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Sample records for immunohistochemical study including

  1. Sialadenoma papilliferum: immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A P N; Sobral, A P V; Loducca, S V L; de Araújo, V C

    2004-09-01

    Sialadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare benign tumour of salivary gland origin, which has been included among the ductal papillomas in the latest classification of tumours by the World Health Organisation. Two SP from the minor salivary gland of the palate of middle age patients were presented and studied by immunohistochemical. Our results showed presence of cytokeratins (CKs) 13, 14, 7, 8, 19 and absence of vimentin and smooth muscle actin. This immunoprofile is similar to the excretory duct of salivary gland.

  2. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells.

  3. Angiotensin II: Immunohistochemical Study in Sardinian Pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Demurtas, P.; Corrias, M.; Zucca, I.; Piras, F.; Sirigu, P.; Perra, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the principal effector peptide of the RAS system. It has a pleiotropic effect and, beside its physiological role, it has the property to stimulate angiogenesis and activate multiple signalling pathways related to cell proliferation. The purpose of the study was to determinate the Ang II expression and localization in Sardinian pterygium and normal conjunctiva by immunohistochemistry, and its possible involvement in the development and progression of the disease. Twenty-three pterygiums and eleven normal conjunctiva specimens obtained from Sardinian patients, were processed for paraffin embedding and assessed for the immunohistochemi-cal revelation of Ang II. Significant Ang II expression was identified in pterygium and conjunctiva. Particularly, thirteen pterygium specimens (n=13) displayed exclusively moderate to strong nuclear staining; some specimens (n=5) showed exclusively a moderate cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, and few specimens (n=2) displayed moderate to strong immunoreactivity in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Only 3 specimens were negative. Statistical significance difference in respect of nuclear and cytoplasmic localization was observed between normal conjunctiva and pterygium (P=0.020). The results showed a predominant intranuclear localization of Ang II in pterygium epithelial cells, in spite of conjunctiva that mainly showed cytoplasmic localization. These findings suggest a possible role for Ang II in the development and/or progression of pterygium mediated by the activation of local RAS system. PMID:25308851

  4. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells. PMID:6354463

  5. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metaplastic breast carcinoma is a rare entity of breast cancer expressing epithelial and/or mesenchymal tissue within the same tumor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features of metaplastic breast carcinoma and to confirm the triple negative, basal-like and/or luminal phenotype of this type of tumor by using immunohistochemical staining. Methods Seven cases of MBC were evaluated for clinico-pathological features including follow up data. Cases were studied immunohistochemically by CK-Pan, Vimentin, ER, PR, HER2, basal markers (CK5/6, p63, EGFR, SMA and S-100), luminal cytokeratins (CK8, CK18 and CK19), markers for syncytial cells (β-HCG and PLAP), as well as prognostic markers (p53, ki-67 and calretinin). Results The mean age of the patients was 36 years. Three cases showed choriocarcinomatous features. All of our cases were negative for ER, PR and HER2. Six out of the 7 cases showed basal-like differentiation by demonstrating positivity with at least one of the basal/myoepithelial markers. Also 6 out of the 7 cases expressed luminal type cytokeratins (CK8, CK18 and/or CK19). P53 was positive in 3 cases, ki-67 was strongly expressed in only one case, while calretinin was expressed in 6 cases. Conclusion Metaplastic breast carcinoma presents in our population at a younger age group than other international studies. All cases are categorized immunohistochemically under the triple negative group of breast cancer and 86% of them exhibited basal-like and luminal phenotype. Majority of cases developed local recurrence and distant metastasis in a relatively short period of time. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1101289295115804 PMID:25030022

  6. Rheumatoid lymphadenopathy: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Kondratowicz, G M; Symmons, D P; Bacon, P A; Mageed, R A; Jones, E L

    1990-01-01

    Sixteen lymph nodes from 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were examined immunohistochemically and morphometrically and compared with 10 control nodes showing follicular hyperplasia from patients without rheumatoid disease. Frozen material was available from nine patients and all controls. The nodes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis seemed to share characteristic features. The most striking of these was follicular hyperplasia in which the germinal centres, in spite of being quite large, showed relatively sparse proliferative activity. The nodes often showed infiltration of germinal centres by CD8 positive T lymphocytes and contained fewer IL2R positive cells in the paracortex than controls. These and other features may have some correlation with disease activity. Lymphadenopathy in rheumatoid arthritis may not just be a manifestation of joint inflammation but an active component of this multisystem disease and may reflect a widespread immunological abnormality. Images PMID:2318986

  7. Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

  8. Congenital myopathies: clinical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Thaha, Fazil; Gayathri, N; Nalini, A

    2011-01-01

    Congenital myopathies (CMs), a group of relatively non-progressive disorders presents with weakness and hypotonia of varying severity, morphologically recognized by specific structural abnormalities within the myofiber. This report presents the clinical and Histopathological features of 40 patients with CMs. Centronuclear myopathy was the commonest (40%) followed by congenital fiber type disproportion (37.5%). Other less common CMs included: myotubular myopathy (5%), nemaline myopathy (5%), central core disease (5%), multicore disease (2.5%) and congenital myopathy with tubular aggregate (5%). Immunolabeling to desmin corresponded to morphological changes within the myofibers while vimentin was negative in all the patients. There is no combined role of these proteins in the disease process. PMID:22234203

  9. Expression of cathepsin D in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: an immunohistochemical study including correlations with extracellular matrix components, CD44, p53, Rb, c-erbB-2 and the proliferation indices.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, Elli; Charchanti, Antonia; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos; Athanassiou, Evangelia; Bafa, Maria; Agnantis, Niki J

    2002-01-01

    The immunohistochemical Cathepsin D (CD) expression of tumor and stromal cells was investigated in a series of 77 urothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder with the intention to evaluate its prognostic significance and its contribution to the metastatic potential of bladder cancer. CD expression (clone D13A) was correlated with the expression of extracellular matrix components (collagen type IV, laminin, fibronectin), CD44, p53, pRb, proliferation indices (PCNA and MIB1) as well as with other conventional clininopathological features. CD expression (> 10% of positive tumor cells) was observed in 77.9% of the carcinomas. Stromal CD expression was detected in all cases. Linear collagen type IV and laminin deposit at the tumor-stroma border (in > 25% of the BM) was found in 26% and 57.6% of the cases, respectively. The CD of cancer cells (CCCD) was inversely-correlated with the CD of the stromal cells (p = 0.039), tumor grade (p = 0.0028), tumor stage (p = 0.0046), p53 protein (p = 0.05) and positively-correlated with CD44 (p = 0.002) and pRb (p = 0.05). The stromal cells CD (SCCD) showed a statistically significant positive correlation with tumor grade (p < 0.0001) and stage (p = 0.0001), and the proliferation indices PCNA and MIB1 (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively). These data suggest that both CD of tumor and stromal cells could play important roles in the expansion of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. PMID:12530091

  10. Sonic hedgehog in oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Sahana; Iyengar, Asha R; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have revealed the involvement of hedgehog (Hh) signaling component in proliferation and invasive behavior of many carcinomas. Aim: This study aims to identify the expression of sonic Hh (SHH) protein of SHH pathway in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using SHH (H-160) (Santa Cruz, sc-9042) which could have therapeutic implication in future. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 cases comprising 50 normal oral mucosa, 50 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, 50 well, 50 moderate and 50 poorly differentiated OSCCs were included in the study. Immunohistochemical evaluation of SHH protein expression was conducted using monoclonal antibody. Interpretation of the expression was done by immunoreactive score of Remmele and Stegner (IRS) scoring method. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test was used to analyze the results. Results: The study showed that SHH signaling molecules are highly expressed in OSCC, and their expression was mainly in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Conclusion: The SHH signaling component is associated with the pathological parameter in OSCC and oral epithelial dysplasia. PMID:27721600

  11. Immunohistochemical study of apical periodontal cysts.

    PubMed

    Cury, V C; Sette, P S; da Silva, J V; de Araújo, V C; Gomez, R S

    1998-01-01

    Periapical lesions, as well as periodontal disease, seems to have cyclic patterns of evolution. Periods of burst may be intercalated with periods of quiescence. Because keratinocyte division must occur during cyst growth, it is presumed that epithelium status could indicate the biological activity of radicular cysts (RCs). Th1 and Th2 are important heterogeneous stages of lymphocyte differentiation. Delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reactions are mediated by Th1 lymphocytes, whereas Th2 populations mediate some types of humoral immune response. Th2 lymphocytes are characterized by high expression of CD30 glycoprotein. Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes have not been evaluated in periapical inflammatory lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CD30+ cells in RCs with atrophic and hyperplastic epithelium. A biotin-streptavidin amplified system was used for identification of CD30 receptor. Results demonstrate increased proportions of Th2 cells in cysts with hyperplastic epithelium. Our results suggest that Th2 cells could be associated with RC growth.

  12. Ulcerative Granular Cell Tumor: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Khalawany, Mohamed; Mosbeh, Al-Sadat; Abd-Al Salam, Fatma; Abou-Bakr, Amany

    2011-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is uncommonly presented with cutaneous ulcer. We examined the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of this ulcerative form in fourteen cases that may raise the awareness of this variant. The study included 11 males and 3 females with a mean age 31.5 ± 7.42 years. All cases were presented with large solitary ulcer with indurated base, elevated border, skin colored margin, and necrotic floor. Twelve lesions were located on the extremities and two lesions on the genital region. Histologically, the lesions showed dermal infiltrate composed of large polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm and characteristic infiltration of the dermal muscles in all cases. Immunostaining showed positive reaction for S100 (14/14), NSE (14/14), CD68 (5/14), and Vimentin (7/14) while HMB45, CK, EMA, and Desmin were negative. We hope that this paper increases the awareness of ulcerative GCT and consider it in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions. PMID:22132340

  13. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma: a case report with an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous pseudolymphoma (C-PSL) is defined as reactive polyclonal benign lymphoproliferative process predominantly composed of either B-cells or T-cells, localized or disseminated. It heals spontaneously after cessation of the causative factor (e.g. drugs) or after non-aggressive treatment. The author herein presents a case of C-PSL with an immunohistochemical study. A 78-year-old man consulted our hospital because of slightly itching skin swelling on the arm. He denied insect bite and traumatic injury. His usual intake drugs were drugs of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and emotional disorders. Physical examination showed mildly erosive swelling of the am. The lesion measured 1 x 1 x 0.2 cm. Biopsy of the lesion was taken, and it revealed excessive proliferation of small lymphoid cells. The lymphoid cells lacked apparent atypical features and appeared matures. Lymphoblastic cells with nucleoli were scattered. Nodular structures were also seen in the lower dermis. Immunohistochemically, the lymphoid cells were positive for vimentin, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD10, CD15, CD20, CD23, CD30, CD43, CD38, CD138, CD45RO, CD79α, bcl-2, bcl-6, κ-chain, λ-chain, and Ki-67 (labeling index=7%). No light chain restriction is seen. The lymphoblastic cells were positively labeled for CD15 and CD30. Plasma cells positive for CD38, CK79α and CD138 were seen in a significant amounts. They were negative for cytokeratin (CK) CAM5.2, CKAE1/3, CK34BE12, CK5/6, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, CD56, CD57, p53, KIT, PDGFRA, and cyclin D1. Because the constituent cells were both B-cells including plasm cells and T-cells, no light-chain restriction was seen, and no histological atypia was seen, a diagnosis of cutaneous pseudolymphoma was made. The low Ki-67 labeling and negative p53 also suggested the diagnosis. The lesion slightly reduced in size (from 1 cm to 0.7 cm), the causative agent was still unknown 11 months after the biopsy. PMID:23638232

  14. Prostatic tissue in testicular teratoma. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Humphrey, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    The presence of prostatic differentiation as part of teratoma is very unusual and has been reported less than 20 times in the literature; however, all but 1 case were described in ovarian teratomas. We reviewed 45 specimens of germ cell tumors with teratoma component in postpuberal male patients. Original hematoxylin and eosin review failed to identify glands morphologically consistent with prostatic differentiation. Immunohistochemical stains performed on 10 specimens from 10 patients with small glandular and/or tubular structures revealed 1 case with glands positive for prostatic-specific antigen, prostatic-specific acid phosphatase, and prostein/P501S, whereas high-molecular-weight cytokeratin and p63 highlighted only basal cells. The glands were irregular in size and shape and contained mostly cuboidal to columnar luminal-type cells with occasional basal-type cells. Re-review of all the specimens revealed a second block from the same testis as well as 1 retroperitoneal lymph node with metastatic teratoma in the same patient, also immunohistochemically confirmed. These glands were seen in a smooth muscle stromal background, adjacent to classic gastrointestinal and tracheobronchial teratoma components. Our findings show immunohistochemically confirmed prostatic differentiation in 2 specimens from 1 patient with teratoma. This study raises the possibility that prostatic differentiation, difficult to recognize on morphology alone, might not be that unusual and that immunostains can help detect it over the several different epithelial components of teratoma.

  15. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection. PMID

  16. MAGI-2 in prostate cancer: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jeffery; Borowsky, Alexander D; Goyal, Rajen; Roland, Joseph T; Arnold, Shanna A; Gellert, Lan L; Clark, Peter E; Hameed, Omar; Giannico, Giovanna A

    2016-06-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 (MAGI-2) is a scaffolding protein that links cell adhesion molecules, receptors, and signaling molecules to the cytoskeleton and maintains the architecture of cell junctions. MAGI-2 gene rearrangements have recently been described in prostate cancer. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of MAGI-2 protein in prostate tissue. Seventy-eight radical prostatectomies were used to construct 3 tissue microarrays consisting of 512 cores, including benign tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and adenocarcinoma, Gleason patterns 3 to 5. Immunohistochemistry for phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and double-stain MAGI-2/p63 was performed and analyzed by visual and image analysis, the latter as percent of analyzed area (%AREA), and mean optical density multiplied by %AREA (STAIN). By visual and image analysis, MAGI-2 was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma and HGPIN compared with benign (benign versus HGPIN P < .001; benign versus adenocarcinoma, P < .001). HGPIN and adenocarcinoma did not significantly differ by either modality. Using visual intensity to distinguish benign tissue and adenocarcinoma, a receiver operating curve yielded an area under the curve of 0.902. A STAIN threshold of 1470 yielded a sensitivity of 0.66 and specificity of 0.96. There was a significant correlation between PTEN and MAGI-2 staining for normal and benign prostatic hyperplasia, but this was lost in HGPIN and cancer. We conclude that MAGI-2 immunoreactivity is elevated in prostate cancer and HGPIN compared with normal tissue, and suggest that MAGI-2 may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. This is the first report of MAGI-2 staining by immunohistochemistry in prostate cancer.

  17. Cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue with an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gregório Wrublevski; Pereira, Volnei David; Pereira Junior, José Antonio de Castro; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici

    2012-12-06

    By definition, choristomas are normal tissues found in anomalous topography. The cartilaginous features of these lesions are rare in the soft tissues of the oral cavity. The majority of cartilaginous choristomas of the tongue--the primary site of emergence of the oropharynx--are associated with adipose, fibrous or bone tissues--apart from that, only a few of these were confirmed by an immunohistochemical study. The neoplasm exclusively composed of chondromatous tissue is extremely rare in the tongue. This paper reports the clinical, surgical and pathological characteristics of a cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman.

  18. Oral mucoceles: a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Jamile Gomes; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; De Aquino Xavier, Flávia Caló; Schlaepfer-Sales, Caroline Brandi; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of oral mucoceles and the immunohistochemical expression of cellular and extracellular matrix components in these lesions. One hundred cases of oral mucoceles were examined for clinicopathological features. The expression of mast cell tryptase, CD68, MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and CD34 was investigated immunohistochemically in 32 cases. The lesions arose as nodules or blisters of variable color. The mean age was 23.2 years and a higher male frequency was observed. The most common locations were the lower lip (92%), followed by the floor of the mouth (7%), and palate (1%). The lesion size ranged from 0.4 to 3.0cm. Unusual histopathological findings as superficial mucoceles (n=16, 16%), pseudopapillary projections (n=3, 3%), epithelioid histiocytes (n=4, 4%), multinucleated giant cells (n=1, 1%) and myxoglobulosis (n=9, 9%) were also seen. Mast cells and CD68-positive macrophages, MMP-1, MMP-9 and CD34-positive blood vessels were seen in all cases. A significant association was seen between mast cells and MMP-1 (p=0.03) and between macrophages and MMP-1 (p=0.01). This study provided important insight into the demographic and histopathological occurrence of oral mucoceles. The tissue remodeling seen in these lesions mainly involved the migration and interaction of mast cells, macrophages and MMP-1. PMID:23726142

  19. Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Tavasoli, Abbas; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Rad, Maryam Nobakht; Taymouri, Afra

    2013-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author's knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature. PMID:23646307

  20. Histological and immunohistochemical study of Wischnewsky spots in fatal hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard; Rie, Manfred; Sperhake, Jan P

    2006-03-01

    Wischnewsky spots in the gastric mucosa are considered an important finding for the diagnosis of hypothermia-related deaths. In the present prospective histological and immunohistochemical investigation, 14 cases of fatal hypothermia presenting Wischnewsky spots at autopsy were studied. Macromorphologically, the lesions, varying in diameter from 0.1 to 0.4 cm, had a blackish-brownish color and appeared partly lofty, especially on the apex of gastric folds. Histologically, no erosions or ulcers were observed in the gastric mucosa. In some cases, hemorrhages in conjunction with infarctions of the mucosa were observed in the mucosal glands. Those regions, however, did not represent the lesions visible as Wischnewsky spots at the macroscopical level. Immunohistochemical stains were done with a specific antibody against hemoglobin (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark). Wischnewsky spots expressed immunopositivity with antihemoglobin. Concerning the pathogenesis and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to the development of Wischnewsky spots, we hypothesize that cooling of the body in the setting of cold ambient temperatures primarily leads to circumscribed hemorrhages of the gastric glands in vivo or in the agonal period, respectively. Subsequently, due to autolysis, erythrocytes are destroyed and hemoglobin is released. Following exposure to gastric acid, hemoglobin is hematinized, leading to the typical blackish-brownish appearance of Wischnewsky spots seen at gross examination. Wischnewsky spots are not equivalent to erosions in terms of histopathological diagnosis but rather represent epiphenomena generated in vivo or in the agonal period of fatal hypothermia. PMID:16501354

  1. Collagenase-3 expression in periapical lesions: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, G; Astekar, M S; Ramesh, G; Kaur, P; Sowmya, G V

    2014-08-01

    Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) is a metalloproteinase (MMP) that is associated with bone lesions and exhibits variable expression patterns in odontogenic cysts; it may play a role in regulating focal proliferation and maturation of jaw cyst epithelium. We studied the localization, staining intensity and distribution of collagenase-3 in 13 periapical granulomas with epithelium, 16 periapical granulomas without epithelium and 10 radicular cysts using archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues. A monoclonal antibody against human collagenase-3 was used to evaluate its expression. Immunohistochemical staining intensities of collagenase-3 in all periapical lesions were (-), 4 (10%); (+), 1 (3%); (++), 22 (56%) and (+++), 12 (31%); differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical distribution of collagenase-3 in epithelial cells was (-), 17 (44%); (+), 17 (44%); (++), 5 (13%); in fibroblasts it was (-), 8 (20%); (+), 23 (59%); (++), 8 (21%); in plasma cells it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), 22 (56%); (++), 10 (26%); in macrophages it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), and 15 (38%); and (++), 17 (44%). Statistically significant differences were found in epithelial cells (p = 0.00) and fibroblasts (p = 0.02), whereas differences were not statistically significant for plasma cells and macrophages. Collagenase-3 may play a role in the conversion of a periapical granuloma with epithelium to radicular cyst. MMP's influence not only epithelial rest cell migration, but also invasion of various stromal cells into granulomatous tissue.

  2. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    THONGTHARB, Atigan; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; KAGAWA, Yumiko; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50–64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  3. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in Panthera tigris tigris.

    PubMed

    Nyska, A; Goldstein, J; Eshkar, G; Klein, B

    1996-07-01

    The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a case of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor are described in a 14-yr-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed at the New Biblical Zoo of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, 1994. The neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically negative for insulin and glucagon, slightly positive for neuron-specific enolase, moderately positive for serotonin and somatostatin, and markedly positive for chromogranine A and gastrin. This is the first documentation of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in the tiger.

  5. Immunohistochemical study of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in Panthera tigris tigris.

    PubMed

    Nyska, A; Goldstein, J; Eshkar, G; Klein, B

    1996-07-01

    The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a case of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor are described in a 14-yr-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed at the New Biblical Zoo of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, 1994. The neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically negative for insulin and glucagon, slightly positive for neuron-specific enolase, moderately positive for serotonin and somatostatin, and markedly positive for chromogranine A and gastrin. This is the first documentation of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in the tiger. PMID:8827685

  6. Male breast carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ruoji; Yu, Lin; Zhou, Shuling; Bi, Rui; Shui, Ruohong; Yu, Baohua; Lu, Hongfen; Cai, Xu; Yang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is a relatively rare disease. This study retrospectively investigated the clinicopathological features of 73 cases of male breast carcinoma in Chinese population, and classified the molecular subtype based on surrogate immunohistochemical definitions. The expression of GCDFP15, MGB, AR and FOXP1 were evaluated. Invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in the study group (71.2%, 52/73). The luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma (60.9%, 34.8% respectively). AR and FOXP1 are expressed in 84.2% (48/57) and 71.9% (41/57) of the studied cases. Carcinoma of the luminal A subtype expressed GCDFP15 (73.5%, 25/34) and MGB (58.8%, 20/34) more frequently than cases of the luminal B subtypes (34.8%, 8/23 and 43.5%, 10/23, respectively; P = 0.004, P = 0.255, respectively). In conclusion, invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in male breast carcinoma among Chinese population. Our study revealed that the luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma. AR and FOXP1 are highly expressed in male breast cancer. The luminal A subtype tends to express GCDFP15 and MGB more frequently than the luminal B subtype.

  7. Delayed postburn blisters: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, R; David, R; Ramon, Y; Ramon, M; Kerner, H; Kilim, S; Peled, I; Friedman-Birnbaum, R

    1997-08-01

    This study was performed in an attempt to further elucidate the pathogenesis of delayed postburn blistering. Two cases were studied ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically, 1 with blisters on the recipient site of autologous split-thickness skin grafts and the other on the donor site. Ultrastructurally, the basement membrane was on the roof of the blisters in both cases, except for a single small blister in the first case where it was on the dermal floor. In the blister roofs, the basement membrane showed small or marked segments of discontinuity. In the adjacent non-blistered healed skin, the basement membrane was usually continuous, and anchoring fibrils were present. Immunoperoxidase staining on frozen sections, using antibodies to laminin, laminin 5, collagen IV, and collagen VII, showed a mostly continuous linear pattern in the adjacent non-blistered skin, which often became discontinuous near the blisters and markedly discontinuous in the blister roofs. In the blister floors, weakly stained linear or granular deposits of some of these components were sometimes also present. The results of this study support discontinuity of the basement membrane as the main anomaly in delayed postburn blistering. Disturbance in the reassembly or local breakdown of the basement membrane components might be the underlying defect.

  8. Apoptosis Activation in Human Carious Dentin. An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Psaila, A.; Musumeci, G.; Castorina, S.; Leonardi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanisms and enzymes involved in caries progression are largely unclear. Apoptosis plays a key role in dentin remodelling related to damage repair; however, it is unclear whether apoptosis in decayed teeth is activated through the extrinsic or the intrinsic pathway. This ex vivo immunohistochemical study explored the localization of TRAIL, DR5, Bcl-2 and Bax, the main proteins involved in apoptosis, in teeth with advanced caries. To evaluate TRAIL, DR5, Bcl-2 and Bax immunoexpressions twelve permanent carious premolars were embedded in paraffin and processed for immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TRAIL and DR5 were overexpressed in dentin and in pulp vessels and mononuclear cells; strong Bax immunostaining was detected in dilated dentinal tubules close to the lesion, and Bcl-2 staining was weak in some dentin areas under the cavity or altogether absent. These findings suggest that both apoptosis pathways are activated in dental caries. Further studies are required to gain insights into its biomolecular mechanisms. PMID:26428882

  9. [Immunohistochemical studies with middle ear mucosal remnants in cholesteatoma].

    PubMed

    Sudhoff, H; Borkowski, G; Bujia, J; Hildmann, H; Fisseler-Eckhoff, A

    1997-08-01

    The development of a middle ear cholesteatoma is usually associated with chronic inflammation and displacement of the mucosa present by the invading squamous epithelium. To analyze the clinically different behaviors of both epithelia, we used immunohistochemical methods to study the distribution and expression of interleukin-1 (Il-1), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R), the proliferation marker MIB 1, c-myc proto-oncogene product and activation marker 4F2. Results stromal that keratinocytes in a cholesteatoma exhibited a much higher activation and proliferation rate when compared to middle ear mucosa cells. Middle ear epithelial cells showed no immunoreactivity for TGF-alpha, EGF-R, Il-1 and c-myc in contrast to the markedly positive immunoreactivity found in cholesteatoma matrix. The local release of cytokines and growth factors, such as TGF-alpha, EGF and Il-1 by inflammatory cells seems to be an important factor for the hyper-proliferative behavior of cholesteatoma epithelium. Our findings could contribute to the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma and give a possible explanation for the sustained progression of its growth leading to displacement of the middle ear mucosa.

  10. Metanephric adenoma: the utility of immunohistochemical and cytogenetic analyses in differential diagnosis, including solid variant papillary renal cell carcinoma and epithelial-predominant nephroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Stephanie N; Eble, John N; Hes, Ondrej; Williamson, Sean R; Grignon, David J; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Baldrige, Lee Ann; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo; Wang, Lisha; Comperat, Eva; Fan, Rong; Montironi, Rodolfo; MacLennan, Gregory T; Cheng, Liang

    2015-09-01

    Metanephric adenoma is a benign renal neoplasm that overlaps in morphology with the solid variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma and epithelial-predominant nephroblastoma. To aid in resolving this differential diagnosis, we investigated the utility of immunohistochemical and molecular analyses in distinguishing between these entities; the first study, to our knowledge, to use a combined approach in analyzing all three tumors. We analyzed 37 tumors originally diagnosed as metanephric adenomas (2 of which we reclassified as papillary renal cell carcinomas), 13 solid variant papillary renal cell carcinomas, and 20 epithelial-predominant nephroblastomas using a combination of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assessing for trisomy of chromosomes 7 and 17 and loss of Y. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for CK7, AMACR, WT1, and CD57. The combination of CK7-, AMACR-, WT1+, and CD57+ was considered characteristic of metanephric adenoma. Most of the tumors originally diagnosed as metanephric adenomas (31/37) showed the expected staining pattern of metanephric adenoma (CK7-, AMACR-, WT1+, and CD57+). Of the six tumors with discordant immunophenotype, two tumors were reclassified as papillary renal cell carcinoma after cytogenetic workup. It is recommended that all adult cases histologically resembling metanephric adenoma have WT1, CD57, CK7, and AMACR immunohistochemical staining performed. If the staining pattern is characteristic for metanephric adenoma (CK7-, AMACR-, WT1+, and CD57+, including membranous staining), then no other diagnostic tests are indicated. However, if there is a different immunostaining pattern, then we recommend FISH analysis.

  11. Perforin expression in plaque psoriasis: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Samaka, Rehab Monir; Gaber, Mohamed A; Metwe, Nermin A

    2015-04-01

    Psoriasis (PsO) is T-cell-mediated disease resulting from aberrant activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Perforin is a multi-domain, pore-forming protein. It is located within the cytoplasm of CD 8 cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NK). The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of perforin in lesional and perilesional skin of chronic plaque psoriatic patient and correlate its expression with the standard clinico-pathological variables. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 50 PsO patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control group. There were high-significant differences between lesional and perilesional skin of plaque PsO patients as regards to IHC perforin status and localization (p < 0.001 for both). There was a high-significant difference between positive and negative perforin cases as regards to psoriasis area severity index (PASI) (p < 0.000). There were significant differences between mild and moderate-to-severe intensity of IHC perforin expression as regards to triggering factors and PASI (p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Localization of IHC perforin positive lymphocytes in both epidermis and dermis was significantly associated with higher degree of acanthosis and higher degree of inflammatory infiltrates in comparison with positive cells located in dermis (p = 0.001 for both). Perforin might have a putative signaling in early and late plaque PsO. Plaque psoriatic patients with positive perforin expression could be a candidate for a future target therapy to stop the proposed scenario and achieve a therapeutic response.

  12. Magnetoreception in birds: I. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the cryptochrome cycle.

    PubMed

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2014-12-01

    Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the magnetic compass of birds. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of chicken retinae with an antiserum that labelled only activated cryptochrome 1a had shown activation of cryptochrome 1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light. Green light, however, does not allow the first step of photoreduction of oxidized cryptochromes to the semiquinone. As the chickens had been kept under 'white' light before, we suggested that there was a supply of the semiquinone present at the beginning of the exposure to green light, which could be further reduced and then re-oxidized. To test this hypothesis, we exposed chickens to various wavelengths (1) for 30 min after being kept in daylight, (2) for 30 min after a 30 min pre-exposure to total darkness, and (3) for 1 h after being kept in daylight. In the first case, we found activated cryptochrome 1a under UV, blue, turquoise and green light; in the second two cases we found activated cryptochrome 1a only under UV to turquoise light, where the complete redox cycle of cryptochrome can run, but not under green light. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis that activated cryptochrome 1a is found as long as there is some of the semiquinone left, but not when the supply is depleted. It supports the idea that the crucial radical pair for magnetoreception is generated during re-oxidation.

  13. Magnetoreception in birds: I. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the cryptochrome cycle.

    PubMed

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2014-12-01

    Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the magnetic compass of birds. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of chicken retinae with an antiserum that labelled only activated cryptochrome 1a had shown activation of cryptochrome 1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light. Green light, however, does not allow the first step of photoreduction of oxidized cryptochromes to the semiquinone. As the chickens had been kept under 'white' light before, we suggested that there was a supply of the semiquinone present at the beginning of the exposure to green light, which could be further reduced and then re-oxidized. To test this hypothesis, we exposed chickens to various wavelengths (1) for 30 min after being kept in daylight, (2) for 30 min after a 30 min pre-exposure to total darkness, and (3) for 1 h after being kept in daylight. In the first case, we found activated cryptochrome 1a under UV, blue, turquoise and green light; in the second two cases we found activated cryptochrome 1a only under UV to turquoise light, where the complete redox cycle of cryptochrome can run, but not under green light. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis that activated cryptochrome 1a is found as long as there is some of the semiquinone left, but not when the supply is depleted. It supports the idea that the crucial radical pair for magnetoreception is generated during re-oxidation. PMID:25472972

  14. Oncocytoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Xiang; Gao, Yan

    2009-12-01

    We present a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 Chinese patients with oncocytoma of salivary gland origin, a rare benign tumour composed exclusively of large epithelial cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm (oncocytes). The median age was 60.1 years with a male predominance (67%). All the tumours occurred in the parotid except one in the palate. A painless mass was the most common feature, although intermittent pain was complained of in four cases. All the patients were treated by superficial parotidectomy, with no recurrence or metastasis. Histologically, most tumours displayed an encapsulated nodular growth pattern, but one case presented with an aggressive growing tendency. Typical oncocytes were observed in all cases, with one clear cell variant found. The oncocytes were arranged in solid sheets, trabecular or duct-like structures. Rarely, small foci of hemorrhage or lymphoid stroma were observed, but germinal centres were always absent. Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin staining illustrated dark-blue cytoplasmic granules, demonstrated as mitochondria by electron microscopy. All the tumours showed immunoreactivity for CK5/6, CK8/18, CK10/13, CK19 and EMA, but were negative for SMA or S-100. MIB-1 antibody, used to identify the dividing cells by staining of the nucleus, was found to stain the cytoplasm of the oncocytes. In summary, clinical diagnosis for an oncocytoma is challenging for its similar features to other benign tumours. Histopathological diagnosis is reliable with histochemical and electron microscopic conformation of the oncocytes, but differential diagnosis is still challenging. MIB-1 immunostaining might be considered as a diagnostic aid.

  15. [Malignant pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Ji, X L

    1993-11-01

    Eighty three cases of malignant pleomorphic adenomas (MPA) of salivary glands were studied. Twenty tumors among of them were labeled with 4 kinds of antibodies including anti-CEA, anti-S 100 P, anti-CK12 and CK27 by immunohistochemical staining. Based on this study, it was concluded that the majority cases of MPAs derived from malignant transformation of benign pleomorphous adenomas. The author suggested that the MPAs might be classified as carcinomatous and carcino-sarcomatous subtypes according to the histologic appearances of malignant component in the tumor. The CEA positive reaction in the cytoplasm of tumor cells was a reliable marker of malignancy.

  16. Immunohistochemical Studies of the Kynurenine Pathway in Morphea

    PubMed Central

    Noakes, Rowland; Mellick, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous sclerosis, resembling that seen in subcutaneous morphea, is a feature of eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, two conditions in which the kynurenine pathway is known to be activated. To investigate the possibility of activation of the kynurenine pathway in morphea, skin biopsies were taken from involved and non-involved sites in a series of three patients with morphea. Immunohistochemical stains for quinolinic acid and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) were performed. PMID:24385714

  17. Massive retinal gliosis: An unusual case with immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Sanjay D; Ashturkar, Amrut V; Babanagare, Shridhar V; Gokhale, Suvarna K; Deshpande, Anand A

    2011-01-01

    Massive retinal gliosis (MRG) is a rare, benign intraocular condition that results from the proliferation of well-differentiated glial cells. Immunohistochemically, these cells show positivity for glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and S-100 protein. We encountered a case of a 45-year-old female with loss of vision in the left eye. She had a history of trauma to that eye two years ago. Enucleation was carried out, because malignancy was suspected due to retinal calcification. On the basis of light microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on the enucleated eye, it was diagnosed as massive retinal gliosis. PMID:21586853

  18. COTA (colon-ovarian tumor antigen). An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pant, K D; Fenoglio-Preiser, C M; Berry, C O; Zamora, P O; Ram, M D; Fulks, R M; Rhodes, B A

    1986-07-01

    A goat anti-serum was prepared against mucinous ovarian cyst fluid and absorbed with normal colon and a variety of normal tissues until the only residual immunoreactivity was directed against colon cancer and ovarian tumor mucin. The set of antigenic determinants defined by this anti-serum has been called COTA, standing for colon-ovarian-tumor-antigen. This highly absorbed anti-serum (anti-COTA) was used for immunohistochemical staining of 42 different tissues in parallel with staining with a goat anti-CEA, which was also highly absorbed. The results suggest that COTA is a highly sensitive and specific antigen for colon carcinoma and may have potential for the early detection of malignant changes predictive of cancer of the colon.

  19. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts – An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    D’Silva, Shaloom; Sumathi, M K; Balaji, N; Shetty, Nisha K N; Pramod, K M; Cheeramelil, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calretinin a 29-kDa calcium binding protein is expressed widely in normal human tissue and tumours including amelobastoma. The objective of this study was to determine calretinin expression in heamatoxylin and eosin diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma and non-neoplastic odontogenic cysts. Materials & Methods: The lining epithelium in 3 cases of radicular cysts, 5 cases of odontogenic keratocysts, 5 cases of dentigerous cysts and 11 cases of ameloblastomas were examined for expression of calretinin. Results: No positive epithelial staining was observed in radicular and dentigerous cysts. In comparison, however 100% of cases of ameloblastomas and 40% of cases of odontogenic karatocysts showed positive calretinin expression. Conclusion: Calretinin may be a specific immunohistochemical marker for ameloblastoma. If there is any possible relation between calretinin expression and neural origin of the odontogenic epithelium and its neoplastic transformation and if calretinin could be used as an early marker to predict the tendency of neoplastic change of odontogenic epithelium could be answered through further researches. How to cite this article: D’Silva S, Sumathi MK, Balaji N, Shetty NK, Pramod KM, Cheeramelil J. Evaluation of Calretinin expression in Ameloblastoma and Non-Neoplastic Odontogenic Cysts – An immunohistochemical study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):42-8 . PMID:24453443

  20. Hidradenoma Papilliferum With Oncocytic Metaplasia: A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Elbendary, Amira; Cochran, Eric; Xie, Qiang; Kabigting, Filamer; Pereira, Leanne; Elston, Dirk M; Heilman, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum is a benign cutaneous adnexal neoplasm, commonly occurring in the vulva and perianal region of adult women. It has characteristic histopathological features composed of anastomosing and branching tubules, lined by columnar cells, and a basal layer of myoepithelial cells. A 39-year-old woman was evaluated for 2 asymptomatic labial masses. The histopathological examination revealed a Bartholin's cyst and a hidradenoma papilliferum. The latter contains a distinct area of oncocytic/oxyphilic metaplasia. Immunohistochemical stains revealed positive staining for gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP)-15 and androgen receptor. GATA-3, a protein expressed in sweat glands, highlights a similar positive staining pattern with weaker staining in areas of oncocytic metaplasia. P63 highlighted the myoepithelial differentiation. In situ hybridization for Human Papilloma Virus 6, 11, 16, and 18 was negative. P53 was negative and Ki-67 was low, confirming its benign nature. Oncocytes are enlarged epithelial cells with voluminous eosinophilic granular cytoplasm resulting from staining of nonribosomal cytoplasmic components. Few reports documented it in hidradenoma papilliferum. Our case demonstrated a florid distinct appearance of this metaplasia. The immunoprofiles of this oncocytic metaplasia such as p53 negativity and positivity for androgen receptor and GCDFP-15 demonstrates similarity to apocrine metaplasia in the breast. The authors' case demonstrates the benign nature of oncocytic metaplasia and supports the common origin of oncocytic cells and columnar cells in hidradenoma papilliferum. PMID:27097337

  1. Myoepithelioma arising from the buccal gland: histopathological and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, R; Kuyama, K; Utsunomiya, T; Morikawa, M; Fukumoto, M; Yamamoto, H

    2000-03-01

    A rare case of myoepithelioma of the buccal gland in a 54-year-old Japanese woman is reported. As the swelling exhibited a normal mucosal color and was relatively well defined, showing no ulcers, a benign salivary gland tumor was suspected upon clinical inspection. Microscopically, the parenchyma of the present case mainly consisted of plasmacytoid cells with round nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, and partial spindle cells with eccentric nuclei. The stroma was composed of fibro-hyalinized or myxoid connective tissue that separated from the parenchyma. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of the plasmacytoid and spindle cells was moderately positive for vimentin and GFAP, whereas the buccal gland adjacent to the tumor was negative for these antibodies. S-100 protein reactivity is strong for both types tumor cells. Actin reactivity was negative for both types of tumor cells, notwithstanding the fact that myoepithelial cells of the buccal gland were positively stained. Anti-cytokeratin reactivity was weak for both types of tumor cells in portions of the plexiform and solid areas; nevertheless, the buccal glands were moderately positive. These results suggest that neoplasmic myoepithelial cells exhibit abnormal differentiation and modification. There have been only two published reports of myoepithelioma arising from the buccal gland in the literature to date.

  2. Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Endometrium: An Expanded Immunohistochemical Analysis Including PAX-8 and Basal-Like Carcinoma Surrogate Markers.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Preetha; Masand, Ramya P; Euscher, Elizabeth D; Malpica, Anais

    2016-09-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the endometrium (UCAe) is an aggressive, underrecognized high-grade carcinoma that can occur either in pure form or in conjunction with low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (i.e. dedifferentiated carcinoma). The typical solid growth pattern of UCAe can create a diagnostic dilemma as it is frequently misinterpreted as the solid component of an endometrial carcinoma or as a sarcoma. In addition, the high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, high mitotic index, and geographic necrosis are reminiscent of basal-like carcinoma of breast (BLCB). This study was undertaken to determine the role of a selected group of immunomarkers in the distinction of UCAe from other endometrial carcinomas, and assess the expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins, and surrogate BLCB immunomarkers in this type of tumor. Cases of UCAe were stained with antibodies against keratin cocktail, CK8/18, PAX-8, and estrogen receptor: 35 cases; progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu: 33 cases; CD44, e-cadherin, p16, and p53: 32 cases; and CK5/6, EGFR, and c-Kit: 18 cases. In addition, mismatch repair protein markers MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 were performed in 34 cases. We found that PAX-8 expression was lost in most cases (83%). In addition, estrogen and progesterone receptors were negative in 83% and 82% of cases, respectively. Seventy-seven percent of cases were positive for keratin cocktail and keratin 8/18, whereas only 11% of cases were positive for keratin 5/6. p16 was diffusely positive in 34% of cases, whereas p53 was expressed in >75% of the tumor cells in 31% of cases. MLH1 and PMS2 were concurrently lost in 50% of cases, whereas MSH2 and MSH6 were lost in 1 case (3%). E-cadherin and CD44 were completely lost in 50% of cases, whereas Her-2/neu was negative in all cases. EGFR was negative in 67% of cases, whereas 22% of cases showed diffuse membranous staining for this marker. UCAe is a high-grade carcinoma of Müllerian origin which tends to be negative for PAX-8. The

  3. Sialoblastoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen B; Ellis, Gary L; Warnock, Gary R

    2006-12-01

    Sialoblastoma is a rare congenital or perinatal salivary tumor that varies in histologic features and biologic potential. Seven cases from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology are presented. These tumors occurred in 4 males and 3 females with ages ranging from prenatal to 6 months at the time of discovery. Five lesions originated from the parotid gland; 2 lesions were from the submandibular gland. All lesions presented as nodular to multinodular swellings and ranged in size from 2.0 to 7.0 cm. The principal sign or symptom was rapid growth. Two histologic patterns with differing behavior predominated: (1) a favorable pattern had semiencapsulation of cytologically benign basaloid tumor cells with intervening stroma; and (2) an unfavorable histology of anaplastic basaloid tumor cells, minimal stroma, and broad pushing to infiltrative periphery. Four and three tumors had favorable and unfavorable growth patterns, respectively. One unfavorable lesion had vascular invasion, and another demonstrated perineural invasion. All 3 tumors with unfavorable histology recurred. Tumor cells in 3 cases were immunohistochemically reactive for keratin, S-100, smooth muscle actin, and calponin to varying degrees. All 3 tumors were reactive for p63. alpha-Fetoprotein was expressed in 2 unfavorable tumors. Ki67 was expressed at 3% in a favorable tumor and 40% and 80% in the 2 unfavorable lesions. Treatment involved surgical excision. One patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Two sialoblastomas resulted in recurrences within a year and another developed a recurrence after 4 years. One sialoblastoma developed lung metastasis within 1 month of the original biopsy. Although a clinical correlation is suggested by a favorable/unfavorable histologic grading system the biologic behavior is nonetheless considered unpredictable.

  4. Immunohistochemical Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 in Human Colorectal Adenomas Using Specified Automated Cellular Image Analysis System: A Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban J.; Ali, Hussam H.; Hussein, Alaa G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) in colorectal adenomas, and to correlate this expression with different clinicopathological parameters. Patients and Methods: The study was retrospectively designed. Thirty three paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenoma and 20 samples of non-tumerous colonic tissue taken as control group were included in the study. MMP-7 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry method. The scoring of immunohistochemical staining was conducted utilizing a specified automated cellular image analysis system (Digimizer). Results: The frequency of positive immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7 was significantly higher in adenoma than control group (45.45% versus 10%) (P value < 0.001). Strong MMP-7 staining was mainly seen in adenoma cases (30.30%) in comparison with control (0%) the difference is significant (P < 0.001). The three digital parameters of MMP-7 immunohistochemical expression (Area (A), Number of objects (N), and intensity (I)) were significantly higher in adenoma than control. Mean (A and I) of MMP-7 showed a significant correlation with large sized adenoma (≥ 1cm) (P < 0.05), also a significant positive correlation of the three digital parameters (A, N, and I) of MMP-7 expression with villous configuration and severe dysplasia in colorectal adenoma had been identified (P < 0.05). Conclusion: MMP-7 plays an important role in the growth and malignant conversion of colorectal adenomas as it is more likely to be expressed in advanced colorectal adenomatous polyps with large size, severe dysplasia and villous histology. The use of automated cellular image analysis system (Digmizer) to quantify immunohistochemical staining yields more consistent assay results, converts semi-quantitative assay to a truly quantitative assay, and improves assay objectivity and reproducibility. PMID:23319034

  5. Disturbed expression of ribonucleotide reductase and cytokeratin polypeptides in focal epithelial hyperplasia. An immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rozell, B; Stenman, G; Magnusson, B; Lekholm, U; Nagle, R B; Hansson, H A

    1986-05-01

    Four cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) were studied immunohistochemically, using monoclonal antibodies against the M1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and different cytokeratin polypeptides. The FEH lesions showed, compared to normal oral mucosa, extensive alterations in their staining patterns. This included ectopic suprabasal M1 staining and the novel expression of cytokeratin polypeptides differing from those previously reported for other HPV infections. The results are discussed in relation to the causative agent, human papillomavirus, and its expression in focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  6. Successful Treatment of Granuloma Faciale with Topical Tacrolimus: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Gen-ichi; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old Japanese patient with granuloma faciale (GF) successfully treated with topical tacrolimus and describe the immunohistochemical study. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the patient's granuloma contained CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD68+ and CD163+ cells. Interestingly, these cells contained granulysin+ T cells and lacked Foxp3high+ regulatory T cells. In addition, the macrophages were mainly CD163+, which suggested that the alternatively activated macrophage is one of the main components of GF. In summary, the present data shed light on the granuloma-composing cells and possible mechanisms in the treatment of GF with topical tacrolimus. PMID:22807901

  7. Role of Osteopontin in Psoriasis: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Mawla, M Yousry; El-Kasheshy, Kamal Ahmed; Ghonemy, Soheir; Al Balat, Walid; Elsayed, Amira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteopontin (OPN) has been postulated to have a role in several T-helper (Th) 1 and Th 17-mediated diseases including psoriasis (PS), through multiple mechanisms sharing in the onset and worsening of PS, OPN shares in induction of keratinocyte proliferation through inhibiting keratinocyte apoptosis, OPN acts as a proinflammatory agent that participates in the upregulation of Th cell lineages, among which are the Th 1 and Th 17 cells. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the possible role of OPN in the pathogenesis of PS. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was carried out on 18 patients of chronic plaque PS (mean age 37.61 ± 14.48) and a control group of 18 apparently healthy volunteers (mean age 41.11 ± 11.02 years). Severity of PS was assessed using the PS area and severity index score. Two skin biopsies were taken from psoriatic patients. The first was taken from the lesional skin and the other from a counter apparently healthy site. Results: Our results showed statistically significant differences in the expression of OPN, between lesional and nonlesional skin as well as between nonlesional skin and control group (P ≤ 0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference in the expression of OPN, between control and lesional group. Conclusions: OPN involvement in PS enlarges the list of cytokines able to stimulate the inflammatory response in this disease, anti-OPN antibodies, may eventually become a useful therapeutic approach in PS. PMID:27293251

  8. Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney: a histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Drachenberg, Cinthia B

    2013-05-01

    Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney (TCCK) is a tumor entity, which is not yet included in the WHO classification of renal tumors. The histogenesis of this neoplasm is uncertain. This study was undertaken to determine (1) the incidence of TCCK and (2) immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of those tumors that qualify as TCCK by the current definitions. From January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2012, a total of 615 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) were seen by the Department of Pathology, University of Maryland Medical Center. Four TCCKs were identified (4/615, <1 %). TCCK is a distinctive group of kidney tumors with a male predominance and noteworthy macroscopic spongy appearance. Microscopically, the tumors were composed of tubules and cysts lined by a single layer of eosinophilic, columnar, cuboidal, flat, or hobnail cells with large nuclei and prominent nucleoli separated by a thin fibrotic stroma. In all TCCKs, the majority of neoplastic cells showed immunohistochemical (CD10(+), RCC(+), vimentin(+), and AMACR(+)) and ultrastructural (abundant long brush border microvilli) characteristics of proximal renal tubules. In few cells, the microvilli were shorter and sparse with cytoplasmic interdigitation analogous to intercalated cells of the collecting ducts. Focal positivity for BerEP4 (a marker preferentially expressed in distal renal tubules) was also noted. The major differential diagnostic considerations are oncocytoma, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, and cystic nephroma/mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney. TCCK seems to have a favorable prognosis. In the current series, none of the patients had local recurrence or metastatic disease. PMID:23525677

  9. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma with a sarcoma-like mural nodule: an immunohistochemical study with histogenetic considerations and literature review.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Dilaver; Gun, Ismet; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Balta, Ahmet Ziya; Ramzy, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas (PRMCs) are extremely rare tumors and their association with sarcoma-like mural nodules (SLMNs) has not been described thoroughly. The aim of this study is to characterize the gross and microscopic features and the immunohistochemical profile of the first case of PRMC with SLMN and to discuss the differential diagnosis of SLMNs. The literature related to primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumors is reviewed in an attempt to clarify the histogenesis of the epithelial and sarcomatoid components of the associated mural nodules. A 34-yr-old woman presented with a 14-cm retroperitoneal cystic lesion with a 6-cm mural nodule. An immunohistochemical study with a panel of 19 antibodies and a histochemical study for mucin stains were performed. The epithelial component of the PRMC showed positive staining for cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and calretinin. The neoplasm was not immunoreactive for CK 20, CK 5/6, and the other antibodies used in this study. In addition, it stained positively for mucin by mucicarmine, periodic acid-Schiff, and Alcian blue. The stromal cells of the cyst showed estrogen receptor positivity. SLMN cells were negative for all CKs and other epithelial markers used in the study, but they showed diffuse positive staining for vimentin and CD68, and positive staining for Ki-67 was demonstrated in 25% of these cells. The immunohistochemical and histochemical profiles of PRMC were similar to those of ovarian mucinous neoplasms and the mesothelium. The formation of SLMNs seems to be related to subepithelial hemorrhage and some reactive epithelial changes near the mural nodules. The specific immunohistochemical and morphologic features of SLMNs are helpful in differentiating them from malignant mural nodules, including true sarcomas, osteoclast-rich undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. Such a differentiation is critical in view of its significant

  10. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the duodenum. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, A; de la Cruz, E; Sanchez, M J; Ortiz, S; Lobato, A; Merino, E

    1993-05-01

    A rare adenosquamous carcinoma of the duodenum occurred in an 84-year-old woman. Histologically the neoplasm showed evidence of glandular and squamous differentiation, and both components showed malignant characteristics. Intermediate elements sharing squamous and glandular features, were found and were immunoreactive for carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratins of both low and high molecular weight. A review of the literature and discussion about the histogenesis is included.

