam, T T Y; Wu, C; Cheung, T; Chan, P K S; Ng, M H L; Hui, P K; Ng, H K; Au, D M Y; Lo, A W I

    2006-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease which was caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS‐CoV). SARS has caused an outbreak in the world during 2003 and 2004, with 8098 individuals being infected and a death toll of 774 in 28 regions around the world. Specific humoral responses to viral infection remain unclear. Objective To analyse the antigenicity of the SARS‐CoV genome and identify potential antigenic epitopes in the structural proteins. Methods Potential antigenic epitopes were identified in the structural proteins (nucleocapsid, membrane, spike, and small envelope proteins) and hypothetical proteins (SARS3a, 3b, 6, 7a, and 9b) that are specific for SARS‐CoV. A peptide chip platform was created and the profiles of antibodies to these epitopes were investigated in 59 different SARS patients' sera obtained 6–103 days after the onset of the illness. Serial sera from five additional patients were also studied. Results Epitopes at the N‐terminus of the membrane protein and the C‐terminus of nucleocapsid protein elicited strong antibody responses. Epitopes on the spike protein were only moderately immunogenic but the effects were persistent. Antibodies were also detected for some putative proteins, noticeably the C‐termini of SARS3a and SARS6. Conclusions Important epitopes of the SARS‐CoV genome that may serve as potential markers for the viral infection are identified. These specific antigenic sites may also be important for vaccine development against this new fatal infectious disease. PMID:16461566

  9. Newly Exerted T Cell Pressures on Mutated Epitopes following Transmission Help Maintain Consensus HIV-1 Sequences.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Emily M; Liegler, Teri; Keh, Chris E; Karlsson, Annika C; Holditch, Sara J; Pilcher, Christopher D; Loeb, Lisa; Nixon, Douglas F; Hecht, Frederick M

    2014-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are important for HIV-1 virus control, but are also a major contributing factor that drives HIV-1 virus sequence evolution. Although HIV-1 cytotoxic T cell (CTL) escape mutations are a common aspect during HIV-1 infection, less is known about the importance of T cell pressure in reversing HIV-1 virus back to a consensus sequences. In this study we aimed to assess the frequency with which reversion of transmitted mutations in T cell epitopes were associated with T cell responses to the mutation. This study included 14 HIV-1 transmission pairs consisting of a 'source' (virus-donor) and a 'recipient' (newly infected individual). Non-consensus B sequence amino acids (mutations) in T cell epitopes in HIV-1 gag regions p17, p24, p2 and p7 were identified in each pair and transmission of mutations to the recipient was verified with population viral sequencing. Longitudinal analyses of the recipient's viral sequence were used to identify whether reversion of mutations back to the consensus B sequence occurred. Autologous 12-mer peptides overlapping by 11 were synthesized, representing the sequence region surrounding each reversion and longitudinal analysis of T cell responses to source-derived mutated and reverted epitopes were assessed. We demonstrated that mutations in the source were frequently transmitted to the new host and on an average 17 percent of mutated epitopes reverted to consensus sequence in the recipient. T cell responses to these mutated epitopes were detected in 7 of the 14 recipients in whom reversion occurred. Overall, these findings indicate that transmitted non-consensus B epitopes are frequently immunogenic in HLA-mismatched recipients and new T cell pressures to T cell escape mutations following transmission play a significant role in maintaining consensus HIV-1 sequences.

  10. Expression in yeast of a cDNA clone encoding a transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 fragment (a.a. 591-642) bearing the major immunodominant domain of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Gairin, J E; Madaule, P; Traincard, F; Barrès, E; Rossier, J

