Science.gov

Sample records for immunoglobulin lambda variable

  1. Genomic variation in the porcine immunoglobulin lambda variable region

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi; Schwartz, John C.; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Production of a vast antibody repertoire is essential for protection against pathogens. Variable region germline complexity contributes to repertoire diversity and is a standard feature of mammalian immunoglobulin loci, but functional V region genes are limited in swine. For example, the porcine lambda light chain locus is composed of 23 variable (V) genes and 4 joining (J) genes, but only 10 or 11 V and 2 J genes are functional. Allelic variation in V and J may increase overall diversity within a population, yet lead to repertoire holes in individuals lacking key alleles. Previous studies focused on heavy chain genetic variation, thus light chain allelic diversity is not known. We characterized allelic variation of the porcine immunoglobulin lambda variable (IGLV) region genes. All intact IGLV genes in 81 pigs were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed to determine their allelic variation and functionality. We observed mutational variation across the entire length of the IGLV genes, in both framework and complementarity determining regions (CDRs). Three recombination hotspots were also identified, suggesting that non-allelic homologous recombination is an evolutionarily alternative mechanism for generating germline antibody diversity. Functional alleles were greatest in the most highly expressed families, IGLV3 and IGLV8. At the population level, allelic variation appears to help maintain the potential for broad antibody repertoire diversity in spite of reduced gene segment choices and limited germline sequence modification. The trade-off may be a reduction in repertoire diversity within individuals that could result in increased variation in immunity to infectious disease and response to vaccination. PMID:26791019

  2. Genomic variation in the porcine immunoglobulin lambda variable region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xi; Schwartz, John C; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Production of a vast antibody repertoire is essential for the protection against pathogens. Variable region germline complexity contributes to repertoire diversity and is a standard feature of mammalian immunoglobulin loci, but functional V region genes are limited in swine. For example, the porcine lambda light chain locus is composed of 23 variable (V) genes and 4 joining (J) genes, but only 10 or 11 V and 2 J genes are functional. Allelic variation in V and J may increase overall diversity within a population, yet lead to repertoire holes in individuals lacking key alleles. Previous studies focused on heavy chain genetic variation, thus light chain allelic diversity is not known. We characterized allelic variation of the porcine immunoglobulin lambda variable (IGLV) region genes. All intact IGLV genes in 81 pigs were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed to determine their allelic variation and functionality. We observed mutational variation across the entire length of the IGLV genes, in both framework and complementarity determining regions (CDRs). Three recombination hotspot motifs were also identified suggesting that non-allelic homologous recombination is an evolutionarily alternative mechanism for generating germline antibody diversity. Functional alleles were greatest in the most highly expressed families, IGLV3 and IGLV8. At the population level, allelic variation appears to help maintain the potential for broad antibody repertoire diversity in spite of reduced gene segment choices and limited germline sequence modification. The trade-off may be a reduction in repertoire diversity within individuals that could result in an increased variation in immunity to infectious disease and response to vaccination.

  3. Characterization of a lymphoblastoid line deleted for lambda immunoglobulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A., White, B.N., Holden, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    While characterizing the cat eye syndrome (CES) supernumerary chromosome for the presence of {lambda} immunoglobulin gene region sequences, a lymphoblastoid cell line from one CES patient was identified in which there was selection of cells deleted from some IGLC and IGLV genes. Two distinct deletions, one on each chromosome 22, were identified, presumably arising from independent somatic recombination events occurring during B-lymphocyte differentiation. The extent of the deleted regions was determined using probes from the various IGLV subgroups and they each covered at least 82 kilobases. The precise definition of the deletions was not possible because of conservation of some restriction sites in the IGLV region. The cell line was used to map putative IGLV genes within the recombinant phage {lambda}V{lambda}135 to the distal part of the IGLV gene region. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Phylogeny, genomic organization and expression of lambda and kappa immunoglobulin light chain genes in a reptile, Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Wei, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Tao; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Qinghong; Robert, Jacques; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2010-05-01

    The reptiles are the last major taxon of jawed vertebrates in which immunoglobulin light chain isotypes have not been well characterized. Using the recently released genome sequencing data, we show in this study that the reptile Anolis carolinensis expresses both lambda and kappa light chain genes. The genomic organization of both gene loci is structurally similar to their respective counterparts in mammals. The identified lambda locus contains three constant region genes each preceded by a joining gene segment, and a total of 37 variable gene segments. In contrast, the kappa locus contains only a single constant region gene, and two joining gene segments with a single family of 14 variable gene segments located upstream. Analysis of junctions of the recombined VJ transcripts reveals a paucity of N and P nucleotides in both expressed lambda and kappa sequences. These results help us to understand the generation of the immunoglobulin repertoire in reptiles and immunoglobulin evolution in vertebrates.

  5. Cell-type preference of immunoglobulin kappa and lambda gene promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, D; Schaffner, W

    1985-01-01

    Immunoglobulin gene constant regions are known to be associated with strictly tissue-specific enhancer elements. Until recently the promoter of the variable region, which becomes linked to the constant region by somatic rearrangement, could have been viewed as a passive recipient of the enhancer stimulus. Here we show that the promoters of the immunoglobulin kappa and lambda light chain genes are approximately 20-30 times more active in lymphoid cells than in non-lymphoid cells. To avoid the problem of differential mRNA stability upon transfection of immunoglobulin genes into non-lymphoid cells we have constructed chimeric genes. All kappa mRNA sequences were progressively deleted to fuse the kappa gene promoter to a globin gene coding body. A similar chimeric gene was constructed with the promoter of the lambda gene. The cell-type preference of the promoter may be exploited during B-lymphocyte differentiation to regulate the immunoglobulin gene promoter independently from the enhancer. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2998757

  6. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Catherine L.; Laffy, Julie M. J.; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O’Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response. PMID:27729912

  7. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Catherine L; Laffy, Julie M J; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O'Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  8. [Study of the antigenic structure of human immunoglobulin lambda-chain using monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Arsen'eva, E L; Bogacheva, G T; Solomon, A; Weiss, D; Ibragimov, A R; Rokhlin, O V

    1990-01-01

    Nine monoclonals against human Ig lambda chains were produced, 4 antibodies react with C-domain, 5--with V-domain of the lambda chain. Anti-C lambda domain antibodies recognize not less than 3 epitopes and one of them is expressed only on the isolated chain. Anti-V lambda antibodies bind both isolated lambda chain and intact IgG, IgM, IgA. Four epitopes are expressed by few lambda Bence Jones proteins of the III subgroup, the immunogen possessing the same isotype. The 4 mentioned epitopes represent private idiotypic determinants. The epitope 3E10 is characteristic of 50% Bence Jones proteins of the II and III V lambda-subgroups thus representing a common idiotypic determinant. Using anti-V lambda antibodies germ line variability of V lambda III proteins was analysed and the similarity of antigenic structure of normal and myeloma human Ig lambda chains was demonstrated.

  9. Absence of lambda immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the "cat eye" syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hough, C A; White, B N; Holden, J J

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the "cat eye" syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter-->22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned lambda immunoglobulin (lambda Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 lambda Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the lambda Ig gene region.

  10. [A case of lambda-expressing pulmonary MALT lymphoma with dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene].

    PubMed

    Oh, Hye Ryong; Lee, Mi Ja; Park, Geon; Moon, Dae Soo; Park, Young Jin; Jang, Sook Jin

    2009-06-01

    A 70-yr-old woman was hospitalized with a history of dry cough. Bronchial endoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy were performed. However, the findings of histopathology and immunohistochemistry were not sufficient to decide whether the lesion was benign or malignant, because of the presence of crush artifacts in the biopsy specimens. We performed B-cell clonality studies using BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR (InVivoScribe Technologies, USA) to detect clonal rearrangements in the immunoglobulin gene. The results of multiplex PCR showed clonal rearrangements of both kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain genes. The findings of immunochemistry revealed that the lesion expressed lambda light chain, but not kappa light chain. Based on the clinical, pathologic, and molecular findings, this case was diagnosed as pulmonary MALT lymphoma. We report the first case in Korea of lambda-expressing MALT lymphoma that is shown to have dual clonal rearrangements of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chain gene by multiplex PCR.

  11. Primary endobronchial plasmacytoma involving local lymph nodes and presenting with rare immunoglobulin G lambda monoclonal gammopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sen; Li, Xin; Song, Zuoqing; Zhao, Honglin; Qiu, Xiaomin; Gong, Lei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma occurring as a primary pulmonary lesion is rare. The present report describes a 42-year-old Chinese man diagnosed with primary pulmonary plasmacytoma following left lower lobectomy. Of note, an extremely rare immunoglobulin G lambda paraprotein was documented in the patient’s serum by immunofixation electrophoresis. The patient has been well, showing no local recurrence or multifocal disease during a 15-month follow-up. PMID:22679619

  12. Organization, complexity and allelic diversity of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda locus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, John C; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    We have characterized the organization, complexity, and expression of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) light chain locus, which accounts for about half of antibody light chain usage in swine, yet is nearly totally unknown. Twenty-two IGL variable (IGLV) genes were identified that belong to seven subgroups. Nine genes appear to be functional. Eight possess stop codons, frameshifts, or both, and one is missing the V-EXON. Two additional genes are missing an essential cysteine residue and are classified as ORF (open reading frame). The IGLV genes are organized in two distinct clusters, a constant (C)-proximal cluster dominated by genes similar to the human IGLV3 subgroup, and a C-distal cluster dominated by genes most similar to the human IGLV8 and IGLV5 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the porcine IGLV8 subgroup genes have recently expanded, suggesting a particularly effective role in immunity to porcine-specific pathogens. Moreover, expression of IGLV genes is nearly exclusively restricted to the IGLV3 and IGLV8 genes. The constant locus comprises three tandem cassettes comprised of a joining (IGLJ) gene and a constant (IGLC) gene, whereas a fourth downstream IGLJ gene has no corresponding associated IGLC gene. Comparison of individual BACs generated from the same individual revealed polymorphisms in IGLC2 and several IGLV genes, indicating that allelic variation in IGLV further expands the porcine antibody light chain repertoire.

  13. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  14. Absence of {lambda} immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A.; White, B.N.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter{r_arrow}22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned {lambda} immunoglobulin ({lambda} Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 {lambda} Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the {lambda} Ig gene region. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Rearrangement of mouse immunoglobulin kappa deleting element recombining sequence promotes immune tolerance and lambda B cell production.

    PubMed

    Vela, José Luis; Aït-Azzouzene, Djemel; Duong, Bao Hoa; Ota, Takayuki; Nemazee, David

    2008-02-01

    The recombining sequence (RS) of mouse and its human equivalent, the immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa deleting element (IGKDE), are sequences found at the 3' end of the Ig kappa locus (Igk) that rearrange to inactivate Igk in developing B cells. RS recombination correlates with Ig lambda (Iglambda) light (L) chain expression and likely plays a role in receptor editing by eliminating Igk genes encoding autoantibodies. A mouse strain was generated in which the recombination signal of RS was removed, blocking RS-mediated Igk inactivation. In RS mutant mice, receptor editing and self-tolerance were impaired, in some cases leading to autoantibody formation. Surprisingly, mutant mice also made fewer B cells expressing lambda chain, whereas lambda versus kappa isotype exclusion was only modestly affected. These results provide insight into the mechanism of L chain isotype exclusion and indicate that RS has a physiological role in promoting the formation of lambda L chain-expressing B cells.

  16. Detection of normal B-cell precursors that give rise to colonies producing both kappa and lambda light immunoglobulin chains.

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, H; Paige, C J

    1987-01-01

    The pre-B-cell cloning assay is an in vitro differentiation system in which B-lymphocyte precursors expand and generate colonies containing immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Analysis of surface characteristics, growth requirements, and kinetics suggested that these cells represent early stages of the B-cell differentiation pathway. Here we describe a modification of the assay, which allowed us to determine the differentiative potential of these clonable pre-B cells. Using a nitrocellulose protein-transfer technique, we studied immunoglobulin light chain expression in colonies derived from fetal mouse liver B-cell precursors; in particular, we explored whether the B-cell precursors are already committed to the expression of a particular light chain gene at the initiation of culture. Our results show that fetal liver-derived B-cell progenitors generate colonies in vitro that secrete kappa and lambda light chains at a ratio similar to that found in colonies derived from adult splenic B cells. Further, we document the existence of colonies that are derived from single cells and that simultaneously secrete both types of light chains. This indicates that the progenitors of (kappa + lambda)-producing colonies are light chain-uncommitted at the initiation of culture. These cells are able to rearrange their light chain genes in vitro and differentiate along the B-cell pathway to form colonies secreting both kappa and lambda chains. PMID:3110779

  17. Lambda Immunoglobulin Light Chain Restricted B Cells in the Ascitic Fluid in Association with Terminal Ileal Florid Follicular Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aqil, Barina; Xie, Wei; Szigeti, Reka

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing reactive changes from neoplastic processes during lymphoid tissue evaluation is oftentimes difficult. Ancillary studies, such as flow cytometry, may aid the diagnosis by demonstrating monotypic or polytypic light chain expression on the B cells. The detection of immunoglobulin light chain restricted B cell population is considered a surrogate marker of clonality, which can be confirmed by molecular assays. In general, the presence of a monotypic B cell population in the ascitic fluid is considered lymphomatous involvement rather than a reactive condition. We describe a young, previously healthy male patient who developed ascites with a lambda light chain restricted B cell population. Further investigation revealed florid follicular hyperplasia, histologically mimicking diffuse large B cell lymphoma, in the terminal ileum. Follicular hyperplasia in the gastrointestinal tract with lambda light chain restricted B cells has been recently described in the pediatric population. Importantly, our case demonstrates that such entity can occur in older age groups. This recognition could prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment in similar cases.

  18. Four primordial immunoglobulin light chain isotypes, including lambda and kappa, identified in the most primitive living jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Flajnik, Martin F

    2007-10-01

    The discovery of a fourth immunoglobulin (Ig) light (L) chain isotype in sharks has revealed the origins and natural history of all vertebrate L chains. Phylogenetic comparisons have established orthology between this new shark L chain and the unique Xenopus L chain isotype sigma. More importantly, inclusion of this new L chain family in phylogenetic analyses showed that all vertebrate L chains can be categorized into four ancestral clans originating prior to the emergence of cartilaginous fish: one restricted to elasmobranchs (sigma-cart/type I), one found in all cold-blooded vertebrates (sigma/teleost type 2/elasmobranch type IV), one in all groups except bony fish (lambda/elasmobranch type II), and one in all groups except birds (kappa/elasmobranch type III/teleost type 1 and 3). All four of these primordial L chain isotypes (sigma, sigma-cart, lambda and kappa) have maintained separate V region identities since their emergence at least 450 million years ago, suggestive of an ancient physiological distinction of the L chains. We suggest that, based upon unique, discrete sizes of complementarity determining regions 1 and 2 and other features of the V region sequences, the different L chain isotypes arose to provide different functional conformations in the Ig binding site when they pair with heavy chains.

  19. Triple Immunoglobulin Gene Knockout Transchromosomic Cattle: Bovine Lambda Cluster Deletion and Its Effect on Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-an; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Wang, Zhongde; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Towards the goal of producing fully human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs or hIgGs) in transchromosomic (Tc) cattle, we previously reported that Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (hIGH), kappa-chain (hIGK), and lambda-chain (hIGL) germline loci produced physiological levels of hIgGs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, were homozygously inactivated (bIGHM−/−, bIGHML1−/−; double knockouts or DKO). However, because endogenous bovine immunoglobulin light chain loci are still intact, the light chains are produced both from the hIGK and hIGL genomic loci on the HAC and from the endogenous bovine kappa-chain (bIGK) and lambda-chain (bIGL) genomic loci, resulting in the production of fully hIgGs (both Ig heavy-chains and light-chains are of human origin: hIgG/hIgκ or hIgG/hIgλ) and chimeric hIgGs (Ig heavy-chains are of human origin while the Ig light-chains are of bovine origin: hIgG/bIgκ or hIgG/bIgλ). To improve fully hIgG production in Tc cattle, we here report the deletion of the entire bIGL joining (J) and constant (C) gene cluster (bIGLJ1-IGLC1 to bIGLJ5-IGLC5) by employing Cre/loxP mediated site-specific chromosome recombination and the production of triple knockout (bIGHM−/−, bIGHML1−/− and bIGL−/−; TKO) Tc cattle. We further demonstrate that bIGL cluster deletion greatly improves fully hIgGs production in the sera of TKO Tc cattle, with 51.3% fully hIgGs (hIgG/hIgκ plus hIgG/hIgλ). PMID:24603704

  20. Triple immunoglobulin gene knockout transchromosomic cattle: bovine lambda cluster deletion and its effect on fully human polyclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Wang, Zhongde; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Towards the goal of producing fully human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs or hIgGs) in transchromosomic (Tc) cattle, we previously reported that Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (hIGH), kappa-chain (hIGK), and lambda-chain (hIGL) germline loci produced physiological levels of hIgGs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, were homozygously inactivated (bIGHM-/-, bIGHML1-/-; double knockouts or DKO). However, because endogenous bovine immunoglobulin light chain loci are still intact, the light chains are produced both from the hIGK and hIGL genomic loci on the HAC and from the endogenous bovine kappa-chain (bIGK) and lambda-chain (bIGL) genomic loci, resulting in the production of fully hIgGs (both Ig heavy-chains and light-chains are of human origin: hIgG/hIgκ or hIgG/hIgλ) and chimeric hIgGs (Ig heavy-chains are of human origin while the Ig light-chains are of bovine origin: hIgG/bIgκ or hIgG/bIgλ). To improve fully hIgG production in Tc cattle, we here report the deletion of the entire bIGL joining (J) and constant (C) gene cluster (bIGLJ1-IGLC1 to bIGLJ5-IGLC5) by employing Cre/loxP mediated site-specific chromosome recombination and the production of triple knockout (bIGHM-/-, bIGHML1-/- and bIGL-/-; TKO) Tc cattle. We further demonstrate that bIGL cluster deletion greatly improves fully hIgGs production in the sera of TKO Tc cattle, with 51.3% fully hIgGs (hIgG/hIgκ plus hIgG/hIgλ).

  1. Monoclonal immunoglobulin M lambda coagulation inhibitor with phospholipid specificity. Mechanism of a lupus anticoagulant.

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajan, P; Shapiro, S S; De Marco, L

    1980-01-01

    Prolongation of all phospholipid-dependent coagulation tests was found in a patient with macroglobulinemia, despite absence of bleeding manifestations. The purified monoclonal IgM lambda protein and its Fabmu tryptic fragment induced similar changes in normal plasma. Patient IgM and Fabmu completely inhibited Ca++-dependent binding of radiolabeled prothrombin and Factor X to mixed phospholipid micelles. The patient's IgM lambda paraprotein reacted with phosphatidylserine and, to a lesser extent, with phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, but not with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. Prior incubation of phospholipid with patient Fabmu blocked the positive reactions. Substitution of washed platelets for phospholipid led to normalization of patient coagulation tests and corrected all abnormalities produced in normal plasma by patient IgM. Furthermore, binding of 125I-Factor Xa to thrombin-treated platelets was entirely normal in the presence of patient IgM. These studies support the concept that platelets, rather than phospholipid micelles, are the primary locus of prothrombin and Factor X activation in normal hemostasis. Images PMID:6772673

  2. The structure of immunoglobulin variable regions in the horned shark,Heterodontus francisci.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, J M; Sharon, J; Gerber-Jenson, B; Litman, G W

    1978-12-01

    The heavy and light chains of pooled antibodies of the hybodont shark,Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), were subjected to amino acid sequence analysis. Yield determinations showed that more than 90% of the available polypeptides in the respective pools were sequenced. The heavy chains were homogeneous in the initial framework segment and showed a sequence homology of approximately 70% with the corresponding region of the more recently evolved nurse shark and a 45% homology with a human myeloma heavy chain. The light chains were less homogeneous and not identifiable as either kappa or lambda chains as known in higher species. The first half-cystine characteristics of the variable domain intrachain disulfide bridge of immunoglobulins was present in the same position (22 for heavy chains; 23 for light chains) in the horned shark as in mammalian species. The sequence analysis also suggested the presence of a hypervariable region in the horned shark light chains. The combined data imply that the antigen-binding function of immunoglobulins is mediated in much the same manner in this primitive shark as in more recently evolved species, including mammals.

  3. Cloning of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody sequences and identification of a new hamster immunoglobulin lambda constant IGLC gene region

    PubMed Central

    Haggart, Ryan; Perera, Jason; Huang, Haochu

    2013-01-01

    Anti-CD79 antibodies have been effective at targeting B cell lymphoma cells and depleting B cells in animal models. In order to engineer recombinant antibodies with additional effector functions in mice, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNAs of the heavy and light chain of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody. Although hamster antibodies represent a unique source of monoclonal antibodies against mouse, rat, and human antigens, sequence information of hamster immunoglobulins (IG) is sparse. Here we report a new hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) IG lambda constant (IGLC) gene region that is most homologous to mouse IGLC2 and IGLC3. PMID:23558558

  4. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs.

  5. Immunoglobulin G concentration in canine colostrum: Evaluation and variability.

    PubMed

    Mila, Hanna; Feugier, Alexandre; Grellet, Aurélien; Anne, Jennifer; Gonnier, Milène; Martin, Maelys; Rossig, Lisa; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Canine neonates are born hypogammaglobulinemic, and colostrum is their main source of immunoglobulins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune quality of canine colostrum and its variability both among bitches and among mammary glands. The immune quality was estimated from immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration (ELISA test). The correlation of IgG concentration with refractometry was evaluated. From a total of 44 bitches from 13 different breeds from a single breeding kennel, samples of colostrum and blood were collected one day after the parturition onset. Colostrum was collected separately from each pair of mammary glands (180 pairs). The mean colostrum IgG concentration in our population was 20.8 ± 8.1g/L (ranging from 8.0 to 41.7 g/L) with no influence of breed size, litter size, age of dam or serum IgG concentration. Colostrum IgG concentration varied widely among pairs of mammary glands within one bitch (variation coefficient: 42 ± 32.1%). Nevertheless, no single pair of mammary glands was found to produce regularly a secretion of higher quality. No difference in IgG concentration was recorded between anterior and posterior pairs either. The BRIX index and the refractive index were significantly, but moderately correlated with colostrum IgG concentration (r=0.53 and 0.42, respectively). This study demonstrates a great variability in immune quality of colostrum among bitches and among mammary glands within one bitch. Further studies on the suckling behavior of puppies and on determination of the minimal immune quality of colostrum are required to evaluate their impact of this high variability on neonatal mortality in dogs.

  6. Patterns of Somatic Mutations in Immunoglobulin Variable Genes

    PubMed Central

    Golding, G. Brian; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Glickman, Barry W.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for somatic mutation in the variable genes of antibodies is unknown and may differ from previously described mechanisms that produce mutation in DNA. We have analyzed 421 somatic mutations from the rearranged immunoglobulin variable genes of mice to determine (1) if the nucleotide substitutions differ from those generated during meiosis and (2) if the presence of nearby direct and inverted repeated sequences could template mutations around the variable gene. The results reveal a difference in the pattern of substitutions obtained from somatic mutations vs. meiotic mutations. An increased frequency of T:A to C:G transitions and a decreased frequency of mutations involving a G in the somatic mutants compared to the meiotic mutants is indicated. This suggests that the mutational processes responsible for somatic mutation in antibody genes differs from that responsible for mutation during meiosis. An analysis of the local DNA sequences revealed many direct repeats and palindromic sequences that were capable of templating some of the known mutations. Although additional factors may be involved in targeting mutations to the variable gene, mistemplating by nearby repeats may provide a mechanism for the enhancement of somatic mutation. PMID:3557109

  7. Immunoglobulin variable region structure and B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kiyoi, H; Naoe, T

    2001-01-01

    The enormous diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) gene sequences encoding the antibody repertoire are formed by the somatic recombination of relatively few genetic elements. In B-lineage malignancies, Ig gene rearrangements have been widely used for determining clonality and cell origin. The recent development of rapid cloning and sequencing techniques has resulted in a substantial accumulation of IgV region sequences at various stages of B-cell development and has revealed stage-specific trends in the use of V, diversity, joining genes, the degree of noncoding nucleotide addition, and the rate of somatic mutations. Furthermore, sequences from B-lineage malignant cells nearly reflect the characteristics of the normal counterpart at each respective stage of development. Alternatively, from the IgV region structure of the malignant cells, it is possible to speculate at which stage of B-cell development the cells were transformed. As the complete nucleotide sequences of the human Ig heavy and Ig light V region loci have now been determined, the study of Ig genetics has entered into the super-information era.

  8. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-04-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the za approximately equal ze absorption system of the ze = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at za = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from ze strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other za approximately equal ze absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 1018/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 1020/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link za approximately equal to ze systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the Ne VIII absorbing gas would itself produce measurable warm

  9. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  10. Thrombocytopenia in common variable immunodeficiency patients - clinical course, management, and effect of immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Siedlar, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Szaflarska, Anna; Błaut-Szlósarczyk, Anita; Zwonarz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency of humoral immunity with heterogeneous clinical features. Diagnosis of CVID is based on hypogammaglobulinaemia, low production of specific antibodies, and disorders of cellular immunity. The standard therapy includes replacement of specific antibodies with human immunoglobulin, prophylaxis, and symptomatic therapy of infections. High prevalence of autoimmunity is characteristic for CVID, most commonly: thrombocytopaenia and neutropaenia, celiac disease, and systemic autoimmune diseases. The study included seven children diagnosed with CVID and treated with immunoglobulin substitution from 2 to 12 years. Thrombocytopenia was diagnosed prior to CVID in four children, developed during immunoglobulin substitution in three children. In one boy with CVID and thrombocytopaenia, haemolytic anaemia occurred, so a diagnosis of Evans syndrome was established. Therapy of thrombocytopaenia previous to CVID included steroids and/or immunoglobulins in high dose, and azathioprine. In children with CVID on regular immunoglobulin substitution, episodes of acute thrombocytopaenia were associated with infections and were treated with high doses of immunoglobulins and steroids. In two patients only chronic thrombocytopaenia was noted. Splenectomy was necessary in one patient because of severe course of thrombocytopaenia. The results of the study indicated a supportive role of regular immunoglobulin substitution in patients with CVID and chronic thrombocytopaenia. However, regular substitution of immunoglobulins in CVID patients did not prevent the occurrence of autoimmune thrombocytopaenia episodes or exacerbations of chronic form. In episodes of acute thrombocytopaenia or exacerbations of chronic thrombocytopaenia, infusions of immunoglobulins in high dose are effective, despite previous regular substitution in the replacing dose.

  11. Long-range restriction map of human chromosome 22q11-22q12 between the lambda immunoglobulin locus and the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint

    SciTech Connect

    McDermid, H.E. ); Budarf, M.L.; Emanuel, B.S. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA )

    1993-11-01

    A long-range restriction map of the region between the immunoglobulin lambda locus and the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint has been constructed using the rare-cutting enzymes NotI, NruI, AscI, and BsiWI. The map spans approximately 11,000 kb and represents about one-fifth of the long arm of chromosome 22. Thirty-nine markers, including seven NotI junction clones as well as numerous genes and anonymous sequences, were mapped to the region with a somatic cell hybrid panel. These probes were then used to produce the map. The seven NotI junction clones each identified a possible CpG island. The breakpoints of the RAJ5 hybrid and the Ewing sarcoma t(11;22) were also localized in the resulting map. This physical map will be useful in studying chromosomal rearrangements in the region, as well as providing the details to examine the fidelity of the YAC and cosmid contigs currently under construction. Comparisons of this physical map to genetic and radiation hybrid maps are discussed. 52 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Heat-induced formation of a specific binding site for self-assembled Congo Red in the V domain of immunoglobulin L chain lambda.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, B; Konieczny, L; Rybarska, J; Stopa, B; Zemanek, G; Szneler, E; Król, M; Nowak, M; Roterman, I

    2001-11-01

    Moderate heating (40-50 degrees C) of immunoglobulins makes them accessible for binding with Congo Red and some related highly associated dyes. The binding is specific and involves supramolecular dye ligands presenting ribbon-like micellar bodies. The L chain lambda dimer, which upon heating disclosed the same binding requirement with respect to supramolecular dye ligands, was used in this work to identify the site of their attachment. Two clearly defined dye-protein (L lambda chain) complexes arise upon heating, here called complex I and complex II. The first is formed at low temperatures (up to 40-45 degrees C) and hence by a still native protein, while the formation of the second one is associated with domain melting above 55 degrees C. They contain 4 and 8 dye molecules bound per L chain monomer, respectively. Complex I also forms efficiently at high dye concentration even at ambient temperature. Complex I and its formation was the object of the present studies. Three structural events that could make the protein accessible to penetration by the large dye ligand were considered to occur in L chains upon heating: local polypeptide chain destabilization, VL-VL domain incoherence, and protein melting. Of these three possibilities, local low-energy structural alteration was found to correlate best with the formation of complex I. It was identified as decreased packing stability of the N-terminal polypeptide chain fragment, which as a result made the V domain accessible for dye penetration. The 19-amino acid N-terminal fragment becomes susceptible to proteolytic cleavage after being replaced by the dye at its packing locus. Its splitting from the dye-protein complex was proved by amino acid sequence analysis. The emptied packing locus, which becomes the site that holds the dye, is bordered by strands of amino acids numbered 74-80 and 105-110, as shown by model analysis. The character of the temperature-induced local polypeptide chain destabilization and its possible

  13. Immunoglobulin V/J recombination is accompanied by deletion of joining site and variable region segments.

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, J G; Nau, M M; Norman, B; Kwan, S P; Scharff, M; Leder, P

    1980-01-01

    A site-specific recombination event is responsible for the somatic activation of immunoglobulin genes and for generating a major share of immunoglobulin gene diversity. Although several possible mechanisms can be proposed to account for this process, recombinatio accompanied by deletion is a particularly attractive mechanism because it might utilize inverted repeat sequences noted on the 3' side of all variable regions and on the 5' side of all joining site segments thus far studied. Testing this model is complicated by the fact that antibody cells are at least diploid and gene segments on the inactive chromosome can obscure deletions occurring within the active gene. Accordingly, we have screened several immunoglobulin-producing plasmacytoma lines to select those in which both chromosomes are rearranged. By using appropriate cell lines and variable and joining region probes in in situ hybridization experiments, we show that recombination is accompanied by the deletion of both variable and joining region genes. These experiments also allow us to map the site of V/J recombination of several active immunoglobulin genes and suggest an order and orientation for variable, joining, and constant region sequences. Images PMID:6777777

  14. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene usage and (super)-antigen drive in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Andreas; Zenz, Thorsten; Stilgenbauer, Stephan

    2010-01-15

    Increasing evidence supports the prognostic relevance of specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes or stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCR) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The clonotypic BCRs differ in their specificity and affinity toward classical antigens and/or superantigens. The BCR-triggered mechanisms are distinct but could explain in part the different clinical behavior among CLL subgroups.

  15. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with myopathic dropped head syndrome and common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Rosato, E; Molinaro, I; Pisarri, S; Salsano, F

    2011-01-01

    Prominent neck extension weakness is an uncommon clinical entity, also termed dropped-head syndrome, that may be part of a generalized neuromuscular disorder. We report here the case of a woman with dropped-head syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to systemic sclerosis. Subsequently, she developed common variable immunodeficiency and subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy was started. After two months from the start of therapy we did not observe any improvement in the degree of flexion of the head, although the clinical examination shows an improvement in neck extensor muscle strength. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy could be a possible therapeutic option for the treatment of myopathic neck extensor weakness.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Sera from Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients Undergoing Replacement Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Spadaro, Giuseppe; D'Orio, Concetta; Genovese, Arturo; Galeotafiore, Antonella; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Di Giovanni, Stefano; Vitale, Monica; Capasso, Mario; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Scaloni, Andrea; Marone, Gianni; Zambrano, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency is the most common form of symptomatic primary antibody failure in adults and children. Replacement immunoglobulin is the standard treatment of these patients. By using a differential proteomic approach based on 2D-DIGE, we examined serum samples from normal donors and from matched, naive, and immunoglobulin-treated patients. The results highlighted regulated expression of serum proteins in naive patients. Among the identified proteins, clusterin/ApoJ serum levels were lower in naive patients, compared to normal subjects. This finding was validated in a wider collection of samples from newly enrolled patients. The establishment of a cellular system, based on a human hepatocyte cell line HuH7, allowed to ascertain a potential role in the regulation of CLU gene expression by immunoglobulins. PMID:21960740

  17. Quantification of Peptides from Immunoglobulin Constant and Variable Regions by Liquid Chromatography-Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry for Assessment of Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Remily-Wood, Elizabeth R.; Benson, Kaaron; Baz, Rachid C.; Chen, Y. Ann; Hussein, Mohamad; Hartley-Brown, Monique A.; Sprung, Robert W.; Perez, Brianna; Liu, Richard Z.; Yoder, Sean; Teer, Jamie; Eschrich, Steven A.; Koomen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Quantitative mass spectrometry assays for immunoglobulins (Igs) are compared with existing clinical methods in samples from patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, e.g. multiple myeloma. Experimental design Using LC-MS/MS data, Ig constant region peptides and transitions were selected for liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM). Quantitative assays were used to assess Igs in serum from 83 patients. Results LC-MRM assays quantify serum levels of Igs and their isoforms (IgG1–4, IgA1–2, IgM, IgD, and IgE, as well as kappa(κ) and lambda(λ) light chains). LC-MRM quantification has been applied to single samples from a patient cohort and a longitudinal study of an IgE patient undergoing treatment, to enable comparison with existing clinical methods. Proof-of-concept data for defining and monitoring variable region peptides are provided using the H929 multiple myeloma cell line and two MM patients. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance LC-MRM assays targeting constant region peptides determine the type and isoform of the involved immunoglobulin and quantify its expression; the LC-MRM approach has improved sensitivity compared with the current clinical method, but slightly higher interassay variability. Detection of variable region peptides is a promising way to improve Ig quantification, which could produce a dramatic increase in sensitivity over existing methods, and could further complement current clinical techniques. PMID:24723328

  18. Coding strategy differences between constant and variable segments of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, P

    1984-01-01

    Vertebrate immunoglobulin (Ig) mRNAs reveal intraspecies variation in codon usage distinct from that seen with yeast or bacterial genes. Comparison of all available Ig gene sequences shows that %(G + C) in codon position III is consistently lower in variable (V) segments than in constant (C) segments. I find an even lower %(G + C) in the hypervariable domains of V segments. This analysis suggests that base substitution in Ig genes correlates positively with local A + T content. PMID:6462913

  19. Half molecular exchange of IgGs in the blood of healthy humans: chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins containing HL fragments of antibodies of different subclasses (IgG1-IgG4).

    PubMed

    Sedykh, Sergey E; Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Prince, Viktor V; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-10-20

    In the classic paradigm, immunoglobulins represent products of clonal B cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen (monospecific). There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monospecific molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. But the issue concerning the possibility of exchange by HL-fragments between the antibody molecules in human blood is still unexplored. Different physico-chemical and immunological methods for analysis of half-molecule exchange between human blood IgGs were used. Using eighteen blood samples of healthy humans we have shown unexpected results for the first time: blood antibodies undergo extensive post-transcriptional half-molecule exchange and IgG pools on average consist of 62.4 ± 6.5% IgGs containing kappa light chains (kappa-kappa-IgGs), 29.8.6 ± 5.4% lambda light chains (lambda-lambda-IgGs), and 8.8 ± 2.7% (range 2.6-16.8%) IgGs containing both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained on average (%): IgG1 (36.0 and 32.3), IgG2 (50.9 and 51.4), IgG3 (9.7 and 9.9), and IgG4 (6.5 and 5.7), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 25.5 ± 4.2 IgG1, 50.8 ± 3.9 IgG2, 9.1 ± 2.1 IgG3, and 14.5 ± 2.2 IgG4. Our unexpected data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between blood IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens. The existence of blood chimeric bifunctional IgGs with different binding sites destroys the classic paradigm. Due to the phenomenon of polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of bifunctional IgGs containing HL-fragments of different types to different antigens, such IgGs may be important in human blood for widening their different biological functions.

  20. Structure reveals function of the dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig™) molecule.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Clarissa G; Edalji, Rohinton; Judge, Russell A; DiGiammarino, Enrico; Li, Yingchun; Gu, Jijie; Ghayur, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Several bispecific antibody-based formats have been developed over the past 25 years in an effort to produce a new generation of immunotherapeutics that target two or more disease mechanisms simultaneously. One such format, the dual-variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig™), combines the target binding domains of two monoclonal antibodies via flexible naturally occurring linkers, which yields a tetravalent IgG - like molecule. We report the structure of an interleukin (IL)12-IL18 DVD-Ig™ Fab (DFab) fragment with IL18 bound to the inner variable domain (VD) that reveals the remarkable flexibility of the DVD-Ig™ molecule and how the DVD-Ig™ format can function to bind four antigens simultaneously. An understanding of how the inner variable domain retains function is of critical importance for designing DVD-Ig™ molecules, and for better understanding of the flexibility of immunoglobulin variable domains and linkers, which may aid in the design of improved bi- and multi-specific biologics in general.

  1. Complex regional pain syndrome treated with intravenous immunoglobulin in a patient with common variable immune deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tachdjian, Raffi

    2013-12-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) represents a large heterogeneous group of antibody-deficiency syndromes associated with a wide range of clinical features and a lack of defined causes in the realm of primary immunodeficiencies. Here, we present a case of CVID in a 62-year-old white male patient with a history of longstanding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). His medical history included multiple sinus infections per year and several pneumonias requiring antibiotics. He has had various back surgeries, including a laminectomy at the L4 level 1 year prior to his diagnosis. Thereafter, he underwent four sympathetic nerve blocks with minimal pain relief. Blood chemistries showed a normal white blood cell count with a normal differential, but increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. Total Ig (Immunoglobulin)G was 611 mg/dL (normal 700-1,600), IgG1 was 425 mg/dL (341-894), IgG2 was 114 mg/dL (171-632), IgG3 was 14.4 mg/dL (18.4-106), and IgG4 was 7.4 mg/dL (2.4-121). IgA was 47 mg/dL (normal 70-400), IgM was 131 mg/dL (40-230), and IgE was 4.5 kU/L (<4.0). He only had 10 of 23 pneumococcal titers in the protective range post-vaccination. Upon treatment of the CVID with intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's pain levels were significantly decreased and have been maintained for more than 2 years. Therefore, immunoglobulin therapy appears to have been beneficial in the treatment of the patient's symptoms of CRPS, including pain. Additional studies investigating the mechanism by which immunoglobulin therapy may reduce the inflammation and pain of CRPS are needed.

  2. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia associated with common variable immunodeficiency resolved with intravenous immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Arish, N; Eldor, R; Fellig, Y; Bogot, N; Laxer, U; Izhar, U; Rokach, A

    2006-12-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease. A few case reports have described an association with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Corticosteroids are usually used to treat symptomatic patients but their efficacy has never been studied in a controlled trial. We describe a patient with LIP and CVID who was treated monthly with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) without steroids. The patient improved dramatically. We believe that, in selected cases of LIP and immunodeficiency, IVIG given monthly should be considered as the only treatment without adding steroids.

  3. SAW: a graphical user interface for the analysis of immunoglobulin variable domain sequences.

    PubMed

    Elgavish, R A; Schroeder, H W

    1993-12-01

    The Sequence Analysis Workshop (SAW) is an interactive program for sequence analysis of immunoglobulin variable domains. Sequences for SAW can be obtained from GenBank or from a standard text file. SAW can compare a variable domain to as many as 100 different sequences, calculate the extent of homology, sort the sequences by their degree of similarity, translate the nucleotide codons into amino acids and then display the results in either a graphical or text format. These comparisons allow the investigator to determine the likely germ-line progenitors of a variable domain and to visualize how it differs from other antibody genes by functional region. SAW supports replacement and silent site substitution analysis by either codon or region, thus providing rapid insight into the forces that have shaped mutations. The sequence comparisons can be printed out as an aid for paper analysis or for preparation of figures for publication. SAW is written in Microsoft C for use with the Microsoft Windows graphics environment. The use of color and graphics, the generation of subsidiary windows that contain the results of specific analyses and the mouse-driven control of the program make SAW an easy-to-use tool for immunoglobulin sequence comparison.

  4. A family of variable immunoglobulin and lect in domain containing molecules in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Duval, David; Mouahid, Gabriel; Emans, Rémi; Allienne, Jean-François; Galinier, Richard; Genthon, Clémence; Dubois, Emeric; Pasquier, Louis Du; Adema, Coen M; Grunau, Christoph; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Technical limitations have hindered comprehensive studies of highly variable immune response molecules that are thought to have evolved due to pathogen-mediated selection such as Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) from Biomphalaria glabrata. FREPs combine upstream immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains with a C-terminal fibrinogen-related domain (FreD) and participate in reactions against trematode parasites. From RNAseq data we assembled a de novo reference transcriptome of B. glabrata to investigate the diversity of FREP transcripts. This study increased over two-fold the number of bonafide FREP subfamilies and revealed important sequence diversity within FREP12 subfamily. We also report the discovery of related molecules that feature one or two IgSF domains associated with different C-terminal lectin domains, named C-type lectin-related proteins (CREPs) and Galectin-related protein (GREP). Together, the highly similar FREPs, CREPs and GREP were designated VIgL (Variable Immunoglobulin and Lectin domain containing molecules). PMID:25451302

  5. Immunoglobulin K light chain deficiency: A rare, but probably underestimated, humoral immune defect.

    PubMed

    Sala, Pierguido; Colatutto, Antonio; Fabbro, Dora; Mariuzzi, Laura; Marzinotto, Stefania; Toffoletto, Barbara; Perosa, Anna R; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Human immunoglobulin molecules are generated by a pair of identical heavy chains, which identify the immunoglobulin class, and a pair of identical light chains, Kappa or Lambda alternatively, which characterize the immunoglobulin type. In normal conditions, Kappa light chains represent approximately 2/3 of the light chains of total immunoglobulins, both circulating and lymphocyte surface bound. Very few cases of immunoglobulin Kappa or Lambda light chain defects have been reported. Furthermore, the genetic basis of this defect has been extensively explored only in a single case. We report a case of a patient suffering of serious recurrent bacterial infections, which was caused by a very rare form of immunoglobulin disorder, consisting of a pure defect of Kappa light chain. We evaluated major serum immunoglobulin concentrations, as well as total and free Kappa and Lambda light chain concentrations. Lymphocyte phenotyping was also performed and finally we tested the Kappa chain VJ rearrangement as well as the constant Kappa region sequence. Studies performed on VJ rearrangement showed a polyclonal genetic arrangement, whereas the gene sequencing for the constant region of Kappa chain showed a homozygous T to G substitution at the position 1288 (rs200765148). This mutation causes a substitution from Cys to Gly in the protein sequence and, therefore, determines the abnormal folding of the constant region of Kappa chain. We suggest that this defect could lead to an effective reduction of the variability of total antibody repertoire and a consequent defect of an apparently normal immunoglobulin response to common antigens.

  6. SUBGROUPS OF AMINO ACID SEQUENCES IN THE VARIABLE REGIONS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS*

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Bruce A.; Pflumm, Mollie N.; User, Urs Rutisha; Edelman, Gerald M.

    1969-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the first 133 residues of the heavy (γ) chain from a human γG immunoglobulin (He) has been determined. This γ-chain is identical in Gm type to that of protein Eu, the complete sequence of which has been reported. Comparison of the two sequences substantiates the previous suggestion that there are subgroups of variable regions of heavy chains. The variable region of Eu has been assigned to subgroup I and that of He to subgroup II; on the other hand, the constant regions of the two proteins appear to be identical. Comparison of the sequence of the heavy chain of He with the heavy chain sequences determined in other laboratories suggests that the variable region of subgroup II is at least 118 residues long. The nature and distribution of amino acid variations in this heavy chain subgroup resemble those observed in light chain subgroups. These studies provide evidence that the translocation hypothesis applies to heavy as well as to light chains, viz., genes for variable regions (V) are somatically translocated to genes for constant regions (C) to form complete VC structural genes. Images PMID:5264153

  7. Complementarity-determining region 2 is implicated in the binding of staphylococcal protein A to human immunoglobulin VHIII variable regions.

    PubMed

    Randen, I; Potter, K N; Li, Y; Thompson, K M; Pascual, V; Førre, O; Natvig, J B; Capra, J D

    1993-10-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) has two distinct binding sites on human immunoglobulins. In addition to binding to the Fc region of most IgG molecules, an "alternative" binding site has been localized to the Fab region of human immunoglobulins encoded by heavy chain variable gene segments belonging to the VHIII family. Comparison of amino acid sequences of closely related SPA-binding and -non-binding proteins suggested that VHIII-specific residues in the second complementarity-determining region (CDR2) were likely responsible for SPA binding activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of a single amino acid residue in CDR2 converted an IgM rheumatoid factor which did not bind SPA to an SPA binder. These findings, therefore, locate a critical site involved in SPA binding to the CDR2 of human immunoglobulins encoded by VHIII family gene segments.

  8. Molecular characterization of the immunoglobulin light chain variable region repertoire of human autoantibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Victor, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular structures of the light chain variable regions encoding human autoantibodies have been studied in detail. The variable region repertoire among this group of antibodies is diverse. There is no evidence for preferential utilization of specific V[sub L] gene families or over-representation of certain V[sub L] gene segments in autoantibodies. Many autoreactive antibodies utilize direct copies of known germline gene segments with little evidence of somatic mutation, supporting the conclusion that at least some germline gene segments encode autoreactivity. Additionally, the structures of several autoantibodies are clearly the product of somatic mutation. Lastly, affinity maturation has been demonstrated in two clonally related IgM rheumatoid factors suggestive of an antigen driven response. The heterogeneity of the V[sub L] region repertoire in human autoantibodies challenges evidence in the literature suggesting that the majority of human autoantibodies utilize the same or closely related germline gene segments with no evidence of somatic mutation. In addition, this study has documented that variation in the length of the light chain is a common feature in human antibodies. Length variation is confined to the V[sub k]-J[sub k] joint of CDR3 and occurs in all V[sub k] gene families. Analysis of the structures of the V[sub k]-J[sub k] joints suggests that both germline derived and non-germline encoded nucleotides (N-segments), probably the result of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity, contribute to the junctional diversity of the immunoglobulin light chain variable region. Thus, length variation at the V[sub L]-J[sub L] joint is a frequent event having the potential to expand the diversity of the antibody molecule.

  9. Co-deposition of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light and heavy chains in localized pulmonary amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Batia; Martin, Brian M; Boykov, Olga; Gal, Rivka; Pras, Mordechai; Shechtman, Itzhak; Saute, Milton; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2005-10-01

    Localized pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare condition whose pathogenesis is insufficiently understood. In the present study, we report a case of localized pulmonary amyloidosis associated with lung-restricted lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma, monoclonal for immunoglobulin (Ig) G lambda (lambda). Biochemical microtechniques have been applied for extraction, purification, and characterization of amyloid proteins. Surprisingly, chemical analysis of these proteins revealed a not-previously-described case of combined deposits containing Ig fragments of gamma heavy chain (variable domain) and lambda light chain (constant domain). In view of the absence of circulating monoclonal Ig, this case supports the hypothesis that localized amyloid is formed by local plasmacytoid cells.

  10. Immunoglobulin variable-region gene mutational lineage tree analysis: application to autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Steiman-Shimony, Avital; Edelman, Hanna; Barak, Michal; Shahaf, Gitit; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Stott, David I; Abraham, Roshini S; Mehr, Ramit

    2006-04-01

    Lineage trees have frequently been drawn to illustrate diversification, via somatic hypermutation (SHM), of immunoglobulin variable-region (IGV) genes. In order to extract more information from IGV sequences, we developed a novel mathematical method for analyzing the graphical properties of IgV gene lineage trees, allowing quantification of the differences between the dynamics of SHM and antigen-driven selection in different lymphoid tissues, species, and disease situations. Here, we investigated trees generated from published IGV sequence data from B cell clones participating in autoimmune responses in patients with Myasthenia Gravis (MG), Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), and Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). At present, as no standards exist for cell sampling and sequence extraction methods, data obtained by different research groups from two studies of the same disease often vary considerably. Nevertheless, based on comparisons of data groups within individual studies, we show here that lineage trees from different individual patients are often similar and can be grouped together, as can trees from two different tissues in the same patient, and even from IgG- and IgA-expressing B cell clones. Additionally, lineage trees from most studies reflect the chronic character of autoimmune diseases.

  11. Mapping of human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene segments outside the major IGH locus

    SciTech Connect

    Wintle, R.F.; Cox, D.W. |

    1994-09-01

    Physical mapping of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene cluster (IGH) on chromosome 14 has previously shown that the locus includes at least 63 variable region (VH) gene segments. Fifteen VH gene segments are located on six NotI DNA restriction fragments that are not within the mapped region of IGH. We have used human/rodent somatic cell hybrid lines to map these genes segments, as it was previously not proven that they are located in the chromosome 14 IGH locus. Four gene segments map to human chromosome 16 and two to chromosome 15. Apparently, four of the six NotI fragments, representing 11 VH gene segments, are not located within the chromosome 14 IGH locus. In addition, we have demonstrated that a YAC containing a functional human telomere, and mapping to 14qter, is located at the telomeric end of the IGH gene cluster physical map and contains at least four VH gene segments. This YAC is collinear with the existing physical map of genomic DNA. We conclude that our original physical map of IGH represents almost the entire locus on chromosome 14 and that the 11 gene segments newly mapped are not part of the functional IGH locus. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is associated with the proximal immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, M A; Gibson, W T; Ebers, G C; Cox, D W

    1991-01-01

    15 immunoglobulin heavy chain constant (CH) and variable region (VH) polymorphisms were selected to span the entire length of the heavy chain cluster. These polymorphisms were examined in 34 sib pairs concordant for multiple sclerosis (MS) and in 23 sporadic MS patients. Allele frequencies were calculated for the 2 MS patient groups and compared with those found in a control population from the same geographical location and of similar ethnic background. No significant association was found between MS and the 7 CH region polymorphisms examined. However, a significant correlation between the MS phenotype and a VH2 family polymorphism was observed in both MS patient populations (familial MS patients chi 2 = 8.16, P less than 0.005; sporadic MS patients chi 2 = 8.90, P less than 0.005). One allele of the VH2-5 gene segment was found to be over-represented in both MS groups. VH2-5 has recently been physically mapped close to the CH region, between 180 and 360 kb away. These results indicate that a locus near or within the CH-proximal VH region is associated with increased susceptibility to MS. Images PMID:1672695

  13. Stochastic rearrangement of immunoglobulin variable-region genes in chicken B-cell development.

    PubMed

    Benatar, T; Tkalec, L; Ratcliffe, M J

    1992-08-15

    The molecular mechanism by which immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangement occurs is highly conserved between mammalian and avian species. However, in avian species, an equivalent to the mammalian pre-B cell, which has undergone Ig heavy-chain gene rearrangement and expresses mu heavy chains in the absence of Ig light-chain rearrangement, has not been convincingly demonstrated. It is consequently unclear whether an ordered progression of gene rearrangement events leading to functional Ig expression occurs in avian species. To examine the sequence of Ig gene rearrangement events in chicken B-cell development, we transformed day 12 embryo bursal cells with the REV-T(CSV) retrovirus. More than 100 clones were analyzed by Southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ig gene rearrangements. The majority of these clones contained only germline Ig sequences. Several clones contained complete heavy- and light-chain rearrangements and 13 clones contained only heavy-chain rearrangements analogous to stages of mammalian B-cell development. However, 5 clones contained rearrangements of light-chain genes in the absence of complete heavy-chain rearrangement. Consequently, we conclude that rearrangement of chicken Ig light-chain genes does not require heavy-chain variable-region rearrangement. This observation suggests that chicken Ig gene rearrangement events required for Ig expression occur stochastically rather than sequentially.

  14. Chromosomal orientation of the lambda light chain locus: V lambda is proximal to C lambda in 22q11.

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, B S; Cannizzaro, L A; Magrath, I; Tsujimoto, Y; Nowell, P C; Croce, C M

    1985-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the chromosomal breakpoint at 22q11 of a Burkitt lymphoma cell line (PA682) with an 8;22 translocation interrupts the variable region of the lambda light chain locus. In these cells, all of the C lambda and some V lambda sequences translocate to the 8q+ chromosome whereas some V lambda sequences remain on the 22q-. These results indicate that the lambda light chain locus on the long arm of chromosome 22 is oriented such that V lambda is proximal to C lambda. Images PMID:3923432

  15. Lightest Double-Lambda Hypernucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaichi-Maeda, S.; Akaishi, Y.

    1990-12-01

    A variational calculation for (4) _{Lambda Lambda}H is made by employing the phenomenological N Lambda and Lambda Lambda potentials derived recently. It is shown that the binding of (4) _{Lambda Lambda}H below the Lambda+(3}_{Lambda) H threshold is consistent with the (6) _{Lambda Lambda}He data, and also with the (10) _{Lambda Lambda}Be data when repulsive alpha alpha Lambda and alpha Lambda Lambda three-body forces are considered.

  16. Interleukin-21 restores immunoglobulin production ex vivo in patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Borte, Stephan; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Liu, Chonghai; Sack, Ulrich; Borte, Michael; Wagner, Ulf; Graf, Dagmar; Hammarström, Lennart

    2009-11-05

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an important promoter for differentiation of human B cells into immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate an IL-21-based approach to induce immunoglobulin production in B cells from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) or selective IgA deficiency (IgAD). We show that a combination of IL-21, IL-4, and anti-CD40 stimulation induces class-switch recombination to IgG and IgA and differentiation of Ig-secreting cells, consisting of both surface IgG(+) (sIgG(+)) and sIgA(+) B cells and CD138(+) plasma cells, in patients with CVID or IgAD. Stimulation with IL-21 was far more effective than stimulation with IL-4 or IL-10. Moreover, spontaneous apoptosis of CD19(+) B cells from patients with CVID or IgAD was prevented by a combination of IL-21, IL-4, and anti-CD40 stimulation. Analysis of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) mRNA expression upon anti-CD3 stimulation of T cells, however, showed no evidence for defective IL-21 expression in CVID patients and sequencing of the coding regions of the IL21 gene did not reveal any mutations, suggesting a regulatory defect. Thus, our work provides an initial basis for a potential therapeutic role of IL-21 to reconstitute immunoglobulin production in CVID and IgAD.

  17. [Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in adults with common variable immunodeficiency treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. What formula should we use?].

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Arturo; Miranda, Guadalupe; López, Eunice; Rodríguez, Karen; Segura, Nora

    2014-01-01

    The common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by absence of isohemagglutinins and two standard deviations of normal levels of immunoglobulins. His treatment includes administering immunoglobulin, more frequently intravenous (IVIG). A side effect is the possible severe renal insufficiency secondary to the use of preparations containing sucrose. These patients have weight loss, decreased muscle mass associated with gastrointestinal disorders and bronchiectasis that limit physical activity and other factors. There are different formulas for determining the glomerular filtration rate, we compared the most commonly used to determine the most appropriate in this population. To determine the correlation between glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD formula, CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault and that obtained through the urine creatinine clearance 24 h in patients with common variable immunodeficiency who are treated with IVIG. A transversal, observational and descriptive study that included 19 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 12 women and 7 men, mean age 36 years, was done. Descriptive statistics with mean, median, mode and standard deviation was used. To measure the concordance of the measurements for quantitative variables intraclass correlation coefficient was used and to determine the correlation between the stages of renal function with different formulas kappa index was calculated. The values of the intraclass correlation coefficient showed a good correlation between creatinine clearance in 24 h urine with CKDEPI, mediocre with MDRD and nil with the Cockroft-Gault formula. Glomerular filtration rate obtained with CKD-EPI proved to be partially most useful, with a good correlation in relation to urine creatinine clearance in 24 h. Its routine use is recommended over other formulas in common variable immunodeficiency patients with suspected renal disease secondary to the use of IVIG.

  18. Antigen-specific immunoglobulin variable region sequencing measures humoral immune response to vaccination in the equine neonate

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven C.; Parry, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    The value of prophylactic neonatal vaccination is challenged by the interference of passively transferred maternal antibodies and immune competence at birth. Taken our previous studies on equine B cell ontogeny, we hypothesized that the equine neonate generates a diverse immunoglobulin repertoire in response to vaccination, independently of circulating maternal antibodies. In this study, equine neonates were vaccinated with 3 doses of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or equine influenza vaccine, and humoral immune responses were assessed using antigen-specific serum antibodies and B cell Ig variable region sequencing. An increase (p<0.0001) in serum KLH-specific IgG level was measured between days 21 and days 28, 35 and 42 in vaccinated foals from non-vaccinated mares. In vaccinated foals from vaccinated mares, serum KLH-specific IgG levels tended to increase at day 42 (p = 0.07). In contrast, serum influenza-specific IgG levels rapidly decreased (p≤0.05) in vaccinated foals from vaccinated mares within the study period. Nevertheless, IGHM and IGHG sequences were detected in KLH- and influenza- sorted B cells of vaccinated foals, independently of maternal vaccination status. Immunoglobulin nucleotide germline identity, IGHV gene usage and CDR length of antigen-specific IGHG sequences in B cells of vaccinated foals revealed a diverse immunoglobulin repertoire with isotype switching that was comparable between groups and to vaccinated mares. The low expression of CD27 memory marker in antigen-specific B cells, and of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon in vitro immunogen stimulation indicated limited lymphocyte population expansion in response to vaccine during the study period. PMID:28520789

  19. Identification of anti-ErbB2 dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig™) proteins with unique activities.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinming; Yang, Jinsong; Chang, Qing; Lu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jieyi; Chen, Mingjiu; Ghayur, Tariq; Gu, Jijie

    2014-01-01

    Inhibiting ErbB2 signaling with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or small molecules is an established therapeutic strategy in oncology. We have developed anti-ErbB2 Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig) proteins that capture the function of a combination of two anti-ErbB2 antibodies. In addition, some of the anti-ErbB2 DVD-Ig proteins gain the new functions of enhancing ErbB2 signaling and cell proliferation in N87 cells. We further found that two DVD-Ig proteins, DVD687 and DVD688, have two distinct mechanisms of actions in Calu-3 and N87 cells. DVD687 enhances cell cycle progression while DVD688 induces apoptosis in N87 cells. Using a half DVD687, we found that avidity may play a key role in the agonist activity of DVD687 in N87 cells.

  20. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes.

  1. Lambda Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  2. Shell-model predictions for Lambda Lambda hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gal, A.; Millener, D.

    2011-06-02

    It is shown how the recent shell-model determination of {Lambda}N spin-dependent interaction terms in {Lambda} hypernuclei allows for a reliable deduction of {Lambda}{Lambda} separation energies in {Lambda}{Lambda} hypernuclei across the nuclear p shell. Comparison is made with the available data, highlighting {sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}{sup 11}Be and {sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}{sup 12}Be which have been suggested as possible candidates for the KEK-E373 HIDA event.

  3. Ligand association rates to the inner-variable-domain of a dual-variable-domain immunoglobulin are significantly impacted by linker design.

    PubMed

    Digiammarino, Enrico L; Harlan, John E; Walter, Karl A; Ladror, Uri S; Edalji, Rohinton P; Hutchins, Charles W; Lake, Marc R; Greischar, Amy J; Liu, Junjian; Ghayur, Tariq; Jakob, Clarissa G

    2011-01-01

    The DVD-Ig (TM) protein is a dual-specific immunoglobulin. Each of the two arms of the molecule contains two variable domains, an inner variable domain and an outer variable domain linked in tandem, each with binding specificity for different targets or epitopes. One area of on-going research involves determining how the proximity of the outer variable domain affects the binding of ligands to the inner variable domain. To explore this area, we prepared a series of DVD-Ig proteins with binding specificities toward TNFα and an alternate therapeutic target. Kinetic measurements of TNFα binding to this series of DVD-Ig proteins were used to probe the effects of variable domain position and linker design on ligand on- and off-rates. We found that affinities for TNFα are generally lower when binding to the inner domain than to the outer domain and that this loss of affinity is primarily due to reduced association rate. This effect could be mitigated, to some degree, by linker design. We show several linker sequences that mitigate inner domain affinity losses in this series of DVD-Ig proteins. Moreover, we show that single chain proteolytic cleavage between the inner and outer domains, or complete outer domain removal, can largely restore inner domain TNFα affinity to that approaching the reference antibody. Taken together, these results suggest that a loss of affinity for inner variable domains in this set of DVD-Ig proteins may be largely driven by simple steric hindrance effects and can be reduced by careful linker design.