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Macrophage Expression Using CD68 in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, T; Naik, S; Tamgadge, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Macrophages are important cells for the innate immunity. Circulating monocytes are attracted to tissues by chemotactic factors and become macrophages under the influence of their microenvironment. Several studies suggested that local and systemic upregulation of fibrogenic cytokines and downregulation of antifibrotic cytokine are central to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Currently, there have been no attempts made to elucidate the presence and role of macrophages in OSMF. Aim: Our aim was to study the expression of CD68 in OSMF patients and to investigate the possible correlation of macrophages using CD68 in various histopathological grades of OSMF. Subjects and Methods: A prospective case–control study which included 40 patients was conducted after obtaining informed consent and Ethical Committee clearance. Ten cases were normal control and thirty cases had OSMF. Biopsy was performed and a quantitative study of macrophages was done using CD68 antigen and was immunohistochemically localized. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0 version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: OSMF was observed in male patients of a younger age group. The macrophage number in the patients of intermediate and advanced stage of OSMF was higher than that of the controls which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that CD68 plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of OSMF and can be regarded as a useful marker for assessing the progress of the disease. PMID:27057383

  12. An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-12-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, Saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Three islet types were identified: type A mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (A)-secreting cells, type B mixed islets with predominantly insulin (B)-secreting cell component and type M mixed islets (type M) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (D)-secreting cells. The latter were further characterized into Type I, II or III according to the cell distribution of the three cell types. A and D cells were also randomly scattered within the exocrine pancreas. The results of this study suggest that the classical concept in birds of a segregation of A and B cells in well-defined and distinct islets is not applicable in raptors, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation to different dietary habits and variation in developmental mechanisms. PMID:25468799

  13. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of tissue engineered odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki J; Sumita, Yoshinori; Kagami, Hideaki; Ueda, Minoru

    2005-06-01

    The successful regeneration of complex tooth structures based on tissue-engineering principles was recently reported. The process of this regeneration, however, remains poorly characterized. In this study, we have used histochemistry to examine the regeneration process of tissue engineered teeth in order to determine the cell types that give rise to these engineered tooth structures. Porcine third molar tooth buds were dissociated into single-cell suspensions and seeded onto a biodegradable polyglycolic acid polymer scaffold. Following varying periods of growth in rat hosts, the specimens were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Aggregates of epithelial cells were first observed 4-6 weeks after implantation. These aggregates assumed three different shapes: a natural tooth germ-like shape, a circular shape, or a bilayer-bundle. Based on the structure of the stellate reticulum in the dental epithelium, the circular and bilayer-bundle aggregates could be clearly classified into two types: one with extensively developed stellate reticulum, and the other with negligible stellate reticulum. The epithelial cells in the circular aggregates differentiated into ameloblasts. The continuous bilayer bundles eventually formed the epithelial sheath, and dentin tissue was evident at the apex of these bundles. Finally, enamel-covered dentin and cementum-covered dentin formed, a process most likely mediated by epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. These results suggest that the development of these engineered teeth closely parallels that of natural odontogenesis derived from the immature epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

  14. Sialadenoma papilliferum: an immunohistochemical study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, E; Favia, G; Ricco, R

    1996-07-01

    Sialadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare, benign, salivary gland tumor which most commonly arises in the palate. It has a typical biphasic gross and microscopic appearance which distinguishes this tumor from other papillary-like tumors of the oral cavity. This study reports the clinico-pathologic features of 5 new cases and analyzes the morphologic and immunophenotypic features of their cell components. Adluminal epithelial cells of duct-like structures appeared immunoreactive to cytokeratin 19 and to S-100 protein antibodies; two subsets of basally-located cells were identified by means of immunohistochemistry. One cell subset expressed cytokeratin 14, S-100 protein, GFAP, vimentin and smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity; this antigenic profile is consistent with myoepithelial differentiation. The second subset of basal cells expressed cytokeratins 13 and 14 reactivity but it was negative to all other antibodies. Anti-CD 1a and anti-S-100 protein antibodies revealed distinct cells with dendritic processes which resembled Langerhans cells. The extralobular location of SP, the continuity between neoplastic duct-like structures and the surface epithelium along with the presence, within the excretory ducts adjacent to the tumour, of lesions which possibly precede the development of SP give further strength to the hypothesis of an origin from the excretory ducts of this tumor. Langerhans cells seem to be present in sialadenoma papilliferum but their role in this tumor is still unclear.

  15. Gliomatosis peritonei: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; Zhang, Yifen; Malpica, Anais; Ramalingam, Preetha; Euscher, Elizabeth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Liu, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Gliomatosis peritonei, a rare condition often associated with immature ovarian teratoma, is characterized by the presence of mature glial tissue in the peritoneum. We retrospectively evaluated 21 patients with gliomatosis peritonei and studied their clinicopathologic features and immunophenotype. The patients’ ages ranged from 5 to 42 years (median, 19 years). Their primary ovarian tumors consisted of immature teratoma (n = 14), mixed germ cell tumors (n = 6), and mature teratoma with a carcinoid tumor (n = 1). Gliomatosis peritonei was diagnosed at the same time as primary ovarian neoplasm in 16 patients and secondary surgery in 5 patients. Also, 11 of 21 patients had metastatic immature teratoma (n = 4), metastatic mature teratoma (n = 2), or both (n = 5). One patient developed glioma arising from gliomatosis peritonei. Seventeen patients had follow-up information and were alive with no evidence of disease (n = 13), alive with disease (n = 3), or alive with an unknown disease status (n = 1). The follow-up durations ranged from 1 to 229 months (mean, 49 months; median, 23 months). Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that SOX2 was expressed in all cases of gliomatosis peritonei and glioma with tissue available (9 of 9 cases), whereas OCT4 and NANOG were negative in all cases with available tissue (8 of 8 cases). In conclusion, both gliomatosis peritonei and glioma arising from it show a SOX2+/OCT4−/NANOG− immunophenotype. These findings demonstrated that gliomatosis peritonei is associated with favorable prognosis, although it is important to rule out potentially associated immature teratoma and maligant transformation. SOX2 may play an important role in the development of gliomatosis peritonei. PMID:26564007

  16. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L

    2013-03-01

    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  17. Respiratory viruses in pediatric necropsies: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Débora C; Raboni, Sonia M; Abujamra, Karla Bueno; Marani, Daniele M; Nogueira, Meri B; Tsuchiya, Luine R V; Neto, Herberto J Chong; Flizikowski, Fabiane B Z; de Noronha, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Infections of the respiratory system are responsible for the majority of hospitalizations and deaths in pediatric patients in developing countries. We selected 177 necropsies of pediatric patients who died as a result of serious respiratory infections. The histopathological findings and epidemiological data were reviewed, and lung tissue samples were separated for immunohistochemistry testing. Conventional immunohistochemistry techniques were used to detect viral antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FF-PE) lung tissue samples using a pool of monoclonal antibodies against respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, adenovirus, and parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3 viruses) as primary antibodies. The histopathological findings were classified into bronchopneumonia (BCP) and interstitial pneumonitis (IP) patterns. The immunohistochemistry results were compared with histopathological patterns and epidemiological data. Positive results for viruses were found in 34% and 62.5% of the BCP and IP cases, respectively. Males and infants below 1 year of age were more frequent in the group that had positive results for viruses. Acute enteritis was the main cause of hospitalization and sepsis the most frequent cause of death in this group. A clear seasonal distribution was observed, with the majority of cases occurring in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (autumn and winter) of each year in the period studied. Immunohistochemistry is an affordable and easy-to-perform method for viral-antigen detection in FF-PE tissue samples. Although BCP is a classic histopathological pattern found in bacterial infections, it is possible that children with serious respiratory infections had concomitant viral and bacterial infections, regardless of their previous immunologic state. PMID:19018665

  18. Cutaneous myoepithelioma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 14 cases.

    PubMed

    Hornick, Jason L; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2004-01-01

    (57%) expressed smooth muscle actin, 7 of 14 (50%) expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, 3 of 11 (27%) expressed p63, and 1 of 6 (17%) expressed desmin. All 5 cases without keratin staining were diffusely positive for EMA, and all of these cases showed a solid growth pattern. Follow-up was available for 8 patients (median follow-up, 40 months; range, 6 months to 9 years); 3 tumors (38%) recurred locally, and 1 tumor (13%) also metastasized to the lymph nodes. The case that resulted in recurrence and metastasis had the highest mitotic rate (6 per 10 HPFs) of the cytologically benign tumors. Follow-up information was not available for the myoepithelial carcinoma. This study suggests that approximately 50% of cutaneous myoepitheliomas are distinctive lesions composed of a solid proliferation of cells with abundant eosinophilic syncytial cytoplasm, which often lack immunostaining for keratin, whereas the remainder demonstrate focally reticular architecture and myxoid stroma or plasmacytoid cells, similar to their counterparts in salivary gland and soft tissue. Whereas most cutaneous myoepitheliomas behave in a benign fashion, there is apparently a significant risk for local recurrence but a low metastatic potential.

  19. Cytokeratin expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 687 cases.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common clinically significant mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. The expression of the intermediate filament cytokeratin in gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not frequently reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of several types of cytokeratin in a large number of cases (n=687), including a pan-cytokeratin marker (AE1/AE3 cocktail antibodies), high-molecular weight cytokeratins (34ßE12 antibody), and individual cytokeratins 8 (35ßH11 and CAM5.2 antibodies), 7, 14, and 20. Ki-67 antigen was used for the determination of cell proliferation index, and the correlation between Ki-67 and cytokeratin expression was evaluated. Cytokeratin expression was also correlated with several clinicopathologic parameters. The expression of pan-cytokeratin was observed in 24 (3.5%) cases, with variable intensity. Only 1 of 687 (0.1%) cases showed cytokeratin 14 expression. All 687 cases revealed no expression of high-molecular weight cytokeratins, cytokeratins 7, 8, and 20. No significant statistical association was found between AE1/AE3 immunoreactivity and several clinicopathologic parameters, including sex, tumor location and size, cell morphology, mitotic count, risk of aggressive behavior, and Ki-67 antigen cell proliferation index. However, statistical correlation between AE1/AE3 immunoreactivity and a higher age at diagnosis was detected. These results show that cytokeratin expression is not frequent in gastrointestinal stromal tumor, but caution is necessary to avoid erroneous diagnoses.

  20. Immunohistochemical Similarities between Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus and Morphea: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Kakizaki, Aya; Fujimura, Taku; Furudate, Sadanori; Kambayashi, Yumi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-01-01

    Both morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) are connective tissue diseases that mainly affect the skin. A recent report suggested that a substantial portion of morphea coexists with LSA. In this report, we describe a case of LSA on the abdomen accompanied by morphea; we employed immunohistochemical staining for periostin as well as MMP-7 and MMP-28, both of which are reported to facilitate fibrosis in the development of various organs, including skin. To our knowledge, this is first English language paper that demonstrates the immunohistochemical staining of periostin, MMP-7 and MMP-28 for morphea and LSA. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for the coexistence of two different sclerotic skin disorders. PMID:25873875

  1. Adult rhabdomyoma with oncocytic changes affecting the floor of the mouth: optical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Adult rhabdomyoma (AR) is an extremely uncommon benign neoplasm with mature skeletal muscle differentiation comprising approximately 2% of muscle tumors, usually affecting the soft tissue of the head and neck. Although histology of AR is characteristic, several differential diagnoses (granular cell tumor, hibernoma, oncocytoma) should be considered, and one needs to be familiar with this rare entity to exclude other neoplastic diseases. We present a case of AR, in a 54-year-old man, affecting the floor of the mouth, and call attention to the oncocytic appearance (including antimitochondrial and peroxiredoxin I immunoreactivity) of this case and its differential diagnosis analyzed at the optical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural level, showing the morphological and immunohistochemical features that can be confused with a salivary oncocytoma.

  2. Solitary fibrous tumor of the oral soft tissues: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Alawi, F; Stratton, D; Freedman, P D

    2001-07-01

    We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 16 solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) originating within the oral soft tissues. There were 10 women and six men with a mean age at diagnosis of 56 years. In all cases the tumors were slow-growing, asymptomatic, submucosal growths of variable size and duration. The buccal mucosa was involved in 12 cases, and the tongue and lower lip were affected in two cases, respectively. Thirteen tumors developed on the left side of the mouth. Follow-up information was available in 10 cases and averaged 44.7 months, with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. All 16 tumors were well circumscribed and demonstrated histologic features that were invariably benign. In all cases they were composed of an admixture of alternating hypercellular and hypocellular, collagenous zones; haphazardly arranged, cytologically bland spindle and ovoid cells that in areas were intimately intermixed with collagen; a prominent vasculature; and perivascular hyalinization. Immunohistochemically, the tumors were consistently positive for CD34, bcl-2, factor XIIIa, and vimentin, whereas 75% of the tumors were reactive for CD99. To further define the clinicopathologic profile of intraoral SFT, we include a review of the previously reported cases. We also include a comparison and brief review of the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of other spindle cell tumors of the oral cavity, from which SFTs must be differentiated.

  3. [Morphometric and immunohistochemical studies of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hereditary microphthalmic rat].

    PubMed

    Sugita, S; Ohsawa, K

    1992-10-01

    Morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were performed on hereditary microphthalmic rats. In normal rats, the number of cells and the volume of the SCN were 11, 631 and 6.7 x 10(-2) mm3 (an average taken from 12 SCNs). However, the neuronal population and volume of the SCN in hereditary microphthalmic rats were 7,450 and 4.5 x 10(-2) mm3 (an average taken from 14 SCNs), respectively. There were no significant differences in the size of neurons between normal and microphthalmic SCN neurons. Immunohistochemical studies showed that a considerable number of antivasopressin positive neurons were present in microphthalmic rats, despite their lack of the optic nerve. However, further detailed studies revealed that the number of antivasopressin positive neurons present in microphthalmic rats was only 68% of those found in normal rats. These findings suggest that the complete development of the SCN and vasopressin neurons depends on the visual input.

  4. Evaluation of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma using H1 calponin: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kesavan; Nirmal, R Madhavan; Nassar, M Mohamed; Veeravarmal, V; Amsaveni, R; Kumar, Arul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral mucosa. Stromal myofibroblasts play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, due to its ability to modify the extracellular matrix. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the presence of myofibroblasts in normal mucosa, early invasive carcinoma and different grades of OSCC. Materials and Methods: The study included the archival tissues of 18 OSCC of well, moderate and poorly differentiated grades, three early invasive carcinomas and five normal mucosa. Myofibroblasts were identified by immunohistochemical detection of h1 calponin. Results: The percentage and intensity of h1 calponin were examined and positive immunostaining was observed in the myofibroblasts of all SCCs and early invasive carcinomas; however, these cells did not stain in the normal epithelium specimens. The presence of myofibroblasts was significantly higher in invasive pattern of OSCCs compared to normal mucosa cases (P < 0.070). A significant difference was not observed between the different grades of OSCC (P ≤ 0.812). Conclusion: These findings show the presence of myofibroblasts in OSCC but not in normal mucosa, suggesting that the genetically altered epithelium (carcinomatous epithelium) may have an inductive effect on the adjacent stroma to produce myofibroblasts. Also transdifferentiation of myofibroblasts is induced somewhere in the invasive stage of SCC irrespective of the epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:26097306

  5. Possible Therapeutic Effect of Stem Cell in Atherosclerosis in Albino Rats. A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kawi, Samraa H; Hashem, Khalid S

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. there are no effective approaches to regressing atherosclerosis due to not fully understood mechanisms. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have held promises to various diseases, including vascular diseases. Aim The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on atherosclerosis. Material and Methods Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into control group (I), atherogenic group (II): subjected to high cholesterol fed diet (200~300 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks and 1.8 million units of vitamin D / kg of diet for 6 weeks. Stem cell therapy group (III): injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of atherosclerosis. Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed were conducted. Results Atherogenic group (II) showed increased aortic thickness, intimal proliferation, smooth muscle proliferation and migration. Increased area % of collagen fibers, iNOS and vimentin immunoreactions were recorded and proved morphometrically. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusion A definite therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells was found on atherosclerosis. PMID:26634068

  6. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways.

  7. Innervation of the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the human wrist: quantitative immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Toshio; Tobe, Masahiro; Mizutani, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kunio; Ishikawa, Youichi; Sato, Fumi

    2007-09-01

    The distribution of neural elements in the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) of the human wrists was studied via immunohistochemical staining of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Articular branches projecting to the TFCC arose from the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve in all wrists examined. The TFCC is subdivided into the following six regions: the articular disc proper (ADP), meniscus homolog (MH), radio-ulnar ligament (RUL), loose part of ulnar collateral ligament (lUCL), dense part of ulnar collateral ligament (dUCL), and internal portion (IP). The IP consists of a mixture of dense and loose connective tissues enclosed by the ADP, MH, RUL, and UCL, and resides deep in the prestyloid recess, which is a pit in the MH. The densities of PGP 9.5-positive neural elements, including free nerve endings, single nerve fibers, nerve fascicles, and perivascular neural nets, were significantly higher in the IP than in other regions. Some of the neural elements except for the perivascular neural nets were positive for CGRP. The high density of neural elements in the IP suggests that sensory nerves projecting to the TFCC enter into the IP and from there distribute to adjacent regions such as the MH and RUL. Free nerve endings are responsible for pain transmission. The high density of free nerve endings in the IP suggests that the IP is a source of ulnar side wrist pain.

  8. Activation of Mammalian target of rapamycin in canine mammary carcinomas: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, L; Gärtner, F; Dias Pereira, P

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase involved in cell growth, proliferation and survival. Activation of mTOR has been reported in various tumour types, including human breast cancer; however, the expression of mTOR in canine mammary tumours has not been examined. In the present study, expression of the activated form of mTOR (phospho-mTOR [p-mTOR]) was examined immunohistochemically in five normal canine mammary glands, 45 canine mammary carcinomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions (n = 15). Phospho-mTOR was not expressed in normal canine mammary tissue, but cytoplasmic labelling was observed in 78% of canine mammary carcinomas. Two carcinomas had both cytoplasmic and nuclear labelling. No significant relationship was found between p-mTOR cytoplasmic expression and histological type or grading of carcinomas, degree of tubular formation, anisokaryosis, mitotic activity or lymph node metastasis. In all except one case, the expression pattern of p-mTOR in lymph node metastases was similar or decreased when compared with the primary lesion. The findings suggest that p-mTOR is involved in mammary carcinogenesis in dogs. However, p-mTOR cytoplasmic expression does not appear to be a prognostic indicator in canine mammary carcinomas, which may be related to its subcellular location in the neoplastic cells. Canine mammary tumours may provide a model for the development of innovative medical strategies involving mTOR inhibitors in human breast cancer. PMID:25670666

  9. Comparative immunohistochemical study of normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic C cells of the rat thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lacave, I; Rojas, F; Bernabé, R; Utrilla, J C; Fernández-Santos, J M; De Miguel, M; Conde, E

    2002-09-01

    In rats, the frequency of spontaneous C-cell tumours is very high and is both age and gender dependent. The three specific stages of neoplastic progression can be distinguished into diffuse C-cell hyperplasia, focal C-cell hyperplasia and bona fide C-cell tumours. Based on this hypothetical model of human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we carried out an immunohistochemical study using different markers (calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, somatostatin and chromogranin) to verify the existence of any relationship between their expression and the successive steps of tumour development. We found a characteristic immunohistochemical staining pattern, particularly for calcitonin and somatostatin, which distinguishes C-cell tumours from both normal and hyperplastic C cells, with no differences related to the gender of the animals under study. Specifically, a considerable heterogeneity in calcitonin expression was only displayed by C-cell carcinomas, being less pronounced in C-cell adenomas. As for somatostatin, this regulatory peptide was found only in a minority of calcitonin-positive cells in normal and hyperplastic glands. However, in some C-cell adenomas and most C-cell carcinomas nearly all calcitonin-positive cells also coexpressed somatostatin. We conclude that rat C-cell neoplasms constitute a very particular tumour entity which shares many but not all immunohistochemical features with human MTC.

  10. PLAG1 expression in cutaneous mixed tumors: an immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Atsuji; Hisaoka, Masanori; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Cutaneous mixed tumors, also known as chondroid syringomas, are benign cutaneous adnexal tumors that exhibit remarkable histopathological similarities to pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland. Thus far, there is little information on the genetic profiles of cutaneous mixed tumors, although specific genetic aberrations including fusion genes involving PLAG1 and HMGA2 have been demonstrated in pleomorphic adenomas. In the present study, we conducted an immunohistochemical evaluation of PLAG1 and a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect fusion gene transcripts associated with pleomorphic adenoma, including the CTNNB1-PLAG1, LIFR-PLAG1, CHCHD7-PLAG1, TCEA1-PLAG1, HMGA2-FHIT, HMGA2-NFIB, and HMGA2-WIF1 fusion transcripts; this was performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens of 16 cutaneous mixed tumors including one sample with an adenocarcinoma component. All 16 cutaneous mixed tumors were immunoreactive to PLAG1, which was predominantly expressed in cells with myoepithelial or chondroid differentiation accounting for >80% of cells, whereas PLAG1 expression in glandular or squamous tumor cells was restricted to <20% of cells. The carcinoma component in the mixed tumor was also positive for PLAG1. On the other hand, all eight cutaneous adnexal tumors other than the mixed tumor were negative for PLAG1. In RT-PCR analysis, no fusion gene transcripts involving PLAG1 or HMGA2 were identified in any of the cases. Concordant with previous studies, our results support the close relationship between cutaneous mixed tumors and pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland. However, the mechanism of PLAG1 expression in cutaneous mixed tumors appears to be possibly different from that of pleomorphic adenomas.

  11. An immunohistochemical study of the sciatic nerve in a rat knee immobilization model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Taro; Hoso, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to immunohistochemically evaluate changes in the periphery of the sciatic nerve in a rat model of knee immobilization, and to assess the effects of range of motion exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one male rats were divided randomly into three groups: control (C), immobilized (I), and exercise (E group). Rats in the I and E groups had the right knee joint immobilized for 2 weeks. In the E group, range of motion exercise was also performed. After the experimental period, the periphery of the sciatic nerve was immunohistochemically observed. [Results] Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the myelin sheath and the perineurium in all groups were laminin positive. In the C and E groups, all rats showed normal staining. In contrast, 4 rats in the I group exhibited weak labeling. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that immobilization alters the perineurium at a molecular level and the range of motion exercise is essential for maintaining the environment of the perineurium. PMID:27190437

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of S100 proteins in dorsal root, sympathetic and enteric ganglia of several mammalian species, including man.

    PubMed

    Albuerne, M; Mammola, C L; Naves, F J; Levanti, B; Germanà, G; Vega, J A

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of S100 proteins in neurons of the mammalian peripheral nervous system is still controversial. This study was designed to investigate this topic in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the enteric nervous system (ENS) of several mammalian species (horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, pig, dog, rabbit and rat), as well as in DRG, paravertebral sympathetic ganglia (SG) and ENS of the adult man. Rat embryos of E17 and E19 were also examined. The material was fixed in Bouin's fixative, paraffin-embedded and processed for immunohistochemistry, combined with image analysis, using a panel of mono and polyclonal antibodies against S100alpha, S100beta or S100alpha + beta (referred to here as S100) proteins. In all species examined, strong S100 protein immunoreactivity (IR) was found in satellite glial cells and Schwann cells, which also showed S100alpha and S100beta IR in humans. Furthermore, faint S100 protein IR was observed in a subpopulation of DRG intermediate- and large-sized sensory neurons in humans, buffalo, sheep, and pig. The rat was the only species showing clear S100 and S100beta in neurons, labelling in about 30-35% in adults (small, intermediate and large in size), and about 88% at E17 and 42% at E19, respectively. Weak S100alpha protein IR was observed in most of human SG neurons. In ENS, S100 protein IR was restricted to enteric glial and Schwann cells, with the exception of cow and goat in which a subset of neurons in both the myenteric and submucous plexuses displayed strong S100 protein IR. Neuronal S100alpha IR and glial S100beta IR was found in the human ENS. The present results demonstrate intra- and inter-specific differences in the expression of S100 proteins by neurons of the peripheral nervous system among mammalian species. Furthermore, they also suggest that neuronal S100 protein, at least in humans, consists of both S100alpha and S100beta.

  13. Evaluation of Aquaporin-3 Role in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Al Sharaky, Dalia; Ragheb, Eman

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3), is an aquaglyceroporin, that plays a role in cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cell migration. This study aimed at evaluating the possible role of AQP3 in nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) pathogenesis through its immunohistochemical expression in skin biopsies of these diseases. One-hundred and thirty cutaneous specimens were studied. These included 60 cases of NMSC and 40 normal skin and 30 psoriasis samples, from age- and gender-matched subjects, as a control group. AQP3 was expressed in 66.7% of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases and in 93.3% of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. Higher AQP3 expression (p = .01), expression percentage (p = .01), and H score (p = .04) were significantly associated with SCC compared to BCC. Normal skin and psoriasis showed significantly higher AQP3 expression (p = .001, p < .001, respectively), expression percentage (p < .001 for both), and H score values (p < .001, p = .001, respectively) compared to NMSC. Higher H score values in BCC were significantly associated with female gender (p = .02) and with nodular lesions (p > .001). Higher H score values in SCC were significantly associated with grade III tumors (p = .04) and AQP3 percentage of expression was significantly correlated with grade III tumors (r = .48, p = .009). In conclusion, AQP3 may play a role in NMSC pathogenesis. This probably occurs through aquaporin-mediated glycerol transport and ATP generation. Its downregulation, observed in the current work, is mostly a result of excessive proliferation. Further studies are needed to investigate the therapeutic effect of its inhibition in NMSC treatment.

  14. Evaluation of Aquaporin-3 Role in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Al Sharaky, Dalia; Ragheb, Eman

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3), is an aquaglyceroporin, that plays a role in cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cell migration. This study aimed at evaluating the possible role of AQP3 in nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) pathogenesis through its immunohistochemical expression in skin biopsies of these diseases. One-hundred and thirty cutaneous specimens were studied. These included 60 cases of NMSC and 40 normal skin and 30 psoriasis samples, from age- and gender-matched subjects, as a control group. AQP3 was expressed in 66.7% of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases and in 93.3% of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. Higher AQP3 expression (p = .01), expression percentage (p = .01), and H score (p = .04) were significantly associated with SCC compared to BCC. Normal skin and psoriasis showed significantly higher AQP3 expression (p = .001, p < .001, respectively), expression percentage (p < .001 for both), and H score values (p < .001, p = .001, respectively) compared to NMSC. Higher H score values in BCC were significantly associated with female gender (p = .02) and with nodular lesions (p > .001). Higher H score values in SCC were significantly associated with grade III tumors (p = .04) and AQP3 percentage of expression was significantly correlated with grade III tumors (r = .48, p = .009). In conclusion, AQP3 may play a role in NMSC pathogenesis. This probably occurs through aquaporin-mediated glycerol transport and ATP generation. Its downregulation, observed in the current work, is mostly a result of excessive proliferation. Further studies are needed to investigate the therapeutic effect of its inhibition in NMSC treatment. PMID:26107428

  15. Quantitative evaluation of microvessel density using CD34 in clinical variants of ameloblastoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Dodal, Shashibhushan; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic epithelium plays an important role in the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors of the jaws. Ameloblastomas, which arise from odontogenic epithelium, are considered benign with little tendency to metastasize. Tumors require an adequate supply of oxygen and a way to remove their waste products. This can be achieved by angiogenesis. In situ quantification of the microvessel density (MVD) is a usual method for assessing angiogenesis. Moreover, angiogenesis may differ in subtypes of ameloblastomas and could play a role in determining the pattern of tumor growth. Aim: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD34) in variants of ameloblastomas and to correlate and compare their expression to the aggressive behavior. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study which included forty paraffin blocks was conducted after obtaining ethical committee clearance. Ten cases of pyogenic granuloma were used as a positive control and thirty cases were of solid multicystic ameloblastoma (SMA), unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) and desmoplastic ameloblastomas. Angiogenesis was assessed using CD34 antigen and was immunohistochemically localized. Statistical analysis was carried out for comparative analysis with the help of ANOVA test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and least significance difference test. Results: A significant correlation was obtained between the MVD of all the three variants, i.e., SMA, UA and desmoplastic ameloblastomas which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increased MVD in the three variants, i.e., SMA, UA and desmoplastic ameloblastoma seen in the present study could suggest that the angiogenesis has an important role in tumor progression and aggressiveness of ameloblastomas. PMID:27194862

  16. Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Vranic, Semir; Bilalovic, Nurija; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Trpkov, Kiril; Vesela, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Kalusova, Kristyna; Sperga, Maris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Alvarado Cabrero, Isabel; Bulimbasic, Stela; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-02-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) may present with a tubulocystic growth in 3% to 7% of cases, and in such cases its morphology may significantly overlap with tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC). We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors, aiming to clarify the differential diagnostic criteria, which facilitate the discrimination of RO from TCRCC. Twenty-four cystic ROs and 15 TCRCCs were selected and analyzed for: architectural growth patterns, stromal features, cytomorphology, ISUP nucleolar grade, necrosis, and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical panel included various cytokeratins (AE1-AE3, OSCAR, CAM5.2, CK7), vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CA-IX, antimitochondrial antigen (MIA), EMA, and Ki-67. The presence of at least focal solid growth and islands of tumor cells interspersed with loose stroma, lower ISUP nucleolar grade, absence of necrosis, and absence of mitotic figures were strongly suggestive of a cystic RO. In contrast, the absence of solid and island growth patterns and presence of more compact, fibrous stroma, accompanied by higher ISUP nucleolar grade, focal necrosis, and mitotic figures were all associated with TCRCC. TCRCC marked more frequently for vimentin, CD10, AMACR, and CK7 and had a higher proliferative index by Ki-67 (>15%). CD117 was negative in 14/15 cases. One case was weakly CD117 reactive with cytoplasmic positivity. All cystic RO cases were strongly positive for CD117. The remaining markers (AE1-AE3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, CA-IX, MIA, EMA) were of limited utility. Presence of tumor cell islands and solid growth areas and the type of stroma may be major morphologic criteria in differentiating cystic RO from TCRCC. In difficult cases, or when a limited tissue precludes full morphologic assessment, immunohistochemical pattern of vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CK7, and Ki-67 could help in establishing the correct diagnosis. PMID:26180933

  17. Uveal spindle cell tumor of blue-eyed dogs: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zarfoss, M K; Klauss, G; Newkirk, K; Kiupel, M; Jones, Y; Colitz, C M H; Dubielzig, R R

    2007-05-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate the origin of a spindle cell tumor in the anterior uveal tract of dogs and the influence of ultraviolet radiation on the development of this tumor. Thirteen tumors were identified from the 4,007 canine ocular samples examined at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin between 1978 and 2005. Siberian Husky and Siberian Husky mix dogs were overrepresented (10/13 dogs, overall median age 10 years). Light microscopic evaluation (all dogs) and electron microscopy (2 dogs) were performed. Immunohistochemical staining included alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), vimentin, S-100, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Melan A, microphthalmic transcription factor (MITF-1), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), laminin, gadd45, p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), anti-UVssDNA (antibody for detection of (6-4)-dipyrimidine photoproducts), and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). All tumors occurred in the iris with or without ciliary body involvement and were composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles and whorls (variable Antoni A and B behavior). All tumors were positive when immunostained for vimentin and S-100. Nine of 13 tumors exhibited GFAP immunopositivity. All tumors were negative for SMA, desmin, Melan A, and MITF-1. Tumors were variably positive for PGP 9.5, laminin, gadd45, p53, PCNA, anti-UVssDNA, and TERT. Electron microscopy revealed intermittent basal laminae between cells. These tumors are morphologically and immunohistochemically most consistent with schwannoma. The relationship between spindle cell tumors of the anterior uvea of dogs, altered neural crest, blue iris color, and ultraviolet radiation has not yet been fully elucidated.

  18. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Park, Sok; Chun, Yoonseok; Song, Wook; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress. PMID:26404251

  19. Immunohistochemical study of Toll-like receptors 1 and 2 expression in cutaneous lichen planus lesions.

    PubMed

    Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Abu-Zeid, Riham Mohamed; Nada, Ola Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory, T cell-mediated autoimmune skin disease. Innate immunity could explain the interplay between environmental triggers and the autoimmune cascade leading to disease development. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune system, with no previous evaluation of TLRs 1 and 2 in cutaneous LP. This work aims to investigate TLRs 1 and 2 expression in cutaneous LP. This case-control study included 30 patients with LP and 15 healthy controls. Biopsies from the patients' lesional skin and from the controls' normal skin were examined immunohistochemically for TLR 1 and 2 expression. A significant re-localization was found in TLR1 expression with a higher percentage of basal and a significantly lower percentage of homogenous epidermal expression in patients (73.3 and 0 %, respectively) compared with controls (13.3 and 73.3 %, respectively) (P < 0.001). TLR2 showed a significantly higher percentage of epidermal expression (more in the upper spinous layer) and significantly lower percentage of epidermal but more basal expression in patients (66.6 and 10 %, respectively) compared with controls (0 and 73.3 %, respectively) (P < 0.001). The median (IQR) of TLR1 [1 (0.75-1)] and TLR2 [1 (1-1)] staining score in patients was significantly lower than that of the controls [2 (1-2) and 1 (1-2), respectively] (P < 0.05). This work thus shows a re-localization of TLR 1 and 2 expression sites with decreased grade of expression in LP lesions. Targeting TLR signaling is expected to be a novel treatment strategy for cutaneous LP.

  20. Cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma - an immunohistochemical study with histopathological association

    PubMed Central

    Matthai, Smita Mary; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumour recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was carried out to evaluate the association between histological parameters and liver CSCs (LCSC) in HCC, and to compare distribution of liver CSCs in HCC associated with and without hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Seventy nine tumours (49 surgical resections from 46 patients, and 30 from autopsy) were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for the LCSC marker EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), liver progenitor cell (LPC) markers CK19 (cytokeratin 19) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) were performed and were associated with histological features of tumour behaviour. Results: Thirty three tumours (41.8%) showed positive staining for EpCAM. CK19 and NCAM expression were seen in 26 (32.9%) and four (5.1%) tumours, respectively. The expression of EpCAM and CK19 was significantly associated with each other (P<0.001). EpCAM expression was significantly associated with clinical and histological features indicating aggressive tumour behaviour, including younger age of onset, higher serum alpha foetoprotein (AFP) levels, tumour cell dedifferentiation, increased mitotic activity, and vascular invasiveness. There was no significant difference in expression of EpCAM, CK19 and NCAM between HBV positive and negative HCC. Interpretation & conclusions: The LCSC marker EpCAM was expressed in less than half of HCC, was independent of HBV aetiology, and was strongly associated with clinical and histological features of aggressive tumour behaviour. Positive staining for CK19 suggests a possible LPC origin of the EpCAM positive HCCs. PMID:26609030

  1. Immunohistochemical study of epoxide hydrolase induced by trichloroethylene in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, T.; Hobara, T.; Ogino, K.; Takemoto, T.; Nakamura, K.; Imamura, A.; Koshiro, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Sakai, T.

    1987-10-01

    Epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolation of potentially toxic, electrophilic epoxides that are often generated during cytochrome P-450 catalyzed monooxigenation, forming the corresponding transdihydrodiols. It is well-known that trichloroethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 containing mixed-function oxidase systems to trichloroethylene oxide, which decomposes to other metabolites. As trichloroethylene is an epoxide, epoxide hydrolase is suspected to catalyze the hydrolation of trichloroethylene oxide. No reports have appeared about the relationship between trichloroethylene and epoxide hydrolase. In this report, the authors studied the effect of trichloroethylene on epoxide hydrolase immunohistochemically.

  2. Allantoic, vitelline, and "hybrid" embryonic vestiges of the umbilical cord: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hirzel, Alicia C; Alexis, John

    2015-07-01

    The embryonic origin of umbilical cord vestiges is well documented; however, their immunophenotype is unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether vitelline and allantoic remnants can be differentiated using immunohistochemical markers. All allantoic remnants were stained with p63 and were negative for CDX2, whereas the vitelline remnants stained with CDX2 and were negative for p63. An unexpected finding was a small number of morphologically ambiguous cases that stained with both markers in a complimentary manner. The term "hybrid" remnant is proposed for these remnants.

  3. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study in one case of cystadenoma of parotid gland becoming malignant.

    PubMed

    Simionescu, C; Florescu, M; Margaritescu, C; Marinescu, M

    Cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma of the salivary glands are rare tumors, approximately half of cases being diagnosed at the level of parotid. The studied tumor associated both benign and malign zones, with deep infiltrating character in the adjacent structures. In both areas the growing pattern was predominantly cystic and papillary, and the proliferated neoplastic cells were majority cubical or columnar, with low grade of nuclear pleomorphism in the becoming malign areas, discordant with the infiltrative character of the neoplasm. Immunohistochemically, we investigated the tumor with AE1-AE3, CEA, SMA, S-100 and PCNA.

  4. Small bowel transplantation in children: an immunohistochemical study of intestinal grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Fromont, G; Cerf-Bensussan, N; Patey, N; Canioni, D; Rambaud, C; Goulet, O; Jan, D; Révillon, Y; Ricour, C; Brousse, N

    1995-01-01

    Seven children with short bowel syndrome underwent small bowel allografting. Episodes of early rejection were observed in five patients who received a graft from paediatric or adult donors but not in two patients who received a neonatal graft. This study aimed, firstly, to define immunohistochemical parameters accompanying rejection and, secondly, to compare immunohistochemical parameters in neonatal grafts with those in grafts from older donors. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 85 intestinal biopsy specimens taken for monitoring the transplant. Acute histological rejection was associated with pericryptic infiltrates of CD3+TcR alpha beta + T cells containing clusters of CD8+ cells, numerous CD25+ cells, and increased numbers of CD68+ macrophages. These changes were associated with the appearance of major histocompatibility (MHC) class II antigens on crypt enterocytes and with an appreciable increase in the expression of E-selectin on mucosal endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry was useful in predicting rejection by showing the appearance of pericryptic CD25+ T cells 48 hours before the first histological lesions of crypt necrosis. Comparison of neonatal grafts with grafts from older donors did not show any significant difference in the density of CD68+ macrophages or in the endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, or E-selectin. In contrast to grafts from older donors, however, neonatal grafts did not express MHC class II antigens on epithelial cells and contained very low numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes. These data indicate, firstly, that immunohistochemistry is useful for monitoring intestinal transplants and, secondly, that the better clinical tolerance of neonatal allografts may be related to the lower immunogenicity of the neonatal epithelium. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8537048

  5. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies of a case of duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Watanabe, Ryohei; Kimura, Masashi; Okamoto, Tsutao; Murakami, Shinzo; Mizukami, Yuji; Takeji, Miyuki; Okada, Yuhei; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2009-12-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GPG) is a rare tumor, occurring almost exclusively in the duodenum. In the present case, a submucosal tumor 2.5 x 2 x 1.5 cm in size was located on the anal side of the papilla of Vater, with clear margins and without capsule on cut-surface examination. Tumor cells included three types of cells: ganglion-like cells (GCs), endocrine cells (ECs), and Schwann cells (SCs). The GCs were large with eccentric nuclei with large nucleoli and clear abundant cytoplasm. ECs were detected in small nests, surrounded by bundles of SCs. Immunohistochemically, GCs were positive for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and CD56. ECs were positive for chromogranin A, NSE, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and CD56, and were associated with S100 protein-positive SCs. On fine structural examination, ECs contained numerous membrane-bounded secretory granules, 250-450 nm in diameter, in their cytoplasm, surrounded by a branched, complex basal lamina. SCs possessed basal lamina along their long interlacing cytoplasmic processes. The histogenesis of GPG most likely involves proliferation and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in the duodenal crypts in the duodenum as a true tumor, although it is also possible that the retroperitoneal components of both GCs and SCs proliferate, together with ECs, from ventral primordial tissue of the pancreas in the duodenum. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings of a case of GPG are reported, focusing on three major cellular components: GCs, ECs, and SCs.

  6. Primary oral melanoma: A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of 22 cases of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Toral-Rizo, Víctor H.; León, Jorge E.; Contreras, Elisa; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; de-Almeida, Oslei P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of 22 cases of primary oral melanomas (OM). Study Design: Twenty two cases of primary oral melanoma were analyzed by description of their histopathological features and immunohistochemical study using the antibodies S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and Ki-67. Results: The mean age was 58 years and 14 cases were female. The main affected sites were the hard palate, followed by the upper gingiva. Microscopically, 15 cases presented level III of invasion, 2 cases were amelanotic and 13 showed a mixed epithelioid and plasmacytoid or spindle cells composition. Some cases showed necrosis, perivascular and perineural invasion. S-100 and HMB-45 were positive in all cases, but 3 cases were negative for Melan-A. The proliferative index with Ki-67 was high, with labeling index ranging from 15.51% to 63% of positive cells. Conclusion: S-100 and HMB-45 are more frequently expressed than Melan-A in primary oral melanomas and these markers are helpful to confirm the diagnosis. Key words:Oral melanoma, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:22143732

  7. Langerhans cells in lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Devi, M.; Saraswathi, T. R.; Ranganathan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Sreeja, C.; Fathima, S. Shabana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate Langerhans cell (LC) in lichen planus (LP), lichenoid mucositis (LM) and normal mucosa (NM) using CD1a monoclonal antibody immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 cases of oral lichen planus and 15 cases of LM were selected based on clinical examination and confirmed by histopathological analysis. The biopsies from the 10 patients were taken from normal buccal mucosa as control. Paraffin blocks of tissue were made, which are used for routine hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining using biotin streptavidin methods (CD1a monoclonal antibody). Analysis of CD1a expression was performed by evaluating the labeling index (LI) for each slide. Results: The mean CD1a LI for LP was significantly higher than that of LM and NM in the basal and supra basal layer. The mean CD1a positive cells in the connective tissues for LP were higher than that of LM and NM. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates a statistically significant increase in number of LC in LP than in LM, indicating the possible different immunopathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25210358

  8. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Mascarella, C; Guarnotta, C; Castiglia, M; Pantuso, G; Fiorentino, E

    2014-03-05

    Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO), posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA) combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS), with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  9. A case of cerebral astroblastoma with rhabdoid features: a cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yuzawa, Sayaka; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanino, Mishie; Kimura, Taichi; Moriya, Jun; Kamoshima, Yuuta; Nagashima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Astroblastoma is a rare neuroepithelial neoplasm of unknown origin, usually occurring in children and young adults. Here we report a case of astroblastoma with uncommon features in an 18-year-old female. The tumor was a well-circumscribed cystic and solid mass with marked gadolinium enhancement in the right frontal lobe. Cytological examination showed polarized monopolar cells with diminished cohesiveness. Tumor cells possessed eccentric round to oval nuclei with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, sometimes having cytoplasmic processes. Histopathologically, the tumor showed perivascular pseudorosettes with prominent vascular sclerosis. Foam cells were frequently infiltrated around blood vessels and among tumor cells. In some areas, a solid growth pattern of plump tumor cells with abundant inclusion-like eosinophilic cytoplasm showing rhabdoid appearance was observed. The immunohistochemical study revealed strong and diffuse positivity for vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen. Tumor cells were focally positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and cytokeratin AE1/AE3. Nuclear immunoreactivity for INI1 protein was evident. The Ki-67 labeling index was 10.8%. This tumor was finally diagnosed as low-grade astroblastoma and the patient had no evidence of recurrence without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy during the last 6 months of follow-up. This report describes novel cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of the rare tumor. PMID:26614252

  10. The effect of cigarette smoking on the healing of extraction sockets: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Aydin; Bayar, Gurkan Rasit; Altug, Hasan Ayberk; Sencimen, Metin; Dogan, Necdet; Gunaydin, Yilmaz; Ergodan, Esra

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate immunohistochemically the influence of cigarette smoking on the socket healing after tooth extraction in rats. Eighty-four male rats were divided into 3 groups; 2 groups were considered as experimental and the other as control. The animals in test 1 were exposed to smoking regimen before the surgery and after the surgery, but the animals in test 2 were exposed to the smoking regimen only before surgery. All animals' maxillary right central incisors were extracted and killed at the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 28th day. The samples taken on third day after tooth extraction were stained immunohistochemically with fibronectin antibody and the other with type I collagen antibody. On the third day after tooth extraction, samples in the control group were intense stained (3) (+++); in the test 1 they were slight positive (1) (+) and in the test 2 they were moderate positive (2) (+ +). As a result of scoring type I collagen antibody, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups at seventh day, but there were statistically significant differences between the groups at the 15th and 28th day (P = 0.000 and P = 0.001, respectively). Comparison of the paired intense scores of type I collagen antibody staining according to days within each groups were not statistically significant. As a result, we have found out that the healing process of the tooth extraction socket is negatively affected by cigarette smoke.

  11. Commercial horseradish peroxidase degrades myelin encephalitogenic protein during coupling for immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Cammer, W

    1977-05-01

    Conjugates of myelin encephalitogenic basic protein (EP) and commercial horseradish peroxidase (HRP) have been used for immunohistochemical demonstrations of anti-EP antibody in animals with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. We performed gel electrophoresis studies on EP-HRP conjugates prepared with glutaraldehyde and on mixtures of EP and HRP incubated without glutaraldehyde. The results show that under conditions of one-and two-step coupling HRP causes rapid loss of the native EP band, apparently due to EP degradation. The EP-HRP mixtures are not encephalitogenic in rabbits, or encephalitogenic activity is lost during processing. The immunohistochemical reactivity of conjugates, however, signals some preservation of antibody-combining sites. The mechanism of the HRP effect on EP is unknown. The possibilities of a contaminating proteinase or direct peroxidatic attack are suggested. Until this action of HRP can be overcome, the effect of coupling procedures on the biological activities of EP will be difficult to assess, and EP-HRP conjugates cannot be expected to reveal sites that may bind encephalitogenic portions of the EP molecule.

  12. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of lambs experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma bovis.

    PubMed

    Ferreras, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Manga-González, M Y; Pérez-Martínez, C; Mizinska, Y; Ramajo, V; González-Lanza, M C; Escudero, A; García-Marín, J F

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-resistance between Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma bovis in lambs assessing parasitologic, gross pathologic, histopathologic and immunohistochemical changes in liver and small intestine. Thirty Castellana breed lambs were divided into five comparable groups and exposed to F. hepatical S. bovis (group F/S), S. bovis/F. hepatica (group S/F), S. bovis (group S) or F. hepatica (group F) and six unexposed lambs were used as non-infected controls (group C). Primary patent infection with F. hepatica induced a lower number of schistosome eggs and a higher number of lymphocytes in intestinal and liver schistosome egg-induced granulomas in group F/S than in the groups S/F and S, liver damage being mainly attributed to F. hepatica. S. bovis infection followed by challenge with F. hepatica particularly increased the severity of the most significant liver alterations (cholangiohepatitis by F. hepatica and mesoendophlebitis by S. bovis) and F. hepatica seemed not to have an influence on established S. bovis infection. In addition, immunohistochemical results suggested that the predominant local immune response in both double-infected groups was different, being mainly a cell-mediated immune response in group F/S and a mucosal response in group S/F.

  13. The distinction of bronchogenic cyst from metastatic testicular teratoma: a light microscopic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres; Varsegi, Mary; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Ulbright, Thomas; Zhou, Ming

    2008-08-01

    Bronchogenic cyst (BC), a rare developmental abnormality of the primitive foregut and usually found above the diaphragm, can occur in the retroperitoneum and other unusual locations where distinction from metastatic teratoma is essential. We studied 22 BCs and 34 teratomas metastatic to the retroperitoneum in men. Of 22 BCs, 17 (77%) showed well or moderate architectural differentiation toward normal tracheobronchial structures, whereas none of the teratomas did. In addition, 20 (91%) of the BCs had respiratory-type epithelium and none had enteric-type epithelium. Immature elements, atypia, and tumor necrosis were absent in BCs. All BCs expressed cytokeratin (CK) 7, and none expressed CDX-2 in immunohistochemical analysis. Teratomas had mixed enteric and respiratory-type epithelium. The majority of the glands were positive for CK7 (33 [97%]), CK20 (34 [100%]), CDX-2 (34 [100%]), and thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 (17 [50%]). Coexpression of CDX-2 and TTF-1 was found in 11 teratomas (32%) but none of the BCs. BCs can be reliably distinguished from teratomas based on the gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical features.

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Diaz, N M; McDivitt, R W; Wick, M R

    1991-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenomas of the breast (PAB) are uncommon tumors. We studied the clinicopathologic features of 10 cases of PAB, seven of which were assessed immunohistochemically. Nine patients were women, with a median age at diagnosis of 65 years. Eight patients presented with a palpable mass; two had a nipple discharge. Nine of the tumors were periareolar. The latter epidemiologic findings, coupled with histologic observations, appeared to indicate a preferential origin for PAB within large intramammary ducts. These neoplasms histologically resemble their analogues in salivary glands. Moreover, a gradual histologic transition between different morphologic areas in PAB, especially between mesenchymal and epithelial regions, supported the contention that the neoplasm arises from a single cell type capable of divergent differentiation and thus should not be considered a "mixed" tumor. This contention was further substantiated by immunohistochemical findings, in which three intermediate filaments (cytokeratin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein) and muscle-specific actin were expressed conjointly in tumor cells with a variety of morphologic appearances. In addition, cells differentiating along mesenchymal lines by conventional microscopy were found to express epithelial membrane antigen or gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 in five cases. The benign nature of PAB was supported by a lack of metastases in this series during a median follow-up period of 4.9 years. However, one lesion recurred locally. Regarding therapy, we believe that PAB can be excised successfully with only a narrow circumferential margin of uninvolved breast.

  15. Reovirus infection in psittacine birds (Psittacus erithacus): morphologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Hervás, J; Chacón de Lara, F; Jahn, J; Salguero, F J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we report on an outbreak of reovirus, herpesvirus (Pacheco disease), and/or mycosis infection (Aspergillus spp. and Zygomyces spp.) affecting a batch of young African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), with 80% morbidity and 30% mortality. Study material was taken from five birds (four dead and one euthanatized) with a range of clinical symptoms (depression, diarrhea, respiratory symptoms). Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of avian reovirus, electron microscopy, and virus isolation. Viral antigen of reovirus was detected mainly in large mononuclear cells in the bursa of Fabricius and the spleen, pancreas epithelial cells, and circulating cells; lymphoid organs displayed the largest number of immunopositive cells and severe lymphocyte depletion. Bacteriologic study was negative. Reovirus infection was common in all birds studied, whereas Pacheco disease and mycosis were found in only some, suggesting that reovirus could be the initial cause triggering the outbreak and facilitating infection by other agents and their swift spread through the batch.

  16. A histological and immunohistochemical study of tissue reactions to solid poly(ortho ester) in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ekholm, M; Helander, P; Hietanen, J; Lindqvist, C; Salo, A; Kellomäki, M; Suuronen, R

    2006-07-01

    In many cases only the temporary presence of a biomaterial is needed in tissue support, augmentation or replacement. In such cases biodegradable materials are better alternatives than biostable ones. At present, biodegradable polymers are widely used in the field of maxillofacial surgery as sutures, fracture fixation devices and as absorbable membranes. The most often used polymers are aliphatic polyesters, such as polyglycolic acid (PGA) and polylactic acid (PLA). Poly(ortho ester) is a surface eroding polymer, which has been under development since 1970, but is used mostly in drug delivery systems in semisolid form. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue reactions of solid poly(ortho ester) (POE), histologically and immunohistochemically. Resorption times and the effect of 2 different sterilization methods (gamma radiation and ethylene oxide) upon resorption were also evaluated. Material was implanted into the tibia and subcutaneously into the mandibular ramus area of 24 rabbits. Follow-up times were 1-10, 14 and 24 weeks. Histological studies showed that POE induces a moderate inflammation in soft tissue and in bone. At 24 week follow-up, inflammation was mild in soft tissue and moderate in bone. In immunohistochemical studies, no highly fluorescent layer of tenascin or fibronectin was found adjacent to the implant. Resorption of gamma-sterilized rods was faster than ethylene oxide-sterilized rods. The total resorption time was more than 24 weeks in both groups. Clinically the healing was uneventful and the implants the well tolerated by the living tissue. This encourages these authors to continue studies with this interesting new material to search for the ideal material for bone filling and fracture fixation. PMID:16540288

  17. [The immunohistochemical study of the structures of the cardiac conduction system in the case of death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Bogomolov, D V; Kul'bitskii, B N; Zavalishina, L E; Fedulova, M V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the morphological criteria for toxic cardiopathy with the use of histological and immunohistochemical methods. The results of immunohistochemical studies of the sinoatrial node---???---(SAN) and the working myocardium in the patients presenting with alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACMP) are presented. It was shown that vimentin expression in the SAN structures and the contractile myocardium is slightly increased whereas the expression of sarcomeric actin is decreased and that of fibrinogen is increased too. The authors put forward an assumption about the role of lesions in the membrane apparatus of the pacemaker cells in the development of arrhythmia characteristic of tanatogenesis associated with alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

  18. An immunohistochemical study of endopeptidase-24.11 and aminopeptidase N in lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Bowes, M A; Kenny, A J

    1987-02-01

    Two cell surface peptidases, endopeptidase-24.11 and aminopeptidase N, thought to be involved in metabolizing regulatory peptides, have been immunohistochemically mapped in pig lymphoid organs using specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. In tonsil, spleen, thymus and Peyer's patches, the endopeptidase-24.11 immunoreactivity exhibited a reticular pattern similar to that previously observed in lymph nodes, where this enzyme is much more abundant. Apart from this location in reticular cells, the only structures seen to express endopeptidase-24.11 were Hassall's corpuscles in the thymus, confirming their reticular cell origin. Aminopeptidase N exhibited a cellular distribution quite distinct from that of the endopeptidase. It was associated with cells scattered throughout the lymphoid organs studied, consistent with its localization in macrophages. In lymph nodes, some fibroblasts buried in trabeculae also stained for aminopeptidase, but this was not observed in spleen and thymus.