    1991-04-01

    A cDNA clone corresponding to the gp41 gene fragment nucl. 7573-7730 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was selected from a random HIV-1 genomic library expressed in yeast. This clone encodes a 52-residue long peptide (amino acid (a.a.)) 591-642) bearing the major immunodominant domain (a.a. 598-609) of the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Expression of the recombinant peptide pSE-env591-642 was driven by the alpha-mating factor leader sequence contained in a plasmid pSE-x allowing the synthesis and secretion of foreign gene product in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Time-course analysis of the secretion into culture medium revealed an optimal production of the glycoprotein fragment at 28-30 h with no observable cytotoxicity. The secreted peptide is highly glycosylated with NH2-terminal heterogeneity probably due to different post-translational modifications. The secreted peptide shows an extreme antigenicity since in ELISA assays, as few as 5 microliters/well of crude supernatant are sufficient to obtain a strong detection by monoclonal antibodies or by 100% of sera from HIV-infected individuals. The purified glycopeptide pSE-env591-642 binds to a monoclonal antibody directed against the immunodominant epitope (a.a. 603-609) with an affinity similar to that of the complete glycoprotein gp160 (Kd values within the 10(-10) M range) and with a 100-fold higher affinity than that of a linear peptide fragment SP-env584-609. These results indicate that overexpression in yeast can efficiently provide an abundant source of highly antigenic gp41 protein fragment pSE-env591-642 which retains the antigenic properties of the native gp160 protein. Such a recombinant peptide should therefore be considered as a good candidate for antigen in HIV detection tests.

  11. Acyclovir Therapy Reduces the CD4+ T Cell Response against the Immunodominant pp65 Protein from Cytomegalovirus in Immune Competent Individuals.

    PubMed

    Pachnio, Annette; Begum, Jusnara; Fox, Ashini; Moss, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects the majority of the global population and leads to the development of a strong virus-specific immune response. The CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response can comprise between 10 and 50% of the T cell pool within peripheral blood and there is concern that this may impair immunity to other pathogens. Elderly individuals with the highest magnitude of CMV-specific immune response have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of mortality and there is increasing interest in interventions that may serve to moderate this. Acyclovir is an anti-viral drug with activity against a range of herpes viruses and is used as long term treatment to suppress reactivation of herpes simplex virus. We studied the immune response to CMV in patients who were taking acyclovir to assess if therapy could be used to suppress the CMV-specific immune response. The T cell reactivity against the immunodominant late viral protein pp65 was reduced by 53% in people who were taking acyclovir. This effect was seen within one year of therapy and was observed primarily within the CD4+ response. Acyclovir treatment only modestly influenced the immune response to the IE-1 target protein. These data show that low dose acyclovir treatment has the potential to modulate components of the T cell response to CMV antigen proteins and indicate that anti-viral drugs should be further investigated as a means to reduce the magnitude of CMV-specific immune response and potentially improve overall immune function.

  12. Diverse specificity and effector function among human antibodies to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein epitopes exposed by CD4 binding

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Yongjun; Pazgier, Marzena; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Kamin-Lewis, Roberta; Al-Darmarki, Salma; Flinko, Robin; Lovo, Elena; Wu, Xueji; Robinson, James E.; Seaman, Michael S.; Fouts, Timothy R.; Gallo, Robert C.; DeVico, Anthony L.; Lewis, George K.

    2012-12-13

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) undergoes conformational transitions consequent to CD4 binding and coreceptor engagement during viral entry. The physical steps in this process are becoming defined, but less is known about their significance as targets of antibodies potentially protective against HIV-1 infection. Here we probe the functional significance of transitional epitope exposure by characterizing 41 human mAbs specific for epitopes exposed on trimeric Env after CD4 engagement. These mAbs recognize three epitope clusters: cluster A, the gp120 face occluded by gp41 in trimeric Env; cluster B, a region proximal to the coreceptor-binding site (CoRBS) and involving the V1/V2 domain; and cluster C, the coreceptor-binding site. The mAbs were evaluated functionally by antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and for neutralization of Tiers 1 and 2 pseudoviruses. All three clusters included mAbs mediating ADCC. However, there was a strong potency bias for cluster A, which harbors at least three potent ADCC epitopes whose cognate mAbs have electropositive paratopes. Cluster A epitopes are functional ADCC targets during viral entry in an assay format using virion-sensitized target cells. In contrast, only cluster C contained epitopes that were recognized by neutralizing mAbs. There was significant diversity in breadth and potency that correlated with epitope fine specificity. In contrast, ADCC potency had no relationship with neutralization potency or breadth for any epitope cluster. In conclusion, Fc-mediated effector function and neutralization coselect with specificity in anti-Env antibody responses, but the nature of selection is distinct for these two antiviral activities.