  4. High-throughput sequencing of human immunoglobulin variable regions with subtype identification.

    PubMed

    Schanz, Merle; Liechti, Thomas; Zagordi, Osvaldo; Miho, Enkelejda; Reddy, Sai T; Günthard, Huldrych F; Trkola, Alexandra; Huber, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The humoral immune response plays a critical role in controlling infection, and the rapid adaptation to a broad range of pathogens depends on a highly diverse antibody repertoire. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies in the past decade has enabled insights into this immense diversity. However, not only the variable, but also the constant region of antibodies determines their in vivo activity. Antibody isotypes differ in effector functions and are thought to play a defining role in elicitation of immune responses, both in natural infection and in vaccination. We have developed an Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing protocol that allows determination of the human IgG subtype alongside sequencing full-length antibody variable heavy chain regions. We thereby took advantage of the Illumina procedure containing two additional short reads as identifiers. By performing paired-end sequencing of the variable regions and customizing one of the identifier sequences to distinguish IgG subtypes, IgG transcripts with linked information of variable regions and IgG subtype can be retrieved. We applied our new method to the analysis of the IgG variable region repertoire from PBMC of an HIV-1 infected individual confirmed to have serum antibody reactivity to the Membrane Proximal External Region (MPER) of gp41. We found that IgG3 subtype frequencies in the memory B cell compartment increased after halted treatment and coincided with increased plasma antibody reactivity against the MPER domain. The sequencing strategy we developed is not restricted to analysis of IgG. It can be adopted for any Ig subtyping and beyond that for any research question where phasing of distant regions on the same amplicon is needed.

  5. Secretion of a chimeric T-cell receptor-immunoglobulin protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gascoigne, N R; Goodnow, C C; Dudzik, K I; Oi, V T; Davis, M M

    1987-01-01

    To produce sufficient quantities of soluble T-cell receptor protein for detailed biochemical and biophysical analyses we have explored the use of immunoglobulin--T-cell receptor gene fusions. In this report we describe a chimeric gene construct containing a T-cell receptor alpha-chain variable (V) domain and the constant (C) region coding sequences of an immunoglobulin gamma 2a molecule. Cells transfected with the chimeric gene synthesize a stable protein product that expresses immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor antigenic determinants as well as protein A binding sites. We show that the determinant recognized by the anticlonotypic antibody A2B4.2 resides on the V alpha domain of the T-cell receptor. The chimeric protein associates with a normal lambda light chain to form an apparently normal tetrameric (H2L2, where H = heavy and L = light) immunoglobulin molecule that is secreted. Also of potential significance is the fact that a T-cell receptor V beta gene in the same construct is neither assembled nor secreted with the lambda light chain, and when expressed with a C kappa region it does not assemble with the chimeric V alpha C gamma 2a protein mentioned above. This indicates that not all T-cell receptor V regions are similar enough to immunoglobulin V regions for them to be completely interchangeable. Images PMID:3472243

  6. [Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in pregnancy. Report of a patient with common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; García-Ramírez, Ulises Noel; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel Gerardo; López-Pérez, Patricia; Chávez-García, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: La inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficiencia primaria más diagnosticada en los adultos; se caracteriza por infecciones sinopulmonares y gastrointestinales de repetición y mayor incidencia de procesos autoinmunes y malignidad. Numerosos pacientes inician con las manifestaciones clínicas durante la edad reproductiva. Caso clínico: Mujer de 34 años de edad con 12 semanas de gestación, en quien se diagnosticó inmunodeficiencia común variable después de cuadros recurrentes de rinosinusitis, faringoadmidalitis y neumonías. Durante el segundo trimestre se prescribió 0.6 g/kg de inmunoglobulina intravenosa cada 21 días; la paciente solo presentó un episodio de faringoamigdalitis, con adecuada respuesta al tratamiento con antibióticos. Durante el tercer trimestre se ajustó la dosis a cada 14 días. La paciente concluyó el embarazo a término sin complicaciones, con producto sin malformaciones y con peso y talla adecuados. Conclusiones: La administración de inmunoglobulina es el principal tratamiento para controlar la inmunodeficiencia común variable. Si bien la dosis inicial recomendada es de 400-800 mg/kg en forma intravenosa cada 3 a 4 semanas, no existe un consenso sobre la dosis que debe emplearse en la mujer que cursa con embarazo. La recomendación es realizar controles de niveles séricos antes de la infusión para determinarla y ajustarla.

  7. Immunoglobulin variable region hypermutation is associated with a DNA repair deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Valles-Ayoub, Y.; Govan, H.L. III; Braun, J. )

    1991-03-11

    The molecular mechanism of Ig variable region hypermutation is unknown, but has been hypothesized to involve an error-prone DNA repair process. In this study, the authors used a novel PCR-based assay to compare repair of UV-induced DNA damage in mantle zone versus germinal center B lymphocytes. They observed that DNA repair activity within rearranged VDJ loci was sluggish in germinal center B lymphocytes compared to repair activity monitored in mantle zone B lymphocytes. In contrast, DNA repair times within the germline V{sub H}5 gene family, the variable region J{sub H}{endash}C{sub H} intron, and the N-ras gene was rapid and similar in both germinal center and mantle zone B cells. These results reflect a DNA repair deficit which, as expected for hypermutation, is selective for rearranged Ig VDG in germinal center cells. To directly measure the fidelity of DNA repair, the repaired PCR-amplified gene segments were analyzed for sequence changes by restriction enzyme digestion. In experiments thus far, repair of germline V{sub H}5 was error-free in both germinal center and mantle zone B cells. However, while rearranged V{sub H}5 segments were also error-free in mantle zone cells, they were highly mutated in germinal center cells. These findings provide direct biochemical evidence for the role of a sequence- and stage-specific error-prone DNA repair pathway in Ig V gene hypermutation.

  8. A large section of the gene locus encoding human immunoglobulin variable regions of the kappa type is duplicated.

    PubMed

    Pech, M; Smola, H; Pohlenz, H D; Straubinger, B; Gerl, R; Zachau, H G

    1985-06-05

    The structure of a new segment of the gene locus encoding the variable regions of human immunoglobulins of the Kappa type (VK) has been elucidated. This segment (cluster B) encompasses six VK sequences, which belong to three different subgroups and which are arranged in the same transcriptional orientation. Part of cluster B was found to be very similar to another region of the VK gene locus, which was cloned previously (cluster A). Sequence differences between the homologous region of clusters A and B range from 0.2% to 3.7% depending on the position of the VK sequences. The divergence is in the same range for genes and pseudogenes. Hybridization experiments with DNAs from different individuals clearly demonstrate that the two segments are located at different positions within the VK locus and do not represent allelic variants. The sequence homology between clusters A and B is higher than the homology of both clusters to an allelic variant, which is represented by a DNA segment that had been isolated from another individual. These results, together with a report in the literature of two other homologous regions in the VK locus, make it very likely that a major part of even the whole locus is duplicated. In this case, VK gene numbers would be higher than previously estimated on the basis of hybridization studies. An inverse orientation of VK gene clusters would explain published data on rearrangement products in B-cells if an inversion-deletion mechanism is assumed.

  9. Integrity of immunoglobulin variable region is supported by GANP during AID-induced somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells.

    PubMed

    Eid, Mohammed Mansour Abbas; Shimoda, Mayuko; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Almofty, Sarah Ameen; Pham, Phuong; Goodman, Myron F; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2017-05-24

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) affinity maturation depends on somatic hypermutation (SHM) in variable (V) regions initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID induces transition mutations by C→U deamination on both strands, causing C:G→T:A. Error-prone repairs of U by base excision and mismatch repairs create transversion mutations at C/G and mutations at A/T sites. In Neuberger's model, it remained to clarify how transition/transversion repair is regulated. We investigate role of AID-interacting GANP (germinal-center associated nuclear protein) in IgV SHM profile. GANP enhances transition mutation of nontranscribed-strand G and reduces mutation at A, restricted to GYW of AID hotspot motif. It reduces DNA polymerase η hotspot mutations associated with mismatch repairs followed by uracil-DNA glycosylase. Mutation comparison between IgV complementary and framework regions by Statistical Bayesian estimation demonstrates GANP supports to preserve IgV framework region genomic sequences. GANP works to maintain antibody structure by reducing drastic changes in IgV framework region in affinity maturation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society for Immunology.

  10. Lectins from opportunistic bacteria interact with acquired variable-region glycans of surface immunoglobulin in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Dunja; Dühren-von Minden, Marcus; Alkhatib, Alabbas; Setz, Corinna; van Bergen, Cornelis A. M.; Benkißer-Petersen, Marco; Wilhelm, Isabel; Villringer, Sarah; Krysov, Sergey; Packham, Graham; Zirlik, Katja; Römer, Winfried; Buske, Christian; Stevenson, Freda K.; Veelken, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expression is a key feature of most B-cell lymphomas, but the mechanisms of BCR signal induction and the involvement of autoantigen recognition remain unclear. In follicular lymphoma (FL) B cells, BCR expression is retained despite a chromosomal translocation that links the antiapoptotic gene BCL2 to the regulatory elements of immunoglobulin genes, thereby disrupting 1 heavy-chain allele. A remarkable feature of FL-BCRs is the acquisition of potential N-glycosylation sites during somatic hypermutation. The introduced glycans carry mannose termini, which create potential novel binding sites for mannose-specific lectins. Here, we investigated the effect of N-linked variable-region glycosylation for BCR interaction with cognate antigen and with lectins of different origins. N-glycans were found to severely impair BCR specificity and affinity to the initial cognate antigen. In addition, we found that lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia bind and stimulate FL cells. Human exposure to these bacteria can occur by contact with soil and water. In addition, they represent opportunistic pathogens in susceptible hosts. Understanding the role of bacterial lectins might elucidate the pathogenesis of FL and establish novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25784678

  11. Lectins from opportunistic bacteria interact with acquired variable-region glycans of surface immunoglobulin in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Dunja; Dühren-von Minden, Marcus; Alkhatib, Alabbas; Setz, Corinna; van Bergen, Cornelis A M; Benkißer-Petersen, Marco; Wilhelm, Isabel; Villringer, Sarah; Krysov, Sergey; Packham, Graham; Zirlik, Katja; Römer, Winfried; Buske, Christian; Stevenson, Freda K; Veelken, Hendrik; Jumaa, Hassan

    2015-05-21

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expression is a key feature of most B-cell lymphomas, but the mechanisms of BCR signal induction and the involvement of autoantigen recognition remain unclear. In follicular lymphoma (FL) B cells, BCR expression is retained despite a chromosomal translocation that links the antiapoptotic gene BCL2 to the regulatory elements of immunoglobulin genes, thereby disrupting 1 heavy-chain allele. A remarkable feature of FL-BCRs is the acquisition of potential N-glycosylation sites during somatic hypermutation. The introduced glycans carry mannose termini, which create potential novel binding sites for mannose-specific lectins. Here, we investigated the effect of N-linked variable-region glycosylation for BCR interaction with cognate antigen and with lectins of different origins. N-glycans were found to severely impair BCR specificity and affinity to the initial cognate antigen. In addition, we found that lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia bind and stimulate FL cells. Human exposure to these bacteria can occur by contact with soil and water. In addition, they represent opportunistic pathogens in susceptible hosts. Understanding the role of bacterial lectins might elucidate the pathogenesis of FL and establish novel therapeutic approaches.

  12. Effect of Excipients on Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation and Aggregation in Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin Protein Solutions.

    PubMed

    Raut, Ashlesha S; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2016-03-07

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and aggregation can reduce the physical stability of therapeutic protein formulations. On undergoing LLPS, the protein-rich phase can promote aggregation during storage due to high concentration of the protein. Effect of different excipients on aggregation in protein solution is well documented; however data on the effect of excipients on LLPS is scarce in the literature. In this study, the effect of four excipients (PEG 400, Tween 80, sucrose, and hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD)) on liquid-liquid phase separation and aggregation in a dual variable domain immunoglobulin protein solution was investigated. Sucrose suppressed both LLPS and aggregation, Tween 80 had no effect on either, and PEG 400 increased LLPS and aggregation. Attractive protein-protein interactions and liquid-liquid phase separation decreased with increasing concentration of HPβCD, indicating its specific binding to the protein. However, HPβCD had no effect on the formation of soluble aggregates and fragments in this study. LLPS and aggregation are highly temperature dependent; at low temperature protein exhibits LLPS, at high temperature protein exhibits aggregation, and at an intermediate temperature both phenomena occur simultaneously depending on the solution conditions.

  13. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen-C genes in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ozgur; Musabak, Ugur; Yesillik, Sait; Sagkan, Rahsan I; Pekel, Aysel; Demirel, Fevzi; Baysan, Abdullah; Selçuk, Ali; Güleç, Mustafa; Şener, Osman

    2016-11-01

    We aimed herein to investigate the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C alleles in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and to reveal their differences from those in healthy population. In all, 18 patients who have been diagnosed with CVID and 15 living donors of kidney transplant recipients were enrolled in the study. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing method was used in molecular genetic analysis. The frequencies of the genes in the study groups were statistically compared with each other using chi-square or Fisher exact tests, whichever were appropriate. Although there was no significant difference between both study groups with respect to distribution of KIR and HLA-C2 group genes, HLA-Cw7 allele frequency in patients with CVID was significantly lower than that in healthy population (P = 0.008). This present study results support that HLA-Cw7 allele, an inhibitor of KIR ligand, may play a role in the pathogenesis of CVID.

  14. Effects of functional water on heart rate, heart rate variability, and salivary immunoglobulin a in healthy humans: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Benny

    2009-08-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of drinking an average dietary volume of functional water on blood pressure, short-term cardiovascular variables, and salivary immunoglobulin A. Subjects were studied in a randomized pre-post crossover design the morning after an overnight fast. Fifteen (15) healthy nonsmoking subjects, 8 males and 7 females, aged between 15 and 49 years, participated in the study. Short-term (10 minute) electrocardiography was measured in the participants before and after drinking either control mineral or functional water. The measurements were randomized, double blinded, and held two weeks apart. Saliva was collected for 4 minutes before the start of each electrocardiograph measurement. Blood pressure was monitored at 5 minute intervals for one hour as the mean of triplicate consecutive measurements. Drinking 100 mL of control mineral or functional water did not alter arterial blood pressure in the 60 minutes post-drinking. Drinking control mineral water led to a significant fall in the heart rate, although all time domain and power density parameters remained unaffected. Consumption of functional water resulted in a significant difference in all time domain measures and in three of the power density parameters. The heart rate fell, while RR interbeat intervals, standard deviation of the normal-to-normal heartbeats (SDNN), and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD) increased. A large rise in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power had a significant effect on total power, indicating homeodynamic balance. Elevated LF power indicated intensified spectral power at frequencies in the range of 0.1 Hz, thus improving autonomic stability. The effect on the heart rate may confirm changes in cellular metabolism. Parasympathetic pathway activation stimulated secretory immunoglobulin A on mucosal surfaces, which protects against pathogenic invasion. The drinking of functional water in healthy subjects

  15. [Adverse effects with ambulatory intravenous immunoglobulin administration in adult patients with common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen A; Galguera-Sauceda, Angélica; Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice G; Campos-Romero, Freya; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel; Amaya-Mejía, Adela; Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy; O'Farril-Romanillos, Patricia; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficiencia primaria sintomática más frecuente, afecta a 1 por cada 25,000 a 75,000 sujetos. Se distingue por la ausencia o disminución de anticuerpos. Su tratamiento consiste en el reemplazo de anticuerpos con inmunoglobulina humana y la vía de administración más frecuente es la intravenosa, a dosis de 400 a 800 mg/kg de peso/dosis cada tres a cuatro semanas. Los efectos adversos asociados con la administración de inmunoglobulina intravenosa (IgIV) ocurren incluso en 25% de todas las infusiones realizadas, las reacciones severas afectan a menos de 1% de los pacientes. Entre las reacciones adversas severas están la insuficiencia renal aguda, que sobreviene 1 a 10 días después del inicio de tratamiento con IgIV. En nuestro centro elaboramos e implementamos un esquema ambulatorio para la aplicación de IgIV que permite su administración en un promedio de 3 h, sin efectos adversos graves. Objetivos: describir los efectos adversos y evaluar la frecuencia de insuficiencia renal secundaria a la aplicación ambulatoria de IgIV en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio descriptivo y prospectivo en el que participaron pacientes adultos con diagnóstico definitivo de inmunodeficiencia común variable, que recibían IgIV a dosis de sustitución cada tres semanas, a quienes se realizó exploración física, somatometría, determinación sérica de creatinina, albúmina y urea, depuración de creatinina en orina de 24 horas, cálculo de la tasa de filtración glomerular por la fórmula CKD-EPI y evaluación de la función renal inmediata, así como la asociada con la administración acumulada de IgIV a través del cálculo de la tasa de filtración glomerular. Los resultados se analizaron con estadística descriptiva para el reporte de los efectos en la función renal y la dosis acumulada de IgIV. Resultados: se determinó la frecuencia de reacciones adversas

  16. Rearrangement of immunoglobulin light chain genes in the chicken occurs prior to colonization of the embryonic bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed Central

    Mansikka, A; Sandberg, M; Lassila, O; Toivanen, P

    1990-01-01

    We have applied polymerase-chain-reaction-directed immunoglobulin gene analysis to study the embryonic differentiation of chicken B cells. Immunoglobulin light chain DNA segments in the rearranged configuration were amplified from cells of the intraembryonic mesenchyme as early as day 7 of incubation. We showed by sequencing that the rearranged variable region genes in these early B-cell progenitors were not different from the germ-line V lambda 1 gene (the single functional light chain variable region gene in chickens). In the bursal B lymphocytes, on the other hand, clear gene conversion events were first observed at day 15 of embryonic development. The present data indicate that rearrangement of light chain genes in the chicken occurs independently of the bursa of Fabricius and that diversification of the variable region begins only later, when the surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells are proliferating in the bursal follicles. Images PMID:2123557

  17. Viscosity Analysis of Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin Protein Solutions: Role of Size, Electroviscous Effect and Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Raut, Ashlesha S; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2016-01-01

    Increased solution viscosity results in difficulties in manufacturing and delivery of therapeutic protein formulations, increasing both the time and production costs, and leading to patient inconvenience. The solution viscosity is affected by the molecular properties of both the solute and the solvent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of size, charge and protein-protein interactions on the viscosity of Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig(TM)) protein solutions. The effect of size of the protein molecule on solution viscosity was investigated by measuring intrinsic viscosity and excluded volume calculations for monoclonal antibody (mAb) and DVD-Ig(TM) protein solutions. The role of the electrostatic charge resulting in electroviscous effects for DVD-Ig(TM) protein was assessed by measuring zeta potential. Light scattering measurements were performed to detect protein-protein interactions affecting solution viscosity. DVD-Ig(TM) protein exhibited significantly higher viscosity compared to mAb. Intrinsic viscosity and excluded volume calculations indicated that the size of the molecule affects viscosity significantly at higher concentrations, while the effect was minimal at intermediate concentrations. Electroviscous contribution to the viscosity of DVD-Ig(TM) protein varied depending on the presence or absence of ions in the solution. In buffered solutions, negative k D and B 2 values indicated the presence of attractive interactions which resulted in high viscosity for DVD-Ig(TM) protein at certain pH and ionic strength conditions. Results show that more than one factor contributes to the increased viscosity of DVD-Ig(TM) protein and interplay of these factors modulates the overall viscosity behavior of the solution, especially at higher concentrations.

  18. Gene Expression Profiling in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Modulation of Adaptive Immune Response following Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Alessandro; Tinazzi, Elisa; Rizzi, Monica; Beri, Ruggero; Argentino, Giuseppe; Ottria, Andrea; Lunardi, Claudio; Puccetti, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular intravenous immunoglobulin treatment is used to replace antibody deficiency in primary immunodeficiency diseases; however the therapeutic effect seems to be related not only to antibody replacement but also to an active role in the modulation of the immune response. Common variable immunodeficiency is the most frequent primary immunodeficiency seen in clinical practice. Methods We have studied the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement in patients with common variable immunodeficiency by evaluating the gene-expression profiles from Affimetrix HG-U133A. Some of the gene array results were validated by real time RT-PCR and by the measurement of circulating cytokines and chemokines by ELISA. Moreover we performed FACS analysis of blood mononuclear cells from the patients enrolled in the study. Results A series of genes involved in innate and acquired immune responses were markedly up- or down-modulated before therapy. Such genes included CD14, CD36, LEPR, IRF-5, RGS-1, CD38, TNFRSF25, IL-4, CXCR4, CCR3, IL-8. Most of these modulated genes showed an expression similar to that of normal controls after immunoglobulin replacement. Real time RT-PCR of selected genes and serum levels of IL-4, CXCR4 before and after therapy changed accordingly to gene array results. Interestingly, serum levels of IL-8 remained unchanged, as the corresponding gene, before and after treatment. FACS analysis showed a marked decrease of CD8+T cells and an increase of CD4+T cells following treatment. Moreover we observed a marked increase of CD23−CD27−IgM−IgG− B cells (centrocytes). Conclusions Our results are in accordance with previous reports and provide further support to the hypothesis that the benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are not only related to antibody replacement but also to its ability to modulate the immune response in common variable immunodeficiency. PMID:24831519

  19. {Lambda} single particle energies

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, Q.N.; Bodmer, A.R. |

    1999-11-01

    The {Lambda} single-particle energies B{sub {Lambda}} of hypernuclei (HN) are calculated microscopically using the Fermi hypernetted chain method to obtain for our {Lambda}N and {Lambda}NN potentials the {Lambda} binding D({rho}) to nuclear matter, and the effective mass m{sub {Lambda}}{sup {asterisk}}({rho}) at densities {rho}{le}{rho}{sub 0} ({rho}{sub 0} is normal nuclear density), and also the corresponding effective {Lambda}N and {Lambda}NN potentials. The {Lambda} core-nucleus potential U{sub {Lambda}}(r) is obtained by suitably folding these into the core density. The Schr{umlt o}dinger equation for U{sub {Lambda}} and m{sub {Lambda}}{sup {asterisk}} is solved for B{sub {Lambda}}. The fringing field (FF) due to the finite range of the effective potentials is theoretically required. We use a dispersive {Lambda}NN potential but also include a phenomenological {rho} dependence allowing for less repulsion for {rho}{lt}{rho}{sub 0}, i.e., in the surface. The best fits to the data with a FF give a large {rho} dependence, equivalent to an {ital A} dependent strength consistent with variational calculations of {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He, indicating an effective {Lambda}NN dispersive potential increasingly repulsive with {ital A} whose likely interpretation is in terms of dispersive plus two-pion-exchange {Lambda}NN potentials. The well depth is 29{plus_minus}1&hthinsp;MeV. The {Lambda}N space-exchange fraction corresponds to m{sub {Lambda}}{sup {asterisk}}({rho}){approx}0.75{endash}0.80 and a ratio of {ital p}- to {ital s}-state potentials of {approx}0.5{plus_minus}0.1. Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) is significant for heavy HN with a large neutron excess; with a FF the strength agrees with that obtained from the A=4&hthinsp;HN. The fits without FF are excellent but inconsistent with the requirement for a FF, with {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He, and also with the CSB sign for A=4. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Expression and Functional Properties of an Anti-Triazophos High-Affinity Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody with Specific Lambda Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Liang, Xiao; Xiang, Dandan; Guo, Yirong; Liu, Yihua; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos is a widely used organophosphorous insecticide that has potentially adverse effects to organisms. In the present study, a high-affinity single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody with specific lambda light chain was developed for residue monitoring. First, the specific variable regions were correctly amplified from a hybridoma cell line 8C10 that secreted monoclonal antibody (mAb) against triazophos. The regions were then assembled as scFv via splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the recombinant anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain HB2151 in soluble form, purified through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and verified via Western blot and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses. Afterward, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established based on the purified anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 antibody. The assay exhibited properties similar to those based on the parent mAb, with a high sensitivity (IC50 of 1.73 ng/mL) to triazophos and no cross reaction for other organophosphorus pesticides; it was reliable in detecting triazophos residues in spiked water samples. Moreover, kinetic measurement using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor indicated that the purified scFv-8C10 antibody had a high affinity of 1.8 × 10−10 M and exhibited good binding stability. Results indicated that the recombinant high-affinity scFv-8C10 antibody was an effective detection material that would be promising for monitoring triazophos residues in environment samples. PMID:27338340

  1. New diagnostic criteria for common variable immune deficiency (CVID), which may assist with decisions to treat with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Ameratunga, R; Woon, S-T; Gillis, D; Koopmans, W; Steele, R

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency in adults. The standard of care is intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (scIG) therapy. The cause of CVID is currently unknown, and there is no universally accepted definition of CVID. This creates problems in determining which patients will benefit from IVIG/scIG treatment. In this paper, we review the difficulties with the commonly used European Society of Immune Deficiencies (ESID) and the Pan American Group for Immune Deficiency (PAGID) definition of CVID. We propose new criteria for the diagnosis of CVID, which are based on recent scientific discoveries. Improved diagnostic precision will assist with treatment decisions including IVIG/scIG replacement. We suggest that asymptomatic patients with mild hypogammaglobulinaemia are termed hypogammaglobulinaemia of uncertain significance (HGUS). These patients require long-term follow-up, as some will evolve into CVID. PMID:23859429

  2. New diagnostic criteria for common variable immune deficiency (CVID), which may assist with decisions to treat with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, R; Woon, S-T; Gillis, D; Koopmans, W; Steele, R

    2013-11-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency in adults. The standard of care is intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (scIG) therapy. The cause of CVID is currently unknown, and there is no universally accepted definition of CVID. This creates problems in determining which patients will benefit from IVIG/scIG treatment. In this paper, we review the difficulties with the commonly used European Society of Immune Deficiencies (ESID) and the Pan American Group for Immune Deficiency (PAGID) definition of CVID. We propose new criteria for the diagnosis of CVID, which are based on recent scientific discoveries. Improved diagnostic precision will assist with treatment decisions including IVIG/scIG replacement. We suggest that asymptomatic patients with mild hypogammaglobulinaemia are termed hypogammaglobulinaemia of uncertain significance (HGUS). These patients require long-term follow-up, as some will evolve into CVID. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  3. Anti-HIV Double Variable Domain Immunoglobulins Binding Both gp41 and gp120 for Targeted Delivery of Immunoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Ryan B.; Summa, Christopher M.; Corti, Miriam; Pincus, Seth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anti-HIV immunoconjugates targeted to the HIV envelope protein may be used to eradicate the latent reservoir of HIV infection using activate-and-purge protocols. Previous studies have identified the two target epitopes most effective for the delivery of cytotoxic immunoconjugates the CD4-binding site of gp120, and the hairpin loop of gp41. Here we construct and test tetravalent double variable domain immunoglobulin molecules (DVD-Igs) that bind to both epitopes. Methods Synthetic genes that encode DVD-Igs utilizing V-domains derived from human anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 Abs were designed and expressed in 293F cells. A series of constructs tested different inter-V-linker domains and orientations of the two V domains. Antibodies were tested for binding to recombinant Ag and native Env expressed on infected cells, for neutralization of infectious HIV, and for their ability to deliver cytotoxic immunoconjugates to infected cells. Findings The outer V-domain was the major determinant of binding and functional activity of the DVD-Ig. Function of the inner V-domain and bifunctional binding required at least 15 AA in the inter-V-domain linker. A molecular model showing the spatial orientation of the two epitopes is consistent with this observation. Linkers that incorporated helical domains (A[EAAAK]nA) resulted in more effective DVD-Igs than those based solely on flexible domains ([GGGGS]n). In general, the DVD-Igs outperformed the less effective parental antibody and equaled the activity of the more effective. The ability of the DVD-Igs to deliver cytotoxic immunoconjugates in the absence of soluble CD4 was improved over that of either parent. Conclusions DVD-Igs can be designed that bind to both gp120 and gp41 on the HIV envelope. DVD-Igs are effective in delivering cytotoxic immunoconjugates. The optimal design of these DVD-Igs, in which both domains are fully functional, has not yet been achieved. PMID:23056448

  4. What does the free space Lambda Lambda interaction predict for Lambda Lambda hypernuclei?

    PubMed

    Albertus, C; Amaro, J E; Nieves, J

    2002-07-15

    Data on LambdaLambda hypernuclei provide a unique method to learn details about the strangeness S = -2 sector of the baryon-baryon interaction. From the free space Bonn-Jülich potentials, determined from data on baryon-baryon scattering in the S = 0,-1 channels, we construct an interaction in the S = -2 sector to describe the experimentally known LambdaLambda hypernuclei. After including short-range (Jastrow) and RPA correlations, we find masses for these LambdaLambda hypernuclei in a reasonable agreement with data, taking into account theoretical and experimental uncertainties. Thus, we provide a natural extension, at low energies, of the Bonn-Jülich one-boson exchange potentials to the S = -2 channel.

  5. A Diverse Repertoire of Human Immunoglobulin Variable Genes in a Chicken B Cell Line is Generated by Both Gene Conversion and Somatic Hypermutation

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Philip A.; Schusser, Benjamin; Yi, Henry; Glanville, Jacob; Harriman, William

    2015-01-01

    Chicken immune responses to human proteins are often more robust than rodent responses because of the phylogenetic relationship between the different species. For discovery of a diverse panel of unique therapeutic antibody candidates, chickens therefore represent an attractive host for human-derived targets. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology, specifically new methods for the molecular cloning of antibody genes directly from primary B cells, has ushered in a new era of generating monoclonal antibodies from non-traditional host animals that were previously inaccessible through hybridoma technology. However, such monoclonals still require post-discovery humanization in order to be developed as therapeutics. To obviate the need for humanization, a modified strain of chickens could be engineered to express a human-sequence immunoglobulin variable region repertoire. Here, human variable genes introduced into the chicken immunoglobulin loci through gene targeting were evaluated for their ability to be recognized and diversified by the native chicken recombination machinery that is present in the B-lineage cell line DT40. After expansion in culture the DT40 population accumulated genetic mutants that were detected via deep sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the human targeted constructs are performing as expected in the cell culture system, and provide a measure of confidence that they will be functional in transgenic animals. PMID:25852694

  6. High rate of somatic point mutation in vitro in and near the variable-region segment of an immunoglobulin heavy chain gene.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J; Jäck, H M; Ellis, N; Wabl, M

    1986-01-01

    The "silent" allele at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in the pre-B-lymphocyte line 18-81 contains a correctly assembled gene. However, an amber termination codon within the variable-region gene segment prematurely terminates translation into complete heavy chain. Revertants that do produce heavy chain are generated at a high rate, which is termed hypermutation. By DNA sequencing of subclones, we have confirmed that whenever mu chain is produced by the usually silent allele, a true reversion is found in the DNA. Mutations are not confined to the position of the amber termination codon but are also found at other sites in and near the variable-region gene segment. Images PMID:3092221

  7. Development of a highly-sensitive multi-plex assay using monoclonal antibodies for the simultaneous measurement of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin free light chains in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John P; Cobbold, Mark; Wang, Yanyun; Goodall, Margaret; Bonney, Sarah L; Chamba, Anita; Birtwistle, Jane; Plant, Timothy; Afzal, Zaheer; Jefferis, Roy; Drayson, Mark T

    2013-05-31

    Monoclonal κ and λ immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC) paraproteins in serum and urine are important markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of B cell dyscrasias. Current nephelometric and turbidimetric methods that use sheep polyclonal antisera to quantify serum FLC have a number of well-observed limitations. In this report, we describe an improved method using specific mouse anti-human FLC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Anti-κ and anti-λ FLC mAbs were, separately, covalently coupled to polystyrene Xmap® beads and assayed, simultaneously, in a multi-plex format by Luminex® (mAb assay). The mAbs displayed no cross-reactivity to bound LC, the alternate LC type, or other human proteins and had improved sensitivity and specificity over immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) and Freelite™. The assay gives good linearity and sensitivity (<1 mg/L), and the competitive inhibition format gave a broad calibration curve up to 437.5 mg/L and prevented anomalous results for samples in antigen excess i.e. high FLC levels. The mAbs displayed good concordance with Freelite™ for the quantitation of normal polyclonal FLC in plasma from healthy donors (n=249). The mAb assay identified all monoclonal FLC in serum from consecutive patient samples (n=1000; 50.1% with monoclonal paraprotein by serum IFE), and all FLC in a large cohort of urine samples tested for Bence Jones proteins (n=13090; 22.8% with monoclonal κ, 9.0% with monoclonal λ, and 0.8% with poly LC detected by urine IFE). Importantly this shows that the mAbs are at least close to the ideal of detecting FLC from all patients and neoplastic plasma cell clones. Given the overall effectiveness of the anti-FLC mAbs, further clinical validation is now warranted on serial samples from a range of patients with B cell disorders. Use of these mAbs on other assay platforms should also be investigated.

  8. Fish Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  9. The influence of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin therapy on neonatal mortality and hematological variables in newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis.

    PubMed

    Abbasoğlu, Aslıhan; Ecevit, Ayşe; Tuğcu, Ali Ulaş; Yapakçı, Ece; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah; Tarcan, Aylin; Ecevit, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of adjuvant immunoglobulin M (IgM)-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy on mortality rate, hematological variables and length of hospital stay in newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis. Demographic and clinical features and outcome measures of 63 newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis were documented retrospectively from the medical records. The patients were divided into two groups according to their treatment history. The patients in Group 1 received antibiotic therapy only and the patients in Group 2 received both antibiotic and adjuvant IgMenriched IVIG. The study revealed that mortality rates were 28.1% and 12.9% in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mortality rate was lower in Group 2, but the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.21). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most common type of bacteria isolated from the blood culture in both groups. When changing laboratory results were compared between the two groups, hemoglobin, leukocyte count and C-reactive protein levels were different during the first three days of antibiotic treatment. Our study revealed that if diagnosed at an early stage and treated aggressively with appropriate and effective antibiotics, adjuvant IgM-enriched IVIG treatment has no additional benefits in neonatal sepsis.

  10. {lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma} Radiative-Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Vavilov, D.V.; Antipov, Yu.M.; Artamonov, A.V.; Batarin, V.A.; Victorov, V.A.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, Yu.P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Kozhevnikov, A.P.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kubarovsky, V.P.; Kurshetsov, V.F.; Landsberg, L.G.; Leontiev, V.M.; Molchanov, V.V.; Mukhin, V.A.; Patalakha, D.I.; Petrenko, S.V.; Petrukhin, A.I.; Kolganov, V.Z.

    2005-03-01

    The radiative decay {lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma} was recorded in the exclusive reaction p + N {yields} {lambda}(1520)K{sup +} + N at the SPHINX facility. The branching ratio for this decay and the corresponding partial width were found to be, respectively, Br[{lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma}] = (1.02 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -2} and {gamma}[{lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma}] = 159 {+-} 35 keV (the quoted errors are purely statistical, the systematic errors being within 15%)

  11. Construction of Human Immunoglobulin Combinatorial Library and Screening of Phage Antibodies to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Wan-Rong; Xu, Jing

    1997-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin combinatorial library was generated by using phage surface-display expression system, and phage antibodies (Fab fragments) to hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) were screened from it. The products by half-nested PCR using signal peptide sequences as primers were superior in quality and quantity to those by PCR with conserved sequences in the 5'-end variable regions as primers. After three round of selections by biopanning, the ratio of positive clone was 69%. The inhibition assay showed the phage antibodies to be specifically anti-HbsAg. The V(H) genes were derived from V(H) I and V(H) III, while V(L)s belonged to V(lambda) II and V(lambda) I as shown by DNA sequencing.

  12. A soluble immunoglobulin variable domain without a disulfide bridge: construction, accumulation in the cytoplasm of E. coli, purification and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Frisch, C; Kolmar, H; Fritz, H J

    1994-05-01

    Two amino acid exchanges (Y32H and C23V) were introduced sequentially into the immunoglobulin REIV, a human kappa variable domain. The first exchange stabilizes the folded state of the domain by 4.6 kJ/mol (1.1 kcal/mol), the second abolishes the central disulfide bridge and destabilizes the folded domain by 17.5 kJ/mol (4.2 kcal/mol). Introduction of the stabilizing exchange first is a necessary pre-requisite to the removal of the central disulfide bridge without collapse of the fold. The double mutant REIV-C23V/Y32H can be accumulated in the cytoplasmatic compartment of the E. coli cell, a finding that opens new possibilities in antibody engineering.

  13. A reappraisal of immunoglobulin variable gene primers and its impact on assessing clonal relationships between PB B cells and BM plasma cells in AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Nagaaki; Poshusta, Tanya L; Manske, Michelle K; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A; Abraham, Roshini S; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Monoclonal tumor plasma cells as well as non-terminally differentiated B cells having a clonal relationship to the tumor cells have been detected in the peripheral blood (PB) of some multiple myeloma (MM) patients but rarely in light chain (primary systemic) amyloidosis (AL) patients. Previously, our group found these peripheral clonotypic B cells in three AL patients. Here, we report detailed analysis of a larger cohort of AL patients to validate the prior findings and to investigate the effect of this cell population on clinical outcome. Fourteen AL patients were selected from a clinical prospective trial, and the relationship between immunoglobulin light chain variable gene (V(L)) representation in PB B cells and the clonal population in the bone marrow (BM) was investigated. A clonal relationship was not detected, and the present study provides important insights into the disparity with the earlier data, including clinical history of the patients and methodological analysis.

  14. HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV) Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

    PubMed Central

    Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Solforosi, Laura; Diotti, Roberta A.; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved. PMID:22690241

  15. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) immunoglobulin heavy chain suggests the importance of clan III variable segments in repertoire diversity.

    PubMed

    Breaux, Breanna; Deiss, Thaddeus C; Chen, Patricia L; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Hunter, Margaret E; Bonde, Robert K; Criscitiello, Michael F

    2017-01-25

    Manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent Afrotheria. Manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. To develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. Using the genomic scaffolds of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we characterized the potential IgH segmental diversity and constant region isotypic diversity and performed the first Afrotherian repertoire analysis. The Florida manatee has low V(D)J combinatorial diversity (3744 potential combinations) and few constant region isotypes. They also lack clan III V segments, which may have caused reduced VH segment numbers. However, we found productive somatic hypermutation concentrated in the complementarity determining regions. In conclusion, manatees have limited IGHV clan and combinatorial diversity. This suggests that clan III V segments are essential for maintaining IgH locus diversity.

  16. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) immunoglobulin heavy chain suggests the importance of clan III variable segments in repertoire diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breaux, Breanna; Deiss, Thaddeus C.; Chen, Patricia L.; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent Afrotheria. Manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. To develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. Using the genomic scaffolds of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we characterized the potential IgH segmental diversity and constant region isotypic diversity and performed the first Afrotherian repertoire analysis. The Florida manatee has low V(D)J combinatorial diversity (3744 potential combinations) and few constant region isotypes. They also lack clan III V segments, which may have caused reduced VH segment numbers. However, we found productive somatic hypermutation concentrated in the complementarity determining regions. In conclusion, manatees have limited IGHV clan and combinatorial diversity. This suggests that clan III V segments are essential for maintaining IgH locus diversity.

  17. Somatic mutation in constant regions of mouse lambda 1 light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, N; Okada, H; Azuma, T

    1991-01-01

    To study the distribution of somatic mutation, we determined nucleotide sequences of rearranged lambda 1-chain genomic DNA from four hybridomas obtained from C57BL/6 mice that had been immunized with (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-conjugated chicken gamma globulin. In total, 114 nucleotide substitutions were observed, with neither insertion nor deletion. Sixty-one mutations occurred in the variable-joining region genes (V lambda 1-J lambda 1) and 49 in joining-constant (J lambda 1-C lambda 1) introns. Although frequency decreased with distance from the V lambda 1-J lambda 1 coding region, somatic mutations occurred in the entire J lambda 1-C lambda 1 intron and even in the C lambda 1 region. We found four nucleotide substitutions in C lambda 1 genes, all of which were replacement mutations. Therefore, the mechanism responsible for somatic mutation is operative into the C lambda 1 exons. Nucleotide sequences of rearranged but inactive lambda 2-chain genes from two hybridomas were also examined and compared with those of lambda 1-chain genes. The clustering of replacement mutations in complementarity-determining regions in the inactive lambda 2-chain genes similar to the active lambda 1-chain genes suggested a mechanism that induces somatic mutation preferentially in this region even in the absence of antigenic selection. PMID:1910169

  18. lambda. and. sigma. hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Millener, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The present status of structure calculations for p-shell ..lambda.. hypernuclei, including the phenomenological determination of ..lambda..N effective interaction matrix elements, is briefly reviewed. For ..sigma.. hypernuclei the Nijmegen potential model D is used for guidance in constructing ..sigma..N effective interactions. The structure of /sub ..sigma..//sup 12/Be and /sub ..sigma..//sup 12/C, including isospin mixing in the later case, is discussed, and a comparison is made with experimental data. 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The subunit and polypeptide-chain structure of rabbit secretory immunoglobulin A. Isolation of a proteolytic fragment suitable for sequence studies on the variable region of alpha-chain.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, A P; Mole, L E

    1977-01-01

    A method was developed for the preparation of a proteolytic fragment of rabbit secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) which contains the variable region of the alpha-chain; this fragment is suitable for primary-sequence studies. The serologically defined subclasses of sIgA are shown to correlate partially with the nature of the binding of a constituent chain of sIgA, called secretory piece. Data are also presented on the relative resistance of sIgA to enzymic and reductive cleavage, compared with immunoglobulin G. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:412497

  20. Measurement of the Lambda b lifetime in the exclusive decay Lambda b --> J/psi Lambda.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Jesus, A C S Assis; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'dell, V; O'neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Panikashvili, N; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-10-05

    We have measured the Lambda b lifetime using the exclusive decay Lambda b --> J/psi Lambda, based on 1.2 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2006. From 171 reconstructed Lambda b decays, where the J/psi and Lambda are identified via the decays J/psi --> mu+ mu- and Lambda --> ppi, we measured the Lambda b lifetime to be tau(Lambda b)=1.218 (+0.130)/(-0.115) (stat) +/- 0.042(syst) ps. We also measured the B0 lifetime in the decay B0 --> J/psi(mu+ mu-)K(0)/(S)(pi+ pi-) to be tau(B0)=1.501 (+0.078)/(-0.074) (stat) +/- 0.050(syst) ps, yielding a lifetime ratio of tau(Lambda b)/tau(B0)=0.811 (+0.096)/(-0.087) (stat) +/- 0.034(syst).

  1. Immunoglobulin patterns in humans over 95 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Radl, J; Sepers, J M; Skvaril, F; Morell, A; Hijmans, W

    1975-01-01

    Immunoglobulin patterns were investigated in seventy-three volunteers older than 95 years. An idiopathic paraproteinaemia was found in 19% of the cases. A restriction of heterogeneity and an imbalance in the kappa/lambda ratio of the immunoglobulins was seen in a number of other sera. Determinations of immunoglobulin levels in sera of individuals without paraproteinaemia showed an increase in IgA and IgG. The quantitations of the IgG subclasses demonstrated that an increase in the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses is responsible for the elevated level of the IgG. The variation in the immunoglobulin levels increased significantly with age of IgM and for the three major IgG subclasses. No abnormalities were found in the urine or in the mixed saliva. These results indicate that selective changes in the extent of the antibody-immunoglobulin repertoire characterize the immunoglobulin pattern of ageing man. PMID:1212818

  2. Life of Lambda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futhey, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author discusses the four key questions related to the National LambdaRail (NLR) networking technology. NLR uses Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) to enable multiple networks to coexist on a national fiber footprint, and is owned and operated not by carriers, but by the research and education community. The NLR Board…

  3. Immunoglobulin variable gene segment V{sub H}81X of the mouse is embedded in L1 transposon sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bachl, J.; Defranoux, N.; Wabl, M.

    1995-01-11

    L1 elements are widely distributed over the mammalian genome, but the question of their biological significance is still open. The mouse heavy (H) chain variable region V{sub H}81X is overrepresented in the pre-B-cell repertoire; the significance of this is controversial, and V{sub H}81X has been the subject of much research. Here we present data showing that the mouse H chain variable region X{sub H}81X is embedded in the remnants of a LINE-1 element.

  4. FLARE-LIKE VARIABILITY OF THE Mg II {lambda}2800 EMISSION LINE IN THE {gamma}-RAY BLAZAR 3C 454.3

    SciTech Connect

    Leon-Tavares, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Patino-Alvarez, V.; Carraminana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Valtaoja, E.; Arshakian, T. G.; Popovic, L. C.; Tornikoski, M.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Lobanov, A.

    2013-02-01

    We report the detection of a statistically significant flare-like event in the Mg II {lambda}2800 emission line of 3C 454.3 during the outburst of autumn 2010. The highest levels of emission line flux recorded over the monitoring period (2008-2011) coincide with a superluminal jet component traversing through the radio core. This finding crucially links the broad emission line fluctuations to the non-thermal continuum emission produced by relativistically moving material in the jet and hence to the presence of broad-line region clouds surrounding the radio core. If the radio core were located at several parsecs from the central black hole, then our results would suggest the presence of broad-line region material outside the inner parsec where the canonical broad-line region is envisaged to be located. We briefly discuss the implications of broad emission line material ionized by non-thermal continuum in the context of virial black hole mass estimates and gamma-ray production mechanisms.

  5. [Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency].

    PubMed

    Binek, Alicja; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class A is the main protein of the mucosal immune system. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (sIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. sIGAD is strongly associated with the certain major histocompatibility complex region. Most individuals with sIgAD are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune manifestations. Several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves disease and celiac disease, are associated with an increased prevalence of sIgAD. Screening for sIgAD in coeliac disease is essential. Patients need treatment of associated diseases. It is also known that IgA deficiency may progress into a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Pathogenesis and molecular mechanism involved in sIgAD should be elucidated in the future.

  6. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract associated with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M J; Kemp, J D; Goeken, J A; Mitros, F A; Platz, C E; Dick, F R

    1990-09-01

    The authors report a case of common variable immunodeficiency associated with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract in which a clonal population of lymphoid cells was detected by immunophenotypic and genotypic studies on tissue obtained by colonoscopic biopsy. The patient has been followed up for more than 50 months without clinical, radiographic, or pathologic evidence of lymphoma. The significance of clonal rearrangement in the setting of immunodeficiency and the role of genotypic studies in defining lymphoid malignancy are discussed.

  7. [Cloning and expression of a single human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable domain with vascular endothelial growth factor binding activity].

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Siguo; Wu, Yi; Zili, M; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Jianquan; Cheng, Guoxiang

    2010-11-01

    In the application of therapeutic antibodies, large molecular weight of antibodies is always a problem that prevents them from penetrating into tissues or binding to antigenic determinants. To overcome this problem, we investigated the function of the heavy chain variable domain of a monoclonal anti-VEGF human IgM antibody derived from the Five-Feature Translocus Mice. We cloned the cDNA of the heavy chain variable domain, which was then inserted into pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification and renaturation of the denatured recombinant protein, we obtained a 16 kDa antibody fragment, which is named as rhVVH. By immunoassaying its VEGF-binding capability in vitro, we proved that rhVVH retains this activity as the complete IgM. Importantly, rhVVH is shown to inhibit the HUVEC cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results indicate that the single heavy chain variable domain might inherit part of the biological function of the complete IgM antibody, which provided a valuable potential in further research on antibody miniaturisation.

  8. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in a Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin Protein Solution: Effect of Formulation Factors and Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Raut, Ashlesha S; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2015-09-08

    Dual variable domain immunoglobulin proteins (DVD-Ig proteins) are large molecules (MW ∼ 200 kDa) with increased asymmetry because of their extended Y-like shape, which results in increased formulation challenges. Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of protein solutions into protein-rich and protein-poor phases reduces solution stability at intermediate concentrations and lower temperatures, and is a serious concern in formulation development as therapeutic proteins are generally stored at refrigerated conditions. In the current work, LLPS was studied for a DVD-Ig protein molecule as a function of solution conditions by measuring solution opalescence. LLPS of the protein was confirmed by equilibrium studies and by visually observing under microscope. The protein does not undergo any structural change after phase separation. Protein-protein interactions were measured by light scattering (kD) and Tcloud (temperature that marks the onset of phase separation). There is a good agreement between kD measured in dilute solution with Tcloud measured in the critical concentration range. Results indicate that the increased complexity of the molecule (with respect to size, shape, and charge distribution on the molecule) increases contribution of specific and nonspecific interactions in solution, which are affected by formulation factors, resulting in LLPS for DVD-Ig protein.

  9. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) improves the PCR-based isolation of immunoglobulin variable region genes from murine and human lymphoma cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Doenecke, A; Winnacker, E L; Hallek, M

    1997-10-01

    The isolation of rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region (V) genes is usually performed by PCR with consensus primers binding to conserved regions within the V sequences. However, the isolation of Ig genes by this method is hampered in 15-35% by technical difficulties, mostly mismatches of oligonucleotide primers to V sequences. In order to obtain DNA sequences from V heavy chain (VH) genes which could not be amplified with consensus primers, we used a modified PCR technique, the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR in combination with new heavy chain constant region primers for the isolation of human and murine VH genes. In comparison, consensus primer PCR with different sets of previously published oligonucleotide primers was used. Both methods were applied to isolate VH genes from murine B cell lymphoma (A20 and BCL1), myeloma (NS1) and hybridoma (SP6) cell lines and from freshly isolated human chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma cells. RACE PCR allowed the amplification and subsequent cloning of the complete VH gene in all cases. In contrast, consensus primer PCR failed to isolate the VH sequence of the murine A20 cell line; this was explained by a mismatch of consensus primers with VH sequences. When both PCR methods amplified VH sequences, the DNA sequences obtained were identical. Taken together, RACE PCR represents a reliable and versatile method for the isolation of VH genes from human and murine lymphoma cells, in particular if consensus primer PCR fails.

  10. Feline immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Schultz, R D; Scott, F W; Duncan, J R; Gillespie, J H

    1974-02-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) in feline sera and secretions were identified by immuno-electrophoresis and immunodiffusion with rabbit antisera prepared to feline IgG, IgA, IgM, and whole serum. Adult cat sera, colostral whey, postcolostral sera, tears, and nasal secretions contained IgG, IgA, and IgM. IgG was the only Ig identified in precolostral sera and cerebrospinal fluid. Milk, intestinal contents, pooled allantoic and amniotic fluids, and saliva from adult cats and urine from suckling kittens contained IgG and IgA. Ig were not detected in urine from adult cats. Bile was unique in that IgA and IgM were the predominant Ig.

  11. Atypical Antigen Recognition Mode of a Shark Immunoglobulin New Antigen Receptor (IgNAR) Variable Domain Characterized by Humanization and Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Olland, Andrea; Piché-Nicholas, Nicole; Godbole, Adarsh; King, Daniel; Svenson, Kristine; Calabro, Valerie; Müller, Mischa R.; Barelle, Caroline J.; Somers, William; Gill, Davinder S.; Mosyak, Lidia; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNARs) are a class of Ig-like molecules of the shark immune system that exist as heavy chain-only homodimers and bind antigens by their single domain variable regions (V-NARs). Following shark immunization and/or in vitro selection, V-NARs can be generated as soluble, stable, and specific high affinity monomeric binding proteins of ∼12 kDa. We have previously isolated a V-NAR from an immunized spiny dogfish shark, named E06, that binds specifically and with high affinity to human, mouse, and rat serum albumins. Humanization of E06 was carried out by converting over 60% of non-complementarity-determining region residues to those of a human germ line Vκ1 sequence, DPK9. The resulting huE06 molecules have largely retained the specificity and affinity of antigen binding of the parental V-NAR. Crystal structures of the shark E06 and its humanized variant (huE06 v1.1) in complex with human serum albumin (HSA) were determined at 3- and 2.3-Å resolution, respectively. The huE06 v1.1 molecule retained all but one amino acid residues involved in the binding site for HSA. Structural analysis of these V-NARs has revealed an unusual variable domain-antigen interaction. E06 interacts with HSA in an atypical mode that utilizes extensive framework contacts in addition to complementarity-determining regions that has not been seen previously in V-NARs. On the basis of the structure, the roles of various elements of the molecule are described with respect to antigen binding and V-NAR stability. This information broadens the general understanding of antigen recognition and provides a framework for further design and humanization of shark IgNARs. PMID:23632026

  12. Atypical antigen recognition mode of a shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR) variable domain characterized by humanization and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, Oleg V; Olland, Andrea; Piché-Nicholas, Nicole; Godbole, Adarsh; King, Daniel; Svenson, Kristine; Calabro, Valerie; Müller, Mischa R; Barelle, Caroline J; Somers, William; Gill, Davinder S; Mosyak, Lidia; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila

    2013-06-14

    The immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNARs) are a class of Ig-like molecules of the shark immune system that exist as heavy chain-only homodimers and bind antigens by their single domain variable regions (V-NARs). Following shark immunization and/or in vitro selection, V-NARs can be generated as soluble, stable, and specific high affinity monomeric binding proteins of ∼12 kDa. We have previously isolated a V-NAR from an immunized spiny dogfish shark, named E06, that binds specifically and with high affinity to human, mouse, and rat serum albumins. Humanization of E06 was carried out by converting over 60% of non-complementarity-determining region residues to those of a human germ line Vκ1 sequence, DPK9. The resulting huE06 molecules have largely retained the specificity and affinity of antigen binding of the parental V-NAR. Crystal structures of the shark E06 and its humanized variant (huE06 v1.1) in complex with human serum albumin (HSA) were determined at 3- and 2.3-Å resolution, respectively. The huE06 v1.1 molecule retained all but one amino acid residues involved in the binding site for HSA. Structural analysis of these V-NARs has revealed an unusual variable domain-antigen interaction. E06 interacts with HSA in an atypical mode that utilizes extensive framework contacts in addition to complementarity-determining regions that has not been seen previously in V-NARs. On the basis of the structure, the roles of various elements of the molecule are described with respect to antigen binding and V-NAR stability. This information broadens the general understanding of antigen recognition and provides a framework for further design and humanization of shark IgNARs.

  13. Restricted immunoglobulin variable region gene usage by normal Ly-1 (CD5+) B cells that recognize phosphatidyl choline

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    5-15% of lymphocytes in the peritoneums of normal adult B10.H-2aH- 4bp/Wts (2a4b) mice are CD5+ (Ly-1) B cells that recognize phosphatidyl choline (PtC), a phospholipid component of all mammalian cells. We produced a set of IgM-secreting hybridomas from the peritoneal cells of normal, adult 2a4b mice. We found that this set of hybridomas shows a similarly high frequency of antibodies specific for PtC (21 of 86) that also react with bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes. Restriction fragment analysis of Ig gene rearrangements and analysis of expressed Ig idiotypes reveal that these cells use a restricted set of variable region genes to generate the PtC-specific antibodies. The Ig genes used by the PtC-specific hybridomas appear to be the same as those found in the PtC-specific Ly-1 B cell lymphomas, CH27 and CH34. PMID:2499651

  14. Characterization of a complete immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region germ-line gene of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, T; Chen, T; Törmänen, V

    1990-10-01

    A germ-line heavy-chain variable region (VH) gene (RTVH431) has been isolated from a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and characterized by complete nucleotide sequencing. It is characteristic of VH, as shown by the conserved octamer and TATA motif in the 5' region, the heptamernonamer recombination signal sequence in the 3' region, and the 18-amino-acid-long hydrophobic leader interrupted by an intron. The 98-amino-acid-long VH coding region has 50-70% nucleotide sequence homology and 40-60% amino acid sequence homology with VHS of various vertebrate species. We have also found unique or species-specific amino acid residues in the VHS of rainbow trout, amphibia (Xenopus), reptile (Caiman), and shark (Heterodontus) in our sequence analyses. The RTVH431 has an unusual amino acid in the conserved 34th position in complementarity-determining region 1 of VH. Southern hybridization results suggest the presence of a large gene family related to RTVH431 in the trout genome. The complex evolution of antibody V genes is discussed.

  15. Characterization of a complete immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region germ-line gene of rainbow trout.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Chen, T; Törmänen, V

    1990-01-01

    A germ-line heavy-chain variable region (VH) gene (RTVH431) has been isolated from a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and characterized by complete nucleotide sequencing. It is characteristic of VH, as shown by the conserved octamer and TATA motif in the 5' region, the heptamernonamer recombination signal sequence in the 3' region, and the 18-amino-acid-long hydrophobic leader interrupted by an intron. The 98-amino-acid-long VH coding region has 50-70% nucleotide sequence homology and 40-60% amino acid sequence homology with VHS of various vertebrate species. We have also found unique or species-specific amino acid residues in the VHS of rainbow trout, amphibia (Xenopus), reptile (Caiman), and shark (Heterodontus) in our sequence analyses. The RTVH431 has an unusual amino acid in the conserved 34th position in complementarity-determining region 1 of VH. Southern hybridization results suggest the presence of a large gene family related to RTVH431 in the trout genome. The complex evolution of antibody V genes is discussed. Images PMID:2120708

  16. Convergent mechanisms favor fast amyloid formation in two lambda 6a Ig light chain mutants.

    PubMed

    Valdés-García, Gilberto; Millán-Pacheco, César; Pastor, Nina

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular deposition as amyloids of immunoglobulin light chains causes light chain amyloidosis. Among the light chain families, lambda 6a is one of the most frequent in light chain amyloidosis patients. Its germline protein, 6aJL2, and point mutants, R24G and P7S, are good models to study fibrillogenesis, because their stability and fibril formation characteristics have been described. Both mutations make the germline protein unstable and speed up its ability to aggregate. To date, there is no molecular mechanism that explains how these differences in amyloidogenesis can arise from a single mutation. To look into the structural and dynamical differences in the native state of these proteins, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Despite the structural similarity of the germline protein and the mutants, we found differences in their dynamical signatures that explain the mutants' increased tendency to form amyloids. The contact network alterations caused by the mutations, though different, converge in affecting two anti-aggregation motifs present in light chain variable domains, suggesting a different starting point for aggregation in lambda chains compared to kappa chains. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. B-lymphoma cells process and present their endogenous immunoglobulin to major histocompatibility complex-restricted T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S; Bogen, B

    1989-01-01

    Antigen-presenting B-lymphoma cells were transfected with the gene encoding the immunoglobulin lambda 2 light chain of MOPC315 cells (lambda 2(315). The lambda 2 chain is expressed on the cell surface of the transfectants together with the endogenous heavy chain. The transfectants present an idiotope of the lambda 2(315) light chain to class II-restricted T-cell clones. Recognition by the T cells requires processing of the lambda 2(315) light chain. From these data we conclude that B-lymphoma cells constitutively process and present their immunoglobulins. Secretion and reuptake of the light chain was not necessary for the presentation. Thus, B cells bear two types of idiotypes on their membrane, a native form as surface immunoglobulin and a processed form in the context of products of the major histocompatibility complex. Images PMID:2492101

  18. Recombination events near the immunoglobulin Cmu gene join variable and constant region genes, switch heavy-chain expression, or inactivate the locus.

    PubMed

    Cory, S; Webb, E; Gough, J; Adams, J M

    1981-04-28

    Immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression is initiated by recombination between a variable region (VH) gene and one of several joining region (JH) genes located near the mu constant region (Cmu) gene, and the active VH gene can subsequently switch to another CH gene. That the general mechanism for CH switching involves recombination between sites within the JH-Cmu intervening sequence and the 5' flanking region of another CH gene is supported here by Southern blot hybridization analysis of eight IgG- and IgA-secreting plasmacytomas. An alternative model requiring successive VH linkage to similar JH clusters near each CH gene is shown to be very unlikely since the mouse genome appears to contain only one complement of the JH locus and no JH gene was detectable within large cloned sequences flanking germline C gamma 3 and C gamma 1 genes. Thus, VH-JH joining and CH switching are mediated by separate regions of "the joining-switch" or J-S element. In each plasmacytoma examined, the J-S element had undergone recombination within both the JH locus and the switch region and was shown to be linked to the functional CH gene in an IgG3, and IgG1, and three IgA secretors. Both JH joining and CH switching occurred by deletion of DNA. Switch recombination occurred at more than one site within the J-S element in different lines, even for recombination with the same CH gene. Significantly, although heavy-chain expression is restricted to one allele ("allelic exclusion"), all rearranged in each plasmacytoma. Some rearrangements were aberrant, involving, for example, deletion of all JH genes from the allele. Hence, an error-prone recombination machinery may account for allelic exclusion in many plasmacytomas.

  19. Conformational flexibility of a human immunoglobulin light chain variable domain by relaxation dispersion nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: implications for protein misfolding and amyloid assembly.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sujoy; Pondaven, Simon P; Jaroniec, Christopher P

    2011-07-05

    The conformational flexibility of a human immunoglobulin κIV light-chain variable domain, LEN, which can undergo conversion to amyloid under destabilizing conditions, was investigated at physiological and acidic pH on a residue-specific basis by multidimensional solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Measurements of backbone chemical shifts and amide (15)N longitudinal and transverse spin relaxation rates and steady-state nuclear Overhauser enhancements indicate that, on the whole, LEN retains its native three-dimensional fold and dimeric state at pH 2 and that the protein backbone exhibits limited fast motions on the picosecond to nanosecond time scale. On the other hand, (15)N Carr--Purcell--Meiboom--Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion NMR data show that LEN experiences considerable slower, millisecond time scale dynamics, confined primarily to three contiguous segments of about 5-20 residues and encompassing the N-terminal β-strand and complementarity determining loop regions 2 and 3 in the vicinity of the dimer interface. Quantitative analysis of the CPMG relaxation dispersion data reveals that at physiological pH these slow backbone motions are associated with relatively low excited-state protein conformer populations, in the ~2-4% range. Upon acidification, the minor conformer populations increase significantly, to ~10-15%, with most residues involved in stabilizing interactions across the dimer interface displaying increased flexibility. These findings provide molecular-level insights about partial protein unfolding at low pH and point to the LEN dimer dissociation, initiated by increased conformational flexibility in several well-defined regions, as being one of the important early events leading to amyloid assembly.