  19. An immunohistochemical study of Na+/I- symporter in human thyroid tissues and salivary gland tissues.

    PubMed

    Jhiang, S M; Cho, J Y; Ryu, K Y; DeYoung, B R; Smanik, P A; McGaughy, V R; Fischer, A H; Mazzaferri, E L

    1998-10-01

    The human Na+/I- symporter (hNIS) is the plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide uptake into several tissues, such as the thyroid and salivary glands. To study the distribution and cellular localization of the hNIS protein, we have generated a polyclonal antibody that could detect the hNIS protein by immunohistochemical staining on tissue sections. In normal thyroids, hNIS expression is heterogeneous, and it is only detected in sporadic thyrocytes of a given follicle. The hNIS protein was not detected in thyroid carcinomas, yet it was detected in the majority of thyrocytes in Graves' thyroids. In salivary glands, hNIS protein was not detected in acinar cells, but it was detected in ductal cells. The hNIS proteins are clustered in the basal and lateral membranes in cells stained positive for hNIS.

  20. Intraductal papilloma arising from sublingual minor salivary gland: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tomonao; Tomonao, Aikawa; Kishino, Mitsunobu; Masuda, Tomotake; Isomura, Emiko T; Tanaka, Susumu; Namikawa, Mari; Iida, Seiji

    2009-05-01

    Intraductal papilloma is a rare benign salivary gland tumor. This lesion is commonly observed in the duct of the minor salivary gland, predominantly in lip and buccal mucosa, but the case in the sublingual region is quite rare. This report shows a first case of intraductal papilloma developed in minor salivary gland of sublingual region. A 47-year-old Japanese male was referred to our hospital with painless submucosal nodule in the right sublingual region beside Wharton's duct orifice. The excised specimen was histologically diagnosed as intraductal papilloma of minor salivary gland, according to the microscopic finding of the papillary growth of ductal epithelium into the ductal space with fibrovascular core. Immunohistochemical study showed the tumor cells originated from ductal luminal cells because of positive Cytokeratin 18 and 7 staining in both types of cells.

  1. Observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rodler, D; Stein, K; Korbel, R

    2015-06-01

    In most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. Right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. However, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. Four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparrow hawk and goshawk. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate structural differences of the gonads and tried to correlate the findings with folliculogenesis and endocrine functions. The right ovaries showed different sizes and shapes. Cytoskeletal elements (tubulin and vimentin) and α-smooth muscle actin have been detected in different structures of the right ovaries, but their staining intensity was weaker compared with the left ovary. This shows that also the right ovary is mechanically able to ovulate. We could also demonstrate the expression of oestrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the right ovaries, which indicates that also the right ovary can respond to steroid hormone stimuli. We assume that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the presumptive gonad is still sufficient to mediate the development of a right ovary in the studied species. We conclude that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the right ovary is involved in its post-natal development. The histological and immunohistochemical data also imply that in the right ovary, folliculogenesis and ovulation can occur. PMID:24895012

  2. EGFR and gastrointestinal stromal tumor: an immunohistochemical and FISH study of 82 cases.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2007-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Mutually exclusive KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha mutations are key events in gastrointestinal stromal tumor pathogenesis, and specific treatment targeting KIT/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha activation is available. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays an important role in cancer biology and also constitutes a promising molecular target of therapy. Very few reports have been published in the literature about the relationship between gastrointestinal stromal tumor and epidermal growth factor receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemical expression and epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification in 82 consecutive gastrointestinal stromal tumor cases using tissue microarray technique. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections and clinical information were reviewed, and expression of CD117 (KIT), CD34 and epidermal growth factor receptor was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene copy number was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CD117 and CD34 were expressed in 96 and 57% of tumors, respectively. Variable epidermal growth factor receptor protein immunohistochemical overexpression was detected in 96% of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cases, but none of the 75 cases with represented tumor tissue cores and countable fluorescence signals exhibited epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization. These results show that there is no correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry and epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Considering that the mechanisms of epidermal growth factor receptor protein overexpression are not well understood and

  3. Nipple eczema, an indicative manifestation of atopic dermatitis? A clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyo Sang; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So

    2015-04-01

    Nipple eczema exhibits as a minor manifestation of atopic dermatitis (AD) or occurs as a single skin symptom on the nipple. To characterize the relationship between nipple eczema and AD, a clinical evaluation and an immunohistochemical study were performed. All cases of nipple eczema were confirmed histopathologically. We divided the patients with nipple eczema into 2 groups, namely, those with AD and those without AD, and compared several clinical features. Upon histological examination, the degree of inflammation was subjectively graded as mild, moderate, or severe by 2 separate investigators. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed by using antiinterleukin (IL)-4, anti-IL-13, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 antibodies, and the results were scored semiquantitatively. In 43 cases evaluated, 12 were nipple eczema with AD. The clinical analysis and histological examination showed no significant differences between the groups. There were consistent findings of IL-4 expressions throughout the epidermis and IL-13 expression mainly in the perivascular area of the dermis. Although CD4 and CD8 were expressed in the cells in the dermis, CD8 expression was detected in the serocrusts of the epidermis. Expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, CD4, and CD8 exhibited no significant differences between the nipple eczema group with AD and the nipple eczema group without AD. Although nipple eczema may accompany AD, we found no definite differences in the degree or pattern of inflammation and cytokine expression level regardless of whether AD was present or not. Serocrust formation seemed to be mainly a collection of CD8-positive cells.

  4. Expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral precancerous and cancerous lesions: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Sfakianou, Aikaterini; Avgoustidis, Dimitrios; Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral premalignant and malignant lesions and to investigate their possible correlation with the presence of subepithelial inflammation. Material and Methods Thirty two oral premalignant lesions, clinically compatible with leukoplakia or erythroplakia, were investigated. Microscopically, 11 of them showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis (epithelial hyperplasia) and 21 showed dysplasia of varying degrees. Nine cases of OSCC and four control cases of normal oral mucosa were also included in the study. Immunohistochemical staining with NF-κB (p65) and IL-6 was performed. IL-6 and nuclear NF-κB staining were assessed as positive or negative. For cytoplasmic localization of NF-κB, a total score combining intensity and percentage of positive epithelial cells was additionally calculated. The presence of inflammation was also recorded. Results Intensity and total scores for NF-κΒ cytoplasmic immunostaining showed a statistically significant gradual increase from normal mucosa to OSCC (p=0.012 and p=0.026 respectively). Non-statistically significant increased NF-κΒ nuclear localization was detected in dysplasias and OSCCs. Positive statistical correlation was detected between the presence of inflammation and IL-6 expression (p=0.015). No correlation between NF-κΒ and IL-6 was detected. Conclusions NF-κΒ is activated in the early stages of oral carcinogenesis. IL-6 may have an NF-κΒ-independent role, possibly through regulation of the inflammatory response. Key words:NF-κB, IL-6, immunohistochemistry, oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral precancerous lesion. PMID:26595830

  5. Myoepithelial tumors of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and flow-cytometric study.

    PubMed

    Alós, L; Cardesa, A; Bombí, J A; Mallofré, C; Cuchi, A; Traserra, J

    1996-05-01

    Myoepitheliomas of the salivary glands remain a controversial entity. To contribute to the knowledge of this entity, 16 myoepithelial tumors of the salivary glands were studied: 12 benign myoepitheliomas (BME) and 4 malignant myoepitheliomas (MME). The clinical and the histologic findings of each case were studied Immunohistochemistry and flow-cytometry analysis were performed from the paraffin-embedded material in 15 cases. An electron-microscopy study was performed in 8 cases. The myoepithelial tumors affected patients of both sexes equally. The mean age of the patients with BME was 54 years, and the mean age of patients with MME was 62 years. Eight cases of BME originated in the parotid gland and 4 cases originated in the minor salivary glands. All the MME developed from a benign preexistent tumor: two developed from a pleomorphic adenoma in the parotid gland, and the other two MME developed in the minor salivary gland from a BME. The myoepithelial tumors were composed of epithelioid, plasmacytoid, spindle, or clear cell types, and they showed a solid or a myxoid pattern of growth. Immunohistochemical studies revealed marked and diffuse positivity to cytokeratins, vimentin, and S-100 protein in all cases. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was positive in 8 cases (53%), and muscle-specific actin and smooth-muscle actin were positive in only 3 cases (20%); they were all cases of BME. Desmin was negative in all tumors. Ultrastructural studies showed the presence of basal membrane, tight junctions, intermediate filaments, and microvilli as well as actin-like filaments lacking focal densities in all cases. But actin-like filaments with focal densities were not identified. Flow cytometry determined that all BME were diploid with a mean proliferative index of 7.73%. Two of the MME were diploid and the other two MME were aneuploid. The mean proliferative index of MME was 11.93%. In conclusion, BME and MME originated in major and minor salivary glands can display different

  6. Lubricin expression in human osteoarthritic knee meniscus and synovial fluid: a morphological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosalia; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castorina, Sergio; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lubricin, the product of the human PRG4 (proteoglycan 4) gene, in menisci and synovial fluid from normal donors and patients with osteoarthritis (OA), using a combination of histology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting analysis, to provide further insight on the role of this protein in the progression of OA and pathological processes in the meniscus. Lubricin expression was studied in samples from 40 patients and in 9 normal donors after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Histological analysis confirmed normal microanatomy and the absence of structural changes in control samples. Menisci derived from OA patients showed evidence of structural alterations, fibrillations and clefts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed very strong lubricin immunostaining in normal menisci in contrast to weak/moderate staining seen in osteoarthritic menisci. Quantitative ELISA and Western blot analysis confirmed the above results. The findings of this study support the notion that changes in lubricin expression and boundary-lubricating ability of cartilage is followed by the development of OA. This study could provide the biological foundation for the development of novel therapeutic treatments, to be applied before the surgery, for the prevention of post-traumatic cartilage damage.

  7. Immunohistochemical Study of Expression of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in Normal Adult Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Ruihua; Su, Zhongxue; Zhang, Yuecun; Zhang, Wenfang; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Fuwu; Guo, Yuji; Li, Chuangang; Hao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The expression pattern of Sohlh1 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 1) and Sohlh2 in mice has been reported in previous studies. Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are specifically expressed in spermatogonia, prespermatogonia in male mice and oocytes of primordial and primary follicles in female mice. In this report, we studied the expression pattern of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in human adult tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 was performed in 5 samples of normal ovaries and testes, respectively. The results revealed that Sohlh genes are not only expressed in oocytes and spermatogonia, but also in granular cells, theca cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, and in smooth muscles of blood vessel walls. To further investigate the expression of Sohlh genes in other adult human tissues, we collected representative normal adult tissues developed from three embryonic germ layers. Compared with the expression in mice, Sohlhs exhibited a much more extensive expression pattern in human tissues. Sohlhs were detected in testis, ovary and epithelia developed from embryonic endoderm, ectoderm and tissues developed from embryonic mesoderm. Sohlh signals were found in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and also Leydig cells in testis, while in ovary, the expression was mainly in oocytes of primordial and primary follicles, granular cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. Compared with Sohlh2, the expression of Sohlh1 was stronger and more extensive. Our study explored the expression of Sohlh genes in human tissues and might provide insights for functional studies of Sohlh genes. PMID:26375665

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor of the oral cavity: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 cases.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Esther M; Vanguri, Vijay; Allen, Carl M; Eversole, Lewis Roy; Wright, John M; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2009-06-01

    We describe clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of 21 cases of solitary fibrous tumor presenting in the oral cavity. There were 9 male and 12 female patients with a median age of 51 years (range 37-83). The most common locations included the buccal mucosa (the most common site), lip, maxillary or mandibular vestibule and tongue. Histopathologic examination showed well-circumscribed tumors with two well-defined patterns: the classic pattern with densely cellular areas alternating with hypocellular areas in a variably collagenous, vascular stroma and a more uniformly sclerotic pattern with only subtle classic areas. The spindle-shaped neoplastic cells consistently showed immunoreactivity for antibodies directed against CD34. Five of nineteen cases (26%) were reactive for CD99 and 19 of 19 for Bcl-2. Follow-up information was available in 17 cases and averaged 54 months, with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis in any of these patients. Awareness that solitary fibrous tumor may present in the oral cavity is important so that confusion with other spindle cell neoplasms can be avoided. We also briefly describe the differential diagnosis and compare this series, the largest single series of intraoral SFT, to cases previously reported in the literature.

  9. Case of clear cell ependymoma of medulla oblongata: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study with literature review.

    PubMed

    Amatya, Vishwa Jeet; Takeshima, Yukio; Kaneko, Mayumi; Nakano, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru; Nakazato, Yoichi; Inai, Kouki

    2003-05-01

    Clear cell ependymoma has been included in the WHO classification of the central nervous system in 1993, after the first report by Kawano et al. Since then, only a few cases have been reported. Most clear cell ependymoma cases reported in the literature so far were located in the supra-tentorial compartment and/or cerebellum, and one case was in the cervical spinal cord. We report a case of clear cell ependymoma whose histological features were sufficient for the diagnosis and was unusually located in the fourth ventricle originating from the medulla oblongata. The tumor showed uniform tumor cells with perinuclear halo, nuclei being centrally located. Most of the tumor cells were arranged as perivascular pseudorosettes, and no ependymal canals or rosettes were evident. Mitotic figures were not frequent. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly reactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, and weak and dot-like positive for epithelial membrane antigen. Clear cell change of the tumor cells appeared to be fixation artifact because this feature was not evident in the frozen section. PMID:12713564

  10. Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumors: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nagarjun; Colby, Thomas V; Falconieri, Giovanni; Cohen, Hector; Moran, Cesar A; Suster, Saul

    2013-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a ubiquitous neoplasm that arises most commonly from the pleura. SFT arising within lung parenchyma (intrapulmonary SFT) has been rarely reported and is therefore not well recognized. We present a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 24 cases of primary intrapulmonary SFT. Patients' ages ranged from 44 to 83 years (mean, 58 y). None of the patients had evidence or history of a similar tumor elsewhere. Tumor size ranged from 2.3 to 22 cm (mean, 8.5 cm). On the basis of the degree of cytologic atypia, cellularity, mitotic activity, and areas of necrosis, the lesions were divided into low-grade, intermediate-grade, and high-grade histology. Twenty-one tumors showed the conventional features of SFT of low-grade histology (<5 mitoses per 10 high-power fields), with alternating bands of rope-like collagen flanked by a bland-appearing spindle cell proliferation. Hemangiopericytic, angiofibromatous, and a neural-like plexiform growth pattern were also observed. Five of 21 cases showed an "adenofibromatous" appearance imparted by entrapped normal airspaces at the advancing edges of the lesion. One intermediate-grade tumor showed overall increased cellularity with plump, pleomorphic nuclei, 5 to 10 mitoses per 10 high-power fields, and focal areas of classic SFT. Two cases showed high-grade features at initial presentation, with areas resembling a pleomorphic high-grade sarcoma admixed with foci of conventional, low-grade SFT. Immunohistochemical staining analyses performed in 13 cases showed positivity of the tumor cells for CD34, bcl-2, and CD99 in the majority of cases tested. Clinical follow-up was available in 18 patients, with long-term follow-up (>5 y) in 6. Fourteen (14/18) patients were alive and well without evidence of disease 1 month to 14 years after initial diagnosis. Three patients died of their tumors after 4, 5, and 7 years; in 2 of them the initial tumor was of low-grade histology, but the recurrence

  11. Comparative histological and immunohistochemical study of sea star tube feet (Echinodermata, Asteroidea).

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Haesaerts, Delphine; Jangoux, Michel; Flammang, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Adhesion in sea stars is the function of specialized structures, the tube feet or podia, which are the external appendages of the water-vascular system. Adhesive secretions allow asteroid tube feet to perform multiple functions. Indeed, according to the sea star species considered, the tube feet may be involved in locomotion, fixation, or burrowing. Different tube foot shapes usually correspond to this variety of function. In this study, we investigated the variability of the morphology of sea star tube feet as well as the variability of the composition of their adhesive secretions. This second aspect was addressed by a comparative immunohistochemical study using antibodies raised against the adhesive material of the forcipulatid Asterias rubens. The tube feet from 14 sea star species representing five orders and 10 families of the Class Asteroidea were examined. The histological study revealed three main tube foot morphotypes, i.e., knob-ending, simple disc-ending, and reinforced disc-ending. Analysis of the results suggests that tube foot morphology is influenced by species habitat, but within limits imposed by the evolutionary lineage. In immunohistochemistry, on the other hand, the results were very homogeneous. In every species investigated there was a very strong immunolabeling of the adhesive cells, independently of the taxon considered, of the tube foot morphotype or function, or of the species habitat. This indicates that the adhesives in all the species considered are closely related, probably sharing many identical molecules or, at least, many identical epitopes on their constituents.

  12. Stromal myofibroblasts in nonmetastatic and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Sridhara, Sudheendra Udyavara; Choudaha, Nidhi; Kasetty, Sowmya; Joshi, Prathamesh Satish; Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Tijare, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Myofibroblasts are one of the important components of the tumor microenvironment which could possibly play an important role in tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to compare the presence of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and CD34 positive fibroblasts in nonmetastatic and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma and to evaluate their role in tumor metastasis. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of histologically proven metastatic and nonmetastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma formed the study group. The tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for α-SMA and CD34. The stromal spindle cells positive for these markers in the study groups were counted and compared. Results: α-SMA positive cases were more in the metastatic group and CD34 positive cases were found to be more in the nonmetastatic tumors. Conclusions: Though difference in the staining pattern was statistically nonsignificant, the inverse relationship between α-SMA and CD34 positive cells is indicative of dynamic nature and the influence of tumor stroma in tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:24250077

  13. Immunohistochemical Studies on Galectin Expression in Colectomised Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Block, Mattias; Mölne, Johan; Leffler, Hakon; Börjesson, Lars; Breimer, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aetiology and pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) are essentially unknown. Galectins are carbohydrate-binding lectins involved in a large number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Little is known about the role of galectins in human UC. In this immunohistochemical exploratory study, both epithelial and inflammatory cell galectin expression were studied in patients with a thoroughly documented clinical history and were correlated with inflammatory activity. Material and Methods. Surgical whole intestinal wall colon specimens from UC patients (n = 22) and controls (n = 10) were studied. Clinical history, pharmacological treatment, and modified Mayo-score were recorded. Tissue inflammation was graded, and sections were stained with antibodies recognizing galectin-1, galectin-2, galectin-3, and galectin-4. Results. Galectin-1 was undetectable in normal and UC colonic epithelium, while galectin-2, galectin-3, and galectin-4 were strongly expressed. A tendency towards diminished epithelial expression with increased inflammatory grade for galectin-2, galectin-3, and galectin-4 was also found. In the inflammatory cells, a strong expression of galectin-2 and a weak expression of galectin-3 were seen. No clear-cut correlation between epithelial galectin expression and severity of the disease was found. Conclusion. Galectin expression in patients with UC seems to be more dependent on disease focality and individual variation than on degree of tissue inflammation. PMID:26885508

  14. Sarcoglycans in the normal and pathological breast tissue of humans: an immunohistochemical and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Arco, Alba; Favaloro, Angelo; Gioffrè, Mara; Santoro, Giuseppe; Speciale, Francesco; Vermiglio, Giovanna; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex, consisting of α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ε-sarcoglycans, is a multimember transmembrane system providing a mechanosignaling connection from the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Whereas the expression of α- and γ-sarcoglycan is restricted to striated muscle, other sarcoglycans are widely expressed. Although many studies have investigated sarcoglycans in all muscle types, insufficient data are available on the distribution of the sarcoglycan complex in nonmuscle tissue. On this basis, we used immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques to study preliminarily the sarcoglycans in normal glandular breast tissue (which has never been studied in the literature on these proteins) to verify the effective wider distribution of this complex. Moreover, to understand the role of sarcoglycans, we also tested samples obtained from patients affected by fibrocystic mastopathy and breast fibroadenoma. Our data showed, for the first time, that all sarcoglycans are always detectable in all normal samples both in epithelial and myoepithelial cells; in pathological breast tissue, all sarcoglycans appeared severely reduced. These data demonstrated that all sarcoglycans, not only β-, δ-, and ε-sarcoglycans, have a wider distribution, implying a new unknown role for these proteins. Moreover, in breast diseases, sarcoglycans containing cadherin domain homologs could provoke a loss of strong adhesion between epithelial cells, permitting and facilitating the degeneration of these benign breast tumors into malignant tumors. Consequently, sarcoglycans could play an important and intriguing role in many breast diseases and in particular in tumor progression from benign to malignant.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of skin nerve regeneration after toe-to-finger transplantation: correlations with clinical, quantitative sensory, and electrophysiological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Chu, Nai-Shin

    2004-12-01

    Cutaneous nerve regeneration following toe-to-finger transplantation was studied by immunohistochemical technique using antibody to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) which is a specific neuronal marker. By this technique, epidermal and dermal nerves were semi-quantified and the Meissner's corpuscles were quantified. There were also quantitative sensory tests (QST) including pinprick, pressure and temperature, as well as electrophysiological studies including digital nerve sensory conduction, digital nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and sympathetic skin response at the pulp of the transplanted toes. The opposite corresponding normal finger and normal toe served as controls. Study subjects were 20 adult patients with toe-to-finger transplantation for at least one year. A score system was used to quantify the results of histochemical, psychophysiological and electrophysiological studies. Clinically 7 patients had good recovery and 13 patients had poor recovery. Cutaneous nerve regeneration in the transplanted toes was incomplete with epidermal nerve, dermal nerve and the Meissner's corpuscle significantly reduced. The nerve regeneration was correlated with clinical recovery, QST and electrophysiological data. These findings indicate that immunohischemical technique is useful to evaluate skin nerve regeneration following toe-to-finger transplantation, and that although nerve regeneration did occur, it was incomplete and correlated with the severity of hand injury.

  16. [T lymphocyte populations of the intestinal mucosa in celiac disease in children. Immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Olives, J P; Voigt, J J; al Saati, T; Nonnenmacher, L; Brousset, P; Delsol, G; Ghisolfi, J

    1990-01-01

    In order to study the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in a pathologic intestinal mucosa, the authors, instead of using the classic method by counting the number of lymphocytes, present an original method permitting the exploitation of quantified data from labelled surface cells by texture analyser coupled with a computerized system. We investigated 25 children presenting with chronic diarrhea and villous atrophy and 5 control subjects. Fifteen of the 25 children had celiac disease (10 active with total villous atrophy and 5, celiac disease in remission with healing mucosa), 5 cow's milk protein intolerance with total or partial villous atrophy and 5, chronic diarrhea with partial villous atrophy. Immunohistochemical study with monoclonal antibodies was carried out on frozen sections using a three-step immunoperoxidase technique. Compared with the 5 controls, patients with food intolerance (celiac disease and cow's milk protein intolerance) showed a significant increase of T suppressor lymphocytes (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05) in the epithelium, whereas there were more T helper lymphocytes in the lamina propria (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01). Non-treated celiac disease was distinguished from treated celiac disease by a marked increase in intra-epithelial T cytotoxic-suppressors. These results suggest that T cytotoxic-suppressors may be the mediators of the lesions observed in celiac disease. PMID:2179007

  17. An immunohistochemical study of p53 protein expression in classical Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bergman, R; Ramon, M; Kilim, S; Lichtig, C; Friedman-Birnbaum, R

    1996-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the frequency of p53 protein immunoreactivity in classical Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as a whole and in relation to the histological subtypes which are considered to correspond to the developmental stages of the tumor. The accumulation of p53 protein was studied immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibody BP53-12 on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of 36 KS lesions, of which 14 were classified histologically as early type and 22 as spindle-cell or mixed type. No positive immunoreactivity was detected in any of the 14 early-type lesions. Among the 22 spindle-cell and mixed variants, positive staining was detected in 5-10% of the tumor cells in one lesion, 1-5% of the cells in six lesions, and in < 1% of the cells in two lesions. These very small percentages of positively stained cells in less than half of the cases of the spindle-cell and mixed variants do not support a significant role for p53 in tumor progression and evolution in KS.

  18. Acute injury affects lubricin expression in knee menisci: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Carnazza, Maria Luisa; Cardile, Venera; Leonardi, Rosalia

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time lubricin expression in intact menisci and in menisci from patients with recent knee joint injury using histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and gene expression analysis, to provide insights into pathological processes affecting meniscal tissue. Lubricin expression was studied in vivo in 20 patients (14 males and 6 females) with recent joint injury subjected to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and in vitro in fibroblast-like cells from meniscus tissue to establish whether it is down-regulated following acute traumatic knee injury. The control group consisted of cadaver donors with normal menisci. Histology demonstrated a normal tissue without structural changes in control samples and structural alterations and clefts in injured menisci. Very strong lubricin immunohistochemical staining was observed in intact menisci; in contrast weak staining was seen in injured menisci. Western blot and mRNA expression analysis also demonstrated strong lubricin expression in control cells and a negligible amount of lubricin in injured fibroblast-like cells. Our data provide information concerning the immediate in vivo response to injury of human knee menisci by documenting early changes in the boundary-lubricating ability of synovial fluid and articular cartilage integrity. These findings may provide the biological basis for developing novel medical therapies to be applied before surgical treatment to preserve tissue function and prevent cartilage damage.

  19. Immunohistochemical study on the distribution and origin of GABAergic nerve terminals in the superior salivatory nucleus.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Ayumi; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Masako; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Kobashi, Motoi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2009-01-01

    The superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) is the primary parasympathetic center controlling submandibular salivatory secretion. Our previous electrophysiological study revealed that many SSN neurons receive GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic inputs. In the present study, we examined the distribution of GABAergic and glycinergic nerve terminals, GABA(A) receptors in the SSN, and the origin of GABAergic nerve terminals innervating the SSN. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and glycine transporter 2 (GLYT2) were used as markers of GABAergic and glycinergic nerve terminals, respectively. GAD- and GLYT2-positive nerve terminals and GABA(A) receptors were examined immunohistochemically in SSN neurons labeled by the retrograde axonal transport of FastBlue (FB) injected into the chorda-lingual nerve. The SSN neurons abundantly contained GAD-positive nerve terminals and GABA(A) receptors, suggesting that SSN neurons undergo strong GABAergic inhibition. The origin of GABAergic terminals was examined in neurons labeled by the retrograde transport of FluoroGold (FG) injected into the SSN. GAD was used as a marker of GABAergic neurons. Numerous FG-labeled neurons were found in the forebrain and brainstem. However, in FG-labeled neurons, GAD-positive neurons were occasionally observed in the reticular formation of the brainstem. These findings suggest that SSN neurons mainly receive GABAergic projections from the reticular formation.

  20. Ovarian Brenner tumors and Walthard nests: a histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Masand, Ramya P

    2014-12-01

    Brenner tumors are composed of urothelial/transitional-type epithelium and, hence, are morphologically similar to Walthard nests and tubal/mesothelial transitional metaplasia. In this study, we analyzed immunohistochemical markers on Brenner tumors to explore Müllerian as well as Wolffian and germ cell derivation. We also attempted to explore their possible association with tubal/paratubal Walthard nests/transitional metaplasia, using the same immunostains. Thirty-two consecutive cases of Brenner tumors were identified. Thirteen (43%) of the patients had Walthard nests in the tubal/periovarian soft tissue. All Brenner tumors were diffusely positive for GATA3 (strongly positive in 30/32 and weakly positive in the remaining 2) and negative for PAX8, PAX2, and SALL4. Similarly, all Walthard nests were positive for GATA3, whereas only 3 (23%) of 13 showed occasional PAX8 expression; all were negative for PAX2 and SALL4. In our study, more than 40% of Brenner tumors had associated Walthard nests. The similar morphology and immunoprofile of Brenner tumors and Walthard nests suggest a probable link between Brenner tumors and Walthard nests. Two additional cases presented highlight small transitional lesions involving the ovary: a possible precursor lesion or the initial steps of Brenner tumor formation. Brenner tumors and most Walthard nests lacked staining for Müllerian (PAX8 and PAX2) and germ cell tumor markers (SALL4).

  1. Immunohistochemical studies of the epididymal duct in Egyptian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Elnasharty, Mohamed; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Abdrabou, Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), this study aimed to evaluate the regional distribution pattern of some biologically active proteins in the epididymis of Egyptian water buffalo and to determine the structural-functional relationships of the different epididymal structures. Wax-embedded sections from different regions of the epididymal duct from adult, clinically healthy, buffalo bulls were used. Primary antibodies against angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), S-100, galactosyltransferase (GalTase), alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), connexin 43 (Cx43) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were used for immunohistochemical studies. The results showed that, in addition to the well-known principal and basal cells, the epididymal epithelium, similar to that of other species, possessed apical cells and intraepithelial leukocytes. IHC showed that, with the exception of VEGF which reacted negatively, all antibodies used displayed variable reactivity in the different epididymal structures. Apical cells expressed a strong reaction with ACE along the entire length of the duct. The principal cells in the caput epididymis exhibited a distinct reactivity with S-100 and GalTase. The peritubular muscular coat displayed a marked immunostaining for α-SMA and for Cx43. In conclusion these findings showed a regional-specific distribution pattern, distinct from that in bovine bulls. Some potential functional capacities, especially absorptive and secretory ones, are discussed in relation to the different epididymal regions.

  2. Morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical study of the gill epithelium in the abyssal teleost fish Coelorhynchus coelorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Concetta; Albanese, Maria Pia; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Martella, Silvestro; Licata, Aurelio

    2005-01-01

    Histochemical and immunohistochemical study was carried out on nitrinergic innervation and neuroendocrine system in the gill epithelium of the abyssal fish Coelorhynchus coelorhynchus. The results showed that nNOS-positive nerve fibers, originating from the branchial arch were present in the subepithelial tissue of branchial primary filament. nNOS-positive neuroendocrine cells were also present in the primary filaments and secondary lamellae. Numerous mucous cells in the gill epithelium were AB/PAS-positive, while sialic acid was absent as confirmed by neuraminidase reaction and WGA lectin histochemistry. The mucus compounds in abyssal teleost fish are different from those found in pelagic species, being related to their living conditions. In abyssal species, greater numbers of chloride and neuroendocrine cells are involved in the movement of water and electrolytes. Neuroendocrine cells possess oxygen receptors which mediate the cardiovascular and ventilatory response to oxygen deficiency, as reported in teleost species. Besides, NO contributes through nervous stimulation to the regulation of vascular tone and blood circulation in the gill. PMID:15871563

  3. Sarcoglycan complex in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles of baboons: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cutroneo, G; Centofanti, A; Speciale, F; Rizzo, G; Favaloro, A; Santoro, G; Bruschetta, D; Milardi, D; Micali, A; Di Mauro, D; Vermiglio, G; Anastasi, G; Trimarchi, F

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status.

  4. Sarcoglycan Complex in Masseter and Sternocleidomastoid Muscles of Baboons: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Cutroneo, G.; Centofanti, A.; Speciale, F.; Rizzo, G.; Favaloro, A.; Santoro, G.; Bruschetta, D.; Milardi, D.; Micali, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Vermiglio, G.; Anastasi, G.; Trimarchi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status. PMID:26150161

  5. [Periodontal diseases in adults. Immunohistochemical study of inflammatory cells and of collagen].

    PubMed

    Chomette, G; Auriol, M; Armbruster, D; Szpirglas, H; Vaillant, J M

    1987-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed on 9 gingival biopsy specimens from patients suffering of a periodontal disease comparatively to 7 control specimens from patients with inflammatory gingival hyperplasia of various causes and from healthy gums. We used mono or polyclonal antibodies as markers of the different types of inflammatory cells (T-1 lymphocytes and their subsets, B-lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells). In patients with periodontal disease, the high percentage of transformed T-lymphocytes with a majority of helpers was obvious. In controls, the inflammatory cells were principally B-lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells. The characterization of different types of collagen produced by periodontal fibroblasts was performed by specific antibodies (anti I, III, V collagen sera). The respective ratio and the topographic distribution of those collagen substances were different in patients with periodontal disease and controls. In the first eventuality, one could find quite exclusively type I collagen. In the other group, type I collagen was associated with type III sub epithelial and type IV perivasor ar collagen. By means of these findings, the pathogenesis of the periodontal disease was discussed and its immune mechanism was suggested.

  6. Distribution of cardiac myosin isozymes in human conduction system. Immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kuro-o, M; Tsuchimochi, H; Ueda, S; Takaku, F; Yazaki, Y

    1986-01-01

    To determine the presence and distribution of cardiac myosin isozymes in the human conduction system, we performed an immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies CMA19 and HMC14, which are specific for myosin heavy chains of human atrial type (alpha-type) and ventricular type (beta-type), respectively. Serial frozen sections of human hearts were obtained from autopsy samples and examined by indirect immunofluorescence. Alpha-type was found in all myofibers of sinus node and atrio-ventricular node, and in 55.2 +/- 10.2% (mean +/- SD, n = 5) of the myofibers of ventricular conduction tissue, which consists of the bundle of His, bundle branches, and the Purkinje network. In contrast, beta-type was found in all myofibers of the atrio-ventricular node and ventricular conduction tissue, whereas almost all myofibers of the sinus node were unlabeled by HMC14. Although the number of ventricular myofibers labeled by CMA19 was small, the labeled myofibers were more numerous in the subepicardial region than in the subendocardial region. These findings show that the gene coding for alpha-type is expressed predominantly in specialized myocardium compared with the adjacent ordinary working myocardium. Images PMID:3511096

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Histologic and Immunohistochemical Study of Autopsy Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Terayama, Noboru; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Gabata, Toshifumi; Miyayama, Shiro; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Isao; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the histologic findings associated with stenosed and occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) tracts. Methods: Four TIPS tracts within three autopsy livers were histologically studied for vascular components by routine staining and immunohistochemical staining. TIPS had been performed for bleeding from esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Results: Two TIPS, examined on days 4 and 53, showed occlusion by fibrin thrombus. In the former, no endothelial cells were detected, but coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes was found in the surrounding liver. In the latter, bile pigments were seen on the luminal surface. In the two other TIPS without tract occlusion, examined on days 49 and 293, a layer of endothelial cells, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and deposition of an extracellular matrix such as collagen were confirmed. In the tract examined on day 293, there was protrusion of hepatocytes into the lumen through the stent wires. Conclusion: Short- and midterm TIPS occlusions were caused by thrombus forming after necrosis of hepatocytes and bile leakage, respectively. Long-term TIPS stenosis was associated with a combination of pseudointimal hyperplasia and ingrowth of hepatocytes.

  8. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Saori; Yoshihara, Toshio

    2007-07-01

    The proliferative activity of the tumor cells and the expression of tumor-associated genes and sex steroid hormone receptors were investigated immunohistochemically in ten cases of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) of the salivary glands. These were analyzed in benign and malignant components separately, and then were compared with ten cases of the other malignant tumors [adenocarcinomas, not otherwise specified (ACN) and salivary duct carcinomas (SDC)] and ten cases of pleomorphic adenomas (PA). The results obtained in this study were as follows: (1) malignant component of Ca-ex-PA showed a higher incidence of PCNA and Ki67 than benign component of Ca-ex-PA. A significant difference between benign component of Ca-ex-PA and PA was not observed. (2) A significant difference in the incidence of p53, c-erbB-2, EGFR overexpression was observed only between malignant component of Ca-ex-PA and benign component of Ca-ex-PA. (3) The incidence of PCNA, Ki67, p53, c-erbB-2 overexpression in malignant component of Ca-ex-PA showed the highest data among the four groups. These results suggest that Ca-ex-PA acquired the particular biological behavior in contrast to the other salivary neoplasms in the long-standing process while PA undergoes malignant transformation.

  9. Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under Different Exposure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Risalde, María de los Ángeles; Moyano, Rosario; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Ángeles; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw), and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L) for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days). The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms. PMID:24406981

  10. Betacellulin in Chronic Periodontitis Patients With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.; Bilichodmath, Shivaprasad; Warad, Shivaraj B.; Ugale, Mahesh S.; Koregol, Arati C.; Bijjargi, Shobha C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The host immune response to bacterial dental plaque determines periodontal disease susceptibility by increasing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The Epidermal Growth Factor family cytokines stimulate proliferation and keratinization of cells in dermis and oral epithelium. Epidermal Growth Factor family consists of Amphiregulin, Betacellulin, Epiregulin, Epigen, Heparin binding Epidermal Growth Factor like growth factor and transforming Growth Factor-alpha. Aim The current study aimed to investigate expression of Betacellulin in chronic periodontitis patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and thereby assessing role of betacellulin in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Present study comprised of 90 participants, age ranges from 18 to 60-year-old, for the period of March 2010 to May 2011. Participants were categorized into three groups based Gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CA Loss). Group 1 consisted 30 individuals with clinically healthy periodontium, Group-2 consisted 30 individuals with GI>1, PD≥5 mm, and CA Loss>3 mm. Group-3 (Chronic Periodontitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus) consisted 30 with GI >1, PD≥5 mm, and CA Loss>3 mm. Immunohistochemical localization and quantification of Betacellulin was done in gingival tissue samples from all groups. Results Data showed expression of Betacellulin were higher in chronic periodontitis as compared to healthy. A positive correlation found in Betacellulin expression and Probing Depth in chronic periodontitis. Conclusion This footmark study impacts the role of Betacellulin in pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease which will help in exploration of novel immunotherapeutic strategies and immunological research activity in this field. PMID:26673371

  11. Ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI differentiation of meningioma from dural metastases: a pilot study with immunohistochemical observations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Bronwyn E; Woltjer, Randall L; Prola-Netto, Joao; Nesbit, Gary M; Gahramanov, Seymur; Pham, Thao; Wagner, Jaime; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2016-09-01

    Malignant dural neoplasms are not reliably distinguished from benign dural neoplasms with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI enhancement in central nervous system (CNS) diseases imaged with ferumoxytol has been attributed to intracellular uptake in macrophages rather than vascular leakage. We compared imaging to histopathology and immunohistochemistry in meningiomas and dural metastases having ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI (FeMRI) and gadolinium-enhanced MRI (GdMRI) in order to correlate enhancement patterns to macrophage presence and vascular state. All patients having extraaxial CNS tumors were retrospectively selected from one of two ongoing FeMRI studies. Enhancement was compared between GdMRI and FeMRI. Diagnoses were confirmed histologically and/or by characteristic imaging. Tumor and vascular histology was reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for CD68 (a macrophage marker), Connexin-43 (Cx43) (a marker of normal gap junctions), and smooth muscle actin (SMA) as a marker of vascularity, was performed in seven study cases with available tissue. Immunohistochemistry was performed on archival material from 33 subjects outside of the current study as controls: 20 WHO grade I cases of meningioma and 13 metastatic tumors. Metastases displayed marked delayed enhancement on FeMRI, similar to GdMRI. Four patients with dural metastases and one patient with meningioma showed similar enhancement on FeMRI and GdMRI. Five meningiomas with typical enhancement on GdMRI lacked enhancement on FeMRI. Enhancement on FeMRI was better associated with decreased Cx43 expression than intralesional macrophages. These pilot data suggest that FeMRI may better differentiate metastatic disease from meningiomas than GdMRI, and that differences in tumor vasculature rather than macrophage presence could underlie differences in contrast enhancement. PMID:27393348

  12. Automated extraction of precise protein expression patterns in lymphoma by text mining abstracts of immunohistochemical studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia-Fu; Popescu, Mihail; Arthur, Gerald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In general, surgical pathology reviews report protein expression by tumors in a semi-quantitative manner, that is, -, -/+, +/-, +. At the same time, the experimental pathology literature provides multiple examples of precise expression levels determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) tissue examination of populations of tumors. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques enable the automated extraction of such information through text mining. We propose establishing a database linking quantitative protein expression levels with specific tumor classifications through NLP. Materials and Methods: Our method takes advantage of typical forms of representing experimental findings in terms of percentages of protein expression manifest by the tumor population under study. Characteristically, percentages are represented straightforwardly with the % symbol or as the number of positive findings of the total population. Such text is readily recognized using regular expressions and templates permitting extraction of sentences containing these forms for further analysis using grammatical structures and rule-based algorithms. Results: Our pilot study is limited to the extraction of such information related to lymphomas. We achieved a satisfactory level of retrieval as reflected in scores of 69.91% precision and 57.25% recall with an F-score of 62.95%. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of a web-based curation tool for confirming and correcting our findings. Conclusions: The experimental pathology literature represents a rich source of pathobiological information, which has been relatively underutilized. There has been a combinatorial explosion of knowledge within the pathology domain as represented by increasing numbers of immunophenotypes and disease subclassifications. NLP techniques support practical text mining techniques for extracting this knowledge and organizing it in forms appropriate for pathology decision support systems. PMID:23967385

  13. Immunohistochemical study of osteopontin expression during distraction osteogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Perrien, Daniel S; Brown, Elizabeth C; Aronson, James; Skinner, Robert A; Montague, Donna C; Badger, Thomas M; Lumpkin, Charles K

    2002-04-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a limb-lengthening procedure that combines mechanical tension stress with fracture healing to provide a unique opportunity for detailed histological examination of bone formation. Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional matricellular protein believed to play a key role in wound healing and cellular response to mechanical stress. We studied the expression of OPN during DO using standard immunohistochemical (IHC) staining techniques. In addition, we compared the expression of OPN to proliferation (PCNA-positive cells) in the DO gap. After 14 days of distraction in the rat, these stains revealed variations in OPN expression and its relationship to proliferation according to the cell type, tissue type, and mode of ossification examined. Fibroblast-like cells within the central fibrous area exhibited intermittent low levels of OPN, but no relationship was observed between OPN and proliferation. In areas of transchondral ossification, OPN expression was very high in the morphologically intermediate oval cells. During intramembranous ossification, osteoblasts appeared to exhibit a bimodal expression of OPN. Specifically, proliferating pre-osteoblasts expressed osteopontin, but OPN was not detected in the post-proliferative pre-osteoblasts/osteoblasts that border the new bone columns. Finally, intracellular OPN was detected in virtually all of the mature osteoblasts/osteocytes within the new bone columns, while detection of OPN in the matrix of the developing bone columns may increase with the maturity of the new bone. These results imply that the expression of OPN during DO may be more similar to that seen during embryogenesis than would be expected from other studies. Furthermore, the biphasic expression of OPN during intramembranous ossification may exemplify the protein's multi-functional role. Early expression may facilitate pre-osteoblastic proliferation and migration, while the latter downregulation may be necessary for hydroxyapatite

  14. Immunohistochemical (Ki-67) study of endometrial maturation in mice after use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Bahman; Rad, Jafar Soleimani; Rad, Leila Roshangar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uterine receptivity for the implantation is a complicated process, that ovarian factors (hormonal), endometrium and embryo simultaneously are involved in this phenomenon. A successful implantation needs appropriate development of the endometrium. Furthermore, embryo must be capable of reacting with the endometrium and producing suitable adhesion molecules. This study aimed to examine one of endometrial maturation indices in mice before implantation, i.e., proliferation of stromal cells. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 adult female mice were divided into four groups: Control, gonadotropin, gonadotropin + progesterone, and gonadotropin + sildenafil citrate. The three experimental groups were first injected 7.5 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and then 7.5 IU of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). Then, every two female mice were placed in a cage with a male mouse for mating. Two groups were injected 1 mg of progesterone and 3 mg/kg of sildenafil citrate at intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h after injection of HMG. After 96 h, all the mice were killed, and their uterine samples subjected to tissue passage and prepared for analysis. Immunohistochemical method, Ki-67, and stromal mitotic cell count were used in this study. Results: Our observations in all groups showed changes in the luminal epithelium. ANOVA analysis Ki-67-positive stromal cells among all groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results showed that administration of HMG and HCG following that of progesterone and sildenafil citrate could change the indices of endometrial maturation, and they were not involved in the phase immediately before implantation in stromal mitotic index. PMID:26380239

  15. Bone response to biomimetic implants delivering BMP-2 and VEGF: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ramazanoglu, Mustafa; Lutz, Rainer; Rusche, Philipp; Trabzon, Levent; Kose, Gamze Torun; Prechtl, Christopher; Schlegel, Karl Andreas

    2013-12-01

    This animal study evaluated bone healing around titanium implant surfaces biomimetically coated with bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and/or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by examining bone matrix proteins and mineralisation. Five different implant surfaces were established: acid-etched surface (AE), biomimetic calcium phosphate surface (CAP), BMP-2 loaded CAP surface, VEGF loaded CAP surface and dual BMP-2 + VEGF loaded CAP surface. The implants were inserted into calvariae of adult domestic pigs. For the comparison of osteoconductive capacity of each surface, bone mineral density and expression of bone matrix proteins (collagen I, BMP-2/4, osteocalcin and osteopontin) inside defined chambers around the implant were assessed using light microscopy and microradiography and immunohistochemical analysis at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. In the both groups delivering BMP-2, the bone mineral density was significantly enhanced after 2 weeks and the highest value was measured for the group BMP + VEGF. In the group VEGF, collagen I and BMP-2/4 expressions were significantly up-regulated at the first and second weeks. The percentage of BMP-2/4 positive cells in the group BMP + VEGF was significantly enhanced compared with the groups AE and CAP at the second week. Although the highest osteocalcin and osteopontin expression values were observed for the group BMP + VEGF after 2 weeks, no statistically significant difference in osteocalcin and osteopontin expressions was found between all groups at any time. It was concluded that combined delivery of BMP-2 and VEGF favoured bone mineralisation and expression of important bone matrix proteins that might explain synergistic interaction between both growth factors. PMID:23434516

  16. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblasts in odontogenic cysts and tumors: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Syamala, Deepa; Suresh, Rakesh; Janardhanan, Mahija; Savithri, Vindhya; Anand, Prem P; Jose, Amrutha

    2016-01-01

    Context: Myofibroblasts are fibroblasts with smooth muscle-like features characterized by the presence of a contractile apparatus and found in the connective tissue stroma of normal tissues such as blood vessels and lymph nodes. They are now thought to play a role in the synthesis and reorganization of extracellular matrix, which could contribute to the aggressive biologic behavior of the lesions. Aims: To compare the mean number of stromal myofibroblasts in dentigerous cysts (DCs), keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and ameloblastoma; and to derive a correlation between the stromal myofibroblasts and the known biologic behavior of the lesions. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional immunohistochemical analysis of cases of DC, KCOT and ameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks each of DC, KCOT and multicystic ameloblastoma were selected for the study and diagnosis confirmed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. Tissue sections were analyzed for the number of myofibroblasts using alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunostaining. Statistical Analysis: Differences in the mean number of α-SMA positive cells in each group were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Intergroup comparisons of mean values of α-SMA positive cells were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ameloblastoma showed the highest number of myofibroblasts, whereas DC showed the lowest. Among the groups, there were significant differences between the myofibroblast counts among DC and KCOT and between DC and ameloblastoma, whereas the difference in counts was not statistically significant between KCOT and ameloblastoma. A positive correlation was observed between the myofibroblast count and the known biologic behavior of the lesions. Conclusion: Myofibroblasts may act in close association with the epithelial cells to bring about changes in stromal microenvironment, favorable to the growth and progression of the lesion. They may be of great value in

  17. Bone response to biomimetic implants delivering BMP-2 and VEGF: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ramazanoglu, Mustafa; Lutz, Rainer; Rusche, Philipp; Trabzon, Levent; Kose, Gamze Torun; Prechtl, Christopher; Schlegel, Karl Andreas

    2013-12-01

    This animal study evaluated bone healing around titanium implant surfaces biomimetically coated with bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and/or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by examining bone matrix proteins and mineralisation. Five different implant surfaces were established: acid-etched surface (AE), biomimetic calcium phosphate surface (CAP), BMP-2 loaded CAP surface, VEGF loaded CAP surface and dual BMP-2 + VEGF loaded CAP surface. The implants were inserted into calvariae of adult domestic pigs. For the comparison of osteoconductive capacity of each surface, bone mineral density and expression of bone matrix proteins (collagen I, BMP-2/4, osteocalcin and osteopontin) inside defined chambers around the implant were assessed using light microscopy and microradiography and immunohistochemical analysis at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. In the both groups delivering BMP-2, the bone mineral density was significantly enhanced after 2 weeks and the highest value was measured for the group BMP + VEGF. In the group VEGF, collagen I and BMP-2/4 expressions were significantly up-regulated at the first and second weeks. The percentage of BMP-2/4 positive cells in the group BMP + VEGF was significantly enhanced compared with the groups AE and CAP at the second week. Although the highest osteocalcin and osteopontin expression values were observed for the group BMP + VEGF after 2 weeks, no statistically significant difference in osteocalcin and osteopontin expressions was found between all groups at any time. It was concluded that combined delivery of BMP-2 and VEGF favoured bone mineralisation and expression of important bone matrix proteins that might explain synergistic interaction between both growth factors.

  18. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblasts in odontogenic cysts and tumors: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Syamala, Deepa; Suresh, Rakesh; Janardhanan, Mahija; Savithri, Vindhya; Anand, Prem P; Jose, Amrutha

    2016-01-01

    Context: Myofibroblasts are fibroblasts with smooth muscle-like features characterized by the presence of a contractile apparatus and found in the connective tissue stroma of normal tissues such as blood vessels and lymph nodes. They are now thought to play a role in the synthesis and reorganization of extracellular matrix, which could contribute to the aggressive biologic behavior of the lesions. Aims: To compare the mean number of stromal myofibroblasts in dentigerous cysts (DCs), keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and ameloblastoma; and to derive a correlation between the stromal myofibroblasts and the known biologic behavior of the lesions. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional immunohistochemical analysis of cases of DC, KCOT and ameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks each of DC, KCOT and multicystic ameloblastoma were selected for the study and diagnosis confirmed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. Tissue sections were analyzed for the number of myofibroblasts using alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunostaining. Statistical Analysis: Differences in the mean number of α-SMA positive cells in each group were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Intergroup comparisons of mean values of α-SMA positive cells were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Ameloblastoma showed the highest number of myofibroblasts, whereas DC showed the lowest. Among the groups, there were significant differences between the myofibroblast counts among DC and KCOT and between DC and ameloblastoma, whereas the difference in counts was not statistically significant between KCOT and ameloblastoma. A positive correlation was observed between the myofibroblast count and the known biologic behavior of the lesions. Conclusion: Myofibroblasts may act in close association with the epithelial cells to bring about changes in stromal microenvironment, favorable to the growth and progression of the lesion. They may be of great value in

  19. An immunohistochemical study of bizarre neoplastic cells in pleomorphic adenoma: its cytological nature and proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y

    1999-11-01

    The cytological nature and proliferative activity of bizarre neoplastic cells, widely scattered in pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland origin were studied. Pleomorphic adenomas containing numerous bizarre neoplastic cells were found in four cases, and were equal to 2.9% of all pleomorphic adenomas examined. All four cases presented as well-circumscribed, firm masses measuring less than 1.5 cm in size, located in the palate, and were of 7 months to 4 years duration. Histopathologically, these pleomorphic adenomas were cell rich type, and were well demarcated from surrounding tissues, although their fibrous capsules were partially defective. In addition to characteristic histopathological findings of pleomorphic adenoma, numerous neoplastic cells with bizarre appearance were scattered throughout the lesion, excepting for tubuloductal structures. These bizarre neoplastic cells had irregular-shaped and large nuclei with or without hyperchromatism, although their nucleoli were small and mitotic figures were few. Furthermore, there were many multinucleated giant cells, some of which showed multilobulated nuclei. Neither necrosis nor infarct was seen in the tumors. Immunohistochemically, bizarre neoplastic cells scattered in solid-proliferating areas and myxoid areas were neoplastic myoepithelial cells in nature. There was no statistical significance of MIB-1 labeling indices between pleomorphic adenomas with bizarre neoplastic cells and usual pleomorphic adenomas. The p53 labeling indices were quite low. Although the benign nature of pleomorphic adenomas with numerous bizarre neoplastic cells and hypercellularity, distinguishing such pleomorphic adenomas from various stages of malignant transformation in pleomorphic adenomas and other carcinomas should be made by histological section of submitted biopsy specimen or aspirated content for cytological diagnosis. The present paper suggests that the term 'bizarre cell pleomorphic adenoma' is an appropriate name for this

  20. A case of solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Daisaku; Mashiko, Aya; Murata, Yasutaka; Satoh, Katsuhiko; Ichinose, Taketo; Takahashi, Satoru; Jike, Toyoharu; Sugitani, Masahiko

    2009-12-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an unusual spindle cell neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura but rarely occurs in the kidney. Despite its rarity, histological diagnosis of SFT is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis with other malignant tumors in the kidney. We report a SFT of the left kidney that presented as a malignant tumor on radiographic findings in a 75-year-old Japanese woman. The tumor was well circumscribed and composed of a mixture of spindle cells and dense collagenous bands with no areas of necrosis or cystic changes noted macroscopically or microscopically. Electron microscopy showed fibroblast-like cells with well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, surrounded with collagen fibers. Immunohistochemistry revealed reactivity for vimentin, CD34, Bcl-2, and CD99, but no staining for cytokeratin, S-100, desmin, actin, D2-40, or epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). These findings were compatible with those of SFT. Although SFT of the kidney is extremely rare, this tumor must be included in the differential diagnosis when we encounter renal tumors consisting of mesenchymal elements. Immunohistochemical study is the key to diagnosis for SFT, and ultrastructural study is useful for its diagnosis.