  13. Diverse specificity and effector function among human antibodies to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein epitopes exposed by CD4 binding

    DOE PAGES

    Guan, Yongjun; Pazgier, Marzena; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; ...

    2012-12-13

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) undergoes conformational transitions consequent to CD4 binding and coreceptor engagement during viral entry. The physical steps in this process are becoming defined, but less is known about their significance as targets of antibodies potentially protective against HIV-1 infection. Here we probe the functional significance of transitional epitope exposure by characterizing 41 human mAbs specific for epitopes exposed on trimeric Env after CD4 engagement. These mAbs recognize three epitope clusters: cluster A, the gp120 face occluded by gp41 in trimeric Env; cluster B, a region proximal to the coreceptor-binding site (CoRBS) and involving the V1/V2 domain;more » and cluster C, the coreceptor-binding site. The mAbs were evaluated functionally by antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and for neutralization of Tiers 1 and 2 pseudoviruses. All three clusters included mAbs mediating ADCC. However, there was a strong potency bias for cluster A, which harbors at least three potent ADCC epitopes whose cognate mAbs have electropositive paratopes. Cluster A epitopes are functional ADCC targets during viral entry in an assay format using virion-sensitized target cells. In contrast, only cluster C contained epitopes that were recognized by neutralizing mAbs. There was significant diversity in breadth and potency that correlated with epitope fine specificity. In contrast, ADCC potency had no relationship with neutralization potency or breadth for any epitope cluster. In conclusion, Fc-mediated effector function and neutralization coselect with specificity in anti-Env antibody responses, but the nature of selection is distinct for these two antiviral activities.« less

  14. CD8(+) T-cell Cytotoxic Capacity Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Control Can Be Mediated through Various Epitopes and Human Leukocyte Antigen Types.

    PubMed

    Migueles, Stephen A; Mendoza, Daniel; Zimmerman, Matthew G; Martins, Kelly M; Toulmin, Sushila A; Kelly, Elizabeth P; Peterson, Bennett A; Johnson, Sarah A; Galson, Eric; Poropatich, Kate O; Patamawenu, Andy; Imamichi, Hiromi; Ober, Alexander; Rehm, Catherine A; Jones, Sara; Hallahan, Claire W; Follmann, Dean A; Connors, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Understanding natural immunologic control over Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 replication, as occurs in rare long-term nonprogressors/elite controllers (LTNP/EC), should inform the design of efficacious HIV vaccines and immunotherapies. Durable control in LTNP/EC is likely mediated by highly functional virus-specific CD8(+) T-cells. Protective Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I alleles, like B*27 and B*57, are present in most, but not all LTNP/EC, providing an opportunity to investigate features shared by their HIV-specific immune responses. To better understand the contribution of epitope targeting and conservation to immune control, we compared the CD8(+) T-cell specificity and function of B*27/57(neg) LTNP/EC (n = 23), B*27/57(pos) LTNP/EC (n = 23) and B*27/57(neg) progressors (n = 13). Fine mapping revealed 11 previously unreported immunodominant responses. Although B*27/57(neg) LTNP/EC did not target more highly conserved epitopes, their CD8(+) T-cell cytotoxic capacity was significantly higher than progressors. Similar to B*27/57(pos) LTNP/EC, this superior cytotoxicity was mediated by preferential expansion of immunodominant responses and lysis through the predicted HLA. These findings suggest that increased CD8(+) T-cell cytotoxic capacity is a common mechanism of control in most LTNP/EC regardless of HLA type. They also suggest that potent cytotoxicity can be mediated through various epitopes and HLA molecules and could, in theory, be induced in most people.