  20. Five years of photometry of Lambda Andromedae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.; Eaton, J. A.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.; Genet, R. M.; Lovell, L. P.; Hopkins, J. L.; Sabia, J. D.; Krisciunas, K.; Chambliss, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectric photometry of the bright variable RS CVn-type binary Lambda And obtained in 1977-78 and 1980-81 is presented and used, together with earlier photometry, to derive the photometric period and discuss the changing shape of the light curve. The best ephemeris for times of minimum light is 2443829.2 + 53.95 d E. Because times of minimum and maximum extending back to those of Calder in 1933-37 can be phased together properly, the principal dark region must have maintained its identity for almost 50 yr. Over the last five years the brightness range has been between 3.70 and 4.05 m. During 1980-81 shallow secondary minima developed at phases where maxima occurred in previous years. Lambda And remains the only well-established case of nonsynchronous rotation among the known RS CVn variables.

  1. The normal counterpart of IgD myeloma cells in germinal center displays extensively mutated IgVH gene, Cmu-Cdelta switch, and lambda light chain expression.

    PubMed

    Arpin, C; de Bouteiller, O; Razanajaona, D; Fugier-Vivier, I; Brière, F; Banchereau, J; Lebecque, S; Liu, Y J

    1998-04-20

    Human myeloma are incurable hematologic cancers of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells in bone marrow. Although malignant plasma cells can be almost eradicated from the patient's bone marrow by chemotherapy, drug-resistant myeloma precursor cells persist in an apparently cryptic compartment. Controversy exists as to whether myeloma precursor cells are hematopoietic stem cells, pre-B cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, circulating memory cells, or plasma blasts. This situation reflects what has been a general problem in cancer research for years: how to compare a tumor with its normal counterpart. Although several studies have demonstrated somatically mutated immunoglobulin variable region genes in multiple myeloma, it is unclear if myeloma cells are derived from GCs or post-GC memory B cells. Immunoglobulin (Ig)D-secreting myeloma have two unique immunoglobulin features, including a biased lambda light chain expression and a Cmu-Cdelta isotype switch. Using surface markers, we have previously isolated a population of surface IgM-IgD+CD38+ GC B cells that carry the most impressive somatic mutation in their IgV genes. Here we show that this population of GC B cells displays the two molecular features of IgD-secreting myeloma cells: a biased lambda light chain expression and a C&mu-Cdelta isotype switch. The demonstration of these peculiar GC B cells to differentiate into IgD-secreting plasma cells but not memory B cells both in vivo and in vitro suggests that IgD-secreting plasma and myeloma cells are derived from GCs.

  2. Analysis of the immunoglobulin light chain genes in zebra finch: evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Das, Sabyasachi; Mohamedy, Uzra; Hirano, Masayuki; Nei, Masatoshi; Nikolaidis, Nikolas

    2010-01-01

    All jawed vertebrates produce immunoglobulins (IGs) as a defense mechanism against pathogens. Typically, IGs are composed of two identical heavy chains (IGH) and two identical light chains (IGL). Most tetrapod species encode more than one isotype of light chains. Chicken is the only representative of birds for which genomic information is currently available and is an exception to the above rule because it encodes only a single IGL isotype (i.e., lambda). Here, we show that the genome of zebra finch, another bird species, encodes a single IGL isotype, that is, lambda, like the chicken. These results strongly suggest that the second isotype (i.e., kappa) present in both reptiles and mammals was lost in a very early stage of bird evolution. Furthermore, we show that both chicken and zebra finch contain a single set of functional variable, joining, and constant region genes and multiple variable region pseudogenes. The latter finding suggests that this type of genomic organization was already present in the common ancestor of these bird species and remained unchanged over a long evolutionary time. This conservation is in contrast with the high levels of variation observed in the mammalian IGL loci. The presence of a single functional variable region gene followed by multiple variable pseudogenes in zebra finch suggest that this species may be generating antibody diversity by a gene conversion-like mechanism like the chicken.

  3. Bone marrow lambda-type light chain crystalline structures associated with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Schvartz, H; Bonhomme, P; Caulet, S; Beorchia, A; Patey, M; Caulet, T

    1985-01-01

    A 58-year-old man showed bone marrow crystalline structures associated with a lambda light chain producing multiple myeloma. Analysis and processing of electron images clearly displayed the periodic structure of the crystals. Immunochemistry suggested that they contained the whole or a fragmented constant portion of immunoglobulin.

  4. Tertiary structure of human {Lambda}6 light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Solomon, A.; Weiss, D. T.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center /Graduate School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains in tissue. To date, only limited information has been obtained on the molecular features that render such light chains amyloidogenic. Although protein products of the major human V kappa and V lambda gene families have been identified in AL deposits, one particular subgroup--lambda 6--has been found to be preferentially associated with this disease. Notably, the variable region of lambda 6 proteins (V lambda 6) has distinctive primary structural features including the presence in the third framework region (FR3) of two additional amino acid residues that distinguish members of this subgroup from other types of light chains. However, the structural consequences of these alterations have not been elucidated. To determine if lambda 6 proteins possess unique tertiary structural features, as compared to light chains of other V lambda subgroups, we have obtained x-ray diffraction data on crystals prepared from two recombinant V lambda 6 molecules. These components, isolated from a bacterial expression system, were generated from lambda 6-related cDNAs cloned from bone marrow-derived plasma cells from a patient (Wil) who had documented AL amyloidosis and another (Jto) with multiple myeloma and tubular cast nephropathy, but no evident fibrillar deposits. The x-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the two-residue insertion located between positions 68 and 69 (not between 66 and 67 as previously surmised) extended an existing loop region that effectively increased the surface area adjacent to the first complementarity determining region (CDR1). Further, an unusual interaction between the Arg 25 and Phe 2 residues commonly found in lambda 6 molecules was noted. However, the structures of V lambda 6 Wil and Jto also differed from each other, as evidenced by the presence in the latter of certain ionic and hydrophobic interactions that we posit increased protein

  5. Phenotyping polyclonal kappa and lambda light chain molecular mass distributions in patient serum using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barnidge, David R; Dasari, Surendra; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Fontan, Adrian; Willrich, Maria A V; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane F; Snyder, Melissa R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A; Murray, David L

    2014-11-07

    We previously described a microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS method for identifying monoclonal immunoglobulins in serum and then tracking them over time using their accurate molecular mass. Here we demonstrate how the same methodology can be used to identify and characterize polyclonal immunoglobulins in serum. We establish that two molecular mass distributions observed by microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS are from polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains using a combination of theoretical molecular masses from gene sequence data and the analysis of commercially available purified polyclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda from normal human serum. A linear regression comparison of kappa/lambda ratios for 74 serum samples (25 hypergammaglobulinemia, 24 hypogammaglobulinemia, 25 normal) determined by microflowLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS and immunonephelometry had a slope of 1.37 and a correlation coefficient of 0.639. In addition to providing kappa/lambda ratios, the same microLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis can determine the molecular mass for oligoclonal light chains observed above the polyclonal background in patient samples. In 2 patients with immune disorders and hypergammaglobulinemia, we observed a skewed polyclonal molecular mass distribution which translated into biased kappa/lambda ratios. Mass spectrometry provides a rapid and simple way to combine the polyclonal kappa/lambda light chain abundance ratios with the identification of dominant monoclonal as well as oligoclonal light chain immunoglobulins. We anticipate that this approach to evaluating immunoglobulin light chains will lead to improved understanding of immune deficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and antibody responses.

  6. Shared epitopes of avian immunoglobulin light chains.

    PubMed

    Benčina, Mateja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Berčič, Rebeka Lucijana; Narat, Mojca; Benčina, Dušan; Dovč, Peter

    2014-04-15

    Like all jawed vertebrates, birds (Aves) also produce antibodies i.e. immunoglobulins (Igs) as a defence mechanism against pathogens. Their Igs are composed of two identical heavy (H) and light (L) chains which are of lambda isotype. The L chain consists of variable (VL), joining (JL) and constant (CL) region. Using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (3C10 and CH31) to chicken L chain, we analysed their cross-reactivity with sera from 33 avian species belonging to nine different orders. Among Galliformes tested, mAbs 3C10 and CH31 reacted with L chains of chicken, turkey, four genera of pheasants, tragopan and peafowl, but not with sera of grey partridge, quail and Japanese quail. Immunoglobulins of guinea-fowl reacted only with mAb 3C10. Both mAbs reacted also with the L chain of Eurasian griffon (order Falconiformes) and domestic sparrow (order Passeriformes). Sera from six other orders of Aves did not react with either of the two mAbs. EIA using mAbs 3C10 and CH31 enabled detection of antibodies to major avian pathogens in sera of chickens, turkeys, pheasants, peafowl, Eurasian griffon and guinea-fowl (only with mAb 3C10). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of pheasant L chain (19 residues) was identical to that of chicken. Sequences of genes encoding the L chain constant regions of pheasants, turkey and partridge were determined and deposited in the public database (GenBank accession numbers: FJ 649651, FJ 649652 and FJ 649653, respectively). Among them, amino acid sequence of pheasants is the most similar to that of chicken (97% similarity), whereas those of turkey and partridge have greater similarity to each other (89%) than to any other avian L chain sequence. The characteristic deletion of two amino acids which is present in the L chain constant region in Galliformes has been most likely introduced to their L chain after their divergence from Anseriformes.

  7. {Lambda} single-particle energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1995-08-01

    We are continuing our work on the {Lambda} hyperon single-particle (s.p.) energies and their interpretation in terms of the basic {Lambda}-nuclear interactions. In particular we are interpreting the results obtained by S.C. Pieper, A. Usmani and Q.N. Usmani. We obtain about 30 MeV for the repulsive contribution of the three-body {Lambda}NN forces in nuclear matter. We are able to exclude purely {open_quotes}dispersive{close_quotes} {Lambda}NN forces. We are investigating the mix of dispersive and two-pion-exchange {Lambda}NN forces which provide a fit to the s.p. data. For interactions, which provide a fit to the s.p. data, the {Lambda} binding energy as a function of the nuclear matter density shows characteristic saturation features with a maximum at a density not very different from that of normal nuclear matter. We obtain a more precise measure of the space-exchange part of the {Lambda}-nuclear force than was previously available, corresponding to an exchange parameter {approx_equal} 0.32. The space-exchange force is rather directly related to the effective mass of a {Lambda} in the nuclear medium and turns out to be about 70% of its free mass. As a result, we also obtain a much better value for the p-state {Lambda}-nucleus potential which is about 40% of the s-state potential. The A binding to nuclear matter is determined to be {approx_equal} 28 MeV.

  8. Characterization of antibodies directed against the immunoglobulin light kappa chain variable chain region (VK) of hepatitis C virus-related type-II mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell proliferations.

    PubMed

    de Re, Valli; Simula, Maria Paola; Pavan, Alessandro; Garziera, Marica; Marin, Dolores; Dolcetti, Riccardo; de Vita, Salvatore; Sansonno, Domenico; Geremia, Silvano; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Autoimmune type-II cryoglobulinemia (II-MC) is sustained by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell (oligo)clones. This is the reason why the disease may be considered an "indolent B-cell lymphoma (NHL)." B clones show a restricted use of immunoglobulin variable genes (BCR), in particular in the use of the variable kappa (VK)3-20/15 light chain, and show a homology between their BCR functional regions and those of autoimmune rheumatoid factors. We underlined the BCR unique repertoire with frequent rheumatoid factor activity also observed in other autoimmune disorders associated with NHL. The immunoglobulin idiotype is a clonal B-cell marker and an ideal target for immunotherapy. Five monoclonal antibodies were produced in our laboratory toward the VK3-20 of a subject with HCV infection and a II-MC-associated NHL. Epitope determination was performed using the epitope excision approach. Monoclonal antibody reactivity was tested in vitro in ELISA, Western blot, and cytofluorimetry. Data confirmed that a panel of antibodies, reactive against shared idiotypes, can be produced from patients with HCV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, thus obviating the need to produce an anti-idiotype antibody for each patient.

  9. Quantitative immunoglobulins in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Howard C; Quinn, James M

    2009-01-01

    Although age-related changes in serum immunoglobulins are well described in childhood, alterations in immunoglobulins in the elderly are less well described and published. This study was designed to better define expected immunoglobulin ranges and differences in adults of differing decades of life. Sera from 404 patients, aged 20-89 years old were analyzed for quantitative immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA). The patients with diagnoses or medications known to affect immunoglobulin levels were identified while blinded to their immunoglobulin levels. A two-factor ANOVA was performed using decade of life and gender on both the entire sample population as well as the subset without any disease or medication expected to alter immunoglobulin levels. A literature review was also performed on all English language articles evaluating quantitative immunoglobulin levels in adults >60 years old. For the entire population, IgM was found to be higher in women when compared with men (p < 0.001) and lower in the oldest sample population compared with the youngest population (p < 0.001). For the population without diseases known to affect immunoglobulin levels, the differences in IgM with gender and age were maintained (p < or = 0.001) and IgA levels were generally higher in the older population when compared with the younger population (p = 0.009). Elderly patients without disease known to affect immunoglobulin levels have higher serum IgA levels and lower serum IgM levels. Women have higher IgM levels than men throughout life. IgG levels are not significantly altered in an older population.

  10. Immunoglobulin E in histoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R A; Arnold, D R

    1980-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M, G, A, and E serum levels were quantitated in 20 patients with active histoplasmosis (group I), 24 healthy subjects who were skin test positive to histoplasmin (group II), and 47 healthy persons who were skin test negative to histoplasmin (group III). The results established that patients with this disease have increased immunoglobulin G (P less than 0.05), immunoglobulin A (P less than 0.001), and immunoglobulin E (P less than 0.01) serum levels when compared with the 71 healthy subjects in groups II and III. PMID:7399706

  11. Cloned transchromosomic calves producing human immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Yoshimi; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Choi, Yoon J; Naeem, Rizwan; Tomizuka, Kazuma; Sullivan, Eddie J; Knott, Jason G; Duteau, Anae; Goldsby, Richard A; Osborne, Barbara A; Ishida, Isao; Robl, James M

    2002-09-01

    Human polyclonal antibodies (hPABs) are useful therapeutics, but because they are available only from human donors, their supply and application is limited. To address this need, we prepared a human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector containing the entire unrearranged sequences of the human immunoglobulin (hIg) heavy-chain (H) and lambda (lambda) light-chain loci. The HAC vector was introduced into bovine primary fetal fibroblasts using a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) approach. Primary selection was carried out, and the cells were used to produce cloned bovine fetuses. Secondary selection was done on the regenerated fetal cell lines, which were then used to produce four healthy transchromosomic (Tc) calves. The HAC was retained at a high rate (78-100% of cells) in calves and the hIg loci underwent rearrangement and expressed diversified transcripts. Human immunoglobulin proteins were detected in the blood of newborn calves. The production of Tc calves is an important step in the development of a system for producing therapeutic hPABs.

  12. Thermodynamic stability contributes to immunoglobulin specificity.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Jordan D; Kaveri, Srinivas V; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Antigen-binding specificity of immunoglobulins is important for their function in immune defense. However, immune repertoires contain a considerable fraction of immunoglobulins with promiscuous binding behavior, the physicochemical basis of which is not well understood. Evolution of immunoglobulin specificity occurs through iterative processes of mutation and selection, referred to as affinity maturation. Recent studies reveal that some somatic mutations could compromise the thermodynamic stability of the variable regions of immunoglobulins. By integrating this observation with the wealth of data on the evolution of novel enzyme activities, we propose that antibody specificity is linked to the thermodynamic stability of the antigen-binding regions, which provides a quantitative distinction between highly specific and promiscuous antibodies.

  13. The flatness problem and Lambda.

    PubMed

    Lake, Kayll

    2005-05-27

    By way of a complete integration of the Friedmann equations, in terms of observables, it is shown that for the cosmological constant Lambda > 0 there exist nonflat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker models for which the total density parameter omega remains approximately 1 throughout the entire history of the Universe. Further, it is shown that in a precise quantitative sense these models are not finely tuned. When observations are brought to bear on the theory, and, in particular, the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe observations, they confirm that we live in just such a universe. The conclusion holds when the classical notion of Lambda is extended to dark energy.

  14. Human lambda light-chain constant region gene CMor lambda: the primary structure of lambda VI Bence Jones protein Mor.

    PubMed Central

    Frangione, B; Moloshok, T; Prelli, F; Solomon, A

    1985-01-01

    Serologic, structural, and genetic analyses have shown that the constant (C) region of human kappa light chains is encoded by a single gene, whereas that of lambda chains is encoded by multiple genes. We have determined the complete C region amino acid sequence of two monoclonal lambda VI light chains, Bence Jones proteins Sut and Mor. The C region of lambda chains Sut and Mor consists of 105 residues, as is characteristic for human lambda light chains, of which 102 are identical in sequence. Protein Sut has the C region sequence associated with the C lambda isotype Mcg-, Kern-, Oz+ and represents a product of the C lambda 3 (Kern-, Oz+) gene. Protein Mor has a C region sequence associated with Mcg-, Kern-, and Oz- proteins but differs from protein Sut by the presence of three amino acid interchanges at positions 168, 176, and 194. These substitutions distinguish protein Mor from lambda chains encoded by the C lambda 1 (Mcg+), C lambda 2 (Kern-, Oz-), and C lambda 3 (Kern-, Oz+) genes and provide further evidence for polymorphism of the human C lambda genome. The gene encoding the C region sequence of lambda chain Mor is designated CMor lambda. PMID:3923477

  15. Complete structure and organization of immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes in a phylogenetically primitive vertebrate.

    PubMed Central

    Kokubu, F; Hinds, K; Litman, R; Shamblott, M J; Litman, G W

    1988-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) gene organization in Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a phylogenetically primitive vertebrate, is unique. Homologous Ig heavy chain variable (VH) and constant region (CH) specific probes were used to screen a spleen cDNA library constructed in lambda gt11. Both secretory (SEC) and transmembrane (TM) cDNA clones were recovered; the latter were identified by a negative selection strategy. The complete sequence of the CH portion of a Heterodontus genomic DNA-lambda clone also was determined. The sequences of the individual CH genes differ from each other in all exons. When compared to mammalian prototypes, similarities in exon and intron organization as well as conservation of sequences involved with differential splicing of SEC and TM mRNA indicate that Heterodontus heavy chain genes are of the mu type, although intron lengths are uniformly longer in Heterodontus. Heterodontus genes are not associated, however, with the family of DNA sequences that have been implicated in heavy chain class switching in mammals. Spleen cDNA library screening and RNA blot analyses indicate that mRNAs encoding TM Ig are exceedingly rare. The relationship between this quantitative difference and the distribution of polyadenylation signal sequences suggests that regulation of Ig gene expression in Heterodontus may be highly dependent on position effects. Images PMID:3138109

  16. Complete structure and organization of immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes in a phylogenetically primitive vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Kokubu, F; Hinds, K; Litman, R; Shamblott, M J; Litman, G W

    1988-07-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) gene organization in Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a phylogenetically primitive vertebrate, is unique. Homologous Ig heavy chain variable (VH) and constant region (CH) specific probes were used to screen a spleen cDNA library constructed in lambda gt11. Both secretory (SEC) and transmembrane (TM) cDNA clones were recovered; the latter were identified by a negative selection strategy. The complete sequence of the CH portion of a Heterodontus genomic DNA-lambda clone also was determined. The sequences of the individual CH genes differ from each other in all exons. When compared to mammalian prototypes, similarities in exon and intron organization as well as conservation of sequences involved with differential splicing of SEC and TM mRNA indicate that Heterodontus heavy chain genes are of the mu type, although intron lengths are uniformly longer in Heterodontus. Heterodontus genes are not associated, however, with the family of DNA sequences that have been implicated in heavy chain class switching in mammals. Spleen cDNA library screening and RNA blot analyses indicate that mRNAs encoding TM Ig are exceedingly rare. The relationship between this quantitative difference and the distribution of polyadenylation signal sequences suggests that regulation of Ig gene expression in Heterodontus may be highly dependent on position effects.

  17. Immunoglobulin treatment in primary antibody deficiency.

    PubMed

    Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L J; Hoepelman, I M; Ellerbroek, P M

    2011-05-01

    The primary antibody deficiency syndromes are characterised by recurrent respiratory tract infections and the inability to produce effective immunoglobulin (Ig) responses. The best-known primary antibody deficiencies are common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency, and selective antibody deficiency with normal immunoglobulins (SADNI). Therapy in these patients consists of prophylactic antibiotics and/or Ig replacement therapy. Diagnostic delay remains common owing to limited awareness of the presenting features and may result in increased morbidity and mortality. Replacement therapy with immunoglobulins increases life expectancy and reduces the frequency and severity of infections, but the effect on end-organ damage is still unknown. Both intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) treatment appear to be safe, with comparable efficacy. A starting dose of 300-400 mg/kg/month in IVIg and 100 mg/week for SCIg is recommended. IgG trough levels should be >5 g/L for patients with agammaglobulinaemia and 3 g/L greater than the initial IgG level for patients with CVID; however, the clinical response should be foremost in choosing the dose and trough level. Infusion-related adverse reactions are generally mild owing to improved manufacturing processes. In this paper, aspects of Ig replacement therapy in primary antibody-deficient patients will be addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical use of immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    McClelland, D B; Yap, P L

    1984-02-01

    The use of immunoglobulins for prophylaxis and therapy are reviewed. Normal and hyperimmune immunoglobulins have well established clinical applications. These are summarized in Table 14. This form of therapy has now entered a period of rapid change due to the availability of human immunoglobulins which are safe for intravenous use, permitting large doses to be given rapidly. This will permit reappraisal of many conventional applications and exploration of new possibilities for the use of these products. The approaching wide availability of monoclonal antibodies for clinical use will open up a further wide range of new therapeutic applications, providing that concerns over the products' safety are allayed .

  19. Longitudinal Polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar Hyperons in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Sapozhnikov, M. G.

    2007-06-13

    The longitudinal polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar hyperons produced in deep-inelastic scattering of 160 GeV/c polarized positive muons is studied in the COMPASS (CERN NA58) experiment. Preliminary results on the longitudinal polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar from data collected during the 2003 run are presented.

  20. Identification of human antibody fragment clones specific for tetanus toxoid in a bacteriophage. lambda. immunoexpression library

    SciTech Connect

    Mullinax, R.L.; Gross, E.A.; Amberg, J.R.; Hogrefe, H.H.; Kubitz, M.M.; Greener, A.; Alting-Mees, M.; Ardourel, D.; Short, J.M.; Sorge, J.A. ); Hay, B.N.; Shopes, B. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors have applied a molecular biology approach to the identification of human monoclonal antibodies. Human peripheral blood lymphocyte mRNA was converted to cDNA and a select subset was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. These products, containing coding sequences for numerous immunoglobulin heavy- and {kappa} light-chain variable and constant region domains, were inserted into modified bacteriophase {lambda} expression vectors and introduced into Escherichia coli by infection to yield a combinatorial immunoexpression library. Clones with binding activity to tetanus toxoid were identified by filter hybridization with radiolabeled antigen and appeared at a frequency of 0.2{percent} in the library. These human antigen binding fragments, consisting of a heavy-chain fragment covalently linked to a light chain, displayed high affinity of binding to tetanus toxoid with equilibrium constants in the nanomolar range but did not cross-react with other proteins tested. They estimate that this human immunoexpression library contains 20,000 clones with high affinity and specificity to our chosen antigen.

  1. Preparations of intravenous immunoglobulins diminish the number and proinflammatory response of CD14+CD16++ monocytes in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients.

    PubMed

    Siedlar, Maciej; Strach, Magdalena; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Lenart, Marzena; Szaflarska, Anna; Węglarczyk, Kazimierz; Rutkowska, Magdalena; Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Zembala, Marek

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the effect of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) on monocyte subpopulations and cytokine production in patients with CVID. The absolute number of CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes decreased on average 2.5-fold 4h after IVIG and after 20h returned to the baseline. The cytokine level in the supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after ex vivo LPS stimulation demonstrated the >2-fold decrease in TNF production 4h after IVIG. The TNF expression, which is higher in the CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes, was decreased in these cells by IVIG in 4/7 CVID cases. In vitro exposure of the healthy individuals' monocytes to the IVIG preparation resulted in reduced TNF production, which was overcome by blockade of the FcγRIIB in the CD14(+)CD16(++) CD32B(high) monocytes. Our data suggest that reduction in the number of CD14(+)CD16(++) monocytes and the blockade of their cytokine production via triggering CD32B can contribute to the anti-inflammatory action of IVIG. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. {lambda}NN Three-Body Force due to Coherent {lambda}-{sigma} Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Akaishi, Yoshinori; Myint, Khin Swe

    2008-04-29

    The overbinding problem of {sub {lambda}}{sup 5}He is solved by introducing a concept of coherent {lambda}-{sigma} coupling which is equivalent to a {lambda}NN three-body force. This three-body force is coherently enhanced in the 0{sup +} states of {sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H and {sub {lambda}}{sup 4}He. The 0{sup +}-1{sup +} splitting in these hypernuclei is mainly due to coherent {lambda}-{sigma} coupling and partly due to the {lambda}N spin-spin interaction. A {lambda}NN three-body potential is derived from the coupled-channel treatment. The origin of the repulsive and attractive nature of the three-body force is discussed. Coherent {lambda}-{sigma} coupling becomes more important in neutron-rich hypernuclei and especially in neutron-star matter at high densities. The possible existence of ''hyperheavy hydrogen'', {sub {lambda}}{sup 6}H, is suggested.

  3. Little lambda, who made thee?

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Max E; Weisberg, Robert A

    2004-12-01

    The study of the bacteriophage lambda has been critical to the discipline of molecular biology. It was the source of key discoveries in the mechanisms of, among other processes, gene regulation, recombination, and transcription initiation and termination. We trace here the events surrounding these findings and draw on the recollections of the participants. We show how a particular atmosphere of interactions among creative scientists yielded spectacular insights into how living things work.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of expression of immunoglobulins in canine B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, J; Micuń, J; Zabielska, K; Malicka, E; Lechowski, R

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen canine lymphomas were included in this study. Tumors were classified according to the updated Kiel classification adapted for canine lymphomas by Fournel-Fleury et al. Immunoglobulin light chains (kappa and lambda) and IgM and IgG expression were determined by immunohistochemical method. In all examined cases neoplastic cells were positive for one of the immunoglobulin light chains. Expression of lambda light chains and kappa light chains was observed in 18/19 and 1/19 tumors, respectively. In the majority of neoplastic cells in each examined specimen this reaction had a membranous pattern (skappa/slambda). In all examined cases the presence of immunoglobulin light chains was also observed in the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells (ckappa/clambda). These cells were usally rare and never constituted a dominant population. The expression of immunoglobulin was found in 13/19 cases. Most lymphomas were sIgM positive (11/13 cases). In one case expression of IgG was found, and in another lymphoma two populations of neoplastic cells with different expression of examined immunoglobulins (cells with IgM+ and IgG+ phenotypes) were observed. The reaction also had a membranous pattern. The cells containing cytoplasmic immunoglobulins were rare, and in most cases were of the same type as the surface immunoglobulins. Our study has confirmed that canine lymphomas are a monoclonal proliferation of B-cells usually expressing immunoglobulin lambda light chains and that the vast majority of tumors deriving from B-cells express IgM. Our study also indicates a possibility of occurence of biclonal lymphomas in canine species.

  5. Microscopic theory of the lambda transition

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoda, T.

    1982-06-01

    Starting with a microscopic hamiltonian for a many-boson system with a hardcore interaction, the grand potential of the system, which contains the order-parameter of the lambda transition as one of the thermodynamical variables, is derived by making use of the finite temperature loop expansion. The divergence difficulty caused by the hardcore interaction is circumvented by the conventional field theoretic perturbation renormalization such that the chemical potential is renormalized instead of the conventional mass renormalization. The grand potential obtained consists of the superfluid part and the finite temperature elementary excitation part. The elementary excitation energy spectrum shows the Goldstone boson mode, namely, the photon, for the zero external field. A non-vanishing external field destroys such a Goldstone boson mode by causing an energy gap at zero momentum. The chemical potential and the critical temperature are also obtained for the weak coupling case. It is shown how the Bose-Einstein condensation is affected by the hardcore interaction.

  6. 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium: poster presentations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cruz, E; Kaveri, S V; Peter, H-H; Durandy, A; Cantoni, N; Quinti, I; Sorensen, R; Bussel, J B; Danieli, M G; Winkelmann, A; Bayry, J; Käsermann, F; Späth, P; Helbert, M; Salama, A; van Schaik, I N; Yuki, N

    2009-12-01

    The posters presented at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium covered a wide range of fields and included both basic science and clinical research. From the abstracts accepted for poster presentation, 12 abstracts were selected for oral presentations in three parallel sessions on immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and basic research. The immunodeficiency presentations dealt with novel, rare class-switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies, attenuation of adverse events following IVIg treatment, association of immunoglobulin (Ig)G trough levels and protection against acute infection in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and the reduction of class-switched memory B cells in patients with specific antibody deficiency (SAD). The impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, pregnancy and postpartum-related relapses in multiple sclerosis and refractory myositis, as well as experiences with subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with multi-focal motor neuropathy, were the topics presented in the autoimmunity session. The interaction of dendritic cell (DC)-SIGN and alpha2,6-sialylated IgG Fc and its impact on human DCs, the enrichment of sialylated IgG in plasma-derived IgG, as wells as prion surveillance and monitoring of anti-measles titres in immunoglobulin products, were covered in the basic science session. In summary, the presentations illustrated the breadth of immunoglobulin therapy usage and highlighted the progress that is being made in diverse areas of basic and clinical research, extending our understanding of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin action and contributing to improved patient care.

  7. Complete sequence of a cDNA clone specifying sandbar shark immunoglobulin light chain: gene organization and implications for the evolution of light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Hohman, V S; Schluter, S F; Marchalonis, J J

    1992-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone specifying sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) immunoglobulin light chain has been isolated and sequenced. By alignment with human lambda chains, the leader, framework, complementarity-determining, joining, and constant regions are clearly identified in the shark light chain. Approximately 40-50% identity is shared between the human and shark sequences in the variable and constant regions. We have performed sequence comparisons of the individual segments and constructed phylogenetic trees for the variable region. These studies identify the shark protein as a lambda chain. In addition, the sandbar shark light chain is only distantly related to that of horned shark (Heterodontus francisci) [Shamblott, M. J. & Litman, G. W. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4684-4688], demonstrating that the long evolutionary time of divergence among shark species has led to the generation of substantial differences in sequence. The positions of the variable, joining, and constant gene segments in 14 genomic clones have been mapped. The segments are linked in individual clusters (variable, joining, constant) occupying 3-7 kilobases. Cluster arrangement can be grouped into two patterns based upon spacing between the genes in the individual clones. This arrangement is fundamentally different from that observed in higher vertebrates. Images PMID:1729697

  8. Complete sequence of a cDNA clone specifying sandbar shark immunoglobulin light chain: gene organization and implications for the evolution of light chains.

    PubMed

    Hohman, V S; Schluter, S F; Marchalonis, J J

    1992-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone specifying sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) immunoglobulin light chain has been isolated and sequenced. By alignment with human lambda chains, the leader, framework, complementarity-determining, joining, and constant regions are clearly identified in the shark light chain. Approximately 40-50% identity is shared between the human and shark sequences in the variable and constant regions. We have performed sequence comparisons of the individual segments and constructed phylogenetic trees for the variable region. These studies identify the shark protein as a lambda chain. In addition, the sandbar shark light chain is only distantly related to that of horned shark (Heterodontus francisci) [Shamblott, M. J. & Litman, G. W. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4684-4688], demonstrating that the long evolutionary time of divergence among shark species has led to the generation of substantial differences in sequence. The positions of the variable, joining, and constant gene segments in 14 genomic clones have been mapped. The segments are linked in individual clusters (variable, joining, constant) occupying 3-7 kilobases. Cluster arrangement can be grouped into two patterns based upon spacing between the genes in the individual clones. This arrangement is fundamentally different from that observed in higher vertebrates.

  9. Measurement of the Lambda(b) lifetime in the exclusive decay Lambda(b) ---> J / psi Lambda

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U.

    2007-04-01

    We have measured the {lambda}{sub b} lifetime using the exclusive decay {lambda}{sub b}{yields}J/{psi}{lambda}, based on 1.2 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2006. From 171 reconstructed {lambda}{sub b} decays, where the J/{psi} and {lambda} are identified via the decays J/{psi}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and {lambda}{yields}p{pi}, we measured the {lambda}{sub b} lifetime to be {tau}({lambda}{sub b})=1.218{sub -0.115}{sup +0.130}(stat){+-}0.042(syst) ps. We also measured the B{sup 0} lifetime in the decay B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})K{sub S}{sup 0}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) to be {tau}(B{sup 0})=1.501{sub -0.074}{sup +0.078}(stat){+-}0.050(syst) ps, yielding a lifetime ratio of {tau}({lambda}{sub b})/{tau}(B{sup 0})=0.811{sub -0.087}{sup +0.096}(stat){+-}0.034(syst = )

  10. Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the binding energy of sub. Lambda. Lambda. sup 31 Si

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan, M.H. ); Kaykobad, M. ); Ali, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding energy of the {Lambda}{Lambda} hypernucleus {sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}{sup 31}Si has been calculated variationally with a {sup 28}Si+{ital n}+{Lambda}+{Lambda} four-body model. The integrations have been carried out with the help of a Monte Carlo technique. Three different types of {Lambda}-{Lambda} and {Lambda}-{ital N} potentials have been used. {ital n}-{sup 28}Si and {Lambda}-{sup 28}Si potentials have been generated by folding the {ital N}-{ital N} and {Lambda}-{ital N} potentials into the harmonic-oscillator shell-model density distribution of {sup 28}Si. The calculated values of the binding energy for the three different potentials are 40.19, 46.30, and 39.90 MeV. These values are compared with the reported experimental value of 38.2{plus minus}6.3 MeV. The dependence of the binding energy on the depth of the {Lambda}-{Lambda} interaction has also been investigated.

  11. Immunoglobulin in intestinal secretions.

    PubMed

    Cutropia de Guirao, C

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the present investigation is the study and interpretation of the role played by the immunoglobulins, especially IgA, during acute diarrhea in children. IgA, IGG and IgM values in serum and IgA in intestinal secretions were studied in a group of children (between 3 months and 5 years of age) during diarrhea, convalescence and in normals. The method of simple radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini was employed. IgA is the immunoglobulin which suffers the greastest alteration in acute diarrhea. The precipitation halos (the average values), were lower during the diarrhea than in convalescence and in normals.

  12. Abnormal kappa:lambda light chain ratio in circulating immune complexes as a marker for B cell activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Low, J M; Chauhan, A K; Moore, T L

    2007-01-01

    Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been shown to have elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) which correlated with disease activity. Our aim was to assess B cell activity by measuring the amount of and the kappa:lambda chain immunoglobulin light (L) chain ratio in CICs from JIA patients and to determine potential evidence for either an antigen-driven response or B-cell receptor editing. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure kappa and lambda chains present in the CICs from the sera of patients with JIA. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Sera from 44 JIA patients were examined for the concentration of L chains in CICs. Healthy controls had a kappa:lambda chain ratio of 1.2:1, whereas this ratio was reversed among JIA subgroups with RF-positive polyarthritis (1:1.2), RF-negative polyarthritis (1:1.3), oligoarthritis (1:2.3) and systemic-onset arthritis (1:2.5). In addition, overall lambda chain selection was not significantly associated with a particular immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and occurred with all immunoglobulin isotypes. We showed preferential selection of lambda chains contributing to the formation of potentially pathogenic CICs from JIA patients, of all onset types compared to healthy controls, in an H chain-independent manner. The reversal of kappa:lambda chain ratio within the JIA CICs and association with all immunoglobulin isotypes demonstrated the potential for L chain editing. Furthermore, we conclude that a reversal of the normal kappa:lambda chain ratio in JIA CICs may be used as a marker for increased B-cell activity.

  13. [Glomerulopathies with organized monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits].

    PubMed

    Touchard, Guy; Bridoux, Frank; Goujon, Jean-Michel

    2016-02-01

    The spectrum of glomerular disorders with organized immunoglobulin (Ig) deposits is heterogeneous. It encompasses 2 mains categories: glomerulopathies with fibrillary deposits are mostly represented by immunoglobulinic amyloidosis (most commonly AL amyloidosis, characterized by monoclonal light chain deposits often of the lambda isotype), and pseudo-amyloid fibrillary glomerulonephritis in which deposits predominantly contain polyclonal IgG4. Glomerulopathies with microtubular deposits include cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis (type I and type II, with or without detectable serum cryoglobulin) and glomerulonephritis with organized microtubular monoclonal Ig deposits (GOMMID) also referred to as immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Pathological diagnosis requires meticulous studies by light microscopy (with systematic Congo red staining), immunofluorescence with specific conjugates, and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural studies are required to differentiate amyloid fibrils (8 to 10 nm in external diameter), pseudo-amyloid fibrils (15-20 nm) and microtubules (10 to 50 nm in external diameter, with a central hollow core). Glomerular deposits in type I cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis are arranged into parallel straight microtubules similar to those observed in GOMMID, but with different topography that allows distinction between the two entities. Glomerular substructures composed of circulating Igs should be distinguished from collagen fibrils that are commonly observed in glomerular disorders with or without deposition of monoclonal or polyclonal Igs. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production in $p \\bar{p}$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-02-09

    Here, we study $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ production asymmetries in $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$, $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$, and $p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV. We find an excess of $\\Lambda$'s ($\\bar{\\Lambda}$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.

  15. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production in $$p \\bar{p}$$ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-02-09

    Here, we studymore » $$\\Lambda$$ and $$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$ production asymmetries in $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$, and $$p \\bar{p} \\rightarrow \\mu^\\pm \\Lambda (\\bar{\\Lambda}) X$$ events recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at $$\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$$ TeV. We find an excess of $$\\Lambda$$'s ($$\\bar{\\Lambda}$$'s) produced in the proton (antiproton) direction. This forward-backward asymmetry is measured as a function of rapidity. We confirm that the $$\\bar{\\Lambda}/\\Lambda$$ production ratio, measured by several experiments with various targets and a wide range of energies, is a universal function of "rapidity loss", i.e., the rapidity difference of the beam proton and the lambda.« less

  16. Study of Lambda+(c) Cabibbo favored decays containing a Lambda baryon in the final state

    SciTech Connect

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez /South Carolina U. /Tennessee U. /Vanderbilt U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-05-01

    Using data from the FOCUS experiment (FNAL-E831), they study the decay of {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} baryons into final states contain a {Lambda} hyperon. The branching fractions of {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} into {Lambda}{pi}{sup +}, {Lambda}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {Lambda}{bar K}{sup 0}K{sup +} relative to that into pK{sup -} {pi}{sup +} are measured to be 0.217 {+-} 0.013 {+-} 0.020, 0.508 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.024 and 0.142 {+-} 0.018 {+-} 0.022, respectively. New measurements are also reported. Further, an analysis of the subresonant structure for the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay mode is presented.

  17. Generation and characterization of ABT-981, a dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig(TM)) molecule that specifically and potently neutralizes both IL-1α and IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Susan E; Wu, Chengbin; Ambrosi, Dominic J; Hsieh, Chung-Ming; Bose, Sahana; Miller, Renee; Conlon, Donna M; Tarcsa, Edit; Chari, Ravi; Ghayur, Tariq; Kamath, Rajesh V

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra contribute to immune regulation and inflammatory processes by exerting a wide range of cellular responses, including expression of cytokines and chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and nitric oxide synthetase. IL-1α and IL-1β bind to IL-1R1 complexed to the IL-1 receptor accessory protein and induce similar physiological effects. Preclinical and clinical studies provide significant evidence for the role of IL-1 in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), including cartilage degradation, bone sclerosis, and synovial proliferation. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of ABT-981, a dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig) of the IgG1/k subtype that specifically and potently neutralizes IL-1α and IL-1β. In ABT-981, the IL-1β variable domain resides in the outer domain of the DVD-Ig, whereas the IL-1α variable domain is located in the inner position. ABT-981 specifically binds to IL-1α and IL-1β, and is physically capable of binding 2 human IL-1α and 2 human IL-1β molecules simultaneously. Single-dose intravenous and subcutaneous pharmacokinetics studies indicate that ABT-981 has a half-life of 8.0 to 10.4 d in cynomolgus monkey and 10.0 to 20.3 d in rodents. ABT-981 exhibits suitable drug-like-properties including affinity, potency, specificity, half-life, and stability for evaluation in human clinical trials. ABT-981 offers an exciting new approach for the treatment of OA, potentially addressing both disease modification and symptom relief as a disease-modifying OA drug.

  18. Lambda-Chain Production in Human Lymphoblast-Mouse Fibroblast Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Stuart H.; Buchanan, Philip D.; Yount, William J.; Reisner, Howard; Littlefield, John W.

    1973-01-01

    Mutant human lymphoblast cells deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.8) activity were hybridized with thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21)-deficient mouse fibroblasts. Hybrid cells were readily selected, as both parental lines were nonreverting and eliminated by hypoxanthine-amethopterinthymidine medium. Human lambda (λ) chain was the only immunoglobulin chain produced by the lymphoblast parent, as determined by immunofluorescent techniques. Two independent hybrid clones chosen for detailed study synthesized human λ chain, and continued to do so after prolonged culture. As in both parental lines, no human immunoglobulin heavy chains, complements C3 or C4, or α1-antitrypsin, or mouse immunoglobulin chains or complement C5 were detectable in the hybrids. Selection against thymidine kinase-containing hybrid cells with 5-bromodeoxyuridine did not eliminate positive λ-chain reactivity, suggesting that the kinase and λ-chain loci are not linked. The continued production of an immunoglobulin chain by human lymphoblast-mouse fibroblast hybrids contrasts with the extinction of other differentiated functions in several hybrid systems, and indicates that gene localization and linkage analysis for human immunoglobulin chains should be feasible with this system. Images PMID:4599625

  19. Recombinant immunoglobulin variable domains generated from synthetic genes provide a system for in vitro characterization of light-chain amyloid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, P. W.; Raffen, R.; Hanson, D. K.; Deng, Y. L.; Berrios-Hammond, M.; Westholm, F. A.; Murphy, C.; Eulitz, M.; Wetzel, R.; Solomon, A.

    1995-01-01

    The primary structural features that render human monoclonal light chains amyloidogenic are presently unknown. To gain further insight into the physical and biochemical factors that result in the pathologic deposition of these proteins as amyloid fibrils, we have selected for detailed study three closely homologous protein products of the light-chain variable-region single-gene family VkIV. Two of these proteins, REC and SMA, formed amyloid fibrils in vivo. The third protein, LEN, was excreted by the patient at levels of 50 g/day with no indication of amyloid deposits. Sequences of amyloidogenic proteins REC and SMA differed from the sequence of the nonpathogenic protein LEN at 14 and 8 amino acid positions, respectively, and these amino acid differences have been analyzed in terms of the three-dimensional structure of the LEN dimer. To provide a replenishable source of these human proteins, we constructed synthetic genes coding for the REC, SMA, and LEN variable domains and expressed these genes in Escherichia coli. Immunochemical and biophysical comparisons demonstrated that the recombinant VkIV products have tertiary structural features comparable to those of the patient-derived proteins. This well-defined set of three clinically characterized human kIV light chains, together with the capability to produce these kIV proteins recombinantly, provide a system for biophysical and structural comparisons of two different amyloidogenic light-chain proteins and a nonamyloidogenic protein of the same subgroup. This work lays the foundation for future investigations of the structural basis of light-chain amyloidogenicity. PMID:7795526

  20. Recent developments in Lambda networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, C.; Grosso, P.

    About 6 years ago the first baby-steps were made on opening up dark fiber and DWDM infrastructure for direct use by ISP's after the transformation of the old style Telecom sector into a market driven business. Since then Lambda workshops, community groups like GLIF and a number of experiments have led to many implementations of hybrid national research and education networks and lightpath-based circuit exchanges as pioneered by SURFnet in GigaPort and NetherLight in collaboration with StarLight in Chicago and Canarie in Canada. This article looks back on those developments, describes some current open issues and research developments and proposes a concept of terabit networking.

  1. B cell development in mice that lack one or both immunoglobulin kappa light chain genes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Trounstine, M; Kurahara, C; Young, F; Kuo, C C; Xu, Y; Loring, J F; Alt, F W; Huszar, D

    1993-01-01

    We have generated mice that lack the ability to produce immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains by targeted deletion of J kappa and C kappa gene segments and the intervening sequences in mouse embryonic stem cells. In wild type mice, approximately 95% of B cells express kappa light chains and only approximately 5% express lambda light chains. Mice heterozygous for the J kappa C kappa deletion have approximately 2-fold more lambda+ B cells than wild-type littermates. Compared with normal mice, homozygous mutants for the J kappa C kappa deletion have about half the number of B cells in both the newly generated and the peripheral B cell compartments, and all of these B cells express lambda light chains in their Ig. Therefore, homozygous mutant mice appear to produce lambda-expressing cells at nearly 10 times the rate observed in normal mice. These findings demonstrate that kappa gene assembly and/or expression is not a prerequisite for lambda gene assembly and expression. Furthermore, there is no detectable rearrangement of 3' kappa RS sequences in lambda+ B cells of the homozygous mutant mice, thus rearrangements of these sequences, per se, is not required for lambda light chain gene assembly. We discuss these findings in the context of their implications for the control of Ig light chain gene rearrangement and potential applications of the mutant animals. Images PMID:8458340

  2. Extensive families of constant region genes in a phylogenetically primitive vertebrate indicate an additional level of immunoglobulin complexity.

    PubMed Central

    Kokubu, F; Hinds, K; Litman, R; Shamblott, M J; Litman, G W

    1987-01-01

    A homologous probe for the constant region of the Heterodontus francisci (horned shark) immunoglobulin heavy chain was used to screen a genomic DNA library constructed in bacteriophage lambda, and a large number of independent clones were recovered. Their hybridization patterns with segment-specific probes are consistent with the close linkage of heavy-chain constant (CH), joining (JH), and variable (VH) gene segments. Differences in the nucleotide sequences of the first CH exon of five genes primarily are localized to 5' positions; extended regions of sequence identity are noted at 3' positions. The predicted amino acid sequences of each gene are different and are related distantly to the corresponding regions of higher vertebrate immunoglobulins. Gene-specific oligodeoxynucleotide probes were used to establish that at least three of the five genes are transcriptionally active. Quantitative gene titration data are consistent with the large numbers of genes suggested by the library screening analyses. In this representative early vertebrate, it appears that (VH-diversity-JH) segments are associated with individual constant region genes that can differ at the predicted protein level. Images PMID:3475706

  3. Complete nucleotide sequence of primitive vertebrate immunoglobulin light chain genes.

    PubMed Central

    Shamblott, M J; Litman, G W

    1989-01-01

    Antibody to Heterodontus francisci (horned shark) immunoglobulin light chain was used to screen a spleen cDNA expression library, and recombinant clones encoding light chain genes were isolated. The complete sequences of the mature coding regions of two light chain genes in this phylogenetically distant vertebrate have been determined and are reported here. Comparisons of the sequences are consistent with the presence of mammalian-like framework and complementarity-determining regions. The predicted amino acid sequences of the genes are more related to mammalian lambda than to kappa light chains. The nucleotide sequences of the genes are most related to mammalian T-cell antigen receptor beta chain. Heterodontus light chain genes may reflect characteristics of the common ancestor of immunoglobulin and T-cell antigen receptors before its evolutionary diversification. PMID:2499889

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of primitive vertebrate immunoglobulin light chain genes.

    PubMed

    Shamblott, M J; Litman, G W

    1989-06-01

    Antibody to Heterodontus francisci (horned shark) immunoglobulin light chain was used to screen a spleen cDNA expression library, and recombinant clones encoding light chain genes were isolated. The complete sequences of the mature coding regions of two light chain genes in this phylogenetically distant vertebrate have been determined and are reported here. Comparisons of the sequences are consistent with the presence of mammalian-like framework and complementarity-determining regions. The predicted amino acid sequences of the genes are more related to mammalian lambda than to kappa light chains. The nucleotide sequences of the genes are most related to mammalian T-cell antigen receptor beta chain. Heterodontus light chain genes may reflect characteristics of the common ancestor of immunoglobulin and T-cell antigen receptors before its evolutionary diversification.

  5. Chebyshev acceleration for lambda mode calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Belchior, A. Jr.; Moreira, J.M.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Coordenadoria para Projetos Especals (COPESP) has been making an effort to develop a power distribution mapping system utilizing self-powered neutron detectors. The scheme adopted to estimate the power distribution is based on an expansion of lambda modes for a given reactor state. Two-dimensional lambda modes were obtained previously with a modified version of the CITATION code. The method was based on the orthogonality properties of the lambda modes. Several modes could be obtained, but the convergence was slow because of the lack of an appropriate accelerating scheme in the CITATION code for calculating lambda modes. This work presents the acceleration scheme implemented into the CITATION code to obtain lambda modes.

  6. Linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Giulio; Marinkovich, M Peter

    2012-01-01

    Linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) bullous dermatosis, also known as linear IgA disease, is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disorder characterized by subepithelial bullae, with IgA autoantibodies directed against several different antigens in the basement membrane zone. Its immunopathologic characteristic resides in the presence of a continuous linear IgA deposit along the basement membrane zone, which is clearly visible on direct immunofluorescence. This disorder shows different clinical features and distribution when adult-onset of linear IgA disease is compared with childhood-onset. Diagnosis is achieved via clinical, histopathologic, and immunopathologic examinations. Two common therapies are dapsone and sulfapyridine, which reduce the inflammatory response and achieve disease remission in a variable period of time.

  7. Structure and function of immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Harry W; Cavacini, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Immunoglobulins are heterodimeric proteins composed of 2 heavy and 2 light chains. They can be separated functionally into variable domains that bind antigens and constant domains that specify effector functions, such as activation of complement or binding to Fc receptors. The variable domains are created by means of a complex series of gene rearrangement events and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutation after exposure to antigen to allow affinity maturation. Each variable domain can be split into 3 regions of sequence variability termed the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) and 4 regions of relatively constant sequence termed the framework regions. The 3 CDRs of the heavy chain are paired with the 3 CDRs of the light chain to form the antigen-binding site, as classically defined. The constant domains of the heavy chain can be switched to allow altered effector function while maintaining antigen specificity. There are 5 main classes of heavy chain constant domains. Each class defines the IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE isotypes. IgG can be split into 4 subclasses, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, each with its own biologic properties, and IgA can similarly be split into IgA1 and IgA2.

  8. Structure and diversification of the bovine immunoglobulin repertoire.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R; Hosseini, A; MacDuff, R

    1999-12-15

    Our understanding of the basis to immunoglobulin formation in cattle has benefited substantially from the application of molecular biology over the past decade. It is now established that both the lambda light chain and heavy chain repertoires are founded upon the frequent expression of single gene families and subgroups of segments which are of conserved sequence. It is likely that a functional kappa locus exists in the bovine genome but this isotype comprises as few as 5% of bovine light chains. Similarly, alternative but non-expressed V(H) gene families are present posing intriguing but unresolved questions about the regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis. The heavy chain frequently bears a third complementarity-determining region which is atypically long but the processes which expand this region of the reading frame and its contribution to the interaction with antigen remain matters of speculation. Opportunities exist to map the major immunoglobulin loci and to define the membership and sequence diversity of the gene families which dominate each repertoire. However, it is already evident that cattle cannot generate significant diversity from rearrangement and junctional imprecision alone. Elucidation of the mechanism(s), dynamics and tissue distribution of immunoglobulin diversification in cattle, thus, remain key challenges in this branch of veterinary immunology.

  9. SRSF1-3 contributes to diversification of the immunoglobulin variable region gene by promoting accumulation of AID in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yuka; Nariki, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Naoko; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mari; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this study, we examined whether SRSF1-3 functions in IgV diversification by promoting nuclear localization of AID. AID expressed alone was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. In contrast, co-expression of AID with SRSF1-3 led to the nuclear accumulation of both AID and SRSF1-3 and the formation of a protein complex that contained them both, although SRSF1-3 was dispensable for nuclear import of AID. Expression of either SRSF1-3 or a C-terminally-truncated AID mutant increased IgV diversification in DT40 cells. However, overexpression of exogenous SRSF1-3 was unable to further enhance IgV diversification in DT40 cells expressing the truncated AID mutant, although SRSF1-3 was able to form a protein complex with the AID mutant. These results suggest that SRSF1-3 promotes nuclear localization of AID probably by forming a nuclear protein complex, which might stabilize nuclear AID and induce IgV diversification in an AID C-terminus-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE IMMUNOGLOBULINS OF MICE

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, John L.; Wunderlich, John; Mishell, Robert

    1964-01-01

    Two classes of 7S γ-globulins are identified in normal mouse serum and are designated 7S γ2-globulins and 7S γ1-globulins. These two immunoglobulin classes are similar in size. They differ in range of electrophoretic mobility, in specific antigenic determinants, and in genetically determined isoantigens. Four classes of immunoglobulins in mouse serum, i.e. 7S γ2-, 7S γ1-, γ1A (β2A), and γM-globulins, were shown to have antibody activity. Each class was characterized and shown to have distinctive immunochemical and physicochemical properties. The genetically determined isoantigens, Iga-1 and Iga-2, were shown to be present only on 7S γ2-globulin molecules. PMID:14208249

  11. [Avidity of polyreactive immunoglobulins].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the mechanism of interaction between polyreactive immunoglobulins (PRIG) and antigen was conducted and it was shown that most of the traditional methods of antibody affinity evaluation are not applicable for PRIG affinity. The comparative assessment of the mouse and human PRIG avidity against ovalbumin and horse myoglobin and the avidity of specific monoclonal antibodies against ovalbumin have shown that the avidity of PRIG not only is much less than the avidity of monoclonal antibodies but even exceeds it.

  12. Immunoglobulin genes of the turtles.

    PubMed

    Magadán-Mompó, Susana; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The availability of reptile genomes for the use of the scientific community is an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of immunoglobulin genes. The genome of Chrysemys picta bellii and Pelodiscus sinensis is the first one that has been reported for turtles. The scanning for immunoglobulin genes resulted in the presence of a complex locus for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH). This IGH locus in both turtles contains genes for 13 isotypes in C. picta bellii and 17 in P. sinensis. These correspond with one immunoglobulin M, one immunoglobulin D, several immunoglobulins Y (six in C. picta bellii and eight in P. sinensis), and several immunoglobulins that are similar to immunoglobulin D2 (five in C. picta belli and seven in P. sinensis) that was previously described in Eublepharis macularius. It is worthy to note that IGHD2 are placed in an inverted transcriptional orientation and present sequences for two immunoglobulin domains that are similar to bird IgA domains. Furthermore, its phylogenetic analysis allows us to consider about the presence of IGHA gene in a primitive reptile, so we would be dealing with the memory of the gene that originated from the bird IGHA. In summary, we provide a clear picture of the immunoglobulins present in a turtle, whose analysis supports the idea that turtles emerged from the evolutionary line from the differentiation of birds and the presence of the IGHA gene present in a common ancestor.

  13. Sequence-Dependent Pausing of Single Lambda Exonuclease Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Thomas T.; Dalal, Ravindra V.; Mitsis, Paul G.; Block, Steven M.

    2003-09-01

    Lambda exonuclease processively degrades one strand of duplex DNA, moving 5'-to-3' in an ATP-independent fashion. When examined at the single-molecule level, the speeds of digestion were nearly constant at 4 nanometers per second (12 nucleotides per second), interspersed with pauses of variable duration. Long pauses, occurring at stereotypical locations, were strand-specific and sequence-dependent. Pause duration and probability varied widely. The strongest pause, GGCGATTCT, was identified by gel electrophoresis. Correlating single-molecule dwell positions with sequence independently identified the motif GGCGA. This sequence is found in the left lambda cohesive end, where exonuclease inhibition may contribute to the reduced recombination efficiency at that end.

  14. Further observations of the lambda 10830 He line in stars and their significance as a measure of stellar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of the lambda 1030 He line in 198 stars are given along with data on other features in that spectral range. Nearly 80% of all G and K stars show some lambda 10830; of these, half are variable and 1/4 show emission. It was confirmed that lambda 10830 is not found in M stars, is weak in F stars, and is particularly strong in close binaries. The line is found in emission in extremely late M and S stars, along with P gamma, but P gamma is not in emission in G and K stars with lambda 10830 emissions. Variable He emission and Ti I emission are found in the RV Tauri variables R Scuti and U Mon. In R Aqr the Fe XIII coronal line lambda 10747 and a line at lambda 11012 which may be singlet He or La II are found, as well as lambda 10830 and P gamma. The nature of coronas or hot chromospheres in the various stars is discussed. It was concluded that the lambda 10830 intensity must be more or less proportional to the energy deposited in the chromosphere corona by non-thermal processes.

  15. Production and Characterization of a Set of Mouse-Human Chimeric Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Subclass and IgA Monoclonal Antibodies with Identical Variable Regions Specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Serogroup O6 Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Michael J.; Gerçeker, A. Alev; Reff, Mitchell E.; Pier, Gerald B.

    1998-01-01

    The heavy- and light-chain variable regions from a murine monoclonal antibody that recognize Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O6 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to generate a series of chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibodies with identical variable regions. The murine variable-region gene segments were cloned into an immunoglobulin (Ig) cDNA expression vector that contained the human kappa light-chain and IgG1 constant regions. The IgG1 heavy-chain constant region was then replaced with the human IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, or IgA1 heavy-chain constant region. The five different expression vectors were transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells for antibody production. The chimeric antibodies exhibited immunoreactivity and affinity similar to that of the parental murine IgG antibody toward whole cells of a serogroup O6 strain. In vitro complement deposition assays demonstrated that the chimeric IgG4 and IgA antibodies did not mediate the deposition of complement component C3 onto the surface of either purified LPS or whole bacteria. The chimeric IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies were similar in their ability to deposit C3 onto the surface of both bacteria and LPS, while IgG2 antibody was more effective at depositing C3 onto the surface of bacteria than onto purified LPS. The pattern of opsonophagocytic activity of the chimeric monoclonal antibodies was similar to that of complement deposition onto bacterial cells in that the chimeric IgG1 and IgG3 had the highest opsonic activity. Although IgG2 deposited more C3 onto the bacterial surface than did IgG4 or IgA, all three of these isotypes had low opsonic activity against the serogroup O6 target strain. This series of related antibodies will help reveal functional differences in efficacy among protective antibodies to P. aeruginosa and will be critical for defining the optimal formulation of either a vaccine for active immunization or a polyclonal intravenous IgG or monoclonal antibody cocktail for passive immunotherapy. PMID

  16. Lambda waves and occipital generators.

    PubMed

    Tatum, William O; Ly, Reynold C; Sluzewska-Niedzwiedz, Monika; Shih, Jerry J

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between lambda waves (LWs) and other occipital waveforms, in a retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms (EEGs) of clinic and hospitalized patients at a single center. The LWs were correlated with α rhythm, photic driving, and positive occipital sharp transients of sleep (POSTS). A computer-generated cursor quantified amplitude and duration of POSTS and LWs (3 waveforms and both hemispheres). Fisher exact test was used for significance (P ≤ .05). A total of 116 patients were evaluated. Of 111 patients, with interpretable results, 74 (66.67%) had visual scanning during EEG, with 37 (50.0%) having LWs. The LWs (17.69 µV) were consistently smaller than POSTS (31.40 µV) despite similar morphology. Patients with an α rhythm of >8.5 Hz were strongly correlated with the presence of LWs (P < .0001), and those with LWs were strongly predictive of normal EEG (P = .001). Of the 37 patients, 27 (73.0%) with LWs had photic driving (P = .0496). No correlation was found between LWs and POSTS (P = .45). The presence of LWs and a low normal posterior dominant rhythm (PDR) suggests intact electrocerebral health. LWs and the photic driving response suggest similar generators but stimulus-specific networks. POSTS differ from LWs despite similar morphology, suggesting different network activation of occipital generators. LWs have clinical significance in excluding encephalopathy. Occipital generators are differentiated by state and stimulus-dependent network activation and not by location and morphology.