  1. A case of primary clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic liver: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Erica Fan; Furth, Emma Elizabeth; Ziober, Amy; Xu, Theodore; Yao, Yuan; Hwang, Pil Gyu; Bing, Zhanyong

    2012-01-01

    The clear cell variant of hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare entity, occurring at a frequency of less than 10% of hepatocellular carcinoma, with a female prevalence and usually associated with hepatitis C and cirrhosis. We reported a case of primary clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a non-cirrhotic liver without history of hepatitis. Our examination included gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, special stains, and electron microscopy evaluation. The tumor was composed of sheets of medium-to-large cells with foamy and reticulated cytoplasm and small-to-medium sized nuclei with variably prominent nucleoli. Oil red O stain showed abundant intracellular lipid. Periodic Acid-Schiff stain confirmed the presence of abundant glycogen deposition. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for Hep Par1, negative for epithelial membrane antigen, steroidogenic factor-1, HMB45, melan A, CK7 and CK20. Electron microscopy study was performed, which was first done in a clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a non-cirrhotic liver without elevation of liver function tests. Ultrastructural evaluation of the clear cells showed scarce cellular organelles, cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles and swollen mitochondria. PMID:22826786

  2. The postulated mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer: Histological and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Salah Khalil, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    There are many available drugs for treating gastric ulcer, but they have various side effects. Ginger is a folk, herbal medicine, which is used for treatment of various diseases including gastric ulcer. This study investigates the possible mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into four groups (10 animal per each group) and orally received the followings once daily for 5 days: Group I: 3 ml of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose; Group II: ginger powder (200 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 mL of 1% carboxymethylcellulose; Group III: aspirin (400 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 ml of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in water. Group IV: ginger and 30 minutes later, received aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose, in similar doses as received in groups II and III. On day 6, rats were sacrificed. The animals were anesthetized and the stomach was removed for the macroscopic, histological (Haematoxylin & Eosin and Periodic Acid Shiff) and immunohistochemical investigations (Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase and heat shock protein 70). Aspirin induced a significant increase of the macroscopic ulcer score, shed and disrupted epithelium, mucosal hemorrhage, submucosal edema and leukocyte infiltration, loss of the mucus of the mucosal surface significantly increased expression of apoptosis regulator Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Ginger ameliorated the histological changes by reducing Bax and iNOS and increasing HSP70 expressions.

  3. Solitary fibrous tumour of the tongue of an adolescent--a case report with immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Jabłońska, Joanna; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kordek, Radzisław

    2009-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare, spindle-cell, mesenchymal neoplasm with haemangiopericytoma-like branching vascular pattern. The tumour has been reported in various locations but the oral cavity is a distinctly uncommon region. We describe a case of solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) in the tongue of a 15-year-old girl. Microscopically it had features characteristic for SFT and a common immunohistochemical profile but uncommonly increased mitotic count.

  4. GABA distribution in the central vestibular system after retroauricular galvanic stimulation. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Okami, K; Sekitani, T; Ogata, M; Matsuda, Y; Ogata, Y; Kanaya, K; Tahara, T

    1991-01-01

    The changes of the neurotransmitter (GABA) distribution in the brain stem of rats by retroauricular galvanic stimulation were investigated using the immunohistochemical method. In the lateral vestibular nucleus GABA-like immunoreactivity was more intensive on the side ipsilateral to the anodal stimulation than on the other side. It is concluded that retroauricular galvanic stimulation causes some changes in the inhibitory activity of the lateral vestibulo-spinal tract and of the spinal motor neuron.

  5. Successful Treatment of Plasmacytosis Circumorificialis with Topical Tacrolimus: Two Case Reports and an Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Taku; Furudate, Sadanori; Ishibashi, Masaya; Kambayashi, Yumi; Tojo, Gen-ichi; Wakusawa, Chihiro; Mayama, Hiroshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2013-01-01

    Plasmacytosis circumorificialis (PLC), a benign chronic inflammatory disease with an unknown pathogenesis, is characterized by erythema, erosion nodules and ulcers around the openings of the human body. In this report, we describe two cases of PLC successfully treated with topical tacrolimus. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed that prominent CD163+ proinflammatory macrophages and IL-17-producing cells were infiltrating around plasma cells, which might suggest the reason for the therapeutic effect of topical tacrolimus on PLC. PMID:23626544

  6. Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges: a lesion distinct from fibrous meningioma. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, S S; Scheithauer, B W; Nascimento, A G; Hirose, T; Davis, D H

    1996-08-01

    Seven solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) of the meninges are presented and their clinicopathologic features are compared with those of 64 fibrous meningiomas (FM). Patients with SFT included 5 females and 2 males age 47 to 73 years. The dura-based tumors involved the parasagittal region (1), tentorium (2), cerebellopontine angle (2), and spinal region (2). One each showed invasion of brain and of a spinal nerve root. Of four SFTs with at least 1-year follow-up, one subtotally resected example recurred. No tumors metastasized. All consisted of spindle cells disposed in fascicles between prominent, eosinophilic bands of collagen. Whorls and storiform cell arrangements were lacking. Mitoses ranged from 1 to 7/10 400 x fields. MIB-1 labeling indices ranged from 1% to 18% (mean 4%). All were PAS negative and showed strong immunoreactivity for vimentin and CD34. Of cases studied, half were estrogen and all were progesterone receptor immunopositive. The majority (72%) of FMs occurred in females and most (72%) were supratentorial. Recurrence was noted in 15%. Mitotic activity varied from 0 to 3 mitoses per 10 400 x fields (mean < 1). MIB-1 labeling indices ranged from 1% to 5% (mean 1.5%). Unlike SFT, FMs were glycogen-containing and variously exhibited a storiform pattern (13 of 20), psammoma body formation (9 of 20), and calcification of collagen (4 of 20). Immunoreactivities included vimentin (100%), focal to patchy EMA (80%), S-100 protein (80%), collagen IV (25%), and patchy, mild-to-moderate CD34 staining (60%). Of cases studied, nearly half were estrogen and all were progesterone receptor staining positive. Meningeal SFTs represent a distinct morphologic entity, the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of which differ from those of FM and suggest a histogenetic relationship to pleural SFT. Although a minority histologically appear to be low grade malignant, our limited experience suggests that they behave in a benign fashion. The classification of mesenchymal

  7. Developmental profile of neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengbo; Zhang, Junfeng; Shi, Hangyu; Zhang, Jianshui; Xu, Xi; Xiao, Xinli; Liu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Hippocampus has attracted the attention of the neuroscientists for its involvement in a wide spectrum of higher-order brain functions and pathological conditions, especially its persistent neurogenesis in subgranular zone (SGZ). The development of hippocampus was intensively investigated on animals such as rodents. However, in prenatal human hippocampus, little information on the distribution of neural stem/progenitor cells, newly generated neurons and mature neurons is available and the timetable of a series of neurogenesis event is even more obscure. So in the present study, we aim at immunohistochemically providing more information on neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks of gestation. We found that the ki67-positive cells were always detected in hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks, with a peak at 9 weeks in cornu ammonis (CA) or 14 weeks in dentate gyrus (DG). At 9 weeks the nestin-expressing cells were distributed throughout the hippocampus, with concentrated immunoreactivity in intermediate zone (IZ), marginal zone (MZ), fimbria, and relatively sparse immunoreactivity in the ventricular zone (VZ) and hippocampal plate (HP). With development, the optical density (OD) and the number of nestin-positive cells decreased gradually. At 32 weeks, there were relatively more nestin-positive cells in DG than that in CA. About DCX-positive cells, they displayed a similar distribution as nestin-positive cells (immunoreactivity concentrated in IZ, MZ, fimbria and HP) and a dramatic decrease of OD or cell number density from 9 weeks on. NeuN-positive cells, with small nuclei, were firstly found in MZ and subplate of hippocampus at 9 weeks. After 14 weeks, many NeuN-positive cells extended from subplate into HP and the density of NeuN-positive cells peaked at 22 weeks. That the immunoreactivity for NeuN was the strongest and the nuclei were the biggest at 32 weeks suggests that the neurons reach maturity gradually. Therefore this study provides

  8. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the omasum of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, E; Franco, AJ; Masot, AJ

    2005-01-01

    The red deer is an important study species because of its value in the national economy and because it provides a wealth of genetic material. To date, there has been little research into the prenatal development of the stomach of ruminants, and none of the red deer. We therefore performed a histological evaluation of the ontogenesis of the omasum in the red deer. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of deer from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. For test purposes, the animals were divided into five experimental groups: Group I (1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length, CRL; 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation); Group II (4.5–7.2 cm CRL; 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation); Group III (8–19 cm CRL; 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation); Group IV (21–33 cm CRL; 142–191 days, 50–70% of gestation); and Group V (36–40 cm CRL; 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation). At 67 embryonic days, the omasum wall was differentiated, and comprised three layers: the epithelial layer, pluripotential blastemic tissue and serosa. The stratification of the epithelial layer was accompanied by changes in its structure, with the appearance of four laminae of different sizes; in order of appearance these were: primary at 67 days, secondary at 90 days, tertiary at 97 days and quaternary at 135 days. At around mid-gestation, lateral evaginations were formed from the stratum basale of the primary and secondary smaller laminae. These were the primitive corneum papillae. From 205 days, the corneum papillae were present in all four sizes of laminae. The histodifferentiation of the lamina propia-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa showed patterns of development similar to those reported for the rumen and reticulum of red deer. The omasum of red deer during prenatal life, especially from 67 days of gestation, was shown to be an active structure with full secretory capacity. Its histological development, its secretory

  9. Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Human Colorectal Adenoma and Carcinoma Using Specified Automated Cellular Image Analysis System: A Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban Jumaa; Ali, Hussam Hasson; Hussein, Alaa Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma and to correlate this immunohistochemical expression with different clinicopathological parameters. Methods The study was retrospectively designed. A total of 86 tissue samples, including 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenomas, 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas and a control group of 20 samples of non-tumorous colonic tissue, were included in the study. Results The frequency of expression of ER and PR showed a gradual increase from control through adenoma to carcinoma. The frequencies of expression of ER in the control, adenoma and carcinoma were (10%, 15.15% and 42.42% respectively, p<0.001), while the frequency of expression for PR were (10%, 24.24% and 36.36% respectively, p<0.001). Strong ER and PR staining was mainly seen in carcinoma cases (42.42%, 36.36%, respectively) in comparison with adenoma (9.09%, 15.15%, respectively) and control (0%, 0%, respectively). The three digital parameters of ER and PR immunohistochemical expression (Area [A], Number of objects [N], and intensity [I]) were significantly increased in a sequence of normal mucosa-adenoma-carcinoma. There was a significant positive correlation between ER and PR in adenoma (r=0.312, p=0.034) and carcinoma (r=0.321, p=0.0398). Conclusion ER and PR expression increased in a sequence of; normal colonic mucosa-adenoma-carcinoma, and a positive correlation was observed between ER and PR expression in colonic adenoma and carcinoma specimen indicating that ER and PR may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:22125723

  10. Immunohistochemical Expression of PCNA and CD34 in Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas Using Specified Automated Cellular Image Analysis System: A Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban J.; Ali, Hussam H.; Hussein, Alaa G.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD34 in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, and to correlate this expression with different clinicopathologic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was retrospectively designed. A total of 86 tissue samples, including 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenomas, 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, and a control group of 20 samples of nontumerous colonic tissue, were included in the study. From each block, 3 sections of 5 ΅m thickness were taken, 1 section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and the other 2 sections were stained immunohistochemically for PCNA and CD34. Scoring of the immunohistochemical staining was performed using a specified automated cellular image analysis system (Digimizer). Results: PCNA expression was significantly increased in a sequence of normal mucosa–adenoma–carcinoma. It was significantly higher in adenomas ≥ 1 cm and those with severe dysplasia, and it showed a significant positive correlation with grade and lymph node involvement in colorectal carcinoma. CD34 showed significantly higher expression in carcinoma than adenoma and in adenoma than in the control group. CD34 expression showed a significant correlation with adenomas carrying severe dysplasia and large-sized adenomas (≥1cm). It was significantly correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node involvement in colorectal carcinoma. Conclusion: PCNA plays an important role in colorectal neoplastic progression and can be utilized as ancillary marker for the risk of malignant transformation in colorectal adenomas as it correlates with high grade dysplasia and size. Intratumoral quantification of the mean (A and N) of CD34 in colorectal carcinoma reflects the grade of tumors and can predict lymph node involvement and lymphovascular invasion, to make a useful additional prognostic

  11. Non-sebaceous lymphadenoma of the parotid gland: immunohistochemical study and DNA ploidy analysis.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Lorena; Junquera, Luis; Fresno, Manuel F

    2009-04-01

    Nonsebaceous lymphadenoma (NSL) is an unusual benign salivary gland tumor characterized by a predominant lymphoid background, dense lymphoid infiltrate, and absence of sebaceous differentiation. To our knowledge, only 10 previous cases have been reported in the literature. We report an additional case of NSL arising in the parotid gland in 58-year-old female patient. The extensive immunohistochemical investigation of the tumor revealed the presence of both luminal and myoepithelial cells. DNA analysis for flow cytometry was performed. The histogram presented a single peak in the G0-G1 area. The tumor was considered as being DNA diploid.

  12. Expression of MUC1 mucin in potentially malignant disorders, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Harish; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Keshavaiah, Roopavathi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Divya, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucins alteration in glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of malignant diseases. Therefore, mucins are used as valuable markers to distinguish normal and disease conditions. Many studies on MUC1 expression have been conducted on variety of neoplastic lesions other than head and neck region. None of the study has made an attempt to show its significance in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Hence, ours is one of the pioneer studies done to assess and evaluate the same. Aims: This study aims to compare and correlate the expression of MUC1 mucin protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), PMD's and OSCC by immunohistochemical method. Materials and Methods: Institutional study, archived tissue sections of OSCC (n = 20), PMD's (n = 20) and NOM (n = 20) were immunostained for MUC1 mucin and percentage of positive cells evaluated. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney test and Student's t-test. Results: The mean MUC1 mucin positive cells in the study groups were as follows, 40% in OSCC, 28% in PMD's and 0.75% in NOM. Higher mean immunohistochemical score was observed in OSCC group followed by PMD's group and NOM group. The difference in immunohistochemical score among the groups was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The result of the current study suggests that determination of MUC1 mucin expression may be a parameter in the diagnosis of malignant behavior of PMD's to OSCC. MUC1 mucin expression may be a useful diagnostic marker for prediction of the invasive/metastatic potential of OSCC. PMID:27601811

  13. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the rumen of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A J; Masot, A J; Aguado, MaC; Gómez, L; Redondo, E

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study of the ontogenesis of deer stomach has not been undertaken to date, and our aim was to sequence several histological phenomena that occur during the ontogenesis of one of the gastric compartments, the rumen. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of deer from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. For the purposes of testing, the animals were divided into five experimental groups: group I, 1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length, 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation; group II, 4.5–7.2 cm crown–rump length, 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation; group III, 8–19 cm crown–rump length, 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation; group IV, 21–33 cm crown–rump length, 142–191 days, 45–70% of gestation; and group V, 36–40 cm crown–rump length, 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation. The rumen of the primitive gastric tube was observed at approximately 60 days. At 67 days the rumen consisted of three layers: internal or mucosal, middle or muscular, and external or serosal layer. The stratification of the epithelial layer was accompanied by changes in its structure with the appearance of ruminal pillars and papillae. The outline of the ruminal papillae began to appear at 142 days of prenatal development as evaginations of the basal zone toward the ruminal lumen, pulling with it in its configuration the stratum basale, the lamina propria and the submucosa. From the pluripotential blastemic tissue at 60 days we witnessed the histodifferentiation of the primitive tunica muscularis, composed of two layers of myoblasts with a defined arrangement. It was also from the pluripotential blastemic tissue, at 97 days, that the lamina propria and the submucosa were differentiated. The serosa showed continuity in growth as well as differentiation, already detected in the undifferentiated outline phase. The tegumentary mucosa of deer rumen was shown without secretory capacity in the initial embryonic

  14. Solitary fibrous tumour of the thyroid: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of three cases.

    PubMed

    Taccagni, G; Sambade, C; Nesland, J; Terreni, M R; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    1993-01-01

    We describe three cases of solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) arising from thyroid stroma. Grossly, the tumours were clearly delimited but only partly encapsulated. The following histomorphological growth patterns were observed: bundles of cells in storiform configuration; non-structured bundles; prevalence of fibrous matrix; highly cellular, non-structured; prevalence of loose, non-structured extracellular substance; cellular proliferation and vascular spaces in a haemangiopericytic configuration and a lipomatous component. Immunohistochemical investigation demonstrated intense, diffuse vimentin positivity and focal, less intense actin positivity in all three cases. At electron microscopy we observed a primitive cell of mesenchymal type, with cytoplasm poor in organelles and rich in filaments; this cell sometimes presented differentiation characteristics. SFT is at present the most correct term for the lesions presented here despite some morphological characteristics which differ from cases reported in the literature.

  15. [Immunohistochemical study of CART-peptide in striato-nigral projections at dopamine loss].

    PubMed

    Romanova, I V; Chesnokova, A Iu; Mikhrina, A L

    2012-08-01

    The increase of CART-peptide optical density was found immunohistochemically in nucleus accumbens neurons and in their terminals in substantia nigra in Wistar rats after 28% reduction of dopaminergic neurons in a substantia nigra (in the model of lactacystin induced proteo some disfunction). At the same time after in vitro incubation of nigro-accumbal brain slice with AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratirosine--dopamine inhibitor) for 4 h the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase optical density (the enzyme limiting dopamine synthesis) in substantia nigr neurons was found and optical density of CART-peptide in nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra was also revealed. In both experiments data about activation of CARTergic neurons in stria to-nigral projections testifies on participation of CART-peptide in compensatory brain mechanisms at dopamine loss and its role as modulator of dopaminergic brain neurons functional activity.

  16. Immunohistochemical study of mechanoreceptors in the tibial remnant of the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament in human knees.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Ill; Min, Kyung Dae; Choi, Hyung Suk; Kwon, Sai Won; Chun, Dong Il; Yun, Eun Soo; Lee, Dong Wha; Jin, So Young; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2009-09-01

    This study was performed to identify the mechanoreceptors in the tibial remnants of ruptured human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) by immunohistochemical staining. Thirty-six specimens of tibial ACL remnants were obtained from patients with ACL ruptures during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. As control, two normal ACL specimens were taken from healthy knee amputated at thigh level due to trauma. The specimen was serially sectioned at 40 mum. In control group, the average number of sections per specimen was 132, and a total of 264 slices were available. In remnant group, the average number of sections per specimen was 90, and a total of 3,251 slices were available. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the neural element of mechanoreceptors. Histologic examinations were performed under a light microscope and interpreted by a pathologist. Nineteen (8 Ruffini, 11 Golgi) mechanoreceptors were identified in the two normal ACLs, which were evenly distributed at both tibial and femoral attachments. In the remnant group, mechanoreceptors were observed in 12 out of 36 cases (33%), and a total of 17 (6 Ruffini and 11 Golgi) mechanoreceptors observed. No significant differences in the harvest volume, number of sections, age, or time between injury to surgery was observed between the 12 mechanoreceptor-present and the 24 mechanoreceptor-absent ones. The presence of mechanoreceptor at the tibial remnants of torn ACLs was verified. The immunohistochemical staining methodology proved useful, but requires further refinement. Although the mechanoreceptors were detected relatively less frequently than expected, the authors consider that it does not negate the necessity of remnant-preserving ACL reconstruction.

  17. Aberrant PLAG1 expression in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland: a molecular genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Atsuji; Hisaoka, Masanori; Nagao, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    The morphologic distinction of pleomorphic adenoma from other benign or low-grade salivary gland tumors is sometimes difficult and problematic because of their potentially overlapping histological patterns. A subset of pleomorphic adenoma harbors specific gene alterations involving PLAG1 or HMGA2, and the detection of these fusion genes and their products using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens may be a useful diagnostic adjunct. In the present study, gene fusions involving PLAG1 or HMGA2 were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, with FFPE tumor tissues and immunohistochemical expression of PLAG1 in 45 pleomorphic adenomas, using a commercially available antibody. RT-PCR analyses identified the CTNNB1-PLAG1, LIFR-PLAG1, CHCHD7-PLAG1, and HMGA2-WIF1 fusion transcripts in eight, two, one, and one case, respectively. The TCEA1-PLAG1, HMGA2-FHIT, and HMGA2-NFIB fusion transcripts were not detected. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells in all 45 pleomorphic adenomas were positive for PLAG1, irrespective of PLAG1 rearrangements, even in the case with the HMGA2-WIF1 fusion transcript. Tumor cells displaying myoepithelial or cartilaginous differentiation were almost constantly positive for PLAG1, whereas a limited expression was observed in glandular or keratinizing cells. Among the 46 tumors other than pleomorphic adenoma, 4 carcinomatous components of carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma were positive for PLAG1, the other 39 were negative for PLAG1, and the remaining 3 were only faintly and/or focally stained, indicating that the immunohistochemical detection of PLAG1 is diagnostically useful. The present results also suggest that overexpression of PLAG1 is essential for the tumorigenesis of pleomorphic adenomas, although the mechanisms mediating PLAG1 overexpression seem to be variable.

  18. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; da Silva Lascane, Nelise Alexandre; Altemani, Albina; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, 3 cases of very rare intraoral carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas showing a striking differentiation of the malignant component towards epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were described. The tumors occurred in 2 men and 1 woman with median age of 56 years. Involved sites included palate and buccal mucosa. Two patients experienced local recurrences, of which one died of disease complications. In all cases, residual pleomorphic adenoma was present. The malignant component in all cases shared morphological aspects with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Those areas were characterized by eosinophilic duct-forming cells surrounded by layers of clear cells. The studied immunohistochemical markers highlighted a biphasic cell population. Duct-forming cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and focally cytokeratin 14, whereas the clear cell component strongly stained to cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and p63 but weakly stained to pan-cytokeratin and focally to α-smooth muscle actin, an immunophenotype compatible with both epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation index was up to 40% in malignant areas. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component are rare, locally aggressive, and potentially lethal tumors. The peculiar morphological and immunohistochemical aspects described may raise problems in diagnosis and classification of such cases, particularly in incisional biopsies.

  19. Immunohistochemical expression study of proapoptotic BH3-only protein bad in canine nonneoplastic tissues and canine lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, M; Croci, M; Vaughan, L; Guscetti, F

    2013-09-01

    The BH3-only protein Bad is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member that acts as a sensitizer in intrinsic apoptosis by inactivating antiapoptotic members through heterodimer formation. Bad has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis, including lymphoma formation in humans and mice, through alteration in expression or functional status. Here, its immunohistochemical expression was analyzed in canine nonneoplastic and lymphoma tissues using tissue microarrays. Bad was expressed in the cytoplasm of a wide range of nonneoplastic tissues, especially epithelial cells. Nonneoplastic lymph nodes displayed weak immunostaining in the follicular germinal centers only. Immunoblotting supported these observations but also revealed presence of nonspecific labeling in some organs. Of 81 lymphomas, 29 (35.8%) displayed moderate to strong immunohistochemical Bad labeling, and a significant expression increase was found in lymphomas (especially B cell and double negative) compared to nonneoplastic lymph nodes. These findings warrant further investigations of the functional status, the involvement of partner proteins, and a possible impact of Bad on prognosis in canine lymphoma.

  20. Quantitative Assessment of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using CD68 Marker: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bagul, Neeta; Roy, Souparna; Ganjre, Anjali; Meher, Aishwarya; Singh, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in India. Clear evidence regarding inflammation being an etiological factor of cancer was found only in the last few decades. A major inflammatory component in the tumor tissue is Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs). The CD68 antibody is a marker for staining TAMs. Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the macrophage count in healthy oral mucosa and OSCC and comparing TAMs in different histopathological grades of OSCC immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods Thirty archival specimens of OSCC patients and 10 healthy biopsy samples were collected. Immunohistochemical staining was done using a CD68 marker. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Comparing CD68 expression in various study groups showed a significant difference (p=0.000). The pair-wise analysis showed different grades of OSCC, which differed significantly for CD68 expression from the normal oral mucosa. Conclusion The most significant cells present in tumor stroma are TAMs, which remain in close proximity to neoplastic cells and interact with them via several chemical mediators, which may serve to increase the invasiveness of the malignant epithelium. Dense infiltration of TAMs adjacent to tumor cells and islands vividly implies their role in tumor progression. PMID:27190959

  1. Immunohistochemical study of androgenic gland hormone: localization in the male reproductive system and species specificity in the terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yuriko; Okuno, Atsuro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-02-01

    Androgenic gland hormone (AGH) is responsible for male sexual differentiation in crustaceans. AGH of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, is a heterodimetric glycoprotein. To determine the distribution of AGH in the male reproductive system, an immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibodies raised against different components of the proAGH molecule of A. vulgare, for example, the whole molecule of recombinant proAGH expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli-rAGH), the N-terminal nonapeptide of the B chain, and the N-terminal octapeptide of the A chain. The androgenic gland (AG) showed strong immunoreactivity to all three of these antibodies, while the testis, the seminal vesicle, and the vas deferens did not show immunostaining. To examine the species specificity of AGH, the male reproductive systems in nine species of Oniscidea were examined immunohistochemically with antibody raised against E. coli-rAGH. A positive reaction was observed in the AGs of species belonging to the Armadillidiidae, Porcellionidae, and Scyphacidae families. Immunoreactivity was strongest in A. vulgare and was stronger in Armadillidiidae than in Porcellionidae or in Scyphacidae. These results suggest that structural similarity of AGH may exist among some terrestrial isopods, although AGH seems to harbor a relatively high degree of species specificity. PMID:11884067

  2. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of gastrointestinal lesions in dolphins stranded in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Jaber, J R; Pérez, J; Arbelo, M; Zafra, R; Fernández, A

    2006-09-23

    This paper describes the gross, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of gastrointestinal lesions and regional lymph nodes of six common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), 11 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and six Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) found stranded along the coasts of the Canary Islands. The most common lesion was chronic granulomatous gastritis of the glandular stomach, associated with the parasite Pholeter gastrophilus, and characterised by the parasites, their eggs, or parasite debris in the mucosa, submucosa or tunica muscularis, surrounded by numerous lysozyme-positive macrophages and neutrophils, and more peripherally by abundant fibrous tissue containing variable numbers of immunoglobulin (Ig) G+ plasma cells, and small numbers of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgM+ and IgA+ plasma cells. Anisakis simplex nematodes were found in two dolphins that were also parasitised by P gastrophilus and had parasitic granulomatous gastritis and multiple small chronic gastric ulcers. Lymphoplasmacytic enteritis was found in eight cases, three of them parasitised by Diphyllobothrium species; the lesion was characterised by moderate to severe infiltrations of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgG+ plasma cells, with small numbers of IgM+ and IgA+ plasma cells in the lamina propria and submucosa, mainly of the small intestine. One dolphin had severe fibrinopurulent peritonitis, which may have been secondary to gastric perforation caused by the large mural granulomatous gastritis associated with P gastrophilus parasitism. PMID:16997997

  3. Severe necrotizing encephalitis in a Yorkshire terrier: topographic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lezmi, S; Toussaint, Y; Prata, D; Lejeune, T; Ferreira-Neves, P; Rakotovao, F; Fontaine, J J; Marchal, T; Cordonnier, N

    2007-05-01

    Necrotizing encephalitis of the Yorkshire terrier is a chronic non-suppurative encephalitis that was reported in approximately 15 cases worldwide. We report the case of a 10-year-old female Yorkshire terrier with gross evidence of severe cortical degeneration and necrosis. Microscopically, affected areas were mainly located in the cortical white matter and in the mesencephalon without implication of the cerebellum. Cavitation necrosis, demyelination, gemistocytic astrocytosis, marked perivascular lymphocytic cuffing with a diffuse lymphocytic/histiocytic/gitter cell infiltration characterized the lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis identified the major infiltration of T lymphocytes and macrophages with implication of some cytotoxic lymphocytes and IgG-producing plasma cells; depositions of IgG in the affected white matter were also observed. Specific stains did not reveal fungal, protozoal or bacterial organisms and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis for distemper virus was also negative. The lympho-histiocytic inflammation suggests a T-cell-mediated and a delayed-type immune reaction as a possible pathogenic mechanism for this brain disorder.

  4. Metadherin, p50, and p65 expression in epithelial ovarian neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Giopanou, Ioanna; Bravou, Vasiliki; Papanastasopoulos, Panagiotis; Lilis, Ioannis; Aroukatos, Panagiotis; Papachristou, Dionysios; Kounelis, Sophia; Papadaki, Helen

    2014-01-01

    NF-κB signaling promotes cancer progression in a large number of malignancies. Metadherin, a coactivator of the NF-κB transcription complex, was recently identified to regulate different signaling pathways that are closely related to cancer. We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of p50, p65, and metadherin in 30 ovarian carcinomas, 15 borderline ovarian tumours, and 31 benign ovarian cystadenomas. Ovarian carcinomas exhibited significantly higher expression of all 3 markers compared to benign ovarian tumours. Borderline ovarian tumours demonstrated significantly higher expression for all 3 markers compared to benign cystadenomas. Ovarian carcinomas demonstrated significantly higher expression of p50 and metadherin compared to borderline ovarian tumours, whereas no significant difference was noted in p65 expression between ovarian carcinomas and borderline ovarian tumours. There was a strong correlation with the expression levels of p50, p65, and metadherin, whereas no correlation was observed with either grade or stage. Strong p50, p65, and metadherin expression was associated with a high probability to distinguish ovarian carcinomas over borderline and benign ovarian tumours, as well as borderline ovarian tumours over benign ovarian neoplasms. A gradual increase in the expression of these molecules is noted when moving across the spectrum of ovarian carcinogenesis, from borderline ovarian tumours to epithelial carcinomas.

  5. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of the thymus: A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of primary sebaceous lymphadenoma of the thymus are presented. The patients were a man and a woman 58 and 77 years old, respectively. The female patient had a history of breast carcinoma and on follow-up was identified to have an anterior mediastinal mass; the male patient did not have any history of malignancy, and the tumor was discovered during a chest radiographic evaluation when the patient presented with symptoms of fatigue, chest pain, and dyspnea. Histologically, both lesions were characterized by the presence of solid-cystic epithelial islands in a prominent lymphocytic background. The epithelial islands were haphazardly distributed in the form of small tubular structures with focal keratinization and groups of epithelial cells with clear cytoplasm, round nuclei and lack of mitotic activity in keeping with sebaceous cells. The presence of germinal centers in the lymphoid background was seen in both cases. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial component was positive for cytokeratin 8 (CAM5.2), cytokeratin 5/6, and for adipophilin in the sebaceous component. B- and T-cell markers were positive in the lymphoid component. Clinical follow-up in both patients showed that the 2 patients were well and alive 3 years after diagnosis. The cases herein presented expand the spectrum of salivary gland-type tumors in the mediastinum and raise awareness of lesions which are easily confused with other more common thymic tumors that have different prognosis and treatment implications. PMID:27374279

  6. An immunohistochemical study of the germinal layer in the late gestation human fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J; Howard, S

    1987-01-01

    In the cerebral lateral ventricle of the human fetus, the embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones (VZ and SVZ) persist into the latter half of gestation, particularly in the lateral wall. The SVZ is usually referred to as the germinal layer at this stage. The VZ is gradually replaced by ependyma, a single epithelial layer composed of tanycytes and ciliated columnar cells. In the prematurely born infant, the germinal layer is frequently the site of haemorrhage, the incidence of which diminishes with increasing maturity. There are many contributory pathogenetic factors but the structure of the germinal layer itself is considered important. It contains numerous, thin walled vessels in a cellular matrix which demonstrates little fibrillary background. Immunohistochemical evidence of glial differentiation in the germinal layer was sought in 21 preterm brains, using antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Early immunoreactivity was due to GFAP positive tanycyte fibres. Subsequently, associated with astrocyte differentiation, there was progressive development of a glial fibre network. It is suggested that the increase in glial fibres may be a significant factor in capillary stabilization, and in the inverse relationship between gestation of the infant and the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. The possible structural significance of the tanycyte is also highlighted.

  7. The hormonal receptor status of uterine carcinosarcomas (mixed müllerian tumours): an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Ansink, A C; Cross, P A; Scorer, P; de Barros Lopes, A; Monaghan, J M

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of oestrogen and progesterone receptor status in uterine carcinosarcomas (mixed Müllerian tumours) to see whether the receptors were identifiable, and if so whether they were of significance clinically. METHODS: 11 cases of uterine carcinosarcoma were identified from clinical and pathology records. An immunohistochemical method was used to demonstrate oestrogen and progesterone hormone receptors on paraffin embedded material, with suitable tissue controls, staining being recorded. RESULTS: 10 of 11 cases showed staining for one or both hormone receptors in normal tissue adjacent to tumour. In four carcinosarcoma cases, staining for one or both receptors was shown within the epithelial component (appearing to correlate with the degree of epithelial differentiation); two of these cases had staining within sarcomatous areas. Two of the three patients still alive had epithelial hormone receptor positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Receptors for oestrogen and progesterone were found in four of 11 cases of uterine carcinosarcoma, using paraffin embedded material. There may be an association between hormone receptor positivity and clinical outcome. Images PMID:9215151

  8. Immunohistochemical studies of PIVKA-II in hepatocellular carcinoma by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, N; Higashi, T; Nouso, K; Ito, T; Tsuji, T

    1995-02-01

    Tissue PIVKA-II was examined in 32 hepatocellular carcinomas and 2 metastatic liver tumors using indirect immunofluorescence, and the results were compared with the size, histological grading and serum PIVKA-II level. The specificity of this method was confirmed by the disappearance of reactivity in PLC/PRF/5 cells after the addition of vitamin K to the culture medium. Positive PIVKA-II staining was observed as a clustered or a single cell pattern only in the HCC nodules, but not in the surrounding cirrhotic tissue. PIVKA-II staining was observed in all HCC groups regardless of histological grade. There was no relationship between PIVKA-II staining and the size of HCC. PIVKA-II was detected immunohistochemically even in small HCC of patients whose plasma PIVKA-II levels were below the detection limit. These results suggest that PIVKA-II production is a specific phenotype of HCC regardless of its histological grading and demonstrate that this immunofluorescent PIVKA-II staining is more sensitive and useful than plasma PIVKA-II assay for the diagnosis of HCC.

  9. SOX2 and nestin expression in human melanoma: an immunohistochemical and experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Laga, Alvaro C.; Zhan, Qian; Weishaupt, Carsten; Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H.; Murphy, George F.

    2012-01-01

    SOX2 is an embryonic neural crest stem-cell transcription factor recently shown to be expressed in human melanoma and to correlate with experimental tumor growth. SOX2 binds to an enhancer region of the gene that encodes for nestin, also a neural progenitor cell biomarker. To define further the potential relationship between SOX2 and nestin, we examined co-expression patterns in 135 melanomas and 37 melanocytic nevi. Immunohistochemical staining in 27 melanoma tissue sections showed an association between SOX2 positivity, spindle cell shape and a peripheral nestin distribution pattern. In contrast, SOX2-negative cells were predominantly epithelioid, and exhibited a cytoplasmic pattern for nestin. In tissue microarrays, co-expression correlated with tumor progression, with only 11% of nevi co-expressing SOX2 and nestin in contrast to 65% of metastatic melanomas, and preliminarily, with clinical outcome. Human melanoma lines that differentially expressed constitutive SOX2 revealed a positive correlation between SOX2 and nestin expression. Experimental melanomas grown from these respective cell lines in murine subcutis and dermis of xenografted human skin maintained the association between SOX2-positivity, spindle cell shape, and peripheral nestin distribution. Moreover, the cytoplasmic pattern of nestin distribution was observed in xenografts generated from SOX2-knockdown A2058 melanoma cells, in contrast to the periperhal nestin pattern seen in tumors grown from A2058 control cells transfected with non-target shRNA. In aggregate, these data further support a biologically significant linkage between SOX2 and nestin expression in human melanoma. PMID:21410764

  10. Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 39 Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Xiang; Chen, Xin-Ming; Li, Tie-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare neoplasm arising intraosseously in the jaws. To clarify the clinicopathologic profile and pathogenesis of central MEC, clinicopathologic findings and follow-up data of 39 cases were collected and analyzed. There were 16 male and 23 female patients (median age, 43 y). Sixteen cases affected the maxilla, and 23 occurred in the mandible. Radiographically, most cases (32 of 39) showed a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency with bone destruction, and 7 were found with scattered calcification. The margins of the lesions were ill defined or diffused in 14 cases and relatively well defined in 25 cases. Most cases (26 of 39) were classified as low-grade MECs, whereas 13 were moderate-to-high grade. Follow-up data were available for 35 patients with a median period of 36 months. All cases were found to be primary; local recurrence occurred in 8 cases, most (75.0%) of which were low-grade tumors. Four cases showed regional lymph node metastasis, and 1 developed distant metastasis. Of 11 cases with a clinical history of the jaw cyst, 8 initially showed a typical odontogenic cyst with local MEC-like proliferation. In summary, the most likely pathogenesis of central MEC is neoplastic transformation of the epithelial lining of an odontogenic cyst, diagnosis of which should be based on clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings. The immunohistochemical profile of keratins is helpful in differential diagnosis. Radical surgery is the treatment of choice, whereas the role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy is still controversial, and careful long-term follow-up is necessary.

  11. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of pituitary folliculostellate cells during aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Cónsole, G M; Jurado, S B; Riccillo, F L; Gómez Dumm, C L

    2000-01-01

    The impact of aging on pituitary folliculostellate (FS) cells is not well known. The aim of the work reported here was to carry out a quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of the FS population in male and female rats during aging and to correlate the findings with possible changes at the ultrastructural level. Young (4 months), old (20 months) and senescent (29 months) Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were sacrificed by rapid decapitation, their pituitaries dissected and processed by both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Serial sections (4 microm) were obtained at different levels and immunostained by means of rabbit anti-S100 serum as the primary antibody and a peroxidase-mediated EnVision System (Dako). Measurement of volume density (VD) and cell density (CD) was made in S100-reacting elements by means of an image analysis system (Imaging Technology, Optimas). These parameters were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in old and senescent rats as compared to young animals. In senescent females, which presented a high incidence of microprolactinomas, a significant (p < 0.01) increment of VD and CD was observed in FS cells in the area surrounding the adenomas, together with a marked decrease in those parameters within the tumors. Sexual dimorphism was not found except for the prolactinoma-bearing female group. The ultrastructure of FS cells showed the typical characteristics previously described in the pituitary gland. Only moderate changes in the endoplasmic reticulum were observed in old and senescent animals. We conclude that aging has a clear effect on the morphology of the pituitary FS cell population.

  12. The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Tatiana Maria Folador; da Silva, Silvana; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30) or 60 days (group C60) or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo). The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30) or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30); fluoxetine (group FS60) or venlafaxine (group VS60) with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60) or venlafaxine (group VP60) with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05). RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60) induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days. PMID:22179167

  13. Immunohistochemical study of the local immune response in lambs experimentally infected with Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Digenea).

    PubMed

    Ferreras-Estrada, M Carmen; Campo, R; González-Lanza, C; Pérez, V; García-Marín, J F; Manga-González, M Y

    2007-08-01

    Phenotypic expression of inflammatory cells in liver and hepatic lymph nodes (HLN) has been examined in lambs experimentally infected with Dicrocoelium dendriticum using immunohistochemical techniques. Thirty-two lambs, 12 infected with 1,000 D. dendriticum metacercariae, 12 with 3,000, and 8 controls were used. Half the lambs in each group were slaughtered on days 60 and 180 post-infection (p.i.), respectively. Primary antibodies (Abs) against T cell epitopes (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and WC1+ gammadelta), B cell epitopes (CD79alphacy+, CD45R+), immunoglobulin (IgG)-bearing plasma cells, macrophages (CD14+, VPM32+) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIbeta antigen were used. T lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+) and B lymphocytes (CD79alphacy+ and CD45R+) with diffuse pattern or forming lymphoid aggregates and follicles surrounded the septal bile ducts (SBD) and inter-lobular bile ducts, whereas the WC1 gammadelta T cells were scattered. Numerous IgG+ plasma cells were observed around SBD. CD14 and VPM32+ macrophages intermingled with lymphocytes were immunostained by the anti-MHC class IIbeta. This Ab also reacted with lymphoid cells. Likewise, increased positive immunostaining for all Abs used was observed in the HLN of infected lambs. There was no qualitative difference regarding the phenotype expression of inflammatory cells between the lambs infected with D. dendriticum. The humoral and cell-mediated local immune responses observed were similar in the two groups of lambs infected with different doses.

  14. Protozoal Meningoencephalitis in Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris): a Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Naturally Occuring Cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Cole, R.A.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neurona meningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondii meningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  15. Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a benign myoepithelioma: immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and flow-cytometrical study.

    PubMed

    Bombí, J A; Alós, L; Rey, M J; Mallofré, C; Cuchi, A; Trasserra, J; Cardesa, A

    1996-01-01

    A case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a benign myoepithelioma of the minor salivary gland in a 71-year-old patient is reported. The tumor presented initially on the palate and had been diagnosed as "benign lesion" 40 years before. It recurred 22, 36, and 40 years after initial presentation, and a similar histopathological diagnosis was rendered. One year after the last recurrence, the tumor recurred showing typical changes of malignant transformation, and the diagnosis was malignant myoepithelioma. The light microscopy and ultrastructural features of the initial tumor were typical of plasmocytoid myoepithelioma. There were abundant round cells and rare spindle cells with uniform dispersed filaments, sometimes arranged in parallel streams without evidence of dense bodies. These cells showed micropinocytotic vesicles along the cell membrane with poorly developed intercellular junctions and were surrounded by a basal membrane. The malignant counterpart showed fewer plasmocytoid cells and a rather epithelial pattern with marked nuclear pleomorphism and formation of small, or rarely large, glandular lumina. The immunohistochemical features were similar for the benign and malignant tumors, with positivity for S-100 protein, vimentin, cytokeratins, and CAM 5.2, and were negative for GFAP, muscle-specific actin, CEA, and desmin. Flow cytometry showed a change in the DNA content profile. The benign myoepithelioma had a diploid DNA content with a low S-phase fraction of 3.9% and proliferative index of 9.1%, while the myoepithelial carcinoma had an evident aneuploid DNA stem line and an increased S-phase fraction of 8.3% with a proliferative index of 18.1%.

  16. Atrial development in the human heart: an immunohistochemical study with emphasis on the role of mesenchymal tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessels, A.; Anderson, R. H.; Markwald, R. R.; Webb, S.; Brown, N. A.; Viragh, S.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the atrial chambers in the human heart was investigated immunohistochemically using a set of previously described antibodies. This set included the monoclonal antibody 249-9G9, which enabled us to discriminate the endocardial cushion-derived mesenchymal tissues from those derived from extracardiac splanchnic mesoderm, and a monoclonal antibody recognizing the B isoform of creatine kinase, which allowed us to distinguish the right atrial myocardium from the left. The expression patterns obtained with these antibodies, combined with additional histological information derived from the serial sections, permitted us to describe in detail the morphogenetic events involved in the development of the primary atrial septum (septum primum) and the pulmonary vein in human embryos from Carnegie stage 14 onward. The level of expression of creatine kinase B (CK-B) was found to be consistently higher in the left atrial myocardium than in the right, with a sharp boundary between high and low expression located between the primary septum and the left venous valve indicating that the primary septum is part of the left atrial gene-expression domain. This expression pattern of CK-B is reminiscent of that of the homeobox gene Pitx2, which has recently been shown to be important for atrial septation in the mouse. This study also demonstrates a poorly appreciated role of the dorsal mesocardium in cardiac development. From the earliest stage investigated onward, the mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium protrudes into the dorsal wall of the primary atrial segment. This dorsal mesenchymal protrusion is continuous with a mesenchymal cap on the leading edge of the primary atrial septum. Neither the mesenchymal tissues of the dorsal protrusion nor the mesenchymal cap on the edge of the primary septum expressed the endocardial tissue antigen recognized by 249-9G9 at any of the stages investigated. The developing pulmonary vein uses the dorsal mesocardium as a conduit to reach

  17. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study of the Lamellae of Oocytes in Atretic Follicles in Relation to Different Processes of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, M.L.; Echeverría, O.M.; García, G.; Ortiz, R.; Vázquez-Nin, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Atresia is the process through which non-selectable oocytes are eliminated; it involves apoptosis and/or autophagy. This study used immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques to characterize the lamellae present in the cytoplasm of oocytes in follicles in the process of atresia in prepubertal and adult Wistar rats. The results indicate that the lamellae are positive to tubulin and myosin immunodetection under light and electron microscopy. Labeling is greater with anti-tubulin and lesser with anti-myosin. Our observations indicate that lamellae are present in oocytes at the initial antral stage in prepubertal rats; that is, from day 14 post-birth to adult age. We were able to determine that the increase in altered lamellae principally occurs in the apoptotic cells rather than in the autophagic cells. PMID:26428888

  18. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Fanburg-Smith, J C; Hengge, M; Hengge, U R; Smith, J S; Miettinen, M

    1998-12-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a well-accepted clincopathologic entity among childhood renal neoplasms; similar tumors have been described in extrarenal locations. We present the clinicopathologic profile and the immunohistochemical features of a series of soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. Twenty-eight cases coded as extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (ERRT), RT, possible ERRT, and "large cell sarcoma" were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology soft tissue registry. The tumors were reclassified according to strict criteria by light microscopy, clinical information, immunohistochemistry, and, in some cases, electron microscopy. Soft tissue rhabdoid tumor (STRT) was defined as (1) a tumor composed of noncohesive single cells, clusters, or sheets of large tumor cells with abundant glassy eosinophilic cytoplasm, an eccentric vesicular nucleus, and an extremely large nucleolus; (2) positivity for vimentin and/or cytokeratin or other epithelial markers by immunostaining; and (3) exclusion of other tumor types with rhabdoid inclusions (melanoma, other sarcomas, carcinoma). Eighteen cases met our criteria for soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. The median patient age was 13 years (range, 6 months to 56 years). Ninety-four percent of STRT cases were positive for vimentin and 59% for pan-cytokeratin. Sixty-three percent and 60% were positive for CAM 5.2 and EMA, respectively. Seventy-nine percent stained for at least one epithelial marker; 76% stained for both vimentin and epithelial markers simultaneously. Forty-two percent stained for MSA, and 14% for CEA and SMA. CD99, synaptophysin, CD57 (Leu-7), NSE, and focal S100 protein were identified in 75%, 66%, 56%, 54%, and 31% of the STRT cases, respectively. All STRT cases examined were negative for HMB-45, chromogranin, BER-EP4, desmin, myoglobin, CD34, and GFAP. Follow-up examination in 61% of the STRT patients revealed that 64% of patients died of disease within a median follow-up interval of 19 months (range, 4 months to 5 years); 82% had

  19. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the reticulum of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A J; Redondo, E; Masot, A J

    2004-01-01

    Iberian red deer need to be conserved for their economic role and for their genetic importance as an important component of the ecosystem. Modifications currently being made to traditional management systems require a better understanding of the structure, function and development of their alimentary system. Here we describe a histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of the stomach of 25 red deer embryos and fetuses from 30 days of gestation until birth (235 days). Differentiation of the reticular compartment from the primitive gastric tube begins at 67 days, forming a three-layered structure: epithelium, pluripotential blastemal tissue and serosa. The primitive reticular cells are initiated as small epithelial evaginations (primary ribs) at 117 days. At 142 days, lateral growths appear from the primary reticular ribs, forming the corneum papillae. The secondary reticular ribs form at 142 days as growths from the primary ribs. The uneven height of primary and secondary reticular ribs leads to the formation of cells of varying size. Growth of the reticular ribs involves the lamina propria but not the submucosa, so clear separation of these layers is maintained during histodifferentiation. Formation of the tunica muscularis from the pluripotential blastemal tissue begins at 67 days of intrauterine life, as two layers of longitudinally and circularly arranged myoblasts. Differentiation of the muscularis from the mucosa occurs at approximately 205 days, as longitudinal projections of the internal bundles of the tunica muscularis form the musculature of the primary ribs. The secretion of neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides by the reticular epithelial layer begins at 67 days, establishing the gradual adaptation of the mucosa to its protective function in postnatal life. Neuroendocrine (non-neuron enolase) and glial cells (glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin) were detected by immunohistochemistry, in a similar localization and intensity to that

  20. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Fanburg-Smith, J C; Hengge, M; Hengge, U R; Smith, J S; Miettinen, M

    1998-12-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a well-accepted clincopathologic entity among childhood renal neoplasms; similar tumors have been described in extrarenal locations. We present the clinicopathologic profile and the immunohistochemical features of a series of soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. Twenty-eight cases coded as extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (ERRT), RT, possible ERRT, and "large cell sarcoma" were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology soft tissue registry. The tumors were reclassified according to strict criteria by light microscopy, clinical information, immunohistochemistry, and, in some cases, electron microscopy. Soft tissue rhabdoid tumor (STRT) was defined as (1) a tumor composed of noncohesive single cells, clusters, or sheets of large tumor cells with abundant glassy eosinophilic cytoplasm, an eccentric vesicular nucleus, and an extremely large nucleolus; (2) positivity for vimentin and/or cytokeratin or other epithelial markers by immunostaining; and (3) exclusion of other tumor types with rhabdoid inclusions (melanoma, other sarcomas, carcinoma). Eighteen cases met our criteria for soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. The median patient age was 13 years (range, 6 months to 56 years). Ninety-four percent of STRT cases were positive for vimentin and 59% for pan-cytokeratin. Sixty-three percent and 60% were positive for CAM 5.2 and EMA, respectively. Seventy-nine percent stained for at least one epithelial marker; 76% stained for both vimentin and epithelial markers simultaneously. Forty-two percent stained for MSA, and 14% for CEA and SMA. CD99, synaptophysin, CD57 (Leu-7), NSE, and focal S100 protein were identified in 75%, 66%, 56%, 54%, and 31% of the STRT cases, respectively. All STRT cases examined were negative for HMB-45, chromogranin, BER-EP4, desmin, myoglobin, CD34, and GFAP. Follow-up examination in 61% of the STRT patients revealed that 64% of patients died of disease within a median follow-up interval of 19 months (range, 4 months to 5 years); 82% had

  1. Immunohistochemical study of the neuropeptides in the stellate ganglion of the water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nasu, T; De Ocampo, G; Molina, H A; Tateyama, S; Morimoto, M

    2000-05-01

    The localization of some neuropeptides including neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin (Gal), methionine enkephalin (M-ENK), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was studied in the stellate ganglion (SG) of water buffalo. NPY, SP, Gal and TH immunoreactivities were present in almost all of the ganglion cells. NPY, SP, Gal, SP, CGRP, VIP and M-ENK immunoreactive nerve fibers were also seen in the SG. The localization and pattern of distribution of these peptides in the water buffalo stellate ganglion were compared with those in stellate ganglia of other mammalian species.