  15. HIV DNA-Adenovirus Multiclade Envelope Vaccine Induces Gp41 Antibody Immunodominance in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Williams, Wilton B; Saunders, Kevin O; Seaton, Kelly E; Wiehe, Kevin J; Vandergrift, Nathan; Von Holle, Tarra; Trama, Ashley M; Parks, Robert J; Luo, Kan; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Kepler, Thomas B; Marshall, Dawn J; Montefiori, David C; Sutherland, Laura L; Alam, Munir S; Whitesides, John F; Bowman, Cindy; Permar, Sallie R; Graham, Barney S; Mascola, John R; Seed, Patrick C; Van Rompay, Koen K A; Tomaras, Georgia D; Moody, Michael A; Haynes, Barton F

    2017-08-09

    Dominant antibody responses in vaccinees who received the multiclade (A, B and C) envelope (Env) DNA/rAd5 vaccine studied in the HIV-1 vaccine trials network (HVTN) efficacy trial 505 (HVTN 505), targeted Env gp41 and cross-reacted with microbial antigens. In this study, we asked if the DNA/rAd5 vaccine induced a similar antibody response in rhesus macaques (RMs) that are commonly used as an animal model for human HIV-1 infections and for testing candidate HIV-1 vaccines. We also asked if gp41 immunodominance could be avoided by immunization of neonatal RMs during the early stages of microbial colonization. We found that the DNA/rAd5 vaccine elicited a higher frequency of gp41-reactive memory B cells compared to gp120-memory B cells in adult and neonatal RMs. Analysis of the vaccine-induced Env-reactive B cell repertoire revealed that the majority of HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies in both adult and neonatal RMs were targeted to gp41. Interestingly, a subset of gp41-reactive antibodies isolated from RMs cross-reacted with host antigens, including autologous intestinal microbiota. Thus, gp41-containing DNA/rAd5 vaccine induced dominant gp41-microbiota cross-reactive antibodies derived from blood memory B cells in RMs as observed in the HVTN 505 efficacy trial. These data demonstrated that RMs can be used to investigate the gp41 immunodominance in candidate HIV-1 vaccines. Moreover, colonization of neonatal RMs occurred within the first week of life, and immunization of neonatal RMs during this time also induced a dominant gp41-reactive antibody response.IMPORTANCE Our results are critical to current work in the HIV-1 vaccine field evaluating the phenomenon of gp41 immunodominance induced by HIV-1 Env gp140 in RMs and humans. Our data demonstrate that RMs are an appropriate animal model to study this phenomenon and to determine the immunogenicity in new HIV-1 Env trimer vaccine designs. The demonstration of gp41 immunodominance in memory B cells of both adult and

  16. Ara h 2: crystal structure and IgE binding distinguish two subpopulations of peanut allergic patients by epitope diversity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, G A; Gosavi, R A; Pomés, A; Wünschmann, S; Moon, A F; London, R E; Pedersen, L C

    2011-07-01

    Peanut allergy affects 1% of the population and causes the most fatal food-related anaphylactic reactions. The protein Ara h 2 is the most potent peanut allergen recognized by 80-90% of peanut allergic patients. The crystal structure of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 was determined for the first time at 2.7 Å resolution using a customized maltose-binding protein (MBP)-fusion system. IgE antibody binding to the MBP fusion construct vs the natural allergen was compared by ELISA using sera from peanut allergic patients. The structure of Ara h 2 is a five-helix bundle held together by four disulfide bonds and related to the prolamin protein superfamily. The fold is most similar to other amylase and trypsin inhibitors. The MBP--Ara h 2 fusion construct was positively recognized by IgE from 76% of allergic patients (25/33). Two populations of patients could be identified. Subpopulation 1 (n = 14) showed an excellent correlation of IgE antibody binding to natural vs recombinant Ara h 2. Subpopulation 2 (n = 15) showed significantly reduced IgE binding to the MBP fusion protein. Interestingly, about 20% of the IgE binding in subpopulation 2 could be recovered by increasing the distance between MBP and Ara h 2 in a second construct. The reduced IgE binding to the MBP--Ara h 2 of subpopulation 2 indicates that the MBP molecule protects an immunodominant epitope region near the first helix of Ara h 2. Residues involved in the epitope(s) are suggested by the crystal structure. The MBP--Ara h 2 fusion constructs will be useful to further elucidate the relevance of certain epitopes to peanut allergy. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Towards the knowledge-based design of universal influenza epitope ensemble vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Qamar M; Gatherer, Derek; Reche, Pedro A; Flower, Darren R