  17. Structure and Function of Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Harry W; Cavacini, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are heterodimeric proteins composed of two heavy (H) and two light (L) chains. They can be separated functionally into variable (V) domains that binds antigens and constant (C) domains that specify effector functions such as activation of complement or binding to Fc receptors. The variable domains are created by means of a complex series of gene rearrangement events, and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutation after exposure to antigen to allow affinity maturation. Each V domain can be split into three regions of sequence variability, termed the complementarity determining regions, or CDRs, and four regions of relatively constant sequence termed the framework regions, or FRs. The three CDRs of the H chain are paired with the three CDRs of the L chain to form the antigen binding site, as classically defined. There are five main classes of heavy chain C domains. Each class defines the IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE isotypes. IgG can be split into four subclasses, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, each with its own biologic properties; and IgA can similarly be split into IgA1 and IgA2. The constant domains of the H chain can be switched to allow altered effector function while maintaining antigen specificity. PMID:20176268

  18. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacodynamics of an Anti-Interleukin-1 α/β Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin in Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Randomized Phase 1 Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Susanne X; Abramson, Steven B; Attur, Mukundan; Karsdal, Morten A; Preston, Richard A; Lozada, Carlos J; Kosloski, Matthew P; Hong, Feng; Jiang, Ping; Saltarelli, Mary J; Hendrickson, Barbara A; Medema, Jeroen K

    2017-09-27

    To investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ABT-981, a human dual variable domain immunoglobulin simultaneously targeting interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1β, in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center study of multiple subcutaneous (SC) injections of ABT-981 in patients with mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis of the knee (NCT01668511). Three cohorts received ABT-981 (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) or placebo every other week for a total of 4 SC injections, and one cohort received ABT-981 (3 mg/kg) or placebo every 4 weeks for a total of 3 SC injections. Assessment of safety and tolerability were the primary objectives. A panel of serum and urine biomarkers of inflammation and joint degradation were evaluated. A total of 36 patients were randomized (ABT-981, n=28; placebo, n=8); 31 (86%) completed the study. Adverse event (AE) rates were comparable between ABT-981 and placebo (54% vs 63%). The most common AE reported with ABT-981 versus placebo was injection site erythema (14% vs 0%). ABT-981 significantly reduced absolute neutrophil count and serum concentrations of IL-1α/IL-1β, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-derived type 1 collagen. Serum concentrations of MMP-derived type 3 collagen and MMP-degraded C-reactive protein demonstrated decreasing trends with ABT-981. Antidrug antibodies were found in 37% of patients but were not associated with the incidence or severity of AEs. ABT-981 was generally well tolerated in patients with knee osteoarthritis and engaged relevant tissue targets, eliciting an anti-inflammatory response. Consequently, ABT-981 may provide clinical benefit to patients with inflammation-driven osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Generation and characterization of ABBV642, a dual variable domain immunoglobulin molecule (DVD-Ig) that potently neutralizes VEGF and PDGF-BB and is designed for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kun; Eaton, Lucia; Bowley, Diana; Rieser, Matthew; Chang, Qing; Harris, Maria C; Clabbers, Anca; Dong, Feng; Shen, Jikui; Hackett, Sean F; Touw, Debra S; Bixby, Jacqueline; Zhong, Suju; Benatuil, Lorenzo; Bose, Sahana; Grinnell, Christine; Preston, Gregory M; Iyer, Ramesh; Sadhukhan, Ramkrishna; Marchie, Susan; Overmeyer, Gary; Ghayur, Tariq; van Riet, Deborah A; Tang, Shibo; Campochario, Peter A; Gu, Jijie

    Exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of moderate and severe vision loss in developed countries. Intraocular injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A)-neutralizing proteins provide substantial benefit, but frequent, long-term injections are needed. In addition, many patients experience initial visual gains that are ultimately lost due to subretinal fibrosis. Preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials suggest that combined suppression of VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) provides better outcomes than suppression of VEGF alone, due to more frequent regression of neovascularization (NV) and suppression of subretinal fibrosis. We generated a dual variable domain immunoglobulin molecule, ABBV642 that specifically and potently binds and neutralizes VEGF and PDGF-BB. ABBV642 has been optimized for treatment of exudative AMD based on the following design characteristics: 1) high affinity binding to all VEGF-A isoforms and both soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated PDGF-BB; 2) potential for extended residence time in the vitreous cavity to decrease the frequency of intraocular injections; 3) rapid clearance from systemic circulation compared with molecules with wild type Fc region for normal FcRn binding, which may reduce the risk of systemic complications; and 4) low risk of potential effector function. The bispecificity of ABBV642 allows for a single injection of a single therapeutic agent, and thus a more streamlined development and regulatory path compared with combination products. In a mouse model of exudative AMD, ABBV642 was observed to be more effective than aflibercept. ABBV642 has potential to improve efficacy with reduced injection frequency in patients with exudative AMD, thereby reducing the enormous disease burden for patients and society.

  20. Simultaneous presentation of kappa-restricted chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lambda light chain AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Gottfried; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; O'Hara, Carl; C Seldin, David; Sloan, J Mark

    2014-06-01

    We report on a 58-year-old man who presented with simultaneous kappa-restricted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and a lambda-restricted plasma cell dyscrasia causing AL amyloidosis involving the kidney and GI tract. While monoclonal immunoglobulins occasionally produced by CLL has previously been implicated in AL amyloidosis, this is the first case of AL amyloidosis resulting from a distinct plasma cell dyscrasia that is not clonally related to the concurrent CLL. Appropriate treatment depended on detailed pathologic diagnosis of both disease processes.

  1. The discovery of immunoglobulin E.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of immunoglobulin E (IgE) was a breakthrough in the field of allergy and immunology. Our understanding of mechanisms of allergic reactions and the role of IgE in these disorders has paralleled to the discovery of treatment modalities for patients with allergy. The first clue to the existence of a substance responsible for hypersensitivity reactions was demonstrated in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, and after four decades it was identified as an immunoglobulin subclass by Ishizakas and co-workers. In 1968, the WHO International Reference Centre for Immunoglobulins announced the presence of a fifth immunoglobulin isotype, IgE.

  2. Expression of cloned immunoglobulin genes introduced into mouse L cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, S D; Tonegawa, S

    1983-01-01

    Functionally rearranged immunoglobulin heavy-chain (gamma 2b) and light-chain (lambda 1 and kappa) genes were introduced into mouse L tk- cells by co-transformation with the Herpes virus tk gene. Cloned cell lines were selected in HAT medium and tested for the presence of transfected immunoglobulin gene sequences by Southern blotting analysis. It was found that the gamma 2b gene was accurately transcribed at a low level in transfected mouse L cells and cytoplasmic gamma 2b, heavy-chain protein was detected by immunoprecipitation of cell extracts. Light-chain genes, on the other hand, were not accurately transcribed. Instead, lambda 1 or kappa RNA species were detected which were approximately 200 to 300 bases longer than the authentic mRNAs. These results suggest that the expression of rearranged heavy-chain and light-chain genes are controlled differently and that these differences can be seen in transfected, non-lymphoid cells. Images PMID:6316279

  3. Bacteriophage lambda: early pioneer and still relevant

    PubMed Central

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid 1950's to mid 1980's was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their efforts to other biological systems. Nonetheless, since that time the ongoing study of lambda and its relatives have continued to give important new insights. In this review we give some relevant early history and describe recent developments in understanding the molecular biology of lambda's life cycle. PMID:25742714

  4. Bacteriophage lambda: Early pioneer and still relevant.

    PubMed

    Casjens, Sherwood R; Hendrix, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid-1950s to mid-1980s was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their efforts to other biological systems. Nonetheless, since that time the ongoing study of lambda and its relatives has continued to give important new insights. In this review we give some relevant early history and describe recent developments in understanding the molecular biology of lambda's life cycle.

  5. {lambda}0 Polarization in Exclusive pp Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, J.

    2006-09-25

    Among all properties of baryons, the polarization they acquire when created from unpolarized p-nucleus collisions is the most recent discovered one; so far, the origin of this polarization remains unexplained in spite of the experimental evidences accumulated in the past thirty years. Up to these days, {lambda}0 is the most studied baryon for polarization, due to it is very easy to produce {lambda}0's at the energies of the principal high energy physics accelerators of the world. This article is a review of the experimental experience accumulated on the polarization of {lambda}0 in unpolarized exclusive pp collisions as function of xF, PT, and M({lambda}0K+) in the past fifteen years here at the Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, inside Fermilab e690 and Brookhaven National Laboratory e766 collaborations.

  6. Calculation of two-dimensional lambda modes

    SciTech Connect

    Belchior, A. Jr. ); Moreira, J.M.L. )

    1991-01-01

    A system for on-line monitoring of power distribution in small reactors (known as MAP) is under development at COPESP-IPEN. Signals of self-powered neutron detectors are input to a program that estimates the power distribution as an expansion of lambda modes. The modal coefficients are obtained from a least-mean-squares technique adequate for real-time analysis. Three-dimensional lambda modes are synthesized out of one- and two-dimensional lambda modes. As a part of this project, a modification of a computer code was carried out in order to obtain the lambda modes. The results of this effort are summarized. The lambda modes are the solutions of the time-independent multigroup neutron diffusion equation, an eigenvalue equation. Normally, the computer codes produce the fundamental mode corresponding to the largest eigenvalue; their respective interpretations are neutron flux distribution and effective multiplication factor. For calculating higher order lambda modes it is usually necessary to eliminate the contribution of the lower modes from the fission source.

  7. Correlations among different markers determined by immunochemical methods used for the diagnosis and monitoring of intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma cases.

    PubMed

    Dogaru, Monica; Lazăr, Veronica; Coriu, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlations between the concentration of free light chains (kappa, lambda and ratio kappa/lambda) and two other markers, M- protein and pathological total intact immunoglobulin in four groups of patients with intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma (IIMM) at the diagnosis and during the treatment. In this study 354 samples coming from 46 patients with IIMM were assayed, out of which: 19, IgGkappa; 13, IgGlambda; 7, IgAkappa; 7, IgAlambda. At the diagnosis, immunofixation was positive in all samples and serum protein electrophoresis quantified M- protein for all patients. Free light chains concentrations were abnormal in 92.25% of patients with concentrations above the reference ranges in all patients with IgGkappa and IgAkappa MM. The intact immunoglobulins were elevated in 83.12% of cases. Pearson correlation coefficient showed correlations among the free light chains serum levels (kappa, lambda and ratio kappa/lambda), M- protein and intact immunoglobulins in two groups with IIMM (IgGlambda, IgAlambda). Spearman correlation coefficient values analysis showed that there is a good correlation between M-protein and FLCs (kappa, lambda and ratio kappa/lambda) in three patient groups (IgGkappa, IgGlambda and IgAlambda), excepting IgAkappa myeloma group where the correlation was insignificant. Regarding the intact immunoglobulin, Spearman coefficient showed significant correlations with FLCs concentrations in two groups (IgGlambda and IgAlambda) and an insignificant correlation in the group with IgGkappa MM. For the group of patients with IgAkappa myeloma, the Spearman coefficient showed that IgA concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations of FLCs. The individual correlation (for each patient) among FLCs, M- protein and intact immunoglobulins in 8 patients with IgGkappa IIMM proved to be more significant as compared with the degree of correlation established for the entire group of patients among these markers

  8. Branching extremals of the functional of \\lambda-normed length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'yutko, D. P.

    2006-06-01

    Networks on \\lambda-normed planes are considered, that is, on normed planes for which the unit circle is a regular 2\\lambda-gon. A geometric criterion is given for an arbitrary tree to be extremal on the \\lambda-normed plane, where \\lambda\

  9. Detection of free immunoglobulin light chains in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with central nervous system lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Roland; Baraniskin, Alexander; Heute, Christoph; Kuhnhenn, Jan; Alekseyev, Andriy; Schmiegel, Wolff; Schlegel, Uwe; Pels, Hendrik-Johannes

    2010-09-01

    Diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma depends on histopathology of brain biopsies, because no reliable disease marker in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been identified yet. B-cell lymphomas such as CNS lymphomas are clonally restricted and express either kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains. The aim of this study was to find out a potential diagnostic value of free immunoglobulin light chains released into the CSF of CNS lymphoma patients. Kappa (kappa) and lambda (lambda) free immunoglobulin light chains (FLC) were measured in CSF and serum samples collected from 21 patients with primary and secondary CNS lymphomas and 14 control patients with different neurologic disorders. FLC concentrations and ratios were compared between patient groups and were further analyzed in correlation with clinical, cytopathological, and radiological findings. FLC concentrations for all patients were lower in CSF when compared to serum. In patients with CNS lymphoma, the FLC ratios in CSF were higher (range 392-0.3) compared to control patients (range 3.0-0.3). Irrespective of cytopathological proven lymphomatous meningitis, in 11/21 lymphoma CSF samples the FLC ratios were markedly above 3.0 indicating a clonally restricted B-cell population. Increased FLC ratios in CSF were found in those patients showing subependymal lymphoma contact as detected in magnetic resonance imaging. In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that a significant proportion of patients with CNS lymphomas display a markedly increased FLC ratio in the CSF.

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of an immunoglobulin VH gene homologue from Caiman, a phylogenetically ancient reptile.

    PubMed

    Litman, G W; Berger, L; Murphy, K; Litman, R; Hinds, K; Jahn, C L; Erickson, B W

    1983-05-26

    Immunoglobulin variable (V) gene regions typify extensive multigenic families in terms of overall size, chromosomal arrangement and presence of large numbers of apparent pseudogenes. A unique mechanism of somatic reorganization involving recombination of VH, D and JH or VL and JL segments accompanies the differentiation of lymphoid cells and together with somatic mutation and other types of recombination accounts for V-region diversity. Although these processes have been well characterized in higher mammals, little is known concerning their origin and diversification during phylogenetic time. Previously, we described the blot-hybridization characteristics of murine VHIII probes with restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA isolated from several phylogenetically critical species, including Caiman crocodylus, a modern representative of an ancient reptilian subclass. Here we have used a murine probe, S107V, to select homologous clones from a library of Caiman genomic DNA constructed in a lambda bacteriophage. The complete nucleotide sequence of a Caiman gene homologous to the murine VH gene and its adjacent 5' and 3' region is described. Comparison of the sequence with mammalian prototypes shows evidence of considerable organizational and structural homology extending outside the presumed VH-coding region and including elements believed to be involved in somatic recombination. Inferences about the evolution of this multigenic family can now be extended to the level of phylogenetic class.

  11. [Blood serum immunoglobulins in thyrotoxicosis].

    PubMed

    Epishin, A V

    1978-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin content was determined in 85 patients with thyrotoxicosis and in 80 healthy persons by radial immunodiffusion in agar after Mancini by means of monospecific antisera (made at the N. F. Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology immunoglobulins of classes G and M. The most pronounced increase was noted in patients with severe and moderate thyrotoxicosis.

  12. Initiation au Lambda-Calcul (An Initiation into Lambda Calculus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-15

    un style do preuve par r~curronce, qui est ’analogue do la r6currence structurelle traditionnelle des structuros libros , mais tenant compte du fait quo...pas libro dans M. La th6orie do la OT-r6duction nWest pas aussi 6l6ganto quo cello do la 0-r6duction souls, A causo do I’ambiguil:6 dos expressions do...donne 16 typo des variables libros . Pour los variables lies, 11 est usuet do dclarer tour typo done un champ suppl6mentaire do lop6ratour

  13. Study ofe+e- to Lambda anti-Lambda, Lambda anti-Sigma^0,Sigma^0 anti-Sigma^0 using Initial State Radiation with BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2007-09-14

    We study the e+e- --> Lambda anti-Lambda gamma, Lambda anti-Sigma0 gamma, Sigma0 anti-Sigma0 gamma processes using 230 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the BaBar detector at e+e- center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. From the analysis of the baryon-antibaryon mass spectra the cross sections for e+e- --> Lambda anti-Lambda, Lambda anti-Sigma0, Sigma0 anti-Sigma0 are measured in the dibaryon mass range from threshold up to 3 GeV/c{sup 2}. The ratio of electric and magnetic form factors, |G{sub E}/G{sub M}|, is measured for e+e- --> Lambda anti-Lambda, and limits on the relative phase between Lambda form factors are obtained. We also measure the J/psi --> Lambda anti-Lambda, Sigma0 anti-Sigma0 and psi(2S) --> Lambda anti-Lambda branching fractions.

  14. A quark model of {bar {Lambda}}{Lambda} production in {bar p}p interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alberg, M.A. |; Henley, E.M.; Wilets, L.; Kunz, P.D.

    1993-12-31

    A quark model which includes both scalar and vector contributions to the reaction mechanism (SV quark model) is used in a DWBA calculation of {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} production in {bar p}p interactions. Total and differential cross-sections, polarizations, depolarizations, and spin-correlation coefficients are computed for laboratory momenta from threshold to 1695 MeV/c. The free parameters of the calculation are the scalar and vector strengths, a quark cluster size parameter, and the parameters of the unknown {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} potentials. Good agreement with experiment is found for constructive interference of the scalar and vector terms, and for {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} potentials which differ from those suggested by several authors on the basis of SU(3) arguments. The fit to the data is better than that obtained by other quark models, which use only scalar or vector annihilation terms. The agreement with experiment is also better than that found in meson-exchange models. The recent suggestion [1] that measurement of the depolarization parameter D{sub nn} can be used to discriminate between meson-exchange and quark models is examined in detail. We conclude that a measurement of D{sub nn} will provide a test of which of these models, as presently constructed, is the more appropriate description of strangeness production in the {bar p}p {yields} {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} reaction.

  15. Spectrum of class-M supergiants in the region lambda lambda 7000-6000 angstrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, M. Y.; Rodriguez, M. H.; Shavrina, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    A general description is given of the spectrum of four M-supergiants in the region lambda lambda 7000-6000 A from high-dispersion spectrograms (6 A/mm). The equivalent widths of several hundred lines and depths of some molecular band heads were measured.

  16. Lambda ZAP: a bacteriophage lambda expression vector with in vivo excision properties.

    PubMed Central

    Short, J M; Fernandez, J M; Sorge, J A; Huse, W D

    1988-01-01

    A lambda insertion type cDNA cloning vector, Lambda ZAP, has been constructed. In E. coli a phagemid, pBluescript SK(-), contained within the vector, can be excised by f1 or M13 helper phage. The excision process eliminates the need to subclone DNA inserts from the lambda phage into a plasmid by restriction digestion and ligation. This is possible because Lambda ZAP incorporates the signals for both initiation and termination of DNA synthesis from the f1 bacteriophage origin of replication (1). Six of 21 restriction sites in the excised pBluescript SK polylinker, contained within the NH2-portion of the lacZ gene, are unique in lambda ZAP. Coding sequences inserted into these restriction sites, in the appropriate reading frame, can be expressed from the lacZ promoter as fusion proteins. The features of this vector significantly increase the rate at which clones can be isolated and analyzed. The lambda ZAP vector was tested by the preparation of a chicken liver cDNA library and the isolation of actin clones by screening with oligonucleotide probes. Putative actin clones were excised from the lambda vector and identified by DNA sequencing. The ability of lambda ZAP to serve as a vector for the construction of cDNA expression libraries was determined by detecting fusion proteins from clones containing glucocerbrosidase cDNA's using rabbit IgG anti-glucocerbrosidase antibodies. Images PMID:2970625

  17. Isolation and characterization of mutations in the bacteriophage lambda terminase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, A; Yau, P; Murialdo, H; Gold, M

    1991-01-01

    The terminase enzyme of bacteriophage lambda is a hetero-oligomeric protein which catalyzes the site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage of lambda DNA and its packaging into phage proheads; it is composed of the products of the lambda Nul and A genes. We have developed a simple method to select mutations in the terminase genes carried on a high-copy-number plasmid, based on the ability of wild-type terminase to kill recA strains of Escherichia coli. Sixty-three different spontaneous mutations and 13 linker insertion mutations were isolated by this method and analyzed. Extracts of cells transformed by mutant plasmids displayed variable degrees of reduction in the activity of one or both terminase subunits as assayed by in vitro lambda DNA packaging. A method of genetically mapping plasmid-borne mutations in the A gene by measuring their ability to rescue various lambda Aam phages showed that the A mutations were fairly evenly distributed across the gene. Mutant A genes were also subcloned into overproducing plasmid constructs, and it was determined that more than half of them directed the synthesis of normal amounts of full-length A protein. Three of the A gene mutants displayed dramatically reduced in vitro packaging activity only when immature (uncut) lambda DNA was used as the substrate; therefore, these mutations may lie in the endonuclease domain of terminase. Interestingly, the putative endonuclease mutations mapped in two distinct locations in the A gene separated by a least 400 bp. Images PMID:1830578

  18. Microscopic calculations of {lambda} single-particle energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, Q. N.

    1998-02-12

    {Lambda} binding energy data for total baryon number A {le} 208 and for {Lambda} angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 3 are analyzed in terms of phenomenological (but generally consistent with meson-exchange) {Lambda}N and {Lambda}NN potentials. The Fermi-Hypernetted-Chain technique is used to calculate the expectation values for the {Lambda} binding to nuclear matter. Accurate effective {Lambda}N and {Lambda}NN potentials are obtained which are folded with the core nucleus nucleon densities to calculate the {Lambda} single particle potential U{sub {Lambda}}(r). We use a dispersive {Lambda}NN potential but also include an explicit {rho} dependence to allow for reduced repulsion in the surface, and the best fits have a large {rho} dependence giving consistency with the variational Monte Carlo calculations for {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He. The exchange fraction of the {Lambda}N space-exchange potential is found to be 0.2-0.3 corresponding to m{sub {Lambda}}* {approx_equal} (0.74-0.82)m{sub {Lambda}}. Charge symmetry breaking is found to be significant for heavy hypernuclei with a large neutron excess, with a strength consistent with that obtained from the A = 4 hypernuclei.

  19. Binding energy of (Lambda)He-7 and test of charge symmetry breaking in the Lambda N interaction potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, O; Honda, D; Kaneta, M; Kato, F; Kawama, D; Maruyama, N; Matsumura, A; Nakamura, S N; Nomura, H; Nonaka, K; Ohtani, A; Okayasu, Y; Osaka, M; Oyamada, M; Sumihama, M; Tamura, H; Baker, O K; Cole, L; Christy, M; Gueye, P; Keppel, C; Tang, L; Yuan, L; Acha, A; Baturin, P; Boeglin, W; Kramer, L; Markowitz, P; Pamela, P; Perez, N; Raue, B; Reinhold, J; Rivera, R; Kato, S; Sato, Y; Takahashi, T; Daniel, A; Hungerford, Ed V; Ispiryan, M; Kalantarians, N; Lan, K J; Li, Y; Miyoshi, T; Randeniya, S; Rodriguez, V M; Bosted, P; Carlini, R; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Gaskell, D; Jones, M; Mack, D; Roche, J; Smith, G; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W; Wood, S; Yan, C; Asaturyan, A; Asaturyan, R; Egiyan, K; Mkrtchyan, H; Margaryan, A; Navasardyan, T; Tadevosyan, V; Zamkochian, S; Hu, B; Song, Y; Luo, W; Androic, D; Furic, M; Petkovic, T; Seva, T; Ahmidouch, A; Danagoulian, S; Gasparian, A; Halkyard, R; Johnson, K; Simicevic, N; Wells, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, M I; Gan, L; Benmokhtar, F; Horn, T; Elassar, M; Gibson, E F

    2011-09-01

    The binding energy of 7LambdaHe has been obtained for the first time with reaction spectroscopy using the (e, e'K+) reaction at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. A comparison among the binding energies of the A = 7 T = l iso-triplet hypernuclei, 7LambdaHe, 7LambdaLi*and 7LambdaBe, is made and possible charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the LambdaN potential is discussed. For 7LambdaHe and 7LambdaBe, the shifts in binding energies are opposite to those predicted by a recent cluster model calculation, which assumes that the unexplained part of the binding energy difference between 4LambdaH and 4LambdaHe, is due to the CSB of the LambdaN potential. Further examination of CSB in light hypernuclear systems is required both experimentally and theoretically.

  20. THE IMMUNOGLOBULINS OF MICE

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, John L.; Wunderlich, John; Mishell, Robert

    1964-01-01

    Two subclasses of mouse 7S γ2-globulins are identified, and are designated γ2a- and γ2b-globulins. They are distinguished from 7S γ1-globulins, γ1A (β2A)-globulins, and γ1M-globulins of mouse serum. Antibody activity was detected among the γ2a-globulins and γ2b-globulins of hyperimmune mouse serum. γ2a- and γ2b-myeloma proteins were identified. The genetically determined isoantigen, Iga-1, was present on γ2a-myeloma proteins, but not on γ2b-myeloma proteins. These findings indicate a complexity among the 7S γ2-globulins which must be taken into account in structural, functional, and genetic studies of immunoglobulins. PMID:14206439

  1. Nonlinear stability control and lambda-bifurcation

    SciTech Connect

    Erneux, T.; Reiss, E.L.; Magnan, J.F.; Jayakumar, P.K.

    1987-12-01

    Passive techniques for nonlinear stability control are presented for a model of fluidelastic instability. They employ the phenomena of lambda-bifurcation and a generalization of it. lambda-bifurcation occurs when a branch of flutter solutions bifurcates supercritically from a basic solution and terminates with an infinite period orbit at a branch of divergence solutions which bifurcates subcritically from the basic solution. The shape of the bifurcation diagram then resembles the greek letter lambda. When the system parameters are in the range where flutter occurs by lambda-bifurcation, then as the flow velocity increase the flutter amplitude also increases, but the frequencies of the oscillations decrease to zero. This diminishes the damaging effects of structural fatigue by flutter, and permits the flow speed to exceed the critical flutter speed. If generalized lambda-bifurcation occurs, then there is a jump transition from the flutter states to a divergence state with a substantially smaller amplitude, when the flow speed is sufficiently larger than the critical flutter speed.

  2. A Spectral Atlas of lambda Bootis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Heiter, U.

    2014-06-01

    Since the discovery of lambda Bootes stars, a permanent confusion about their classification can be found in literature. This group of non-magnetic, Population I, metal-poor A to F-type stars, has often been used as some sort of trash can for "exotic" and spectroscopically dubious objects. Some attempts have been made to establish a homogeneous group of stars which share the same common properties. Unfortunately, the flood of "new" information (e.g. UV and IR data) led again to a whole zoo of objects classified as lambda Bootes stars, which, however, are apparent non-members. To overcome this unsatisfying situation, a spectral atlas of well established lambda Bootes stars for the classical optical domain was compiled. It includes intermediate dispersion (40 and 120 Å mm^{-1}) spectra of three lambda Bootes, as well as appropriate MK standard stars. Furthermore, "suspicious" objects, such as shell and Field Horizontal Branch stars, have been considered in order to provide to classifiers a homogeneous reference. As a further step, a high resolution (8 Å mm^{-1}) spectrum of one "classical" lambda Bootes star in the same wavelength region (3800-4600 Å) is presented. In total, 55 lines can be used for this particular star to derive detailed abundances for nine heavy elements (Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr and Ba).

  3. Milk immunoglobulins and complement factors.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The importance of colostrum for the growth and health of newborn offspring is well known. In bovine colostrum, the antibody (immunoglobulin) complement system provides a major antimicrobial effect against a wide range of microbes and confers passive immunity until the calf's own immune system has matured. Bovine serum and lacteal secretions contain three major classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgM and IgA. The immunoglobulins are selectively transported from the serum into the mammary gland, as a result of which the first colostrum contains very high concentrations of immunoglobulins (40-200 mg/ml). IgG1 accounts for over 75 % of the immunoglobulins in colostral whey, followed by IgM, IgA and IgG2. All these immunoglobulins decrease within a few days to a total immunoglobulin concentration of 0.7-1.0 mg/ml, with IgG1 representing the major Ig class in milk throughout the lactation period. Together with the antibodies absorbed from colostrum after birth, the complement system plays a crucial role in the passive immunisation of the newborn calf. The occurrence of haemolytic or bactericidal complement activity in bovine colostrum and milk has been demonstrated in several studies. This review deals with the characteristics of bovine Igs and the complement system to be exploited as potential ingredients for health-promoting functional foods.

  4. Preparation and assay of phage lambda.

    PubMed

    Dale, J W; Greenaway, P J

    1985-01-01

    Lambda, a temperate bacteriophage of E. coli, has two alternative modes of replication in sensitive cells, known as the lytic and lysogenic cycles. In the lytic cycle, after the lambda DNA enters the cells, various phage functions are expressed that result in the production of a large number of mature phage particles and cell lysis. In the lysogenic mode, which normally occurs in only a small proportion of the infected cells, the phage forms a more or less stable relationship with the host bacterium; this stable state is known as lysogeny. In a lysogenic cell, phage DNA is normally incorporated into the chromosomal DNA via specific attachment sites on both the phage DNA and the host chromosome. Replication of lambda DNA then occurs only during replication of the host chromosome, and the phage genome is inherited by each daughter cell at cell division. The phage is maintained in this prophage state through the action of a repressor protein, coded for by the phage gene cl. This repressor protein turns off the expression of virtually the whole of the lambda genome. If the repressor is inactivated, the expression of phage genes is initiated. This leads to the excision of lambda DNA from the host chromosome and entry into the lytic cycle. The balance between the lytic and lysogenic modes of replication is a delicate and complex one in which a key factor is the concentration of the cl gene product. Some of the many sources of further information about the basic biology of lambda phage are listed in the references to this chapter.

  5. Lambda Exonuclease Digestion of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, R.S.; Koretsky, A.P.; Moreland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and other triplet repeat diseases are characterized by an elongation of a repeating DNA triplet. The ensemble-averaged lambda exonuclease digestion rate of different substrates, including one with an elongated FMR1 gene containing 120 CGG repeats, was measured using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using magnetic tweezers sequence-dependent digestion rates and pausing was measured for individual lambda exonucleases. Within the triplet repeats a lower average and narrower distribution of rates and a higher frequency of pausing was observed. PMID:19562332

  6. A new high molecular weight immunoglobulin class from the carcharhine shark: implications for the properties of the primordial immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Berstein, R M; Schluter, S F; Shen, S; Marchalonis, J J

    1996-01-01

    All immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors throughout phylogeny share regions of highly conserved amino acid sequence. To identify possible primitive immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin-like molecules, we utilized 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and a highly conserved constant region consensus amino acid sequence to isolate a new immunoglobulin class from the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus. The immunoglobulin, termed IgW, in its secreted form consists of 782 amino acids and is expressed in both the thymus and the spleen. The molecule overall most closely resembles mu chains of the skate and human and a new putative antigen binding molecule isolated from the nurse shark (NAR). The full-length IgW chain has a variable region resembling human and shark heavy-chain (VH) sequences and a novel joining segment containing the WGXGT motif characteristic of H chains. However, unlike any other H-chain-type molecule, it contains six constant (C) domains. The first C domain contains the cysteine residue characteristic of C mu1 that would allow dimerization with a light (L) chain. The fourth and sixth domains also contain comparable cysteines that would enable dimerization with other H chains or homodimerization. Comparison of the sequences of IgW V and C domains shows homology greater than that found in comparisons among VH and C mu or VL, or CL thereby suggesting that IgW may retain features of the primordial immunoglobulin in evolution. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8622930

  7. Immunoglobulin G(κ) [IgG(κ)] and IgG(λ) Paraproteinemia in a Child with AIDS and Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seeborg, Filiz Odabasi; Gay, Hannah; Schmiege, Lorenz M.; Bernard, David; Shearer, William T.

    2005-01-01

    We report an 8-year-old boy with AIDS, extremely elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and IgG kappa [IgG(κ)] and IgG lambda [IgG(λ)] paraproteinemia. This paraproteinemia partially responded to highly active antiretroviral therapy. This case emphasizes the importance of controlling B-cell activation. PMID:16275950

  8. Immunoglobulin levels of vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rubaiya; Ahsan, Mohammad Shamsul; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Ullah, Md Ashik; Bari, Wasimul; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Yeasmin, Sabina; Hasnat, Abul

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the serum immunoglobulin profiles of vitiligo patients were compared with that of cohort control and evaluated the correlation between immunoglobulin level with their socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Thirty vitiligo patients were recruited randomly from the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh for this study. Thirty healthy individuals as control group matched by age, sex, education and socioeconomic factors to the patient group were selected. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were determined by turbidimetry method using immunoglobulin kit. The concentration of IgG and IgA decreased significantly (P<0.05), but the change of IgM was not significant. Socioeconomic data revealed that most of the patients were young and female. Moreover statistical analysis revealed that there was significant correlation between immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA only) concentrations and BMI and number of depigmented patches with IgG concentrations. Finally it can be concluded that the change of serum immunoglobulin concentration in vitiligo patients could be due to the disease condition as pathomechanism suggested the aberrations in cellular immunity. But study with larger number of population is required for further evaluation of the relationship between the immune response and disease state to confirm these findings.

  9. The Lambda Orionis association. [star cluster anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdin, P.; Penston, M. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Lambda Orionis association has the photometric properties of a typical young cluster with an age of about 4 million yr. Its distance is 400 + or - 40 pc. Attention is drawn to the lack of a dense molecular cloud and associated infrared sources in this young grouping

  10. Three-dimensional implicit lambda methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, M.; Dadone, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper derives the three dimensional lambda-formulation equations for a general orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system and provides various block-explicit and block-implicit methods for solving them, numerically. Three model problems, characterized by subsonic, supersonic and transonic flow conditions, are used to assess the reliability and compare the efficiency of the proposed methods.

  11. Deposition of kappa and lambda light chains in amyloid filaments of dialysis-related amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, D; Ghiggeri, G M; Braidotti, P; Garberi, A; Gallieni, M; Bellotti, V; Zoni, U; Gusmano, R; Coggi, G

    1995-10-01

    beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2m) is considered to be the amyloidogenic precursor in dialysis-related amyloidosis, although the implication of other relevant cofactors in the pathogenesis of this disease has also been hypothesized. It is conceivable that substances found in amyloid deposits might represent something more than simple codeposition, possibly playing a pathogenic role in amyloidogenesis. Along these lines, a detailed analysis of the protein composition of amyloid fibrils purified from synovial material surgically obtained from nine patients on long-term dialysis was carried out. By the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, several other protein components, in addition to beta 2m, were found. These were characterized by NH2 amino-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting. In fibrils obtained by water extraction, which fulfill the electron microscopy criteria of highly pure amyloid material, polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains were detected with a concentration of 15 micrograms/mL in the water extraction material; the beta 2m concentration was 200 micrograms/mL. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry was performed on samples from five patients. Amyloid deposits reacted with anti-beta 2m, and anti-light (kappa, lambda), chain antibodies. The immunoreaction of amyloid filaments to anti-beta 2m, anti-lambda, and anti-kappa light chain antibodies was also tested by electron microscopy by use of the immunogold staining procedure. Amyloid filaments were labeled by the three antibodies and showed a different intensity of immunostaining apparently related to their different aggregation pattern. These observations demonstrate that polyclonal immunoglobulin light chains (kappa and lambda) are not contaminants but, together with beta 2m, represent a major constituent of amyloid deposits in dialysis-related osteoarticular amyloidosis, thus indicating their possible role in amyloidogenesis.

  12. Lambda Polarization in Lead-Lead Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillings, Eelco

    2003-05-01

    In this thesis the production and polarization of Lambda particles produced in Pb-Pb collisions at a beam energy of 158 GeV/c per nucleon are studied. In these collisions nuclear matter is compressed and heated and under these conditions it is possible that a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is created. In a QGP the boundaries between individual particles disappear and the quarks and gluons can move around freely. One of the probes to study the creation of the QGP is the so-called Strangeness Enhancement, which is the enhanced production of strange particles, with respect to the production in proton-induced collisions. Another proposed signature of the QGP is the disappearance of transverse Lambda polarization around mid-rapidity. Transverse Lambda polarization can occur when the spin of the produced Lambda has its preferred direction perpendicular to the production plane. In proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions a negative transverse polarization has been observed and its magnitude was largest for the Lambdas produced in the direction of the beam (i.e. at high xF). This is an indication that the projectile plays an important role and in semi-classical models the following picture is assumed: in the interaction region a spin-zero ud-diquark from the projectile recombines with a negatively polarized s-quark from the sea. This s-quark also gives transverse momentum (pT) to the Lambda and as a result the polarization is dependent on pT. Recently it has been shown that also in nucleus-nucleus collisions a negative transverse polarization occurs, so even in large interaction regions the information on the nature of the projectile is kept. In a QGP however this information is lost and no production plane can be defined. This will cause the transverse polarization of the Lambdas produced in this region to disappear. The transverse polarization of the produced Lambdas has been measured in the NA57 experiment at CERN around two values of xF: for xF = 0.09 a value of +0.6 +7

  13. Chronic myopathy due to immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Irini; Kwan, Justin Y.; Wang, Qian; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Tsokos, Maria; Arai, Andrew E.; Burch, Warner M.; Dispenzieri, Angela; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Gahl, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid myopathy associated with a plasma cell dyscrasia is a rare cause of muscle hypertrophy. It can be a challenging diagnosis, since pathological findings are often elusive. In addition, the mechanism by which immunoglobulin light-chain deposition stimulates muscle overgrowth remains poorly understood. We present a 53–year old female with a 10-year history of progressive generalized muscle overgrowth. Congo-red staining and immunohistochemistry revealed perivascular lambda light chain amyloid deposits, apparent only in a second muscle biopsy. The numbers of central nuclei and satellite cells were increased, suggesting enhanced muscle progenitor cell formation. Despite the chronicity of the light chain disease, the patient showed complete resolution of hematologic findings and significant improvement of her muscle symptoms following autologous bone marrow transplantation. This case highlights the importance of early diagnosis and therapy for this treatable cause of a chronic myopathy with muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23465863

  14. The Hyperon {Lambda}(1405) in p+p reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenson, Johannes

    2011-10-21

    We present an analysis of the hyperon {Lambda}(1405) for p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy. The data were taken with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES). A {Lambda}(1405) signal could be reconstructed in both charged decay channels ({Lambda}(1405){yields}{Sigma}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}).

  15. A Preliminary Analysis of the Immunoglobulin Genes in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Zhihui; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The genomic organization of the IgH (Immunoglobulin heavy chain), Igκ (Immunoglobulin kappa chain), and Igλ (Immunoglobulin lambda chain) loci in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was annotated using available genome data. The elephant IgH locus on scaffold 57 spans over 2,974 kb, and consists of at least 112 VH gene segments, 87 DH gene segments (the largest number in mammals examined so far), six JH gene segments, a single μ, a δ remnant, and eight γ genes (α and ε genes are missing, most likely due to sequence gaps). The Igκ locus, found on three scaffolds (202, 50 and 86), contains a total of 153 Vκ gene segments, three Jκ segments, and a single Cκ gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these Vκ gene segments. In contrast, the Igλ locus on scaffold 68 includes 15 Vλ gene segments, all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream Jλ-Cλ cluster. These data suggest that the elephant immunoglobulin gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex. Our results provide insights into the immunoglobulin genes in a placental mammal that is evolutionarily distant from humans, mice, and domestic animals. PMID:21364892

  16. A preliminary analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Zhihui; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2011-02-25

    The genomic organization of the IgH (Immunoglobulin heavy chain), Igκ (Immunoglobulin kappa chain), and Igλ (Immunoglobulin lambda chain) loci in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was annotated using available genome data. The elephant IgH locus on scaffold 57 spans over 2,974 kb, and consists of at least 112 V(H) gene segments, 87 D(H) gene segments (the largest number in mammals examined so far), six J(H) gene segments, a single μ, a δ remnant, and eight γ genes (α and ε genes are missing, most likely due to sequence gaps). The Igκ locus, found on three scaffolds (202, 50 and 86), contains a total of 153 V(κ) gene segments, three J(κ) segments, and a single C(κ) gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these V(κ) gene segments. In contrast, the Igλ locus on scaffold 68 includes 15 V(λ) gene segments, all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream J(λ)-C(λ) cluster. These data suggest that the elephant immunoglobulin gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex. Our results provide insights into the immunoglobulin genes in a placental mammal that is evolutionarily distant from humans, mice, and domestic animals.

  17. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Lambda-bar Polarization in B0 -> Lambda-par p pi-

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-08-03

    We present a measurement of the B{sup 0} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -} branching fraction performed using the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Based on a sample of 467 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs we measure {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -}) [3.07 {+-} 0.31(stat.) {+-} 0.23(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. The measured differential spectrum as a function of the dibaryon invariant mass m({bar {Lambda}}p) shows a near-threshold enhancement similar to that observed in other baryonic B decays. We study the {bar {Lambda}} polarization as a function of {bar {Lambda}} energy in the B{sup 0} rest frame (E*{sub {bar {Lambda}}}) and compare it with theoretical expectations of fully longitudinally right-polarized {bar {Lambda}} at large E*{sub {bar {Lambda}}}.

  18. Study of the decay asymmetry parameter and CP violation parameter in the Lambda(c)+ ---> Lambda pi+ decay

    SciTech Connect

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez /South Carolina U. /Tennessee U. /Vanderbilt U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-09-01

    Using data from the FOCUS (E831) experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the weak decay-asymmetry parameter a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} in {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{pi}{sup +} decay. Comparing particle with antiparticle decays, we obtain the first measurement of the CP violation parameter {Alpha} {triple_bond} a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} + a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}/a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} - a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}. We obtain a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} = -0.78 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.13 and {Alpha} = -0.07 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.12 where errors are statistical and systematic.

  19. Biologic and genetic characterization of the novel amyloidogenic lambda light chain–secreting human cell lines, ALMC-1 and ALMC-2

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Bonnie K.; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Sikkink, Laura A.; Keats, Jonathan J.; Ahmann, Gregory J.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Fonseca, Rafael; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Knudson, Ryan A.; Mulvihill, Erin M.; Tschumper, Renee C.; Wu, Xiaosheng; Zeldenrust, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Primary systemic amyloidosis (AL) is a rare monoclonal plasma cell (PC) disorder characterized by the deposition of misfolded immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) in vital organs throughout the body. To our knowledge, no cell lines have ever been established from AL patients. Here we describe the establishment of the ALMC-1 and ALMC-2 cell lines from an AL patient. Both cell lines exhibit a PC phenotype and display cytokine-dependent growth. Using a comprehensive genetic approach, we established the genetic relationship between the cell lines and the primary patient cells, and we were also able to identify new genetic changes accompanying tumor progression that may explain the natural history of this patient's disease. Importantly, we demonstrate that free lambda LC secreted by both cell lines contained a beta structure and formed amyloid fibrils. Despite absolute Ig LC variable gene sequence identity, the proteins show differences in amyloid formation kinetics that are abolished by the presence of Na2SO4. The formation of amyloid fibrils from these naturally secreting human LC cell lines is unprecedented. Moreover, these cell lines will provide an invaluable tool to better understand AL, from the combined perspectives of amyloidogenic protein structure and amyloid formation, genetics, and cell biology. PMID:18567838

  20. Dynamic processes in Be star atmospheres. 2: He I 2P-nD line formation in lambda Eridani (outburst)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Myron A.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Meylan, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    The He I lambda 6678 line of early Be stars generally shows violet (V) and red (R) emission whenever hydrogen alpha emission is present, but its use as a diagnostic has been handicapped by a poor understanding of the processes that drive it into emission. In an attempt to address this problem we obtained three series of eschelle spectra of the first two members of the singlet and triplet 2P-nD series of lambda Eri (B2e) during 1992 November 3-5 at Kitt Peak. During these observations lambda 6678 showed substantial emission variability in both the wings and central profile, providing an opportunity to compare its behavior with that of the lambda 4922, lambda 5876, and lambda 4471 lines. We found that the responses of the lines were different in several respects. Whereas the emissions in the V wings of all four lines scaled together, the R wing of the lambda 4922 line invariably responded with increased absorption whenever the R wing of lambda 6678 line showed increased emission. These same trends occurred within the central photospheric profiles. The R-wing behavior shows that much, but not all of the emission in lambda 6678 is caused by matter projected against the stellar disk. The excitation temperatures of the neighboring 2(sup 1) P transitions, lambda 6678 and lambda 4922 must be greater than and less than the photospheric continuum temperature, respectively. We have investigated departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the He I spectrum in a variety of ad hoc, perturbed model atmospheres. We have found only one way to cause the source function of lambda 6678 to increase so strongly, namely, by increasing the atmospheric temperature in the line formation region to 30,000 - 40,000 K. This effect was discovered by Auer and Mihalas for O3-O4 atmospheric models, but it has not been applied to active B stars. Our models suggest that lambda 6678 emission in Be stars can be used as a sensitive monitor of localized hot spots on these stars' surfaces

  1. Multiple myeloma with monoclonal IgG and IgD of lambda type exhibiting, under treatment, a shift from mainly IgG to mainly IgD.

    PubMed Central

    Gallart, T; Bladé, J; Martínez-Quesada, J; Sierra, J; Rozman, C; Vives, J

    1985-01-01

    A patient with multiple myeloma (MM), who initially presented with a predominant IgG lambda and a minor IgD lambda paraprotein pattern, is described. After chemotherapy, levels of the IgD lambda protein increased and the IgG lambda levels decreased. The following results were obtained when serum IgD was predominant. In the bone marrow, there were three plasma cell populations: a major one containing only delta chains, a minor one containing only gamma chains, and another minor one containing both delta and gamma chains. All these plasma cell populations contained lambda chains. Stimulation of circulating mononuclear cells with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) achieved differentiation of circulating B lymphocytes into plasma cells: 30% with only cytoplasmic delta lambda chains and 10% with only cytoplasmic gamma lambda chains. These IgG-containing plasma cells showed cytoplasmic reactivity with rabbit antiserum raised against monoclonal IgD which was shown to contain specificities recognizing both delta chains and idiotypic determinants present in both serum IgD lambda and IgG lambda. Circulating B lymphocytes were 'monoclonal': almost all expressed surface delta lambda chains, and a small proportion of them expressed both delta gamma and lambda chains. High levels of IgD were detected in the supernatants of all cultures, but high concentrations of IgG were only detected in those from PWM-stimulated cultures with very low levels of IgM and IgA. These findings suggest that plasma cells producing either IgD or IgG were derived from a common B-cell clone. Double paraproteinaemia exhibiting a shift in immunoglobulin production from IgG to IgD has not been previously described. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3922877

  2. Immunoglobulin negative follicle centre cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, E. O.; Al-Saffar, N.; Jones, D. B.; Wright, D. H.; Stevenson, F. K.; Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) could not be detected on the surface or in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells from five cases of follicle centre cell lymphoma with centroblastic/centrocytic follicular histology when examined by immunohistology of frozen or wax embedded sections. Examination by fluorescein labelled antibodies of cells in suspensions prepared from the biopsies revealed a monotypic surface Ig positive population in one case and a surface or cytoplasmic Ig kappa:lambda light chain imbalance in a further two cases consistent with neoplastic B cell involvement: in all cases the proportion of cells failing to express Ig or T cell markers ranged from 24 to 75%. The monoclonal antibodies B1 (Pan B cell), FMC4 (HLA class II) and J5 (cALL antigen) stained the majority of cells in suspension with residual cells staining with UCHT1 or OKT11 (T cell monoclonal antibodies). In frozen sections, neoplastic follicular cells did not stain with UCHT1. However, in the one case tested these cells stained with the antibodies B1 and FMC4. In paraffin sections J chain could be demonstrated in the cytoplasm of three out of five cases. Cells from four cases were cultured in vitro for Ig production: two failed to produce Ig and monotypic light chains were the sole Ig product of the remaining two cases. The failure to express Ig by the majority of the neoplastic cells from the cases described in this report is at variance with the follicular histology of these neoplasms. Mechanisms responsible for this failure are discussed with reference to current models of B cell differentiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:6437429

  3. The lambda point experiment in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The motivation and potential for performing very high resolution measurements of the heat capacity singularity at the lambda point of helium in microgravity conditions was briefly discussed. It is clear that tests extending deep into the asymptotic region can be performed, where the theoretical predictions take on their simplest form. This advantageous situation should lead to a major improvement in the understanding of the range of applicability of current theoretical ideas in this field. The lambda transition holds out the prospect of giving the maximum advance of any system, and with the application of cryogenic techniques, the potential of this system can be realized. The technology for the initial experiments is already developed, and results could be obtained in 1990.

  4. The {Lambda}(1405) in Full QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Menadue, Benjamin J.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Mahbub, M. Selim

    2011-12-14

    At 1405.1 MeV, the lowest-lying negative-parity state of the {Lambda} baryon lies surprising low. Indeed, this is lower than the lowest negative-parity state of the nucleon, even though the {Lambda}(1405) possesses a valence strange quark. However, previous Lattice QCD studies have been unable to identify such a low-lying state. Using the PACS-CS (2+1)-flavour full-QCD ensembles, available through the ILDG, we utilise a variational analysis with source and sink smearing to isolate this elusive state. We find three low-lying odd-parity states, and for the first time reproduce the correct level ordering with respect to the nearby scattering thresholds.

  5. AN EXPRESSION TEMPLATE AWARE LAMBDA FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. SMITH; J. STRIEGNITZ

    2000-09-19

    The authors show how the paradigms of lambda functions and expression templates fit together in order to provide a means to increase the expressiveness of existing STL algorithms. They demonstrate how the expression templates approach could be extended in order to work with built-in types. To be portable, their solution is based on the Portable Expression Template Engine (PETE), which is a framework that enables the development of expression template aware classes.

  6. Serum immunoglobulins in Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Akinwolere, O A; Akinkugbe, F M; Oyewole, A I; Salimonu, L S

    1989-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins G, M and A levels were studied in 187 Nigerian neonates. Estimations were done by the radial immunodifusion method of Mancini. Immunoglobulin G shows a fall in value in the first few days of life to about 62% of the value in the last days of the neonatal period. There is however a gradual increase in the level of IgM to about double at the end of the neonatal period. IgA level remained relatively constantly low throughout this period. The effect of maternal education on the levels of immunoglobulins of their neonates was also investigated. This had a positive influence at the secondary educational level, affecting only the IgG and IgA.

  7. [Subcutaneous immunoglobulin substitution and therapy].

    PubMed

    Gulácsy, Vera; Maródi, László

    2011-01-09

    Patients with combined primary immunodeficiency or B-cell deficiency with low serum concentration of immunoglobulin G can be efficiently treated with immunoglobulin G concentrates. From the 1950s IgG was used intramuscularly, and from the 1980s intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement has become widely available for replacement therapy. Among the potential side effects of IVIG (including anaphylaxis), further disadvantages of IVIG are hospitalization during treatment and varying concentrations of IgG. Over the past ten years, subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) preparations have become reasonable alternatives to IVIG. SCIG given weekly assures a more balanced serum IgG level, side affects are mostly local and temporary; systemic, severe adverse events have not been observed. In addition, SCIG can be used for home treatment of patients which improves their quality of life remarkably.

  8. Immunogenic and antigenic epitopes of immunoglobulins I. Cross-reactivity of murine monoclonal antibodies to human IgG with the immunoglobulins of certain animal species.

    PubMed Central

    Jefferis, R; Lowe, J; Ling, N R; Porter, P; Senior, S

    1982-01-01

    Antibody-producing hybridoma clones have been isolated following immunization of mice with human IgG. Twenty-five monoclonal antibodies (nine anti-C gamma 3, fourteen anti-C gamma 2, one anit-kappa and one anti-lambda) were selected for study of their cross-reactivity with the IgG of fifteen mammalian species and chicken immunoglobulin. Each antibody exhibited a unique reaction profile suggesting that human IgG expresses a very large repertoire of immunogenic epitopes. Whilst some antibodies showed a very restricted cross-reactivity profile for others a very wide reactivity profile was observed-including two clones producing autoantibodies. Antibodies demonstrating cross-reactivity between human Fc gamma and 7S chicken immunoglobulin allow its definitive assignment as a homologue of human IgG. Four clones demonstrated specificity for bovine IgG subclass gamma 1 and gamma 2 and the degree of reactivity allows their application to qualitative and quantitative assay systems. These studies suggest new perspectives for the characterization of immunoglobulins and the standardization of anti-immunoglobulin reagents. PMID:6173313

  9. Trivalent Iron Induced Gelation in Lambda-Carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Falshaw, Ruth; Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2012-03-01

    This communication reports gelation of lambda-carrageenan, for the first time, in the presence of trivalent iron ions. Kappa-, iota- and lambda-carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides used extensively in food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Kappa- and iota-carrageenans show gelation in the presence of mono- and di-valent ions, but lambda-carrageenan yields only viscous solutions. Our results show that gelation in lambda-carrageenan indeed is possible, but with trivalent ions. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of iron (III)-lambda-carrageenan are characteristic of highly oriented and polycrystalline fibers containing well resolved Bragg reflections. The elastic modulus (G') of the product is far greater than the loss modulus (G") indicating the thermal stability of lambda-carrageenan in the presence of iron (III) ions. This novel finding has potential to expand lambda-carrageenan's current utility beyond a viscosifying agent.

  10. Trivalent Iron Induced Gelation in Lambda-Carrageenan

    PubMed Central

    Running, Cordelia A.; Falshaw, Ruth; Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    This communication reports gelation of lambda-carrageenan, for the first time, in the presence of trivalent iron ions. Kappa-, iota- and lambda-carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides used extensively in food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Kappa- and iota-carrageenans show gelation in the presence of mono- and di-valent ions, but lambda-carrageenan yields only viscous solutions. Our results show that gelation in lambda-carrageenan indeed is possible, but with trivalent ions. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of iron (III)-lambda-carrageenan are characteristic of highly oriented and polycrystalline fibers containing well resolved Bragg reflections. The elastic modulus (G') of the product is far greater than the loss modulus (G") indicating the thermal stability of lambda-carrageenan in the presence of iron (III) ions. This novel finding has potential to expand lambda-carrageenan’s current utility beyond a viscosifying agent. PMID:22408280

  11. Regulation of replication of lambda phage and lambda plasmid DNAs at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Gabig, M; Obuchowski, M; Srutkowska, S; Wegrzyn, G

    1998-06-01

    It was previously demonstrated that while lysogenic development of bacteriophage lambda in Escherichia coli proceeds normally at low temperature (20-25 degrees C), lytic development is blocked under these conditions owing to the increased stability of the phage CII protein. This effect was proposed to be responsible for the increased stimulation of the pE promoter, which interferes with expression of the replication genes, leading to inhibition of phage DNA synthesis. Here we demonstrate that the burst size of phage lambda cIb2, which is incapable of lysogenic development, increases gradually over the temperature range from 20 to 37 degrees C, while no phage progeny are observed at 20 degrees C. Contrary to previous reports, it is possible to demonstrate that pE promoter activation by CII may be more efficient at lower temperature. Using density-shift experiments, we found that phage DNA replication is completely blocked at 20 degrees C. Phage growth was also inhibited in cells overexpressing cII, which confirms that CII is responsible for inhibition of phage DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that replication of plasmids derived from bacteriophage lambda is neither inhibited at 20 degrees C nor in cells overexpressing cII. We propose a model to explanation the differences in replication observed between lambda phage and lambda plasmid DNA at low temperature.

  12. MASS FUNCTION PREDICTIONS BEYOND {Lambda}CDM

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Lukic, Zarija; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian

    2011-05-10

    The statistics of dark matter halos is an essential component of precision cosmology. The mass distribution of halos, as specified by the halo mass function, is a key input for several cosmological probes. The sizes of N-body simulations are now such that, for the most part, results need no longer be statistics-limited, but are still subject to various systematic uncertainties. Discrepancies in the results of simulation campaigns for the halo mass function remain in excess of statistical uncertainties and of roughly the same size as the error limits set by near-future observations; we investigate and discuss some of the reasons for these differences. Quantifying error sources and compensating for them as appropriate, we carry out a high-statistics study of dark matter halos from 67 N-body simulations to investigate the mass function and its evolution for a reference {Lambda}CDM cosmology and for a set of wCDM cosmologies. For the reference {Lambda}CDM cosmology (close to WMAP5), we quantify the breaking of universality in the form of the mass function as a function of redshift, finding an evolution of as much as 10% away from the universal form between redshifts z = 0 and z = 2. For cosmologies very close to this reference we provide a fitting formula to our results for the (evolving) {Lambda}CDM mass function over a mass range of 6 x 10{sup 11}-3 x 10{sup 15} M{sub sun} to an estimated accuracy of about 2%. The set of wCDM cosmologies is taken from the Coyote Universe simulation suite. The mass functions from this suite (which includes a {Lambda}CDM cosmology and others with w {approx_equal} -1) are described by the fitting formula for the reference {Lambda}CDM case at an accuracy level of 10%, but with clear systematic deviations. We argue that, as a consequence, fitting formulae based on a universal form for the mass function may have limited utility in high-precision cosmological applications.

  13. The immunoglobulin light chain locus of the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yonghua; Wu, Sun; Zang, Yunlong; Wang, Hui; Song, Xiangfeng; Xu, Chunyang; Xie, Bohong; Guo, Yongchen

    2012-06-15

    To date, most jawed vertebrate species encode more than one immunoglobulin light (IgL) chain isotypes. It has been shown that several bird species (chickens, white Pekin or domestic duck, and zebra finches) exclusively express lambda isotype. We analyze here the genomic organization of another bird species turkey IgL genes based on the recently released genome data. The turkey IgL locus located on chromosome 17 spans approximately 75.2kb and contains a single functional V(λ) gene, twenty V(λ) pseudogenes, and a single functional J(λ)-C(λ) block. These data suggest that the genomic organization of bird IgL chain genes seems to be conserved. Ten cDNA clones from turkey Igλ chain containing almost full-length V(λ), J(λ) and C(λ) segments were acquired. The comparison of V(λ) cDNA sequences to all the germline V(λ) segments suggests that turkey species may be generating IgL chain diversity by gene conversion and somatic hypermutation like the chicken. This study provides insights into the immunoglobulin light chain genes in another bird species. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Serum levels of immunoglobulin free light chains in patients with chronic hepatitis C presenting cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabela S; Cabral, Milena S; Jesus, Larissa S; Paraná, Raymundo; Atta, Ajax M; Sousa Atta, Maria Luiza B

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects B-lymphocytes, provokes cellular dysfunction and causes lymphoproliferative diseases such as cryoglobulinemia and non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. In the present study, we investigated the serum levels of kappa and lambda free light chains (FLC) of immunoglobulins and the kappa/lambda FLC ratio in Brazilian patients with chronic HCV infection and cryoglobulinemia. We also analyzed the immunochemical composition of the cryoglobulins in these patients. Twenty-eight cryoglobulinemic HCV patients composed the target group, while 37 HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia were included as controls. The median levels of kappa and lambda FLC were higher in patients with cryoglobulinemia compared to controls (p=0.001 and p=0.003, respectively), but the kappa/lambda FLC ratio was similar in patients with and without cryoglobulinemia (p>0.05). The median FLC ratio was higher in HCV patients presenting with advanced fibrosis of the liver compared to HCV patients without fibrosis (p=0.004). Kappa and lambda FLC levels were strongly correlated with the IgA, IgG and IgM levels in the patients with cryoglobulinemia. In patients without cryoglobulinemia, the kappa FLC level was only correlated with the IgG level, whereas the lambda FLC were weakly correlated with the IgA, IgG and IgM levels. An immunochemical pattern of mixed cryoglobulins (MC), predominantly IgM, IgG, IgA and kappa light chain, was verified in these immune complexes. We concluded that HCV-infected patients presenting cryoglobulinemia have vigorous polyclonal B-lymphocyte activation due to chronic HCV infection and persistent immune stimulation.

  15. Differential Photoproduction Cross Sections of the Sigma0(1385), Lambda(1405), and Lambda(1520)

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Kei; Schumacher, Reinhard A.

    2013-10-01

    We report the exclusive photoproduction cross sections for the Sigma(1385), Lambda(1405), and Lambda(1520) in the reactions gamma + p -> K+ + Y* using the CLAS detector for energies from near the respective production thresholds up to a center-of-mass energy W of 2.85 GeV. The differential cross sections are integrated to give the total exclusive cross sections for each hyperon. Comparisons are made to current theoretical models based on the effective Lagrangian approach and fitted to previous data. The accuracy of these models is seen to vary widely. The cross sections for the Lambda(1405) region are strikingly different for the Sigma+pi-, Sigma0 pi0, and Sigma- pi+ decay channels, indicating the effect of isospin interference, especially at W values close to the threshold.

  16. The Differential Cross Section and Lambda Recoil Polarization From gamma d to K0 Lambda( p)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Nicholas

    Presented is the analysis of the differential cross section and Lambda recoil polarization from the reaction gammad → K0Lambda(p). This work measured these observables over beam energies from 0.90 GeV to 3.0 GeV. These measurements are the first in this channel to cover such a wide range of energies. The data were taken using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Laboratory (JLAB) along with a tagged photon beam. This analysis was completed by identifying events of interest that decayed into the final state topology of pi-pi+pi- p(p). Through conservation of energy and momentum, the K0, Lambda, and missing mass of the spectator proton were reconstructed. Utilizing the same analysis techniques, the observables were measured on two different experiments with good agreement. Photoproduction of strange mesons from the neutron are difficult to measure, consequently there are only a few measurements of this kind. Despite that, these reactions supply essential complementary data to those on the proton. The differential cross sections and the recoil polarization extracted, span the region where new nucleon resonances have been found from studies of the reaction gammap → K +Lambda. Comparisons between the K+Lambda and K0Lambda cross section demonstrate that possible interference terms near 1900 MeV are less pronounced in the latter. This unexpected result inspired a partial wave analyses (PWA) to be fitted to the data. The fit solution shows that this measurement fostered an improvement on the knowledge of observed resonance parameters, necessary to understanding these excited states. The study of nucleon resonances is a key motivating factor since the resonance masses can be calculated from the theory of the strong nuclear force, called quantum chromodynamics, or QCD.