  2. Stem/Progenitor Cells in the Developing Human Cerebellum: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pibiri, V.; Ravarino, A.; Gerosa, C.; Pintus, M.C.; Fanos, V.; Faa, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella. SOX2 was expressed in precursors of different neural cell types, including Purkinje neurons, stellate cells, basket cells and Golgi cells. In the cerebellar cortex, SOX2 expression changed during gestation, being highly expressed from the 20th up to the 24th week, whereas at the 30th and at the 34th week SOX2 immunoreactivity was restricted to the Purkinje cell layer and the inner zone. Cerebellar human cortex was negative at the 38th week of gestation. PAX6 immunoreactivity was restricted to granule cell precursors in the external granule layer (EGL), being detected at all gestational ages. Our study indicates SOX2 and PAX6 as two useful markers of stem/progenitor cells that highlight the different germinative zones in the developing human cerebellum. PMID:27734996

  3. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  4. Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of paint thinner in mice: behavioral and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fifel, Karim; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2014-06-01

    Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have evaluated the actions of a single volatile component leaving the behavioral and neuronal effects of chemical mixture not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the acute behavioral effects of 300, 450 and 600 ppm of paint thinner inhalation on anxiety, locomotor activity and spatial memory. Additionally, the cognitive impairments related to chronic exposure of the same concentrations of thinner for 45 days were assessed. To understand the neuronal correlates of acute exposure to thinner, we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an endogenous marker of neuronal activation following 600 ppm of thinner. The results reveal that (i) chronically thinner exposed mice showed cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and object recognition tasks; (ii) acute inhalation of thinner induces a wide range of behavioral changes. These changes include an anxiolytic effect toward the aversive environmental bright light and a dose dependent effect on explorative locomotion. The wide range of behavioral alterations induced by acute thinner inhalation is consistent with the widespread distribution of thinner-induced c-Fos expression in multiple brain structures.

  5. Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of paint thinner in mice: behavioral and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fifel, Karim; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2014-06-01

    Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have evaluated the actions of a single volatile component leaving the behavioral and neuronal effects of chemical mixture not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the acute behavioral effects of 300, 450 and 600 ppm of paint thinner inhalation on anxiety, locomotor activity and spatial memory. Additionally, the cognitive impairments related to chronic exposure of the same concentrations of thinner for 45 days were assessed. To understand the neuronal correlates of acute exposure to thinner, we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an endogenous marker of neuronal activation following 600 ppm of thinner. The results reveal that (i) chronically thinner exposed mice showed cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and object recognition tasks; (ii) acute inhalation of thinner induces a wide range of behavioral changes. These changes include an anxiolytic effect toward the aversive environmental bright light and a dose dependent effect on explorative locomotion. The wide range of behavioral alterations induced by acute thinner inhalation is consistent with the widespread distribution of thinner-induced c-Fos expression in multiple brain structures. PMID:24218105

  6. [Morphologic, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies on pancreatic intraductal hyperplasia and infiltrating carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, R

    1999-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer belongs to the neoplasms which are characterised by increasing morbidity and mortality. Five-year survival rates of about 0.4% are the norm, and little has changed in the last 70 years. Important etiological factors are age, sex, diet, tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, occupation and chemical exposure, hereditary chronic pancreatitis, and previous surgery (cholecystectomy and gastrectomy). The majority of exocrine tumours of the pancreas are malignant and 80-90% of them comprise ductal adenocarcinomas. The development and growth of pancreatic carcinoma appears to be caused by a progressive accumulation of multiple genetic abnormalities. This includes oncogene (K-ras) activation, loss of tumour-suppressor p53 gene function and overexpression of growth factors and their ligands. The morphological background for the development of pancreatic carcinoma is ductal epithelial hyperplasia. Current molecular studies have resulted in the identification of cell clones exhibiting the same genetic alterations (K-ras and p53 mutations) as in infiltrating pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is only partially defined. The purpose of our study was to evaluate Ki-67 proliferative index and HER-2/neu gene expression in pancreatic intraepithelial proliferative lesions as a sign of increasing epithelial proliferation and dysplasia. Additionally we made an attempt to apply morphometry in demarcating between intraepithelial proliferations of "reactive" type and proliferations with tendency towards progression to cancer. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of bcl-2 and p53 genes in various types of pancreatic intraepithelial proliferations and in pancreatic cancer and to answer the question whether they interact in the process of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. We have also undertaken investigations aiming at determination of the CD44s gene and its v6 isoform expression in intraductal and invasive pancreatic carcinoma

  7. p53 Mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Travis, W.H.; Linehan, H.M.; Karl, M.; Mastorakos, G.; Chrousos, G.P.

    1994-03-01

    p53 is a recessive tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p. Mutations in the p53 gene play an important role in the tumorigenesis of diverse types of human neoplasms including breast and colon cancers. More than 90% of all mutations discovered in such tumors have been detected in 4 hot spot areas that lie between exons 5 and 8. In contrast to wild-type p53, mutant p53 accumulates intracellularly and can be easily detected by immunohistochemistry. The authors therefore investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms using molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Five patients with adrenocortical adenomas (5 female; ages 39-72 yr), 11 patients with adrenocortical carcinomas (8 female, 3 male; ages 15-50 yr), and two adrenocortical tumor cell lines were studied. After DNA extraction from frozen tumor tissue or paraffin-embedded material, exons 5 through 8 were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced by the dideoxy termination method. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens obtained during adrenalectomy using a monoclonal antibody reacting with both wild-type and mutant p53. Prevalence of mutations was adenomas, 0/5, carcinomas, 3/11, and adrenocortical cell lines, 2/2. Single point mutations were detected in 3 cases (exons 5, 6, and 7, respectively), and rearrangements of exon 7/8 and 8 were found in 2 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected strong nuclear and/or cytoplasmic p53 immunoreactivity in all adrenocortical carcinomas with point mutations of the p53 gene but not in adenomas and carcinomas with the wild-type sequence or with deletion/rearrangement of the p53 gene. They conclude that p53 plays a role in the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinomas but is of less importance to benign adenomas. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Accessory cells in physiological lymphoid tissue from the intestine: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Sarsfield, P; Rinne, A; Jones, D B; Johnson, P; Wright, D H

    1996-03-01

    We report a study of the organization of accessory cell populations, in normal mucosal lymphoid tissue from small intestine (8 cases), large intestine (6) and appendix (9) using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera in paraffin-embedded tissue. Two populations were identified in dome areas, one positive for acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor and HLA class II (WR18) only and the second positive for S-100 protein, CD68, and WR18 and negative for acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor and factor XIIIa. Superficial colonic mucosal and small intestinal villous tip macrophages stained positively with CD68 and WR18 only, while deeper cryptal and submucosal populations exhibited additional positivity for factor XIIIa, but both populations were negative for acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor and S-100 protein. Germinal centre macrophages were positive for CD68, WR18 and acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor and negative for factor XIIIa, and S-100 protein. T zone dendritic cells included a population which stained positively for S-100 protien, WR18 and were negative for factor XIIIa, CD68 and acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor, an immunophenotype typical of interdigitating dendritic reticulum cells. This distribution of phenotypically identifiable accessory cell subpopulations was apparent at all three sites examined. We suggest that the specialized subpopulations of dendritic cells staining for S-100 protein and for acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor which are restricted to the dome areas, may have a potential role in the transfer of antigen across the epithelium to the germinal centres, while factor XIIIa appears to identify a tissue macrophage population with a potential role in stromal modulation distant from direct antigen challenge.

  9. Molecular and Immunohistochemical Study of Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha in KIT Negative Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; the First Report from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Jowkar, Zahra; Mousavi, Seyed-Javad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are potentially malignant tumors; however their behavior and response to treatment is dependent on the type of mutation and immunohistochemical expression of antigens. It is recommended to perform routine molecular and immunohistochemical tests in KIT and platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) molecules for making decision regarding targeted therapy and prediction of the behavior of the tumor. Objectives: There has been no study from Iran regarding the PDGFRA mutational analysis in GISTs. In this study, for the first time from Iran, we performed immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of PDGFRA molecule on GISTs. METHODS In a cross-sectional study during 7 years (2008-2014) on 50 untreated non-recurrent non-metastatic newly diagnosed GISTs, molecular analysis and immunohistochemical staining for PDGFRA were performed and findings were compared with different clinicopathological characteristics.. RESULTS During the 7 years, 50 cases of GISTs according to the above mentioned criteria were found. 17 cases were negative for KIT mutation. Of them, 15 (30%) were positive for either exon 12 or 18 mutation of PDGFRA. These cases showed more epithelioid morphology and the number of mitotic figures were lower than PDFRA negative GISTs. Also according to the criteria for risk assessment, it seems that PDGFRA mutant GISTs are rarely in the high risk category. CONCLUSION PDGFRA mutant GISTs are common in Iranian population and it is recommended to perform mutation analysis for PDGFRA in every GIST with wild type KIT and epithelioid morphology. PMID:27698973

  10. Molecular and Immunohistochemical Study of Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha in KIT Negative Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; the First Report from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Jowkar, Zahra; Mousavi, Seyed-Javad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are potentially malignant tumors; however their behavior and response to treatment is dependent on the type of mutation and immunohistochemical expression of antigens. It is recommended to perform routine molecular and immunohistochemical tests in KIT and platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) molecules for making decision regarding targeted therapy and prediction of the behavior of the tumor. Objectives: There has been no study from Iran regarding the PDGFRA mutational analysis in GISTs. In this study, for the first time from Iran, we performed immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of PDGFRA molecule on GISTs. METHODS In a cross-sectional study during 7 years (2008-2014) on 50 untreated non-recurrent non-metastatic newly diagnosed GISTs, molecular analysis and immunohistochemical staining for PDGFRA were performed and findings were compared with different clinicopathological characteristics.. RESULTS During the 7 years, 50 cases of GISTs according to the above mentioned criteria were found. 17 cases were negative for KIT mutation. Of them, 15 (30%) were positive for either exon 12 or 18 mutation of PDGFRA. These cases showed more epithelioid morphology and the number of mitotic figures were lower than PDFRA negative GISTs. Also according to the criteria for risk assessment, it seems that PDGFRA mutant GISTs are rarely in the high risk category. CONCLUSION PDGFRA mutant GISTs are common in Iranian population and it is recommended to perform mutation analysis for PDGFRA in every GIST with wild type KIT and epithelioid morphology.

  11. Orbital floor reconstruction with poly-L/D-lactide implants: clinical, radiological and immunohistochemical study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kontio, R; Suuronen, R; Konttinen, Y T; Hallikainen, D; Lindqvist, C; Kommonen, B; Kellomäki, M; Kylmä, T; Virtanen, I; Laine, P

    2004-06-01

    In this study the reconstruction capacity of orbital wall in sheep was evaluated when poly-L/D-lactide (PLDLA96) implants were used for large blow-out defects in 18 sheep. The contralateral side, where the defects healed spontaneously, served as controls. The follow-up was 12, 16, 22 and 36 weeks. Healing was evaluated clinically, radiologically, histologically and immunohistochemically. Physiochemical properties of the implants were also studied. At first, the implants were surrounded by elastic capsules, which gradually ossified. At 36 weeks, 60% were still visible and deformed but surrounded by bone. Light microscopy revealed a low grade inflammatory reaction. Expression of Tn-c and cFn was intense throughout the study. Shear strength decreased gradually and was not measurable after 16 weeks. Crystallinity increased steadily from 1.5 to 29.30% and molecular weight decreased from 49,000 to 4186. In CT, the final bony defect was smaller in the reconstructed sides than in the controls. Based on this study it can be concluded that PLDLA96 implant provokes a local inflammation, which does not prevent bone healing. The deformation of the implant, however, indicates that this PLDLA96 plate is not suitable for orbital floor reconstruction.

  12. Modulatory effects of levamisole and garlic oil on the immune response of Wistar rats: Biochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Essam Hassan; Baiomy, Ahmed Abdel-Aziz; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Levamisole (LEVA) and garlic are prevalent immunomodulators in humans and animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effects of LEVA and garlic oil (GO) alone or in combination on the immune response of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were allocated into four equal groups: Control group, which was given ad libitum access to food and water; and groups 2‑4, which were orally administered LEVA [2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) every 2 days], GO, (5 ml/kg BW daily), or LEVA plus GO, respectively for 4 consecutive weeks. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM levels were measured using a radial immunodiffusion assay. Serum cytokine levels, including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Total blood counts were measured automatically using a cell counter. Serum lysozyme enzymatic activity was determined by measuring the diameters of the zones of clearance relative to lysozyme. Immunohistochemical detection of CD4 and CD8 was carried out using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of IL‑4, IL‑5 and IL‑12 were measured in the leukocytes and thymus gland by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that LEVA increased serum levels of IFN‑γ, IL‑5 and TNF‑α cytokines, whereas co‑administration of LEVA and GO decreased the stimulatory action of LEVA alone. LEVA and GO alone increased the serum levels of IgG, IgM and total blood cell counts, and co‑administration of GO and LEVA inhibited the effects of LEVA. At the cellular level, in the spleen, LEVA increased immunoreactivity of CD4 and CD8, whereas co‑administration of GO with LEVA decreased this strong expression. At the molecular level, in leukocytes, LEVA upregulated the mRNA expression levels of IL‑2, IL‑4 and IL‑5, whereas GO alone downregulated mRNA expression. Co‑administration of

  13. CD10 and CD138 can be expressed in giant cell tumor of bone: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A; Al-Yousef, Mohammed J; Yousef, Mohammad M; Sheikh, Salwa S; Almasri, Nidal M; Amr, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a primary bone neoplasm which is characterized by the presence of mononuclear cells (MCs) and osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). Up to our knowledge, CD10 immunoreactivity in GCTB has not yet been studied, and only one study touched on CD138 immunoreactivity in GCTB. The objective of this study is to investigate the immunoreactivity of CD10 and CD138 in GCTB. We offer a discussion of our findings in the context of the differential diagnosis, particularly in small biopsy material. We retrieved and reviewed 15 well-documented cases of GCTB from January 2008 to December 2014. Well-controlled standard immunohistochemical satins were performed on these cases for CD10 and CD138 and few other selected antibodies. Immunoreactivity for CD10 was membranous and was found in 14 (93%) cases. This immunoreactivity was found only in the MCs, whereas the MNGC were all negative. CD138 showed variable positivity in 11 (73%) while 4 (37%) were completely negative. Similar to CD10, staining for CD138 was only seen in the MC; however, the immunoreactivity was predominantly concentrated in the peri-vascular areas. Most of GCTB cases can show variable immunoreactivity for CD10 and CD138. The aforementioned immune-expression raise the possibility of a role in the pathogenesis of GCTB. Paying attention to this immunoreactivity is recommended when considering the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis, especially in small biopsy specimens. PMID:27390668

  14. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in proliferation of odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhavana; Chandra, Shaleen; Singh, Anil; Sah, Kunal; Raj, Vineet; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is capable of initiating angiogenesis in blood vessels and may act as mitogenic agent for epithelium of odontogenic cysts and tumors. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of epithelial VEGF expression in odontogenic cysts and ameloblastoma and its correlation with argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region counts to assess its role in their biological behavior. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 45 histologically confirmed cases, 15 cases of each of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastomas were examined for immunohistochemical expression for epithelial VEGF, and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) (used as secondary marker in this study) staining was done for comparing the proliferative capacity with VEGF. Results: KCOT shows mild expression within the basal layers and strong expression in the suprabasal layer whereas, in dentigerous cysts, a majority showed no VEGF expression whereas ameloblastomas showed strong expression in all cases by stellate reticulum-like cells at the center of the follicles and suprabasal layers of epithelium. The results of AgNOR counts were higher in KCOTs as compared to ameloblastoma and least in dentigerous cysts. Conclusion: VEGF expression by the epithelium of odontogenic cysts and tumors may play a role in epithelial proliferation via autocrine mechanism as reflected by increased AgNOR counts. The angiogenic activity via paracrine pathway may be responsible for the difference in growth rate and neoplastic behavior of the lesions. PMID:27274347

  15. CD10 and CD138 can be expressed in giant cell tumor of bone: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.; Al-Yousef, Mohammed J.; Yousef, Mohammad M.; Sheikh, Salwa S.; Almasri, Nidal M.; Amr, Samir S.

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a primary bone neoplasm which is characterized by the presence of mononuclear cells (MCs) and osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). Up to our knowledge, CD10 immunoreactivity in GCTB has not yet been studied, and only one study touched on CD138 immunoreactivity in GCTB. The objective of this study is to investigate the immunoreactivity of CD10 and CD138 in GCTB. We offer a discussion of our findings in the context of the differential diagnosis, particularly in small biopsy material. We retrieved and reviewed 15 well-documented cases of GCTB from January 2008 to December 2014. Well-controlled standard immunohistochemical satins were performed on these cases for CD10 and CD138 and few other selected antibodies. Immunoreactivity for CD10 was membranous and was found in 14 (93%) cases. This immunoreactivity was found only in the MCs, whereas the MNGC were all negative. CD138 showed variable positivity in 11 (73%) while 4 (37%) were completely negative. Similar to CD10, staining for CD138 was only seen in the MC; however, the immunoreactivity was predominantly concentrated in the peri-vascular areas. Most of GCTB cases can show variable immunoreactivity for CD10 and CD138. The aforementioned immune-expression raise the possibility of a role in the pathogenesis of GCTB. Paying attention to this immunoreactivity is recommended when considering the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis, especially in small biopsy specimens. PMID:27390668

  16. Evidence of intra-hepatic vascular proliferation remodeling early after cure in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni: an immunohistochemical descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Abdel Fattah, Nashwa S; Ahmed, Naglaa S

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated the occurrence of angiogenesis, blood vessels formation from pre-existing vessels, in the initial phase of bilharzial granuloma formation and during fibrosis progression in chronic hepatic schistosomiasis. Paradoxically, a recent work demonstrated an occurrence of angiogenesis during fibrosis regression months after curative treatment. Studies regarding the in situ kinetics of blood vessels in the phase of granuloma resolution and liver tissue healing early after treatment are lacking. The current work compared the kinetics of blood vessels by immunohistochemical staining using CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and actin in the livers of normal control mice, Schistosoma mansoni infected mice and mice 2 weeks after curative treatment. The present study demonstrated a process of angiogenesis remodeling in the liver in the curative phase of hepatic schistosomiasis during the stage of granuloma resolution. Such finding raises the evidence of the importance and potential beneficial effect of vascular proliferation in the process of healing and restoration of liver tissue functions. Thus, blocking of angiogenesis may not represent the appropriate therapeutic target for the early treatment of schistosomal liver fibrosis.

  17. Salivary duct carcinoma (cribriform salivary carcinoma of excretory ducts). A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Brandwein, M S; Jagirdar, J; Patil, J; Biller, H; Kaneko, M

    1990-05-15

    Salivary duct carcinoma (cribriform salivary carcinoma of the excretory ducts [CSCED]) is an uncommon malignant tumor which occurs predominantly in men (83% in this series; mean age, 61 years) and most often in the parotid gland (92% in this series). The outcome is unfavorable for most patients; of 11 of 12 patients with follow-up, 45% had local recurrence, 54% had distant metastasis, and 45% were dead of disease within 10 years of diagnosis (mean, 3 years). Metastases to lymph nodes were common (72%). Immunohistochemical studies on paraffin-embedded tissue revealed that most tumors reacted with antibodies known to mark adenocarcinoma: B72.3 (11 of 11) and Lewis Y (ten of ten). High and low molecular weight cytokeratins were present in most tumors (nine of ten and seven of nine cases, respectively), supporting the concept that these adenocarcinomas were of ductal origin. Parotid ducts adjacent to CSCED expressed B72.3 in six of nine cases studied, but parotid ducts from normal tissue (adjacent to benign mixed tumors or enlarged periparotid lymph nodes) rarely expressed this marker (one of 17 cases). The detection of B72.3 diffusely in parotid ducts, especially those with atypia, may imply the presence of malignant tumor nearby, which could be useful in evaluating limited tissue from the parotid. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the significance of this finding.

  18. Exceptionally large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the cheek: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Takafumi; Hasegawa, On; Abukawa, Harutsugu; Kohno, Michihide; Enomoto, Ai; Chikazu, Daichi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagao, Toshitaka

    2014-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mass-forming soft tissue tumor that occurs most commonly in the pleura, but has been described in various extrathoracic sites. Extrapleural manifestation of SFT, particularly in the head and neck region, is rare. The most common extrapleural site is the oral cavity; these tumors have also been described in the orbit, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and larynx. We report an extremely rare case of a SFT in the subcutaneous region of the cheek. This tumor in the left cheek was a large firm mass, approximately 8.5 cm × 6 cm in size and was successfully treated by surgical resection. Immunohistochemistry revealed reactivity for vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2, but no staining for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100, desmin, caldesmon, actin, α-smooth muscle actin, CD117, and CD99. Immunohistochemical study is the key to establish a definitive diagnosis of SFT, and ultrastructural study is also useful for making an accurate diagnosis. The patient recovered uneventfully without evidence of tumor recurrence 2 years after surgery.

  19. The novel neuropeptide phoenixin is highly co-expressed with nesfatin-1 in the rat hypothalamus, an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, Artur; Rojczyk, Ewa; Bogus, Katarzyna; Worthington, John J; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-04-10

    The hypothalamus regulates a number of autonomic functions essential for homeostasis; therefore, investigations concerning hypothalamic neuropeptides and their functions and distribution are of great importance in contemporary neuroscience. Recently, novel regulatory factors expressed in the hypothalamus have been discovered, of which nesfatin-1 and phoenixin (PNX), show intriguing similarities in their brain distributions. There are currently few studies characterizing PNX expression, so it is imperative to accurately trace its localization, with particular attention to the hypothalamic nuclei and nesfatin-1 co-expression. Using fluorescence and classical immunohistochemical stainings on adult rat brain, we visualized the potential co-expression of nesfatin-1 and PNX immunoreactive cells. We have demonstrated a distinct PNX-immunoreactivity in 21-32% of cells in the arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus. Nesfatin-1 expression reached 45-68% of all neurons in the same sites, while co-expression was strikingly seen in the vast majority (70-86%) of PNX-immunoreactive neurons in the rat hypothalamic nuclei. Our results demonstrate for the first time, a wide distribution of PNX in the hypothalamus which could implicate a potential functional relationship with nesfatin-1, possibly in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis or other autonomic functions, which require further study.

  20. Mineralization process during acellular cementogenesis in rat molars: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study using fresh-frozen sections.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Domon, Takanori; Takahashi, Shigeru; Anjuman, Khan Ara Yasmin; Fukushima, Chifumi; Wakita, Minoru

    2007-03-01

    This study was designed to detect tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) by Azo-dye staining, calcium by glyoxal bis (2-hydroxyanil) (GBHA) staining, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) by immunoperoxidase staining in developing rat molars, and also to discuss the mineralization process during acellular cementogenesis. To restrain a reduction in histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions, fresh-frozen undemineralized sections were prepared. Where the epithelial sheath was intact, TNSALP reaction was observed in the dental follicle, but not in the epithelial sheath. With the onset of dentin mineralization, the BSP- and OPN-immunoreactive, initial cementum layer appeared. At this point, cementoblasts had shown intense TNSALP reaction and GBHA reactive particles (=calcium-GBHA complex) appeared on the root surface. With further development, the reaction of TNSALP and GBHA became weak on the root surface. Previous studies have shown that the initial cementum is fibril-poor and that matrix vesicles and calciferous spherules appear on the root surface only during the initial cementogenesis. The findings mentioned above suggest that: during the initial cementogenesis, cementoblasts release matrix vesicles which result in calciferous spherules, corresponding to the GBHA reactive particles. The calciferous spherules trigger the mineralization of the initial cementum. After principal fiber attachment, mineralization advances along collagen fibrils without matrix vesicles. PMID:17043865

  1. A histological and immunohistochemical study of the changes induced in the brains of white mice by infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Kittas, S.; Kittas, C.; Paizi-Biza, P.; Henry, L.

    1984-01-01

    The topography and the severity of the brain lesions induced in male and female white mice 1-6 weeks following inoculation with Toxoplasma gondii were studied by conventional histological and peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical techniques. The medulla oblongata and fourth ventricle were the most severely damaged areas of the brain, while the cerebellum was only minimally involved in this only in the later stages of the disease. Toxoplasma cysts were revealed by the PAP method as early as 2 weeks after infection. The number of cysts and the severity of the lesions increased gradually each week following inoculation. The lymphoplasmacytic element in the lesions was less intense in male than in female mice. The significance of these findings in respect to the possible immunological pathogenesis of CNS toxoplasmic changes is discussed. A correlation of the experimental findings with the known neurologic manifestations of the disease is also attempted. The advantage of the PAP method in the study of toxoplasmic infection is stressed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6365146

  2. Immunohistochemical study on the distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan Pangolin, Manis javanica.

    PubMed

    Nisa, C; Kitamura, N; Sasaki, M; Agungpriyono, S; Choliq, C; Budipitojo, T; Yamada, J; Sigit, K

    2005-12-01

    The distribution and relative frequency of six kinds of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica were studied immunohistochemically using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. The stomach of the pangolin has three regions of mucous gland, one oxyntic gland and one pyloric gland. Cells immunoreactive for chromogranin, serotonin, somatostatin, BPP and glucagon were detected in all of the gastric glands, while gastrin-immunoreactive cells were found in the entire gastric gland except for the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of endocrine cells in the mucous gland and pyloric gland was mainly from the middle to apical portions of the glands. The endocrine cells were rare or not detected in the basal portion of all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland, but they were also found in the basal portion of the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of the endocrine cells in the mucous and pyloric glands suggested that this position facilitates a quick response to the luminal ingesta. The wide distribution of gastrin-immunoreactive cells in all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland was the most remarkable finding. This distribution suggests a major function of gastrin-immunoreactive cells for the digestive process in the Malayan pangolin stomach. PMID:16288608

  3. Immunohistochemical study on the distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan Pangolin, Manis javanica.

    PubMed

    Nisa, C; Kitamura, N; Sasaki, M; Agungpriyono, S; Choliq, C; Budipitojo, T; Yamada, J; Sigit, K

    2005-12-01

    The distribution and relative frequency of six kinds of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica were studied immunohistochemically using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. The stomach of the pangolin has three regions of mucous gland, one oxyntic gland and one pyloric gland. Cells immunoreactive for chromogranin, serotonin, somatostatin, BPP and glucagon were detected in all of the gastric glands, while gastrin-immunoreactive cells were found in the entire gastric gland except for the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of endocrine cells in the mucous gland and pyloric gland was mainly from the middle to apical portions of the glands. The endocrine cells were rare or not detected in the basal portion of all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland, but they were also found in the basal portion of the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of the endocrine cells in the mucous and pyloric glands suggested that this position facilitates a quick response to the luminal ingesta. The wide distribution of gastrin-immunoreactive cells in all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland was the most remarkable finding. This distribution suggests a major function of gastrin-immunoreactive cells for the digestive process in the Malayan pangolin stomach.

  4. Atypical spindle cell lipoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study emphasizing its relationship to classical spindle cell lipoma.

    PubMed

    Creytens, David; van Gorp, Joost; Savola, Suvi; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Mentzel, Thomas; Libbrecht, Louis

    2014-07-01

    We studied a series of spindle cell lipomas arising in atypical sites and showing unusual morphologic features (which we called atypical spindle cell lipoma) to assess if these lesions have the same chromosomal alterations as classical spindle cell lipoma but different from those found in atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. We investigated alterations of different genes in the 13q14 region and the amplification status of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes at 12q14-15 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In the atypical spindle cell lipomas, MLPA revealed deletions in the two nearest flanking genes of RB1 (ITM2B and RCBTB2) and in multiple important exons of RB1. In contrast, in classical spindle cell lipomas, a less complex loss of RB1 exons was found but no deletion of ITM2B and RCBTB2. Moreover, MLPA identified a deletion of the DLEU1 gene, a finding which has not been reported earlier. We propose an immunohistochemical panel for lipomatous tumors which comprises of MDM2, CDK4, p16, Rb, which we have found useful in discriminating between atypical or classical spindle cell lipomas and other adipocytic neoplasms, especially atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. Our findings strengthen the link between atypical spindle cell lipoma and classical spindle cell lipoma, and differentiate them from atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma.

  5. Atypical spindle cell lipoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study emphasizing its relationship to classical spindle cell lipoma.

    PubMed

    Creytens, David; van Gorp, Joost; Savola, Suvi; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Mentzel, Thomas; Libbrecht, Louis

    2014-07-01

    We studied a series of spindle cell lipomas arising in atypical sites and showing unusual morphologic features (which we called atypical spindle cell lipoma) to assess if these lesions have the same chromosomal alterations as classical spindle cell lipoma but different from those found in atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. We investigated alterations of different genes in the 13q14 region and the amplification status of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes at 12q14-15 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In the atypical spindle cell lipomas, MLPA revealed deletions in the two nearest flanking genes of RB1 (ITM2B and RCBTB2) and in multiple important exons of RB1. In contrast, in classical spindle cell lipomas, a less complex loss of RB1 exons was found but no deletion of ITM2B and RCBTB2. Moreover, MLPA identified a deletion of the DLEU1 gene, a finding which has not been reported earlier. We propose an immunohistochemical panel for lipomatous tumors which comprises of MDM2, CDK4, p16, Rb, which we have found useful in discriminating between atypical or classical spindle cell lipomas and other adipocytic neoplasms, especially atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. Our findings strengthen the link between atypical spindle cell lipoma and classical spindle cell lipoma, and differentiate them from atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. PMID:24659226

  6. Immunohistochemical study of IOT-10 natural killer cells in brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, J; Coca, S; Escandón, J; Magallón, R; Martínez, R

    1990-01-01

    The presence of NK-cells in a series of 40 metastatic brain tumours has been studied by means of the monoclonal antibody IOT-10. There appeared IOT-10 NK-cells in all tumours studied, but in most cases these cells represented less than 10% of the tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). In the present series, the obtained data suggest that the number of NK-cells in brain metastases can be influenced by other factors than the mere quantity of TIL.

  7. Pituitary adenoma in Carney complex: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunoelectron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kurtkaya-Yapicier, O; Scheithauer, B W; Carney, J A; Kovacs, K; Horvath, E; Stratakis, C A; Vidal, S; Vella, A; Young, W F; Atkinson, J L D; Lloyd, R V; Kontogeorgos, G

    2002-01-01

    First described in 1985, Carney complex is a rare, heritable disorder featuring abnormal skin pigmentation, cardiac and cutaneous myxoma, melanotic schwannoma of psammomatous type, and endocrine abnormalities, including pituitary adenomas. Patients with the latter present with elevated growth hormone (GH) levels and acromegaly or gigantism. Prolactin (PRL) elevation may also be seen. The authors have investigated 2 resected pituitary adenomas from patients with Carney complex. One, a 19-year-old female acromegalic with elevated GH, IgF-1, and PRL levels, had a mammosomatotroph adenoma immunoreactive for GH and PRL. Ultrastructurally, GH and PRL were present in the same secretory granules. The second patient, a 27-year-old acromegalic, had a sparsely granulated GH cell adenoma that by immuno-electron microscopy revealed GH immunoreactivity only. The lack of morphologic similarity between the 2 adenomas indicatesthat pituitary tumors in patients with Carney complex may not exhibit the same phenotype. PMID:12537759

  8. Immunohistochemical study of hair follicle stem cells in regenerated hair follicles induced by Wnt10b

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiming; Xing, Yizhan; Guo, Haiying; Ma, Xiaogen; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the periodic regeneration of hair follicles is complicated. Although Wnt10b has been reported to induce hair follicle regeneration, the characteristics of induced hair follicles, especially the target cells of Wnt10b, have not yet been clearly elucidated. Thus, we systematically evaluated the expression and proliferation patterns of Wnt10b-induced hair follicles. We found that Wnt10b promoted the proliferation of hair follicle stem cells from 24 hours after AdWnt10b injection. Seventy-two hours after AdWnt10b injection, cells outside of bulge area began to proliferate. When the induced hair follicle entered full anagen, although the hair follicle stem cells were normal, canonical Wnt signaling was maintained in the hair precortex cells. Our results reveal that the target cells that overexpressed Wnt10b included hair follicle stem cells, hair precortex cells, and matrix cells. PMID:27766026

  9. Progression and regression of atherosclerosis in APOE3-Leiden transgenic mice: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, M J; van der Cammen, M; van der Laan, L J; Emeis, J J; Havekes, L M; Hofker, M H; Kraal, G

    1999-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E3-Leiden (APOE3-Leiden) transgenic mice develop hyperlipidemia and are highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. We have studied the progression and regression of atherosclerosis using immunohistochemistry. Female transgenic mice were fed a moderate fat diet to study atherosclerosis over a longer time period. Fatty streaks arose in the intima and consisted of lipid filled macrophages which differed in origin. All macrophages expressed the macrophage scavenger receptor while two thirds expressed sialoadhesin and were positive for an antibody recognizing marginal zone macrophages (MOMA-1). All macrophages were negative for the scavenger receptor MARCO and 50% were positive for CD4. Small fatty streaks contained CD-3 positive T-lymphocytes which were for more than 70% CD4-positive. ICAM-1 was positive both in atherosclerotic and control mice. In early plaques, fibrosis was observed on the luminal and medial site of the foam cells while smooth muscle cells were only observed in the fibrous cap. To study regression, we used a high fat, high cholesterol diet to rapidly induce atherosclerosis (14 weeks). The animals were then fed normal chow. Subsequently, atherosclerosis was assayed over time (4, 8, 16 weeks). Cholesterol levels dropped in 4 weeks to control levels. The animals did not show a significantly decrease in plaque size over time. but the percentage macrophages was significantly smaller in the animals after 4 weeks. In conclusion, the APOE3-Leiden mouse is a useful model to study the progression and regression of atherosclerosis.

  10. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar

    PubMed Central

    Costa, C.A.X.; Brito, K.N.O.; Gomes, M.A.; Caliari, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar were described in details, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Variation in the virulence is therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to better understand the disease. PMID:20819776

  11. Role of angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma development and metastasis: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Shivamallappa, Shivakumar Madappa; Venkatraman, Narayan Tondikulam; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana

    2011-01-01

    Although a few studies have shown that vascularity is increased from normal mucosa to dysplasia to carcinoma suggesting that disease progression in the oral mucosa is accompanied by angiogenesis. The role in lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is equivocal. Role of angiogenesis in OSCC development and metastasis is evaluated in this study. This retrospective study of 50 samples consisted of 9 normal buccal mucosa, 22 leukoplakias, and 19 OSCC. Polyclonal antibodies to von-Willebrand factor were used to highlight the microvessels. Images were captured and morphometric image analysis was done for microvessel density (MVD), area, and perimeter. Highest, as well as mean values of these three parameters were compared. MVD and perimeter, but not area, are significantly different between normal mucosa and OSCC, and leukoplakia and OSCC. There were no differences between normal mucosa and leukoplakia. MVD, area, and perimeter were not significantly different between the OSCC with and without lymph node metastasis. The highest and mean values of MVD are significantly correlated. In the development of OSCC, angiogenic phenotypic change occurs in carcinomas rather than in the pre-cancerous stage, and quantification of angiogenesis in OSCC does not predict the risk of lymph node metastasis. PMID:22010580

  12. An immunohistochemical study of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos; Leonel, Camila; Castro, Rodrigo; Gelaleti, Gabriela Bottaro; Jardim, Bruna Victorasso; Moscheta, Marina Gobbe; Regiani, Vitor Rafael; Ferreira, Lívia Carvalho; Lopes, Juliana Ramos; Neto, Dalisio de Santi; Esteves, José Luis

    2012-10-01

    The use of prognostic markers for breast cancer is important for routine diagnosis and research. Interleukin-8 is a chemotactic cytokine produced by several cell types in response to inflammation, however, its expression, regulation and function are poorly understood. Recent studies have associated angiogenesis and inflammatory processes with tumor malignancy. The present study investigated the correlation between interleukin-8 expression and breast cancer prognosis. Interleukin-8 expression was assessed in 72 women with mammary neoplasia by immunohistochemistry and the results were statistically correlated with clinical-pathological findings. There was an inverse correlation between interleukin-8 expression and metastasis (p=0.03) and/or local recurrence (p=0.02). In the patient group that received post-surgery chemotherapy and radiotherapy, a lower interleukin-8 expression was found in those women that showed local recurrence (p=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression showed estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone positivity and metastasis with increased risk of death (p<0.05). The data reflect the complexity of the role of interleukin-8 in tumor microenvironment and support its classification as a possible prognostic marker, although more studies are necessary for its inclusion in clinical practice.

  13. Eccrine sweat gland carcinoma: an histologic and immunohistochemical study of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    Swanson, P E; Cherwitz, D L; Neumann, M P; Wick, M R

    1987-04-01

    In an attempt to characterize the immunocytochemical attributes of eccrine sweat gland carcinoma, we studied 32 examples of this tumor with antibodies to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytokeratin (CK), carcinoembryonic antigen, S100 protein, alpha-lactalbumin, salivary amylase, blood group isoantigens, beta-2-microglobulin, and Leu M1. All cases expressed EMA and CK, and 28 of 32 cases also displayed at least 2 of the 6 remaining antigens. No significant variations were noted in the immunophenotypes of histologic subtypes of eccrine carcinoma. These results provide an objective means of diagnostic separation between sweat gland carcinoma and other primary malignant cutaneous tumors. However, they do not appear to correlate with the degree of tumoral differentiation, and are of no assistance in the separation of benign and malignant sudoriferous neoplasms. The ability of immunocytochemical techniques to distinguish between primary malignant adnexal cutaneous tumors and metastases to the skin appears unlikely, but remains to be studied further. Also, the use of immunostaining panels is advised in the study of adnexal carcinomas, since no single determinant in isolation is specific for these neoplasms.

  14. Effects of administration of probiotic strains on GALT of larval gilthead seabream: Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Picchietti, Simona; Mazzini, Massimo; Taddei, Anna Rita; Renna, Raffaella; Fausto, Anna Maria; Mulero, Victoriano; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto; Abelli, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Two bacterial strains Lactobacillus fructivorans (AS17B), isolated from adult seabream (Sparus aurata L.) gut, and Lactobacillus plantarum (906), isolated from human faeces, were administered contemporaneously during seabream development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina and dry feed as vectors. Experimental group A received the probiotic strains already via rotifers from day 5 post-hatch (ph), whereas treatment of group B began with Artemia feeding from day 27 ph. Fish were sampled at day 28 ph (group A and control) and day 99 ph (groups A, B and control) for electron microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry with the polyclonal antiserum ORa against homologous serum Ig and the mAb G7 specific for seabream acidophilic granulocytes. In all groups, timing and pattern of differentiation of the digestive tract did not differ. Furthermore, neither tissue damage nor manifest inflammation was provoked by probiotic administration. At day 28 ph, the developing GALT already housed mucosal leucocytes, including Ig(+) cells but no acidophilic granulocytes. No differences were seen between experimental groups. At day 99 ph, the density of Ig(+) cells (+51%) and acidophilic granulocytes (+284%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in group A than in controls. Also group B had a higher density of Ig(+) cells (+17%) and acidophilic granulocytes (+130%) compared with controls, although less pronounced. Light and electron microscopy observations detailed the occurrence of heterogeneous populations of lymphocytes and granulocytes in the developing intestinal mucosa, and highlighted the net expansion of G7(+) acidophilic granulocytes (A +536%, B +292% vs. control) due to probiotic administration. Evidence is provided that early feeding with probiotic-supplemented diet increased the number of Ig(+) cells and acidophilic granulocytes in seabream gut and that the effects were more pronounced when administration started during gut metamorphosis. These results point to a

  15. [Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Toublanc, M; Grossin, M; Doumecq-Lacoste, J M; Bocquet, L

    1985-01-01

    Authors present the case of a 59 years old man in whom an intra abdominal mass was discovered fortuitly. A surgical intervention permitted to remove a retroperitoneal mass. The macroscopic features were similar to those of multicystic mesothelioma. A review of literature of the 31 cases published permits to present the characteristics of cystic mesothelioma. This entity was confound during a long time with cystic lymphangioma, from which it was distinguished in 1979 with the use of electron microscopy. Interest of studies in immunochemistry, already unpublished, is demonstrated here for Factor VIII and cytokeratin.

  16. Neurotrophins and their receptors in the pigeon caecal tonsil. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, J; Germanà, A; Catania, S; Laurà, R; Ciriaco, E; Vega, J A

    1998-02-27

    Neurotrophins are growth factors which bind to signal-transducing receptors called Trk proteins. The neurotrophins and their receptor proteins are present in the mammalian and avian lymphoid organs, thus suggesting that these factors could act upon cells of the immune system. Nevertheless, little is known about the cellular distribution of neurotrophins and their receptor proteins in avian lymphoid tissues. In this study we use immunohistochemistry to detect the cellular localisation of neurotrophins and their receptor proteins in the pigeon caecal tonsil, used as a model for avian secondary lymphoid organs. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against neurotrophins (nerve growth factor -NGF-, brain-derived neurotrophic factor -BDNF- and neurotrophin -3 NT-3-) and against specific epitopes of TrkA, TrkB and TrkC proteins were used. Cytokeratins, vimentin, S-100 protein and chromogranin A were studied in parallel to identify cells which seemed to express neurotrophins and Trk proteins. TrkA-like protein was seen in the intestinal epithelium, whereas TrkB-like and TrkC-like proteins was found in cells which we identified as dendritic cells and macrophages. BDNF-like and NT-3-like reactivity was localised in intestinal epithelial cells, especially endocrine cells. Present results add further evidence to the presumptive immune role of neurotrophins and their receptors and the possible functions of these peptides in the caecal tonsil are discussed.

  17. Toxic equine parkinsonism: an immunohistochemical study of 10 horses with nigropallidal encephalomalacia.

    PubMed

    Chang, H T; Rumbeiha, W K; Patterson, J S; Puschner, B; Knight, A P

    2012-03-01

    Chronic ingestion of yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) or Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) causes nigropallidal encephalomalacia (NPE) in horses with an abrupt onset of neurologic signs characterized by dystonia of lips and tongue, inability to prehend food, depression, and locomotor deficits. The objectives of this study were to reexamine the pathologic alterations of NPE and to conduct an immunohistochemistry study using antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein, to determine whether NPE brains show histopathologic features resembling those in human Parkinson disease. Results confirm that the NPE lesions are located within the substantia nigra pars reticulata, sparing the cell bodies of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and in the rostral portion of the globus pallidus, with partial disruption of dopaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) fibers passing through the globus pallidus. No abnormal cytoplasmic inclusions like the Lewy bodies of human Parkinson disease were seen in these NPE brains. These findings indicate that equine NPE may serve as a large animal model of environmentally acquired toxic parkinsonism, with clinical phenotype directly attributable to lesions in globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata rather than to the destruction of dopaminergic neurons.

  18. Malignant pilomatricoma with multiple bone metastases in a dog: Histological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    MARTANO, MANUELA; NAVAS, LUIGI; MEOMARTINO, LEONARDO; ABRAMO, FRANCESCA; RESTUCCI, BRUNELLA; MAIOLINO, PAOLA; MUZIO, LORENZO LO

    2013-01-01

    An eleven year-old mongrel dog was referred with a history of left forelimb lameness and an ulcerated mass on the neck. Histologically, the cutaneous neoplasm revealed cystic lobules composed of basaloid cells with abrupt transition to central keratotic material, containing pycnotic and shadow cells. Approximately 3 months after primary diagnosis, a lesion of the cortical bone on the left humerus was observed using X-ray. Samples obtained from the humerus were processed for histopathological examination and the neoplastic tissue was observed to be similar to the type identified in the neck. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant pilomatricoma (MP) with bone metastasis. MP is a rare skin tumor that originates from hair matrix cells. To date, only nine reports have been presented in dogs. In the present study, we discuss the cytological and histological patterns of MP, confirmed by immunohistochemistry using β catenin antibody. PMID:23596465

  19. Immunohistochemical study of the lymphatic vessels in major salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Aiyama, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Kenichiro; Takada, Kiyomi; Ikeda, Rie; Sato, Sumie; Kuroki, Jyunya

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to examine whether lymphatic vessels are present in the lobules of major salivary glands in the rat. Immunostaining with an antibody against podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial cell marker, was performed on sections of the submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands. Light microscopy demonstrated podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels around the interlobular ducts and the interlobular arteries and veins in the interlobular connective tissue in all of the major salivary glands. No podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were found in the lobules. Electron microscopy also demonstrated lymphatic endothelial cells showing podoplanin expression only in the interlobular connective tissue. These findings suggest that the lymphatic system of the rat major salivary glands originates in the interlobular connective tissue, and not in the lobules.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of neurons in the rat abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L; Rezzani, R; Bianchi, R

    1996-01-01

    The neurons of the rat abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus of the cerebellum were studied by double labelling using the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. Double-labelled cells were present bilaterally in the dorsal and dorsomedial zones of the cranial pole of the nucleus. They represented about half of the total number of HRP-positive neurons. These findings show the existence of a bilateral projection from the abducens nucleus to the flocculus which uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. This projection could be part of the system of the nerve circuits through which the cerebellum modulates visual activities. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8763489

  1. The inflammatory reaction of paraneoplastic ganglionitis and encephalitis: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; Reading, M C; Esiri, M M

    1993-02-01

    To elucidate the cellular mechanisms of tissue injury in paraneoplastic states, tissues from two patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes were studied. One patient had encephalitis with ganglionitis, and the other ganglionitis. Immunocytochemistry on brain and ganglia was performed using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The majority of the inflammatory cells in brain and ganglia were T-cells, of both helper and cytotoxic subtypes. There were more macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate of ganglia than in the brain of encephalitis. Major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigen expression was greater in the mononuclear cells in brain than in ganglia. There was no evidence of complement deposition and little evidence for antibody synthesizing cells. Our findings suggest a T-cell-mediated immune attack in paraneoplastic ganglionitis and encephalitis, with a greater role for macrophages in ganglionitis.

  2. Age and diabetes related changes of the retinal capillaries: An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Enrica; Ripandelli, Guido; Taurone, Samanta; Feher, Janos; Plateroti, Rocco; Kovacs, Illes; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Orlando, Maria Patrizia; Micera, Alessandra; Battaglione, Ezio; Artico, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Normal human aging and diabetes are associated with a gradual decrease of cerebral flow in the brain with changes in vascular architecture. Thickening of the capillary basement membrane and microvascular fibrosis are evident in the central nervous system of elderly and diabetic patients. Current findings assign a primary role to endothelial dysfunction as a cause of basement membrane (BM) thickening, while retinal alterations are considered to be a secondary cause of either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal any initial retinal alterations and variations in the BM of retinal capillaries during diabetes and aging as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we investigated the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retina.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on 46 enucleated human eyes with particular attention to alterations of the retinal capillary wall and Müller glial cells. Inflammatory cytokines expression in the retina was investigated by immunohistochemistry.Our electron microscopy findings demonstrated that thickening of the BM begins primarily at the level of the glial side of the retina during aging and diabetes. The Müller cells showed numerous cytoplasmic endosomes and highly electron-dense lysosomes which surrounded the retinal capillaries. Our study is the first to present morphological evidence that Müller cells start to deposit excessive BM material in retinal capillaries during aging and diabetes. Our results confirm the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β within the retina as a result of diabetes.These observations strongly suggest that inflammatory cytokines and changes in the metabolism of Müller glial cells rather than changes in of endothelial cells may play a primary role in the alteration of retinal capillaries BM during aging and diabetes. PMID:26604209

  3. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu protein expression in meningiomas: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Phaneendra, Bobbidi Venkata; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mowliswara; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meningiomas are common slow-growing primary central nervous system tumors that arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid and spinal cord. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or HER2/neu (also known as c-erbB2) is a 185-kD transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity expressed in meningiomas and various other tumors. It can be used in targeted therapy for HER2/neu positive meningiomas. Aim: To correlate the expression of HER2/neu protein in meningiomas with gender, location, histological subtypes, and grade. Materials and Methods: It was 3½ years prospective (March 2010–October 2011) and retrospective (May 2008–February 2010) study of histopathologically diagnosed intracranial and intraspinal meningiomas. Clinical details of all the cases were noted from the computerized hospital information system. Immunohistochemistry for HER2/neu protein was performed along with scoring. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test to look for any association of HER2/neu with gender, location, grade, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas at 5% level of significance. Results: A total of 100 cases of meningiomas were found during the study period. Of which, 80 were Grade I, 18 were Grade II, and 2 were Grade III meningiomas as per the World Health Organization 2007 criteria. The female-male ratio was 1.9:1 and the mean age was 47.8 years. HER2/neu protein was expressed in 75% of Grade I and 72.2% of Grade II and none of Grade III meningiomas. About 72.7% brain invasive meningiomas showed HER2/neu immunopositivity. Conclusion: HER2/neu protein was expressed in 73% of meningiomas. Statistically significant difference of HER2/neu expression was not seen between females and males of Grade I and Grade II/III meningiomas, intracranial and spinal tumors, Grade I and Grade II/III cases, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas.

  4. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu protein expression in meningiomas: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Phaneendra, Bobbidi Venkata; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mowliswara; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meningiomas are common slow-growing primary central nervous system tumors that arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid and spinal cord. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or HER2/neu (also known as c-erbB2) is a 185-kD transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity expressed in meningiomas and various other tumors. It can be used in targeted therapy for HER2/neu positive meningiomas. Aim: To correlate the expression of HER2/neu protein in meningiomas with gender, location, histological subtypes, and grade. Materials and Methods: It was 3½ years prospective (March 2010–October 2011) and retrospective (May 2008–February 2010) study of histopathologically diagnosed intracranial and intraspinal meningiomas. Clinical details of all the cases were noted from the computerized hospital information system. Immunohistochemistry for HER2/neu protein was performed along with scoring. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test to look for any association of HER2/neu with gender, location, grade, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas at 5% level of significance. Results: A total of 100 cases of meningiomas were found during the study period. Of which, 80 were Grade I, 18 were Grade II, and 2 were Grade III meningiomas as per the World Health Organization 2007 criteria. The female-male ratio was 1.9:1 and the mean age was 47.8 years. HER2/neu protein was expressed in 75% of Grade I and 72.2% of Grade II and none of Grade III meningiomas. About 72.7% brain invasive meningiomas showed HER2/neu immunopositivity. Conclusion: HER2/neu protein was expressed in 73% of meningiomas. Statistically significant difference of HER2/neu expression was not seen between females and males of Grade I and Grade II/III meningiomas, intracranial and spinal tumors, Grade I and Grade II/III cases, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas. PMID:27695231

  5. Comprehensive validation of published immunohistochemical prognostic biomarkers of prostate cancer—what has gone wrong? A blueprint for the way forward in biomarker studies

    PubMed Central

    Huber, F; Montani, M; Sulser, T; Jaggi, R; Wild, P; Moch, H; Gevensleben, H; Schmid, M; Wyder, S; Kristiansen, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment planning of localised prostate cancer remains challenging. Besides conventional parameters, a wealth of prognostic biomarkers has been proposed so far. None of which, however, have successfully been implemented in a routine setting so far. The aim of our study was to systematically verify a set of published prognostic markers for prostate cancer. Methods: Following an in-depth PubMed search, 28 markers were selected that have been proposed as multivariate prognostic markers for primary prostate cancer. Their prognostic validity was examined in a radical prostatectomy cohort of 238 patients with a median follow-up of 60 months and biochemical progression as endpoint of the analysis. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using previously published cut-off values, but allowing for optimisation if necessary. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression were used to determine the prognostic value of biomarkers included in this study. Results: Despite the application of various cut-offs in the analysis, only four (14%) markers were verified as independently prognostic (AKT1, stromal AR, EZH2, and PSMA) for PSA relapse following radical prostatectomy. Conclusions: Apparently, many immunohistochemistry-based studies on prognostic markers seem to be over-optimistic. Codes of best practice, such as the REMARK guidelines, may facilitate the performance of conclusive and transparent future studies. PMID:25422912

  6. Aberrant DKK3 Expression in the Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-dhohrah, T.; Mashrah, M.; Yao, Z.; Huang, J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess and compare the expression of Dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3), a possible tumor suppressor gene (TSG), in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) using immunohistochemistry. Seventy-five cases of normal oral mucosa (NOM), OLK, OSF, and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied. DKK3 was expressed in all cases of NOM, OLK and OSCC. There was steady increases in the percentage of the positive cells progressing toward OSCC. The expression was localized in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cell affected by OLK with mild dysplasia and OLK with severe dysplasia. No significant association was observed between DKK3 expression and dysplastic status of OLK. Loss of DKK3 expression was observed in 15 of 30 cases in the OSF group, which was significantly associated with histological grade of OSF (P<0.0001). The percentage of positive cells gradually declined with the increasing severity of epithelial atrophy. A significant difference (P<0.01) was observed when comparing DKK3 expression among different groups of OLK and OSF cases. DKK3 may have diverse expressions in oral premalignant lesions. Loss of DKK3 expression in dysplastic/advanced stage of OSF may imply a high risk of progression to oral cancer. PMID:27349317

  7. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical study on the growing oocytes of the abyssal teleost Hoplostethus mediterraneus (V).