    2016-11-01

    Influenza A viral heterogeneity remains a significant threat due to unpredictable antigenic drift in seasonal influenza and antigenic shifts caused by the emergence of novel subtypes. Annual review of multivalent influenza vaccines targets strains of influenza A and B likely to be predominant in future influenza seasons. This does not induce broad, cross protective immunity against emergent subtypes. Better strategies are needed to prevent future pandemics. Cross-protection can be achieved by activating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells against highly conserved regions of the influenza genome. We combine available experimental data with informatics-based immunological predictions to help design vaccines potentially able to induce cross-protective T-cells against multiple influenza subtypes. To exemplify our approach we designed two epitope ensemble vaccines comprising highly conserved and experimentally verified immunogenic influenza A epitopes as putative non-seasonal influenza vaccines; one specifically targets the US population and the other is a universal vaccine. The USA-specific vaccine comprised 6 CD8+ T cell epitopes (GILGFVFTL, FMYSDFHFI, GMDPRMCSL, SVKEKDMTK, FYIQMCTEL, DTVNRTHQY) and 3 CD4+ epitopes (KGILGFVFTLTVPSE, EYIMKGVYINTALLN, ILGFVFTLTVPSERG). The universal vaccine comprised 8 CD8+ epitopes: (FMYSDFHFI, GILGFVFTL, ILRGSVAHK, FYIQMCTEL, ILKGKFQTA, YYLEKANKI, VSDGGPNLY, YSHGTGTGY) and the same 3 CD4+ epitopes. Our USA-specific vaccine has a population protection coverage (portion of the population potentially responsive to one or more component epitopes of the vaccine, PPC) of over 96 and 95% coverage of observed influenza subtypes. The universal vaccine has a PPC value of over 97 and 88% coverage of observed subtypes. http://imed.med.ucm.es/Tools/episopt.html CONTACT: d.r.flower@aston.ac.uk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Towards the knowledge-based design of universal influenza epitope ensemble vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Qamar M.; Gatherer, Derek; Reche, Pedro A; Flower, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Influenza A viral heterogeneity remains a significant threat due to unpredictable antigenic drift in seasonal influenza and antigenic shifts caused by the emergence of novel subtypes. Annual review of multivalent influenza vaccines targets strains of influenza A and B likely to be predominant in future influenza seasons. This does not induce broad, cross protective immunity against emergent subtypes. Better strategies are needed to prevent future pandemics. Cross-protection can be achieved by activating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells against highly conserved regions of the influenza genome. We combine available experimental data with informatics-based immunological predictions to help design vaccines potentially able to induce cross-protective T-cells against multiple influenza subtypes. Results: To exemplify our approach we designed two epitope ensemble vaccines comprising highly conserved and experimentally verified immunogenic influenza A epitopes as putative non-seasonal influenza vaccines; one specifically targets the US population and the other is a universal vaccine. The USA-specific vaccine comprised 6 CD8+ T cell epitopes (GILGFVFTL, FMYSDFHFI, GMDPRMCSL, SVKEKDMTK, FYIQMCTEL, DTVNRTHQY) and 3 CD4+ epitopes (KGILGFVFTLTVPSE, EYIMKGVYINTALLN, ILGFVFTLTVPSERG). The universal vaccine comprised 8 CD8+ epitopes: (FMYSDFHFI, GILGFVFTL, ILRGSVAHK, FYIQMCTEL, ILKGKFQTA, YYLEKANKI, VSDGGPNLY, YSHGTGTGY) and the same 3 CD4+ epitopes. Our USA-specific vaccine has a population protection coverage (portion of the population potentially responsive to one or more component epitopes of the vaccine, PPC) of over 96 and 95% coverage of observed influenza subtypes. The universal vaccine has a PPC value of over 97 and 88% coverage of observed subtypes. Availability and Implementation: http://i