  17. Measurement of transverse {lambda} and {lambda}-bar polarization at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrero, A.

    2007-06-13

    New data on hyperon polarization in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering have been collected by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN during the years 2002-2004, using a beam of longitudinally polarized muons of 160 GeV/c and a 6LiD target that can be polarized both longitudinally and transversely. The various combinations of beam and target polarizations allow for the study of a wide variety of hyperon polarization effects. Here we present preliminary results on the transverse polarization of {lambda} and {lambda}-bar produced both with unpolarized and transversely polarized deuteron targets.

  18. Purification of human immunoglobulins by sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Perosa, F; Carbone, R; Ferrone, S; Dammacco, F

    1990-03-27

    We have tested the usefulness of sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate to purify human monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulins from sera of 11 patients with monoclonal gammapathy (4 IgG kappa, 2 IgG lambda, 2 IgM kappa, 1 IgA kappa, 2 IgA lambda), four patients with autoimmune diseases and four healthy donors. In terms of purity and activity of Ig as well as execution time and cost, this two-step non-chromatographic procedure is highly efficient for the purification of IgG, IgA and IgM, thus offering several advantages over other methods of purification. Therefore, this procedure may have useful application in the preparation of human Ig for structural studies and therapeutic purposes.

  19. Measurement of the Lambda0b lifetime in the decay lambda0b--> J/psiLambda0 with the D0 detector.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystricky, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krzywdzinski, S; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Lubatti, H J; Lueking, L; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, O; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pope, B G; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbrück, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wang, L; Wang, Z-M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2005-03-18

    We present measurements of the Lambda(0)(b) lifetime in the exclusive decay channel Lambda(0)(b)--> J/psiLambda(0), with J/psi--> mu(+)mu(-) and Lambda(0)--> ppi(-), the B0 lifetime in the decay B0-->J/psiK(0)(S) with J/psi--> mu(+)mu(-) and K(0)(S)-->pi(+)pi(-), and the ratio of these lifetimes. The analysis is based on approximately 250 pb(-1) of data recorded with the D0 detector in pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV. The Lambda(0)(b) lifetime is determined to be tau(Lambda(0)(b)) = 1.22(+0.22)(-0.18)(stat) +/- 0.04(syst) ps, the B0 lifetime tau(B0) = 1.40(+0.11)(-0.10)(stat) +/- 0.03(syst) ps, and the ratio tau(Lambda(0)(b))/tau(B0) = 0.87(+0.17)(-0.14)(stat) +/- 0.03(syst). In contrast with previous measurements using semileptonic decays, this is the first determination of the Lambda(0)(b) lifetime based on a fully reconstructed decay channel.

  20. Rabi resonances in the {lambda} excitation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Godone, Aldo; Micalizio, Salvatore; Levi, Filippo

    2002-12-01

    We consider the interaction of a three-level system with phase-modulated resonant fields in the {lambda} excitation scheme. We treat theoretically the case of a sinusoidal phase modulation, a phase step perturbation, and a stochastic phase modulation. The appearance of a Rabi resonance both in the spectrum of the optical transmitted signal (electromagnetically induced transparency) and in the spectrum of the microwave emission (coherent population trapping maser) is considered in detail. All the theoretical results are compared with the analogous ones reported for the two-level system and with our experimental observations obtained for the case of rubidium in a buffer gas.

  1. Immunohistological analysis in diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma based on cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoko; Yokote, Taiji; Hirata, Yuji; Iwaki, Kazuki; Akioka, Toshikazu; Miyoshi, Takuji; Nishiwaki, Uta; Masuda, Yuki; Hiraoka, Nobuya; Takayama, Ayami; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Tsuji, Motomu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2012-11-01

    The accurate determination of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) light chain (LC) expression is important to differentiate reactive plasmacytosis from a clonal plasma cell neoplasm such as plasma cell myeloma (PCM). Through retrospective analysis, we studied the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells in the bone marrow from 19 PCM patients and 19 controls. To demonstrate cIg LC expression, the bone marrow was immunostained for IgA, IgG, IgM, kappa, and lambda. The kappa/lambda ratio was defined as the ratio of the kappa-positive cell to the lambda-positive cell in plasma cells. PCM cells were distinguished from normal plasma cells by cut-off levels between 0.59 and 4.0, a sensitivity of 94.7%, and a specificity of 94.7%. The detection of the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of PCM and the correct diagnosis of PCM may be achieved more simply.

  2. Membrane-bound immunoglobulins on human leukemic cells. Evidence for humoral immune responses of patients to leukemia-associated antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Metzgar, R S; Mohanakumar, T; Miller, D S

    1975-01-01

    Immunoglobulins were detected on the membranes of human leukemic cells by a microcytotoxicity technique. A significant percentage of lymphocytes from normal donors failed to react with goat antisera to human heavy chain determinants or to lambda-light chains. Lymphocytes from some normal donors, however, did react with antisera to k-light chains. A high percentage (50-90) of cells from some leukemia patients were killed by antisera to light chains and by one or more antisera to heavy chain determinants. Trypsin treatment of leukemic cells resulted in a loss of cytotoxic activity with all immunoglobulin antisera. Reactivity with the k-light chain antiserum was detectable 2 h after trypsinization of chronic myeloid leukemic (CML) cells and 8 h after treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemic (ALL) cells. Reactivity with the antisera to heavy chain determinants and lambda-light chains could not be detected 8 and 48 h after trypsinization of CML and ALL cells, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of the immunoglobulin antisera to heavy chains was abolished by absorption with the specific immunoglobulin used to define the antisera by precipitation. Eluates (pH 3.2) prepared from leukemic cells which reacted by cytotoxicity with the immunoglobulin antisera were shown to contain immunoglobulins of different heavy chain classes. In addition, some of the eluates had cytotoxic antibody activity to human leukemia cells. The specificity of the eluted antibodies is similar to the specificity previously described for cytophilic antibodies from leukemic patients and nonhuman primate antisera to human leukemia cells. The possible in vitro detection and in vivo significance of the eluted non-complement-fixing antibodies is considered. PMID:807598

  3. The interactions of calreticulin with immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Møllegaard, Karen Mai; Duus, Karen; Træholt, Sofie Dietz; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Liu, Yan; Palma, Angelina S; Feizi, Ten; Hansen, Paul R; Højrup, Peter; Houen, Gunnar

    2011-07-01

    Calreticulin is a chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) assisting proteins in achieving the correctly folded structure. Details of the binding specificity of calreticulin are still a matter of debate. Calreticulin has been described as an oligosaccharide-binding chaperone but data are also accumulating in support of calreticulin as a polypeptide binding chaperone. In contrast to mammalian immunoglobulin G (IgG), which has complex type N-glycans, chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) possesses a monoglucosylated high mannose N-linked glycan, which is a ligand for calreticulin. Here, we have used solid and solution-phase assays to analyze the in vitro binding of calreticulin, purified from human placenta, to human IgG and chicken IgY in order to compare the interactions. In addition, peptides from the respective immunoglobulins were included to further probe the binding specificity of calreticulin. The experiments demonstrate the ability of calreticulin to bind to denatured forms of both IgG and IgY regardless of the glycosylation state of the proteins. Furthermore, calreticulin exhibits binding to peptides (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) derived from trypsin digestion of both immunoglobulins. Additionally, calreticulin peptide binding was examined with synthetic peptides covering the IgG Cγ2 domain demonstrating interaction with approximately half the peptides. Our results show that the dominant binding activity of calreticulin in vitro is toward the polypeptide moieties of IgG and IgY even in the presence of the monoglucosylated high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide on IgY.

  4. 7th International Immunoglobulin Conference: Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R E; Ochs, H D

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of the challenges involved in diagnosing and treating a heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency disorders is growing. The improvements in neonatal screening offer new methods to ensure that primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are diagnosed as early as possible, enabling accurate treatment and the prevention of life-threatening infections and other complications. Additionally, the need to individualize patient therapy in order to optimize both clinical outcomes and quality-of-life is obvious and is exemplified by the ability to switch between intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration offering flexible treatment regimens. However, further research is crucial in order to determine the optimal treatment for secondary immunodeficiencies, and to gain greater understanding of the underlying causes of PIDs, including common variable immunodeficiency. The information relating to the growth of patient registries is encouraging, with approximately 25 000 patients with PIDs included in the two registries discussed. Registries such as this are vital for future research, as well as providing an educational resource. PMID:25546748

  5. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains.

    PubMed

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo; Cirillo, Davide; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-05-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition.

  6. Short-term effect of levosimendan on free light chain kappa and lambda levels in patients with decompensated chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Ibrahim Halil; Yavuzer, Kemal; Batur, Mustafa Kemal

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effects of levosimendan, a positive inotropic agent, on the new heart failure markers immunoglobulin free light chains kappa and lambda (FLC-kappa and FLC-lambda) in decompensated chronic heart failure (HF), 59 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV HF were enrolled. Patients were randomized into levosimendan (n = 31) and standard HF treatment (n = 29) groups. Serum FLC-kappa and FLC-lambda, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and ejection fraction (EF) were measured before treatment and on the 5th day of treatment initiation. Forty-two percent of subjects were females (n = 25) and overall mean age was 64.1 +/- 10.7 years. FLC-kappa (P < 0.05) and FLC-lambda (P < 0.05) were significantly decreased in the levosimendan group compared to baseline, but no difference in either marker in the standard treatment group was observed. Pre- and post-treatment FLC-kappa/FLC-lambda ratios in both groups were similar, whereas FLC-kappa and FLC-lambda levels and the FLC-kappa/FLC-lambda ratio showed no significant correlation with NYHA class, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and ejection fraction (EF) levels; and BNP and EF changes after the treatment. Symptomatic improvement in the levosimendan group according to the NYHA class was significantly better than in the standard treatment group (P = 0.044). While 55.2% of patients in the levosimendan group showed a 1-degree shift to lower NYHA classes, 10.3% showed a 2-degree decrease. In conclusion, levosimendan caused short-term hemodynamic and symptomatic improvements, with a more pronounced decrease in FLC levels in patients with advanced decompensated HF.

  7. Rare {Lambda}{sub b} decays in a quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, L.; Roberts, W.

    2010-08-05

    Hadronic form factors for the rare weak transitions {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}{sup (*)} are calculated using a nonrelativistic quark model. The form factors obtained in this way are found to satisfy the relationships expecetd from the heavy quark effective theory. Differential decay rates and branching ratios are calculated for the dileptonic decays {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}, for both ground state and excited daughter baryons. Inclusion of the long distance contributions from charmonium resonances significantly enhances the decay rates. Future work is outlined.

  8. Remarks on the generalized Tukey's lambda family of distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, H.; Bowman, K.O.; Shenton, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The family of curves generated by the mapping of the uniform density F/sup -1/(lambda) = ..cap alpha.. + ..beta..(lambda/sup ..gamma..delta/ - (1-lambda)/sup ..gamma../)/..gamma.., 0 < lambda < 1, is considered. Primary interest is the application of the above density to approximating theoretical distribution functions of test statistics such as S.D., skewness, and kurtosis under non-normality. Moments are straight forward to evaluate in terms of gamma functions, or polygamma functions in special cases. 1 figure, 8 tables. (RWR)

  9. Charge-symmetry breaking {Lambda}-nucleon interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Murali, M.; Usmani, Q.N.

    1995-08-01

    Some time ago we showed that the charge-symmetry-breaking interaction, as obtained from the mass four hypernuclei ({sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}H, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He), was spin-independent; a result which cannot be understood with the conventional meson-exchange models. The calculations of ({sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}H, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He) are currently being extended to include noncentral nuclear and hypernuclear forces which could modify this result. At a more fundamental level we intend to study quark-structure contributions to the charge-symmetry-breaking interaction.

  10. Proteolysis of lymphocytic surface immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Hough, D W; McIlroy, B M; Stevenson, G T

    1977-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of lymphocytic surface immunoglobulins in guinea-pig, rabbit and man was investigated by immunofluorescence using conjugated antisera specific for immunoglobulin fragments. The cell surface IgM of guinea pig L2C leukaemic lymphocytes and rabbit blood lymphocytes was cleaved in situ at its hinge region by papain. The Fcmicron fragment remained attached to the membrane and could be stained with the appropriate anti-Fc conjugate. The surface IgD and IgM of human chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells was cleared from the cell surface by papain, as shown by reagents directed against both Fab and Fc region determinants. This could be due either to proteolytic degradation of membrane bound Fc or to initial cleavage of Ig from the membrane at some point other than the hinge region. PMID:321347

  11. Human immunoglobulin allotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2009-01-01

    More than twenty recombinant monoclonal antibodies are approved as therapeutics. Almost all of these are based on the whole IgG isotype format, but vary in the origin of the variable regions between mouse (chimeric), humanized mouse and fully human sequences; all of those with whole IgG format employ human constant region sequences. Currently, the opposing merits of the four IgG subclasses are considered with respect to the in vivo biological activities considered to be appropriate to the disease indication being treated. Human heavy chain genes also exhibit extensive structural polymorphism(s) and, being closely linked, are inherited as a haplotype. Polymorphisms (allotypes) within the IgG isotype were originally discovered and described using serological reagents derived from humans; demonstrating that allotypic variants can be immunogenic and provoke antibody responses as a result of allo-immunization. The serologically defined allotypes differ widely within and between population groups; therefore, a mAb of a given allotype will, inevitably, be delivered to a cohort of patients homozygous for the alternative allotype. This publication reviews the serologically defined human IgG allotypes and considers the potential for allotype differences to contribute to or potentiate immunogenicity. PMID:20073133

  12. Analysis of the {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, T. M.; Savci, M.; Azizi, K.

    2010-03-01

    Taking into account the {Lambda} baryon distribution amplitudes and the most general form of the interpolating current of the {Lambda}{sub b}, the semileptonic {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}l{sup +}l{sup -} transition is investigated in the framework of the light cone QCD sum rules. Sum rules for all 12 form factors responsible for the {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay are constructed. The obtained results for the form factors are used to compute the branching fraction. A comparison of the obtained results with the existing predictions of the heavy quark effective theory is presented. The results of the branching ratio shows the detectability of this channel at the Large Hadron Collider beauty in the near future is quite high.

  13. Molecular analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in goose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Wu, Kun; Yuan, Xiaoli; Shao, Shuai; Wang, WenYuan; Wei, Si; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-07-01

    Immunoglobulins play an important role in adaptive immune system as defense molecules against pathogens. However, our knowledge on avian immunoglobulin genes has been limited to a few species. In this study, we analyzed goose (Anser cygnoides orientalis) immunoglobulin genes. Three IgH classes including IgM, IgA, IgY and λ light chain were identified. The IgM and IgA heavy chain constant regions are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. In addition to the classic Ig isotypes, we also detected a transcript that encoded a truncated form of IgY (IgY(ΔFc)) in goose. Similar to duck, the IgY(ΔFc) in goose was generated by using different transcriptional termination signal of the same υ gene. Limited variability and only one leader peptide were observed in VH and VL domains, which suggested that gene conversion was the primary mechanism involved in goose antibody diversity. Our study provides more insights into the immunoglobulin genes in goose that had not been fully explored before. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. QCD factorization for {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhenhua; Guo Xinheng; Lue Gang

    2011-02-01

    We prove that in the limit m{sub b},m{sub c}{yields}{infinity}, with m{sub c}/m{sub b} fixed, factorization holds at order {alpha}{sub s} for the decay {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. This proof is done in the infinite-momentum frame in which the momenta of {pi}, {Lambda}{sub c}, and {Lambda}{sub b} go to infinity. Our result is renormalization-scale- and scheme-independent at O({alpha}{sub s}). This is the same as the QCD factorization for B{yields}D{pi}.

  15. Faecal eosinophil cationic protein and serum immunoglobulin E in relation to infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Hua, Man-Chin; Chen, Chien-Chang; Liao, Sui-Ling; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Tsai, Ming-Han; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chiu, Chih-Yung; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2017-03-01

    Background To date, the effects of exclusive breastfeeding duration and timing of solid food introduction on allergy prevention are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of variable feeding practices on intestinal inflammation in infants using faecal eosinophil cationic protein as a surrogate marker and to assess whether faecal eosinophil cationic protein is associated with serum immunoglobulin E. Methods Subjects ( n = 206) were enrolled from the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese CHildren (PATCH) birth cohort study. Stool samples were collected at 6 and 12 months for determining eosinophil cationic protein, and blood was collected for determining total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E at 12 months. We compared these biomarkers between infants with variable exclusive breastfeeding duration and infants introduced to solid foods at various periods. The association between faecal eosinophil cationic protein, total serum immunoglobulin E and specific immunoglobulin E was also analysed. Results Faecal eosinophil cationic protein was significantly higher in exclusively breastfed infants compared with formula-fed infants and infants who were not exclusively breastfed at 6 months of age ( P < 0.05). At 12 months, infants who were introduced to solid foods at 5-6 months had the lowest faecal eosinophil cationic protein compared with those who were introduced at earlier and later periods. There was no significant association between faecal eosinophil cationic protein and serum immunoglobulin E. Conclusion We found that breastfeeding exclusively for >6 months did not reduce serum immunoglobulin E, but rather increased intestinal inflammation. Faecal eosinophil cationic protein was not associated with total serum immunoglobulin E and specific immunoglobulin E and might not be a useful indictor of immunoglobulin E sensitization in infancy.

  16. Design of broadly tuned FIR FEL based on a variable-period microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Qing-Xiang Liu |; Yong Xu

    1995-12-31

    A varible-period microwiggler is proposed and investigated. The fundamental period of the microwiggler is designed as {lambda}o=2mm, and the period of the microwiggler can be turned from {lambda}o to n{lambda}o (n=1,2,3,{hor_ellipsis}) The wiggler fields with the period 3{lambda}o, 4{lambda}o, and 5{lambda}o are measured and compared with the theoretical results. Finally, a broadly tuned FIR FEL is designed based on the performance of the variable-period microwiggler.

  17. Efficacy and tolerability of 16% subcutaneous immunoglobulin compared with 20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary antibody deficiency.

    PubMed

    Niebur, H B; Duff, C M; Shear, G F; Nguyen, D; Alberdi, T K; Dorsey, M J; Sleasman, J W

    2015-09-01

    Multiple subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) products are available to treat primary antibody deficiency (PAD). The efficacy and tolerability of 16% SCIG (Vivaglobin(®) ) was compared with 20% SCIG (Hizentra(®) ) in PAD subjects. The study was a prospective, single-centre, open-label study of PAD subjects transitioning Vivaglobin to equivalent Hizentra doses, rounded to the nearest vial size. Comparisons included immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels; tetanus, varicella and Streptococcus pneumoniae titres; adverse events (AEs), annual infection rate and quality of life during 8 weeks of Vivaglobin and 24 weeks of Hizentra. Thirty-two subjects (aged 2-75 years) participated. Rounding to the nearest Hizentra vial size resulted in a 12·8% (± 2·9%) increase in SCIG dose. Median immunoglobulin (Ig)G level following 8 weeks of Vivaglobin was similar to 24 weeks of Hizentra (1050 versus 1035 mg/dl, respectively; P = 0·77). Both products had similar protective titres to tetanus, varicella and serotypes of S. pneumoniae, which were variable but well above protective levels. After 12 weeks of Hizentra, subjects reported fewer local site reactions compared with Vivaglobin. Switching products resulted in increased systemic AEs in some subjects but, overall, not significantly higher than during Vivaglobin treatment. Average infusion time decreased from 104·7 min (3·3 sites) with Vivaglobin to 70·7 min (2·2 sites) with Hizentra (P = 0·0005). Acute serious bacterial infections were similar. Treatment satisfaction was superior with Hizentra. Hizentra and Vivaglobin have similar pharmacokinetics and efficacy. Although transition to a different SCIG product initially increased AEs, Hizentra is well tolerated and can be infused more rapidly and with fewer sites compared to Vivaglobin. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of 16% subcutaneous immunoglobulin compared with 20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary antibody deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Niebur, H B; Duff, C M; Shear, G F; Nguyen, D; Alberdi, T K; Dorsey, M J; Sleasman, J W

    2015-01-01

    Multiple subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) products are available to treat primary antibody deficiency (PAD). The efficacy and tolerability of 16% SCIG (Vivaglobin®) was compared with 20% SCIG (Hizentra®) in PAD subjects. The study was a prospective, single-centre, open-label study of PAD subjects transitioning Vivaglobin to equivalent Hizentra doses, rounded to the nearest vial size. Comparisons included immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels; tetanus, varicella and Streptococcus pneumoniae titres; adverse events (AEs), annual infection rate and quality of life during 8 weeks of Vivaglobin and 24 weeks of Hizentra. Thirty-two subjects (aged 2–75 years) participated. Rounding to the nearest Hizentra vial size resulted in a 12·8% (± 2·9%) increase in SCIG dose. Median immunoglobulin (Ig)G level following 8 weeks of Vivaglobin was similar to 24 weeks of Hizentra (1050 versus 1035 mg/dl, respectively; P = 0·77). Both products had similar protective titres to tetanus, varicella and serotypes of S. pneumoniae, which were variable but well above protective levels. After 12 weeks of Hizentra, subjects reported fewer local site reactions compared with Vivaglobin. Switching products resulted in increased systemic AEs in some subjects but, overall, not significantly higher than during Vivaglobin treatment. Average infusion time decreased from 104·7 min (3·3 sites) with Vivaglobin to 70·7 min (2·2 sites) with Hizentra (P = 0·0005). Acute serious bacterial infections were similar. Treatment satisfaction was superior with Hizentra. Hizentra and Vivaglobin have similar pharmacokinetics and efficacy. Although transition to a different SCIG product initially increased AEs, Hizentra is well tolerated and can be infused more rapidly and with fewer sites compared to Vivaglobin. PMID:25761372

  19. Lambda-instability of Keplerian orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumin, Yurii

    Although the Lambda-term is commonly recognized to be of crucial importance for the large-scale (cosmological) dynamics, its influence can be appreciable also at much less scales, particularly, for the long-term evolution of Keplerian orbits. Such effects were studied in the recent years in a number of papers, e.g. [1, 2]; however this was done only under the assumption of static de Sitter asymptotics at infinity. A more realistic treatment of this problem should be based, evidently, on the nonstationary Friedmann-Robertson-Walker asymptotics, which is commonly accepted in modern cosmology; and such an approach was outlined in our earlier paper [3]. The present report is devoted to the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion of a test particle experiencing a gravitational field of the massive central body against the Lambda-background. Apart from the tiny secular effect of Hubble type, which is naturally expected and was already discussed before [4], we have found a strong instability, which can develop at certain values of the orbital parameters. The growth rate of this instability is much larger than the typical Hubble velocity, and it can eventually lead to disruption of the Keplerian orbit and injection of the test particle with a considerable velocity. From our point of view, the revealed phenomenon may have important astrophysical applications, particularly, for explanation of the very fast proper motions of some stars, anomalous interstellar separation in multiple systems, etc. References: 1. A. Balaguera-Antolínez, C.G. Böhmer, M. Nowakowski. Class. Quant. Grav., v.23, p.485 (2006). 2. V. Kagramanova, J. Kunz, C Lämmerzahl. Phys. Lett. B, v.634, p.465 (2006). 3. Yu.V. Dumin. Phys. Rev. Lett., v.98, p.059001 (2007). 4. Yu.V. Dumin. Proc. 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity (World Sci., Singapore, 2008), p.1752.

  20. The vectorial release of nascent immunoglobulin peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bevan, Michael J.

    1971-01-01

    A microsomal preparation from a mouse plasmacytoma, MOPC 47A, that secretes immunoglobulin A was used to study the release of nascent immunoglobulin peptides in vitro. Nascent chains were released with puromycin and characterized with specific antiserum against the immunoglobulin product of the tumour. When the tissue had been prelabelled with [3H]leucine the experiments were complicated by the large background of completed radioactive polypeptides in the microsomal preparation. Up to one-third of the released radioactivity in the microsomal preparation could be recognized as immunoglobulin. With [3H]-puromycin as the radioactive label, however, the results are much easier to interpret, although the proportion of released radioactivity that can be identified as immunoglobulin is lower (up to one-tenth). Both types of experiment demonstrate that all of the recognizable nascent immunoglobulin chains remain in association with the microsomal vesicles after release from the ribosomes. PMID:5124814

  1. Correlation between UV dose requirement for lambda bacteriophage induction and lambda repressor concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Baluch, J; Sussman, R

    1978-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 wild type and a uvrA mutant derivative were used to construct isogenic strains bearing one, two, three, or more phage lambda cI genomes and containing increasing concentration of lambda repressor as measured by in vitro operator DNA-binding assays. The survival and phage induction in response to UV irradiation were determined. In both strains, dose-response relationships were obtained as a function of the cellular repressor concentration. The uvrA lysogens required one-tenth the UV fluence of the wild-type counterparts for induction. Lysogenic strains containing plasmids that overproduce the lambdaind+ repressor and the same lysogens with plasmids overproducing the lambdaind- repressor displayed the same survival curves as the nonlysogenic parental strain; however, only the former produced infectious centers (at a frequency of 2 x 10(-3) to 5 x 10(-4) in response to radiation. PMID:353300

  2. Moderate-resolution spectral standards from lambda 5600 to lambda 9000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Lori E.; Strom, Karen M.

    1995-01-01

    We present a grid of stellar classification spectra of moderate resolution (R approximately 1500) in the range lambda lambda 5600-9000 A, compiled from high signal-to noise spectra of 275 stars, most in the open clusters Praesepe and M67. The grid covers dwarfs from types B8 through M5, giants from G8 through M7, and subgiants from F5 through K0. We catalog atomic and molecular absorption features useful for stellar classification, and demonstrate the use of luminosity-sensitive features to distinguish between late-type dwarf and giant stars. The entire database is made available in digital format on anonymous ftp and through the World Wide Web.

  3. The T-cell receptor as immunoglobulin: paradigm regained.

    PubMed

    Marchalonis, J J; Schluter, S F; Edmundson, A B

    1997-12-01

    The quest to determine the molecular nature of T-lymphocyte receptors for antigen was a "holy grail" to immunologists for over 25 years. This paper updates a review written 15 years ago (Marchalonis JJ, Hunt JC. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 171:127-145, 1982), which proposed that "these molecules apparently do not bear determinants specified by the major histocompatibility complex, but express Ig-related variable regions and constant regions unique to T-cell products." We review subsequent contributions from molecular biology, protein chemistry, peptide immunochemistry, and structural biology establishing that T-cell receptors (TCRs) are members of the immunoglobulin family restricted to T cells that share 3-dimensional structural features, sequence homology, antigenic cross-reactivity, and common mechanisms of diversification with conventional immunoglobulins. These molecules and their light- and heavy-chain siblings appeared contemporaneously in vertebrate evolution with the emergence of sharks. We illustrate how extrapolation of concepts from immunoglobulin to T-cell receptors has aided in the understanding of these often enigmatic molecules, and, conversely, how concepts derived for T-cell receptors such as the role of "superantigens" can be directly applied to conventional immunoglobulins. A second precept that follows from the symmetry of the combining sites of Igs and TCRs is that MHC-restricted antibodies should exist. Such molecules have in fact been reported, and the x-ray crystallography for T-cell receptors suggests that the combining sites recognizing simultaneously MHC and peptide epitopes resemble the combining sites of antibodies directed against protein determinants. Additional immunoglobulin molecules of nonmammalian species have been detected and characterized based upon conserved homology to TCR and Igs, and it is anticipated that further study will enable the identification of more antigen-specific members of the family in mammals as well.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of Lambda16N by electroproduction.

    PubMed

    Cusanno, F; Urciuoli, G M; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Boeglin, W U; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovský, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giuliani, F; Gomez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Raue, B; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zheng, X; Zorn, C

    2009-11-13

    An experimental study of the (16)O(e,e'K(+))(Lambda)(16)N reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e,e'K(+))Lambda, Sigma(0) exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76+/-0.16 MeV was obtained for (Lambda)(16)N with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus (Lambda)(16)O. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p(1/2) and p(3/2) hole states of the (15)N core nucleus.

  5. Simple model for lambda-doublet propensities in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronikowski, Michael J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1990-01-01

    A simple geometric model is presented to account for lambda-doublet propensities in bimolecular reactions A + BC - AB + C. It applies to reactions in which AB is formed in a pi state, and in which the unpaired molecular orbital responsible for lambda-doubling arises from breaking the B-C bond. The lambda-doublet population ratio is predicted to be 2:1 provided that: (1) the motion of A in the transition state determines the plane of rotation of AB; (2) the unpaired pi orbital lying initially along the B-C bond may be resolved into a projection onto the AB plane of rotation and a projection perpendicular to this plane; (3) there is no preferred geometry for dissociation of ABC. The 2:1 lambda-doublet ratio is the 'unconstrained dynamics prior' lambda-doublet distribution for such reactions.

  6. Phillips' Lambda function: Data summary and physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisov, V.; Plant, W.

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of Phillips' Lambda function describing the average length of breakers on the ocean per unit area at speed cb are summarized. An expression is developed that fits these data within reasonable bounds. A physical model for the Lambda function is derived based on the assumption that breaking occurs when the surface steepness exceeds a threshold value. The energy contained in the breaking region is related to the fifth power of the breaker speed, as Phillips showed, and from this the probability of finding a breaker with a speed cb may be determined from a simulation of the long-wave surface based on a linear superposition of Fourier components. This probability is directly related to the Lambda function so that a form for this function can be determined. The Lambda function so determined agrees in both shape and intensity with the fit to the measured Lambda functions.

  7. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 16N_Lambda by Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cusanno, Francesco; Urciuoli, Guido; Acha Quimper, Armando; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Aniol, Konrad; Baturin, Pavlo; Bertin, Pierre; Benaoum, Hachemi; Blomqvist, Ingvar; Boeglin, Werner; Breuer, Herbert; Brindza, Paul; Bydzovsky, Petr; Camsonne, Alexandre; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Colilli, Stefano; Coman, Luminita; Craver, Brandon; de Cataldo, Giacinto; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deur, Alexandre; Ferdi, Catherine; Feuerbach, Robert; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gayou, Olivier; Giuliani, Fausto; Gomez, Javier; Gricia, Massimo; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hayes, David; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kino, Kouichi; Kross, Brian; Lagamba, Luigi; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lucentini, Maurizio; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; McCormick, Kathy; Michaels, Robert; Millener, D.; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Moffit, Bryan; Monaghan, Peter; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Nappi, E.; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Okasyasu, Y.; Paschke, Kent; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Reitz, Bodo; Roche, Rikki; Rodriguez, Victor; Saha, Arunava; Santavenere, Fabio; Sarty, Adam; Segal, John; Shahinyan, Albert; Singh, Jaideep; Sirca, Simon; Snyder, Ryan; Solvignon, Patricia; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Suzuki, Tomokazu; Ueno, Hiroaki; Ulmer, Paul; Veneroni, P.P.; Voutier, Eric; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Zeng, X.; Zorn, Carl

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the 16O(e, e'K+)16N_Lambda reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e, e'K+)Lambda,Sigma_0 exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76 ± 0.16 MeV was obtained for 16N_Lambda with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus 16O_Lambda. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p1/2 and p3/2 hole states of the 15N core nucleus.

  8. A Precision Measurement of the Lambda_c Baryon Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-06

    The {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} baryon mass is measured using {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +} and {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +} decays reconstructed in 232 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. The {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} mass is measured to be 2286.46 {+-} 0.14 MeV/c{sup 2}. The dominant systematic uncertainties arise from the amount of material in the tracking volume and from the magnetic field strength.

  9. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T

    2016-05-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

  10. Characterization of antibody activity in oligoclonal immunoglobulin G synthesized within the central nervous system in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnman, J; Link, H; Frydén, A

    1981-01-01

    Thin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum obtained from one patient 48 and 65 days after the onset of tuberculous meningitis revealed five oligoclonal immunoglobulin zones in CSF without any counterpart in serum, indicating local immunoglobulin production. Subsequent immunofixation with specific antisera revealed that three of the zones consisted of immunoglobulin G lambda present simultaneously. Immunofixation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as antigens and autoradiography revealed zones of specific antibodies in the CSF which, regarding mobility, corresponded to oligoclonal and polyclonal CSF immunoglobulin G zones. No antibody activity was detectable in the corresponding serum, indicating that the antibodies present in CSF were synthesized within the central nervous system. In seven control patients (three with multiple sclerosis, four with chronic inflammatory central nervous system diseases of unknown cause) with oligoclonal CSF immunoglobulin, no evidence for local production of antibodies against M. tuberculosis or BCG was detectable. Immunofixation with M. tuberculosis or BCG as antigens and autoradiography may prove to be a useful diagnostic complement to conventional techniques in patients with suspected tuberculous meningitis. Images PMID:6780603

  11. Measurement of the production fraction times branching fraction $\\boldsymbol{ f(b\\to\\Lambda_{b})\\cdot \\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_{b}\\to J/\\psi \\Lambda)}$

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab

    2011-05-01

    The {Lambda}{sub b}(udb) baryon is observed in the decay {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda} using 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions collected with the D0 detector at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The production fraction multiplied by the branching fraction for this decay relative to that for the decay B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} is measured to be 0.345 {+-} 0.034 (stat.) {+-} 0.033 (syst.) {+-} 0.003 (PDG). Using the world average value of f(b {yields} B{sup 0}) {center_dot} {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0}) = (1.74 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -5}, they obtain f(b {yields} {Lambda}{sub b}) {center_dot} {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda}) = (6.01 {+-} 0.60 (stat.) {+-} 0.58 (syst.) {+-} 0.28 (PDG)) x 10{sup -5}. This measurement represents an improvement in precision by about a factor of three with respect to the current world average.

  12. Immunoglobulin D Multiple Myeloma With Rapidly Progressing Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Jwalant; Kamal, Jeanne; Eter, Ahmad; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; El-Charabaty, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) multiple myeloma (MM) is a very rare form of myeloma affecting less than 2% of all myeloma patients. It has a multiorgan involvement with renal failure being the key feature. We present here a case of IgD MM in a 62-year-old white male, smoker with past medical history of hypertension, who presented to emergency department with complaints of lower abdominal pain, constipation and decreased urination. Physical exam was unremarkable. Laboratory investigation showed S.Cr 5.99 mg/dL, hemoglobin 8.7 g/dL and corrected S.Ca 10.6 mg/dL. Urine dipstick showed 100 protein and TP/Cr ratio was 23. Serology was positive for serum free lambda chain level of 8,947.6 mg/L as well with free κ/λ ratio < 0.01. The results of serum and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation were also supportive of diagnosis of IgD MM. IgD level was remarkably elevated (27,300 mg/L) too. CT scan of abdomen/pelvis was negative for obstructive uropathy. Skeletal survey showed a solitary lytic lesion in the iliac crest. His kidney function deteriorated next day requiring hemodialysis. The bone marrow biopsy was positive for plasma cell hypercellularity (70-80%) and flow cytometry showed 8% monoclonal IgD lambda plasma cells. The patient was started on bortezomib and dexamethasone and he underwent bone marrow transplant 6 months later. He is doing well hematologically now but he remains dialysis-dependent. IgD MM is a very rare disease affecting younger population with poor prognosis; patients often end up on hemodialysis despite better control of the hematological component. PMID:26124916

  13. Immunoglobulin D Multiple Myeloma With Rapidly Progressing Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Modi, Jwalant; Kamal, Jeanne; Eter, Ahmad; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; El-Charabaty, Elie

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) multiple myeloma (MM) is a very rare form of myeloma affecting less than 2% of all myeloma patients. It has a multiorgan involvement with renal failure being the key feature. We present here a case of IgD MM in a 62-year-old white male, smoker with past medical history of hypertension, who presented to emergency department with complaints of lower abdominal pain, constipation and decreased urination. Physical exam was unremarkable. Laboratory investigation showed S.Cr 5.99 mg/dL, hemoglobin 8.7 g/dL and corrected S.Ca 10.6 mg/dL. Urine dipstick showed 100 protein and TP/Cr ratio was 23. Serology was positive for serum free lambda chain level of 8,947.6 mg/L as well with free κ/λ ratio < 0.01. The results of serum and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation were also supportive of diagnosis of IgD MM. IgD level was remarkably elevated (27,300 mg/L) too. CT scan of abdomen/pelvis was negative for obstructive uropathy. Skeletal survey showed a solitary lytic lesion in the iliac crest. His kidney function deteriorated next day requiring hemodialysis. The bone marrow biopsy was positive for plasma cell hypercellularity (70-80%) and flow cytometry showed 8% monoclonal IgD lambda plasma cells. The patient was started on bortezomib and dexamethasone and he underwent bone marrow transplant 6 months later. He is doing well hematologically now but he remains dialysis-dependent. IgD MM is a very rare disease affecting younger population with poor prognosis; patients often end up on hemodialysis despite better control of the hematological component.

  14. 7th International Immunoglobulin Conference: Immunoglobulin in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, R S; Borte, M

    2014-12-01

    Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulins (IVIg and SCIg, respectively) are increasingly used in clinical practice, not only as replacement therapy but also for immunomodulation. Physicians have learned that primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients are susceptible to recurrent respiratory tract infections even when appropriately treated with immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy. Further investigation will establish whether a combined therapeutic approach including Ig dose optimization will prevent progressive lung disease in PID. The wear-off effects observed with IVIg can be minimized by adjusting the dosing regimen. It is also possible to avoid the cyclic wear-off following transition to SCIg administration. Consideration of benefit versus risk with Ig therapy includes evaluating the potential occurrence of thromboembolic and haemolytic events, which may be more frequent when Ig is administered in high doses and in the presence of pre-existing risk factors. The ability to select an administration method from IVIg, SCIg or hyaluronidase-facilitated SCIg infusions provides patient choice and alternatives if one or other administration route is not suitable for a patient. The evolution in indications, applications, and understanding of Ig therapy described here has reinforced the need for robust methods to prioritize Ig use.

  15. pp-bar->LAMBDA{sub c}LAMBDA-bar{sub c} within a Handbag Picture - Section and Spin Observables

    SciTech Connect

    Goritschnig, A. T.; Schweiger, W.; Kroll, P.

    2009-08-04

    We study the process pp-bar->LAMBDA{sub c}LAMBDA-bar{sub c} within the generalized parton picture. Our starting point is the double handbag diagram which factorizes into soft generalized parton distributions and a hard subprocess amplitude for uu-bar->cc-bar. Our cross-section predictions may become interesting in view of forthcoming experiments at FAIR in Darmstadt.

  16. Immunoglobulins in human aqueous humour.

    PubMed Central

    Sen, D. K.; Sarin, G. S.; Saha, K.

    1977-01-01

    The immunoglobulin concentrations in human aqueous humour from 44 patients aged 35 to 85 years with cataracts were measured by a standard immunodiffusion method. IgG was found in all the samples (mean level 7-0 mg/100 ml. IgD, IgA or IgM could not be detected. There was no significant difference in IgG levels in aqueous humour between the two sexes, in different age groups, and in the different types of cataracts. PMID:403928

  17. Immunohistochemical comparison of CD5, lambda, and kappa expression in primary and recurrent buccal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Iino, Mituyoshi; Goto, Kaoru

    2011-09-06

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Primary MALT lymphomas can also occur in the oral cavity, although their appearance in this location is rare. The neoplastic cells of which MALT lymphomas are composed express B-cell antigens and show monotypic immunoglobulin expression with light-chain restriction.Although neoplastic MALT lymphoma cells do not express CD5, previous studies have shown that CD5 positive MALT lymphomas are more prone to dissemination than those that do not express CD5. Moreover, there are some reports that describe kappa- and lambda- dual light chain expression in B cell malignant neoplasms.A 66-year-old Japanese woman with swelling of the right buccal mucosa was referred to our hospital. The lesion was excised and was pathologically diagnosed as a MALT lymphoma tumor with a t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosome translocation.Swelling of the right buccal mucosa recurred 2 years later. The recurrent tumor was then excised and pathologically diagnosed as MALT lymphoma.Immunohistochemical examination of CD5, lambda, and kappa expressions revealed that the primary tumor was positive for CD5, kappa, and lambda, but the recurrent tumor was weakly positive for CD5 and kappa.With respect to lambda positivity, the recurrent tumor showed negativity.Our study suggests that immunohistochemical expression of CD5, kappa, and lambda in oral MALT lymphoma have the risk of recurrence.We first described the recurrence of CD5 positive MALT lymphoma in the oral cavity and compared the immunohistochemical expressions of CD5, lambda, and kappa between the primary and recurrent tumors.

  18. Exclusive semileptonic decays of {lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}l{sup +}l{sup -} in supersymmetric theories

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, M. Jamil; Wang Yuming; Lue Caidian

    2008-12-01

    The weak decays of {lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}l{sup +}l{sup -} (l=e, {mu}) are investigated in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and also in supersymmetric (SUSY) SO(10) grand unified models. In the MSSM special attention is paid to the neutral Higgs bosons (NHBs) as they make quite a large contribution in exclusive B{yields}X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -} decays at large tan{beta} regions of parameter space of SUSY models, since part of SUSY contributions is proportional to tan{sup 3}{beta}. The analysis of decay rate, forward-backward asymmetries, lepton polarization asymmetries, and the polarization asymmetries of the {lambda} baryon in {lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}l{sup +}l{sup -} show that the values of these physical observables are greatly modified by the effects of NHBs. In the SUSY SO(10) grand unified theory model, the new physics contribution comes from the operators which are induced by the NHBs' penguins and also from the operators having chirality opposite to that of the corresponding standard model (SM) operators. SUSY SO(10) effects show up only in the decay {lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}+{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} where the longitudinal and transverse lepton polarization asymmetries deviate significantly from the SM value while the effects in the decay rate, forward-backward asymmetries, and polarization asymmetries of final state {lambda} baryon are very mild. The transverse lepton polarization asymmetry in {lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}+{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} is almost zero in the SM and in the MSSM model. However, it can reach to -0.1 in the SUSY SO(10) grand unified theory model and could be seen at the future colliders; hence this asymmetry observable will provide us useful information to probe new physics and discriminate between different models.

  19. The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the reptile Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Gambón Deza, Francisco; Sánchez Espinel, Christian; Magadán Mompó, Susana

    2009-05-01

    We describe the entire immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus from the reptile Anolis carolinensis. The heavy chain constant (C(H)) region includes C mu, C delta and C upsilon genes. This is the first description of a C upsilon gene in the reptilian class. Variable (V(H)), diversity (D(H)) and joining (J(H)) genes are located 5' from the constant (C(H)) chain complex locus. The C mu and C upsilon genes encode antibodies with four immunoglobulin domains. The C delta gene encoded an 11 domain delta heavy chain as in Eublepharis macularius. Seventy V(H) genes, belonging to 28 families, were identified, and they can be sorted into five broader groups. The similarity of the organization of the reptilian genes with those of amphibians and mammals suggests the existence of a process of heavy chain genomic reorganization before the radiation of tetrapod vertebrates.

  20. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin: opportunities and outlook

    PubMed Central

    Misbah, S; Sturzenegger, M H; Borte, M; Shapiro, R S; Wasserman, R L; Berger, M; Ochs, H D

    2009-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) administration via the subcutaneous (s.c.) route has become increasingly popular in recent years. The method does not require venous access, is associated with few systemic side effects and has been reported to improve patients' quality of life. One current limitation to its use is the large volumes which need to be administered. Due to the inability of tissue to accept such large volumes, frequent administration at multiple sites is necessary. Most studies conducted to date have investigated the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) in patients treated previously with the intravenous (i.v.) formulation. New data now support the use of s.c. administration in previously untreated patients with primary immunodeficiencies. SCIg treatment may further be beneficial in the treatment of autoimmune neurological conditions, such as multi-focal motor neuropathy; however, controlled trials directly comparing the s.c. and i.v. routes are still to be performed for this indication. New developments may further improve and facilitate the s.c. administration route. For example, hyaluronidase-facilitated administration increases the bioavailability of SCIg, and may allow for the administration of larger volumes at a single site. Alternatively, more concentrated formulations may reduce the volume required for administration, and a rapid-push technique may allow for shorter administration times. As these developments translate into clinical practice, more physicians and patients may choose the s.c. administration route in the future. PMID:19883424

  1. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  2. The Structure and Function of the DNA from Bacteriophage Lambda

    PubMed Central

    Hogness, David S.

    1966-01-01

    The position and orientation of genes in lambda and lambda dg DNA are described. The position of six genes located in the right half of isolated lambda DNA was found to be -(N, iλ)--O-P---Q-R-(right end of DNA), which is their order on the genetic map of the vegetative phage. The order of the three genes of the galactose operon (k, t, and e) located in the left half of lambda dg DNA was found to be (left end of DNA)----k-t-e-, consistent with Campbell's model (5) for the formation of this variant. Gene orientation, defined as the direction of transcription along the DNA, is inferred to be from right to left for the galactose operon in lambda dg DNA. The strand of lambda DNA which functions as template in transcription of N, an "early" gene required for normal replication of lambda DNA, was determined as a first step in ascertaining the orientation of this gene. The method includes isolation of each strand, formation of each of two heteroduplex molecules consisting of one strand from wild-type and one from an N mutant) and comparison of their N activities. The second step, which consists of ascertaining the 5'-to-3' direction of each strand, is discussed, as is a determination of the orientation of gene R. PMID:5967430

  3. Restriction of immunoglobulin heterogeneity, autoimmunity and serum protein levels in aged people.

    PubMed Central

    Riesen, W; Keller, H; Skvaril, F; Morell, A; Barandun, S

    1976-01-01

    Ninety-one sera of persons above 80 years of age were screened for autoantibody activity against lipoproteins (anti-LDL 7, anti-HDL 6 positive), for rheumatoid factor activity (Latex 14, Waaler-Rose 7 positive) and for antinuclear factors (11 positive). Among the sera with autoantibody activity 29 percent showed deviations of the normal kappa/lambda ratio of immunoglobulins, as opposed to 22 percent of the sera without detected autoantibody activity. In 3 percent of the sera an M component was detected. Determination of the alpha1-acid glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, haemopexin, complement component C3c and C4, IgG, IgA and IgM levels showed significant increases in alpha-, and beta-globulins as well as in IgG and IgA in sera of the aged persons as compared to a normal population between 20 and 60 years old. No significant difference was noted between the gamma-globulin concentration in sera of aged persons with or without autoantibody activity. The evaluation of the relationship between serum protein levels and alterations of the kappa/lambda ratio indicated that the alpha- and the beta-globulins were significantly raised in sera with altered kappa/lambda ratios, whereas, with the exception of M component containing sera the gamma-globulin levels seemed not significantly affected by changes in this ratio. PMID:62632

  4. Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Print A A A What's in this article? ... Questions en español Análisis de sangre: inmunoglobulina A (IgA) What It Is An IgA test measures the ...

  5. Surrogate or conventional light chains are required for membrane immunoglobulin mu to activate the precursor B cell transition [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1997 Jan 6;185(1):183

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    To examine the role of light chains in early B cell development we combined RAG-1 and lambda 5 mutations to produce mice that expressed neither conventional nor surrogate light chains (RAG-1-/-, lambda 5-/- ). Unique heavy and light chain genes were then introduced into the double and single mutant backgrounds. Membrane immunoglobulin (Ig)mu (mIg mu) associated with Ig alpha-Ig beta but was unable to activate the pre-B cell transition in RAG-1-/-lambda 5-/- mice. Either lambda 5 or kappa light chains were sufficient to complement this deficiency. Therefore light chains are absolutely required for a functional Ig signaling module in early B cell development. Our data provide direct evidence for the existence of two pathways for induction of early B cell development: one which is activated through surrogate light chains and mIg mu, and an alternative pathway which uses conventional light chains and mIg mu. PMID:8920890

  6. On the affinities of lambda 5778 and other broad diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Alan; Webster, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    The authors examined the broad band 5778 A because of the quantity and quality of data that exists in literature. To investigate the affinity of that band with the bands of Family 1, the ratio W(sub lambda)(4430)/W(sub lambda)(5797) was formed. If the two band belong to the same family then the ratio should be a constant from star to star and it should not be possible to find an independent variable with which the ratio is correlated. If, however, a variable is found which does produce a statistically significant correlation with the ratio of equivalent widths then the bands cannot be in the same family. To test the affinity of the band at 5778 A with the other families the procedure was repeated using the bands at 5780 and 5787 A as being representative of Families 2 and 3 respectively. The measurement results of this test are shown using 21 stars taken from Herbig. Statistically significant correlations resulted when the band at 5778 A was tested against the bands of Families 1 and 2 but there was no correlation with Family 3. It is concluded that lambda 5778 is unlikely a member of Family 1 and so all the broad bands do not have their origin in a single carrier. Also, lambda 5778 does not appear to be a member of Family 2 either, but may be a member of Family 3. It appears that either a single carrier can be the origin of both broad and narrow bands or that the bands are produced by different carriers which exist in similar interstellar habitats. This latter possibility would require the introduction of a fourth family of bands.

  7. Lambda Probe Measurements of Laboratory Spheromaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorne, E.; Bellan, P. M.; Hsu, S. C.; Moynihan, C.

    2003-10-01

    A combined current and magnetic probe (lambda probe) has been constructed and is being tested for the purpose of investigating the behavior of spheromaks formed by the Caltech planar spheromak gun. The probe consists of a 1.5cm diameter, 52 turn Rogowski coil and a single loop magnetic coil, housed in a ceramic shell attached to a 95cm long hollow, steel shaft. A high voltage power supply was used to test the probe's ability to measure pulsed currents with submicrosecond rise times. A calibrated current pulse was provided by a 1μF capacitor discharged by a krytron switch to a low inductance circuit. Magnetic calibration was obtained by using the capacitor bank to power a 16cm diameter Helmholtz coil. Both magnetic and current calibration were in good agreement with estimates based on geometry. An existing steel shaft will be replaced by a ceramic shaft in order to minimize undesired effects on the plasma by a conductor. Once sealed with epoxy, the probe will be ready for insertion into the vacuum chamber and used to measure the magnetic field and parallel current during spheromak formation.

  8. The control of lambda DNA terminase synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Murialdo, H; Davidson, A; Chow, S; Gold, M

    1987-01-01

    Nu1 and A, the genes coding for bacteriophage lambda DNA terminase, rank among the most poorly translated genes expressed in E. coli. To understand the reason for this low level of translation the genes were cloned into plasmids and their expression measured. In addition, the wild type DNA sequences immediately preceding the genes were reduced and modified. It was found that the elements that control translation are contained in the 100 base pairs upstream from the initiation codon. Interchanging these upstream sequences with those of an efficiently translated gene dramatically increased the translation of terminase subunits. It seems unlikely that the rare codons present in the genes, and any feature of their mRNA secondary structure play a role in the control of their translation. The elimination of cos from plasmids containing Nu1 and A also resulted in an increase in terminase production. This result suggests a role for cos in the control of late gene expression. The terminase subunit overproducer strains are potentially very useful for the design of improved DNA packaging and cosmid mapping techniques. Images PMID:3029667

  9. High resolution spectroscopy of (lambda)(12)B by electroproduction.

    PubMed

    Iodice, M; Cusanno, F; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Boeglin, W U; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovský, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giulani, F; Gomez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Raue, B; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Ye, Y; Zheng, X; Zhou, S; Zorn, C

    2007-08-03

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in hall A at Jefferson Lab on a 12C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a ring imaging Cherenkov detector were added to the hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed (Lambda)(12)B spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state s-wave Lambda peak and the 11 MeV p-wave Lambda peak.

  10. [Serum immunoglobulin E level in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Radkov, M; Lipcheva, N

    1976-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin E level was determined in 50 patients with bronchial asthma, treated in the out-patients department and clinical conditions at the Faculty Hospital--Varna. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin E was carried out by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with monospecific anti-IgE globulin serum from Behringswerke (GFR). A considerable elevation of immunoglobulin E in the patients' sera was found, at an average of 394 IU (control 124 IU). A discrepancy in serum immunoglobulin E level was established with the different clinical forms of asthma. The highest are the values with infectious-allergic astmha-424 IU. High are the values both in the treated and not-treated with corticosteroids, without an essential difference between the two patient groups. Some of the rest immunoglobulins showed also an elevationppIgG 2620 mg% and IgA 366 mg%.

  11. Pharmacoeconomics of immunoglobulins in primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-08-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are associated with increased patient susceptibility to recurrent infections. Since the 1950s, intramuscular, intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin products have been used to replace functionally deficient or absent immunoglobulins, reduce the incidence of infections and prevent organ damage caused by infections. This article aims to review the use of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiency by focusing on costs, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, supply and off-label use. To date, the economic burden of primary immunodeficiency is unknown. Past studies have supported minimal differences in effectiveness between intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulins. Subcutaneous therapy may be considered for patients who prefer treatment at home. The small number of economic evaluations and their methodological limitations precludes the recommendation of a specific product for use in primary immunodeficiency on pharmacoeconomic grounds. Demand for immunoglobulins has increased over time, leading to periodic shortages and emphasizing the importance of its appropriate use.

  12. Immunoglobulins, antibody repertoire and B cell development.

    PubMed

    Butler, J E; Zhao, Y; Sinkora, M; Wertz, N; Kacskovics, I

    2009-03-01

    Swine share with most placental mammals the same five antibody isotypes and same two light chain types. Loci encoding lambda, kappa and Ig heavy chains appear to be organized as they are in other mammals. Swine differ from rodents and primates, but are similar to rabbits in using a single VH family (VH3) to encode their variable heavy chain domain, but not the family used by cattle, another artiodactyl. Distinct from other hoofed mammals and rodents, Ckappa:Clambda usage resembles the 1:1 ratio seen in primates. Since IgG subclasses diversified after speciation, same name subclass homologs do not exist among swine and other mammals unless very closely related. Swine possess six putative IgG subclasses that appear to have diversified by gene duplication and exon shuffle while retaining motifs that can bind to FcgammaRs, FcRn, C1q, protein A and protein G. The epithelial chorial placenta of swine and the precosial nature of their offspring have made piglets excellent models for studies on fetal antibody repertoire development and on the postnatal role of gut colonization, maternal colostrum and neonatal infection on the development of adaptive immunity during the "critical window" of immunological development. This chapter traces the study of the humoral immune system of this species through its various eras of discovery and compiles the results in tables and figures that should be a useful reference for educators and investigators.

  13. Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Gomez-Rial, Jose; Valcarcel, Catalina; Campos, Joaquin; Sanz, Maria-Luisa; Linneberg, Allan; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen

    2011-03-01

    N-glycans from plant and invertebrate allergens can induce extensive immunoglobulin-E (IgE) cross-reactivity in vitro. IgE antibodies against these N-glycans, also termed cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants or CCDs, are prevalent in alcohol drinkers. This study investigated the prevalence and biological significance of IgE antibodies to N-glycans from wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers. A structured questionnaire, skin prick tests, serum IgE levels, IgE-immunoblotting to wine extracts, and basophil activation tests were used to characterize 20 heavy drinkers and 10 control subjects. Eleven heavy drinkers (55%) showed IgE binding to proteins in wine extracts. The proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as grape-derived vacuolar invertase and thaumatin-like protein. Immunoblot reactivity was closely associated with the presence of IgE to CCDs and was inhibited by preincubation with a glycoconjugate containing bromelain-type N-glycans. The same conjugate, CCD-bearing allergens, and wine extracts activated basophils in patients with high-titer CCD-specific IgE but not in healthy controls. There was no relationship between immunoblot reactivity and consumption of any specific type of wine. No patient reported symptoms of hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera venom, food, or wine. In conclusion, heavy drinkers frequently show IgE reactivity to the N-glycans of wine glycoproteins. Glycans and wine glycoprotein extracts can induce basophil activation in sensitized alcoholics. The clinical significance of these findings remains to be elucidated.

  14. Interferon-Lambda: A Potent Regulator of Intestinal Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghyun; Baldridge, Megan T.

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus. We also briefly discuss IFN-λ interactions with other cytokines important in the intestine, and how IFN-λ may play a role in regulation of intestinal viruses by the commensal microbiome. Finally, we indicate currently outstanding questions regarding IFN-λ control of enteric infections that remain to be explored to enhance our understanding of this important immune molecule. PMID:28713375

  15. Observation of the Baryonic B decay B0bar to Lambda_c^+ anti-Lambda K-

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Sassari U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-11-08

    The authors report the observation of the baryonic B decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {bar {Lambda}}K{sup -} with a significance larger than 7 standard deviations based on 471 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at SLAC. They measure the branching fraction for the decay {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {bar {Lambda}}K{sup -} to be (3.8 {+-} 0.8{sub stat} {+-} 0.2{sub sys} {+-} 1.0 {sub {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}}) x 10{sup -5}. The uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the uncertainty in the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} branching fraction. They find that the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} invariant mass distribution shows an enhancement above 3.5 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  16. Immunological studies of human placentae: the distribution and character of immunoglobulins in chorionic villi.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P M; Natvig, J B; Ystehede, U A; Faulk, W P

    1977-01-01

    All four human IgG subclasses, and both kappa and lambda light chains, were detected by immunofluorescence in similar distributions in chorionic villi of human placentae. IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant subclasses. No evidence was obtained for local enzymatic digestion of IgG during placental transfer. Most of the IgG on the trophoblastic basement membrane (TBM) was loosely bound and could be removed by prolonged washing, although some appeared to be more tightly bound to small segments of the TBM. IgM, but not IgA, was present in small amounts in placental villous structures. Immunoglobulin was never observed within the syncytiotrophoblast. Antisera to IgG genetic (Gm) markers were used to locate IgG thought to be of foetal or maternal origin. The presence of paternal Gm markers not carried by the mother was taken as evidence for foetal IgG. Foetal (paternal) Gm markers were observed in placentae, although maternal IgG was the major immunoglobulin present in placental villi. Both maternal and foetal IgG were demonstrated in fibrinoid deposits, vessel walls and the cytoplasm of some stromal cells. Only foetal IgG was definitively observed in the immunoglobulin that is tightly bound to the TBM. PMID:342151

  17. Biased immunoglobulin light chain gene usage in the shark1

    PubMed Central

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Lui, Anita; Naik, Ushma; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin; Hsu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This study of a large family of kappa light (L) chain clusters in nurse shark completes the characterization of its classical immunoglobulin (Ig) gene content (two heavy chain classes, mu and omega, and four L chain isotopes, kappa, lambda, sigma, and sigma-2). The shark kappa clusters are minigenes consisting of a simple VL-JL-CL array, where V to J recombination occurs over a ~500 bp interval, and functional clusters are widely separated by at least 100 kb. Six out of ca. 39 kappa clusters are pre-rearranged in the germline (GL-joined). Unlike the complex gene organization and multistep assembly process of Ig in mammals, each shark Ig rearrangement, somatic or in the germline, appears to be an independent event localized to the minigene. This study examined the expression of functional, non-productive, and sterile transcripts of the kappa clusters compared to the other three L chain isotypes. Kappa cluster usage was investigated in young sharks, and a skewed pattern of split gene expression was observed, one similar in functional and non-productive rearrangements. These results show that the individual activation of the spatially distant kappa clusters is non-random. Although both split and GL-joined kappa genes are expressed, the latter are prominent in young animals and wane with age. We speculate that, in the shark, the differential activation of the multiple isotypes can be advantageously used in receptor editing. PMID:26342033

  18. Atypical immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Xinxin; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Daobin; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is a plasma cell disorder which mainly affects heart, kidneys, liver, and peripheral nervous system. Cases of atypical AL amyloidosis presented as spontaneous vertebral compression fractures have been rarely reported, and data about the management and clinical outcomes of the patients are scarce. Methods: Herein, we present 3 new cases of AL amyloidosis with spontaneous vertebral compression fracture and review 13 cases retrieved from the literature. Results: Moreover, we observed overrepresentations of liver involvement and bone marrow involvement in AL amyloidosis with spontaneous vertebral compression fracture. Conclusion: We believe that better awareness of the rare clinical presentation as spontaneous vertebral compression fracture of AL amyloidosis can facilitate earlier diagnosis and earlier treatment. PMID:27603350

  19. HPLC chromatofocusing of human immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Waldrep, J C; Schulte, J R

    1989-03-31

    A method is described for fractionation and analysis of IgA, IgM, and IgG and antibodies in human serum and/or plasma using a combination of HPLC chromatofocusing and immunoassay. A pH 9.0-3.2 gradient is utilized to separate the major proteins in the complex biological samples and monoclonal antibody based ELISAs used to determine the isotype profiles. Antigen-specific ELISAs are subsequently utilized to determine the distribution of antibody species within the chromatofocused specimens. This method is versatile since multiple simultaneous assays can easily be run on each fraction generating extensive qualitative information regarding immunoglobulin classes, subclasses, and antibodies and their distribution profiles. Such spectra will prove useful for experimental kinetic analysis of the humoral immune status of humans and experimental animals.