    PubMed

    Calabro, Concetta; Albanese, Maria Pia; Bertuccio, Clara; Licata, Aurelio; Gentile, Nunzia

    2008-01-01

    The oocytes of the abyssal Teleost, Hoplostethus mediterraneus were studied. Four stages of growth were observed and the oocytes of all the stages were surrounded by follicular cells and had several nucleoli in the nucleus. In the oocytes of the II degrees stage, vacuoles without contents, in oocytes of the III degrees stage several vacuoles with a basophilic contents and small yolk globules were identified. General and basic proteins, ribonucleoproteins, acid proteoglycans with -COOH groups were recognized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleoli of oocytes in the II degrees stage and in the vacuolar contents of oocytes in the III degrees stage. In the follicular cells, in the pellucid zone, in the yolk globules, from their beginning, glycoproteins were present. Positivity, for all lectins used, was revealed in the follicular cells and in the four stages of oocytes growth. alpha-D-glucose and alpha-D-mannose binding sites were in the pellucid zone and in the initial yolk globules. In the lather galactose and beta-N-acetyl glucosamine were present too. nNOS and VIP immunopositivity revealed at the periphery of the cytoplasm and at network of nerve fibres between oocytes, suggests NO is involved in a mechanism of regulation of the gametogenesis and of the spawning. PMID:18296271

  8. Cytochrome P450 aromatase expression in canine nervous tissue: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Karahan, S; Yarim, M; Harada, N

    2008-01-01

    The enzyme cytochrome P450 aromatase is responsible for conversion of androgens to estrogens. Estrogens have been implicated in neurophysiology and neuropathology. The present study investigated the presence of aromatase immunoreactivity in the temporal, parietal and occipital cortices, olfactory bulb, cerebellum, and choroid plexus of the normal dog. Aromatase immunoreactivity was localized exclusively in neurons in the cortices and olfactory bulb. Immunoreactivity was also present in a small number of astrocytes in the substantia alba of the cerebellum. In the cortical regions, immunoreactive neurons, morphologically identified as pyramidal cells, were found throughout Layer II down to Layer VI, but not all pyramidal neurons were immunoreactive. In the olfactory bulb, immunoreactive neurons were mainly observed in mitral cells and inner granular cell layers. In the cerebellum, immunoreactivity was present in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei and in some neurons of the molecular and granular cell layers. Immunoreactivity was also present in endothelial cells of the subarachnoid vessels and those adjacent to ventricles in the cortex. The presence of well defined cytoplasmic aromatase immunoreactivity in neurons, some astrocytes, and endothelial cells suggests estrogen involvement in CNS physiology and function in the dog. The presence of aromatase in ependymal cells lining cerebral ventricles and choroid epithelial cells suggests that these cells may be partially responsible for estrogen concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  9. Immunochemical and immunohistochemical studies of cadmium associated proteins in Rana tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Zettergren, L D; Conrad, C A; Petering, D H; Weber, D N; Goodrich, M S

    1991-12-01

    Previous observations suggested that Rana tadpoles treated with aqueous cadmium (Cd) accumulate Cd in their liver and mesonephros. In order to study the response to Cd in these tissues we (a) exposed tadpoles in mid-limb bud stages to sublethal quantities of Cd, (b) isolated Cd-associated protein (CAP) from a liver cytosol fraction, (c) prepared a heterologous rabbit antiserum against glutaraldehyde-treated CAP (G-CAP), (d) used the rabbit anti-G-CAP antiserum in order to assess the tissue distribution of CAP in Cd-treated and untreated tadpoles, and (e) assessed species cross-reactivities of our anti-G-CAP with CAPs and metallothioneins (MTs) isolated from Cd-treated vertebrate liver cytosol fractions. We found that (a) CAP was present in higher quantities in liver cytosol obtained from Cd-treated tadpoles compared to liver cytosol obtained from untreated control tadpoles, (b) indirect immunofluorescent analysis revealed that CAP was localized in liver hepatocytes and kidney tubule epithelial cells in Cd-treated tadpoles, and (c) the anti-G-CAP crossreacted with rodent and fish CAP. These observations suggest that the developing liver and mesonephros are involved in responses to toxic metals and that our anti G-CAP antiserum may be used to gauge exposure to environmental Cd.

  10. Biological distinctions between juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and vascular malformation: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengjun; Sun, Xicai; Yu, Huapeng; Hu, Li; Wang, Dehui

    2011-10-01

    The exact nature of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is still in dispute. In recent years, the main controversy of its nature has focused on hemangioma and vascular malformation. In this study, the immunolocalization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-1/fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (VEGFR-1/Flt-1), VEGF receptor-2/fetal liver kinase-1 (VEGFR-2/Flk-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and CD34 was investigated in 28 cases of JNA and 20 cases of orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCH). The immunostaining levels of VEGF, Flt-1, and Flk-1 were higher and more frequent in vascular endothelial cells of JNA than those of OCH (p<0.05). The average microvessel density (MVD) marked by CD34 in JNA was (49.3 ± 9.1)/HPF (high power field), which was higher than OCH (29.1 ± 6.7)/HPF (p<0.05). Immunoreactivity of PCNA was localized in both endothelial and stromal cell components of JNA, but was predominantly seen in the stromal cells. However, no PCNA immunoreactivity was identified in any of the stromal and endothelial cells in cases of OCH. The immunostaining levels of CD34, VEGF, Flt-1, Flk-1, and PCNA in JNA were higher than those in OCH. These data support the view that JNA has biological characteristics of an angiogenic histogenetic tumor. In the future, anti-angiogenic therapy may represent a novel treatment strategy for JNA.

  11. An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study on the delta antigen associated with the hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Canese, M G; Rizzetto, M; Arico, S; Crivelli, O; Zanetti, A R; Macchiorlatti, E; Ponzetto, A; Leone, L; Mollo, F; Verme, G

    1979-08-01

    Thirteen liver biopsies in which the delta antigen was detected by immunofluorescence were studied by electron microscopy and immune electron microscopy with peroxidase labelled IgG and F(ab1)2 fraction obtained from a human antiserum containing high-titre anti-delta antibodies. The findings were compared with those obtained in 11 HBcAg positive and in two HBsAg negative controls. Neither unique particulate morphology nor any HB virus ultrastructural component were visualised in the delta positive specimens; 20-23 nm naked core particles were observed in 10 of 11 biopsies displaying the HBcAg in immunofluorescence. Delta positive nuclei frequently contained dense round structures of diameter varying between 20 and 30 nm with a soft indistinct edge. These granules did not exhibit characteristic ultrastructural features which enabled them to be distinguished from other granular material observed occasionally in nuclei of normal and diseased livers. However, their association with the delta antigen has been proved by the deposition on identical structures of peroxidase labelled anti-delta antibody. These results suggest that the delta antigen is unrelated to the Dane particle, the putative HB virus. The granules observed in the delta positive nuclei are composed of an amorphous matrix, possibly insoluble aggregates of the delta antigen.

  12. Embryogenesis of the serotonergic system in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta): immunohistochemical and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Koza, Anna; Wilhelm, Márta; Hiripi, László; Elekes, Károly; Csoknya, Mária

    2006-07-20

    Organization of the serotonergic system and changes of the serotonin (5-HT) content were studied during the embryogenesis of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, using immunocytochemistry and HPLC. A gradual emergence of 5-HT immunoreactive (IR) cells and their axon projections in the several ganglia of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system are described in the context of a staged time-scale of development. The first 5-HT-IR neurons appear in the subesophageal ganglion at an early embryonic stage (E2), followed by neurons in some rostrally located ventral ganglia. In the cerebral ganglion, 5-HT-IR cells can be detected only from stage E5. The number of labeled cells in each ganglion of the embryo increases until hatching, when it is still considerably lower than that observed in adults. This shows that the development of the 5-HTergic system is far from complete by the end of embryogenesis. Organization of 5-HT-IR innervation of the body wall starts by stages E3 to E4. In the stomatogastric nervous system the first 5-HT-IR fibers can be detected by stage E5. By stage E9 5-HT immunopositive neurons can be observed in both the stomatogastric ganglia and the enteric plexus. Both 5-HT levels and the numbers of the labeled cells show a significant increase before hatching, which indicate a functional maturation of the 5-HTergic system. Based on the early appearance of 5-HT, we suppose that it may play a regulatory role in both the gangliogenesis and the maturation of peripheral functions necessary during postembryonic life.

  13. The Er/Ki-67 Proportion in Breast Tumours - An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, M K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast tumours are classified as benign, proliferative and invasive tumours. Estrogen hormone influences the proliferative activity and progression of the tumour. Estrogen Receptor (ER) status and proliferative index (Ki 67) are important histopathological factors in the development and prognosis of these tumours. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the variations in ER and Ki-67 expression in three broad categories of breast lesions namely benign breast disease, proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease. Materials and Methods ER% and Ki-67% was evaluated on the histopathological tissues of 15 patients each of benign, proliferative and invasive breast tumours. The ER+/ Ki-67± ratio was calculated and the variation of expression between the three categories was analyzed using student’s t-test. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to correlate ER and Ki-67 positivity within each category. Results The mean ER+/Ki-67+ in benign, proliferative and invasive tumours was 0.81, 0.87 and 1.42 respectively. A statistically significant difference in ER+/Ki-67+ proportions was observed between proliferative breast disease category and malignant breast disease category and also between benign breast disease category and malignant breast disease category (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in benign breast disease category and proliferative breast disease category (p>0.05). A significant correlation was observed in proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease categories. However, no significant correlation was observed in benign breast disease category Conclusion ER+/Ki-67+ ratio is an important determinant of the invasive breast cancer and can be used to differentiate invasive cancers from benign and proliferative breast tumours. PMID:27190810

  14. Odontoblast response to cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser in rat molars: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Hironobu; Ohshima, Hayato; Yoshiba, Kunihiko; Yoshiba, Nagako; Okiji, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dynamics of odontoblast-lineage cells following cavity preparation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser in rat molars. Cavity preparation was made with Er:YAG laser in the mesial surface of the maxillary left first molar of 8-week-old Wistar rats. Contralateral first molar served as unirradiated control. Immediately, 6 and 12 h and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days after the lasing (n = 5, each), specimens were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry for heat-shock protein (HSP)-25 and nestin as markers for odontoblast-lineage cells. Cell proliferation assay using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling was also performed. Unirradiated teeth showed HSP-25- and nestin-immunoreactivity in odontoblasts. At 6-12 h after irradiation, the odontoblastic layer was disorganized and some of odontoblasts lost the immunoreactivity to HSP-25 and nestin. At 1-2 days, however, HSP-25- and nestin-immunoreactivities in the odontoblast layer showed a noticeable recovery, resulting in the rearrangement of odontoblast-like cells intensely immunoreactive to HSP-25 and nestin at 3-7 days. BrdU-positive cells showed a significant increase at 2 days (P < 0.05 vs. immediate previous time point; one-way analysis of variance and Scheffé post hoc test), peaked at 3 days and then decreased significantly (P < 0.05). It was concluded that under the present experimental condition in rat molars, cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser induced mild and reversible damage to odontoblasts. The reparative process was characterized by the rearrangement of HSP-25- and nestin-immunoreactive odontoblast-like cells, which took place subsequent to the odontoblastic layer disorganization with partial loss of these immunoreactivities.

  15. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3. PMID:26379312

  16. Diagnostic implications of Ki-67 expression in adipocytes and lipoblasts: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Jun; Li, Cong-Yang; Wang, Yang-Kun

    2014-01-01

    Ki-67 expression is an important tool for distinguishing between malignant and benign tumors. It usually shows the nuclear staining. However, the cell membrane staining of MIB-1, which is one of the clones of Ki-67, in the hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid gland and other tumors had also been reported. In our practice, we found that the 7B11 antibody could be immunoreactived with the adipose tissues inside or around tumors in the membrane. Thus, in this study, we determined if Ki-67 expression would be useful in recognizing the lipoblasts and adipocytes. The five clones of the Ki-67 antibody, namely, 7B11, K-2, SP5, MIB-1, and SP6 were selected. The adipocytes showed strong 7B11 staining in the cell membrane. The brown fat cells were strongly immunoreactive with 7B11 in the arachnoid layer of the cytoplasm. The adipocytes and brown fat cells showed positive, albeit weaker K-2 staining in the cell membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, compared to 7B11. The adipose tissues and brown fat cells were non-reactive to clones SP5, MIB-1, and SP6. All adipocytes in the lipomas, angiolipomas, uterine lipoleiomyomas, and angioleiomyolipomas showed diffusedly positive 7B11 and K-2 staining in the cell membrane, with stronger immunoreactivity to 7B11 compared with K-2. All hibernomas showed diffusedly cytoplasmic arachnoid staining of 7B11, but only focal to K-2. The lipoblasts in adipocytic tumors also showed positive 7B11 and K-2 staining; however, nearly all of the vacuolated lipoblasts showed strong 7B11 staining, only focal vacuolated lipoblasts in the adipocytic tumors were immunoreactive to K-2 positivity. All other components of the adipocytic tumors were non-reactive to 7B11, K-2, SP5, MIB-1, and SP6 in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Our results showed that the 7B11 could well help to identify the lipoblasts, which would be useful to diagnose the malignant adipocytic tumors. PMID:25674262

  17. Age-related intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments in the dorsal column nuclei of the cat brainstem: a light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1998-06-29

    In the present study, we examined the age-related intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments in the dorsal column nuclei of the cat by using immunohistochemical techniques combined with light and electron microscopy. Light microscopic analysis revealed oval or circular immunostained structures in the dorsal column nuclei of old cats. These immunostained structures were not observed in the material obtained from adult controls. Under the electron microscope, it was discovered that the immunostained structures were greatly enlarged axons with disrupted myelin sheaths. These enlarged axons contained massive accumulations of neurofilaments, some mitochondria, vacuoles and dense granules. The abnormalities of the myelin sheaths included the breaking of myelin at several locations, a splitting and ballooning in the myelin lamellae of the sheath and a distended periaxonal space between the axon and myelin sheaths. These ultrastructural changes resembled the degenerative alterations that have been observed in the axons of human and animals suffering from a number of pathological conditions, including giant axonal neuropathy and toxic neuropathy. Therefore, severely altered axons with intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments appear to reflect chronic degenerative changes that are a component of the aging process. PMID:9666164

  18. Immunohistochemical study and mRNA cytokine profile of the local immune response in cattle naturally infected with Calicophoron daubneyi.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel; Manga-González, Yolanda; Benavides, Julio; González-Lanza, M Camino; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Fernández, Miguel; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Castaño, Pablo; Royo, Marcos; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Pérez, Valentín; Ferreras, M Carmen

    2015-11-30

    In order to recognize the local immune response of the definitive host to Calicophoron daubneyi natural infection, an immunohistochemical study was carried out in the reticulum and rumen in 49 naturally infected cattle. The role of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10 interleukins and IFN-γ) in the activation of specific defence mechanisms was evaluated by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays to study cytokine mRNA expression. In all infected animals, CD3+ T lymphocytes seemed to be the main element of the inflammatory infiltrate in the reticular and ruminal lamina propria at the point of the parasite adhesion. Intraepithelial globule leukocytes also showed immunolabelling for CD3. Most CD3+ cells also expressed CD4 (T cell helper) antigen although sporadic CD8+-cytotoxic lymphocytes were observed. Local expression of IFN-γ was observed in damaged papillae at the site of parasite attachment and in scattered cells in the lamina propria. B cells (CD79αcy+, CD45+ and IgG+) were found constantly in relation to lymphoid aggregates. MAC387 was expressed in squamous epithelium and in macrophages of the lamina propria of affected papillae. Macrophages in this location also stained positively for CD163 and CD68. Intraepithelial Langerhans cells and macrophages located in the lamina propria showed immunopositivity for MHCII in the affected areas. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed a statistical significant increase of IFN-γ, and IL-10 expression (p<0.01) in the rumen associated with the presence of flukes. These findings suggest a predominant Th1 polarized local immune response with the probable involvement of Th regulatory cells in cattle C. daubneyi natural infection. PMID:26508417

  19. Histogenesis of benign pleomorphic adenoma (mixed tumor) of the major salivary glands. An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, R A; Cardon-Cardo, C; Higgins, P J

    1984-11-01

    Twenty-two benign pleomorphic adenomas of the major salivary glands were studied by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques (three cases) in order to characterize the cell types comprising the epithelial and so-called mesenchymal regions of the tumors. Light- and electron-microscopic studies showed the tumors to consist of variable mixtures of neoplastic ductular epithelial cells, rare acinar cells, and metaplastic myoepithelial cells. Many of the loosely organized "stromal cells" contained structures indicative of their myoepithelial origin, e.g., perinuclear tonofilaments, ectoplasmic actin microfilaments, and remnants of basement membrane. Polyclonal antikeratin antisera strongly stained ductular epithelial and myoepithelial cells, squamoid cell nests, and periductular myoepithelial cells, whereas myxoid and chondroid cells were less intensely stained. Monoclonal cytokeratin antibody AE1 stained only the ductular epithelial cells in both the normal glands and tumors. In contrast, S-100 protein, which is present only in scattered acinar cells and myoepithelial cells in the normal parotid gland, was found in the ductular and periductular myoepithelial cells, isolated myxoid cells, and chondroid and cartilagenous cells in the tumors. Actin was found in all the cell types of the tumor but staining was strongest in the ducts. Double immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin and vimentin revealed coexpression of both types of intermediate filaments in occasional normal acinar and intercalated duct myoepithelial cells, and in some cells in the myxoid and chondroid regions of the tumors. In the tumors, vimentin was present in occasional periductular myoepithelial cells, stellate myxoid cells, and especially in chondroid cells and chondrocytes. Our findings indicate that benign pleomorphic adenomas of the major salivary glands are pure epithelial cell tumors. The histologic complexity of these neoplasms is due to the ability of the

  20. Effects of low-frequency noise on cardiac collagen and cardiomyocyte ultrastructure: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Eduardo; Borrecho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Pedro; Alves de Matos, António P; Brito, José; Águas, Artur; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Low-frequency noise (LFN) leads to the development of tissue fibrosis. We previously reported the development of myocardial and perivascular fibrosis and a reduction of cardiac connexin43 in rats, but data is lacking concerning the affected type of collagen as well as the ultrastructural myocardial modifications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to quantify cardiac collagens I and III and to evaluate myocardial ultrastructural changes in Wistar rats exposed to LFN. Methods: Two groups of rats were considered: A LFN-exposed group with 8 rats continuously submitted to LFN during 3 months and a control group with 8 rats. The hearts were sectioned and the mid-ventricular fragment was selected. After immunohistochemical evaluation, quantification of the collagens and muscle were performed using the image J software in the left ventricle, interventricular septum and right ventricle and the collagen I/muscle and collagen III/muscle ratios were calculated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze mid-ventricular samples taken from each group. Results: The collagen I/muscle and collagen III/muscle ratios increased in totum respectively 80% (p<0.001) and 57.4% (p<0.05) in LFN-exposed rats. TEM showed interstitial collagen deposits and changes in mitochondria and intercalated discs of the cardiomyocytes in LFN-exposed animals. Conclusions: LFN increases collagen I and III in the extracellular matrix and induces ultrastructural alterations in the cardiomyocytes. These new morphological data open new and promising paths for further experimental and clinical research regarding the cardiac effects of low-frequency noise. PMID:24228094

  1. Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids by fractional carbon dioxide laser: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Azzam, O A; Bassiouny, D A; El-Hawary, M S; El Maadawi, Z M; Sobhi, R M; El-Mesidy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of keloids (K) and hypertrophic scars (HTS) is challenging. A few case reports reported good results in HTS treated by fractional CO2 laser. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the clinical response as well as histological changes in K and HTS treated by fractional CO2 laser and the role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the response. A randomized half of the scar was treated by fractional CO2 laser in 30 patients (18 K, 12 HTS) for a total of four sessions 6 weeks apart. Vancouver scar score (VSS) was done before and 1, 3, and 6 months after the last laser session by a blinded observer. Biopsies taken from normal skin, untreated scar, and treated scar tissue 1 and 3 months after the laser sessions were stained by HX & E for histological changes and Masson trichrome for collagen fiber arrangement. Immunohistochemical staining for MMP9 was done in before and 1 month after samples. Quantitative morphometric analysis was done for collagen and MMP9 by image analyzer. Nineteen patients completed the 6-month follow-up period (12 K, 7 HTS). VSS score was significantly lower in the treated compared to untreated areas after 3 and 6 months in both K and HTS but was mainly due to improved pliability of the scar. Histologically, dense inflammatory infiltrate and increased vascularity was apparent 1 month after laser sessions and disappeared at 3 months. Thinner better organized collagen bundle could be seen in 3 months after samples. MMP9 was significantly increased in after treatment samples but without significant correlation with VSS. Fractional CO2 resurfacing is safe but affects mainly pliability of K and HTS with collagen remodeling apparent 3 months after therapy. MMP9 may play a role in mechanism of action of CO2 laser in K and HTS.

  2. Adjunctive effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in induced periodontal disease. Animal study with histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and cytokine evaluation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paula Gabriela Faciola Pessôa; Silveira E Souza, Adriana Maria Mariano; Novaes, Arthur Belém; Taba, Mário; Messora, Michel Reis; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Grisi, Márcio Fernando Moraes; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; de Souza, Sérgio Luis Scombatti

    2016-09-01

    Scaling and root planing (SRP) may not always be effective in preventing periodontal disease (PD) progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adjunctive effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) to SRP on induced PD in rats, analyzing histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and immunoenzymatic parameters. Ligatures were placed around the first mandibular molars and second maxillary molars of 60 rats to induce PD. After 14 days, they were removed and the animals were divided into six groups, with nine animals each: G1 = no treatment, G2 = SRP, G3 = light-emitting diode (LED), G4 = SRP + aPDT, G5 = aPDT, and G6 = erythrosine. The animals were euthanized after 3, 7, and 15 days. There were also two control groups (n = 3): without PD (WPD) induction and with maximum PD (PD+). In the histomorphometrical analysis of linear bone loss, G4 showed a statistically significant difference from the other experimental groups after 3 and 15 days. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cell counting was significantly lower in G4 when compared to G2 and PD+ after 3 days. Immunoenzymatic assay shows the values of the ratio (RANKL/OPG × 100). The lowest value is from the WPD group, and the group that received the SRP + aPDT treatment tended to approach this value over time. After 3 days, statistically significant differences were observed between G4 and all other experimental groups, as well as versus PD+ (one-way ANOVA + Tukey's post hoc test were performed, p < 0.05). It was concluded that the adjunctive use of aPDT in combination with SRP showed the best therapeutic results in the treatment of periodontal disease in rats. PMID:27351664

  3. Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids by fractional carbon dioxide laser: a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Azzam, O A; Bassiouny, D A; El-Hawary, M S; El Maadawi, Z M; Sobhi, R M; El-Mesidy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of keloids (K) and hypertrophic scars (HTS) is challenging. A few case reports reported good results in HTS treated by fractional CO2 laser. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the clinical response as well as histological changes in K and HTS treated by fractional CO2 laser and the role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the response. A randomized half of the scar was treated by fractional CO2 laser in 30 patients (18 K, 12 HTS) for a total of four sessions 6 weeks apart. Vancouver scar score (VSS) was done before and 1, 3, and 6 months after the last laser session by a blinded observer. Biopsies taken from normal skin, untreated scar, and treated scar tissue 1 and 3 months after the laser sessions were stained by HX & E for histological changes and Masson trichrome for collagen fiber arrangement. Immunohistochemical staining for MMP9 was done in before and 1 month after samples. Quantitative morphometric analysis was done for collagen and MMP9 by image analyzer. Nineteen patients completed the 6-month follow-up period (12 K, 7 HTS). VSS score was significantly lower in the treated compared to untreated areas after 3 and 6 months in both K and HTS but was mainly due to improved pliability of the scar. Histologically, dense inflammatory infiltrate and increased vascularity was apparent 1 month after laser sessions and disappeared at 3 months. Thinner better organized collagen bundle could be seen in 3 months after samples. MMP9 was significantly increased in after treatment samples but without significant correlation with VSS. Fractional CO2 resurfacing is safe but affects mainly pliability of K and HTS with collagen remodeling apparent 3 months after therapy. MMP9 may play a role in mechanism of action of CO2 laser in K and HTS. PMID:26498451

  4. The relationship between palisaded encapsulated neuroma and the mucocutaneous neuroma seen in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2b syndrome: a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Misago, Noriyuki; Toda, Shuji; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    A relationship between the palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN) and the mucocutaneous neuroma seen in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2b syndrome has been noted. We experienced a case of multiple mucocutaneous neuromas including both MEN 2b type neuromas and PENs. We evaluated the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 48 lesions in this patient. The lesions were histopathologically classified into 3 groups: (1) MEN 2b type neuroma (18 lesions), (2) PEN (22 lesions), and (3) an intermediate form of the 2 conditions (8 lesions). The intermediate form was classified into 2 subtypes: 1 type characterized by PEN nodules made up of assembled neuroma fascicles neighboring MEN 2b type neuroma fascicles and the other type characterized by more broad nerve fascicles than those seen in typical MEN 2b type neuroma. The idea that PEN is a progressive form of MEN 2b type neuroma may be speculative. Instead, the present study suggests that the observation of hybrid MEN 2b type neuroma/PEN in association with MEN 2b type neuroma and PEN may be a characteristic finding in cases of multiple mucocutaneous neuromas. The view that MEN 2b type neuroma and PEN lie within a spectrum of the same disease entity may be an overstatement; however, the present study suggests that PEN is basically a neural hamartoma/benign neoplasm, like MEN 2b type neuroma, and that there is a close relationship between the 2 conditions in terms of their histogenesis.

  5. Clinico-pathological correlation of E-cadherin expression at the invasive tumor front of Indian oral squamous cell carcinomas: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Mehendiratta, Monica; Solomon, Monica Charlotte; Boaz, Karen; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Mohindra, Aashima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have indicated that although malignant cells at the invasive tumor front, bare morphological resemblance to the cells at central portion of the tumor, their molecular character differs significantly. E-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule that connects epithelial cells. This study attempts to correlate the E-cadherin expression at the invasive tumor front with tumor differentiation along with its clinico-pathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with E-cadherin was carried out on archival cases of primary oral squamous cell carcinomas (n = 30). The E-cadherin expression at the invasive tumor front was analyzed and was linked to clinico-pathological parameters including patient prognosis. Results: The downregulation of E-cadherin expression at the invasive tumor edge when compared with patient's prognosis yielded a significant correlation (P = 0.041) but its correlation with the degree of differentiation determined was not significant (P = 0.27). Also, its association with tumor size and lymph node status was negative. Conclusions: Loss of E-cadherin expression at the invasive tumor front is an important event in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Tumors with a loss of expression of E-cadherin are those which had a poor prognosis PMID:25328302

  6. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurones in the visual system of the praying mantis: an immunohistochemical, confocal laser scanning and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Leitinger, G; Pabst, M A; Kral, K

    1999-03-27

    The distribution, number, and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HTi) neurones in the optic lobe of the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis were studied using conventional microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Five or six 5-HTi neurones connect the lobula complex with the medulla, and at least 50 5-HTi neurones appear to be confined to the medulla. In addition, a few large 5-HTi processes from the protocerebrum supply the lobula complex, and two large 5-HTi processes from the protocerebrum ramify in the medulla and lamina, where they show wide field arborisations. In order to provide a basis for understanding the action of serotonin in the lamina, the ultrastructure of its 5-HTi terminals was examined by conventional and immunohistochemical electron microscopy. The 5-HTi profiles were filled with dense core vesicles and made synapses. Output synapses from 5-HTi profiles outnumbered inputs by about 3 to 1. The terminals of the 5-HTi neurones were in close contact with cells of various types, including large monopolar cells, but close apposition to photoreceptor terminals was rare, and no synapses were found between 5-HTi terminals and photoreceptor terminals. PMID:10095007

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and radicular cyst: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Metgud, Rashmi; Naik, Smitha; Lerra, Sahul; Tiwari, Priya; Mamta; Katakwar, Payal; Tak, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyst and tumors arise from tissue remains of odontogenesis, these interactions have been considered to play an important role in the tumorigenesis of odontogenic lesions. The connective tissue stroma has an essential role in the preservation of epithelial tissues and minor alterations in the epithelium are followed by corresponding changes in the stroma, such as angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered the first factor which maintains its position as the most critical driver of vascular formation and is required to initiate the formation of immature vessels, with this aim, present study was executed to evaluate VEGF expression in kertocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst and radicular cyst (RC). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out comprising a total of 31 cases; 13 cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), nine cases of dentigerous cyst (DC) and nine cases of RC. The sections were stained immunohistochemically with VEGF antibody and were evaluated for the presence and intensity of the immuno reactive cells. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test to inter-compare the VEGF expression between KCOT, DC, and RC. Results: VEGF expression in the epithelium and connective tissue was significantly higher in KCOT compared to dentigerous and RC. One case of KCOT with carcinomatous change also revealed positive results for the VEGF expression in the dysplastic epithelium, tumor islands, and connective tissue. The significant difference was observed on inter-comparison of the VEGF expression in the connective tissue of KCOT and DC, whereas no significant difference was observed in the VEGF expression in the connective tissue of KCOT and DC. Conclusion: The present study data supports the literature finding that angiogenesis can be important in the progression and enlargement of odontogenic cysts similarly to what occurs in neoplastic conditions and further it can be concluded that

  8. Immunohistochemical study of motoneurons in lumbar spinal cord of c57black/6 mice after 30-days space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkina, Oksana; Islamov, Rustem; Nurullin, Leniz; Petrov, Konstantin.; Rezvyakov, Pavel; Nikolsky, Evgeny

    To investigate mechanisms of hypogravity motor syndrome development the immunoexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsp27 and Hsp70), proteins of synaptic transmission (Synaptophysin and PSD95) and neuroprotective proteins (VEGF and Flt-1) in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in c57black/6 control mice (n=2) and after 30-days space flight (n=2) was studied. For a quantitative assessment of target proteins level in motoneurons frozen cross sections of lumbar spinal cord were underwent to immunohistochemical staining. Primary antibodies against VEGF, Flt-1, Hsp27 and Hsp70 (SantaCruz Biotechnology, inc. USA), against Synaptophysin and PSD95 (Abcam plc, UK) were visualized by streptavidin-biotin method. Images of spinal cords were received using OlympusBX51WI microscope with AxioCamMRm camera (CarlZeiss, Germany) and the AxioVisionRel. 4.6.3 software (CarlZeiss, Germany). The digitized data were analyzed using ImageJ 1.43 software (NIH, the USA). Quantitively, protein level in motoneurons was estimated by the density of immunoprecipitation. Results of research have not revealed any reliable changes in the immunnoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its Flt-1 receptor in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in control and in mice after 30-day space flight. Studying of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp27 and Hsp70, revealed the decrease in level of these proteins immunoexpression in motoneurons of mice from flight group by 15% and 10%, respectively. Some decrease in level of immunnoexpression of presynaptic membrane proteins (synaptophysin, by 21%) and proteins of postsynaptic area (PSD95, by 55%) was observed after space flight. The data obtained testify to possible changes in a functional state (synaptic activity and stress resistance) of motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in mice after space flight. Thus, we obtained new data on involvement of motoneurons innervating skeletal muscles in development of hypogravity motor syndrome. Research was supported

  9. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Raghunandan, Bangalore Nagarajachar; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Pandey, Bhavna; Jyothi, Bellur MadhavaRao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality. Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a useful, reliable method of localizing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in tissue sections which permits cellular localization. Although there exists a lot of information on telomerase in oral cancer, little is known about their expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and their progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosa. This study addresses this lacuna. Aims: To compare the expression of hTERT protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC with normal oral mucosa by Immunohistochemical method. Subjects and Methods: In this preliminary study, IHC was used to detect the expression of hTERT protein in OSCC (n = 20), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 21) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10). The tissue localization of immunostain, cellular localization of immunostain, nature of stain, intensity of stain, percentage of cells stained with hTERT protein were studied. A total number of 100 cells were counted in each slide. Statistical Analysis: All the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. The tissue localization, cellular localization of cytoplasmic/nuclear/both of hTERT stain, staining intensity was compared across the groups using Pearson's Chi-square test. The mean percentage of cells stained for oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa were

  10. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma developing from recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: a case report and an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Akira; Fujimura, Taku; Furudate, Sadanori; Kambayashi, Yumi; Numata, Yukikazu; Haga, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya

    2012-09-01

    We describe a 49-year-old Japanese woman with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developing from recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed dense infiltration of CD163(+) M2 macrophages and numerous Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) around the tumor. Since the contribution of immunosuppressive factors (e.g. TGFβ) to the carcinogenesis of SCC from RDEB was recently reported, our present findings suggest one of the possible contributions of immunosuppressive cells, such as CD163(+) M2 macrophages and Tregs, to the carcinogenesis of SCC from RDEB. PMID:23271994

  11. Lipomas of the oral cavity: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 24 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Tomofumi; Yanamoto, Souichi; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Rokutanda, Satoshi; Kawakita, Akiko; Takahashi, Hidenori; Matsushita, Yuki; Hayashida, Saki; Imayama, Naomi; Morishita, Kota; Yamashita, Kentaro; Kawasaki, Goro; Umeda, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Although lipomas are common soft tissue tumors, few cases of lipoma or its variants have been reported in the oral cavity. We here described the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of 24 cases of oral lipoma obtained from medical records at Nagasaki University Hospital between 1977 and 2010, and also retrospectively reviewed 603 cases of oral lipoma reported in the English literatures. The patients examined comprised 11 men and 13 women with a mean age of 59 years, ranging from 31 to 90 years. The main sites involved were the buccal mucosa (n = 9), followed by the tongue (n = 4), lip and retromolar area (n = 3), floor of the mouth (n = 2), and gingiva (n = 1). The mean tumor size was 2.0 cm, ranging from 0.2 to 5 cm. Histological analysis revealed 20 cases of lipoma, 2 cases of fibrolipoma, and one case each of intramuscular lipoma and spindle cell lipoma. Twenty-three cases were treated surgically while one case underwent biopsy and follow-up. Recurrence was not observed in any case. We reviewed the English literatures, and similar results were obtained. In immunohistochemical analysis, PCNA and ki-67 expression indices were higher in intramuscular lipoma cases than in its variants. Especially, it showed that a long time follow-up may be necessary in ki-67 positive cases.

  12. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    PubMed

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development.

  13. Comparative immunohistochemical study of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, growth hormone-releasing factor and the carboxyterminus of precursor protein GHRF in the human hypothalamic infundibular area.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, P; Tramu, G; Bloch, B

    1990-04-01

    It is now well documented that various polyclonal antisera to the human growth hormone-releasing factor (hGHRF, somatocrinin) visualize in the brain by immunohistochemistry the classical hypothalamic hypophysiotropic neurons and also antigens present in otherwise characterized peptidergic neuronal systems. The nature of these antigens is still an open question. One of these hGHRF antisera, raised against an immunogen of hGHRF1-44NH2, labels in the arcuate nucleus of the human mediobasal hypothalamus the neuropeptide Y (NPY) containing neurons which for the most part constitute a tuberoextrainfundibular system. The identity of the hGHRF-like substance present in these neurons with true somatocrinin has been assessed by performing a comparative immunohistochemical study including sequential double and triple labeling using the antiserum to hGHRF1-44NH2 in conjunction with antisera to the carboxyterminus of preprosomatocrinin (CTPG) and to NPY. This made it feasible to dissociate the hGHRF1-44NH2-immunoreactive neurons into two major subpopulations costaining either for CTPG of NPY, and a minor neuronal group displaying simultaneously the three labelings. A subset of arcuate neurons also showed NPY staining only. These results suggest that (1) the hGHRF-like antigen present in the majority of the NPY neurons is not true somatocrinin, or alternatively that preprosomatocrinin undergoes a unique maturational processing in these neurons, and (2) a subset of tuberoinfundibular somatocrininergic neurons produces and releases NPY which may be involved in the multifactorial control of the pituitary function.

  14. An autopsy case of hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with PIVKA-II production: immunohistochemical study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Senzaki, H; Kiyozuka, Y; Mizuoka, H; Yamamoto, D; Ueda, S; Izumi, H; Tsubura, A

    1999-02-01

    A case of hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary in a 61-year-old Japanese woman, who showed high serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and CA125, is reported. Grossly, the left ovarian tumor, which measured 12 x 9 cm, was solid and multinodular. Histologically, the tumor resembled hepatocellular carcinoma by its architectural and cytological features. Liver cell differentiation was indicated functionally by the immunohistochemical detection of alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and by positive bile production, and the hepatocellular differentiation was structurally in accord with keratin 7, 8 and 18 expression. CA125 expression, commonly present in ovarian surface epithelial carcinomas, suggested that this neoplasm originated from ovarian common epithelial cells. There are only nine such cases in the literature. A review of these cases reveals that hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary occurs exclusively in postmenopausal women (mean age, 62.7 years) and that the prognosis is poor.

  15. Periostin in the Cancer Stroma of Mycosis Fungoides Palmaris et Plantaris: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Tanita, Kayo; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Mizuashi, Masato; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris (MFPP) is a rare variant of mycosis fungoides limited to the palms and soles. Although little is known about the pathogenesis of MFPP, this variant of mycosis fungoides presents a relatively good prognosis. In this report, we describe an 85-year-old Japanese man with MFPP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the dense deposition of periostin in the cancer stroma, as well as infiltration of CD163(+)CD206(-) tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which suggested the phenotypes of TAMs were not polarized to the M2 phenotype in the lesional skin of MFPP. Our present case might suggest one of the possible reasons for the good prognosis of MFPP.

  16. Periostin in the Cancer Stroma of Mycosis Fungoides Palmaris et Plantaris: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanita, Kayo; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Mizuashi, Masato; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris (MFPP) is a rare variant of mycosis fungoides limited to the palms and soles. Although little is known about the pathogenesis of MFPP, this variant of mycosis fungoides presents a relatively good prognosis. In this report, we describe an 85-year-old Japanese man with MFPP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the dense deposition of periostin in the cancer stroma, as well as infiltration of CD163+CD206− tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which suggested the phenotypes of TAMs were not polarized to the M2 phenotype in the lesional skin of MFPP. Our present case might suggest one of the possible reasons for the good prognosis of MFPP. PMID:27293391

  17. Immunohistochemical study of melanocyte-melanocyte stem cell lineage in vitiligo; a clue to interfollicular melanocyte stem cell reservoir.

    PubMed

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Dawoud, Noha Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long lasting controversy over whether melanocytes (MCs) in vitiligo are actually lost or still present but functionally inactive. We aimed to evaluate the MC cell lineage in follicular and interfollicular vitiliginous epidermis through immunohistochemical localization of Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45) and Tyrosinase Related Protein 2 (TRP2) and to correlate it with clinicopathologic parameters. Using immunohistochemical techniques, skin biopsies from 50 vitiligo patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were examined. Differentiated active MCs were detected in 44% of interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and 46.7% of follicular epidermis (FE) in lesional skin. Melanocyte precursors/stem cells were detected in 54% of IFE and 63.3% of FE in lesional skin. Melanocyte precursors/stem cells of IFE were significantly associated with residual melanin pigment (p = 0.007) and with absence of angiogenesis (p = 0.05). HMB-45 percentage of expression in IFE was positively correlated with MC precursors/stem cells percentage in FE (r = +0.65, p < 0.001) and IFE (r = +0.33, p = 0.01). Melanocyte precursors/stem cells positivity (p < 0.001) was progressively decreasing with advanced histopathologic grading. There was no significant association between interfollicular or follicular expression of HMB-45, TRP2 or MC precursors/stem cells and the clinical type of vitiligo or its duration. In conclusion, functioning MCs may exist in vitiligo. The presence of MC precursors/stem cells in IFE may provide an additional reservoir needed for repigmentation.

  18. Histochemical and immunohistochemical study on endocrine cells (5HT, GAS, and SST) of the gastrointestinal tract of a teleost, the characin Astyanax bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nathália das Neves; Firmiano, Enely Maris da Silveira; Gomes, Iracema D; do Nascimento, Aparecida A; Sales, Armando; Araújo, Francisco G

    2015-09-01

    Endocrine cells secrete hormones through the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and act on the overall regulation of digestive processes such as nutrient absorption, gut motility and intestinal blood flow. This study aimed to determine regional distribution and frequency of endocrine cells secretory of serotonin (5-HT), somatostatin (SST) and gastrin (GAS) in the GIT of a small-bodied widespread characin Astyanax bimaculatus using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Fragments of the stomach and gut fixed for 8h in Bouin liquid were subjected to histological processing and immunohistochemical routine. For the histological analyses, the technique of staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) was used, whereas for the histochemical analyses Gomori's trichrome, periodic acid+Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue pH 2.5 (AB) were used to further immunohistochemical processing. The stomach has a mucosa lined with a simple columnar epithelium with mucus-secreting cells; the glandular region (proximal and distal portions) has folds and pits, whereas the non-glandular region has pits only. The intestinal epithelium is simple with plain cylindrical grooved and goblet cells. The anterior region has thin folds with few goblet cells, and the posterior region with thick folds and many goblet cells. The regional distribution and frequency of endocrine cells varied across regions of the GIT with the stomach showing the highest amount of immunoreactive (IR) cells. Only the 5-HT was found in the stomach (epithelia and glands) and gut regions, with comparatively higher frequency in the stomach. SST-IR cells were found in the stomach (epithelia and gastric glands) with higher frequency in the glandular region, whereas GAS-IR were found in the gastric glands only. The stomach was the only organ to have all the three types of endocrine cells, indicating that this organ is the main site of digestion of food in this species. PMID:26073464

  19. Junction between the great cerebral vein and the straight sinus: an anatomical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study on 25 human brain cadaveric dissections.

    PubMed

    Dagain, A; Vignes, J R; Dulou, R; Dutertre, G; Delmas, J M; Guerin, J; Liguoro, D

    2008-07-01

    The cerebral venous system is poorly understood, and best appreciated under macroscopic anatomical considerations. We present an anatomical and immunohistochemical studies to better define the morphological characteristics of the junction between the great cerebral vein and the straight sinus. Twenty-five cadaveric specimens from the anatomy laboratory of the University Victor Segalen of Bordeaux were studied. The observation of the venous junctions with the straight sinus was performed under an operating microscope. The smooth muscular actin immunohistochemical staining was performed for 18 veno-sinosal junctions. Five venous junctions were observed using an electron microscope. We observed 3 different anatomic aspects: type 1 was a junction with a small elevation in its floor and a posterior thickening (14 cases); type 2 was a junction with an outgrowth on the floor like a cornice (7 cases); and type 3 was a junction presenting a nodule. Microscopic study of type 1 and 2 junctions showed a positive coloration to orceine attesting the presence of elastic fibers. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of smooth muscular actin and S 100 protein attesting the presence of smooth muscular fibers and nervous fibers. We observed in the ultrastructural study, a morphological progression of the endothelium. The venous orifice of the great cerebral vein into the straight sinus could be anatomically assimilated as a true "sphincter." Its function in the regulation of the cerebral blood flow needs further exploration. PMID:18470937

  20. Supplementation of dietary vitamins, protein and probiotics on semen traits and immunohistochemical study of pituitary hormones in zinc-induced molted broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rifat Ullah; Rahman, Zia-ur-; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E and vitamin C, probiotics mixture and protein level and their combination on semen quality and immunohistochemical study of some pituitary hormones in male broiler breeders. One hundred and eighty male broiler breeders 65 weeks old were divided into six groups by completely randomized design. The birds were subjected to zinc-induced molt by mixing zinc oxide at the rate of 3000mg/kg in the feed. After molting, one group was fed control diet (CP16%). The other groups were fed vitamin E (100IU/kg), vitamin C (500IU/kg), probiotics (50mg/L of drinking water), protein (CP14%) and combination of these components. These treatments were given for five weeks. After the feeding period, semen samples were taken and analyzed for semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and dead sperm percentage. Pituitary samples were collected from three birds per replicate and were processed for immunohistochemical study. The results of semen quality parameters revealed that semen volume and sperm motility were significantly high in the vitamin E fed group, while the dead sperm percentage decreased significantly in the vitamin C group. The morphometric analysis revealed that compared to other groups, vitamin E caused a significant increase in the size and area of FSH, LH gonadotropes and lactotropes. These results showed that vitamin E alone may play some role in the enhancement of semen quality and growth of gonadotropes and lactotropes.

  1. Correlation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to histopathological features and molecular phenotypes in canine mammary carcinoma: A morphologic and immunohistochemical morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Chon, Seung-Ki; Im, Keum-Soon; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2013-04-01

    Abundant lymphocyte infiltration is frequently found in canine malignant mammary tumors, but the pathological features and immunophenotypes associated with the infiltration remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between lymphocyte infiltration, histopathological features, and molecular phenotype in canine mammary carcinoma (MC). The study was done with archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (n = 47) by histologic and immunohistochemical methods. The degree of lymphocyte infiltration was evaluated by morphologic analysis, and the T- and B-cell populations as well as the T/B-cell ratio were evaluated by morphometric analysis; results were compared with the histologic features and molecular phenotypes. The degree of lymphocyte infiltration was significantly higher in MCs with lymphatic invasion than in those without lymphatic invasion (P < 0.0001) and in tumors of high histologic grade compared with those of lower histologic grade (P = 0.045). Morphometric analysis showed a larger amount of T-cells and B-cells in MCs with a higher histologic grade and lymphatic invasion, but the T/B ratio did not change. Lymphocyte infiltration was not associated with histologic type or molecular phenotype, as assessed from the immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, cytokeratin 14, and p63. Since intense lymphocyte infiltration was associated with aggressive histologic features, lymphocytes may be important for tumor aggressiveness and greater malignant behavior in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24082407

  2. Myelin basic protein and P2 protein are not immunohistochemical markers for Schwann cell neoplasms. A comparative study using antisera to S-100, P2, and myelin basic proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, H. B.; Minesky, J. J.; Agrawal, D.; Agrawal, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of tissue specific or cell-specific antigenic markers in neoplastic cells has become an increasingly important tool in the pathologic diagnosis of tumors. The myelin-specific proteins of peripheral nervous system myelin, because they are normally synthesized in Schwann cells, are potentially useful markers for neoplasms arising from peripheral nerves. The authors carried out immunohistochemical studies on 18 cases of Schwann cell neoplasms, including schwannomas, neurofibromas, and granular cell tumors, to determine whether two myelin-specific proteins, myelin basic protein and P2 protein, were present in neoplastic Schwann cells. None of these tumors showed immunostaining for either myelin basic protein or P2 protein in neoplastic cells. In contrast, S-100 protein, which is a well established marker for normal and neoplastic Schwann cells, was localized by immunohistochemistry to neoplastic cells in all 18 neoplasms. Therefore, although myelin basic protein and P2 protein are known to be Schwann-cell-specific proteins, they do not appear to be expressed commonly in neoplastic Schwann cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:2413766

  3. Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 44 cases.

    PubMed

    Sangoi, Ankur R; McKenney, Jesse K; Schwartz, Erich J; Rouse, Robert V; Longacre, Teri A

    2009-09-01

    Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts are well characterized as mesothelial in origin, but a detailed histological and immunohistochemical analysis comparing both traditional and newer mesothelial markers across gender and site has not been formally conducted. A variety of morphologic features previously described as characteristic of adenomatoid tumors were evaluated in 44 adenomatoid tumors from the male and female genital tracts. Immunohistochemical analysis with pankeratin (AE1/CAM5.2), WT-1, calretinin, CK5/6, D2-40, and caldesmon was also performed. The extent and intensity of staining were scored semiquantitatively on one representative section per case and mean value for each parameter was calculated. All (n=44) the adenomatoid tumors from both the female and male genital tracts demonstrated a distinctive thread-like bridging strand pattern. Lymphoid aggregates were seen in all 12 adenomatoid tumors of male patients, but in only 4 of 32 (13%) tumors in female patients (P<0.0001). The remaining morphologic features were variably present with no clear sex predilection. Pankeratin, calretinin, and D2-40 reactivity were identified in all female (n=32) and male (n=12) genital tract adenomatoid tumors. Adenomatoid tumors expressed WT-1 in 11/12 (92%) male patients and in 31/32 (97%) female patients. In male patients, reactivity for CK5/6 and caldesmon was found in 1/12 (8%) and 0/12 (0%) adenomatoid tumors (respectively), whereas reactivity in female patients was found in 5/32 (16%) and 1/32 (3%); respectively. Female tumors differ from their male counterparts by the frequent absence of lymphoid aggregates and the presence of a circumscribed margin when occurring in the fallopian tube. Of the putative mesothelial markers evaluated, calretinin, D2-40, and WT-1 show a similar immunoprofile and have a higher sensitivity than CK5/6 and caldesmon in genital tract adenomatoid tumors. However, the presence of additional, often strong expression of WT

  4. Eruptive dermal clear cell desmo-plastic mesenchymal tumors with perivascular myoid differentiation in a young boy. A clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical and electron microscopy study of 17 lesions.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, Carlo; Metze, Dieter; Osella-Abate, Simona; Novelli, Mauro; Kutzner, Heinz

    2014-02-01

    Clear cell tumors of the skin are observed in a wide variety of benign and malignant conditions with different histogenesis, sharing the presence of cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Herein, we report the clinicopathologic features of a healthy young patient affected by asymptomatic, eruptive and disseminated, benign clear cell dermal tumors since early infancy. Neither family history nor genetic testing and counseling provided further useful information. The lesions were mostly confined to the face and lower left extremity with pink teleangiectatic papules and small nodules. Over a 4-year period, a total of 16 different cutaneous lesions were biopsied and histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies carried out; an additional lesion was also removed for electron microscopy examination. Histopathology evidenced multiple perivascular growths of spindle to oval and round cells intermingled with clear/granular cells throughout the dermis, with prominent desmoplasia and numerous capillary-like vessels with focal hemangiopericytoma-like features. Immunohistochemical neoplastic cells were uniformly positive for h-caldesmon and focally smooth muscle α-actin and CD13 indicating myoid differentiation whereas the consistent diffuse cytoplasmic staining for lysosome antigen, such as CD68PG-M1 and NKI/C3 along with the ultrastructural findings supported the view of a lysosome-mediated apoptotic process. The differential diagnosis with other clear cell cutaneous neoplasms is discussed.