  20. The amino acid sequence of a carbohydrate-containing immunoglobulin-light-chain-type amyloid-fibril protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tveteraas, T; Sletten, K; Westermark, P

    1985-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of an amyloid-fibril protein Es492 of immunoglobulin-lambda-light-chain origin (AL) was elucidated. The amyloid fibrils were obtained from the spleen of a patient who died from systemic amyloidosis. The amino acid sequence was elucidated from structural studies of peptides derived from digestion of the protein with trypsin, thermolysin, chymotrypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase and from cleavage of the protein with CNBr and BNPS-skatole. A heterogeneity in the length of the polypeptide was seen in the C-terminal region. The protein was by sequence homology to other lambda-chains shown to be of the V lambda II subgroup. Although an extensive homology was seen, some amino acid residues in positions 26, 31, 32, 40, 44, 93, 97, 98 and 99 have not previously been reported in these positions of V lambda II proteins. The significance of these residues in the fibril formation is unclear. The protein was found to contain carbohydrate, with glycosylation sites in two of the hypervariable regions. PMID:3936482

  1. DNA breaks in hypermutating immunoglobulin genes: evidence for a break-and-repair pathway of somatic hypermutation.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Q; Maizels, N

    2001-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that immunoglobulin gene hypermutation in vivo employs a pathway in which DNA breaks are introduced and subsequently repaired to produce mutations, we have used a PCR-based assay to detect and identify single-strand DNA breaks in lambda1 genes of actively hypermutating primary murine germinal center B cells. We find that there is a two- to threefold excess of breaks in lambda1 genes of hypermutating B cells, relative to nonhypermutating B cells, and that 1.3% of germinal center B cells contain breaks in the lambda1 gene that are associated with hypermutation. Breaks were found in both top and bottom DNA strands and were localized to the region of lambda1 that actively hypermutates, but duplex breaks accounted for only a subset of breaks identified. Almost half of the breaks in hypermutating B cells occurred at hotspots, sites at which two or more independent breaks were identified. Breaksite hotspots were associated with characteristic sequence motifs: a pyrimidine-rich motif, either RCTYT or CCYC; and RGYW, a sequence motif associated with hypermutation hotspots. The sequence motifs identified at breaksite hotspots should inform the design of substrates for characterization of activities that participate in the hypermutation pathway. PMID:11333245

  2. Effect of specimen type on free immunoglobulin light chains analysis on the Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Louis S; Steussy, Bryan; Morris, Cory S; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of free immunoglobulin light chains is typically performed on serum; however, the use of alternative specimen types has potential benefits. Using the Freelite™ kappa and lambda free light chains assay on a Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 c502 analyzer, we compared three specimen types (serum, EDTA-plasma and lithium heparin plasma separator gel-plasma) on 100 patients. Using Deming regression and eliminating outliers (limiting data to light chain concentrations below 400 mg/L), the three specimen types showed comparable results for kappa light chain concentration, lambda light chain concentration, and kappa/lambda ratio with slopes close to 1.0 and y-intercepts close to zero. EDTA-plasma showed slightly more positive bias relative to serum than lithium heparin. Analysis using EDTA-plasma and lithium heparin plasma showed comparable linearity, precision, and temperature stability. A single sample showing hook effect (not in the comparison set) gave comparable results using either plasma specimen type. For the Freelite™ kappa and lambda free light chains assay, both EDTA-plasma or lithium heparin-plasma can serve as acceptable substitutes for serum, at least for the Roche cobas 8000 analyzer.

  3. Suppression of the {Lambda}-{Sigma} coupling in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.

    1995-08-01

    We initiated a study of the modification of the coupling of the {Lambda}N to the {Sigma}N channel in nuclear matter with the Fermi hypernetted-chain variational approach. This modification of the {Lambda}N-{Sigma}N coupling is a central problem in hypernuclear physics and is related closely to the strongly repulsive three-body forces which are needed to account for hypernuclear binding energies. All earlier calculations have only considered this problem in the so-called G-matrix approximation which neglects important higher-order effects. An important result of this work will be a better understanding of the density dependence of {Lambda} binding in nuclear matter, which can then be tested in the calculation of the {Lambda} single-particle energies.

  4. Acquisition of a determinant for chloramphenicol resistance by coliphage lambda.

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, M M; Rosner, J L

    1975-01-01

    A determinanat for chloramphenicol resistance, cam, initially detected on a resistance transfer factor (RTF) and since transferred to phage P1, may be acquired from P1 by coliphage lambda. Lambdapcam are obtained when a lambda prophage is induced in bacteria which also harbor P1 cam prophage. Lambdacam formation is not dependent upon host Rec or lambda Red recombination functions. Electron microscopic heteroduplex analysis shows that the cam locus in two lambdapcams is a 5% addition of DNA in the b2 region of lambda, not contiguous with att. The extent and nucloetide sequence of the DNA insertion in the two independent lambdapcam isolates appear to be the same though they are located at different sites within the b2 region. We conclude that the determinant for chloramphenicol resistance is contained on a unique piece of DNA which facilitates its insertion into a number of unrelated genomes. Images PMID:1061090

  5. Immunoglobulin derived depositions in the nervous system: novel mass spectrometry application for protein characterization in formalin-fixed tissues.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Fausto J; Gamez, Jeffrey D; Vrana, Julie A; Theis, Jason D; Giannini, Caterina; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Parisi, Joseph E; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Pendlebury, William W; Bergen, H Robert; Dogan, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Proteinaceous deposits are occasionally encountered in surgically obtained biopsies of the nervous system. Some of these are amyloidomas, although the precise nature of other cases remains uncertain. We studied 13 cases of proteinaceous aggregates in clinical specimens of the nervous system. Proteins contained within laser microdissected areas of interest were identified from tryptic peptide sequences by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Immunohistochemical studies for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains and amyloidogenic proteins were performed in all cases. Histologically, the cases were classified into three groups: 'proteinaceous deposit not otherwise specified' (PDNOS) (n=6), amyloidoma (n=5), or 'intracellular crystals' (n=2). LC-MS/MS demonstrated the presence of lambda, but not kappa, light chain as well as serum amyloid P in all amyloidomas. lambda-Light-chain immunostaining was noted in amyloid (n=5), although demonstrable monotypic lymphoplasmacytic cells were seen in only one case. Conversely, in PDNOS kappa, but not lambda, was evident in five cases, both light chains being present in a single case. In three cases of PDNOS, a low-grade B-cell lymphoma consistent with marginal zone lymphoma was present in the brain specimen (n=2) or spleen (n=1). Lastly, in the 'intracellular crystals' group, the crystals were present within CD68+ macrophages in one case wherein kappa-light chain was found by LC-MS/MS only; the pathology was consistent with crystal-storing histiocytosis. In the second case, the crystals contained immunoglobulin G within CD138+ plasma cells. Our results show that proteinaceous deposits in the nervous system contain immunoglobulin components and LC-MS/MS accurately identifies the content of these deposits in clinical biopsy specimens. LC-MS/MS represents a novel application for characterization of these deposits and is of diagnostic utility in addition to standard immunohistochemical analyses.

  6. Immature surface Ig+ B cells can continue to rearrange kappa and lambda L chain gene loci

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Pro and pre B cells possess the long-term capacity to proliferate in vitro on stromal cells and interleukin 7 (IL-7) and can differentiate to surface immunoglobulin (sIg+) cells upon removal of IL-7 from the cultures. A key event in this differentiation is the extensive cell loss due to apoptosis. Because the proto-oncogene bcl-2 can promote cell survival, we established pre-B cell lines from E mu-bcl-2 transgenic mice. These pre-B cells have the same properties as those derived from non-bcl-2 transgenic mice except that they do not die by apoptosis. This allowed us to study the fate of newly formed B cells in vitro for a longer period of time. Here we show that early during the differentiation of pre-B cells, upregulation of RAG-1 and RAG-2 expression go hand in hand with rearrangements of the Ig gene loci. Moreover, the newly formed sIg+ B cells continue to express RAG-1 and RAG-2 and continue to rearrange L chain gene loci, even in the absence of proliferation, in an orderly fashion, so that kappa L+ sIg+ cells can become lambda L+ sIg+ or sIg- cells, whereas lambda L+ sIg+ cells can become sIg-, but not kappa L+ sIg+ cells. Thus, deposition of a complete Ig molecule on the surface of a B cell does not automatically stop the Ig-rearrangement machinery. PMID:8376934

  7. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in Colostrum and Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Walter L.; Theil, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases. The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted, and the mechanisms by which the neonate or adult consuming the milk then gains immunological benefit. The stability of immunoglobulins as they undergo processing in the milk, or undergo digestion in the intestine, is an additional consideration for evaluating the value of milk immunoglobulins. This review summarizes the fundamental knowledge of immunoglobulins found in colostrum, milk, and immune milk. PMID:22254105

  8. Intestinal immunoglobulins in children with coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Savilahti, E.

    1972-01-01

    The numbers of immunoglobulin-containing cells in jejunal biopsy specimens of 19 children with active coeliac disease aged 0·5 to 16·5 years were studied by direct immunofluorescence. Intestinal juice immunoglobulins were measured in 14 of these patients. The number of IgA-containing cells was twice and the number of IgM-containing cells 2·5 times that of age-matched controls. There were also more IgG-, IgE-, and IgD-containing cells in the jejunal mucosa of the coeliac patients, but the absolute numbers of these cells were low. The immunoglobulin content of the intestinal juice was not altered in coeliacs. A follow-up biopsy specimen was available from seven patients kept on a strict gluten-free diet for one to four months. A significant fall in the numbers of immunoglobulin-containing cells was seen, and they did not differ at that time from the controls. Two patients were followed until full normalization of the jejunal structure and they had normal numbers of immunoglobulin-containing cells. In children with coeliac disease in contrast to adult coeliacs, the study shows that the IgA-producing system is quantitatively stimulated during gluten challenge. The rapid drop in the numbers of immunoglobulin-containing cells after gluten withdrawal suggests that there is no quantitative abnormality in the local immunoglobulin-producing system of the gut in coeliac disease. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:4568803

  9. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin in treating inflammatory neuromuscular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Min-Suk; Gold, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Intravenous immunoglobulin administration has long been used in the treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular disorders. Immunoglobulins may be administered by intramuscular, intravenous or subcutaneous routes. Methods: This is a report on the long-term clinical follow up of six patients with inflammatory neuromuscular disorders, that is, three chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), one multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), one inclusion body myositis (IBM) and one myasthenia gravis (MG), treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulins for a mean of 3.25 years. Results: One MMN and two CIDP patients received a weekly dose of subcutaneous immunoglobulins equivalent to intravenous immunoglobulin. One CIDP patient received a 50% dose reduction, the IBM patient received a 30% reduction and the MG patient a 20% reduction. The lower dose chosen in the majority of patients was based not only on clinical effects, but also on studies of primary immunodeficiency syndromes. One patient with CIDP showed clinical fluctuation, which was successfully treated with an adaptation of the dose of subcutaneous immunoglobulins, while the remaining patients with neuromuscular disorders had a stable clinical course for 2 years. No serious side effects were observed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that subcutaneous immunoglobulins can be an attractive alternative therapy in autoimmune neuromuscular disorders. PMID:26136842

  10. Search for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Besson, D.; Pedlar, T.K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.

    2005-01-01

    Using the CLEO-III detector at CESR we study e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions in the center-of-mass energy close to, or above, {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} production threshold. We search for evidence of {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} resonance production and set upper limits based on inclusive hadron production as a barometer of {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} production.

  11. 7th International Immunoglobulin Conference: Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R E; Ochs, H D

    2014-01-01

    Most primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) are the result of single gene defects. Based on this fact, more than 240 different entities have been identified. Those PIDs with predominant antibody deficiency are treated with immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy. This review focuses on the diagnosis, clinical characteristics and treatment of patients suffering from PID, or secondary immunodeficiency disorders (SID) caused, for instance, by irradiation, immunosuppressive drugs or thymectomy. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most commonly diagnosed and least understood form of PID, with a heterogeneous range of symptoms and genotypes, requiring individualized treatment plans. This includes adjusting the dose and treatment interval, administrating Ig by intravenous or subcutaneous injection by either pump or push, and finally deciding which treatment options are best for a given patient. Ig therapy can also be used to treat immunodeficiencies resulting from lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases or immunosuppression following organ transplantation; however, there is an urgent need for research in this field. Accurate and early diagnosis of PID is important to ensure that optimal treatment is started early to maintain the patient's health. Detailed patient registries have been established to increase awareness of PID, as well as provide a valuable resource for further research. PMID:25546741

  12. ClpP/ClpX-mediated degradation of the bacteriophage lambda O protein and regulation of lambda phage and lambda plasmid replication.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, A; Czyz, A; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, G

    2000-01-01

    The O protein is a replication initiator that binds to the orilambda region and promotes assembly of the bacteriophage lambda replication complex. This protein, although protected from proteases by other elements of the replication complex, in a free form is rapidly degraded in the host, Escherichia coli, by the ClpP/ClpX protease. Nevertheless, the physiological role of this rapid degradation remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the copy number of plasmids derived from bacteriophage lambda is significantly higher in wild-type cells growing in rich media than in slowly growing bacteria. However, lambda plasmid copy number in bacteria devoid of the ClpP/ClpX protease was not dependent on the bacterial growth rate and in all minimal media tested was comparable to that observed in wildtype cells growing in a rich medium. Contrary to lambda plasmid replication, the efficiency of lytic growth of bacteriophage lambda was found to be dependent on the host growth rate in both wild-type bacteria and clpP and clpX mutants. The activities of two major lambda promoters operating during the lytic development, p(R) and p(L), were found to be slightly dependent on the host growth rate. However, when p(R) activity was significantly decreased in the dnaA mutant, production of phage progeny was completely abolished at low growth rates. These results indicate that the O protein (whose level in E. coli cells depends on the activity of ClpP/ClpX protease) is a major limiting factor in the regulation of lambda plasmid replication at low bacterial growth rates. However, this protein seems to be only one of the limiting factors in the bacteriophage lambda lytic development under poor growth conditions of host cells. Therefore, it seems that the role of the rapid ClpP/ClpX-mediated proteolysis of the O protein is to decrease the efficiency of early DNA replication of the phage in slowly growing host cells.

  13. Formation of oligomeric structures from plasmid DNA carrying cos lambda that is packaged into bacteriophage lambda heads.

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, T; Matsubara, K

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids that carry cos lambda, the region necessary for lambda phage packaging and that are as small as four kilobases in size can be packaged into lambda phage heads in head-to-tail tandem oligomeric structures. Multimeric oligomers as large as undecamers have been detected. Oligomer formation depends upon the products of red and gam of lambda, and the general recombination occurs between different plasmids that share homologous DNA regions. The packaging efficiency of plasmids depends on its copy number in cells and its genome size. Upon injection into a cell, the DNA establishes itself as a plasmid in a tandem structure. When such a plasmid in a high oligomeric structure is used as the source of packaging DNA, the packaging efficiency of the plasmids is elevated. The oligomers are stable in recA cells, whereas they drift toward lower oligomers in recA+ cells. Images PMID:6217189

  14. Optically active zwitterionic lambda(5)Si,lambda(5)Si'-disilicates: syntheses, crystal structures, and behavior in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Theis, Bastian; Burschka, Christian; Tacke, Reinhold

    2008-01-01

    The zwitterionic lambda(5)Si,lambda(5)Si'-disilicates 1-8 were synthesized and characterized by solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy. In addition, compounds 26 H(2)O, 32 CH(3)CN, 45/2 CH(3)CN, 6CH(3)OH, 7, and 8CH(3)OHCH(3)CN were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The optically active (Delta,Delta,R,R,R,R)-configured compounds 1-8 contain two pentacoordinate (formally negatively charged) silicon atoms and two tetracoordinate (formally positively charged) nitrogen atoms. One (ammonio)alkyl group is bound to each of the two silicon centers, and two tetradentate (R,R)-tartrato(4-) ligands bridge the silicon atoms. Although these lambda(5)Si,lambda(5)Si'-disilicates contain SiO(4)C skeletons, some of them display a remarkable stability in aqueous solution as shown by NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry.

  15. Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy for Primary Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Sriaroon, Panida; Ballow, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin replacement therapy has been standard treatment in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases for the past 3 decades. The goal of therapy is to reduce serious bacterial infections in individuals with antibody function defects. Approximately one-third of patients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin treatment experience adverse reactions. Recent advances in manufacturing processes have resulted in products that are safer and better tolerated. Self-infusion by the subcutaneous route has become popular and resulted in better quality of life. This review summarizes the use of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiency diseases including its properties, dosing, adverse effects, and different routes of administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-LTE radiative transfer with lambda-acceleration - Convergence properties using exact full and diagonal lambda-operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macfarlane, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the convergence properties of Lambda-acceleration methods for non-LTE radiative transfer problems in planar and spherical geometry. Matrix elements of the 'exact' A-operator are used to accelerate convergence to a solution in which both the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations are simultaneously satisfied. Convergence properties of two-level and multilevel atomic systems are investigated for methods using: (1) the complete Lambda-operator, and (2) the diagonal of the Lambda-operator. We find that the convergence properties for the method utilizing the complete Lambda-operator are significantly better than those of the diagonal Lambda-operator method, often reducing the number of iterations needed for convergence by a factor of between two and seven. However, the overall computational time required for large scale calculations - that is, those with many atomic levels and spatial zones - is typically a factor of a few larger for the complete Lambda-operator method, suggesting that the approach should be best applied to problems in which convergence is especially difficult.

  17. Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered. First, the IFNLR is not ubiquitously expressed: in particular, immune cells show significant variation in the expression levels of and susceptibilities to IFN-λs. Second, the binding affinities of individual IFN-λs to the IFNLR varies greatly and are generally lower compared to the binding affinities of IFN-α to its receptor. Finally, genetic variation in the form of a series of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to genes involved in the IFN-λ signaling cascade has been described and associated with the clinical course and treatment outcomes of hepatitis B and C virus infection. The clinical impact of IFN-λ signaling and the SNP variations may, however, reach far beyond viral hepatitis. Recent publications show important roles for IFN-λs in a broad range of viral infections such as human T-cell leukemia type-1 virus, rotaviruses, and influenza virus. IFN-λ also potentially modulates the course of bacterial colonization and infections as shown for Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the immunological processes involved in controlling viral and bacterial infections are distinct, IFN-λs may interfere at various levels: as an innate immune cytokine with direct antiviral effects; or as a modulator of IFN-α-induced signaling via the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 inhibitory feedback loops. In addition, the modulation of adaptive immune functions via macrophage and

  18. 7th International Immunoglobulin Conference: Poster presentations.

    PubMed

    Warnatz, K; Ballow, M; Stangel, M; Bril, V

    2014-12-01

    The pan-European survey provides useful information on the accessibility and trends of intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IVIg/SCIg) therapy, which is used to treat primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Although immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy is the first-line treatment for PIDs, the mechanisms of action of Ig therapy may differ according to the condition it is used to treat. Moreover, intriguing presentations suggest that further investigation is required to understand more clearly both the haematological and immunoregulatory effects of therapeutic immunoglobulin. This can ultimately provide more information on optimizing Ig therapy efficacy, and establish whether individualized dosing regimens for patients will be conducive to better clinical outcomes. In addition to treating autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, there is evidence to suggest that immunoglobulins can potentially play a role in transplantation, which warrants further investigation for future use.

  19. An approach for diagnosing plasma cell myeloma by three-color flow cytometry based on kappa/lambda ratios of CD38-gated CD138(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoko; Yokote, Taiji; Hirata, Yuji; Iwaki, Kazuki; Akioka, Toshikazu; Miyoshi, Takuji; Takayama, Ayami; Nishiwaki, Uta; Masuda, Yuki; Ikemoto, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Hidema; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Tsuji, Motomu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2012-09-28

    World Health Organization (WHO) criteria are commonly used to diagnose plasma cell myeloma (PCM); however, these criteria are complex and require several laboratory parameters. For differentiating reactive plasmacytosis from clonal plasma cell (PC) neoplasms such as PCM, it is important to accurately determine the expression of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin light chains. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 27 selected patients with PCM who underwent bone biopsies for confirmative diagnosis according to WHO criteria. Twenty-three controls were also investigated. In the present study, all the samples were analyzed using flow cytometry (FC) in the side scatter vs. CD38 histogram mode, and the CD38-gated PC population was identified. Bivariate histograms of CD138/kappa and CD138/lambda were assessed, and the ratios of dual-positive cells to the CD138(+) PC population were calculated. The kappa/lambda ratio was defined as the ratio of CD138/kappa to CD138/lambda. PCM cells were distinguished from normal PCs using cutoff levels between 0.76 and 1.5, at a sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 95.7%. Three-color FC analysis is simple to perform and inexpensive, with clinically relevant data obtained soon after the completion of FC measurements. The detection of the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-gated CD138(+) PCs may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of PCM. To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the first diagnostic assessment of the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio in CD38-gated CD138+ PCs using FC analysis. This method may help in more simple, efficient, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of PCM. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1568085959771735.

  20. Measurement of the branching fraction ${\\mathcal{B}}(\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow \\Lambda^+_c\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-)$ at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2011-12-01

    We report an analysis of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay in a data sample collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron corresponding to 2.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. We reconstruct the currently largest samples of the decay modes {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2595){sup +}{pi}{sup -} (with {Lambda}{sub c}(2595){sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2625){sup +}{pi}{sup -} (with {Lambda}{sub c}(2625){sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup ++}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} (with {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup ++} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}), and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455)0{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} (with {Sigma}{sub c}(2455)0 {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) and measure the branching fractions relative to the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} branching fraction. We measure the ratio {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/ {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=3.04 {+-} 0.33(stat){sub -0.55}{sup +0.70}(syst) which is used to derive {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=(26.8{sub -11.2}{sup +11.9}) x 10{sup -3}.

  1. Measurement of the Lambda b0 lifetime in Lambda b0-->J/psi Lambda 0 in pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carrillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Labarga, L; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptochos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-03-23

    We report a measurement of the Lambda b0 lifetime in the exclusive decay Lambda b0-->J/psi Lambda 0 in pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1 of data collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using fully reconstructed decays, we measure tau(Lambda b0)=1.593(-0.078)(+0.083)(stat)+/-0.033(syst) ps. This is the single most precise measurement of tau(Lambda b0) and is 3.2sigma higher than the current world average.

  2. First observation and measurement of the resonant structure of the lambda_b->lambda_c pi-pi+pi- decay mode

    SciTech Connect

    Azzurri, P.; Barria, P.; Ciocci, M.A.; Donati, S.; Vataga, E.

    2009-12-01

    The authors present the first observation of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay using data from an integrated luminosity of approximately 2.4 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. They also present the first observation of the resonant decays {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup 0} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup ++}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2595){sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2625){sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and measure their relative branching ratios.

  3. Transfection of Escherichia coli spheroplasts: infectious lambda prophage DNA.

    PubMed

    Benzinger, R; Kleber, I; Huskey, R

    1978-06-01

    High mol. wt. DNA was extracted from Escherichia coli lambda lysogens and was shown to be infectious. Its infectivity was due to prophage DNA integrated into the host chromosome rather than to DNA released from mature phage particles, as established by the following criteria: the titre of infectious DNA exceeded by 100-fold the titre of infectious units present before DNA extraction; mild shear selectively reduced prophage DNA infectivity to 2% of the unsheared DNA while lambda phage DNA infectivity retained 50% of its infectivity; DNA extracted from an E. coli (lambda c857 tsxisam6) lysogen yielded 200 times as many plaques on sup+ than on sup- spheroplasts. Thus lambda prophage DNA infectivity depends on expression of the excision gene while the infectivity of non-integrated forms of lambda does not. About 10(4) genome equivalents of E. coli DNA yielded one infectious centre unit in this assay system; this high infectivity should make prophage DNA a useful marker in genetic transformation experiments.

  4. Retroevolution of lambda Cro toward a stable monomer.

    PubMed

    LeFevre, Kelly R; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2003-03-04

    The Cro protein from bacteriophage lambda has a dimeric alpha+beta fold that evolved from an ancestral all-alpha monomer. The sequence mutations responsible for this dramatic structural evolution are unknown. Here we use analysis of sequence alignments to show that Ala-33, a small side chain in the hydrophobic "ball-and-socket" dimer interface of lambda Cro, was a much larger tryptophan side chain at a previous point in evolution. The retroevolutionary lambda Cro-A33W mutant shows a 10-fold reduction in dimerization affinity relative to the wild type as well as a large increase in monomer thermal stability (Delta T(m) > 10 degrees C), apparently due to partial filling of the hydrophobic socket from within the same monomer. An additional mutation in the dimer interface, F58D, almost completely abolishes detectable dimerization while maintaining the high monomer stability. The secondary structure content of the monomerized versions of lambda Cro is similar to that of the wild-type protein, and the tertiary structure of the monomer appears relatively well defined. These results (i) support a model in which the ball-and-socket dimer interface of lambda Cro was created by altered volume mutations within a limited branch of the Cro lineage and (ii) suggest the possibility that the evolution of the alpha+beta dimer from an all-alpha monomer proceeded through an alpha+beta monomer intermediate.

  5. Accuracy and coverage assessment of Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbit) genes encoding immunoglobulins in the whole genome sequence assembly (OryCun2.0) and localization of the IGH locus to chromosome 20.

    PubMed

    Gertz, E Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Agarwala, Richa; Bonnet-Garnier, Amélie; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Hayes, Hélène; Mage, Rose G

    2013-10-01

    We report on the analyses of genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy and light chains in the rabbit 6.51× whole genome assembly. This OryCun2.0 assembly confirms previous mapping of the duplicated IGK1 and IGK2 loci to chromosome 2 and the IGL lambda light chain locus to chromosome 21. The most frequently rearranged and expressed IGHV1 that is closest to IG DH and IGHJ genes encodes rabbit VHa allotypes. The partially inbred Thorbecke strain rabbit used for whole-genome sequencing was homozygous at the IGK but heterozygous with the IGHV1a1 allele in one of 79 IGHV-containing unplaced scaffolds and IGHV1a2, IGHM, IGHG, and IGHE sequences in another. Some IGKV, IGLV, and IGHA genes are also in other unplaced scaffolds. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, we assigned the previously unmapped IGH locus to the q-telomeric region of rabbit chromosome 20. An approximately 3-Mb segment of human chromosome 14 including IGH genes predicted to map to this telomeric region based on synteny analysis could not be located on assembled chromosome 20. Unplaced scaffold chrUn0053 contains some of the genes that comparative mapping predicts to be missing. We identified discrepancies between previous targeted studies and the OryCun2.0 assembly and some new BAC clones with IGH sequences that can guide other studies to further sequence and improve the OryCun2.0 assembly. Complete knowledge of gene sequences encoding variable regions of rabbit heavy, kappa, and lambda chains will lead to better understanding of how and why rabbits produce antibodies of high specificity and affinity through gene conversion and somatic hypermutation.

  6. Accuracy and coverage assessment of Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) Genes Encoding Immunoglobulins in the Whole Genome Sequence Assembly (OryCun2.0) and Localization of the IGH Locus to Chromosome 20

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, E. Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Agarwala, Richa; Bonnet-Garnier, Amélie; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Hayes, Hélène; Mage, Rose G.

    2013-01-01

    We report analyses of genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy and light chains in the rabbit 6.51x whole genome assembly. This OryCun2.0 assembly confirms previous mapping of the duplicated IGK1 and IGK2 loci to chromosome 2 and the IGL lambda light chain locus to chromosome 21. The most frequently rearranged and expressed IGHV1 that is closest to IG DH and IGHJ genes encodes rabbit VHa allotypes. The partially inbred Thorbecke strain rabbit used for whole-genome sequencing was homozygous at the IGK but heterozygous with the IGHV1a1 allele in one of 79 IGHV-containing unplaced scaffolds and IGHV1a2, IGHM, IGHG and IGHE sequences in another. Some IGKV, IGLV and IGHA genes are also in other unplaced scaffolds. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, we assigned the previously unmapped IGH locus to the q-telomeric region of rabbit chromosome 20. An approximately 3 Mb segment of human chromosome 14 including IGH genes predicted to map to this telomeric region based on synteny analysis could not be located on assembled chromosome 20. Unplaced scaffold chrUn0053 contains some of the genes that comparative mapping predicts to be missing. We identified discrepancies between previous targeted studies and the OryCun2.0 assembly and some new BAC clones with IGH sequences that can guide other studies to further sequence and improve the OryCun2.0 assembly. Complete knowledge of gene sequences encoding variable regions of rabbit heavy, kappa and lambda chains will lead to better understanding of how and why rabbits produce antibodies of high specificity and affinity through gene conversion and somatic hypermutation. PMID:23925440

  7. Persistence behaviour of thiamethoxam and lambda cyhalothrin in transplanted paddy.

    PubMed

    Barik, Suhrid Ranjan; Ganguly, Pritam; Kunda, Samir Kumar; Kole, Ramen Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2010-10-01

    A field study was conducted in Pre-Kharif season 2007 on paddy to determine the persistence of thiamethoxam (12.6%) and lambda cyhalothrin (9.4%) [in a 'Readymix' formulation Alika 247 ZC], following the application of 33 g. a.i. ha⁻¹ (T₁) and 66 g. a.i. ha⁻¹ (T₂). Spraying of insecticide was done during milking stage of the crop (63 days after transplantation). Thiamethoxam and lambda cyhalothrin residues were estimated by HPLC and GLC respectively. The half-life values were 5.2-5.8 and 4.8 days for thiamethoxam and lambda cyhalothrin respectively. No residue was detected in the harvested paddy, straw, grain, and soil samples.

  8. Prediction of narrow N* and {Lambda}* with hidden charm

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jiajun; Molina, R.; Oset, E.; Zou, B. S.

    2011-10-24

    The interaction between various charmed mesons and charmed baryons, such as D-bar{Sigma}{sub c}-D-bar{Lambda}{sub c}, D-bar*{Sigma}{sub c}-D-bar*{Lambda}{sub c}, and related strangeness channels, are studied within the framework of the coupled channel unitary approach with the local hidden gauge formalism. Six narrow N* and {Lambda}* resonances are dynamically generated with mass above 4 GeV and width smaller than 100 MeV. These predicted new resonances definitely cannot be accommodated by quark models with three constituent quarks. We make estimates of production cross sections of these predicted resonances in p-barp collisions for PANDA at the forthcoming FAIR facility.

  9. Determination of the Lambda parameter from full lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Goeckeler, M.; Horsley, R.; Irving, A.C.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Pleiter, D.; Schierholz, G.; Stueben, H.

    2006-01-01

    We present a determination of the QCD parameter {lambda} in the quenched approximation (n{sub f}=0) and for two flavors (n{sub f}=2) of light dynamical quarks. The calculations are performed on the lattice using O(a) improved Wilson fermions and include taking the continuum limit. We find {lambda}{sub n{sub f}=0}{sup MS}=259(1)(19) MeV and {lambda}{sub n{sub f}=2}{sup MS}=261(17)(26) MeV, using r{sub 0}=0.467 fm to set the scale. Extrapolating our results to five flavors, we obtain for the running coupling constant at the mass of the Z boson {alpha}{sub s}{sup MS}(m{sub Z})=0.112(1)(2)

  10. Observational constraints on late-time {lambda}(t) cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C.; Dantas, M. A.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2008-04-15

    The cosmological constant {lambda}, i.e., the energy density stored in the true vacuum state of all existing fields in the Universe, is the simplest and the most natural possibility to describe the current cosmic acceleration. However, despite its observational successes, such a possibility exacerbates the well-known {lambda} problem, requiring a natural explanation for its small, but nonzero, value. In this paper we study cosmological consequences of a scenario driven by a varying cosmological term, in which the vacuum energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, {lambda}{proportional_to}H. We test the viability of this scenario and study a possible way to distinguish it from the current standard cosmological model by using recent observations of type Ia supernova (Supernova Legacy Survey Collaboration), measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the position of the first peak of the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum from the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

  11. The Distribution of Crossovers along Unreplicated Lambda Bacteriophage Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Franklin W.; McMilin, Kenneth D.; Stahl, Mary M.; Crasemann, Jean M.; Lam, Stephen

    1974-01-01

    The distribution of crossovers along unreplicated chromosomes of bacteriophage lambda has been examined by determining the density distributions and genotypes of particles in the progenies of crosses of density-labeled by ordinary parents in the presence of genetic blocks to replication. The Red and Rec systems combined produce crossovers primarily near the ends (especially the right end) of the chromosome. Removal of the generalized lambda recombination functions by red and gam mutations results in loss of these terminal crossovers; coupled with this loss is a disappearance of the differential dependence of recombination frequencies in terminal and central intervals on DNA synthesis. Removal of the bacterial system by a recA mutation results in severe depression of crossing over among unreplicated phage, with the few recombinants produced by the lambda system occurring near the right end. PMID:4416166

  12. LOCAL MEASUREMENT OF {Lambda} USING PULSAR TIMING ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Espriu, Domenec; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2013-02-20

    We consider the propagation of gravitational waves (GWs) in de Sitter spacetime and how a non-zero value of the cosmological constant might affect their detection in pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). If {Lambda} {ne} 0, the waves are anharmonic in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker coordinates, and although this effect is very small it gives rise to noticeable consequences for GWs originating in extragalactic sources such as spiraling black hole binaries. The results indicate that the timing residuals induced by GWs from such sources in PTAs will show a peculiar angular dependence with a marked enhancement around a particular value of the angle subtended by the source and the pulsars, depending mainly on the actual value of the cosmological constant and the distance to the source. The position of the peak could represent a gauge of the value of {Lambda}. The enhancement that the new effect brings about could facilitate the first direct detection of GWs while representing a local measurement of {Lambda}.

  13. Secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in horse saliva.

    PubMed

    Palm, Anna-Karin E; Wattle, Ove; Lundström, Torbjörn; Wattrang, Eva

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to increase the knowledge on salivary antibodies in the horse since these constitute an important part of the immune defence of the oral cavity. For that purpose assays to detect horse immunoglobulin A (IgA) including secretory IgA (SIgA) were set up and the molecular weights of different components of the horse IgA system were estimated. Moreover, samples from 51 clinically healthy horses were tested for total SIgA and IgG amounts in saliva and relative IgG3/5 (IgG(T)) and IgG4/7 (IgGb) content were tested in serum and saliva. Results showed a mean concentration of 74μg SIgA/ml horse saliva and that there was a large inter-individual variation in salivary SIgA concentration. For total IgG the mean concentration was approx. 5 times lower than that of SIgA, i.e. 20μg IgG/ml saliva and the inter-individual variation was lower than that observed for SIgA. The saliva-serum ratio for IgG isotypes IgG3/5 and IgG4/7 was also assessed in the sampled horses and this analysis showed that the saliva-serum ratio of IgG4/7 was in general approximately 4 times higher than that of IgG3/5. The large inter-individual variation in salivary SIgA levels observed for the normal healthy horses in the present study emphasises the need for a large number of observations when studying this parameter especially in a clinical setting. Moreover, our results also indicated that some of the salivary IgG does not originate from serum but may be produced locally. Thus, these results provide novel insight, and a base for further research, into salivary antibody responses of horses.

  14. Immunologic aspects of leprosy with reference to extravascular immunoglobulins: their excretion profile in urine.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, A K; Saha, K

    1976-01-01

    An aliquot of 24-hour urine collected from leprosy patients was concentrated and examined for the presence of albumin, transferrin, IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, D3, kappa and lambda light chains by the gel diffusion technic using respective monospecific antisera. Urinary protein excretion profile in lepromatous leprosy patients showed that while excretion of transferrin in the urine was negligible; that of IgG molecules, a substance of higher molecular weight, was significant. It is suggested that the immunoglobulins excreted in the urine may not be plasma-derived, but extravascular in origin. They are probably synthesized in the urinary tract. In the present study, out of 25 leprosy patients, 2 female patients having severe lepra reactions developed urinary tract infections. E. coli and Klebsiella were isolated from their urine. The urinary IgG levels in those two cases were found to be the highest in the series.

  15. Cow's milk with active immunoglobulins against Campylobacter jejuni: effects of temperature on immunoglobulin activity.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; Alvarez, Alejandro; Espi, Alberto; Prieto, Miguel; de la Roza, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Adult Holstein cows were injected with an antiserum against Campylobacter jejuni and immunoglobulin activities in vitro were determined in blood and milk several weeks after injection. The immunoactivity of immunoglobulins in milk was measured by an ELISA after different temperature-time treatments (60-91°C and 4-3600 s) at laboratory and pilot-plant scales. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined. An increase in immunoglobulin activity in milk was detected several days after injection. Optical densities increased by three- to seven-fold in this period. The activity started to decay 4-5 weeks after injection. Immunoglobulins maintained most of their in vitro activity under pasteurisation conditions (72°C and 15 s) and were denatured following first-order kinetics. The injection protocol applied allows milk with specific immunoglobulins against Campylobacter jejuni to be obtained. Traditional pasteurisation did not reduce this activity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Midrapidity Lambda and Lambda(macro) production in Au+Au collisions at the square root of [s(NN)]=130 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Filimonov, K; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Thompson, M; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2002-08-26

    We report the first measurement of strange (Lambda) and antistrange (Lambda macro) baryon production from square root of [s(NN)]=130 GeV Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Rapidity density and transverse mass distributions at midrapidity are presented as a function of centrality. The yield of Lambda and Lambda; hyperons is found to be approximately proportional to the number of negative hadrons. The production of Lambda; hyperons relative to negative hadrons increases very rapidly with transverse momentum. The magnitude of the increase cannot be described by existing hadronic string fragmentation models alone.

  17. Measurement of Lambda and Lambda(macro) particles in Au+Au collisions at the square root of S(NN) = 130 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; el-Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; Van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S; Zhou, S

    2002-08-26

    We present results on the measurement of Lambda and Lambda(macro) production in Au+Au collisions at square root of (S (NN) = 130 GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The transverse momentum spectra were measured for minimum bias and for the 5% most central events. The Lambda;/Lambda ratios are constant as a function of p(T) and the number of participants. The measured net Lambda density is significantly larger than predicted by models based on hadronic strings (e.g., HIJING) but in approximate agreement with models which include the gluon-junction mechanism.

  18. Mapping of Heavy Chain Genes for Mouse Immunoglobulins M and D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Ping; Tucker, Philip W.; Mushinski, J. Frederic; Blattner, Frederick R.

    1980-09-01

    A single DNA fragment containing both μ and δ immunoglobulin heavy chain genes has been cloned from normal BALB/c mouse liver DNA with a new λ phage vector Charon 28. The physical distance between the membrane terminal exon of μ and the first domain of δ is 2466 base pairs, with δ on the 3' side of μ . A single transcript could contain a variable region and both μ and δ constant regions. The dual expression of immunoglobulins M and D on spleen B cells may be due to alternate splicing of this transcript.

  19. Probing the Lambda-DGP Braneworld model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanpak, Arvin; Farajollahi, Hossein; Fadakar, Golnaz

    2016-09-01

    We study cosmic dynamics in the context of the normal branch of the DGP braneworld model. Using current Planck data, we find the best fitting model and associated cosmological parameters in non-flat ΛDGP. With the transition redshift as a basic variable and statefinder parameters, our result shows that the Universe starts its accelerated expansion phase slightly earlier than expected in ΛCDM cosmology. The result also alleviates the coincidence problem of the ΛCDM model.

  20. The algebraic theory of latent projectors in lambda matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, E. D.; Leyva-Ramos, J.; Jeon, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Multivariable systems such as a finite-element model of vibrating structures, control systems, and large-scale systems are often formulated in terms of differential equations which give rise to lambda matrices. The present investigation is concerned with the formulation of the algebraic theory of lambda matrices and the relationship of latent roots, latent vectors, and latent projectors to the eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and eigenprojectors of the companion form. The chain rule for latent projectors and eigenprojectors for the repeated latent root or eigenvalues is given.

  1. Properties of the Lambda(1670)(1-)/2 resonance.

    PubMed

    Manley, D M; Abaev, V V; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D D; Kulbardis, A A; Kozlenko, N G; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I V; Manweiler, R; Marusić, A; McDonald, S; Nefkens, B M K; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D C; Phaisangittisakul, N; Prakhov, S; Price, J W; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Strakovsky, I I; Supek, I; Tippens, W B

    2002-01-07

    Recently the Crystal Ball Collaboration measured precise new data for the near-threshold reaction K(-)p-->etaLambda, which is dominated by formation of the Lambda(1670)1 / 2(-). In this Letter, we present results of a unitary, multichannel analysis that incorporates the new Crystal Ball data. For our preferred fit, we obtain mass M = 1673+/-2 MeV, width Gamma = 23+/-6 MeV, and elasticity x = 0.37+/-0.07. This elasticity is significantly larger than previously recognized. Resonance parameters of our preferred fit are in striking agreement with the quark-model predictions of Koniuk and Isgur.

  2. [Diagnostic value of immunoglobulin free light chains at the debut of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, V D; Makshakov, G S; Mazing, A V; Surkova, E A; Krasnov, V S; Shumilina, M V; Totolyan, N A; Evdoshenko, E P; Lapin, S V; Emanuel, V L; Skoromets, A A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of determination of free immunoglobulin light chains (IgG) in the debut of multiple sclerosis (MS). Data from 226 patients, including 111 patients with clinically isolated syndrome with conversion to multiple sclerosis within the first 2 years of the disease (group 1), 49 patients with clinically isolated syndrome who did not develop multiple sclerosis within the first 2 years of the disease (group 2), 20 patients with other inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (group 3) were analyzed. The control group consisted of 46 patients with non-inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. The clonality of immunoglobulins in the CSF, concentration of kappa and lambda free light chains and their ratio were studied. Concentrations of free light chains were significantly higher in the first group in comparison with group 2 and the control group, but didn't differ from group 3. In group 3, concentrations of free light chains were significantly higher compared to group 2 and controls. In oligoclonal-positive patients with clinically isolated syndrome (groups 1 and 2), concentrations of kappa and lambda free light chains were significantly higher than in oligoclonal-negative patients. The production of free light chains in patients from the first group was considerably higher than in group 2 regardless of the oligoclonal status. The concentration of kappa chains and quotient of kappa free light chains in the CSF had the best diagnostic characteristics. Their use, along with the evaluation of IgG clonality, reduced the risk of false-negative results by 50%. Regardless of other factors, elevated concentrations of kappa chains increase the likelihood of MS diagnosis by 9.718 times. The use of free light chains as a laboratory marker can increase the accuracy of MS diagnosis. These markers can help indirectly assess the risk of transformation of a clinically isolated syndrome into definite multiple sclerosis within the first 2

  3. Cro's role in the CI Cro bistable switch is critical for {lambda}'s transition from lysogeny to lytic development.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Rachel A; Dodd, Ian B; Egan, J Barry; Shearwin, Keith E

    2007-10-01

    CI represses cro; Cro represses cI. This double negative feedback loop is the core of the classical CI-Cro epigenetic switch of bacteriophage lambda. Despite the classical status of this switch, the role in lambda development of Cro repression of the P(RM) promoter for CI has remained unclear. To address this, we created binding site mutations that strongly impaired Cro repression of P(RM) with only minimal effects on CI regulation of P(RM). These mutations had little impact on lambda development after infection but strongly inhibited the transition from lysogeny to the lytic pathway. We demonstrate that following inactivation of CI by ultraviolet treatment of lysogens, repression of P(RM) by Cro is needed to prevent synthesis of new CI that would otherwise significantly impede lytic development. Thus a bistable CI-Cro circuit reinforces the commitment to a developmental transition.

  4. Observation of. lambda. -hypernuclei in the reaction /sup 12/C(. pi. /sup +/,K/sup +/)/sub. lambda. //sup 12/C

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, E.C.

    1985-12-01

    The observation of ..lambda..-hypernuclear levels in /sub ..lambda..//sup 12/C by associated production through the (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) reaction is reported. Spectrometers used in the measurements are discussed. The /sub ..lambda..//sup 12/C excitation energy spectra were recorded at laboratory scattering angles of 5.6/sup 0/, 10.3/sup 0/, and 15.2/sup 0/. The spectra show two major peaks - one attributed to the ground state, and one about 11 MeV higher in excitation. The peak near 11 MeV excitation energy is believed to be almost entirely composed of a multiplet of three J/sup ..pi../ = 2/sup +/ states. Relativistic DWBA calculations imply support for the expectation that higher spin states are preferentially populated in the (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) reaction, compared to the (K/sup -/,..pi../sup -/) reaction in which lower spin states are excited. 29 refs., 40 figs.

  5. Immunoglobulin classes of Aleutian disease virus antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, D D; Porter, H G; Suffin, S C; Larsen, A E

    1984-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) persistently infects mink and causes marked hypergammaglobulinemia. Immunoglobulin class-specific antisera were used to define the total immunoglobulin of each class by radial immunodiffusion and the immunoglobulin class of ADV-specific antibody by immunofluorescence in experimentally and naturally infected mink. Electrophoretic gamma globulin closely reflects the immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in mink, and the majority of the increased immunoglobulin and ADV antibody in infected mink is IgG. IgM becomes elevated within 6 days after infection, reaches peak levels by 15 to 18 days, and returns to normal by 60 days after infection. The first ADV antibody demonstrable is IgM, and most mink have virus-specific IgM antibody for at least 85 days postinfection. Serum IgA levels in normal mink are not normally distributed, and ADV infection causes a marked elevation of IgA. Low levels of ADV-specific IgA antibody can be shown throughout the course of infection. Failure of large amounts of virus-specific IgG antibody to inhibit the reaction of virus-specific IgM and IgA antibodies suggests that the various classes of antibodies are directed against spatially different antigenic determinants. The IgM and IgA were shown not to be rheumatoid factors. PMID:6319283

  6. LAMBDA Polarization with a Transversely Polarized Proton Target at the COMPASS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Negrini, Teresa

    2009-08-04

    The transverse polarization of LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar hyperons is investigated at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. In 2007 a 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target were employed to study events in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. Preliminary results for the LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar polarizations extracted from this new data set are presented as a function of x{sub Bj} and z. The polarizations of LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar are compatible with zero within their error bars and no dependence on x{sub Bj} or z is observed.

  7. Immunoglobulin isotypes in childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Najam, F I; Giasuddin, A S; Shembesh, A H

    1999-01-01

    Immunoglobulin isotypes (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE) in serum were investigated in 64 Libyan children with mild to moderately severe asthma (age: 1-12 years; sex: 39 males, 25 females) (Group A) and in 57 healthy Libyan children (age: 1-12 years; sex: 30 males, 27 females (Group B). The patients were classified according to age into three groups (A1: 1-3 years; A2: > 3-5 years; A3: > 5-12 years); according to disease activity into two groups (AA: active disease; NA: inactive disease); and according to age plus disease activity into six groups (AA1, NA1; AA2, NA2; AA3, NA3). The healthy children were also divided according to age into three groups (B1: 1-3 years; B2: > 3-5 years; B3: > 5-12 years). IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD were measured by radial immunodiffusion method and IgE was estimated by enzyme immunoassay technique utilizing immunokits from bioMerieux, France. Serum levels of IgG, IgD and IgE were elevated significantly in patients compared to controls (A vs B: p < 0.05) while IgA and IgM levels were normal (p > 0.05). IgG and IgD levels were raised in A3 (p < 0.05), while IgD levels were raised in both A2 and A3 (p < 0.05) and IgE was elevated in all age groups (p < 0.05). However, IgG was elevated significantly in AA only, while IgD and IgE levels were high in both AA and NA (p < 0.05) and IgE was even considerably higher in AA compared to NA (p < 0.02). Further elevated levels were observed for IgG in AA3 only (p < 0.05), for IgD in NA2 (p < 0.01), AA3 (p < 0.01) and NA3 (p < 0.05) and IgE was much higher in patients with active disease than with inactive disease in all age groups (p < 0.05). The fact that asthmatic attack in majority of our patients can be explained as mediated through IgE and the possibilities that IgG and IgD may play roles as aetiopathogenetic or protective regulatory factors in childhood asthma are discussed.

  8. B29 gene products complex with immunoglobulins on B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, K; Wood, W J; Damore, M; Hermanson, G G; Wall, R; Kincade, P W

    1992-01-01

    B29 is a B-lineage-specific gene predicted from sequence information to be a transmembrane member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, with a single extracellular Ig-like domain. Its presumptive cytoplasmic region contains a peptide motif present in CD3 and other molecules involved in lymphocyte activation. Affinity-purified goat antibodies were prepared to a TrpE fusion protein of B29 and used to study B29 expression on lymphoid cells. The antiserum precipitated surface-labeled heterodimers from B lymphoma cells. One was 65-88 kDa (unreduced) or 36-47 plus 32-34 kDa (reduced) by SDS/PAGE analysis, regardless of detergent. A smaller heterodimer was detected only with Triton detergent extraction. IgM molecules were coprecipitated by the B29 antiserum when the weak detergent digitonin was used. In addition, cocapping experiments revealed that most B29 molecules codistribute with Ig on the cell surface. Although early B-lineage cells and plasma cells contain B29 mRNA, surface expression was detectable only on B cells that had significant amounts of surface Ig. The surface expression was B-lineage-specific and included cells from mutant xid mice and B-cell lines representing mu, delta, gamma, and alpha heavy-chain isotypes and both kappa and lambda light-chain types. The density of surface B29 protein correlated directly with surface mu heavy-chain density on subclones of a B-cell lymphoma and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated pre-B cells. These findings show that B29 is covalently linked in a heterodimer and are consistent with a recently proposed model of surface Ig complexes. Images PMID:1731334

  9. Influence of the germline sequence on the thermodynamic stability and fibrillogenicity of human lambda 6 light chains.

    PubMed

    del Pozo Yauner, Luis; Ortiz, Ernesto; Sánchez, Rosalba; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Güereca, Leopoldo; Murphy, Charles L; Allen, Amy; Wall, Jonathan S; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro; Solomon, Alan; Becerril, Baltazar

    2008-08-01

    Light chain-associated amyloidosis is a fatal disease characterized by the aggregation and pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chain-related fragments as amyloid fibrils in organs or tissues throughout the body. Notably, it has been observed that proteins encoded by the lambda variable light chain (V(L)) gene segment 6a are invariably associated with amyloid deposition; however, the contribution of the gene to this phenomenon has not been established. In this regard, we have determined the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of in vitro fibrillogenesis of a recombinant (r) V(L) protein, designated 6aJL2, which contains the predicted sequences encoded by the 6a and JL2 germline genes. Additionally, we studied a 6a mutant (6aJL2-Arg25Gly), that is present in approximately 25% of all amyloid-associated lambda6 light chains. Remarkably, the wild-type 6aJL2 protein was more stable than were all known amyloidogenic kappa and lambda light chains for which stability parameters are available; more importantly, it was even more so (and less fibrillogenic) than the only clinically proven nonamyloidogenic lambda6 protein, Jto. Conversely, the mutated 6aJL2-R25G molecule was considerably less stable and more fibrillogenic than was the native 6aJL2. Our data indicate that the propensity of lambda6 light chains to form amyloid can not be attributed to thermodynamic instability of the germline-encoded Vlambda6 domain, but rather, is dependent on sequence alterations that render such proteins amyloidogenic.

  10. Transfection of E. coli with lambda DNA by electroporation.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, C; Colombo, E; Tognoni, A; Grandi, G

    1992-10-01

    In the ambit of the B. subtilis genoma sequencing and mapping project, we have set up an electroporation method to transfect E. coli cells with lambda DNA. This methodology presents features that make it preferable to traditional in vitro packaging for some purposes. Here we will illustrate the experimental procedure and the possible applications.

  11. X-Ray Flare Characteristics in lambda Eridani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Myron A.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal was for a joint X-ray/ultraviolet/ground-based study of the abnormal Be star lambda Eri, which has previously shown evidence of X-ray flaring from ROSAT observations in 1991. The X-ray component consisted of observations from both the ASCA and ROSAT satellites.

  12. X-Ray Flare Characteristics in Lambda Eridani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Myron A.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal was for a joint X-ray/ultraviolet/ground-based study of the abnormal Be star lambda Eri, which has previously shown evidence of X-ray flaring from ROSAT observations in 1991. The X-ray component consisted of observations from both the ASCA and ROSAT satellites.

  13. A luminous efficiency function, V*(lambda), for daylight adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Lindsay T; Stockman, Andrew; Jagla, Wolfgang; Jägle, Herbert

    2005-12-21

    We propose a new luminosity function, V*(lambda), that improves upon the original CIE 1924 V(lambda) function and its modification by D. B. Judd (1951) and J. J. Vos (1978), while being consistent with a linear combination of the A. Stockman & L. T. Sharpe (2000) long-wavelength-sensitive (L) and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cone fundamentals. It is based on experimentally determined 25 Hz, 2 degrees diameter, heterochromatic (minimum) flicker photometric data obtained from 40 observers (35 males, 5 females) of known genotype, 22 with the serine variant L(ser180), 16 with the alanine L(ala180) variant, and 2 with both variants of the L-cone photopigment. The matches, from 425 to 675 nm in 5-nm steps, were made on a 3 log troland xenon white (correlated color temperature of 5586 K but tritanopically metameric with CIE D65 standard daylight for the Stockman and Sharpe L- and M-cone fundamentals in quantal units) adapting field of 16 degrees angular subtense, relative to a 560-nm standard. Both the reference standard and test lights were kept near flicker threshold so that, in the region of the targets, the total retinal illuminance averaged 3.19 log trolands. The advantages of the new function are as follows: it forms a consistent set with the new proposed CIE cone fundamentals (which are the Stockman & Sharpe 2000 cone fundamentals); it is based solely on flicker photometry, which is the standard method for defining luminance; it corresponds to a central 2 degrees viewing field, for which the basic laws of brightness matching are valid for flicker photometry; its composition of the serine/alanine L-cone pigment polymorphism (58:42) closely matches the reported incidence in the normal population (56:44; Stockman & Sharpe, 1999); and it specifies luminance for a reproducible, standard daylight condition. V*(lambda) is defined as 1.55L(lambda) + M(lambda), where L(lambda) and M(lambda) are the Stockman & Sharpe L- & M-cone (quantal) fundamentals. It is extrapolated

  14. IMMUNOGLOBULIN PATTERNS IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS1

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, S.G.; Lal, Narottam; Trivedi, J.K.; Sayeed, J.; Bahauguna, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Immunoglobulins G, M and A were estimated in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 30 schizophrenics, 20 neurological controls and 20 surgical controls. Significant increased levels of serum Ig A and M were detected in schizophrenics. An association was observed between increasing levels of serum IgA and IgM with the duration of disease and the number of episodes. CSF IgG/TP% was also significantly increased with the severity of the disease. On the basis of viral aetiology of schizophrenia it can be concluded that the increase in immunoglobulins synthesis might be due to the persistent antigenic stimulation. PMID:21965989

  15. Estimation of bovine colostral immunoglobulins by refractometry.

    PubMed

    Molla, A

    1980-07-12

    The total protein of colostral whey from dairy cows as determined by a refractometer were compared with the immune globulin concentration obtained by cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and the immunoglobulin (IgA + IgG + IgM) contents determined by radial immunodiffusion. The coefficient of correlation between the results obtained by refractometry and electrophoresis was 0.98 (P < 0.001). The correlation between refractometry and radial immunodiffusion was 0.89 (P < 0.001), while that of electrophoresis and radial immunodiffusion was 0.87 (P < 0.001). Refractometry can be used as a simple, fast and inexpensive indirect method of assessing immunoglobulins in colostral whey.

  16. Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas

    1995-03-01

    B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.

  17. Variability of the immunological state of germfree colostrum-deprived Minnesota miniature piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Setcavage, T M; Kim, Y B

    1976-01-01

    Minnesota miniature piglets obtained by hysterectomy and deprived of colostrum were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin by immunoelectrophoresis, double-gel diffusion, and radial immunodiffusion techniques with specific anti-immunoglobulin chain sera. A large amount of variability existed between different litters of piglets and between different piglets within the same litter, ranging from no detectable immunoglobulin in the serum to very high immunoglobulin levels approaching that of the adult pig. All known classes of porcine immunoglobulin including immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, and immunoglobulin A could be found in the sera from litters where there was extensive placental damage. This contaminating immunoglobulin was shown to have antibody activity to actinophage MSP-2 even when present in very low concentrations. The low level contamination with immunoglobulin G, which was the most frequently encountered type of contaminant, was demonstrated to be similar to sow immunoglobulin G both antigenically and in its molecular size. The data demonstrates that individual piglets must be tested for immunoglobulin content rather than being assumed to be immunologically "virgin" and emphasizes the need for an intact placenta barrier to obtain piglets free from maternal immunoglobulin and devoid of antigenic stimulation. Images PMID:1262064

  18. Approaches for the direct estimation of lambda, and demographic contributions to lambda, using capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    We first consider the estimation of the finite rate of population increase or population growth rate, lambda sub i, using capture-recapture data from open populations. We review estimation and modelling of lambda sub i under three main approaches to modelling open-population data: the classic approach of Jolly (1965) and Seber (1965), the superpopulation approach of Crosbie & Manly (1985) and Schwarz & Arnason (1996), and the temporal symmetry approach of Pradel (1996). Next, we consider the contributions of different demographic components to lambda sub i using a probabilistic approach based on the composition of the population at time i + 1 (Nichols et al., 2000b). The parameters of interest are identical to the seniority parameters, gamma sub i, of Pradel (1996). We review estimation of gamma sub i under the classic, superpopulation, and temporal symmetry approaches. We then compare these direct estimation approaches for lambda sub i and gamma sub i with analogues computed using projection matrix asymptotics. We also discuss various extensions of the estimation approaches to multistate applications and to joint likelihoods involving multiple data types.

  19. Differential equations whose solution of the Cauchy problem displays nonclassical behaviour with respect to the parameter {lambda}

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubov, Vladimir Ya

    2009-10-31

    The behaviour of solutions of the equation y''+{lambda}{rho}(x,{lambda})y=0 with respect to the spectral parameter {lambda} is investigated under the assumption that the function {rho}(x,{lambda}) does not satisfy the classical conditions. Two types of equations are considered: the Sturm-Liouville equation y''+{lambda}{rho}(x)y=0, whose solutions grow like c({rho}){lambda}{sup m} in the norm of C[0,l] (where m>0 is arbitrary), and equations of the form y''+{lambda}{rho}(x,{lambda})y=0, lim {sub {lambda}}{sub {yields}}{sub +{infinity}}{rho}(x,{lambda})=1, whose solutions can grow like c{lambda}{sup m} in the norm of C[0,l] (where m>0 is arbitrary) and even like exp{l_brace}m{lambda}{sup 1-{gamma}}{r_brace} where 0<{gamma}<1. Bibliography: 3 titles.

  20. Immunoglobulin production by human-mouse somatic cell hybrids.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Hirschhorn, K

    1977-01-01

    Studies on immunoglobulin production in human-mouse somatic cell hybrids suggest: 1. The structural genes for heavy chain immunoglobulins are carried on chromsome 6, probably on the short arm or the proximal half of the long arm of the chromosome. 2. The structural gene for kappa light chain immunoglobulin may be carried on chromsome 11. 3. The occurrence of immunoglobulin molecules on the cell surface requires the presence of chromosome 2.

  1. Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Teo, Mae

    2017-03-01

    We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities; in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality—an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at extending the AdS/CFT dictionary in this setting, discuss the connections with horizon thermodynamics, applications to Lifshitz spacetimes, and outline possible future directions in this field.

  2. Application of Oxford classification, and overexpression of transforming growth factor-β1 and immunoglobulins in immunoglobulin A nephropathy: correlation with World Health Organization classification of immunoglobulin A nephropathy in a Chinese patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hongxue; Zhang, Lei; E, Xiaoqiang; Ye, Fei; Li, Huining; Han, Changsong; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Jin, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by the qualitative abnormality of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in circulation and deposits of IgA in the renal mesangium. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in fibrogenesis and the progression of renal damage. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic data on IgAN in northeastern China and the presence of TGF-β1, total IgA, and secretory IgA in the glomeruli and sera, as well as changes in galactose-deficient IgA1 in the serum. We investigated the clinicopathologic data of 1050 cases of IgAN diagnosed in a single center over 13 years. We then assessed the concentrations of TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins in the serum of 100 patients with IgAN and 56 healthy control subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and investigated their presence in the glomeruli by immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. From our data, 76.17% of the IgAN cases belonged to classes I and II according to the World Health Organization classification, representing the early stage. Compared with other studies, we found significantly lower frequencies of segmental glomerulosclerosis (27.71%) but higher frequencies of endocapillary proliferation (50.67%), and a similar proportion of mesangial hypercellularity (68.48%) and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (moderate, 17.81%; severe, 1.52%) in the northeastern Chinese cohort. There was an increased presence of TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins in the serum and glomeruli of IgAN, which correlates with the progression of pathologic classification. The pathologic variables of the Oxford classification correlated significantly with the WHO classifications. TGF-β1 and immunoglobulins could be used as biomarkers of IgAN pathogenic mechanisms, acting as important adjuncts to the original Oxford Classification.