  5. Immunohistochemical Study of Glypican-3 and HepPar-1 in Differentiating Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Metastatic Carcinomas in FNA of the Liver.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Taiseer R; Abdel-Raouf, Samar M

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a common malignant cancer worldwide, it is considered the fifth most common malignant cancer. On the other hand, metastatic tumors are widespread in the liver , with metastatic adenocarcinoma (MA) constituting the greatest part, therefore differentiation of HCC from MA is a frequent problem facing the pathologist especially in liver fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Evaluating the diagnostic value of glypican-3 (GPC-3) and HepPar-1 immunostaining in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic tumors in liver cell block material. Fourty eight cell blocks prepared from FNA from the liver ( 30 cases HCC, 18 cases metastatic carcinoma in liver) stained by Glypican -3 and HepPar-1 immunohistochemical markers. Glypican-3 was immunoexpressed in 97% of cases of HCC while all cases of metastatic carcinoma were negative. HepPar-1 was expressed in 93% of cases of HCC and 11% of metastatic carcinoma of the liver. In this study the sensitivity of GPC3 in the diagnosis of HCC in cytological material was 96.7% and the specificity was 100% while the sensitivity and specificity of HepPar-1 was 93.3% and 88.9% respectively. Immunohistochemical staining for GPC-3 in cell block material of the liver is highly sensitive and specific and it is a valuable tool capable of differentiating HCC from most of metastatic tumors of the liver.

  6. Morphological and immunohistochemical aspects of the biological seal in Klöckner's dental implants: study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Calvo Mateo, M A; Ruiz Marcellan, M C; Bañares Agustin, M V; Padros Fradrera, A; Sada Moreno, E

    1998-01-01

    The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects of the peri-implanted pathological soft tissue of 21 Klöckner implants are assessed, corresponding to 15 patients and three gingival samples from three cadavers. For the collagen and vascular walls assessment, the Picro-Sirio technique is used with normal microscopy as well as with polarized light, evaluating the decrease of collagen fibers in relation to the grade of inflammation. In cases when there is a plasmocyte inflammatory prevalence, antibodies are used contrasted with Kappa and Lambda light chains, observing in all cases a polyclonal plasmocytosis (reactive). The Ag. Ki-67 is used to mark cell proliferation that shows a normal or enlarged activity that can reach the infiltrated cells of the lamina propria. Epitheliotropism or a lymphoepithelial lesion is analyzed in relation to the inflammation, observing the tendency to be larger in K-type implants with a completely-submerged technique. The lesion that is usually observed is the periimplanted mucositis of the chronic or mixed type. The regenerated epithelium has a slight thickness with congestive and dilated vessels. In one case (as anecdotal value), there is the presence of coilocytes compatible with infection by HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). PMID:9743639

  7. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on the protective effect of ginger extract against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Doaa A; Abdeen, Ahmed M; Ismail, Mohammed F; Mostafa, Mai A

    2015-10-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used anticancer drug; however, it has several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, consumed since ancient times has numerous health benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of ginger extract (GE) against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. CP group displayed a marked renal failure characterized by a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in addition to severe histopathological and ultrastructural renal alterations. Also, CP group showed an increase in the immunohistochemical expression of Bax proapoptotic protein. In contrast, GE+CP group showed significant decrease in the elevated serum creatinine and BUN levels and an improvement in the histopathological and ultrastructural renal injury induced by CP. The overexpression of Bax proapoptotic protein was significantly decreased in the GE+CP group. Hence, the present results indicated that GE has a protective effect against CP-induced renal damage in rats. Thereby, such findings recommended the usage of GE to prevent and/or decrease the renal damage induced by CP chemotherapeutic treatment.

  8. Monomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. A clinico-pathologic study of 12 cases with immunohistochemical observation.

    PubMed

    Cho, K J; Kim, Y I

    1989-06-01

    Twelve cases of monomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands were histologically reclassified and their immunohistochemical reactivity for S-100 and cytokeratin was correlated. All patients underwent a benign clinical course. Individual tumors were well encapsulated and frequently showed a focal cystic change. Histologically, 9 cases were of the epithelial basaloid cell type and 3 cases were of the myoepithelioma variant. About one half of the epithelial type featured a mixture of trabecular and tubular patterns. The immunoreactivity to S-100 and cytokeratin varied. All basaloid cell adenomas were positive for cytokeratin, while S-100 positivity was found mostly in the stroma along with the varied reaction and intensity in the epithelial nests. In myoepitheliomas, cytokeratin was totally negative and S-100 was positive in 2 of 3 cases. The above findings suggest that the degree of participation of myoepithelial cells determines the phenotypic expression of monomorphic adenomas, and supports the hypothesis that the basaloid cell and myoepithelial types may be located on extreme ends of the same tumor spectrum with a wide range of pleomorphic adenoma in-between.

  9. Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Studies on Uptake and Distribution of FITC-Conjugated PLGA Nanoparticles Administered Intratracheally in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kaori; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Huang, C. C.; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Ando, Rie; Kusuoka, Osamu; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Polylactide-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles have been developed as pulmonary drug delivery carriers. To investigate their behavior, small- (d50 = 74 nm) and large-sized (d50 = 250 nm) FITC-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles were intratracheally administered to rats and were traced for 5, 30 and 60 minutes and 24 hours after administration (HAT). Immunohistochemically, a, FITC-positive reaction was observed in type-I alveolar epithelial cells (type-I AEC), endothelial cells and alveolar macrophages in the lungs from 5 minutes after treatment (MAT) to 24 HAT in both nanoparticle groups. In the kidneys, a positive reaction was observed in proximal tubular epithelial cells at 30 MAT; the reaction peaked at 60 MAT and was reduced at 24 HAT, while no positive reaction was seen in other sites. Ultrascructurally, the number of membrane-bound vesicles, which were approximately 70 nm in size and hard to distinguish from pinocytic vesicles, apparently increased in type-I AEC and endothelial cells at 5 MAT in the small-sized group, in comparison with the control group receiving physiological saline. The number of vesicles in the large-sized group was almost same as that in the control group. On the other hand, in both nanoparticle groups, lysosomes filled with nanoparticles appeared in alveolar macrophages from 30 MAT to 24 HAT. These results indicate that PLGA nanoparticles might be quickly transferred from the alveolar space to the blood vessel via type-I alveolar epithelial cells and excreted into urine, and that there is a threshold for particle size, less than approximately 70 nm in diameter, with regard to absorption through the alveolar wall. PMID:22481855

  10. Oncocytic papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study emphasizing distinct morphology, extended immunohistochemical profile and cytogenetic features.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Rao, Qiu; Shen, Qin; Shi, Shan-Shan; Li, Li; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Qun-Li; Wang, Jian-Dong; Ma, Heng-Hui; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ru-Song; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is traditionally classified into type 1 and type 2. Recently, an oncocytic variant of PRCC has been described. We report a series of 6 oncocytic renal papillary tumors (OPRCC) which tended to occur in older patients (mean, 56.8 years) with a male preference (male-to-female ratio is 5:1). All 6 patients are alive with no evidence of disease after initial resection, showing an indolent clinical behavior. Histologically, tumors exhibited predominant papillary structure with delicate fibrovascular cores. Papillae were lined by single layers of cells with large, deeply eosinophilic and finely granular cytoplasms and round regular nucleus. The phagocytosis of tumor cells was frequently and evidently seen in our cases that hemosiderin-laden tumor cells and foamy tumor cells were noticed in five and four cases respectively. All tumors were immunoreactive for racemase, vimentin, CD10, and MET and negative for CD117. While E-cadherin, EMA, and cytokeratin 7 exhibited variable immunopositivity. FISH analysis was performed in five of six cases and found heterogeneous results. Trisomy of chromosomes 7 was found in three cases and trisomy of chromosomes 17 in two cases. Loss of chromosome Y was noted in one of four tumors in male patients. MET gene status was also investigated by direct sequencing in all 6 cases and found no distinct mutation in any case. These results suggest that OPRCC shows distinct morphology, indolent clinical behavior, and similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features with PRCC, seems to be a variant in the PRCC group. Whether the strong expression of MET indicates a potential therapeutic target is still unknown and requires further investigation in clinical trials. PMID:23826421

  11. Evaluation of histomorphological and immunohistochemical parameters as biomarkers of cervical lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, TN; Hemalatha, A; Harendra Kumar, ML; Azeem Mohiyuddin, SM

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is seen worldwide but is more common in India. Lymph node (LN) metastasis has been shown to be the strongest prognostic factor in OSCC. Many histopathological and immunohistochemical markers have been studied to predict the LN metastasis. Aims: To identify clinicopathological factors and immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers which predict cervical metastasis in OSCC patients. Study and Design: A total of 105 cases of OSCC were taken up for our study. Histopathological parameters such as tumor thickness, depth, degree of differentiation, pattern of invasion (POI), lymphovascular and neural invasion were assessed. IHC was done on all cases using antibodies against Ki-67, cyclin D, E-cadherin, p53, CD31 and each antibody was assessed according to the standard protocol. Statistical Analysis: To calculate the relation between clinical, histopathological parameter, IHC marker and the occurrence of LN metastasis, chi-square test was used. Variables were tested using multivariate logistic regression method to assess the predictive significance. Results: Out of 105 cases studied, 29 cases showed LN metastasis. Maximum numbers of cases affected were females with involvement of buccal mucosa. We found significant association of cervical LN metastasis with high grade of differentiation, lack of E-cadherin expression, high Ki-67 and cyclin D1 expression. In our study; tumor depth, thickness, extent of peritumoral lympho-plasmacytic infiltration, presence of eosinophils, tumor nest type, p53 and microvessel density (MVD) showed no significant correlation. Conclusion: Significant association of cervical LN metastasis with high grade of differentiation, lack of E-cadherin expression, high Ki-67 and cyclin D1 expression was seen. PMID:26097301

  12. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Golmohammadi, Rahim; Sabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Mojadadi, Mohammad Shafi

    2016-01-01

    Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid) belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice. PMID:27499792

  13. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Golmohammadi, Rahim; Sabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Mojadadi, Mohammad Shafi

    2016-01-01

    Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid) belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice. PMID:27499792

  14. Cyclin D1/cdk4, estrogen receptors α and β, in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced rat gastric carcinogenesis: immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wakui, Shin; Muto, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Shirai, Masaru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hano, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Hyperproliferative cell growth due to cyclin D1/cdk4, marker of cellular proliferation, is considered to be regulated by the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs). We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1/cdk4 and ERs in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced rat gastric carcinogenesis. The gastric cancer incidence and expression of cyclin D1/ckd4 in gastric carcinogenesis were significantly higher in males than females. Although the ERα expression index was similar in both sexes, the ERβ expression in preneoplastic hyperplastic lesions as well as gastric cancers was significantly higher in females than in males. The present study revealed a gender difference in MNNG-induced rat gastric carcinogenesis that seemed to involve the sex difference in cyclin D1/cdk4 expression, and ERβ expression became evident at the preneoplastic promotion stage in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:21628965

  15. Studies on ribosomal RNA genes of mycobacteria including M. leprae.

    PubMed

    Katoch, V M; Shivannavar, C T; Datta, A K

    1989-01-01

    Information about specific genes specially of pathogenic mycobacteria could be used to unequivocally identify isolates of mycobacteria which are of clinical interest. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have been shown to comprise sequences which are conserved and others which are divergent. In the present study, rRNA genes from several cultivable mycobacteria including M. tuberculosis and armadillo derived M. leprae have been investigated. rRNA was isolated, made radioactive in vitro and then used to identify restriction fragments of DNA containing rRNA gene sequences. It was observed that restriction endonuclease patterns of rRNA genes are characteristic. By probing with homologous and heterologous rRNA probes, fragments hybridizing maximum with homologous probes could be identified and it appears that sequences flanking the rRNA genes are not identical. These fragments need to be further sequenced to identify the nucleotide sequences specific to rRNA gene cluster. It would also be necessary to analyse several isolates of each species including armadillo derived M. leprae before reaching any conclusions.

  16. Currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology for the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Go; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-07-01

    Renal allograft dysfunction may be induced by various causes, including alloimmune rejection, viral infection, urinary tract obstruction, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity and/or recurrent renal disease. In order to determine the underlying cause, a renal biopsy is performed and the renal transplant pathology is diagnosed using the internationally consensus Banff classification. Although a progressive understanding of allograft rejection has provided numerous immunohistochemical markers, only the C4d is regarded to be a sufficiently useful marker for antibody-mediated allograft rejection according to the Banff classification. This review summarizes currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal transplant pathology, including C4d, with diagnostic implications for human renal allograft rejection. In particular, we discuss immunohistochemical markers in the following three categories: immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology used to (i) analyze the mechanisms of alloimmune rejection, (ii) monitor cell injury and/or inflammation associated with rejection and (iii) identify renal components in order to improve the diagnosis of rejection. In addition, recent progress in the field of renal transplant pathology includes the development of a new method for assessing molecular pathology using OMICS analyses. As the recent findings of various studies in patients undergoing renal transplantation are very encouraging, novel immunohistochemical markers must be also developed and combined with new technologies for the diagnosis of human renal allograft rejection.

  17. Intrathymic T cell differentiation in radiation bone marrow chimeras and its role in T cell emigration to the spleen. An immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Hitomi, K.; Utsuyama, M.

    1985-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies were made on the regeneration of T cells of host- and donor-type in the thymus and spleen of radiation bone marrow chimeras by using B10- and B10.BR-Thy-1 congenic mice. In Thy-1 congenic chimeras, thymocytes of donor bone marrow origin, were first recognized at day 7, when the thymus involuted to the smallest size after the irradiation. The thymocytes of donor-type then proliferated exponentially, showing a slightly faster rate when higher doses of bone marrow cells were used for reconstitution, reaching a level of 100 million by day 17 and completely replacing the cortical thymocytes of host origin by day 21. The replacement of medullary thymocytes from host- to donor-type occurred gradually between days 21 and 35, after the replacement in the cortex was completed. In the spleen, about 1 million survived cells were recovered at day 3 after the irradiation, and approximately 60% of them were shown to be host-type T cells that were observed in the white pulp areas. The host-type T cells in the spleen increased gradually after day 10, due to the influx of host-type T cells from the regenerating thymus. Thus a pronounced increase of T cells of host-type was immunohistochemically observed in the splenic white pulp between days 21 and 28, when thymocytes of host-type were present mainly in the thymic medulla. These host-type T cells were shown to persist in the spleen for a long time, as long as 420 days after the treatment. Phenotypically, they were predominantly Lyt-1+2+ when examined at day 28, but 5 mo later, they were about 50% Lyt-1+2+ and 50% Lyt-1+2-.

  18. Nuclear Localization of β-Catenin in Sertoli Cell Tumors and Other Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors of the Testis: An Immunohistochemical Study of 87 Cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis and subclassification of Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) of the testis are often challenging to general surgical pathologists because of the rarity of the tumors. Immunohistochemical study to date has limited diagnostic value. Nuclear localization of β-catenin, which correlated closely with CTNNB1 gene mutation, was recently reported in SCTs. We investigated the utility of β-catenin nuclear localization in diagnosing SCTs and differentiating them from other testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for β-catenin was evaluated in 87 cases of testicular sex cord-stromal tumor: 33 SCTs, not otherwise specified (SCT-NOS) (15 with benign and 18 with malignant features), 10 sclerosing SCTs (SSCT), 5 large cell calcifying SCTs (LCCSCT), 6 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 10 Leydig cell tumors, 7 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 4 adult granulosa cell tumors, and 12 sex cord-stromal tumors, unclassified. Twenty-one of 33 (64%) SCT-NOS, 6 of 10 (60%) SSCTs, and 4 of 6 (67%) Sertoli-stromal cell tumors showed strong, diffuse β-catenin nuclear staining. Nuclear β-catenin positivity was more frequent in SCTs-NOS with benign features than in those with malignant features (93% and 39%, respectively, P=0.13) and, in the Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, occurred only in the Sertoli component. All 5 LCCSCTs and all other types of sex cord-stromal tumor were negative for β-catenin nuclear staining. In conclusion, SCT-NOS and SSCT frequently show β-catenin nuclear localization. Positive nuclear staining of β-catenin is specific for SCT-NOS, SSCT, and Sertoli-stromal cell tumor among testicular sex cord-stromal tumors but has limited sensitivity (63%) in this group. The similar reactivity of SCT-NOS and SSCT provides additional support that these 2 variants are not distinct entities.

  19. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: histomorphological and immunohistochemical features

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) is a benign intravascular process with features mimicking other benign and malignant vascular proliferations. IPEH lesions predominate in the head-neck region and the extremities. The characteristic histomorphological feature of IPEH is a papillary structure covered with hyperplastic endothelial cells within the vascular lumen. It is critical that this clinically benign lesion should not be mistaken for well-differentiated vascular tumors. In addition to the characteristic histological features, other useful diagnostic features included the intra-luminal location of the lesion, an intimate association with the organizing thrombus, the absence of necrosis, cellular pleomorphism, and mitotic activity. In addition, immunohistochemistry may indicate the vascular origin and proliferative index. In this study, we evaluated histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings (CD31, CD34, FVIII, type IV collagen, SMA, MSA, CD105, and Ki-67 staining) of ten IPEH cases. Methods Ten IPEH cases were re-examined for a panel of histomorphological and immunohistochemical features. CD31, CD34, FVIII, Type IV collagen, SMA and MSA antibodies utilized for immunohistochemical analysis. The histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated by two independent pathologists using light microscopy. Results All ten cases involved intraluminal lesions with characteristic features of IPEH. All ten cases (100%) were stained positive for CD31 and CD34. The degree of staining with FVIII, type IV collagen, SMA, and MSA was variable. Conclusion In this series of specimens, CD31 and CD34 were the most sensitive markers indicating the vascular origin of the lesion. Staining for the other vascular markers (FVIII, type IV collagen, SMA and MSA) was variable. Different maturation degrees of lesions may account for the variation in immunohistochemical staining. Few previous investigations evaluated a wide range of

  20. Involvement of mast cells and microvessels density in reactive lesions of oral cavity: A comparative immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Stephany Vasco; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade de; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Martins, Manoela Domingues; Freitas, Valéria Souza; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2016-09-01

    In view of the similarity of clinicopathological features between reactive lesions of the oral cavity, the objective of the present study was to investigate the density of MCs (mast cells) and microvessels in a series of these lesions. Thirty-seven cases of reactive lesions including fibrous hyperplasia (FH, n=10), inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH, n=10), peripheral giant cell lesion (PGCL, n=10) and lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH, n=7) were investigated using immunohistochemistry for mast cell tryptase and CD34. For comparative purposes, central giant cell lesions (CGCL, n=5) were included. A higher MC density was observed in LCH (37.01), while CGCL exhibited the lowest density (n=8.14). There was a significant difference in MC density when all reactive lesions were compared to CGCL (p=0.001). The largest mean density of microvessels was observed in LCH (n=21.69). The smallest number was observed in CGCL (n=6.24). There was a significant difference in microvessel density when the reactive lesions were compared to CGCL (p=0.003). There was a significant and direct correlation between the density of MCs and microvessels only for IFH (p=0.048) and CGCL (p=0.005). A significant and direct correlation between the mean density of MCs and microvessels was observed when the reactive lesions were analyzed as a whole (p=0.005). Our results suggest that mast cells contribute to the connective tissue framework and angiogenic function, as well as the development, of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including FH, IFH, LCH and PGCL. PMID:27493102

  1. Involvement of mast cells and microvessels density in reactive lesions of oral cavity: A comparative immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Stephany Vasco; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade de; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Martins, Manoela Domingues; Freitas, Valéria Souza; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2016-09-01

    In view of the similarity of clinicopathological features between reactive lesions of the oral cavity, the objective of the present study was to investigate the density of MCs (mast cells) and microvessels in a series of these lesions. Thirty-seven cases of reactive lesions including fibrous hyperplasia (FH, n=10), inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH, n=10), peripheral giant cell lesion (PGCL, n=10) and lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH, n=7) were investigated using immunohistochemistry for mast cell tryptase and CD34. For comparative purposes, central giant cell lesions (CGCL, n=5) were included. A higher MC density was observed in LCH (37.01), while CGCL exhibited the lowest density (n=8.14). There was a significant difference in MC density when all reactive lesions were compared to CGCL (p=0.001). The largest mean density of microvessels was observed in LCH (n=21.69). The smallest number was observed in CGCL (n=6.24). There was a significant difference in microvessel density when the reactive lesions were compared to CGCL (p=0.003). There was a significant and direct correlation between the density of MCs and microvessels only for IFH (p=0.048) and CGCL (p=0.005). A significant and direct correlation between the mean density of MCs and microvessels was observed when the reactive lesions were analyzed as a whole (p=0.005). Our results suggest that mast cells contribute to the connective tissue framework and angiogenic function, as well as the development, of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including FH, IFH, LCH and PGCL.

  2. Morphological Patterns of Intracranial Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Karnataka: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, Ramdurg Shashank; Karnappa, Andola Sainath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An “Intra-cranial space occupying lesion” (ICSOL)is defined as a mass lesion in the cranial cavity with a diverse aetiology like benign or malignant neoplasm, inflammatory or parasitic lesion, haematoma, or arterio-venous malformation. Central nervous system neoplasms represent a unique, heterogenous population of neoplasms constituting 1.9% of all malignant tumours in India. A broad spectrum of non-neoplastic conditions can mimic a brain tumour, both clinically and radiologically and these patients undergo biopsy. In such cases, the pathologist can readily differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic imitators. Aim The present study attempts to provide preliminary data on morphological patterns of intracranial lesions in North Karnataka region and to study clinicopathological spectrum with correlation of radiological findings of ICSOL. Special emphasis is made on the utility of special stains and IHC markers in CNS tumours. Materials and Methods This retrospective and prospective descriptive study was performed on biopsy specimen of ICSOL received from Departmnet of Neurosurgery, Basaveshwar Teaching Hospital, Kalaburgi. The study period was from January 2012 to June 2013 retrospectively and July 2013 to June 2015 prospectively. All specimens were preserved in 10% formalin and allowed to fix for 24 hours. The haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the CNS lesions were obtained by routine processing and paraffin embedding. Special stains and IHC were done wherever appropriate. Results Sixty two cases of CNS lesions were studied, of which 12 (19.4%) cases were non neoplastic with six (50%) being cystic lesions and four (33.4%) were cerebral abscess. The neoplastic lesions comprised of 50 (80.6%) cases, which included 48 (96%) primary and two (4%) metastatic lesions. Among primary tumours, gliomas constituted the largest category of 24 (50%) cases with 16.7% being Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and pilocytic astrocytomas each, followed by

  3. Immunohistochemical phenotype and molecular pathological characteristics of metanephric adenoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhulei; Kan, Shihai; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Yan; Jing, Hong; Huang, Gui; Yu, Qichun; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    To assess the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of metanephric adenoma (MA). Clinicopathologic data were obtained for 5 cases of MA with follow-up information. Specimens from these patients were stained by HE and immunohistochemistry for the detection of WT1, vimentin, S-100 protein, CK7, P504s, CD10 and renal cell carcinoma marker (RCC). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 4 tumors. The patients included 1 male and 4 females, aged from 30 to 49 (mean=39) years. Tumor diameters ranged from 3 to 5.5 cm. Histologically, the tumors had tubular, papillary, or glomeruloid architectures, and were composed of cells with uniform and round nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, and high ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm. Nuclear polymorphism and mitotic figures were not observed. Immunohistochemically, they expressed WT1 (5/5), vimentin (5/5), S-100 (4/5), CK7 (2/5), P504s (2/5), and CD10 (1/5) and not RCC. FISH study was carried out on 4 metanephric adenoma cases, and no abnormalities were observed in chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and P16 gene of chromosomes 9. MA is an uncommon renal tumor. Its diagnosis depends on morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features. PMID:26261480

  4. Immunohistochemical study of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in odontogenic keratocyst and periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sajeevan, Thara Purath; Saraswathi, Tillai Rajasekaran; Ranganathan, Kannan; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Uma Devi K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: p53 protein is a product of p53 gene, which is now classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The gene is a frequent target for mutation, being seen as a common step in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and plays a critical role in initiation of cell proliferation. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the expression of p53 and PCNA in lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and periapical cyst (PA). Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases comprising 10 OKC and 10 PA were included in retrospective study. Three paraffin section of 4 μm were cut, one was used for routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, while the other two were used for immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. Results: The level of staining and intensity were assessed in all these cases. OKC showed PCNA expression in all cases (100%), whereas in perapical cyst only 60% of cases exhibited PCNA staining. (1) OKC showed p53 expression in 6 cases (60%) whereas in PA only 10% of the cases exhibited p53 staining. Chi-square test showed PCNA staining intensity was more significant than p53 in OKC. (2) The staining intensity of PA using p53, PCNA revealed that PCNA stating intensity was more significant than p53. Conclusion: OKC shows significant proliferative activity than PA using PCNA and p53. PCNA staining was more intense when compared with p53 in both OKC and PA. PMID:25210385

  5. Immunohistochemical Study of Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element as Indicator of Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Developing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Sergio; Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Sánchez-García, Aurora; Heras-Romero, Yesica; Rios, Camilo; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    In developing animals, Cadmium (Cd) induces toxicity to many organs including brain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often implicated in Cd-inducedtoxicity and it has been clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress interferes with the expression of genes as well as transcriptional factors such as Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response Element (Nrf2-ARE). Cd-generated oxidative stress and elevated Nrf2 activity have been reported in vitro and in situ cells. In this study we evaluated the morphological changes and the expression pattern of Nrf2 and correlated them with the Cd concentrations in different ages of developing rats in heart, lung, kidney, liver, and brain. The Cd content in different organs of rats treated with the metal was increased in all ages assayed. Comparatively, lower Cd brain levels were found in rats intoxicated at the age of 12 days, then pups treated at 5, 10, or 15 days old, at the same metal dose. No evident changes, as a consequence of cadmium exposure, were evident in the morphological analysis in any of the ages assayed. However, Nrf2-ARE immunoreactivity was observed in 15-day-old rats exposed to Cd. Our results support that fully developed blood-brain barrier is an important protector against Cd entrance to brain and that Nrf2 increased expression is a part of protective mechanism against cadmium-induced toxicity. PMID:26101558

  6. Implant based differences in adverse local tissue reaction in failed total hip arthroplasties: a morphological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple hip implant classes have been reported to result in ALTR, and clinical differences may represent variation in the soft tissue response at the cellular and tissue levels. The purpose of this study was to describe similarities and differences in periprosthetic tissue structure, organization, and cellular composition by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry in ALTR resulting from two common total hip arthroplasty (THA) implant classes. Methods Consecutive patients presenting with ALTR from two major hip implant classes (N = 54 patients with Dual-Modular Neck implant; N = 14 patients with Metal-on-Metal implant) were identified from our prospective Osteolysis Tissue Database and Repository. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, BMI, length of implantation, and serum metal ion levels were recorded. Retrieved synovial tissue morphology was graded using light microscopy and cellular composition was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results Length of implantation was shorter in the DMN group versus MoM THA group (21.3 [8.4] months versus 43.6 [13.8] months respectively; p < 0.005) suggesting differences in implant performance. Morphologic examination revealed a common spectrum of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis in both groups. Macrophages were more commonly present in diffuse sheets (Grade 3) in the MoM relative to DMN group (p = 0.016). Perivascular lymphocytes with germinal centers (Grade 4) were more common in the DMN group, which trended towards significance (p = 0.066). Qualitative differences in corrosion product morphology were seen between the two groups. Immunohistochemistry showed features of a CD4 and GATA-3 rich lymphocyte reaction in both implants, with increased ratios of perivascular T

  7. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels.

  8. The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study

    PubMed Central

    El Sadik, Abir O.; El Ghamrawy, Tarek A.; Abd El-Galil, Tarek I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques. Material and Methods Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group): control group (Group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies. Results Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair

  9. Expression of Proteinase-activated Receptor-2 in the Esophageal Mucosa of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patients: A Histomorphologic and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rehim, Dalia M; Fath El-Bab, Hanaa K; Kamal, Enas M

    2015-10-01

    Data are limited regarding the role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in the esophageal mucosa in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. Our aim was to study PAR-2 expression and its relationship with different GERD-related clinical and pathologic parameters. Histomorphologic alterations in eosophageal mucosa in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive reflux disease (ERD) were also, evaluated. Endoscopic biopsies of the esophageal mucosa were obtained from 94 GERD patients and 20 participants for histopathologic analysis and PAR-2 immunohistochemical staining. The present study demonstrated significantly higher PAR-2 expression in GERD patients compared with control, whereas no significant differences were seen between NERD and ERD groups. PAR-2 expression significantly correlated with histologic score (r=0.572, P<0.001) and severity of heartburn (r=0.541, P<0.001). PAR-2 expression was significantly associated with basal cell hyperplasia, and dilated intercellular spaces and inflammatory cell count (P<0.05). Histologic analysis revealed GERD-related histomorphologic alterations in the esophageal mucosa of GERD patients with significant differences (P<0.05) among groups. Total histologic score was significantly correlated with heartburn (r=0.299, P=0.025) and endoscopic severity (r=0.359, P=0.027) in NERD and ERD patients, respectively. Taken together, this study provides evidence for the major role of PAR-2 in the pathogenesis of GERD and GERD-associated mucosal alterations.

  10. Lunar surface cosmic ray experiment. [including solar flare studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    The galactic cosmic ray and solar flare experiment on Apollo 16 is reported. The published papers presented describe the experiment, equipment, data processing techniques, and operational history. The principle findings include: (1) The composition of heavy ions in interplanetary space at energies between approximately 30 and 130 MeV/nucleon is the same, within experimental errors. (2) The ability of a Lexan stack to determine simultaneously the energy spectra of major elements from He up to Fe in the energy interval 0.2 to 30 MeV/nucleon revealed systematic changes in the composition of solar flare particles as a function of energy. (3) Heavy ions emitted in a solar flare appear to be completely stripped of electrons, and are not in charge equilibrium at the time of acceleration and releases from the sun.

  11. Theoretical study and prediction of BVI noise including close interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Pierre; Rahier, Gilles

    1991-05-01

    The following study deals with the highly impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise which is generated by helicopter main rotors in descent flight. Two computer codes have been especially designed to predict it at reduced computing costs, starting from given vortices. The aerodynamic code, called MAIR, predicts the unsteady airloads, even for head-on collisions, by using a singularity method and modeling the vortices as cloud vortices with viscous cores. The acoustic code, called PARIS, computes the resulting radiated loading noise and is based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. These two codes are ready to perform noise prediction in the flight cases but the vortex prediction required for input data still needs to be improved. While waiting for better wake data, the two codes have been used for a theoretical parametric study of arbitrary single blade-vortex interactions. This study gives a physical insight of the phenomenon and its predicted tendencies could help designing quieter blades.

  12. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  13. Including Students with Disabilities in UAE Schools: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anati, Nisreen M.; Ain, Al

    2012-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is devoted to inclusive education, which respects the right for all learners, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, to become part of the mainstream school. This study describes the current practices that shape the nature of inclusive education in UAE schools from the teachers' perspective. Data drawn…

  14. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  15. Clobetasol-17 propionate lotion under hydrocolloid dressing (Duoderm ET) once weekly versus unoccluded clobetasol-17-propionate ointment twice daily in psoriasis: an immunohistochemical study on remission and relapse.

    PubMed

    van der Vleuten, C J; van Vlijmen-Willems, I M; de Jong, E M; van de Kerkhof, P C

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that the efficacy of corticosteroids under occlusion with hydrocolloids (HCD) is superior compared to monotherapy with topical corticosteroids. However, following treatment with more potent corticosteroids, increased side effects and a more pronounced rebound might be expected. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of relapse after and the safety characteristics of two treatment modalities were compared: clobetasol-17-propionate lotion under an HCD dressing once weekly versus clobetasol-17-propionate ointment without an HCD twice daily. Clinical assessments were recorded and skin biopsies were taken before therapy, at clearance and 6 weeks after clearance. A panel of monoclonal antibodies to characterize epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation were selected. In addition, clinical and histological assessments for skin atrophy were made. Both therapies had a major therapeutic effect, which was reflected in the clinical and immunohistochemical parameters. The only difference between the two therapies was a faster remission induction time in patients treated with corticosteroids combined with HCD. Six weeks after discontinuation of treatment, similar clinical and histological signs of relapse were observed for both therapies. Clinically, there were no signs of skin atrophy but histologically, epidermal thinning occurred to the same extent with both therapies but proved to be reversible within 6 weeks of discontinuation of treatment. From this study it can be concluded that the combination of HCD and corticosteroids is able to induce relatively fast remission compared to corticosteroid monotherapy but relapse and safety characteristics are comparable to the unoccluded corticosteroid therapy.

  16. Immunohistochemical identification of decorin and biglycan in human dentin: a correlative field emission scanning electron microscopy/transmission electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Orsini, G; Ruggeri, A; Mazzoni, A; Papa, V; Mazzotti, G; Di Lenarda, R; Breschi, L

    2007-07-01

    Decorin and biglycan, two small leucine-rich proteoglycans, have been proposed to play important roles in matrix-mediated formation of mineralized tissues, and their three-dimensional arrangement in human dentin is still not completely understood. The aim of this study was to immunohistochemically analyze the distribution of decorin and biglycan in human predentin/dentin organic matrix under a high-resolution field emission in-lens scanning electron microscope (FEI-SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Tooth dentin specimens were submitted to either a preembedding or a postembedding immunolabeling technique using primary antibodies antidecorin and antibiglycan and gold-conjugated secondary antibodies. Correlative FEI-SEM/TEM observations showed that the two antibodies yielded a similar labeling pattern over the processes of odontoblasts and the predentin. Decorin and biglycan were mainly associated with the collagen fibers within the predentin layer, revealing a moderate immunoreaction that was significantly higher compared to the one observed on dentin. Thus, a generally weak labeling for decorin was found in dentin, which, however, was significantly higher on odontoblast processes within dentinal tubules than in intertubular dentin. On the other hand, biglycan immunolocalization on dentin revealed few gold particles rather uniformly distributed, without showing significant differences between tubular and intertubular regions. In conclusion, this study reveals distinct distribution patterns of decorin and biglycan and their relation with collagen. Decorin's and biglycan's precise roles within prematrix and mineralized matrix in human teeth should be further clarified.

  17. Kuttner's tumor of salivary glands resembling marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type: a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masaru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Itoh, Hideaki; Yamane, Yuko; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Masawa, Nobuhide

    2004-10-01

    Kuttner's tumor is a benign inflammatory process of the submandibular gland that presents as a hard mass mimicking a malignant neoplasm clinically. The histologic feature varies according to stage of evolution and severity of inflammation. We report here 7 cases of Kuttner's tumor that morphologically resemble primary salivary gland marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Histologically, the lobular architecture was distorted and the septa showed sclerosis. There was a dense lymphoplasmacytoid infiltration with lymphoid follicle formation accompanied by loss of acini and ducts. In 4 cases, a few salivary gland ducts contained the lymphoid cells within the epithelium. However, a true lymphoepithelial lesion was observed in none of the 7 cases. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated a disrupted follicular dendritic cell network, which is a characteristic finding of follicular colonization of MALT-type lymphoma. In 6 cases, there were a few small foci of lymphocytes somewhat resembling centrocyte-like cells of MALT-type lymphoma. However, immunohistological study demonstrated the mixed nature of the cells resembling centrocyte-like cells. Moreover, the polytypic nature of B lymphocytes was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction.

  18. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  19. Immunohistochemical study of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 in the hippocampal vasculature: pathological synergy of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Valente, Tony; Gella, Alejandro; Solé, Montse; Durany, Núria; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2012-10-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 (SSAO/VAP-1) is involved in vascular endothelial damage as well as in the vascular degeneration underlying diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that classic pathological features of AD are more pronounced in diabetic mellitus patients. To investigate the expression and distribution of SSAO/VAP-1 in the two pathologies, we have performed an immunohistochemical study in human hippocampal vessels of AD, AD with diabetic mellitus (ADD), diabetic mellitus (DM), and nondemented (ND) patients. The present results demonstrate major vessel accumulation of both SSAO/VAP-1 and amyloid-β immunolabeling intensity in ADD compared with AD patients. Interestingly, nearly damaged vessels with high levels of SSAO/VAP-1 also showed increased oxidative damage markers (AGE, RAGE, and SOD-1) and glial activation (GFAP and HLA). Overall, this work suggests that high vascular SSAO/VAP-1 levels in human hippocampus may contribute to vascular degeneration, which can explain the severe progression in patients with both pathologies.

  20. Comparison of Predictive Immunohistochemical Marker Expression of Primary Breast Cancer and Paired Distant Metastasis using Surgical Material: A Practice-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kulka, Janina; Székely, Borbála; Lukács, Lilla V; Kiss, Orsolya; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Vincze, Eszter; Turányi, Eszter; Fillinger, János; Hanzély, Zoltán; Arató, Gabriella; Szendrői, Miklós; Győrffy, Balázs; Szász, A Marcell

    2016-04-01

    Parallel studies of primary breast carcinomas and corresponding distant metastases samples reveal considerable differences. Our aim was to highlight this issue from another perspective and provide further data based on 98 patient samples: 69 primary breast carcinoma and 85 distant metastases from bone, central nervous system (CNS) and lung (56 paired). Two independent series of immunohistochemical reactions with different antibodies for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2), along with HER2 fluroscence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed on tissue microarrays to classify breast carcinoma and distant metastases samples into Luminal A, Luminal B-proliferating, Luminal B-HER2+, HER2+ and triple negative (TNBC) surrogate breast cancer groups. Correlation and agreement between the two assessments of ER and PgR were fair-to-moderate, and almost perfect for HER2 and Ki67. There was 40% discordance concerning immunophenotype between breast carcinomas and distant metastases. Most common metastatic site of ER+ breast carcinoma was the skeletal system (59.2%), whereas that of TNBCs was the CNS (58.8%) and lungs (23.5%). Distant metastases in bones were mostly luminal (54.3%), in the CNS, Luminal B (53.2%), and in the lung, TNBC (37.5%). The change of drugable properties of primary breast cancers in the respective bone and CNS metastases suggests that characterization of the metastasis is necessary for appropriate treatment planning. PMID:27029768

  1. Prophylactic role of coenzyme Q10 and Cynara scolymus L on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats: Biochemical and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Hesham N.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Hegazy, Gehan A.; Abdel Jaleel, Gehad A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aims to evaluate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and Cynara scolymus L (CS) on doxorubicin (dox)-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 as a control. Group 2 received dox (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group 3 received CoQ10 (200 mg/kg). Group 4 received CS (500 mg/kg). Group 5 received CoQ10 (200 mg/kg) and dox (10 mg/kg). Group 6 received CS (500 mg/kg) and dox (10 mg/kg). The rats were then evaluated biochemically and immunohistochemically. Results: Dox produced a significant deterioration of hepatic and renal functional parameters. Moreover, an upsurge of oxidative stress and nitrosative stress markers. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was increased and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was decreased. Administration of CoQ10 and CS resulted in a significant improvement of hepatic and renal functional parameters, and an improvement of both α-SMA and PCNA. Conclusion: It is concluded that pretreatment with CoQ10 and CS is associated with up-regulation of favorable protective enzymes and down-regulation of oxidative stress. That can be advised as a supplement to dox-treated patients. PMID:26729958

  2. An immunohistochemical study on the gastrointestinal endocrine cells of three honeyeaters: singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, N; Yamada, J; Richardson, K C; Kitamura, N; Yamashita, T

    1993-01-01

    The gastrointestinal endocrine cells of the singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta) were studied immunohistochemically with special reference to their degree of dependency upon nectar. The nine types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were detected in their gastrointestinal mucosa. Coexistence of motilin and serotonin in the same cells was confirmed in the pyloric region. In the duodenum and jejunum, a few peptide tyrosin tyrosin (PYY)-immunoreactive cells were detected. The clear difference in the distribution and frequency of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells among three types of honeyeaters, which differ in the degree of dependency upon the nectar, could not be confirmed. However, some differences were found that serotonin-, somatostatin- and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-immunoreactive cells in the gizzard, gastrin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum and jejunum, enteroglucagon-immunoreactive cells in the caeca and in the colon, and pancreatic glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the ileum of brown honeyeaters were more numerous (p < 0.05) than other two species.

  3. An immunohistochemical study on the gastrointestinal endocrine cells of three honeyeaters: singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, N; Yamada, J; Richardson, K C; Kitamura, N; Yamashita, T

    1993-01-01

    The gastrointestinal endocrine cells of the singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta) were studied immunohistochemically with special reference to their degree of dependency upon nectar. The nine types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were detected in their gastrointestinal mucosa. Coexistence of motilin and serotonin in the same cells was confirmed in the pyloric region. In the duodenum and jejunum, a few peptide tyrosin tyrosin (PYY)-immunoreactive cells were detected. The clear difference in the distribution and frequency of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells among three types of honeyeaters, which differ in the degree of dependency upon the nectar, could not be confirmed. However, some differences were found that serotonin-, somatostatin- and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-immunoreactive cells in the gizzard, gastrin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum and jejunum, enteroglucagon-immunoreactive cells in the caeca and in the colon, and pancreatic glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the ileum of brown honeyeaters were more numerous (p < 0.05) than other two species. PMID:7693061

  4. Comparison of Predictive Immunohistochemical Marker Expression of Primary Breast Cancer and Paired Distant Metastasis using Surgical Material: A Practice-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kulka, Janina; Székely, Borbála; Lukács, Lilla V; Kiss, Orsolya; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Vincze, Eszter; Turányi, Eszter; Fillinger, János; Hanzély, Zoltán; Arató, Gabriella; Szendrői, Miklós; Győrffy, Balázs; Szász, A Marcell

    2016-04-01

    Parallel studies of primary breast carcinomas and corresponding distant metastases samples reveal considerable differences. Our aim was to highlight this issue from another perspective and provide further data based on 98 patient samples: 69 primary breast carcinoma and 85 distant metastases from bone, central nervous system (CNS) and lung (56 paired). Two independent series of immunohistochemical reactions with different antibodies for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2), along with HER2 fluroscence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed on tissue microarrays to classify breast carcinoma and distant metastases samples into Luminal A, Luminal B-proliferating, Luminal B-HER2+, HER2+ and triple negative (TNBC) surrogate breast cancer groups. Correlation and agreement between the two assessments of ER and PgR were fair-to-moderate, and almost perfect for HER2 and Ki67. There was 40% discordance concerning immunophenotype between breast carcinomas and distant metastases. Most common metastatic site of ER+ breast carcinoma was the skeletal system (59.2%), whereas that of TNBCs was the CNS (58.8%) and lungs (23.5%). Distant metastases in bones were mostly luminal (54.3%), in the CNS, Luminal B (53.2%), and in the lung, TNBC (37.5%). The change of drugable properties of primary breast cancers in the respective bone and CNS metastases suggests that characterization of the metastasis is necessary for appropriate treatment planning.

  5. Axonal injury in young pediatric head trauma: a comparison study of β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunohistochemical staining in traumatic and nontraumatic deaths.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael W; Stoll, Lisa; Rubio, Ana; Troncoso, Juan; Pletnikova, Olga; Fowler, David R; Li, Ling

    2011-09-01

    We tested the independent utility of β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunohistochemical staining as evidence of brain trauma in the deaths of young children. Blinded reviewers retrospectively reviewed immunostained brain tissues from homicidal deaths, age-matched control cases without evidence of trauma, as well as cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The reviewers correctly identified five of the seven cases with documented inflicted head trauma. However, one of seven age-matched control cases and one of 10 SIDS/sudden unexplained death in infancy (SUDI) cases demonstrated staining patterns similar to those seen in cases of inflicted trauma. We discuss these cases and the circumstances surrounding them with the intent to explain the difficulties associated with immunohistological interpretation of axonal injury. Although the utility of β-APP is quite powerful if not confounded by global hypoxic-ischemic injury, ultimately, β-APP studies should be only one piece of information in the determination of cause and manner of death.

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of p63, p53 and MIB-1 in urinary bladder carcinoma. A tissue microarray study of 158 cases.

    PubMed

    Compérat, Eva; Camparo, Philippe; Haus, Rachel; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Bart, Stephane; Delcourt, Annick; Houlgatte, Alain; François, Richard; Capron, Fréderique; Vieillefond, Annick

    2006-03-01

    P63 is a member of the p53 family, which plays a role in the differentiation of urothelium and is supposed to play a role in urothelial carcinogenesis. P53 and MIB-1 are recognised in many studies as predictive markers of progression, but few studies in the literature have examined p63. The aims of our study were to explore the expression of p63 in bladder carcinomas and to compare this expression to p53 and MIB-1, as well as to stage and grade. Tissue microarrays were performed on 158 urothelial carcinomas (56 pTa, 45 pT1 and 57>or=pT2). Immunohistochemical studies were performed with p63, p53 and MIB-1 antibodies. In our study we observed that p63 immunostaining is present in all cell layers in papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), but partially lost in non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma low grade (NILGC) and in pT1/>or=pT2 bladder cancers. P53 and MIB-1 displayed lower expression in PUNLMP/NILGC vs non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma high grade (NIHGC)/pT1, but there was no correlation between the expression of p63, p53 and MIB-1. Our study demonstrates that p63 expression distinguishes between PUNLMP/NILGC and NIHGC/pT1 (p=4.10(5)). A statistical difference disserving pTa and pT1/>or=pT2 with a statistical significance (p<10(-6)) could also be observed. P63 should be considered as an additional biomarker that might help pathologists to classify their patients.

  7. Immunohistochemical evaluation of hedgehog signalling in epithelial/mesenchymal interactions in squamous cell carcinoma transformation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Maira; Ariel, Tamires; Reis, Sílvia Regina; Andrade, Zilton; Peixoto Medrado, Alena

    2016-03-01

    Precancerous lesions have been studied because of their carcinogenic potential and their association with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been reported. In the tumour microenvironment, the processes of angiogenesis and tissue remodelling are regulated by a family of proteins (Hedgehog) described as being able to modulate epithelial/mesenchymal interactions. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative study of precancerous lesions and SCCs by immunohistochemistry for the presence of Sonic, Gli2, SMO and Patched proteins, members of the Hedgehog pathway. Sixteen cases diagnosed as actinic cheilitis associated with SCC were compared to normal oral mucosa. The sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry and the positively stained cells were counted by morphometric analysis. There was a significant progressive increase in expression of all proteins of the Hedgehog pathway, both in the epithelium and in the connective tissue, when sections of normal mucosa, dysplasia and carcinoma were compared (P < 0.05). Thus, one may suggest that the Hedgehog pathway in tumour transformation influences SCC, and more studies should be conducted to expand the understanding of the role of these proteins in neoplastic transformation. PMID:26947270

  8. Role of β-catenin expression in paediatric mesenchymal lesions: a tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, A.; Pannone, G.; Errico, M.E.; Bifano, D.; Lastilla, G.; Bufo, P.; Loreto, C.; Donofrio, V.

    2012-01-01

    Beta-catenin is a major protein in the Wnt signalling pathway. Although it has been studied in various types of carcinoma, little is known about its expression in mesenchymal tumours. In this study 41 specimens of a variety of mesenchymal childhood tumours were compared to 24 samples of the corresponding adult tumours to assess the diagnostic value of nuclear β-catenin expression using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry. Similar to adult sarcoma and fibromatosis, β-catenin was not expressed in the majority of childhood sarcomas, and its nuclear translocation was detected in paediatric fibromatosis; non-negligible levels of nuclear staining in other tumour types demonstrate Wnt pathway activation in mesenchymal neoplasms of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23027341

  9. Molecular and immunohistochemical studies do not support a role for papillomaviruses in canine oral squamous cell carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; French, Adrienne; Harvey, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are common neoplasms of dogs and are of unknown cause. Whereas papillomaviruses (PVs) are an established cause of human OSCCs, few studies have investigated canine OSCCs for a PV aetiology. In humans, a PV aetiology can be determined by detecting PV DNA and PV-induced increased p16(CDKN2A) protein (p16) within the OSCC. In this study, PCR, using four different primer sets and p16 immunohistochemistry, was used to evaluate 28 canine OSCCs for a possible PV aetiology. None of the primers amplified PV DNA from any of the OSCCs although four neoplasms contained intense p16 immunostaining. Intense p16 immunostaining would indicate a PV aetiology in a human OSCC but the absence of PV DNA suggests that the increase in p16 was not due to PV infection. Overall the results indicated that PVs are not a significant cause of canine OSCCs.

  10. Phenotype and cell proliferation activity of duct-like structures in human sublingual glands: a histological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; TEIXEIRA, Cleverson Soares; AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    There are several age-related microscopic changes in the salivary glands, including the increase in the number of duct-like structures (DLS). However, the true origin and the phenotype of the DLS are not known. Objective To evaluate the phenotype and the cell proliferation index of the DLS of human sublingual glands. Material and Methods Sixty sublingual glands obtained from human cadavers were divided into two groups - 0-30 and 61-90 years old. The phenotype was estimated by immunostaining for cytokeratin 19 (CK 19) and the S-100 protein as well as by the presence of mucin and glycogen. The cell proliferation index was determined by the Ki-67 antibody. The histochemical techniques used periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian Blue. In each captured microscopic field, the DLS were counted to establish a percentage for the staining profile. The statistical analysis was accomplished using Student’s t-test, the Mann-Whitney test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (p<0.05). Results Comparing both groups, only CK 19 showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.033), with the strongest expression in the elderly group. There was no significant difference between PAS and Alcian Blue (p=0.270). In both groups, the immunostaining for CK 19 was stronger than that for S-100 (p=0.004;p<0.001), but there was no correlation between the two immunomarkers (ρ=-0.163; p=0.315). There was no immunostaining for Ki-67. Conclusions DLS demonstrate a ductal phenotypic profile and do not present cell proliferation activity. DLS may represent a regressive process arising from acini or represent the result of metaplasia. PMID:26221919

  11. The structure and innervation of the saccopleural membrane of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R D; Vaillant, C; King, A S

    1987-01-01

    Microscopic studies have shown the saccopleural membrane in the respiratory system of the domestic fowl to consist of a sheet of three dense layers of collagen fibres covered dorsally and ventrally by mainly simple squamous epithelium. On the ventral surface, which faces into the caudal thoracic air sac, there are occasional ridges of pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. Many nerve bundles are present throughout the membrane, the larger bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated axons being confined to the lamina propria under the dorsal epithelium (parietal pleura). In addition to axonal profiles with the ultrastructural appearance of cholinergic or adrenergic axons, peptidergic-type axons were identified. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated VIP-, substance P-, somatostatin- and enkephalin-immunoreactive fibres in the membrane. Although it has been suggested that receptors may be present in this region of the respiratory system, none of the axons have features suggestive of sensory terminals, although many axonal profiles are closely associated with the epithelia where no obvious effector cells are present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3654325

  12. Effects of central nervous system lesions on the expression of galanin: a comparative in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, R; Villar, M J; Verhofstad, A; Hökfelt, T

    1990-01-01

    We have used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of galanin mRNA and galanin-like immunoreactivity after decortication and lesions of the ventral hippocampus. After decortication the levels of both galanin mRNA and galanin-like immunoreactivity were increased in the dorsal raphe nucleus. In addition, in decorticated rats, but not in controls, galanin mRNA could be seen in dorsal and ventral nuclei of the thalamus and in the remaining parts of the cortex. Increases in galanin mRNA and galanin-like immunoreactivity were also observed in the septum-vertical diagonal band after electrocoagulation lesions of the ventral hippocampus. In contrast, no changes were found after ibotenic acid lesions of the same hippocampal area. These results suggest that increases in the expression of galanin occur in certain neuron populations after direct lesion of their axons and/or terminal fields. Images PMID:1699231

  13. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes expressing IOT-10 marker. An immunohistochemical study of a series of 185 brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Zurita, M; Vaquero, J; Coca, S; Oya, S; Garcia, N

    1993-04-01

    The presence of IOT-10-positive lymphocytes among the tumor-infiltrating-lymphocyte (TIL) population was studied in a series of 185 brain tumors. In most of the tumors, IOT-10-positive lymphocytes were identified, but generally they were scarce and masked among the tumor cells, suggesting that NK-cells exercise a poor participation in the tissular response against brain tumors. Isolated tumor cells showing IOT-10-positivity were found in low-grade astrocytomas, neurinomas and medulloblastomas. IOT-10-positivity on both tumor neuropil and tumor cells was considered a characteristic finding in oligodendrogliomas. The number of IOT-10-positive NK-cells in brain metastases and in cerebellar hemangioblastomas was comparatively greater than in other types of brain tumor. Since in brain metastases, the presence of IOT-10-positive NK-cells can be related to the tissular response to an extracerebral malignancy, their considerable presence in cerebellar hemangioblastomas is an enigmatic finding that deserves further attention.