  3. Evaluation of serum immunoglobulin E levels in bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Thirunavukkarasu; Roopakala, Mysore Subrahmanyam; Silvia, Chickballapur Rayappa Wilma Delphine; Chandrashekara, Srikantaiah; Rao, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin E and associated cellular responses are responsible for allergic airway diseases. A hypersensitivity reaction initiated by immunologic mechanisms, mediated by IgE antibodies occurs in allergic asthma Aim: To estimate and compare serum IgE levels in mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics and in normal subjects and to obtain a mathematical model describing the relationship between serum IgE levels and severity of asthma. Materials and Methods: A stratified sample of 60 patients within age group of 18-60 years and 31 male and 29 female asthmatic patients and 13 healthy controls within 18-60 years were included in this study and classified according to GINA classification. Serum IgE levels were estimated by using ELISA kit. Results: Mean IgE levels ranged from 151.95 IU/ml in normal subjects to 1045.32 IU/ml in severe asthmatics. The model developed was 27% efficient. Conclusion: Serum Immunoglobulin E levels were high in asthmatics as compared to normal subjects. On an average, the levels increased as the severity of asthma increased. However, there was no statistically significant correlation since the variability in each level of asthma was very large PMID:20931031

  4. Intestinal Absorption of Immunoglobulins by Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Leela; Selvaraj, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Intestinal absorption in newborn infants of immunoglobulins present in colostrum was studied by measuring the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, and IgM in cord blood and following the changes in the serum of the infant on the 5th day after birth. In infants who did not receive colostrum, a marked fall in IgG levels was observed on the 5th day after birth as compared to levels at birth. The concentrations of IgA and IgM showed marginal changes. In contrast, colostrumfed infants showed significant increases in the concentration of IgG. Levels of all 3 immunoglobulins on the 5th day were significantly higher in the serum of colostrumfed infants as compared to those who did not receive colostrum. It is suggested that immunoglobulins present in colostrum are to some extent absorbed from the intestinal tract of newborn infants, and this may have some physiological significance in the resistance to infection during the early neonatal period. PMID:4624594

  5. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Dredge, David C; Parsons, Elizabeth C; Carter, Lindsay P; Staley, Kevin J

    2010-07-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is a severe, potentially life-threatening, reaction to the aromatic anticonvulsant medications. Reported here is a case of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome secondary to phenobarbital in a 2-year-old boy; he responded to drug withdrawal, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin. The literature regarding treatment of this syndrome is reviewed.

  6. Immunoglobulins in tears of normal Indian people.

    PubMed Central

    Sen, D. K.; Sarin, G. S.; Mani, K.; Saha, K.

    1976-01-01

    Immunoglobulin concentrations in tears from 50 healthy Indians aged from 14 to 50 years were measured by a standard immunodiffusion method. The levels of IgA were substantial; those of IgG were very low; and IgD and IgM were not present. The mean IgA level was 24-6 mg/100 ml. PMID:1276121

  7. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  8. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shibani S; Lam, Alice D; Wilson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins.

  9. Polymerization of immunoglobulin domains: A model system for the development of facilitated macromolecular assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F.J.; Myatt, E.A.

    1991-12-31

    We have recently determined that monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (Bence Jones proteins) are capable of reversible polymerization at room temperature. This property, as exhibited by immunoglobulin light chains (normally a component of an intact antibody molecule), may have novel implications for the development of ``molecular nanotechnology.`` The polymerization capability of the immunoglobulin light chain is associated with the so-called variable domain of this molecule. The variable domain is a durable, compact beta-sheet structure of molecular weight approximately 12,000. Most of the primary sequence variation is limited to one portion of the molecule, that portion associated with the contribution of immunoglobulin light chains to the recognition and binding of thousand of different antigens by antibodies. As a consequence of these variations, different light chains polymerize with different degrees of avidity, from negligible to extensive. The polymerization process depends on solution parameters such as Ph. Thus, polymerization might be induced at one pH and suppressed or reversed at another. Combinations of molecules of appropriate specificities could assemble into structures of predetermined three-dimensional forms and properties. These features suggest that Bence Jones proteins represent a powerful model system within which to develop empirical rules relevant to a technology of protein-based ``construction``. Development of these rules will require the combined efforts of biophysical and crystallographic studies, protein engineering, and molecular modeling. 53 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Polymerization of immunoglobulin domains: A model system for the development of facilitated macromolecular assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F.J.; Myatt, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    We have recently determined that monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (Bence Jones proteins) are capable of reversible polymerization at room temperature. This property, as exhibited by immunoglobulin light chains (normally a component of an intact antibody molecule), may have novel implications for the development of molecular nanotechnology.'' The polymerization capability of the immunoglobulin light chain is associated with the so-called variable domain of this molecule. The variable domain is a durable, compact beta-sheet structure of molecular weight approximately 12,000. Most of the primary sequence variation is limited to one portion of the molecule, that portion associated with the contribution of immunoglobulin light chains to the recognition and binding of thousand of different antigens by antibodies. As a consequence of these variations, different light chains polymerize with different degrees of avidity, from negligible to extensive. The polymerization process depends on solution parameters such as Ph. Thus, polymerization might be induced at one pH and suppressed or reversed at another. Combinations of molecules of appropriate specificities could assemble into structures of predetermined three-dimensional forms and properties. These features suggest that Bence Jones proteins represent a powerful model system within which to develop empirical rules relevant to a technology of protein-based construction''. Development of these rules will require the combined efforts of biophysical and crystallographic studies, protein engineering, and molecular modeling. 53 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Solar cycle dependence of the sun's radius at lambda = 525.0 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.; Bertello, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mount Wilson (California) synoptic program of solar magnetic observations scans the solar disk between 1 and 20 times per day. As part of this program, the radius is determined as an average distance between the image center and the point where the intensity in the FeI line at lambda = 525.0 nm drops to 25 percent of its value at the disk's center. The data base of information was analyzed and corrected for effects such as scattered light and atmospheric reflection. The solar variability and the measurement techniques are described. The observation data sets, the corrections made to the data, and the observed variations, are discussed. It is stated that similar spectral lines at lambda = 525.0 nm, which are common in the solar spectrum, probably exhibit similar radius changes. All portions of the sun are weighted equally so that it is concluded that, within spectral lines, the radiating area of the sun is increased at the solar maximum.

  12. Genomic organization and sequences of immunoglobulin light chain genes in a primitive vertebrate suggest coevolution of immunoglobulin gene organization.

    PubMed Central

    Shamblott, M J; Litman, G W

    1989-01-01

    The genomic organization and sequence of immunoglobulin light chain genes in Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a phylogenetically primitive vertebrate, have been characterized. Light chain variable (VL) and joining (JI) segments are separated by 380 nucleotides and together with the single constant region exon (CI), occupy less than 2.7 kb, the closest linkage described thus far for a rearranging gene system. The VL segment is flanked by a characteristic recombination signal sequence possessing a 12 nucleotide spacer; the recombination signal sequence flanking the JL segment is 23 nucleotides. The VL genes, unlike heavy chain genes, possess a typical upstream regulatory octamer as well as conserved enhancer core sequences in the intervening sequence separating JL and CL. Restriction mapping and genomic Southern blotting are consistent with the presence of multiple light chain gene clusters. There appear to be considerably fewer light than heavy chain genes. Heavy and light chain clusters show no evidence of genomic linkage using field inversion gel electrophoresis. The findings of major differences in the organization and functional rearrangement properties of immunoglobulin genes in species representing different levels of vertebrate evolution, but consistent similarity in the organization of heavy and light chain genes within a species, suggests that these systems may be coevolving. Images PMID:2511000

  13. {lambda}{sup 0} Polarization in pp{yields}p{lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +} at 800 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, E.; Felix, J.; Reyes, M. A.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Berisso, M. C.; Kreisler, M. N.; Lee, S.; Markianos, K.; Wesson, D.; Christian, D. C.; Gottschalk, E.; Gutierrez, G.; Wehmann, A.; Gara, A.; Knapp, B. C.; Hartouni, E. P.

    2008-07-02

    We determined {lambda}{sup 0} polarization as function of X{sub F}, P{sub T}, M{sub X}, and E{sub {lambda}}, with respect to the normal of the following two different production planes: The first one defined by the momentum of the 800 GeV/c proton beam and the moment of {lambda}{sup 0}; the second one, by the momentum of the transferred object and the momentum of {lambda}{sup 0}, from the sample created in the FNAL E690 experiment. We present results, compare and discuss them.

  14. First Observation of Charmed Resonances in the $\\Lambda^0_b \\to \\Lambda^+_c \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ Inclusive Decay and Measurement of Their Relative Branching Ratios at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Barria, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    We present the observation of the $\\Lambda^0_b$ decay into a $\\Lambda^+_c \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ final state, in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1:96 TeV. The data analyzed were collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, and correspond to 2:4 $fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. We fit the invariant mass distribution of the reconstructed candidates to extract a signal yield of 848 $\\pm$ 93 $\\Lambda^0_b$ into $\\Lambda^+_c \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^-$....

  15. Fourth generation effect on {Lambda}{sub b} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, R.; Giri, A. K.

    2010-11-01

    The rare decays of the {Lambda}{sub b} baryon governed by the quark level transitions b{yields}s are investigated in the fourth quark generation model popularly known as SM4. Recently it has been shown that SM4, which is a very simple extension of the standard model, can successfully explain several anomalies observed in the CP violation parameters of B and B{sub s} mesons. We find that in this model due to the additional contributions coming from the heavy t{sup '} quark in the loop, the branching ratios and other observables in rare {Lambda}{sub b} decays deviate significantly from their standard model values. Some of these modes are within the reach of the LHCb experiment and search for such channels is strongly argued.

  16. Giant magnons of string theory in the lambda background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appadu, Calan; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Miramontes, J. Luis; Price, Dafydd; Schmidtt, David M.

    2017-07-01

    The analogues of giant magnon configurations are studied on the string world sheet in the lambda background. This is a discrete deformation of the AdS5× S 5 background that preserves the integrability of the world sheet theory. Giant magnon solutions are generated using the dressing method and their dispersion relation is found. This reduces to the usual dyonic giant magnon dispersion relation in the appropriate limit and becomes relativistic in another limit where the lambda model becomes the generalized sine-Gordon theory of the Pohlmeyer reduction. The scattering of giant magnons is then shown in the semi-classical limit to be described by the quantum S-matrix that is a quantum group deformation of the conventional giant magnon S-matrix. It is further shown that in the small g limit, a sector of the S-matrix is related to the XXZ spin chain whose spectrum matches the spectrum of magnon bound states.

  17. Threshold Properties of the K{Lambda} Photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, T.

    2010-12-23

    We have investigated kaon photoproduction on a proton and a neutron near their production thresholds by utilizing an isobar model. The background term of the model is constructed from Feynman diagrams, while the resonance term is derived from the multipoles formalism. In the case of the {gamma}+p{yields}K{sup +}+{Lambda} channel we found that both pseudoscalar (PS) and pseudovector (PV) models are able to reproduce the available photoproduction data up to W = 50 MeV above the threshold. The hyperon resonance S{sub 01}(1800) is found to be important in improving the agreement between model calculation and experimental data. In the case of double polarization observables O{sub x}, and O{sub z}, our result is in agreement with the finding of Sandorfi et al. In the {gamma}+n{yields}K{sup 0}+{Lambda} channel we found that the difference between PS and PV models is sizable for future experiments.

  18. Efficient epitope mapping by bacteriophage {lambda} surface display

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, I.; Maruyama, H.; Zuberi, R.I.

    1997-01-01

    A bacteriophage {lambda} surface expression system, {lambda}foo, was used for epitope mapping of human galectin-3. We constructed random epitope and peptide libraries and compared their efficiencies in the mapping. The galectin-3 cDNA was randomly digested by DNase I to make random epitope libraries. The libraries were screened by affinity selection using a microtiter plate coated with monoclonal antibodies. Direct DNA sequencing of the selected clones defined two distinct epitope sites consisting of nine and 11 amino-acid residues. Affinity selection of random peptide libraries recovered a number of sequences that were similar to each other but distinct from the galectin-3 sequence. These results demonstrate that a single affinity selection of epitope libraries with antibodies is able to define an epitope determinant as small as nine residues long and is more efficient in epitope mapping than random peptide libraries. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The lambda-scheme method applied to Stirling engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.

    1985-12-01

    An integration method of the motion equations is the so-called 'lambda-scheme': such a method suggests that, in the numerical procedure of the approximation of the derivatives in space with finite differences, the physical domains of dependence have to be correctly taken into account, according to the wave propagation through the flow. In the lambda-scheme method, the codes are simple, the computing time is kept very low, while accuracy (second-order in space and time) of the results is very satisfactory. As a matter of fact, the simulation model here discussed leads to a deeper analysis and a closer prediction of Stirling engine performances. As a first approach, a feasibility analysis is carried out for an expansion space-heat exchanger flow duty simulation.

  20. LAMBDA — Large Area Medipix3-Based Detector Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennicard, D.; Lange, S.; Smoljanin, S.; Hirsemann, H.; Graafsma, H.

    2012-11-01

    Medipix3 is a photon-counting readout chip for X-ray detection. It has a small pixel size (55 μm) and a high frame rate with zero dead time, which makes it attractive for experiments at synchrotrons. Using Medipix3, DESY are developing the LAMBDA (Large Area Medipix3-Based Detector Array) system. A single LAMBDA module carries either a single large silicon sensor of 1536 by 512 pixels, or two smaller high-Z sensors. The sensor is bonded to 12 Medipix3 chips, and mounted on a ceramic carrier board. The readout system for the module then provides a fast FPGA, a large RAM and four 10 Gigabit Ethernet links to allow operation at high frame rates. Multiple modules may then be tiled together a larger area. Currently, the first large silicon modules have been constructed and tested at low speed, and the firmware for fast readout is being developed.

  1. Lambda modes of the neutron diffusion equation in hexagonal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barrachina, T.; Ginestar, D.; Verdu, G.

    2006-07-01

    A nodal collocation method is proposed to compute the dominant Lambda modes of nuclear reactor core with a hexagonal geometry. This method is based on a triangular mesh and assumes that the neutronic flux can be approximated as a finite expansion in terms of Dubiner's polynomials. The method transforms the initial differential eigenvalue problem into a generalized algebraic one, from which the dominant modes of the reactor can be computed. The performance of the method is tested with two benchmark problems. (authors)

  2. Characterization of SAL605 negative resist at {lambda}=13 nm

    SciTech Connect

    La Fontaine, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Gaines, D.P.; Kania, D.R.

    1996-05-24

    We have characterized the response of the negative resist SAL605 in the extreme ultraviolet ({lambda}=13 nm). The sensitivity was found to be {approx}1 mJ/cm{sup 3} for all conditions studied. We have identified processing conditions leading to high ({gamma}{gt}4) contrast. The resist response was modeled using Prolith/2 and the development parameters were obtained from the exposure curves.

  3. Specialized transduction of D-serine deaminase genes: formation of lysogens that yield high lambda-d dsd/lambda ratios and formation of a dimeric lambda-d dsd.

    PubMed

    Palchaudhuri, S; McFall, E; Carothers, A M

    1976-08-01

    We have obtained two classes of double lysogens that on induction yield higher titers of lambda-d dsd transducing phage than of helper phage. One class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM6116 (dsddelta attlambdadelta HfrC) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdC+ dsdO+ dsdA+, head-tail substitution). In the absence of either a normal attlambda or the homology of a chromosomal dsd region, the transducing phage integrated at other sites, at least one of which, in strain EM6177, is near the origin of HfrC. On induction, strain EM6177 yields a phage burst of 20 to 50 with a lambdadsd:lambda ratio of 10(4):1. The asnychronously high yield of lambda dsd is attributed to an efficiency of excision greater than that of lambda. The other class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM1407 (dsdA attlambda+) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdO6 dsdA, partial deletion of dsdC). The DNA of mature lambda-dsd type 2 is a complete dimer. It lacks nearly all the phage late genes and b2 and carries about five bacterial genes. It could not be packaged as a monomer but is just within the packaging size limit as a dimer. Models for the derivation of these lambda dsd phages and the high-yielding lysogens are presented.

  4. Specialized transduction of D-serine deaminase genes: formation of lysogens that yield high lambda-d dsd/lambda ratios and formation of a dimeric lambda-d dsd.

    PubMed Central

    Palchaudhuri, S; McFall, E; Carothers, A M

    1976-01-01

    We have obtained two classes of double lysogens that on induction yield higher titers of lambda-d dsd transducing phage than of helper phage. One class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM6116 (dsddelta attlambdadelta HfrC) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdC+ dsdO+ dsdA+, head-tail substitution). In the absence of either a normal attlambda or the homology of a chromosomal dsd region, the transducing phage integrated at other sites, at least one of which, in strain EM6177, is near the origin of HfrC. On induction, strain EM6177 yields a phage burst of 20 to 50 with a lambdadsd:lambda ratio of 10(4):1. The asnychronously high yield of lambda dsd is attributed to an efficiency of excision greater than that of lambda. The other class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM1407 (dsdA attlambda+) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdO6 dsdA, partial deletion of dsdC). The DNA of mature lambda-dsd type 2 is a complete dimer. It lacks nearly all the phage late genes and b2 and carries about five bacterial genes. It could not be packaged as a monomer but is just within the packaging size limit as a dimer. Models for the derivation of these lambda dsd phages and the high-yielding lysogens are presented. Images PMID:783126

  5. Measurement of sigma Lambda b0/sigma B0 x B(Lambda b0-->Lambda c+pi-)/B(B0-->D+pi-) in pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Le, Y; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tseng, J; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-03-23

    We present the first observation of the baryon decay Lambda b0-->Lambda c+pi- followed by Lambda c+-->pK-pi+ in 106 pb-1 pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV in the CDF experiment. In order to reduce systematic error, the measured rate for Lambda b0 decay is normalized to the kinematically similar meson decay B0-->D+pi- followed by D+-->pi+K-pi+. We report the ratio of production cross sections (sigma) times the ratio of branching fractions (B) for the momentum region integrated above pT>6 GeV/c and pseudorapidity range |eta|<1.3: sigma(pp-->Lambda b0X)/sigma(pp-->B0X)xB(Lambda b0-->Lambda c+pi-)/B(B0-->D+pi-)=0.82+/-0.08(stat)+/-0.11(syst)+/-0.22[B(Lambda c+-->pK-pi+)].

  6. An investigation of the {anti p}p {yields} {anti {Lambda}} {Lambda} and {anti p}p {yields} {anti {Sigma}}{sup 0} {Lambda} + c.c. reactions near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.; PS185 Collaboration

    1995-12-31

    Experiment PS 185 studies the production of antihyperon-hyperon pairs in antiproton-proton collisions at LEAR in the near-threshold energy region. The {ital {anti p} p} {r_arrow} {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} reaction has been thoroughly studied by PS185 and many high-quality data have been reported. New results, including total and differential cross sections along with spin observables, are presented here for the channels {ital {anti p} p} {r_arrow} {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} and {ital {anti p}p} {r_arrow} {anti {Sigma}}{sup 0}{Lambda} + c.c at incident lab antiproton momenta of 1.726 and 1. 771 GeV/c. The data from the relatively unstudied and complementary {ital {anti p}p} {r_arrow} {anti {Sigma}}{sup 0}{Lambda} + c.c channel is compared to that from {ital {anti p}p} {r_arrow} {anti {Lambda}}{Lambda} at similar energies above the reaction threshold.

  7. ({lambda}, p) Spectrum Analysis in p+A Interactions at 10 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanyan, P. Zh.; Emelyanenko, V. N.

    2007-06-13

    Experimental data from the 2m propane bubble chamber have been analyzed for exotic baryon states search. A number of peculiarities were found in the effective mass spectra of: {lambda}{pi}+({sigma}*+(1382),PDG), {lambda}p and {lambda}pp subsystems. A few events detected on the photographs of the propane bubble chamber exposed to a 10 GeV/c proton beam, were interpreted as S=-2 H0 light(lambda}{lambda})) and heavy H0,+. New event, detected on the photographs of the propane bubble chamber was interpreted as heavy H+(2488) dibaryon by two weak decay channels of K-pp or {sigma}+p{pi}-.

  8. A Novel Immunoglobulin-Immunoglobulin Interaction in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kawa, Shigeyuki; Kitahara, Kei; Hamano, Hideaki; Ozaki, Yayoi; Arakura, Norikazu; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Umemura, Takeji; Ota, Masao; Mizoguchi, Sadaaki; Shimozuru, Yasunori; Bahram, Seiamak

    2008-01-01

    Well over six decades since its first description, the Rheumatoid Factor (RF)—autoantibodies recognizing Fc (constant) portion of IgG through their own Fab (antigen binding variable segments)—is believed to have come of age. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a unique form of pancreatitis, biologically characterized by an elevated serum IgG4 concentration. Given the fact that IgG4 myeloma proteins can act as RF, we initially hypothesized that IgG4 in autoimmune pancreatitis might do likewise, hence potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis. Indeed Western blotting clearly showed that IgG4 binds to IgG1 κ, IgG2 κ, IgG3 κ myeloma proteins, as well as to IgG Fc, in line with a typical RF activity. Further experiments however unraveled the unexpected fact that unlike hitherto known RF, IgG4 does not engage IgG Fc through its Fab, but its very own Fc. These data therefore collectively describe a Novel RF (NRF) in autoimmune pancreatitis. In the future, the relevance of NRF, beyond autoimmune pancreatitis, in both diagnosis/prognosis as well as pathophysiology of autoimmune and other systemic diseases where IgG4's role seems paramount, needs to be systematically assessed. PMID:18297131

  9. Membrane-associated immunoglobulins of human lymphocytes in immunologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nicod, Isabelle; Girard, J. P.; Cruchaud, A.

    1973-01-01

    Membrane-associated immunoglobulins of peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied by indirect immunofluorescence for γ, α, μ, κ and λ chains in healthy subjects and patients with immunologic disease. In healthy subjects, heavy chains were found on 30·7% of lymphocytes (γ 15·3%, α 7·2% and μ 8·2%) and light chains on 32·8% of cells (κ 20·4% and λ 12·4%). Patients with humoral immune deficiencies had fewer immunoglobulin-bearing cells; sarcoidosis or thymectomy patients had normal or decreased immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes; cells with light chains were fewer than those with heavy chains on their lymphocytes. In some cases, normal levels of serum immunoglobulins were found in the absence of the corresponding immunoglobulin-bearing cells, and in others normal immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes were present in the absence of the corresponding serum immunoglobulins. These data suggest that (1) immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes in blood do not reflect the condition of immunoglobulin-synthesizing cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues, and (2) in certain immunologic disorders, either some B-lymphocytes do not synthesize immunoglobulins, or immunoglobulins are in such a situation that the whole molecule or part of the molecule is not visualized by current methods. PMID:4587505

  10. Quantum inverse scattering and the lambda deformed principal chiral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appadu, Calan; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Price, Dafydd

    2017-07-01

    The lambda model is a one parameter deformation of the principal chiral model that arises when regularizing the non-compactness of a non-abelian T dual in string theory. It is a current-current deformation of a WZW model that is known to be integrable at the classical and quantum level. The standard techniques of the quantum inverse scattering method cannot be applied because the Poisson bracket is non ultra-local. Inspired by an approach of Faddeev and Reshetikhin, we show that in this class of models, there is a way to deform the symplectic structure of the theory leading to a much simpler theory that is ultra-local and can be quantized on the lattice whilst preserving integrability. This lattice theory takes the form of a generalized spin chain that can be solved by standard algebraic Bethe Ansatz techniques. We then argue that the IR limit of the lattice theory lies in the universality class of the lambda model implying that the spin chain provides a way to apply the quantum inverse scattering method to this non ultra-local theory. This points to a way of applying the same ideas to other lambda models and potentially the string world-sheet theory in the gauge-gravity correspondence.

  11. Immunoglobulin expression and synthesis by human haemic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J; Hough, D; Karpas, A; Smith, J L

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six human cell lines derived from a variety of lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies, were investigated for their immunological markers, with special reference to the class of immunoglobulin expressed. Twenty-five of the lines stained positively for surface immunoglobulin and IgD together with IgM proved to be the major immunoglobulin classes on these cells. Six of the lines were chosen for a study of their immunoglobulin synthesis patterns over an 18-h period and the immunoglobulin produced was analysed on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Patterns obtained from the cell lines were similar to that from normal lymph node lymphocytes and differed markedly to plasma cells. Two of the cell lines had abnormal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns characterized as free light chains in one case. The cell lines are evaluated for their usefulness as models of immunoglobulin synthesis and analogues of normal and neoplastic states. PMID:608682

  12. Measurement of the Lambda0(b) Lifetime in Lambda0(b) ---> J/psi Lambda0 in p anti-p Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara

    2006-09-01

    The authors report a measurement of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime in the exclusive decay {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda}{sup 0} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using fully reconstructed decays, they measure {tau}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}) = 1.593{sub -0.078}{sup +0.083}(stat.) {+-} 0.033(syst.) ps. This is the single most precise measurement of {tau}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}) and is 3.2 {sigma} higher than the current world average.

  13. Three-dimensional structure of an intact human immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Silverton, E W; Navia, M A; Davies, D R

    1977-01-01

    We have examined the low-resolution structure of a complete human IgG1 using known domain coordinates from crystallographic investigations of immunoglobulin fragment structures. Our results indicate that the Fc portion of this molecule has a structure similar to that of an isolated Fc fragment, with the carbohydrate moiety playing a central role as the principal contact between the CH2 domains. Carbohydrate also forms a large part of the interface between the Fc and Fab regions. The relative orientations of the variable and constant portions of the Fab regions are intermediate between those reported previously, emphasizing the flexibility of the switch region. These data do not support a two-state allosteric model such as has been proposed for antibody effector functions. Images PMID:270751

  14. The role of template superhelicity in the initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, C; McMacken, R

    1988-01-01

    The prepriming steps in the initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication depend on the action of the lambda O and P proteins and on the DnaB helicase, single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), and DnaJ and DnaK heat shock proteins of the E. coli host. The binding of multiple copies of the lambda O protein to the phage replication origin (ori lambda) initiates the ordered assembly of a series of nucleoprotein structures that form at ori lambda prior to DNA unwinding, priming and DNA synthesis steps. Since the initiation of lambda DNA replication is known to occur only on supercoiled templates in vivo and in vitro, we examined how the early steps in lambda DNA replication are influenced by superhelical tension. All initiation complexes formed prior to helicase-mediated DNA-unwinding form with high efficiency on relaxed ori lambda DNA. Nonetheless, the DNA templates in these structures must be negatively supertwisted before they can be replicated. Once DNA helicase unwinding is initiated at ori lambda, however, later steps in lambda DNA replication proceed efficiently in the absence of superhelical tension. We conclude that supercoiling is required during the initiation of lambda DNA replication to facilitate entry of a DNA helicase, presumably the DnaB protein, between the DNA strands. Images PMID:2847118

  15. Study of the ^7_{Lambda}He hypernucleus in formalism of the Faddeev equations

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Filikhin; Vladimir M. Suslov; Branislav Vlahovic

    2006-02-01

    P-shell A = 7 hypernuclei are considered in the cluster {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He + N + N model. The folding procedure are applied to construct the {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He-N interaction. We use the OBE simulating NSC97f potential for {Lambda}N interaction and various phenomenological potentials for {alpha}{Lambda} interaction. Configuration space Faddeev calculations are performed for hyperon binding energy of the {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He(1/2{sup +}) and {sub {lambda}}{sup 7}Li(1/2{sup +} and 3/2{sup +}, T=0) nuclei. Predicted value for B{sub {Lambda}}({sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He) is 5.35 MeV. This value is obtained when the {sup {Lambda}}{sup 6}He(2{sup -}) excitation energy is equal 0.26 MeV by the adjustment of pair {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He-N effective potential to reproduce the experimental value of the {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}Li(3/2{sup +}) excitation energy. Our results are compared with those of E. Hiyama et al.

  16. Study of inclusive. Lambda. production in e sup + e minus annihilations at 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Geld, T.L.; Neal, H.; Akerlof, C.; Chapman, J.; Errede, D.; Ken, M.T.; Kesten, P.; Meyer, D.I.; Nitz, D.; Thun, R.; Tschirhart, R. ); Abachi, S.; Derrick, M.; Kooijman, P.; Musgrave, B.; Price, L.; Repond, J.; Sugano, K. ); Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.B.; Brom, J.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.R.; Snyder, A. ); Cork, B. ); Baringer, P.; Bylsma, B.G.; Debonte, R.; Low, E.H.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Ng, C.R.; Rangan, K.; Shibata, E. )

    1992-06-01

    Cross sections are presented for the inclusive production of {Lambda} hyperons in electron-positron annihilations at {radical}{ital s} =29 GeV based on the full 291-pb{sup {minus}1} sample of data taken in the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment at the SLAC {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{minus} storage ring PEP. These results, and the associated correlation analyses, are consistent with the Lund model predictions with the strange diquark suppression ratio {delta} fixed at 0.59{plus minus}0.10{plus minus}0.18, as compared to the standard Lund value of 0.32. The {Lambda} multiplicity has been found to be 0.182{plus minus}0.020 per event. The opposite-strangeness multiplicity {l angle}{ital n}{sub {Lambda}}{Lambda}{bar a}{r angle} has been measured to be 0.046{plus minus}0.020, whereas the like-strangeness multiplicity {l angle}{ital n}{sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}+{bar {Lambda}}{bar {Lambda}}{r angle} is 0.009{plus minus}0.028. A strong correlation is found between {Lambda}'s and {bar {Lambda}} 's; when one is found in an event, the other is found in the same event with a probability that exceeds 50%.

  17. Search for CP violation in charged-Xi and Lambda hyperon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstrom, T.; Leros, N.; Burnstein, R.A.; Chakravorty, A.; Chan, A.; Chen, Y.C.; Choong, W.S.; Clark, K.; Dukes, E.C.; Durandet, C.; Felix, J.; Fu, Y.; Gidal, G.; Gu, P.; Gustafson, H.R.; Ho, C.; Huang, M.; James, C.; Jenkins, C.M.; Jones, T.; Kaplan, D.M.; /Virginia U. /Lausanne U. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, Berkeley /Fermilab /Guanajuato U. /IIT, Chicago /Lausanne U. /LBL, Berkeley /Michigan U. /South Alabama U. /Virginia U.

    2004-12-01

    The authors have compared the p and {bar p} angular distributions in 117 million {Xi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{pi}{sup -} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} and 41 million {Xi}{sup +} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{pi}{sup +} {yields} {bar p}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} decays using a subset of the data from the HyperCP experiment (ES71) at Fermilab. They find no evidence of CP violation, with the direct-CP-violating parameter A{sub {Xi}{Lambda}} {triple_bond} (a{sub {Xi}}a{sub {Lambda}} - {bar a}{sub {Xi}}{bar a}{sub {Lambda}})/(a{sub {Xi}}a{sub {Lambda}} + {bar a}{sub {Xi}}{bar a}{sub {Lambda}}) = [0.0 {+-} 5.1(stat) {+-} 4.4(syst)] x 10{sup -4}.

  18. Subset of Kappa and Lambda Germline Sequences Result in Light Chains with a Higher Molecular Mass Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Barnidge, David R; Lundström, Susanna L; Zhang, Bo; Dasari, Surendra; Murray, David L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-04

    In our previous work, we showed that electrospray ionization of intact polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains isolated from normal serum generates two distinct, Gaussian-shaped, molecular mass distributions representing the light-chain repertoire. During the analysis of a large (>100) patient sample set, we noticed a low-intensity molecular mass distribution with a mean of approximately 24 250 Da, roughly 800 Da higher than the mean of the typical kappa molecular-mass distribution mean of 23 450 Da. We also observed distinct clones in this region that did not appear to contain any typical post-translational modifications that would account for such a large mass shift. To determine the origin of the high molecular mass clones, we performed de novo bottom-up mass spectrometry on a purified IgM monoclonal light chain that had a calculated molecular mass of 24 275.03 Da. The entire sequence of the monoclonal light chain was determined using multienzyme digestion and de novo sequence-alignment software and was found to belong to the germline allele IGKV2-30. The alignment of kappa germline sequences revealed ten IGKV2 and one IGKV4 sequences that contained additional amino acids in their CDR1 region, creating the high-molecular-mass phenotype. We also performed an alignment of lambda germline sequences, which showed additional amino acids in the CDR2 region, and the FR3 region of functional germline sequences that result in a high-molecular-mass phenotype. The work presented here illustrates the ability of mass spectrometry to provide information on the diversity of light-chain molecular mass phenotypes in circulation, which reflects the germline sequences selected by the immunoglobulin-secreting B-cell population.

  19. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Van Schaik, I N; Winer, J B; De Haan, R; Vermeulen, M

    2002-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is an immune mediated disorder characterised by progressive or relapsing symmetrical motor or sensory symptoms and signs in more than one limb, developing over at least two months. It may cause prolonged periods of disability and even death. Several uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin. To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials concerning the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. We used the Search Strategy of the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Review Group to search the Disease Group register and other databases for randomised controlled trials from 1985 onwards. Randomised controlled studies examining the effects of any dose of intravenous immunoglobulin versus placebo, plasma exchange or corticosteroids in patients with definite or probable chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Outcome measures had to include one of the following: a disability score, the Medical Research Council sum score, electrophysiological data or walking distance. Studies which reported the frequency of adverse effects were used to assess the safety of treatment. Two reviewers independently reviewed literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, scored their quality and extracted data independently. For dichotomous data, we calculated relative risks, and for continuous data, effect sizes (for definition see statistical analysis section) and weighted pooled effect sizes. Statistical uncertainty was expressed in 95% confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis excluding studies with quality scores below A 0.50 and below B 0.75 was planned but not performed as all studies had quality scores above 0.75. Six randomised controlled trials were considered eligible including 170 patients. Four studies on 113 patients compared intravenous immunoglobulin against

  20. Utilizing Synthetic Spectra to Refine Lambda Boo Stars' UV Classification Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Johnson, Dustin; Tarbell, Erik; Romo, Christopher; Steele, Patricia; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly-imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. This possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Bootis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. The Lambda Boo label has been applied to almost any peculiar A-type stars that do not fit elsewhere. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars' unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. Using observed and synthetic spectra, we explored the classification of Lambda Boo stars and developed quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. With model spectra, we demonstrated that the (C I 1657 Angstrom)/ (Al II 1671 Angstrom) line ratio is the best single criterion to distinguish between Lambda Boo stars and metal weak stars, and that one cannot use a single C I/Al II cut-off value as a Lambda Boo classification criterion. The C I/Al II cut-off value is a function of a star's effective temperature and metallicity. Using these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we concluded that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  1. The specific immunoglobulin in hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Matossian, R. M.; Kane, G. J.; Chantler, S. M.; Batty, I.; Sarhadian, H.

    1972-01-01

    The variation in the serum level of specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies during different stages of hydatid disease has been demonstrated by a technique of fluorescent microscopy that uses monospecific anti-human immunoglobulin conjugates and freeze-dried antigens. The technique is easy to perform and our results suggest that the test is sensitive and specific. Specific IgG antibodies are present in patients with either current or past infections. IgM antibodies, detected during periods of antigenic activity, disappear soon after removal of the cyst. In many cases IgA antibodies also disappear soon after removal of the cyst. Cross-reactions between the antigens and antibodies of hydatid disease and schistosomiasis are shown to be present mainly in the IgG immunoglobulin and only to a much smaller extent in the IgA. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4554745

  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for refractory recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    del Fresno, M Rosa; Peralta, Julio E; Granados, Miguel Ángel; Enríquez, Eugenia; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; de Inocencio, Jaime

    2014-11-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is a troublesome complication of idiopathic acute pericarditis and occurs more frequently in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery (postpericardiotomy syndrome). Conventional treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and colchicine is not always effective or may cause serious adverse effects. There is no consensus, however, on how to proceed in those patients whose disease is refractory to conventional therapy. In such cases, human intravenous immunoglobulin, immunosuppressive drugs, and biological agents have been used. In this report we describe 2 patients with refractory recurrent pericarditis after cardiac surgery who were successfully treated with 3 and 5 monthly high-dose (2 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin until resolution of the effusion. Our experience supports the effectiveness and safety of this therapy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia treated with immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, P G; Mancuso, G; del Principe, D; Duse, M; Miniero, R; Tovo, R; Bardare, M; Carnelli, V; de Mattia, D

    1983-01-01

    Twenty five children with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura followed from 6-96 months in 7 Italian paediatric departments were treated with high dose immunoglobulin according to a multicentre protocol. Positive responses were observed in 20 of 25 patients (80%) and negative responses in 5 of 25 (20%). On previous steroid treatment 7 of 10 positive responders were steroid resistant and 13 of 15 were steroid dependent. Within four weeks of beginning treatment 16 of 20 patients (80%) relapsed, while 4 of 20 (20%) maintained normal platelet values after 4-12 months' follow up. Statistical analysis of the platelet count on day five of treatment enabled us to divide positive responders into three groups: good, intermediate, and poor. The possible mode of action and clinical application of high dose immunoglobulin are discussed. PMID:6685997

  4. Lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis associated with immunoglobulin G4.

    PubMed

    Khong, Peter; Enno, Alar; Darwish, Balsam

    2014-02-01

    We present the unusual case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with a 2 year history of amenorrhoea and an expanding sellar lesion. Initial MRI revealed a lesion in the pituitary fossa, thought to be a pituitary adenoma. One year later, the lesion had enlarged by 5mm, with associated enhancement of the dura of the planum sphenoidale and pituitary stalk. Histopathology revealed a lymphocytic and plasma cell inflammatory infiltrate suggestive of lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis associated with immunoglobulin G4.

  5. Intravenous immunoglobulins: evolution of commercial IVIG preparations.

    PubMed

    Hooper, John A

    2008-11-01

    Since its first use in 1952, human immunoglobulin has been used to treat people who have inherited antibody deficiencies. This article summarizes IVIG clinical development in primary immunodeficient patients and manufacturing improvements introduced over time. Manufacturing improvements include purification procedures that have reduced the incidence of adverse events and improved clinical efficacy, as well as virus inactivation and removal steps that have increased safety from blood-borne infections. Current manufacturing procedures, IVIG production trends, and recent clinical trial results are also reviewed.

  6. Effect of experimental magnetic storm on the production of lambda phage.

    PubMed

    Chervinets, V M

    1979-01-01

    1. Sharp fluctuation of the intensity of the vertical component of the MF amounting to +/- 0.1 Oe changing the sign over each 3 min causes variability of both lysogenic and indicator strains of E. coli. This testifies to an extremely low threshold of their magnetic susceptibility and to biological importance of fluctuations of natural parameters of the geomagnetic field as an ecological factor of the environment. 2. A change in the intensity of the vertical component of the MF, not any higher than +/-0.1 Oe, inhibits phage production in the lysogenic system of E. coli K = 12 lambda and is also reflected in the morphological peculiarities of negative phage colonies as well as in the phage-susceptibility of the E. coli indicator strain.

  7. Healing of surgical wounds made with lambda970-nm diode laser associated or not with laser phototherapy (lambda655 nm) or polarized light (lambda400-2000 nm).

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Juliana L; Nicolau, Renata A; Nicola, Ester M D; dos Santos, Jean N; Pinheiro, Antonio L B

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of two phototherapies, laser and polarized light, on diode laser (970lambda nm) wounds. Lasers have been used in surgery, and some wavelengths may cause thermal damage to the tissue and affect healing. Several studies have shown that some wavelengths are effective in improving healing. Coherent and noncoherent light have been successfully used on the modulation of biological phenomena of several origins. Thirty-one Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (GI to GIII). A 20-mm x 2-mm wound was created on the dorsum of each animal with a diode laser (Sirolaser, Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). Group GI acted as control. On GII, laser light (lambda655 nm, 30 mW, phi approximately 3 mm, 12 J/cm(2)) was used and on GIII illumination with polarized light (lambda400-2000 nm, 40 mW, phi approximately 5.5 cm, 12 J/cm(2)) was used, every other day (GII) or daily (GIII) for 7 days. The animals were killed at 0, 7, and 14 days after surgery. Specimens were taken, routinely processed, stained and imunnomarked [HE (hematoxylin-eosin), sirius red, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA)], and underwent histological analysis. GII showed better response at day 14 when re-epithelialization was in a more advanced stage. The number of myofibroblasts was significantly different over the healing time (7 to 14 days); this number was smaller than that observed on G1. On GIII at day 7, the number of myofibroblasts was significantly higher than for GII. At day 14, a more pronounced deposition of collagen matrix was also seen, and inflammation was discrete and more advanced for GIII. The results of the present study showed that the effect of the use of laser light was more evident at early stages of healing and that the use of polarized light improved the resolution of the inflammatory reaction, increased the deposition of collagen, increased the number of myofibroblasts, and quickened re-epithelialization during the experimental time.

  8. [Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, L J; Mondragón-González, R; Manzano-Gayosso, P; López-Martínez, R; Hernández-Hernández, F; Bonifaz, A; Anides Fonseca, A; Araiza, J; Vega-López, F

    2004-01-01

    Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10) obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients' sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

  9. [BIOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYREACTIVE IMMUNOGLOBULINS].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A; Demchenko, M A; Komisarenko, S V

    2015-01-01

    A previously unknown phenomenon of acquired polyreactivity for serum immunoglobulins, which were subjected either to solutions of KSCN (3.0-5.0 M), low/high pH (pH 2.2-3.0), or heating to 58-60 degrees C, was described by us in 1990 year. Much later, eleven years after that, similar data were published by others, which completely confirmed our results concerning the influence of either chaotropic ions or the drastic shift of pH on immunoglobulins polyreactive properties. Our further investigations of polyreactive serum immunoglobulins (PRIG) properties have shown that the mechanism of non-specific interaction between PRIG and antigens much differs from the mechanism of interaction between specific antibodies and corresponding antigens. Later we have shown that the increasing of PRIG reactivity could be induced in vivo, and PRIG are one of serum components for human or animal sera. Then, it could be suggested that PRIG can perform certain biological functions. Studying of PRIG's effect on the phagocytosis of microbes by peritoneal cells or the tumor growth have shown that PRIG can play a certain role in protecting the body from infections and probably can influence on the development of various pathological processes. Recently we have also found that PRIG IgG contents significantly increases in aged people. These data demonstrate that further investigations of PRIG's immunochemical properties and studying of their biological role in organism protection from various diseases is very intriguing and important.

  10. [Serum and secretory immunoglobulins in allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Atovmian, O I; German, G P; Chernokhvostova, E V

    1985-07-01

    A total of 158 patients with pollinosis, bronchial asthma, urticaria and Quincke's edema were examined. The immunoglobulin and C3 levels in sera and the immunoglobulin and albumin levels in saliva were determined by the method of single radial immunodiffusion with the corresponding monospecific antisera. In all the groups of patients subjected to examination the presence of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia was detected, which was manifested by a rise in the levels of IgG, IgA and especially IgM; the level of IgD was low. A decrease in the level of C3 was detected in pollinosis patients in the absence of the exacerbation of the disease. No circulating immune complexes were detected. An essential increase in the level of IgG in saliva was revealed, which was due to the local synthesis of this immunoglobulin. In winter the level of salivary IgA in pollinosis patients was found to be essentially below normal, but at the period of exacerbation it increased twofold, probably in response to local stimulation with antigen-allergen. Patients with bronchial asthma and pollinosis were found to have a high level of free secretory component (SC); in pollinosis the level of free SC sharply increased during the stage of exacerbation, which was due to the increase of its synthesis and secretion by the epithelial cells of the mucous membranes. The importance of these data for the pathogenesis of allergic diseases are discussed.

  11. Antarctic teleost immunoglobulins: more extreme, more interesting.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Maria Rosaria; Varriale, Sonia; Giacomelli, Stefano; Oreste, Umberto

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the immunoglobulin molecule and the genes encoding it in teleosts living in the Antarctic seas at the constant temperature of -1.86 °C. The majority of Antarctic teleosts belong to the suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes), which includes only a few non-Antarctic species. Twenty-one Antarctic and two non-Antarctic Notothenioid species were included in our studies. We sequenced immunoglobulin light chains in two species and μ heavy chains, partially or totally, in twenty species. In the case of heavy chain, genomic DNA and the cDNA encoding the secreted and the membrane form were analyzed. From one species, Trematomus bernacchii, a spleen cDNA library was constructed to evaluate the diversity of VH gene segments. T. bernacchii IgM, purified from the serum and bile, was characterized. Homology Modelling and Molecular Dynamics were used to determine the molecular structure of T. bernacchii and Chionodraco hamatus immunoglobulin domains. This paper sums up the previous results and broadens them with the addition of unpublished data.

  12. Immunoglobulin therapy in idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huppke, Peter; Heise, Alexander; Rostasy, Kevin; Huppke, Brenda; Gärtner, Jutta

    2009-09-01

    Idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunction is a rare disorder presenting at age 3-7 years. Severe hypothalamic and brainstem dysfunction leads to death in 25% of patients. The disease is presumed to be autoimmune, or in some cases paraneoplastic. No successful treatment has been reported. Patient V. developed hyperphagia, hypersomnia, and extreme aggression at age 7 years, accompanied by episodes of hyperthermia, hypothermia, sinus bradycardia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia, persistent hyperprolactinemia, hypothyroidism, and growth-hormone deficiency. At age 9 years, a diagnosis of idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunction was rendered, and immunoglobulin therapy was commenced. Nine courses of immunoglobulins, at a dose of 2 g/kg every 4 weeks, were administered. Reproducible improvements in behavior and no further episodes of hyponatremia or hypernatremia and sinus bradycardia were evident. The endocrinologic abnormalities and poor thermoregulation remained. Administration of immunoglobulins during late stages of idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunction led to improvement in some but not all signs. Assuming an autoimmune basis for this disorder, treatment during early stages of disease should be more effective. To facilitate such early treatment, increased awareness of this disorder is necessary, to allow for early diagnosis.

  13. Autoreactivity of primary human immunoglobulins ancestral to hypermutated human antibodies that neutralize HCMV.

    PubMed

    McLean, Gary R; Cho, Chin-wen; Schrader, John W

    2006-05-01

    The human antibody response to the AD-2S1 epitope of glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is dominated by a family of closely related somatically mutated antibodies. These antibodies neutralize viral infectivity and the genes encoding them are derived from two commonly used germ-line variable (V) region genes, IGHV3-30 and IGKV3-11. Recombination of these V genes with the appropriate junctional diversity generates genes that encode primary immunoglobulins that bind to AD-2S1. To further understand the initial primary immunoglobulin response to AD-2S1 we synthesized the germ-line-based ancestor of one such family of antibodies and showed that it bound gB at the AD-2S1 epitope. Here we show that the germ-line ancestor of a second family of antibodies likewise binds to gB. We further show that one of the ancestral primary immunoglobulins, but not the other, also recognized autoantigens. In contrast, the hypermutated derivatives did not demonstrate autoreactivity and minor structural changes in the primary immunoglobulin were sufficient to generate or abolish autoreactivity or to change specificity. Thus, our demonstration that the ancestor of a highly mutated, non-autoreactive antiviral IgG antibody binds nuclear and cell-surface autoantigens indicates for the first time that self-reactivity is not necessarily a barrier to development into a follicular B lymphocyte that undergoes antigen-initiated affinity maturation.

  14. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy for inflammatory neuropathy: current evidence base and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2014-06-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is of proven effect in chronic inflammatory neuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). In more recent years, there have been a number of anecdotal case reports and small series, followed by a few trials of variable design, of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in these neuropathies. To date, limited evidence suggests that the subcutaneous route may be a more clinically effective, better-tolerated, at least cost-equivalent and a more patient-friendly option than the still more used intravenous alternative. Long-term efficacy is not as yet established in neuropathic indications by randomised controlled clinical trial evidence, and it is likely that the subcutaneous route may not be suitable in all cases with some hints to this effect appearing from the limited data available to date. Further studies are ongoing, including those of dose comparison, and more are likely to be planned in future. The literature on the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in chronic inflammatory neuropathy is reviewed here. The current use in clinical practice, day-to-day benefits, including quality of life measures and health economics as published thus far, are evaluated. The limitations of this form of treatment in CIDP and MMN are also analysed in the light of current literature and taking into account the remaining unknowns. Future prospects and research with this mode of immunoglobulin therapy administration are discussed.

  15. Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene organization and complexity in the skate, Raja erinacea.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, F A; Cohen, N; Litman, G W

    1990-01-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from Raja erinacea have been isolated by cross hybridization with probes derived from the immunoglobulin genes of Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a representative of a different elasmobranch order. Heavy chain variable (VH), diversity (DH) and joining (JH) segments are linked closely to constant region (CH) exons, as has been described in another elasmobranch. The nucleotide sequence homology of VH gene segments within Raja and between different elasmobranch species is high, suggesting that members of this phylogenetic subclass may share one VH family. The organization of immunoglobulin genes segments is diverse; both VD-J and VD-DJ joined genes have been detected in the genome of non-lymphoid cells. JH segment sequence diversity is high, in contrast to that seen in a related elasmobranch. These data suggest that the clustered V-D-J-C form of immunoglobulin heavy chain organization, including germline joined components, may occur in all subclasses of elasmobranchs. While variation in VH gene structure is limited, gene organization appears to be diverse. Images PMID:2107524

  16. Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene organization and complexity in the skate, Raja erinacea.

    PubMed

    Harding, F A; Cohen, N; Litman, G W

    1990-02-25

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from Raja erinacea have been isolated by cross hybridization with probes derived from the immunoglobulin genes of Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a representative of a different elasmobranch order. Heavy chain variable (VH), diversity (DH) and joining (JH) segments are linked closely to constant region (CH) exons, as has been described in another elasmobranch. The nucleotide sequence homology of VH gene segments within Raja and between different elasmobranch species is high, suggesting that members of this phylogenetic subclass may share one VH family. The organization of immunoglobulin genes segments is diverse; both VD-J and VD-DJ joined genes have been detected in the genome of non-lymphoid cells. JH segment sequence diversity is high, in contrast to that seen in a related elasmobranch. These data suggest that the clustered V-D-J-C form of immunoglobulin heavy chain organization, including germline joined components, may occur in all subclasses of elasmobranchs. While variation in VH gene structure is limited, gene organization appears to be diverse.

  17. On the genomics of immunoglobulins in the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinxin; Olp, Jonathan J; Miller, Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Annotated maps of the IGH, IGK, and IGL loci in the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica were generated from analyses of the available whole genome sequence for this species. Analyses of their content and organization confirmed a number of previous conclusions based on characterization of complementary DNAs encoding opossum immunoglobulin heavy and light chains and limited genomic analysis, including (a) the predominance of a single immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) subgroup and clan, (b) the presence of a single immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclass, (c) the apparent absence of an IgD, and (d) the general organization and V gene complexity of the IGK and IGL light chain loci. In addition, several unexpected discoveries were made including the presence of a partial V to D, germline-joined IGHV segment, the first germline-joined Ig V gene to be found in a mammal. In addition was the presence of a larger number of IGKV subgroups than had been previously identified. With this report, annotated maps of the major histocompatibility complex, T-cell receptor, and immunoglobulin loci have been completed for M. domestica, the only non-eutherian mammalian species for which this has been accomplished, strengthening the utility of this species as a model organism.

  18. Lambda Hyperon and Anti-Lambda Hyperon Production in Proton-Antiproton Collisions at SQRT.S = 1.8 Tev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, Dennis Keith

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of Lambda and |Lambda production have been studied from data obtained from p p collisions at sqrt{rm s} = 1.8 TeV during the first running period of experiment E735 from January to May of 1987. The experiment was conducted at the Fermi National Laboratory Tevatron collider. Five million triggers from an integrated luminosity of about 1over 3 nb^{ -1} were written to tape during this initial run of E735. Using a magnetic spectrometer arm a sample of 413 Lambda's + = Lambda's were found in these events. The transverse momentum spectrum, the ratio Lambda/(all charged particles) and the ratio Lambda/proton were studied from this sample. These were compared to the findings at lower energies and also to the results of a Monte Carlo program from another experiment. The average transverse momentum was found to be 0.77 +/- 0.06 +/- 0.08, an increase of about 24% from the value found at sqrt{rm s} = 540 GeV (CERN SPS) and an increase of about 55% from sqrt{rm s} = 53 GeV (CERN ISR). The Lambda/(all charged particle) ratio was also found to increase from 0.009 +/- 0.001 at sqrt{rm s} = 53 GeV (CERN ISR) and 0.019 +/- 0.004 at sqrt{rm s} = 540 GeV (CERN SPS), to 0.026 +/- 0.002 +/- 0.004 at our energy of sqrt{rm s} = 1.8 TeV. The lambda/proton ratio was found to be 0.38 +/- 0.03 +/- 0.06. This ratio shows no increase from lower energies. The lambda/proton ratio was used to find the strangeness suppression factor (lambda) from the quark combinatoric model of hadron production. We obtain a value lambda = 0.34 +/- 0.05 in agreement with the values found at lower energies. The increase in the ratio lambda/all charged particles as a function of center of mass energy is not inconsistent with the formation of quark-gluon plasma. However, the constant ratio of lambda/proton production is not expected in quark-gluon plasma production. Moreover, our data seem to agree with the UA5 Monte Carlo data, which does not include quark-gluon plasma production. Based on Lambda

  19. Longitudinal Spin Transfer to Lambda and Anti-Lambda Hyperons Produced in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at Center of Mass Energy = 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendejas, Ramon

    Studies on the spin structure of the proton have been an active area of research; after the EMC experiment and subsequent experiments found that only about 30% of the total proton spin is carried by quark spins. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the world's first and only polarized proton collider. The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) has full azimuthal acceptance and is ideally suited to advance studies of the proton spin. The longitudinal spin transfer, DLL, of lambda and anti-lambda hyperons in longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions is sensitive to quark and anti-quark polarization in the polarized proton; as well as to polarized fragmentation; and has been proposed as a possible probe of (anti-)strange quark polarization. The STAR collaboration has previously reported an initial proof-of-concept measurement of DLL of lambda and anti-lambda hyperons from a data sample obtained at sqr(s)=200 GeV in 2005. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2 pb- with 50% beam polarization. Considerably larger data samples corresponding to 6.5 pb- and 25 pb- with beam polarizations of 57% at sqr(s)=200 GeV were obtained in 2006 and 2009 using an upgraded instrument. Improvements were made on the analysis procedure to reduce background contribution to the lambda + anti-lambda measurements. These new measurements of DLL form the main topic of this dissertation. The sample of hyperons residing within a jet that triggered the experiment are classified as near-side hyperons, and are analyzed separately from an away-side sample that has similar precision. In addition to DLL, the double longitudinal spin asymmetry, A LL, for the production of lambda and anti-lambda hyperons has been extracted. The dependences of DLL on pseudo-rapidity, pT , and the fragmentation ratio, z, are studied. The stated DLL from lambda and anti-lambda each disfavor one of the published model predictions for DLL for a combined lambda and anti-lambda sample, and are

  20. UTILIZING SYNTHETIC UV SPECTRA TO EXPLORE THE PHYSICAL BASIS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAMBDA BOÖTIS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.; Romo, Christopher A.; Prabhaker, Arvind; Neff, James E.; Steele, Patricia A.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-04-15

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This intriguing stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star, Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. The possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars’ unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. In this paper, using observed and synthetic spectra, we explore the physical basis for the classification of Lambda Boo stars, and develop quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. Based on these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we conclude that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  1. Utilizing Synthetic UV Spectra to Explore the Physical Basis for the Classification of Lambda Boötis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.; Romo, Christopher A.; Prabhaker, Arvind; Steele, Patricia A.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This intriguing stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star, Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. The possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars’ unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. In this paper, using observed and synthetic spectra, we explore the physical basis for the classification of Lambda Boo stars, and develop quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. Based on these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we conclude that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  2. Lambda bacteriophage-mediated transduction of ColE1 deoxyribonucleic acid having a lambda bacteriophage-cohesive end site: selection of packageable-length deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Umene, K; Shimada, K; Tsuzuki, T; Mori, R; Takagi, Y

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro recombinant ColE1-cos lambda deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, pKY96, has 70% of the length of lambda phage DNA. The process of lambda phage-mediated transduction of pKY96 generated a small amount of transducing phage particles containing ColE1-cos lambda DNA molecules of 80 or 101% of the length of lambda phage DNA, in addition to those containing original pKY96 DNA molecules. The newly isolated larger plasmid DNAs were transduced 100 times more efficiently than pKY96 DNA. Their structures were compared with that of a prototype pKY96 DNA, and the mechanism of the formation of these molecules is discussed. Images PMID:158007

  3. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF MONOCLONAL IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN DEPOSITION DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Freund, K Bailey; Lee, Winston; Cohen, Ben Z; Seshan, Surya V; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate unusual retinal findings in a patient with progressive renal failure due to idiopathic monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain deposition disease, using multimodal imaging. Observational case report of a 43-year-old white man with renal failure due to light chain deposition disease. His course over 6 years was documented with multimodal imaging including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Additional evaluations included ocular ultrasound, electroretinography, positron emission tomography, serum protein electrophoreses, skeletal surveys to detect osteolytic lesions, and renal, liver, and rectal biopsies in search of amyloid. The patient's ocular course mirrored the severity of his renal dysfunction for which he required a renal transplant. Changes observed in the native kidney recurred in the transplant 2 years later, as evidenced by immunohistochemistry, revealing thick linear deposits of kappa chains, with no complement, overlying the glomerular basement membrane. The systemic workup was negative for amyloid but showed an overwhelming ratio of kappa to lambda light chains on serum protein electrophoreses and no clinical signs of plasma cell dyscrasias, all consistent with idiopathic light chain deposition disease. The patient presented with a generalized, bilateral "leopard-spot" fundus appearance on fundus autofluorescence, striking globular subretinal deposits on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and subfoveal subretinal fluid without retinal pigment epithelium detachment or choroidal effusions. The subfoveal fluid did not respond to intravitreal injections of antiangiogenic agents or steroids but resolved after renal transplantation. A temporary posttransplant visual improvement was associated with lessening of the subretinal drusenoid deposits demonstrated by multimodal imaging. The terminal vision deterioration was associated with amorphous

  4. Inhibitory effect of tocotrienol on eukaryotic DNA polymerase {lambda} and angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki . E-mail: mizushin@nutr.kobegakuin.ac.jp; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Shibata, Akira; Awata, Yasutoshi; Kuriyama, Isoko; Shimazaki, Noriko; Koiwai, Osamu; Uchiyama, Yukinobu; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Miyazawa, Teruo; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2006-01-20

    Tocotrienols, vitamin E compounds that have an unsaturated side chain with three double bonds, selectively inhibited the activity of mammalian DNA polymerase {lambda} (pol {lambda}) in vitro. These compounds did not influence the activities of replicative pols such as {alpha}, {delta}, and {epsilon}, or even the activity of pol {beta} which is thought to have a very similar three-dimensional structure to the pol {beta}-like region of pol {lambda}. Since {delta}-tocotrienol had the strongest inhibitory effect among the four ({alpha}- to {delta}-) tocotrienols, the isomer's structure might be an important factor in the inhibition of pol {lambda}. The inhibitory effect of {delta}-tocotrienol on both intact pol {lambda} (residues 1-575) and a truncated pol {lambda} lacking the N-terminal BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) domain (residues 133-575, del-1 pol {lambda}) was dose-dependent, with 50% inhibition observed at a concentration of 18.4 and 90.1 {mu}M, respectively. However, del-2 pol {lambda} (residues 245-575) containing the C-terminal pol {beta}-like region was unaffected. Tocotrienols also inhibited the proliferation of and formation of tubes by bovine aortic endothelial cells, with {delta}-tocotrienol having the greatest effect. These results indicated that tocotrienols targeted both pol {lambda} and angiogenesis as anti-cancer agents. The relationship between the inhibition of pol {lambda} and anti-angiogenesis by {delta}-tocotrienol was discussed.

  5. Stochastic cellular fate decision making by multiple infecting lambda phage.

    PubMed

    Robb, Matthew L; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is a classic system for the study of cellular decision making. Both experiments and mathematical models have demonstrated the importance of viral concentration in the lysis-lysogeny decision outcome in lambda phage. However, a recent experimental study using single cell and single phage resolution reported that cells with the same viral concentrations but different numbers of infecting phage (multiplicity of infection) can have markedly different rates of lysogeny. Thus the decision depends on not only viral concentration, but also directly on the number of infecting phage. Here, we attempt to provide a mechanistic explanation of these results using a simple stochastic model of the lambda phage genetic network. Several potential factors including intrinsic gene expression noise, spatial dynamics and cell-cycle effects are investigated. We find that interplay between the level of intrinsic noise and viral protein decision threshold is a major factor that produces dependence on multiplicity of infection. However, simulations suggest spatial segregation of phage particles does not play a significant role. Cellular image processing is used to re-analyse the original time-lapse movies from the recent study and it is found that higher numbers of infecting phage reduce the cell elongation rate. This could also contribute to the observed phenomena as cellular growth rate can affect transcription rates. Our model further predicts that rate of lysogeny is dependent on bacterial growth rate, which can be experimentally tested. Our study provides new insight on the mechanisms of individual phage decision making. More generally, our results are relevant for the understanding of gene-dosage compensation in cellular systems.

  6. [Completion pneumonectomy for pulmonary aspergillosis with hyper immunoglobulin-E syndrome].

    PubMed

    Arai, H; Rino, Y; Nishii, T; Andou, K; Kurosawa, R; Kuroki, F; Imagawa, T; Mori, M; Yokota, S; Oshiro, H; Takanashi, Y

    2006-03-01

    A 22-year-old man was admitted to the department of pediatrics of our institute in February 2005, because of pulmonary aspergillosis. He had been diagnosed as hyper immunoglobulin-E syndrome in infancy, and repeated pulmonary infectious desease, such as pulmonary aspergillosis. He received art of right upper lobectomy by pulmonary aspergillosis at the age of 17. In February 2005, he had hemosputum and the chest X-ray showed a giant cavity with niveau in the right lung. In spite of medical treatment by antibiotics and antimycotics, the lesion rapidly increased in size. Therefore, right completion pneumonectomy and omentopexy around the bronchial stump was done. His postoperative course was uneventful.

  7. Symptomatic Primary Selective Immunoglobulin M Deficiency with Nonprotective Pneumococcal Titers Responsive to Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shiven S; Fergeson, Jennifer E; Glaum, Mark C; Lockey, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    Selective immunoglobulin M deficiency (SIgMD) is a rare disorder with varying clinical features. The prevalence of SIgMD is 0.03-3%. Patients may be asymptomatic or else present with recurrent infection, autoimmunity, atopic disease and/or malignancy. About 50% of patients with symptomatic SIgMD also have impaired antibody responses to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. We report on an adult who presented with symptomatic SIgMD with impaired pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody responses and lymphopenia, who experienced a significant clinical improvement in the frequency of infections after subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy.

  8. Successful treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with subcutaneous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, A; Fonseca Oliveira, J; Pinheiro, S; Paiva-Lopes, M J

    2016-05-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is well established. However, side effects might limit its use and lead to the consideration of therapeutic alternatives, such as the subcutaneous formulation of immunoglobulin, which has been used in some patients with other autoimmune diseases. We report a case of SLE refractory to classical therapies. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin was effective, but gave rise to significant side effects. The patient was successfully treated with subcutaneous human immunoglobulin, achieving and maintaining clinical and laboratory remission. A lower immunoglobulin dose was needed and no side effects were observed, compared to the intravenous administration. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin could be a better-tolerated and cost-saving therapeutic option for select SLE patients.

  9. Synthesis of immunoglobulins by human endocervix in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, M. E.; Buchan, A.; Skinner, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of immunoglobulins by the uterine cervix was investigated in an endocervical organ-culture system. Using Ouchterlony immunodiffusion gels immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A and secretory piece were detected in washings of endocervical explants and in explant incubation medium. Synthesis of immunoglobulin in the organ-culture system was investigated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of radiolabelled polypeptides; 2 polypeptides co-migrated with the heavy and light chains of a reference polyclonal immunoglobulin G and were confirmed, by use of anti-human globulin and iodinated staphylococcal protein A, to be the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin G. This experimental system will provide a useful model in future investigations of the efficacy of a local vaccine in human subjects. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6803822

  10. Synthesis of immunoglobulins by human endocervix in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R

    1982-04-01

    The synthesis of immunoglobulins by the uterine cervix was investigated in an endocervical organ-culture system. Using Ouchterlony immunodiffusion gels immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A and secretory piece were detected in washings of endocervical explants and in explant incubation medium. Synthesis of immunoglobulin in the organ-culture system was investigated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of radiolabelled polypeptides; 2 polypeptides co-migrated with the heavy and light chains of a reference polyclonal immunoglobulin G and were confirmed, by use of anti-human globulin and iodinated staphylococcal protein A, to be the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin G. This experimental system will provide a useful model in future investigations of the efficacy of a local vaccine in human subjects.

  11. An improved lambda-scheme for one-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, G.; Dipiano, M. T.

    1983-01-01

    A code for the calculation of one-dimensional flows is presented, which combines a simple and efficient version of the lambda-scheme with tracking of discontinuities. The latter is needed to identify points where minor departures from the basic integration scheme are applied to prevent infiltration of numerical errors. Such a tracking is obtained via a systematic application of Boolean algebra. It is, therefore, very efficient. Fifteen examples are presented and discussed in detail. The results are exceptionally good. All discontinuites are captured within one mesh interval.

  12. {Lambda}CDM universe in f(R) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Elizalde, Emilio; Saez-Gomez, Diego; Goswami, Rituparno; Odintsov, Sergei

    2010-07-15

    Several different explicit reconstructions of f(R) gravity are obtained from the background Friedmann-Laimatre-Robertson-Walker expansion history. It is shown that the only theory whose Lagrangian is a simple function of the Ricci scalar R, that admits an exact {Lambda}CDM expansion history, is standard general relativity with a positive cosmological constant and the only way to obtain this behavior of the scale factor for more general functions of R is to add additional degrees of freedom to the matter sector.

  13. GAS CLUMPING IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF {Lambda}CDM CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.

    2011-04-10

    Recent Suzaku X-ray observations revealed that the observed entropy profile of the intracluster medium (ICM) deviates significantly from the prediction of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. In this work, we show that gas clumping introduces significant biases in X-ray measurements of the ICM profiles in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. Using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation in a concordance {Lambda}CDM model, we demonstrate that gas clumping leads to an overestimate of the observed gas density and causes flattening of the entropy profile. Our results suggest that gas clumping must be taken into account when interpreting X-ray measurements of cluster outskirts.

  14. [Development and study of properties of immunoglobulins against Lassa fever].

    PubMed

    Krasnianskiĭ, V P; Gradoboev, V N; Borisevich, I V; Potryvaeva, N V; Lebedinskaia, E V; Chernikova, N K; Timan'kova, G D

    1997-01-01

    A horse may serve the producer of immune antiserum to Lassa virus. Specific immunoglobulin with at least 1:512 titer of virus-neutralizing antibodies to Lassa fever was obtained by alcohol sedimentation after Cohn from the blood serum of immunized horses. The preparation does not differ from heterologous commercial immunoglobulins. Preclinical studies of immunoglobulin to Lassa fever demonstrated its safety and a high specific activity. The agent can be injected both alone and in combination with virasole.

  15. Poliomyelitis: immunoglobulin-containing cells in the central nervous system in acute and convalescent phases of the human disease.

    PubMed Central

    Esiri, M M

    1980-01-01

    The immunoperoxidase method has been used to demonstrate the presence of immunoglobulin-containing cells in the central nervous system in acute and convalescent phases of poliomyelitis. These cells were found in considerable numbers in the areas of damage during the acute phase, and persisted at the same sites, though in smaller numbers, during the convalescent phase for at least 8 months. Most of the positively stained cells were plasma cells. IgA was the commonest heavy chain type demonstrated, with lesser amounts also of IgG and, during the acute phase, IgM. In the acute phase more lambda than kappa light chain was demonstrated but in the convalescent phase this ratio was reversed. More light chain than heavy chain was demonstrable during the acute phase. The significance of these results is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6771081

  16. Tumor cells of hairy cell leukemia express multiple clonally related immunoglobulin isotypes via RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Forconi, F; Sahota, S S; Raspadori, D; Mockridge, C I; Lauria, F; Stevenson, F K

    2001-08-15

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) derives from a mature B cell and expresses markers associated with activation. Analysis of immunoglobulin variable region genes has revealed somatic mutation in most cases, consistent with an origin from a cell that has encountered the germinal center. One unusual feature of hairy cells (HCs) is the frequent expression of multiple immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, with dominance of immunoglobulin (Ig)--G3, but only a single light chain type. The origin and clonal relationship of these isotype variants have been unclear. In order to probe the isotype switching status of HCL, RNA transcripts of V(H)DJ(H)--constant region sequences from 5 cases of typical HCL, all expressing multiple surface immunoglobulin isotypes, were analyzed. Tumor V(H)DJ(H)--C(mu) sequences were identified and found to be somatically mutated (range, 1.4% to 6.5%), with a low level of intraclonal heterogeneity. Additional immunoglobulin isotypes of identical V(H)DJ(H) sequence were also identified, including IgD (5 of 5), IgG3 (5 of 5), IgG1 (3 of 5), IgG2 (2 of 5), IgA1 (4 of 5), and IgA2 (1 of 5). Derivation of multiple isotypes from individual cells was demonstrated by analyzing transcripts in single sorted cells from one patient, with evidence for coexistence of isotype variants in 10 of 10 cells. These findings indicate that clonally related multiple isotypes coexist in single HCs, with individual isotypes presumably generated via RNA splicing. Production of IgG3 appears common, but IgG1, IgG2, IgA1, and IgA2 also arise, indicating a continuing influence of a directed process on the tumor clone. These HCs appear to be arrested at the point of isotype switch, where RNA processing may precede deletional recombination. (Blood. 2001;98:1174-1181)

  17. Radiative decays of the Sigma0(1385) and Lambda(1520) hyperons

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Taylor; Gordon Mutchler; CLAS Collaboration

    2005-03-01

    The electromagnetic decays of the {Sigma}{sup 0}(1385) and {Lambda}(1520) hyperons were studied in photon-induced reactions {gamma} p {yields} K{sup +} {Lambda}(1116){gamma} in the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. We report the first observation of the radiative decay of the {Sigma}{sup 0}(1385) and a measurement of the {Lambda}(1520) radiative decay width. For the {Sigma}{sup 0}(1385) {yields} {Lambda}(1116){gamma} transition, we measured a partial width of 479 {+-} 120(stat){sub -100}{sup +81}(sys) keV, larger than all of the existing model predictions. For the {Lambda}(1520) {yields} {Lambda}(1116){gamma} transition, we obtained a partial width of 167 {+-} 43(stat){sub -12}{sup +26}(sys) keV.

  18. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use.

  19. Single radial immunodiffusion analysis for quantitation of colostral immunoglobulin concentration.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1981-05-01

    Relative accuracy of the single radial immunodiffusion technique to measure immunoglobulin concentrations of colostral preparations (whey, whole, or fat-free) has been assessed. Fresh colostrum samples were analyzed for major constituents. Gammaglobulin as a standard was compared to total immunoglobulin concentration derived from single radial immunodiffusion analysis of colostral preparations with no differences except between standard and whey. Differences were in part from either enhancement or interference of immunoglobulin diffusion by colostral constituents. Removal of casein and fat during whey preparations caused a concentrating effect upon immunoglobulin constituents resulting in exaggerated precipitin rings. Whey has produced unreliable results: therefore, whole colostrum is recommended for single radial immunodiffusion analysis.

  20. Secondary hypogammaglobulinemia in Waldmann's disease treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Patuzzo, G; Tinazzi, E; Micheletti, M; Puccetti, A; Lunardi, C

    2016-03-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is rare disorder characterized by congenital malformation or obstruction of intestinal lymphatic drainage; it is responsible for protein losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL management. The administration of intravenous immunoglobulins does not always lead to satisfactory plasma levels and therefore the replacement therapy with immunoglobulins is controversial. We describe here the case of a patient with PIL and severe hypogammaglobulinemia treated with immunoglobulins. The striking aspect of this case is the clinical and serological benefit obtained with the subcutaneous compared to the intravenous immunoglobulins administration.

  1. The specificity of chain interactions among immunoglobulins. Combinations of gamma chains with kappa chains of the same subgroup as in the parent immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, G T; Mole, L E

    1974-05-01

    1. The specificity of combination of heavy and light chains from selected human immunoglobulins was examined in the light of greater structural information than in previous studies. Heavy (gamma) chains from immunoglobulin G (kappa) myeloma proteins were allowed to combine with their homologous light (kappa) chains or with other kappa chains of the same variable-region subgroup. The affinity of each such pairing was assessed by having the test kappa chain compete with a standard population of normal light chains. 2. There was a spread of affinities among the heavy-light pairings with the homologous pairings having an average affinity significantly higher than the heterologous pairings. 3. It follows that (a) the preference shown for homologous heavy-light pairings is not explicable simply in terms of the known subdivisions of the variable and constant regions of the chains, and (b) it is unlikely that those residues specifying the subgroups of kappa-chain variable regions have a predominant role in the formation of interchain bonds with the gamma-chain variable regions.

  2. Lambda light chain myeloma with co-migrating paraprotein at beta region on agarose gel electrophoresis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Siti Sarah, M; Nor Aini, U; Nurismah, M I; Hafiza, A; Khalidah, M; Mokhtar, A B; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Paraproteinemia is one of the diagnostic features of multiple myeloma. A commonly used method is the detection of paraprotein by agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) followed by by immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) to confirm monoclonality. Due to their smaller size, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and light chain only paraproteins may appear at the beta or even alpha 2 protein fractions. Here, we discuss a case report of a 47-year-old man who presented with pathological fracture of third thoracic (T3) vertebra. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) was initially reported as no paraprotein detected. However, a bone biopsy was reported to show plasma cell proliferation with light chain restriction. A repeat sample for protein electrophoresis together with IFE revealed lambda light chain paraprotein co-migrating at the beta region. The beta band plus paraprotein was quantitated as 4.3 g/L (7.0%), which was within normal limits of the beta protein fraction. Hence, it has to be remembered that if the SPE is negative, it does not necessarily mean that the paraprotein is absent in cases which are highly suspicious.

  3. Collaborative study to establish human immunoglobulin BRP batch 3 and human immunoglobulin (molecular size) BRP batch 1.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, E; Daas, A; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2006-11-01

    A study was carried out by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) as part of the joint Biological Standardisation Programme of the Council of Europe and the European Commission with the aim to establish replacement batches of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) human immunoglobulin Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 2. Twenty-eight laboratories participated in this study. The suitability of the candidate reference preparations to serve as working references in the tests for distribution of the molecular size, anticomplementary activity and Fc function, in accordance with the specifications of the Ph. Eur. monographs Human normal immunoglobulin for intravenous administration (0918), Human normal immunoglobulin (0338) and Anti-T lymphocyte immunoglobulin for human use, animal (1928) was demonstrated. The candidates were therefore established as human immunoglobulin BRP batch 3 and Human immunoglobulin (molecular size) BRP batch 1. The prescribed use of the latter BRP is limited to the test for distribution of molecular size.

  4. Measurements of Lambda{sub c}{sup +} Branching Fractions of Cabibbo-Suppressed Decay Modes.

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, Muhammad

    2004-08-10

    The authors have measured the branching fractions of the Cabibbo-suppressed decays {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} --> {Lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +} and {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} --> {Sigma}{sup 0}K{sup +} relative to the Cabibbo-allowed decay modes {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} --> {Lambda}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} and {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} --> {Sigma}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} to be 0.044 {+-} 0.004 (stat.) {+-} 0.002 (syst.) and 0.040 {+-} 0.005 (stat.) {+-} 0.004 (syst.), respectively. They also present the first observation of {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} --> {Lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and have measured the branching fraction relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} --> {Lambda}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} to be 0.266 {+-} 0.027 (stat.) {+-} 0.032 (syst.). The upper limit of the branching fraction into the decay {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} --> {Sigma}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} --> {Sigma}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} has been measured to be < 3.9 x 10{sup -2} at the 90% confidence level. This analysis was performed using a data sample of 125 fb{sup -1} (integrated luminosity) collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. All results presented in this contribution are preliminary.

  5. ON THE COMPLETENESS AND QUASIPOWER BASIS PROPERTY OF SYSTEMS \\{z^nf(\\lambda_nz)\\}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskolkov, V. A.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses questions of completeness and the quasipower property in spaces A_R of systems of functions \\{z^nf(\\lambda_nz)\\} under some natural conditions on the Taylor coefficients of the function f(z), assumed regular in a disk \\vert z\\vert. The complex numbers \\lambda_n ( n=0,1,\\dots) are subject to the condition \\vert\\lambda_n\\vert\\leqslant1. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  6. Approximating the Poisson Scan and (lambda-sigma) Acoustic Detection Model with the Random Search Formula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    of area search with acoustic sensors modeled by the Poisson Scan model and the Lambda-Sigma model. Detection time results are compared to those...MATLAB simulation of area search with acoustic sensors modeled by the Poisson Scan model and the Lambda-Sigma  model. Detection time results are...study, the author develops a MATLAB simulation of area search with acoustic sensors modeled by the Poisson Scan and the Lambda-Sigma  models. Both

  7. Detection of single lambda DNA fragments by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Keller, R.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated flow cytometric detection and sizing of single pieces of fluorescently stained lambda DNA (48.5 kb) and individual Kpn I restriction fragments of lambda DNA at 17.05 kb and 29.95 kb. DNA fragments were stained stoichiometrically with an intercalating dye such that the fluorescence from each fragment was directly proportional to fragment length. Laser powers range from 10 to 100 mW and transit times through the focused laser beam were several milliseconds. Measurements were made using time-resolved single photon counting of the detected fluorescence emission from individual stained DNA fragments. Samples were analyzed at rates of about 50 fragments per second. The measured fluorescence intensities are linearly correlated with DNA fragment length over the range measured. Detection sensitivity and resolution needed for analysis of small pieces of DNA are discussed and a comparison of single photon counting measurements of DNA fragments to measurements using more conventional flow cytometers is made. Applications of this methodology to DNA sizing and DNA fingerprinting are discussed.

  8. ASTEROSEISMOLOGICAL MODELING OF THE MULTIPERIODIC {lambda} BOOTIS STAR 29 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, R.; Moya, A.; Martin-Ruiz, S.; Amado, P. J.; Garrido, R.; Suarez, J. C.; Rodriguez-Lopez, C

    2009-05-20

    The present work focuses on the discussion of the {lambda} Bootis nature of the multiperiodic {delta} Scuti star HD 192640 (29 Cyg), through a comprehensive asteroseismic modeling. Some of the most recent asteroseismic tools are used to check whether the observed low metallicity is internal, i.e., intrinsic, present throughout the star, or due to superficial processes as accretion, diffusive settling, radiative levitation, mass loss, etc. The modeling method uses some of the most recent tools, including: (1) effects of rotation on equilibrium models, on the adiabatic oscillation spectrum, and its influence in multicolor observables, (2) nonadiabatic stability of radial and nonradial modes, (3) inclusion of the atmosphere-pulsation interaction for a more accurate multicolor mode identification, and (4) ratio between radial modes n = 4 and n = 5 in the framework of Petersen diagrams. The analysis performed reveals that the models fulfilling all the constraints are those in the middle of the main sequence (MS), with subsolar metallicity, except some other unlikely possibilities. Therefore, this study does not support the idea of the {lambda} Bootis stars being zero-age MS or pre-MS stars interacting with their primordial cloud of gas and dust, but suggest the explanation of their nature as submetallic MS objects. Nevertheless, more accurate multicolor photometric observations are required for a more conclusive study using the procedure presented here, since the observational errors are too large for a definitive rejection of any of the possible explanations.

  9. Degradation of lambda-carrageenan by Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora lambda-carrageenase: a new family of glycoside hydrolases unrelated to kappa- and iota-carrageenases.

    PubMed

    Guibet, Marion; Colin, Sébastien; Barbeyron, Tristan; Genicot, Sabine; Kloareg, Bernard; Michel, Gurvan; Helbert, William

    2007-05-15

    Carrageenans are sulfated galactans found in the cell walls of red seaweeds. They are classified according to the number and the position of sulfate ester groups. lambda-Carrageenan is the most sulfated carrageenan and carries at least three sulfates per disaccharide unit. The sole known depolymerizing enzyme of lambda-carrageenan, the lambda-carrageenase from Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora, has been purified, cloned and sequenced. Sequence analyses have revealed that the lambda-carrageenase, referred to as CglA, is the first member of a new family of GHs (glycoside hydrolases), which is unrelated to families GH16, that contains kappa-carrageenases, and GH82, that contains iota-carrageenases. This large enzyme (105 kDa) features a low-complexity region, suggesting the presence of a linker connecting at least two independent modules. The N-terminal region is predicted to fold as a beta-propeller. The main degradation products have been purified and characterized as neo-lambda-carratetraose [DP (degree of polymerization) 4] and neo-lambda-carrahexaose (DP6), indicating that CglA hydrolyses the beta-(1-->4) linkage of lambda-carrageenan. LC-MALLS (liquid chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering) and (1)H-NMR monitoring of the enzymatic degradation of lambda-carrageenan indicate that CglA proceeds according to an endolytic mode of action and a mechanism of inversion of the anomeric configuration. Using 2-aminoacridone-labelled neo-lambda-carrabiose oligosaccharides, in the present study we demonstrate that the active site of CglA comprises at least 8 subsites (-4 to +4) and that a DP6 oligosaccharide binds in the subsites -4 to +2 and can be hydrolysed into DP4 and DP2.

  10. Hydrodynamic and electrophoretic fingerprinting in the pH, p[lambda] domain

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A new technique, hydrodynamic fingerprinting, is presented for the characterization and study of colloidal dispersions on the basis of their hydrodynamic behavior. In the hydrodynamic fingerprint the hydrodynamic size as measured by photon correlation spectroscopy is presented as a function of two colloidal state variables simultaneously. There is an acid-base variable, pH, and a conductivity variable, p[lambda]. Hydrodynamic fingerprinting is applied to four polymer latexes, two polystyrene latexes, one with a sulfate surface and one with a carboxyl surface, and two methyl maehacrylate-ethyl acrylate latexes, one of which contains 2% acrylic acid. It is shown that hydrodynamic fingerprinting can be used to study colloidal stability, expandable properties of colloids, time effects in colloidal solutions, and the surface chemistry of the colloid-solution interface. A combinatorial hydrodynamic-electrokinetic fingerprinting analysis of the acid copolymer latex is also presented. This approach can be used to gain insight into ambiguous electrokinetic behavior, and to study the surface charge characteristics of colloidal dispersions.

  11. Immunoglobulin Fc gamma receptor promotes immunoglobulin uptake, immunoglobulin-mediated calcium increase, and neurotransmitter release in motor neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, Habib A.; Mosier, Dennis R.; Zou, Ling L.; Siklos, Laszlo; Alexianu, Maria E.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Beers, David R.; Le, Wei-dong; Appel, Stanley H.

    2002-01-01

    Receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG; FcgammaRs) facilitate IgG uptake by effector cells as well as cellular responses initiated by IgG binding. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient IgG can be taken up by motor neuron terminals and transported retrogradely to the cell body and can alter the function of neuromuscular synapses, such as increasing intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release from motor axon terminals after passive transfer. In the present study, we examined whether FcgammaR-mediated processes can contribute to these effects of ALS patient immunoglobulins. F(ab')(2) fragments (which lack the Fc portion) of ALS patient IgG were not taken up by motor axon terminals and were not retrogradely transported. Furthermore, in a genetically modified mouse lacking the gamma subunit of the FcR, the uptake of whole ALS IgG and its ability to enhance intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release were markedly attenuated. These data suggest that FcgammaRs appear to participate in IgG uptake into motor neurons as well as IgG-mediated increases in intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release from motor axon terminals. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Immunoglobulin Fc gamma receptor promotes immunoglobulin uptake, immunoglobulin-mediated calcium increase, and neurotransmitter release in motor neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, Habib A.; Mosier, Dennis R.; Zou, Ling L.; Siklos, Laszlo; Alexianu, Maria E.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Beers, David R.; Le, Wei-dong; Appel, Stanley H.

    2002-01-01

    Receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG; FcgammaRs) facilitate IgG uptake by effector cells as well as cellular responses initiated by IgG binding. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient IgG can be taken up by motor neuron terminals and transported retrogradely to the cell body and can alter the function of neuromuscular synapses, such as increasing intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release from motor axon terminals after passive transfer. In the present study, we examined whether FcgammaR-mediated processes can contribute to these effects of ALS patient immunoglobulins. F(ab')(2) fragments (which lack the Fc portion) of ALS patient IgG were not taken up by motor axon terminals and were not retrogradely transported. Furthermore, in a genetically modified mouse lacking the gamma subunit of the FcR, the uptake of whole ALS IgG and its ability to enhance intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release were markedly attenuated. These data suggest that FcgammaRs appear to participate in IgG uptake into motor neurons as well as IgG-mediated increases in intracellular calcium and acetylcholine release from motor axon terminals. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. [Dermatomyositis and Panniculitis: the function of immunoglobulins].

    PubMed

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Panniculitis is an inflammatory disease of subcutaneous adipose tissue which is rarely associated with dermatomyositis. It can occur before, after or simultaneously with muscle damage. In most cases, the evolution of panniculitis and of other dermatomyositis affections is favorable with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants. We report the case of a 48 year-old patient who developed panniculitis lesions 2 months before having muscular signs. Skin involvement was resistant to corticosteroid treatment associated with immunosuppressants drugs. This led to the use of polyvalent immunoglobulin treatment improving both skin and muscle damage.

  14. [Secretory immunoglobulin A in amniotic fluid].

    PubMed

    Briese, V; Straube, W; Brock, J; Lorenz, U

    1983-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) was estimated in amniotic fluid samples by means of the single radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini. A monospecific antiserum against human secretory component was used. 163 amniotic fluid samples from normal pregnancies and risk pregnancies respectively were investigated. Within the 3rd trimenon the S-IgA content in amniotic fluid increased significantly. With respect to literature and examinations performed previously a connection between S-IgA content in amniotic fluid and fetal lung maturity seems to be possible.

  15. Secondary erythromelalgia successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Moody, Shadé; Pacheco, Susan; Butler, Ian J; Koenig, Mary Kay

    2012-07-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare condition characterized by episodic painful erythema and warmth often affecting, but not limited to, the distal extremities. This condition is notoriously difficult to treat. We report a young female patient with seronegative polyarthritis who presented with a 6-year history of recurrent bouts of painful erythema and swelling often triggered by minor trauma. An extensive evaluation was unremarkable. Several medical therapies provided limited and inconsistent relief of her symptoms over many years. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin significantly decreased the frequency and severity of her symptoms.

  16. Lambda production in electron-positron annihilation at 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Baden, A.R.

    1986-08-01

    The inclusive cross-secton for the production of the singly-strange baryons lambda and anti lambda, along with the differential cross-sections in momentum and energy, are measured by e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 29GeV. The charged decay mode lambda ..-->.. p..pi.. is used in a search for polarization. Such a polarization may be used as a check of CP invariance in lambda production. The sample of events with two detected decays is analyzed for correlations in production angle. 43 refs., 44 figs.

  17. Circular dimers of a lambda DNA in infected, nonlysogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Freifelder, D; Baran, N; Folkmanis, A; Freifelder, D L

    1977-09-01

    Covalently closed circular dimers of phage lambda DNA have been found in Escherichia coli infected with lambda. These dimers can be formed by either the lambda Red or Int systems, by a nonrecombinational replicative mechanism requiring the activity of the lambda O and P genes or by joining of the cohesive ends. Dimers mediated by the E. coli Rec system have not been observed. Those formed by the Int system often result from recombination between different DNA molecules; however, the Red-mediated dimers may be a result of replicative extension of a single DNA molecule. Trimers have also been observed but studied only briefly.

  18. Direct and general selection for lysogens of Escherichia coli by phage lambda recombinant clones.

    PubMed

    Henry, M F; Cronan, J E

    1991-06-01

    We report a simple in vivo technique for introducing an antibiotic resistance marker into phage lambda. This technique could be used for direct selection of lysogens harboring recombinant phages from the Kohara lambda bank (a collection of ordered lambda clones carrying Escherichia coli DNA segments). The two-step method uses homologous recombination and lambda DNA packaging to replace the nonessential lambda DNA lying between the lysis genes and the right cohesive (cos) end with the neomycin phosphotransferase (npt) gene from Tn903. This occurs during lytic growth of the phage on a plasmid-containing host strain. Neomycin-resistant (npt+) recombinant phages are then selected from the lysates containing the progeny phage by transduction of a polA1 lambda lysogenic host strain to neomycin resistance. We have tested this method with two different Kohara lambda phage clones; in both cases, neomycin resistance cotransduced with the auxotrophic marker carried by the lambda clone, indicating complete genetic linkage. Linkage was verified by restriction mapping of purified DNA from a recombinant phage clone. We also demonstrate that insertion of the npt+ recombinant phages into the lambda prophage can be readily distinguished from insertion into bacterial chromosomal sequences.

  19. Measurement of the Lambda_b Lifetime in Lambda_b -> Lambda_c+ pi- Decays in p-pbar Collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-12-01

    We report a measurement of the lifetime of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} baryon in decays to the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} final state in a sample corresponding to 1.1 fb{sup -1} collected in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. Using a sample of about 3000 fully reconstructed {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} events we measure {tau}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}) = 1.401 {+-} 0.046 (stat) {+-} 0.035 (syst) ps (corresponding to c{tau}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}) = 420.1 {+-} 13.7 (stat) {+-} 10.6 (syst) {micro}m, where c is the speed of light). The ratio of this result and the world average B{sup 0} lifetime yields {tau}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0})/{tau}(B{sup 0}) = 0.918 {+-} 0.038 (stat and syst), in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions.

  20. Anti-Fab antibodies in humans. Predominance of minor immunoglobulin G subclasses in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Persselin, J E; Stevens, R H

    1985-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing analyses of sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) demonstrate two populations of antibodies directed against the Fab portion of pooled human IgG. One population is composed of polyclonal alkaline anti-Fab antibodies (alpha FABA) and the other, acidic alpha FABA which are more clonally restricted. In this study we have identified the immunoglobulin classes and subclasses of these antibodies in RA sera. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) demonstrated alpha FABA in RA sera to be predominantly IgG. A large portion of IgG alpha FABA existed as immune complexes, inasmuch as dialysis of RA sera against 6 M urea before ELISA analysis was necessary for maximal detection of alpha FABA activity. Chromatofocusing of RA sera isolated alpha FABA of different charges and revealed the acidic clonally restricted alpha FABA to be IgG4 and IgG3, whereas the polyclonal alkaline group contained IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3. Overall, acidic IgG3 and IgG4 comprised 70% of IgG alpha FABA, and high levels of IgG4 were seen in most RA sera. When alpha FABA were elevated in normal sera, they were primarily of the IgG4 subclass, and also existed as immune complexes. Serum anti-Fab activity was removed by adsorption of sera with Fab fragments. Anti-Fab antibodies of both kappa and lambda light-chain types were present in RA sera, and F(ab')2 fragments of RA serum immunoglobulin were found to possess anti-Fab activity. These studies indicate that alpha FABA in RA sera are limited to the IgG class, and that most of these antibodies exist as immune complexes and display clonal and minor IgG subclass restriction. Images PMID:3928684

  1. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A.; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A.; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Riley, Lee W.; Haake, David A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudo-gene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:12890019

  2. Simultaneous observations of the He I lambda 1083 and lambda 587.6 lines in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andretta, V.

    1996-05-01

    Helium lines are generally a valuable tool to trace activity in the solar atmosphere. The most prominent lines observable from ground-based observatories are the triplet lines at 587.6 and 1083 nm, but despite the wide use of these activity tracer (especially of the latter), little progress has been made towards the exploitation of their diagnostic potential. However, recent theoretical investigations have pointed out that of correlation between the two main triplet He I lines can discriminate between different scenarios of the line formation, ultimately giving informations on the structure of the upper chromosphere/lower transition region. The observations presented here address such issues for the first time. The spectra were obtained with the FTS at the McMath/Pierce telescope on Kitt Peak; they constitute in fact a set of simultaneous observations of the two lines for several solar features. The observed joint response of lambda 587.6 and lambda 1083 to the level of chromospheric heating can thus be directly compared with theoretical predictions.

  3. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunoglobulin G (resulting from breakdown of immunoglobulin G antibodies) in urine, serum, and other body fluids. Measurement of immunoglobulin G Fc fragments aids in the diagnosis of plasma cell antibody-forming...

  4. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species. PMID:25427250

  5. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Carter, R.L.; Yamakido, Michio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE) were measured among 2,061 individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki whose estimated doses ranged from 0 to 5.6 Gy. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor were found to be increased in the individuals exposed to higher radiation doses. The IgA level in females and the IgM level in both sexes increased as radiation dose increased, although the effects of radiation exposure were not large. No effect of radiation was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody or on the levels of IgG and IgE. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins in calves.

    PubMed

    Weaver, D M; Tyler, J W; VanMetre, D C; Hostetler, D E; Barrington, G M

    2000-01-01

    Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins has long been accepted as imperative to optimal calf health. Many factors, including timing of colostrum ingestion, the method and volume of colostrum administration, the immunoglobulin concentration of the colostrum ingested, and the age of the dam have been implicated in affecting the optimization of absorption. The practice of colostrum pooling, the breed and presence of the dam, and the presence of respiratory acidosis in the calf also may affect passive transfer. Various tests have been reported to accurately measure passive transfer status in neonatal calves. The radial immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the only tests that directly measure serum IgG concentration. All other available tests including serum total solids by refractometry, sodium sulfite turbidity test, zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, and whole blood glutaraldehyde gelation estimate serum IgG concentration based on concentration of total globulins or other proteins whose passive transfer is statistically associated with that of IgG. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature of passive transfer in calves including factors that affect passive transfer status, testing modalities, effects of failure of passive transfer on baseline mortality, consequences of failure of passive transfer, and some treatment options. Many previously accepted truisms regarding passive transfer in calves should be rejected based on the results of recent research.

  7. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-11-24

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species.

  8. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Levy, Yair; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2005-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy may be beneficial and safe for various manifestations in SLE. A structured literature search of articles published on the efficacy of IVIg in the treatment of SLE between 1983 and 2005 was conducted. We searched the terms "IVIg," "intravenous immunoglobulin," "lupus," "SLE," and "systemic lupus erythematosus." The various clinical manifestations of SLE that were reported to be successfully treated by IVIg in case reports include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, acquired factor VIII inhibitors, acquired von Willebrand disease, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiogenic shock, nephritis, end-stage renal disease, encephalitis, neuropsychiatric lupus, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and vasculitis. The most extensive experience is with lupus nephritis. There are only a few case series of IVIg use in patients with SLE with various manifestations, in which the response rate to IVIg therapy ranged from 33 to 100%. We suggest that IVIg devoid of sucrose, at a dose of 2 g/kg over a 5-d period given uniformly and at a slow infusion rate in patients without an increased risk for thromboembolic events or renal failure, is a safe and beneficial adjunct therapy for cases of SLE that are resistant to or refuse conventional treatment. The duration of therapy is yet to be established. Controlled trials are warranted.

  9. Human myeloma light chains with increased molecular weight: high frequency among lambda chains.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, J P; Pillot, J; Liacopoulos, P

    1983-04-01

    The discovery of a human myeloma protein comprising a kappa L-chain with an increased mol. wt of 30,000) (Bouvet et. al., 1980) prompted investigations on the incidence of such heavier L-chains among other human myeloma proteins. In 105 samples examined, 34 were found to have L-chains heavier than normal (23,000-24,000), ranging from 25,000 up to 31,000, and five of lighter mol. wt (21,000-22,000). These mol. wt abnormalities were detected by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate 10% polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE) after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. The mol. wt of three of the heavier kappa or lambda chains was also estimated by filtration through a Sephadex G100 column and by sedimentation equilibrium. All three methods indicated a mol. wt increase of about 15-25% as compared with the usual mol. wt. The distribution of the high mol. wt chains among all L-chains examined was found to be 11 out of 62 kappa chains (17.7%) and 23 out of 43 lambda chains (53%) (P less than 0.001). A preferential association of such L-chains with H-chains producing multiple bands in SDS-PAGE (P less than 0.01) and an association between multiple L-chain and multiple H-chain band (P less than 0.05) were also observed. In contrast, no abnormal L-chain was found in immunoglobulins from normal subjects. Spontaneous degradation of the normal H-chains sometimes yielded fragments of 30,000 mol. wt. These fragments were easily distinguishable from abnormal L-chains. The nature of extra mol. wt in heavy L-chains was investigated for the presence of carbohydrate moiety. Four large and three normal size L-chains were examined for amino-sugar and sialic acid content. A small amount (one residue per molecule) of amino-sugar was detected only in two normal and two heavy L-chains, whereas sialic acid was only found in the heaviest (27,000-30,000) L-chains (Lh) and in small percentage (one or two residues per molecule). Total sugar estimation in one Lh chain indicated a proportion not exceeding

  10. OT1_hmaness_1: Planets, Debris Disks, and the Lambda Bootis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maness, H.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to explore the link between lambda Bootis stars, debris disks, and planetesimal formation and evolution. The lambda Boo stars are a rare type of peculiar A star (2%), which are Population 1 and metal poor. Planet bearing systems and debris disk stars appear unusually well represented in the lambda Boo class: for example, beta Pic, Vega, and HR 8799 are all lambda Boo candidates. A small sample of 14 lambda Boo stars observed by Spitzer suggests an occurrence of infrared excess approaching 100%. Only two lambda Boo stars are included in the DEBRIS/DUNES Herschel key program debris disk surveys. We will use PACS/Herschel to make sensitive, high-resolution maps of 27 new lambda Boo stars. Like DEBRIS/DUNES, we will reach the stellar photosphere for all targets, enabling a measurement of the true rate of excess infrared emission among lambda Boo stars compared to normal A stars. The depletion pattern of heavy elements in the atmospheres of lambda Boo stars suggests they may have accreted gas from which dust grains have condensed and been removed: this gas may be circumstellar gas that has formed planetesimals or dusty interstellar gas. While the circumstellar disk scenario predicts sizes of a few hundred AU, the cloud accretion scenario predicts 1000-2000 AU bow structures oriented in the direction of the relative motion of the cloud and star. With target distances of < 140 pc, these bow structures are expected to be resolved for all targets. These will be the first mid-infrared observations of lambda Boo stars outside of the low density Local Bubble: if interstellar medium interactions dominate the lambda Boo phenomenon then systematic variations in excess strength and morphology may occur with distance.

  11. AL amyloidosis with IgD-lambda monoclonal gammopathy and lambda-type Bence-Jones protein: successful treatment by autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sakurai-Chin, Chanhyok; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Junichi; Yonaha, Tomoki; Hasegawa, Eiko; Sumida, Keiichi; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Yamauchi, Junji; Tominaga, Naoyuki; Sawa, Naoki; Takemoto, Fumi; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Takaichi, Kenmei; Oohashi, Kenichi

    2010-10-01

    A 45-year-old Japanese woman had been diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) featuring urinary Bence-Jones protein of the lambda type (BJP-lambda) for 11 years. She then developed eyelid purpura, dyspnea, and flank pain. Abdominal CT scans revealed renal infarction. Biopsy of the kidney, heart, jejunum, and skin demonstrated amyloid deposits in the vessel walls, but not in the glomeruli. She was diagnosed as having AL amyloidosis with IgD-lambda monoclonal gammopathy and BJP-lambda. Autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) was done after chemotherapy with vincristine, daunorubicin, dexamethasone (VAD), and high-dose melphalan (HDM). This reduced the IgD level from 156 to 0.1 mg/dL, along with the disappearance of BJP, despite cerebral infarction during chemotherapy. We recommend SCT for patients with IgD-associated AL amyloidosis.

  12. Longitudinal Spin Transfer to Lambda and Lambda bar Hyperons in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrt s = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    The longitudinal spin transfer, D{sub LL}, from high energy polarized protons to {Lambda} and {bar {Lambda}} hypersons has been measured for the first time in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV with the STAR detector at RHIC. The measurements cover pseudorapidity, {eta}, in the range |{eta}| < 1.2 and transverse momenta, p{sub T}, up to 4 GeV/c. The longitudinal spin transfer is found to be D{sub LL} = -0.03{+-}0.13(stat){+-}0.04(syst) for inclusive {Lambda} and D{sub LL} = -0.12{+-}0.08(stat){+-}0.03(syst) for inclusive {bar {Lambda}} hyperons with <{eta}> = 0.5 and = 3.7 GeV/c. The dependence on {eta} and p{sub T} is presented.

  13. Osmotic nephrosis due to high-dose immunoglobulin therapy containing sucrose (but not with glycine) in a patient with immunoglobulin A nephritis.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Schmidt, S; Silomon, J; Keller, F

    1996-09-01

    Acute renal failure has been described as a complication of immunoglobulin therapy. It is not clear whether the immunoglobulin per se or the sucrose that is used as a stabilizer is the cause. We describe a patient with immunoglobulin A nephropathy who was treated with sucrose-containing immunoglobulin. He developed acute renal failure with osmotic nephrosis found on kidney biopsy. When using a glycine-containing immunoglobulin no acute renal impairment was observed in this patient.

  14. Impact of vegetarian diet on serum immunoglobulin levels in children.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, Daiva; Prescha, Anna; Szeremeta, Karolina

    2013-03-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in immune response. We evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on serum immunoglobulin levels in vegetarian and omnivore children. Serum immunoglobulin levels and iron status were estimated in 22 vegetarian and 18 omnivore children. Seven-day food records were used to assess the diet. There were no significant differences in serum IgA, IgM, and IgG levels between groups of children. Serum immunoglobulin levels were lower in vegetarian children with iron deficiency in comparison with those without iron deficiency. In the vegetarians, IgG level correlated positively with energy, zinc, copper, and vitamin B(6) intake. In the omnivores, these correlations were stronger with IgM level. Despite negligible differences in serum immunoglobulin levels between vegetarian and omnivore children, the impact of several nutrient intakes on IgM and IgG levels differed between groups. Low iron status in vegetarian children can lead to decreased immunoglobulin levels.

  15. Genomic structure and expression of immunoglobulins in Squamata.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, David N; Garet, Elina; Estevez, Olivia; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The Squamata order represents a major evolutionary reptile lineage, yet the structure and expression of immunoglobulins in this order has been scarcely studied in detail. From the genome sequences of four Squamata species (Gekko japonicus, Ophisaurus gracilis, Pogona vitticeps and Ophiophagus hannah) and RNA-seq datasets from 18 other Squamata species, we identified the immunoglobulins present in these animals as well as the tissues in which they are found. All Squamata have at least three immunoglobulin classes; namely, the immunoglobulins M, D, and Y. Unlike mammals, however, we provide evidence that some Squamata lineages possess more than one Cμ gene which is located downstream from the Cδ gene. The existence of two evolutionary lineages of immunoglobulin Y is shown. Additionally, it is demonstrated that while all Squamata species possess the λ light chain, only Iguanidae species possess the κ light chain.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with selective immunoglobulin E deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Magen, Eli; Schlesinger, Menachem; Ben-Zion, Itzhak; Vardy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected dyspeptic patients with selective immunoglobulin E deficiency (IgEd). METHODS: All individuals who underwent serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurement at the Leumit Healthcare Services (Israel) in 2012 were identified in an electronic database search (n = 18487). From these, selected case group subjects were ≥ 12 years of age and had serum total IgE < 2 kIU/L (n = 158). The control group was selected from a random sampling of the remaining subjects ≥ 12 years of age to obtain a case-control ratio of 1:20 (n = 3160). Dyspeptic diseases, diagnosed no more than 5 years before serum total IgE testing, were identified and retrieved from the electronic database using specific International Classification of Diseases diagnostic codes. Results of C13-urea breath tests were used to identify subjects infected with H. pylori. Categorical variables between case and control subjects were analyzed using Fisher’s exact tests, whereas continuous variables were analyzed using χ2 tests. RESULTS: Dyspepsia was present in 27.2% (43/158) of case subjects and 22.7% (718/3160) of controls. Of these, significantly more case subjects (32/43, 74.4%) than controls (223/718, 31.1%) were positive for H. pylori (P < 0.01). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in 19 case and 94 control subjects, revealing that gastritis was more prevalent in IgEd case subjects than in controls (57.9% vs 29.8%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, a significantly greater proportion of case subjects presented with peptic duodenal ulcers (63.2% vs 15.9%, P < 0.01). Histopathologic examination showed marked chronic inflammation, lymphoid follicle formation and prominent germinal centers, with polymorphonuclear cell infiltration of gastric glands, that was similar in case and control biopsy tissues. Finally, IgEd case subjects that underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy were more likely to exhibit treatment

  17. Vortex Loops at the Superfluid Lambda Transition: An Exact Theory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    A vortex-loop theory of the superfluid lambda transition has been developed over the last decade, with many results in agreement with experiments. It is a very simple theory, consisting of just three basic equations. When it was first proposed the main uncertainty in the theory was the use Flory scaling to find the fractal dimension of the random-walking vortex loops. Recent developments in high-resolution Monte Carlo simulations have now made it possible to verify the accuracy of this Flory-scaling assumption. Although the loop theory is not yet rigorously proven to be exact, the Monte Carlo results show at the least that it is an extremely good approximation. Recent loop calculations of the critical Casimir effect in helium films in the superfluid phase T < Tc will be compared with similar perturbative RG calculations in the normal phase T > Tc; the two calculations are found to match very nicely right at Tc.

  18. Spectral diagnostics of high energy emission in lambda Eri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Myron

    1995-01-01

    Multi-line observations of the optical spectrum of lambda Eri demonstrates that rapidly varying, low-velocity emissions occur in several He I lines even when H alpha shows no emission. A peculiar aspect of the He I emissions is that the ratio 5876/6678 is = 1. A theory of helium line formation generally admits two common emission mechanisms. The first is recombination/cascades, which is well known to give a ratio of greater than or equal to 3. The second is a non-LTE effect that occurs in hot (O-type) photospheres when resonance He I 584 radiation becomes transparent and drives single lines along into the emission. To accommodate a ratio of 5876/6678 = 1 may require that both processes sometimes operate at the same time, presumably in separate localities near the surface of this star.

  19. The Ba II [lambda]4554 resonance line and solar granulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshevsky, V. L.; Shchukina, N. G.

    We present the results of an investigation of the impact of NLTE effects and of granulation inhomogeneities on the solar Ba II [lambda]4554 Å line. Our analysis is based on both the classical one-dimensional (1D) solar atmosphere models and on the new generation of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical models. We show that NLTE and 3D effects have to be taken into account for reliable diagnostics of the solar atmosphere using this line. We analyse the influence of different parameters on the line shape. It turns out to be most sensitive to collisional broadening and barium abundance. Uncertainties in the oscillator strength, micro- and macroturbulence (in 1D-case) have a secondary importance. We have derived the barium abundance assuming NLTE. We find ABa = 2.16 in good agreement with the recent result of Asplund et al. (2005).

  20. A Lambda 1400 spectrophotometric census of the Orion belt region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Douglas N.; Shore, Steven N.

    1986-01-01

    Low dispersion IUE spectrophotometry were used to generate a pair of photometric indices which measure the strength of the broad continuum absorption feature at 1400 A, likely an autoionizing transition of Si II. Calibration of the indices as identifiers of silicon overabundance is based on measurements of 25 IUE spectral standards and a sample of O8-A0 IV-V stars, 18 of them silicon stars. The correlations of delta alpha 1400 with delta alpha 5200 and delta (VI-G) support the association of the lambda 5200 feature with silicon. Using this technique, a magnitude limited survey of 28 B-stars in sub-groups b1, b2 and b3 of the Orion OB1 association was conducted. Two previously unrecognized candidate (perhaps weakly overabundant) silicon stars, HD 37187 and BD - 0 deg 984 are identified.

  1. Vortex Loops at the Superfluid Lambda Transition: An Exact Theory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    A vortex-loop theory of the superfluid lambda transition has been developed over the last decade, with many results in agreement with experiments. It is a very simple theory, consisting of just three basic equations. When it was first proposed the main uncertainty in the theory was the use Flory scaling to find the fractal dimension of the random-walking vortex loops. Recent developments in high-resolution Monte Carlo simulations have now made it possible to verify the accuracy of this Flory-scaling assumption. Although the loop theory is not yet rigorously proven to be exact, the Monte Carlo results show at the least that it is an extremely good approximation. Recent loop calculations of the critical Casimir effect in helium films in the superfluid phase T < Tc will be compared with similar perturbative RG calculations in the normal phase T > Tc; the two calculations are found to match very nicely right at Tc.

  2. Directed evolution of nucleotide-based libraries using lambda exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Choong, Yee Siew; Ismail, Asma; Glökler, Jörn; Konthur, Zoltán; Lim, Theam Soon

    2012-12-01

    Directed evolution of nucleotide libraries using recombination or mutagenesis is an important technique for customizing catalytic or biophysical traits of proteins. Conventional directed evolution methods, however, suffer from cumbersome digestion and ligation steps. Here, we describe a simple method to increase nucleotide diversity using single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as a starting template. An initial PCR amplification using phosphorylated primers with overlapping regions followed by treatment with lambda exonuclease generates ssDNA templates that can then be annealed via the overlap regions. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is then generated through extension with Klenow fragment. To demonstrate the applicability of this methodology for directed evolution of nucleotide libraries, we generated both gene shuffled and regional mutagenesis synthetic antibody libraries with titers of 2×108 and 6×107, respectively. We conclude that our method is an efficient and convenient approach to generate diversity in nucleic acid based libraries, especially recombinant antibody libraries.

  3. Polarization of Lambda0 and anti-Lambda0 inclusively produced by 610-GeV/c Sigma- and 525-GeV/c proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Lopez, J.L.; Nelson, K.D.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Ayan, A.S.; Balatz, M.Y.; Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Bondar, N.F.; /Ball State U. /Bogazici U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Moscow, ITEP /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Moscow State U. /St. Petersburg, INP

    2007-06-01

    We have measured the polarization of {Lambda}{sup 0} and {bar {Lambda}{sup 0}} inclusively produced by 610 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} and 525 GeV/c proton beams in the experiment SELEX during the 1996/7 fixed target run at Fermilab. The polarization was measured as a function of the {Lambda} longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub F} and transverse momentum p{sub t}. For the {Lambda}{sup 0} produced by {Sigma}{sup -} the polarization is increasing with x{sub F} , from slightly negative at x{sub F} {approx} 0 to about 15% at large x{sub F} ; it shows a non-monotonic behavior as a function of p{sub t}. For the proton beam, the {Lambda}{sup 0} polarization is negative and decreasing as a function of x{sub F} and p{sub t}. The {bar {Lambda}{sup 0}} polarization is compatible with 0 for both beam particles over the full kinematic range. The target dependence was examined but no statistically significant difference was found.

  4. The risk of renal disease is increased in lambda myeloma with bone marrow amyloid deposits

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Piotr; Montgomery, Scott; Befekadu, Rahel; Hahn-Strömberg, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a rare deposition disease and is present in 10–15% of patients with myeloma (MM). In contrast to symptomatic AL in MM, presence of bone marrow (BM) amyloid deposits (AD) in MM is not connected to kidney damage. Renal AD but not BM-AD occur mostly in MM with lambda paraprotein (lambda MM). Methods We investigated amyloid presence in BM clots taken at diagnosis in 84 patients with symptomatic MM and compared disease characteristics in MM with kappa paraprotein (kappa MM)/lambda MM with and without BM-AD. Results Lambda MM with BM-AD was compared with kappa MM without BM-AD, kappa MM with BM-AD, and lambda MM without BM-AD: lambda MM with BM-AD patients had a significantly higher mean creatinine level (4.23 mg/dL vs 1.69, 1.14, and 1.28 mg/dL, respectively) and a higher proportion presented with severe kidney failure (6/11 [55%] vs 6/32 [19%], 1/22 [5%], and 3/19 [16%], respectively). Proteinuria was more common in lambda MM with BM-AD patients compared with kappa MM without BM-AD patients (8/11 [73%] vs 5/32 [16%], respectively). Conclusion Kidney damage was more common in lambda MM with BM-AD indicating presence of renal AD. PMID:28293126

  5. LambdaStation: Exploiting Advance Networks In Data Intensive High Energy Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-09-11

    Lambda Station software implements selective, dynamic, secure path control between local storage & analysis facilities, and high bandwidth, wide-area networks (WANs). It is intended to facilitate use of desirable, alternate wide area network paths which may only be intermittently available, or subject to policies that restrict usage to specified traffic. Lambda Station clients gain awareness of potential alternate network paths via Clarens-based web services, including path characteristics such as bandwidth and availability. If alternate path setup is requested and granted, Lambda Station will configure the local network infrastructure to properly forward designated data flows via the alternate path. A fully functional implementation of Lambda Station, capable of dynamic alternate WAN path setup and teardown, has been successfully developed. A limited Lambda Station-awareness capability within the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) product has been developed. Lambda Station has been successfully tested in a number of venues, including Super Computing 2008. LambdaStation software, developed by the Fermilab team, enables dynamic allocation of alternate network paths for high impact traffic and to forward designated flows across LAN. It negotiates with reservation and provisioning systems of WAN control planes, be it based on SONET channels, demand tunnels, or dynamic circuit networks. It creates End-To-End circuit between single hosts, computer farms or networks with predictable performance characteristics, preserving QoS if supported in LAN and WAN and tied security policy allowing only specific traffic to be forwarded or received through created path. Lambda Station project also explores Network Awareness capabilities.

  6. Interferon lambda 1-3 expression in infants hospitalized for RSV or HRV associated bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Carla; Pierangeli, Alessandra; Fabiani, Marco; Spano, Lucia; Nicolai, Ambra; Papoff, Paola; Moretti, Corrado; Midulla, Fabio; Antonelli, Guido; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    The airway expression of type III interferons (IFNs) was evaluated in infants hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus (HRV) bronchiolitis. As an additional objective we sought to determine whether a different expression of IFN lambda 1-3 was associated with different harboring viruses, the clinical course of bronchiolitis or with the levels of well established IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), such as mixovirus resistance A (MxA) and ISG56. The analysis was undertaken in 118 infants with RSV or HRV bronchiolitis. Nasopharyngeal washes were collected for virological studies and molecular analysis of type III IFN responses. RSV elicited higher levels of IFN lambda subtypes when compared with HRV. A similar expression of type III IFN was found in RSVA or RSVB infected infants and in those infected with HRVA or HRVC viruses. Results also indicate that IFN lambda 1 and IFN lambda 2-3 levels were correlated with each other and with MxA and ISG56-mRNAs. In addition, a positive correlation exists between the IFN lambda1 levels and the clinical score index during RSV infection. In particular, higher IFN lambda 1 levels are associated to an increase of respiratory rate. These findings show that differences in the IFN lambda 1-3 levels in infants with RSV or HRV infections are present and that the expression of IFN lambda 1 correlates with the severity of RSV bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N

    2009-01-21

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials concerning the efficacy and safety of IVIg in CIDP. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI from January 1985 to May 2008. Randomised controlled studies testing any dose of IVIg versus placebo, plasma exchange or corticosteroids in definite or probable CIDP. Two authors reviewed literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, scored their quality and extracted data independently. We contacted authors for additional information. Seven randomised controlled trials were considered eligible including 287 participants. These trials were homogeneous and overall quality was high. Five studies on 235 participants compared IVIg against placebo. One trial with 20 participants compared IVIg with plasma exchange and one trial compared IVIg with prednisolone in 32 participants. A significantly higher proportion of participants improved in disability within one month after IVIg treatment as compared with placebo (relative risk 2.40, 95% confidence interval 1.72 to 3.36). Whether all these improvements are equally clinically relevant cannot be deduced from this analysis because each trial used different disability scales and definitions of significant improvement. In three trials including 84 participants the disability could be transformed to the modified Rankin score, on which significantly more patients improved one point after IVIg treatment compared to placebo (relative risk 2.40, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 5.83). Only one study included in this review had a long-term follow-up. The results of this study suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin improves disability more than placebo over 24 and 48 weeks. The

  8. Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi-

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-03-01

    The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.

  9. Targeting Of Somatic Hypermutation By immunoglobulin Enhancer And Enhancer-Like Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Alinikula, Jukka; Arakawa, Hiroshi; McDonald, Jessica J.; Schatz, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SH) generates point mutations within rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of activated B cells, providing genetic diversity for the affinity maturation of antibodies. SH requires the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) protein and transcription of the mutation target sequence, but how the Ig gene specificity of mutations is achieved has remained elusive. We show here using a sensitive and carefully controlled assay that the Ig enhancers strongly activate SH in neighboring genes even though their stimulation of transcription is negligible. Mutations in certain E-box, NFκB, MEF2, or Ets family binding sites—known to be important for the transcriptional role of Ig enhancers—impair or abolish the activity. Full activation of SH typically requires a combination of multiple Ig enhancer and enhancer-like elements. The mechanism is evolutionarily conserved, as mammalian Ig lambda and Ig heavy chain intron enhancers efficiently stimulate hypermutation in chicken cells. Our results demonstrate a novel regulatory function for Ig enhancers, indicating that they either recruit AID or alter the accessibility of the nearby transcription units. PMID:24691034

  10. The Czech National External Quality Assessment of monoclonal immunoglobulin in the period of 1996 - 2005.

    PubMed

    Tichy, M; Palicka, V; Budina, M; Andrys, C; Maisnar, V; Vavrova, J; Hajek, R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the results of SEKK "Gammopathy" (GP) control cycle (Czech National External Quality Assessment) that assessed the success rate of monoclonal immunoglobulin determination by clinical laboratories for the 1996 - 2005 period. The study summarizes the results of 20 "Gammopathy" control cycles during the ten-year period. Control cycles were repeated every 6 months. Patients who provided samples for individual SEKK "Gammopathy" control cycles were selected during routine diagnostic process in the University Hospital Hradec Kralove. Correct paraprotein typing in both A and B control samples (plasma, serum or urine) is required prior to certification. Assessment of paraprotein concentration is optional. The number of participating laboratories was gradually increasing from 26 in 1996 to 79 in 2005 (including 6 Slovak laboratories). The majority of laboratories used immunofixation electrophoresis as the method of paraprotein typing. In 2005, only one laboratory was still using immunoelectrophoresis. Typing was successful in approximately 70% of cases during the first 3 cycles and the success rate gradually increased to almost 96% by 2005. The only exception was GP 1/02 cycle with a sample of relatively rare IgD-lambda paraprotein and the success rate of 38% only. A sample of plasma without paraprotein was distributed 4 times. Several laboratories falsely identified fibrinogen as paraprotein each time. Results of "Gammopathy" control cycle for the past 10 years confirmed the value and legitimacy of this control cycle in the system of external quality control of SEKK laboratories.

  11. [Analytical performances of SPAPLUS® turbidimeter for the dosage of immunoglobulins and beta-2 microglobulin in serum].

    PubMed

    Thevenet, Isabelle; Benat, Clarisse; Chauzeix, Jasmine; Blancher, Antoine; Puissant-Lubrano, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the analytical performances of the SPAPLUS(®) immunoturbidimeter assays manufactured by The Binding Site(®) for the quantification of thirteen immunological parameters in serum: IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses (1 to 4), IgA subclasses (1 and 2), beta-2 microglobulin, free light chains kappa and lambda. The within-day precision (repeatability) and the between-day precision (reproducibility) were obtained for two or three concentration levels depending of the parameter and were below the recommendations of the manufacturer, except for the repeatability of IgG1 (at a level of concentration of 6.7 g/L). An agreement above 90% (with Bland and Altman analysis) was observed between the results obtained with SPAPLUS(®) and those obtained with the nephelometer IMMAGE(®) 800 or radial immunodiffusion. The evaluation confirmed the linearity of the assays and the absence of contamination for all the parameters tested. We also assessed the practicability of the SPAPLUS(®) in terms of maintenance, frequency of calibration and cadence tests. The SPAPLUS(®) immunoturbidimeter displays good analytical performances for the immunological parameters evaluated in the present work.

  12. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Immunoglobulin Proteins of the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) serves as an animal model for the study of several viruses that cause human disease, most notably influenza. Despite the importance of this animal model, characterization of the immune response by flow cytometry (FCM) is severely hampered due to the limited number of commercially available reagents. To begin to address this unmet need and to facilitate more in-depth study of ferret B cells including the identification of antibody-secreting cells, eight unique murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specificity for ferret immunoglobulin (Ig) were generated using conventional B cell hybridoma technology. These mAb were screened for reactivity against ferret peripheral blood mononuclear cells by FCM and demonstrate specificity for CD79β+ B cells. Several of these mAb are specific for the light chain of surface B cell receptor (BCR) and enable segregation of kappa and lambda B cells. Additionally, a mAb that yielded surface staining of nearly all surface BCR positive cells (i.e., pan ferret Ig) was generated. Collectively, these MαF-Ig mAb offer advancement compared to the existing portfolio of polyclonal anti-ferret Ig detection reagents and should be applicable to a wide array of immunologic assays including the identification of antibody-secreting cells by FCM. PMID:28286781

  13. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Immunoglobulin Proteins of the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Kirchenbaum, Greg A; Ross, Ted M

    2017-01-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) serves as an animal model for the study of several viruses that cause human disease, most notably influenza. Despite the importance of this animal model, characterization of the immune response by flow cytometry (FCM) is severely hampered due to the limited number of commercially available reagents. To begin to address this unmet need and to facilitate more in-depth study of ferret B cells including the identification of antibody-secreting cells, eight unique murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specificity for ferret immunoglobulin (Ig) were generated using conventional B cell hybridoma technology. These mAb were screened for reactivity against ferret peripheral blood mononuclear cells by FCM and demonstrate specificity for CD79β(+) B cells. Several of these mAb are specific for the light chain of surface B cell receptor (BCR) and enable se