  14. TRAIL, DR5 and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in vessels of diseased human temporomandibular joint disc. An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Almeida, L.E.; Migliore, M.R.; Caltabiano, M.; Leonardi, R.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the apoptosis involvement in the angiogenesis as a self-limiting process in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) degenerated disc vessels, we assessed, by immunohistochemistry, the detection of TRAIL, its death receptor DR5 and caspase 3. TRAIL, its death receptor DR5 and caspase 3 expression were studied by immunohistochemistry in 15 TMJ discs displaced without reduction and in 4 unaffected discs. These apoptosis molecules were detected in the intima and media layers of newly formed vessels affected discs. In conclusion, vessels apoptosis activation in TMJ disc with ID could be regarded as a self-limiting process that try to leads to vessel regression; in this way an inhibition of angiogenic vessels may prove a key strategy in limiting pathological angiogenesis, by cutting off blood supply to tumors, or by reducing harmful inflammation. PMID:20839416

  15. Bizarre (pseudomalignant) granulation-tissue reactions following ionizing-radiation exposure. A microscopic, immunohistochemical, and flow-cytometric study

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, N.; Askin, F.B.; Berthrong, M.; Hopkins, M.B.; Kute, T.E.; McGuirt, F.W.

    1987-04-15

    Two patients developed extremely bizarre (pseudomalignant) granulation-tissue reactions in the larynx and facial sinuses, following radiation therapy for carcinoma. Containing pleomorphic spindle cells and numerous (sometimes atypical) mitotic figures, both tumefactive lesions simulated high grade malignancies. While the pleomorphic cells contained vimentin immunoreactivity, they were nonreactive for low or high molecular weight keratin. Flowcytometric study of paraffin-embedded tissues revealed DNA indexes of 0.75 and 1.0. Neither recurred locally nor spread distantly after therapy. Their granulation-tissue growth pattern, and the presence of stromal and endothelial cells showing similar degrees of cytologic atypia were central to their recognition as benign. These findings show that severely atypical, sometimes aneuploid, granulation-tissue reactions can occur following radiation exposure. Care should be taken not to misinterpret these lesions as malignant.

  16. Immunotoxicity of skin acid secretion produced by the sea slug Berthellina citrina in mice spleen: Histological and Immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Awaad, Aziz; Moustafa, Alaa Y

    2016-07-01

    Acid secretion containing sulfuric and hydrochloric acids is a fascinating defensive phenomenon within many groups of marine organisms. This study aimed to investigate the mice spleen histology and immunotoxicity using skin acid secretion (SAS) of the sea slug Berthellina citrina after oral administration. The spleen showed atrophy in the white pulp, decrease in the splenocytes density, megakaryocytes cytoplasmic degeneration as well as inflammatory cells infiltrations. The white and red pulp splenocytes number decreased time-dependently in the treated spleens. Additionally, the size of the megakaryocytes increased as compared with the control. The administration with SAS increased the number of the IgA(+) cells aggregation in the splenic red pulp. Furthermore, after 7days of the administration, large number of dispersed IgA(+) cells were distributed in splenic parenchyma. The IgA(+) cells numbers increased time-dependently as compared with those in the control. The aggregation sizes and number of the F4/80(+) cell in the splenic red pulp were increased. Furthermore the F4/80(+) cells numbers increased time-dependently as compared with those in the control. The UEAI(+) cells were found as free cells but not in aggregations in the control splenic red pulp. Contradictory to the number of IgA(+) cells and F4/80(+) cells the number of the UEAI(+) cells decreased time-dependently after administration with SAS. Hematologically, abnormal numbers of WBCs different cells were observed after administration with SAS. This study provides new insight about the toxicity of a marine extract may be used in natural products industry or medical applications. PMID:27378377

  17. Immunohistochemical study of the membrane skeletal protein, membrane protein palmitoylated 6 (MPP6), in the mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Akio; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Ohno, Shinichi; Terada, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    The membrane protein palmitoylated (MPP) family belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. MPP1 interacts with the protein 4.1 family member, 4.1R, as a membrane skeletal protein complex in erythrocytes. We previously described the interaction of another MPP family, MPP6, with 4.1G in the mouse peripheral nervous system. In the present study, the immunolocalization of MPP6 in the mouse small intestine was examined and compared with that of E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and 4.1B, which we previously investigated in intestinal epithelial cells. The immunolocalization of MPP6 was also assessed in the small intestines of 4.1B-deficient (-/-) mice. In the small intestine, Western blotting revealed that the molecular weight of MPP6 was approximately 55-kDa, and MPP6 was immunostained under the cell membranes in the basolateral portions of almost all epithelial cells from the crypts to the villi. The immunostaining pattern of MPP6 in epithelial cells was similar to that of E-cadherin, but differed from that of ZO-1. In intestinal epithelial cells, the immunostained area of MPP6 was slightly different from that of 4.1B, which was restricted to the intestinal villi. The immunolocalization of MPP6 in small intestinal epithelial cells was similar between 4.1B(-/-) mice and 4.1B(+/+) mice. In the immunoprecipitation study, another MAGUK family protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK), was shown to molecularly interact with MPP6. Thus, we herein showed the immunolocalization and interaction proteins of MPP6 in the mouse small intestine, and also that 4.1B in epithelial cells was not essential for the sorting of MPP6.

  18. Afferents of the lamprey optic tectum with special reference to the GABA input: combined tracing and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Brita; Saitoh, Kazuya; Ménard, Ariane; Grillner, Sten

    2006-11-01

    The optic tectum in the lamprey midbrain, homologue of the superior colliculus in mammals, is important for eye movement control and orienting responses. There is, however, only limited information regarding the afferent input to the optic tectum except for that from the eyes. The objective of this study was to define specifically the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic projections to the optic tectum in the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and also to describe the tectal afferent input in general. The origin of afferents to the optic tectum was studied by using the neuronal tracer neurobiotin. Injection of neurobiotin into the optic tectum resulted in retrograde labelling of cell groups in all major subdivisions of the brain. The main areas shown to project to the optic tectum were the following: the caudoventral part of the medial pallium, the area of the ventral thalamus and dorsal thalamus, the nucleus of the posterior commissure, the torus semicircularis, the mesencephalic M5 nucleus of Schober, the mesencephalic reticular area, the ishtmic area, and the octavolateral nuclei. GABAergic projections to the optic tectum were identified by combining neurobiotin tracing and GABA immunohistochemistry. On the basis of these double-labelling experiments, it was shown that the optic tectum receives a GABAergic input from the caudoventral part of the medial pallium, the dorsal and ventral thalamus, the nucleus of M5, and the torus semicircularis. The afferent input to the optic tectum in the lamprey brain is similar to that described for other vertebrate species, which is of particular interest considering its position in phylogeny. PMID:16958107

  19. The Glutamatergic Neurons in the Spinal Cord of the Sea Lamprey: An In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-López, Blanca; Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Valle-Maroto, Silvia M.; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter involved in spinal cord circuits in vertebrates, but in most groups the distribution of glutamatergic spinal neurons is still unknown. Lampreys have been extensively used as a model to investigate the neuronal circuits underlying locomotion. Glutamatergic circuits have been characterized on the basis of the excitatory responses elicited in postsynaptic neurons. However, the presence of glutamatergic neurochemical markers in spinal neurons has not been investigated. In this study, we report for the first time the expression of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey. We also study the distribution of glutamate in perikarya and fibers. The largest glutamatergic neurons found were the dorsal cells and caudal giant cells. Two additional VGLUT-positive gray matter populations, one dorsomedial consisting of small cells and another one lateral consisting of small and large cells were observed. Some cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells also expressed VGLUT. In the white matter, some edge cells and some cells associated with giant axons (Müller and Mauthner axons) and the dorsolateral funiculus expressed VGLUT. Large lateral cells and the cells associated with reticulospinal axons are in a key position to receive descending inputs involved in the control of locomotion. We also compared the distribution of glutamate immunoreactivity with that of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. Colocalization of glutamate and GABA or glycine was observed in some small spinal cells. These results confirm the glutamatergic nature of various neuronal populations, and reveal new small-celled glutamatergic populations, predicting that some glutamatergic neurons would exert complex actions on postsynaptic neurons. PMID:23110124

  20. Podoplanin expression in tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas: an immunohistochemical and fractal analysis study.

    PubMed

    Margaritescu, C; Raica, M; Pirici, D; Simionescu, C; Mogoanta, L; Stinga, A C; Stinga, A S; Ribatti, D

    2010-06-01

    Podoplanin is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in head and neck malignancies and its expression is not restricted to lymphatic vessel endothelium. The aim of this study was to establish podoplanin expression in the tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and to evaluate the geometric complexity of the lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa by utilizing fractal analysis. As concerns the podoplanin expression in noncancerous tissue, forty tumor-free resection margins from OSCCs were investigated utilizing immunohistochemistry for D2-40 antibody and image densitometry analysis. Podoplanin expression was extremely low in basal cells, especially in resection margins of OSCCs developed in the lower lip regions. However, a highly variable D2-40 expression in tumor-free resection margins associated with hyperplastic or dysplastic lesions was identified. Moreover, podoplanin expression also extended to the basal layer of the lower lip skin appendages, the myoepithelial cells of acini and ducts of minor salivary glands, and other structures from the oral cavity. As concerns the study of the density and complexity of oral lymphatic vessels architecture by means of immunohistochemistry (D2-40, CD31 and Ki-67 antibodies) and fractal analysis, we demonstrated that in normal oral mucosa the geometry of the lymphatic vessels was less complex at the level of the lower lip compared to the anterior part of the oral floor mucosa or the tongue. A comparative analysis between the normal and pathological aspects revealed statistically significant differences between the fractal dimension (FD) of the vessels' outline, especially in the tongue. Fractal analysis proved an increasing lymphatic network complexity from normal to premalignant oral mucosal lesions, providing additional prognostic information in oral malignant tumors. PMID:20376776

  1. Immunohistochemical studies on translocation of pollen S-haplotype determinant in self-incompatibility of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Megumi; Shiba, Hiroshi; Funato, Miyuki; Shimosato, Hiroko; Takayama, Seiji; Isogai, Akira

    2003-04-01

    The self-incompatibility system in Brassica is controlled by the S-locus, which contains S-receptor kinase (SRK) and S-locus protein 11 (SP11). SRK and SP11 control stigma and pollen S-haplotype specificity, respectively. SP11 binding to SRK induces the autophosphorylation of SRK, which triggers the signaling cascade that results in the rejection of self-pollen. The localization of SP11 protein during pollen development and pollination, however, have never been demonstrated. In this study, we examined the localization of S(8)-SP11 protein in the anther or pollinated stigma by immuno-electron microscopy. The immunostaining suggested that S(8)-SP11 was secreted from the tapetal cell into the anther locule as a cluster and translocated to the pollen surface at the early developmental stage of the anther. During the pollination process, SP11 was translocated from the pollen surface to the papilla cell, and then penetrated the cuticle layer of the papilla cell to diffuse across the pectin cellulose layer. Furthermore, SP11 protein could only penetrate the cuticle layer of the papilla cell in the presence of pollen grains, and could not penetrate on its own. This suggests that another factor from the pollen grain is needed for SP11 protein to penetrate the papilla cell wall.

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide in the rat central nervous system: an immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens

    2002-11-25

    In the present study the localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)-expressing cell bodies and PACAP projections were mapped in the adult rat brain and spinal cord by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization histochemistry. A widespread occurrence of PACAP-containing cell bodies was found, with the greatest accumulation in several hypothalamic nuclei and in several brainstem nuclei, especially the habenular nuclei, the pontine nucleus, the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB), and the vagal complex. PACAP was also present in cell bodies in the olfactory areas, in neocortical areas, in the hippocampus, in the vestibulo- and cochlear nuclei, in cell bodies of the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord and in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, in the subfornical organ, and in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. An intense accumulation of PACAP-immunoreactive (-IR) nerve fibers was observed throughout the hypothalamus, in the amydaloid and extended amygdaloid complex, in the anterior and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, in the intergeniculate leaflet, in the pretectum, and in several brainstem nuclei, such as the parabrachial nucleus, the sensory trigeminal nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. PACAP-IR nerve fibers were also found in the area postrema, the posterior pituitary and the choroid plexus, and the dorsal and ventral horn of the spinal cord. The widespread distribution of PACAP in the brain and spinal cord suggests that PACAP is involved in the control of many autonomic and sensory functions as well as higher cortical processes.

  3. Morphologic, immunohistochemical, immunologic, ultrastructural, and time-related study of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helle L; Norrild, Bodil

    2002-03-01

    Membrane glycoproteins of enveloped animal viruses are synthesized, processed, and transported inside infected cells. Expression of viral glycoproteins on the surface of viral particles and host cells are essential for many biologic functions. In the case of herpes simplex virus, the glycoprotein molecules may act as nucleation points for virus assembly and budding at the nuclear membrane. The temporal distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 particles and glycoproteins in cultured human fibroblasts was studied by titration plaque assay, immunoblots, immunofluorescence light microscopy, and immunogold cryosection electron microscopy to describe the virus-cell interactions. These concordant analyses revealed significant release of infectious viral particles to the medium at 6 hours postinfection, that the capacity of the host cells to make infectious viral particles was complete at 18 hours postinfection, and that the infection brought time-related modifications of tubulin, cell morphology, and viral glycoproteins. The data presented is in accord with the theory of envelopment at the nuclear membranes containing immature glycoproteins followed by multiple deenvelopments and reenvelopments of the virus particles during the transport and maturation in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex.

  4. Influence of food consistency and dental extractions on the rat mandibular condyle: a morphological, histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Endo, Y; Mizutani, H; Yasue, K; Senga, K; Ueda, M

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between food consistency and the growth of the mandibular condyle in rats. Secondly, the effect of dental extractions on cartilage of the mandibular condyle was examined in young adult rats fed foods of varying consistency. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (A) Solid diet--non-Extraction (non-Ext.) group; (B) Solid diet--Extraction (Ext.) group; (C) Powder diet--non-Ext. group; and (D) Powder diet--Ext. group. Extractions were performed at 12 weeks of age. The mandibular condyles were removed at 1, 4, and 8 weeks after the extractions. The shape of the mandibular condyles in the powder diet groups (C and D) was significantly narrower. In the Ext. groups (B and D), the thickness of the hypertrophic zone was reduced one week after the extractions. In the powder diet groups (C and D), the intensity of the staining of fibronectin decreased in the proliferative zone regardless of the extractions. In group B, a decreased intensity of this reaction was observed one week after the extractions. From these results, it appeared that food consistency and/or dental extractions affected the morphology of the mandibular condyle and the histological characteristics of the mandibular condylar cartilage.

  5. Pathology of the thymus after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in man. A histologic immunohistochemical study of 36 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Hermelink, H. K.; Sale, G. E.; Borisch, B.; Storb, R.

    1987-01-01

    A major hypothesis to explain the immunodeficiency associated with bone marrow transplantation states that thymic epithelial damage due to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) abrogates or delays the recovery of normal immunologic function. This study evaluated the thymus glands of 36 human bone marrow transplant recipients dying between 4 and 1742 days after transplant using histology, histochemistry, and immunohistology. The observations lead to a model of thymic damage by irradiation, chemotherapy, and GVHD in which early injury by all three of these agents results in profound thymic atrophy followed by long-delayed restitution. Patients undergoing total body irradiation showed more severe damage to thymic cortical and medullary epithelium than did patients undergoing chemotherapy alone as preparation for transplantation. Patients with GVHD showed additional damage in the form of individual thymic epithelial cell death and showed HLA-DR surface protein expression on thymic epithelium during GVHD. Longer-term survivors showed a profoundly delayed restitution of normal thymic epithelium and delayed evidence of restored lymphopoiesis. A few patients dying late after transplant showed evidence of reconstitution of normal thymic structure or nodules of lymphopoiesis in focal areas of epithelial-cell reconstitution. Evidence of such lymphopoiesis was seen at times ranging between 90 and 1742 days after grafting. The data are consistent with a model of long-standing thymic damage caused by GVHD which is reversible after the development of tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3314529

  6. Immunohistochemical study of cyclins D and E and cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) 2 and 4 in human endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Sasano, H; Yoshida, Y; Sato, S; Yajima, A

    1998-01-01

    We studied the immunolocalization of cyclins D1 and E and their corresponding partner cyclin dependent kinases (cdk), cdk4 and cdk2 in 39 cases of human endometrioid endometrial carcinoma and examined the correlations between the labeling indexes of the cyclins, cdks and clinicopathologic parameters and the clinical outcome of the patients. Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in the nuclei of tumor cells in 22/39 (56%) of the cases examined. Immunoreactivity for cyclin E, cdk2, and cdk4 was detected in carcinoma cells of 37/39 (95%), 39/39 and 36/39 cases, respectively. There were no significant correlations between the labeling indices of any of the parameters examined. Cyclins D1 and E labeling indices were not significantly correlated with any of the clinicopathologic parameters examined. However, there was a significant correlation between cdk2 labeling index and the histological grade of carcinoma (p < 0.0001), and a significant correlation (p = 0.015) was also detected between the cdk4 labeling index and pathologic stages. There was no significant difference in clinical outcome of the patients according to the cyclin and ckd4 immunostaining patterns. These results indicate that cdk2 and cdk4 overexpression may be involved in the development and/or progression of human endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. PMID:9673386

  7. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  8. Pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) of the breast. An immunohistochemical, flow cytometric, and ultrastructural study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ballance, W A; Ro, J Y; el-Naggar, A K; Grignon, D J; Ayala, A G; Romsdahl, M G

    1990-06-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (or benign mixed tumor) of the breast is a rare benign neoplasm that might be misinterpreted both clinically and pathologically as a malignant tumor. The authors present an additional case of this unusual lesion studied by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. A 77-year-old white woman presented with a 2-cm, nontender, mobile, calcified, right subareolar mass suggestive of a fibroadenoma. Microscopically, the tumor resembled a pleomorphic adenoma occurring in salivary glands. Positive immunostaining for S-100 protein, cytokeratin, and muscle-specific actin, as well as the ultrastructural presence of intermediate filaments with dense bodies and intercellular junctions, supported the predominant myoepithelial cell differentiation within the tumor, whereas the epithelial cell component stained only with cytokeratin and contained formed lumina with surface microvilli. The DNA pattern was diploid. The patient is alive and well 14 months after surgery. The authors' findings confirm that pleomorphic adenoma of the breast is a benign neoplasm in which myoepithelial cell proliferation plays a major role in tumorigenesis.

  9. Development of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts: a combined immunohistochemical and autoradiographic study of its time course and environmental influences

    SciTech Connect

    Abrous, N.; Guy, J.; Vigny, A.; Calas, A.; Le Moal, M.; Herman, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain a description of some aspects of the development of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts, namely, the time course of the glial reaction and its relation to cell division on one hand, and the development of graft-originated innervation and its dependence on adequate matching of the implanted neurons and target site on the other hand. Cell suspensions obtained from the mesencephalon or hypothalamus of embryonic day (ED) 14 rat embryos were implanted into the striatum or lateral hypothalamus of adult rats following the destruction of the nigrostriatal system of the hosts. Animals were sacrificed at different postimplantation times, and the development of the graft was followed by immunohistochemistry by using antisera directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA). Furthermore, the existence of cell division at various times following implantation was examined by performing autoradiography on immunostained sections after prior intraventricular administration of 3H-thymidine to the host. The first stage of the development of intracerebral grafts was characterized by the existence of intense cell division within the grafted tissue, lasting about 2 weeks, and also in the host tissue surrounding the graft, lasting only about 6 days. The cell division in the host tissue was paralleled by the existence of a strong glial reaction which, however, did not extend into the graft itself. Glial reaction in the host tissue gradually decreased at later times and disappeared by 4 weeks postimplantation without leaving behind a noticeable glial scar. The graft itself was, however, transiently filled with a population of reactive astroglial cells between 3 and 6 weeks postimplantation. Within grafts of mesencephalic tissue located in the striatum TH-positive neurons were distributed evenly at short times postimplantation (2-6 days).

  10. The role of ovarian surface epithelium in folliculogenesis during fetal development of the bovine ovary: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, R A M; Vermehren, M; Ebach, K; Sinowatz, F

    2013-01-01

    Although many aspects of ovarian differentiation have been established, comparatively little is known about prenatal follicle formation and differentiation of bovine ovaries. The objective of this investigation was to study the role of the surface epithelium during the development of germ cell nests, germ cell cords and follicle formation in the fetal bovine ovary. Associated important proliferation and apoptotic features were further investigated. Additionally, the expression pattern of the S100 protein was detected. A strong increase of mitotic figures was detected in the surface epithelium, germ cell nests and germ cell cords of ovaries with a crown-rump length (CRL) of 13.0-58.0 cm. Oocytes were positively stained with S100 in bovine ovaries from fetuses with a CRL of 21.0 cm. The staining intensity enhanced parallel to increasing oocyte and follicle sizes during the ovary development. In later stages, a strong staining for S100 was observed in healthy oocytes in contradistinction to atretic oocytes where no expression of the S100 protein could be found. In conclusion, increasing mitosis index of surface epithelium cells, as well as oogonia directly beneath the surface epithelium, in combination with open surface connection during stages from a CRL of 11.0-94.0 cm of bovine fetal ovaries could play an important role in the period of time of ongoing folliculogenesis and derivation of granulosa cells. Additionally, S100-positive oocytes in primordial and later follicle stages joined by a high rate of Ki67-positive index in surrounding granulosa cells indicate that in the oocytes the S100 protein can perhaps be a useful marker for intact oocytes in bovine ovaries.

  11. SOX10 and Olig2 as negative markers for the diagnosis of ependymomas: An immunohistochemical study of 98 glial tumors.

    PubMed

    Švajdler, Marián; Rychlý, Boris; Mezencev, Roman; Fröhlichová, Lucia; Bednárová, Antónia; Pataky, František; Daum, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    SOX10 belongs to the family of transcription factors essential for the development of neural crest, peripheral nervous system and melanocytes. It is presently used in histopathology as a marker of melanocytic differentiation. SOX10 is expressed in normal brain tissue in oligodendrocytes, but the information about SOX10 expression in primary tumors of the central nervous system is quite limited. In this study, we examined the expression of SOX10 and Olig2 by immunohistochemistry in a series of 98 glial tumors and explored their specificity and sensitivity for differential diagnosis of ependymal vs non-ependymal tumors. In addition, we examined the expression of EMA and CD99 in ependymal tumors. SOX10 and Olig2 staining were scored as negative if no positive cells or only a few positive cells (typically up to 1-3%) were found. In all other instances, SOX10 or Olig2 staining was scored as positive. Out of 44 examined ependymal tumors none was found to express SOX10 and 7 specimens showed only a few SOX10-positive cells that likely corresponded to entrapped non-neoplastic oligodendrocytes. In contrast, non-ependymal tumors expressed SOX10 in 26/54 (48%) specimens. Olig2 was positive in 5 out of 44 ependymomas (11%) and 50 out of 54 (93%) non-ependymal tumors (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas). EMA and CD99 expression was found in 33/44 (75%) and 11/44 (25%) of ependymomas, respectively. SOX10-positivity rules out the diagnosis of ependymoma among other glial tumors with high confidence. PMID:26287936

  12. Frequency and histogenesis of pelvic retroperitoneal lymph node inclusions of the female genital tract. An immunohistochemical study of 34 cases.

    PubMed

    Horn, L C; Bilek, K

    1995-10-01

    Heterotopic tissue in lymph nodes is rare. Benign glandular lymph node inclusions (BGI) occur in 11.4% on average. Their histogenesis is still obscure. We studied 34 out of 1,039 cases of retroperitoneal lymph nodes with BGI (3.35%) of women who were treated by radical hysterectomy by Wertheim-Meigs of a cervical carcinoma. The nodes were reexamined by light microscopy and in 19 cases the antibodies MAK 6 (cytokeratine cocktail), HEA 125, Ber EP-4 (for differentiation between mesothelium and glandular differentiation), vimentin and CEA were additionally used. All BGI showed a strong expression of MAK 6 and in 57.9% and 73.7% to HEA 125 and Ber EP-4, respectively. Positive reaction against vimentin occured in 47.3%, but often only single cells were positive. None but one metastasis of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri of BGI expressed CEA. The BGI showed a capsular, trabecular or interfollicular location in more than 80% and in 44.1% an admixture of several cells at the lining epithelium was noted. No features usually associated with endometriosis, such as periglandular stroma or evidence of recent or old hemorrhage were seen. The results suggest that the BGI represent an endosalpingiosis and is therefore of secondary Müllerian origin. Some light microscopic features favoring the benign origin (location in the nodes, lining cells of multiple types, lack of mitoses and cellular atypism, no desmoplastic stroma reaction, presence of periglandular basement membrane) may be helpful in distinguishing metastasis of serous ovarian borderline tumors. Negative reaction against CEA and the cellular morphology can preclude metastases of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri as well as of a mucinous ovarian borderline tumor.

  13. Seasonal morphological variations and age-related changes of the seminal vesicle of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Eduardo M; Aguilera-Merlo, Claudia; Cruceño, Albana; Fogal, Teresa; Piezzi, Ramón; Scardapane, Luis; Dominguez, Susana

    2012-05-01

    The viscacha is a seasonal rodent that exhibit an annual reproductive cycle with periods of maximum reproductive activity and gonadal regression. We studied seasonal variations in the morphology and cellular population of the seminal vesicles (SVs) during both periods and in impuber animals. Seminal vesicles were studied by light and electronic microscopy. Measurements of epithelial height, nuclear diameter, luminal diameter, and muscular layer were performed. Also, we studied the distribution of androgen receptors (AR) in this gland during the reproductive cycle and in impuber animal. During gonadal regression, principal and clear cells showed signs of reduced functional activity. These were characterized by an epithelium of smaller height, irregular nuclei, and cytoplasm with few organelles, dilated cisterns, and glycogen granules. In impuber animals, the principal cells showed large nuclei with chromatin lax and cytoplasm with small mitochondria, poorly developed Golgi apparatus, and granules of glycogen. On the other hand, the cells exhibited seasonal variations in the distribution and percentage of immunolabeled cells to AR throughout the annual reproductive cycle. During the gonadal regression period, glandular mucosa exhibited numerous epithelial cells with intense nuclear staining. However, fibromuscular stromal cells were weakly positive for AR in contrast to what was observed during the activity period. Considering that testosterone values are lower in adult animals during the period of gonadal regression and in impuber animals, our immunohistochemical results show a significant correlation with the percentage of AR-immunopositive cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the structure of the SVs changes in the activity period of viscacha, probably because of elevated levels of testosterone leading to an increase in the secretory activity of epithelial cells.

  14. Effects of prolonged infusion of basic fibroblast growth factor and IGF-I on adrenocortical differentiation in the autotransplanted adrenal: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vendeira, P; Pignatelli, D; Neves, D; Magalhães, M M; Magalhães, M C; Vinson, G P

    1999-07-01

    Adrenocortical regeneration after adrenal autotransplantation provides a model for the study of local autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involved in the growth and differentiation of the adrenal cortex. To study the possible involvement of some growth factors, namely basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), in cell differentiation, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were carried out on adrenal autotransplants in adult male rats. To distinguish between fasciculata and glomerulosa-like cells with accuracy, tissue sections were immunostained with IZAb, which recognizes the inner zone antigen (IZAg) present in fasciculata and reticularis cells but absent from the glomerulosa, and by electron microscopy. IGF-I-treated animals exhibited a clear glomerulosa-like zone that was devoid of IZAb immunostaining. In this outer subcapsular area, ultrastructural examination showed cells containing mitochondria with irregular cristae resembling those of the fetal or immature glomerulosa cells. In contrast, no significant morphological differences were observed in bFGF-treated animals when compared with those from saline-treated controls, in both of which, IZAb immunostaining occurred in almost all adrenocortical cells, with no clear zonation or glomerulosa, as seen in the intact animal. Plasma aldosterone and corticosterone concentrations were lower in autotransplanted control animals than in intact controls, although plasma renin activities were similar. IGF-I treatment significantly increased aldosterone concentrations, whereas corticosterone and plasma renin activity were reduced. bFGF infusion further reduced plasma aldosterone, although plasma renin activity and corticosterone were unaffected. These results suggest that the two growth factors have different effects on zonal differentiation and function in the autotransplanted gland. In particular, bFGF, by reducing glomerulosa function, appears partly to replicate the

  15. Development of automated quantification methodologies of immunohistochemical markers to determine patterns of immune response in breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    López, Carlos; Callau, Cristina; Bosch, Ramon; Korzynska, Anna; Jaén, Joaquín; García-Rojo, Marcial; Bueno, Gloria; Salvadó, Mª Teresa; Álvaro, Tomás; Oños, Montse; Fernández-Carrobles, María del Milagro; Llobera, Montserrat; Baucells, Jordi; Orero, Guifré; Lejeune, Marylène

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lymph nodes are one of the main sites where an effective immune response develops. Normally, axillary nodes are the first place where breast cancer produces metastases. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of immune cells, especially dendritic cells, in the evolution of breast cancer. The goal of the project is to identify differences in the patterns of immune infiltrates, with particular emphasis on dendritic cells, in tumour and axillary node biopsies between patients with and without metastases in the axillary nodes at the time of diagnosis. It is expected that these differences will be able to explain differences in survival, relapse and clinicopathological variables between the two groups. Methods and analysis The study will involve 100 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2007, 50% of whom have metastases in the axillary lymph node at diagnosis. In selected patients, two cylinders from biopsies of representative areas of tumour and axillary nodes (with and without metastasis) will be selected and organised in tissue microarrays. Samples will be stained using immunohistochemical techniques for different markers of immune response and dendritic cells. Two images of each cylinder will be captured under standardised conditions for each marker. Each marker will be quantified automatically by digital image procedures using Image-Pro Plus and Image-J software. Associations of survival, relapse and other clinicopathological variables with the automatically quantified levels of immune infiltrates in patients with and without axillary node metastasis will be sought. Ethics and dissemination The present project has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII (Ref: 22p/2011). Those patients whose biopsies and clinical data are to be used will give their signed informed consent. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:25091015

  16. The Y-organ secretory activity fluctuates in relation to seasons of molt and reproduction in the brachyuran crab, Metopograpsus messor (Grapsidae): Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shyamal, Sharmishtha; Sudha, K; Gayathri, N; Anilkumar, G

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a first-time report on the localization, structure and seasonal secretory activity of the Y-organ of a grapsid brachyuran crab (Metopograpsus messor). Having exhibited discrete seasonality with reference to the programming of molt and reproduction, this brachyuran crab has offered us an excellent model to obtain a clear picture of the fluctuating secretory nature of the Yorgan, all the way through the reproductive (August-December) as well as the molt-reproduction active (January-May) and inactive (June-July) seasons. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the secretion of the Y-organ was at its peak in premolt crabs during molt-reproduction season (January-May). Interestingly, the Y-organs of the intermolt females that engaged in breeding activity showed higher levels of secretion than those of the molt-reproduction inactive season (June-July), implicating the gland's involvement in reproduction. Immunohistochemical studies using the antiserum raised against 2-succinyl conjugate of ecdysone have demonstrated the ecdysteroid nature of the secretion from the Y-organ, and results of the quantitative assay of ecdysteroids (through radioimmunoassay) revealed that the hormone titer fluctuates in consonance with the Y-organ's secretory activity during seasons of molt and reproduction. Pertinently, not only that the paper gives us a comprehensive understanding on the secretory activity of the Y-organ in a season-dependent fashion, it also allows us to have a better insight into the gland's function related to molting and reproduction (for the first time) in a grapsid brachyuran crab.

  17. Sialoblastoma: clinicopathological/immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Brandwein, M; Said-Al-Naief, N; Said Al-Naeif, N; Manwani, D; Som, P; Goldfeder, L; Rothschild, M; Granowetter, L

    1999-03-01

    Sialoblastoma is an extremely rare salivary tumor diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter with significant variability in histologic range and clinical course, so that for an individual case it may be difficult to predict the most appropriate therapy. We detail the case of a toddler noted to have a firm 1-2-cm mass in the left cheek at 21 months. Parotidectomy was performed at 26 months, revealing a sialoblastoma; the resection margins were positive. During the next 10 months, the mass recurred or persisted, necessitating numerous procedures. The tumor was composed of basaloid cells with fine chromatin and other more mature cuboidal epithelial cells. Ductules and solid organoid nests with some tendency toward peripheral pallisading were also noted. There was no perineural invasion; necrosis initially was sparse but increased over time. The mitotic rate also increased from 6 to 7/10 high-power fields in the first resection to 20/10 high-power fields in the last resection. Nuclear pleomorphism increased with time. The MiB1 proliferative index revealed a dramatic increase in the number of labeled nuclei: from 3 cells/10 high-power fields in the first specimen to 94 cells/10 high-power fields for the last specimen. Cytokeratin accentuated the ductal structures. S-100 showed a diffuse staining pattern, with darker staining of the spindled myoepithelial cells. The Her-2-neu protein showed moderate cytoplasmic staining, whereas the p53 showed only occasional labeling of nuclei. This is the first case of sialoblastoma with evidence of increasing anaplasia based on increasing proliferative capacity. Therefore, the distinction between benign and malignant sialoblastomas may not be as well defined as previously thought. The patient's prognosis is likely to be determined by the tumor grade as well as the stage at presentation and the extent of resection.

  18. C4d staining as immunohistochemical marker in inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis of an inflammatory myopathy is often established based on basic histologic studies. Additional immunohistochemical studies are sometimes required to support the diagnosis and the classification of inflammatory myopathies. Staining for major histocompatibility complex 1 (MHC1) often shows increased sarcolemmal labeling in inflammatory myopathies. Endomysial capillary staining C5b-9 (membrane attack complex) is a feature that is reported as frequently associated with dermatomyositis. Immunohistochemical staining for C4d is widely used for various applications including the assessment of antibody-mediated rejection after solid organ transplantation. In the context of dermatomyositis, C4d staining has been described in skin biopsies but not in muscle biopsies. A total of 32 muscle biopsy specimens were examined. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed, and immunohistochemical studies for MHC1, C5b-9, and C4d were conducted. The staining observed for C5b-9 and C4d was compared. Overall, the staining pattern for C4d mirrored the one observed for C5b-9 in the examined muscle biopsy specimens. There was high and statistically significant (P<0.0001) correlation between the staining seen with these 2 antibodies. Both antibodies labeled the cytoplasm of degenerating necrotic myofibers. In addition, both antibodies showed distinct endomysial capillary labeling in a subset of dermatomyositis. Areas with perifascicular atrophy often exhibited the most prominent vascular labeling for C4d and C5b-9. In conclusion, C4d and C5b-9 show similar expression patterns in muscle biopsies of patients with inflammatory myopathies and both highlight the presence of vascular labeling associated with dermatomyositis. C4d antibodies are widely used and may offer an alternative for C5b-9 staining.

  19. Effect of Potassium Bromate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat and A Possible Protective Role of Vitamin C: Histological, Immunohistochemical, and Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Soliman, Gehan M; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2016-09-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is a food additive which is used primarily as a maturing agent for flour. It is proved as a toxic agent with significant reduction in the activities of antioxidant capacity. The therapeutic efficacy of vitamin C as antioxidant may provide a possible solution to KBrO3 mediated oxidative damage. Twenty four adult male albino rats were used to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against KBrO3 induced hepatotoxicity and divided into four groups; Group 1 (control), Group 2: received 30 mg/Kg/day vitamin C orally for 4 weeks, Group 3: received 20 mg/Kg/dose KBrO3 orally twice weekly for 4 weeks and Group 4: received both KBrO3 and vitamin C. Liver specimens were processed for histological study by light and electron microscopes and stained immunohistochemically to detect glial fibriller acidic protein (GFAP). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were estimated as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all dissected tissues were determined. KBrO3 induced histological alterations in the form of degeneration, cellular infiltration and significant increase in collagen deposition in portal tracts with a significant increase in immunoexpression of GFAP. Significant rise in serum levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in liver tissues were recorded. However, levels of GSH and SOD were significantly decreased. Most of these changes were improved by vitamin C treatment. In conclusion, vitamin C ameliorates the histological and biochemical alterations of the liver induced by KBrO3 . Anat Rec, 299:1256-1269, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. What difference exists in the pancreas of mammals with sanguivorous diet? A morphological, stereological and immunohistochemical study of the pancreatic islets of the hematophagous bat Diphylla ecaudata.

    PubMed

    Machado-Santos, Clarice; Aquino, Júlio César Fraulob; Mikalauka, Jefferson Simanas; Abidu-Figueiredo, Marcelo; Mendes, Rosa Maria Marcos; Sales, Armando

    2013-05-10

    Diphylla ecaudata is a vampire bat that mainly feeds on the blood of birds. This highly specialized diet - hematophagy - is accompanied by a series of morphological changes in the gastro-entero-pancreatic system, since the distribution and relative proportions of different pancreatic endocrine cell types can vary between species due to different physiological conditions and eating habits. The aim of this study was to examine for the first time the pancreas of the vampire bat D. ecaudata using morphological, stereological and immunohistochemical techniques. The pancreas of the D. ecaudata has an exocrine acinar portion in which the highest concentration of pancreatic islets is scattered. These pancreatic islets have irregular size and a mean diameter of 56.94 μm. The total number of islets in the pancreas was 23,900, with a volumetric density of 4.1%. Insulin-immunoreactive (IR) cells were located in the central pancreatic islet region and had the largest density (54.8%). Glucagon-IR cells were located mainly in the peripheral mantle region (16.2%), along with somatostatin-IR (SS) cells (14.3%). Cells immunoreactive to insulin, glucagon and somatostatin were also observed to have spread in isolated places in the exocrine pancreas. In the connective tissue near the pancreatic ducts, a high concentration was identified of insulin-IR cells and a low concentration of glucagon-IR and somatostatin-IR cells. These results indicate that although the pancreas of D. ecaudata has morphological similarities with that of other mammals, it has a differentiated islet structure, because there were a large number of islets and different volumetric densities of α, β and δ cells. PMID:23500834

  1. Expression of platelet derived growth factor B chain and beta receptor in human coronary arteries after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Tanizawa, S.; Ueda, M.; van der Loos, C. M.; van der Wal, A. C.; Becker, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether expression of platelet derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) protein is associated with expression of its receptor protein in human coronary arteries after angioplasty and to identify cells involved. BACKGROUND: PDGF is considered an important growth factor in the repair process of the vessel wall after angioplasty. In situ hybridisation has revealed expression of PDGF-A and -B chain messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in human coronary arteries at sites of postangioplasty injury. METHODS: Target and non-target sites of eight coronary arteries were studied immunohistochemically for PDGF-B and PDGF-beta receptor proteins in relation to macrophages, T lymphocytes, smooth muscle cells, and HLA-DR positive cells. RESULTS: The PDGF-B and PDGF-beta receptor proteins were expressed in areas with distinct repair, containing alpha actin negative spindle cells, macrophages and, at later stages, alpha actin positive smooth muscle cells as well. When the neointima was composed mainly of alpha actin smooth muscle cells, PDGF-B expression was rare and PDGF-beta receptor expression was negative. CONCLUSIONS: There is expression of PDGF-B and PDGF-beta receptor proteins at sites of postangioplasty repair in human coronary arteries. The associated cells are mainly macrophages and alpha actin negative spindle cells; the latter may be dedifferentiated smooth muscle cells. A link between PDGF expression and the postangioplasty time interval suggests a relation with cell differentiation as part of the maturation of the repair tissue. Mutual expression of both the growth factor and its receptor protein strongly suggests that in humans a PDGF mediated repair process occurs, with involvement of smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Images PMID:8697155

  2. "Type III" cells of rat taste buds: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of neuron-specific enolase, protein gene product 9.5, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Yee, C L; Yang, R; Böttger, B; Finger, T E; Kinnamon, J C

    2001-11-01

    Taste buds contain a variety of morphological and histochemical types of elongate cells. Serotonin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase (PGP 9.5), and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) all have been described as being present in the morphologically defined Type III taste cells in rats. In order to determine whether these substances coexist in a single cell, we undertook immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of taste buds in rats. Double-label studies show that PGP 9.5 and NSE always colocalize. In contrast, PGP 9.5 and serotonin seldom colocalize. Further, whereas the serotonin-immunoreactive cells are always slender and elongate, the PGP 9.5/NSE population comprise two morphological types--one slender, the other broader and pyriform. Although gustducin-immunoreactive taste cells appear similar in overall shape to the pyriform PGP 9.5/NSE population, gustducin never colocalizes with PGP 9.5 or NSE. The serotonin-immunoreactive taste cells have an invaginated nucleus, synaptic contacts with nerve fibers, and taper apically to a single, large microvillus. These are all characteristics of Type III taste cells described previously in rabbits (Murray [1973] Ultrastructure of Sensory Organs I. Amsterdam: North Holland. p 1-81). PGP 9.5-immunoreactive taste cells exhibit two morphological varieties. One type is similar to the serotonin-immunoreactive population, containing an invaginated nucleus, synapses with nerve fibers, and a single large microvillus. The other type of PGP 9.5-immunoreactive taste cell has a large round nucleus and the apical end of the cell tapers to a tuft of short microvilli, which are characteristics of Type II taste cells. Thus, in rats, some Type III cells accumulate serotonin but do not express PGP 9.5, whereas others express PGP 9.5 but do not accumulate amines. Similarly, Type II taste cells come in at least two varieties: those immunoreactive for gustducin and those immunoreactive for PGP 9.5.

  3. Effect of Potassium Bromate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat and A Possible Protective Role of Vitamin C: Histological, Immunohistochemical, and Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Soliman, Gehan M; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2016-09-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is a food additive which is used primarily as a maturing agent for flour. It is proved as a toxic agent with significant reduction in the activities of antioxidant capacity. The therapeutic efficacy of vitamin C as antioxidant may provide a possible solution to KBrO3 mediated oxidative damage. Twenty four adult male albino rats were used to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against KBrO3 induced hepatotoxicity and divided into four groups; Group 1 (control), Group 2: received 30 mg/Kg/day vitamin C orally for 4 weeks, Group 3: received 20 mg/Kg/dose KBrO3 orally twice weekly for 4 weeks and Group 4: received both KBrO3 and vitamin C. Liver specimens were processed for histological study by light and electron microscopes and stained immunohistochemically to detect glial fibriller acidic protein (GFAP). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were estimated as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all dissected tissues were determined. KBrO3 induced histological alterations in the form of degeneration, cellular infiltration and significant increase in collagen deposition in portal tracts with a significant increase in immunoexpression of GFAP. Significant rise in serum levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in liver tissues were recorded. However, levels of GSH and SOD were significantly decreased. Most of these changes were improved by vitamin C treatment. In conclusion, vitamin C ameliorates the histological and biochemical alterations of the liver induced by KBrO3 . Anat Rec, 299:1256-1269, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27373450

  4. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF TRIPLE NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER.

    PubMed

    Lesar, Miroslav; Stanec, Mladen; Lesar, Nikola; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir; Zore, Zvonimir; Banović, Marija; Brozović, Gordana

    2016-03-01

    Based on immunohistochemical staining for the basal markers cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6), cytokeratin 14 (CK 14) and P-cadherin, triple negative tumors (TNT) are divided into two groups: 1) basal-like (BL) positive for one or all three markers; and 2) non basal-like (NBL) negative for all three markers. Even though the different origin of the cells of these two types of tumors implies different biological properties, they had been treated as one entity until recently. This paper analyzes TNT collected from 150 patients and distributed into two groups according to the results of immunohistochemical analysis, i.e. BL 116 (77.3%) and NBL 34 (22.67%). In this study, CK 5/6, CK 14 and P-cadherin were used as markers for identifying BL tumors. The immunohistochemical reaction was positive for CK 5/6 in 37%, for CK 14 in 50.86% and for P-cadherin in 68.34% of cases. The subclassification of triple negative breast cancer using the basal markers CK 5/6, CK 14 and P-cadherin has enabled identification of BL and NBL breast cancers in a proportion that is in line with the only accurate analysis of TNT gene expression. Using the mentioned combination of markers in daily practice is easy to perform and economically affordable. PMID:27333711

  5. Histochemical and immunohistochemical characteristics of elastofibromas.

    PubMed

    Tasli, F; Vardar, E; Argon, A; Kabat, T; Deniz, S; Nart, A; Kececi, Y

    2014-06-01

    Elastofibromas are slow-growing and rare soft-tissue tumors. The etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms are still controversial and there are only a few studies in the literature investigating the histochemical, immunohistochemical, and genetic features to determine the pathogenesis. We investigated the cellular composition of lesions with a diagnosis of elastofibroma in 17 patients by using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. There were 17 cases with a mean age of 53.5 years. Mean lesion diameter was 6.6 cm. The immunohistochemical method showed vimentin and factor XIIIa positivity in all cases. Four cases had focal myoglobin positivity in the spindle-shaped cells between the collagen fibers. Spindle cells were positive for CD34 in 8 cases. Smooth muscle actin, desmin, type 4 collagen and laminin were negative in all cases. The elastic nature of the abnormal fibers was shown histoch with Verhoeff elastin staining and aldehyde fuchsin staining in all cases. Our results have shown that the concurrent positivity of factor XIIIa and CD34 in the cells forming the lesion might show that the lesionoriginates from primitive dermal mesenchymal cells. In addition, the myoglobin positivity found in some cases indicates the possibility of a myofibroblastic origin of elastofibromas. PMID:25119171

  6. Assessment of candidate immunohistochemical prognostic markers of meningioma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Csonka, T; Murnyák, B; Szepesi, R; Bencze, J; Bognár, L; Klekner, A; Hortobágyi, T

    2016-01-01

    Although tumour recurrence is an important and not infrequent event in meningiomas, predictive immunohistochemical markers have not been identified yet. The aim of this study was to address this clinically relevant problem by systematic retrospective analysis of surgically completely resected meningiomas with and without recurrence, including tumour samples from patients who underwent repeat surgeries. Three established immunohistochemical markers of routine pathological meningioma work-up have been assessed: the proliferative marker Ki-67 (clone Mib1), the tumour suppressor gene p53 and progesterone receptor (PR). All these proteins correlate with the tumour WHO grade, however the predictive value regarding recurrence and progression in tumour grade is unknown. One hundred and fourteen surgical specimens of 70 meningioma patients (16 male and 54 female) in a 16 years' interval have been studied. All tumours had apparently complete surgical removal. On Mib1, PR and p53 immunostained sections, the percentage of labelled tumour cells, the staining intensity and the multiplied values of these parameters (the histoscore) was calculated. Results were statistically correlated with tumour WHO grade, (sub)type, recurrence and progression in WHO grade at subsequent biopsies. Our results confirmed previous findings that the WHO grade is directly proportional to Mib1 and p53 and is inversely proportional to the PR immunostain. We have demonstrated that Mib1 and p53 have a significant correlation with and predictive value of relapse/recurrence irrespective of the histological subtype of the same WHO grade. As a quantitative marker, Mib1 has the best correlation with a percentage of labelled cells, whereas p53 with intensity and histoscore. In conclusion, the immunohistochemical panel of PR, p53, Mib1 in parallel with applying standard diagnostic criteria based on H and E stained sections is sufficient and reliable to predict meningioma recurrence in surgically completely

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of type VI collagen in superficial fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Magro, G; Colombatti, A; Lanzafame, S

    1995-10-01

    The expression of type VI collagen was studied immunohistochemically in 26 cases of superficial fibromatoses (palmar, plantar and penile) using an immunoperoxidase method for light microscopic visualization. The polyclonal antibody against type VI collagen used in this study was isolated from human placenta and its specifity was tested by immunoblotting assay. All cases consisted of multiple nodules showing a variable degree of cellularity and fibrosis. Depending on the predominant histological appearance of these nodules, each case was assigned to the three following phases: proliferative, involutional and residual. Morphologically normal palmar and plantar aponeuroses were included as controls. Immunohistochemical findings showed that type VI collagen was present as longitudinal thin fibers in normal palmar and plantar aponeuroses. A differential expression of this collagen was found in the different stages of superficial fibromatoses. Type VI collagen was markedly expressed as a distinct fibrillar network in the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding proliferating stromal cells in proliferative and involutional phases. Its expression completely disappeared from the connective tissue undergoing fibrotic transformation during involutional and residual phases. The results of the present study suggest that type VI collagen is an extracellular marker of stromal tissue proliferation and is involved in the early phases of tissue remodelling occurring in the superficial fibromatoses.

  8. Including the Study about Religions in the Social Studies Curriculum: A Position Statement and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilzer, Robert J., Jr.

    Based on a National Council for the Social Studies position statement on the essentials of social studies, a rationale for teaching about religions in the social studies is presented. The author's rationale includes the following points: (1) that knowledge about religion is not only characteristic of an educated person but also necessary for…

  9. Radiological, histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of periapical inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Berar, Antonela Marcela; Bondor, Cosmina Ioana; Matroş, LuminiŢa; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-01-01

    The loss of teeth is largely caused by supporting tissue damage, because of bacterial invasion from the infected root canals. Sixty patients with periapical lesions (PLs) of endodontic origin were included in the study. Clinical and radiological examination was performed. Periapical radiographs were analyzed by two independent observers to determine the size and severity of PLs, using Periapical Index (PAI) scores. The tissue samples collected by periapical curettage during apicoectomy or after dental extractions by alveolar curettage were histologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. The PLs were histologically diagnosed as: periapical granulomas (PGs), granulomas with cystic potential and radicular cysts (RCs) with various degrees of inflammation. Capillary density was evaluated using the angiogenic index after immunohistochemical staining with CD34 monoclonal antibody. A statistically significant correlation was observed between PAI scores and the size of the lesions. 68.33% of cases were PGs, 18.33% PGs with cystic potential and 18.33% RCs with different degrees of inflammation. Seventy-five percent PLs had an angiogenic index 1 and 25% had an angiogenic index 2. Statistically significant differences were obtained between the angiogenic index and lesion size (p<0.05). Capillary density within PLs did not influence the severity scores of lesions detected on radiographs. The angiogenic index appeared not to be associated with the histological lesion type and the intensity of inflammation, but was more likely correlated with the degree of granulation tissue maturation and the size of PLs. PMID:27516014

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor of the inguinal region: a clinicopathological, light-microscopic, immunohistochemical, electron microscopic and flow-cytometric DNA study.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, F; Gipponi, M; Peressini, A; Barabino, P; Queirolo, P; Nicolò, M; Solari, N; Nicolò, G

    2001-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare neoplasms with a probable mesenchymal origin that were first reported in the pleura but can occur in different sites. We report a case of SFT arising in the inguinal region of a 55-year-old woman. The patient presented with a mass in the left groin; she underwent wide excision of the lesion which was well-circumscribed and without evidence of adjacent soft tissue involvement. The histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic criteria for SFT were found. She had an uneventful recovery and she is alive without evidence of disease five years after operation. To our knowledge, this neoplasm has never been reported in this location.

  11. Immunohistochemical diagnostic and prognostic markers for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Mehdi; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory have identified novel molecular diagnostic and prognostic markers based on analyses in large cohorts of melanoma patients. These markers were initially derived from gene expression profiling analyses of distinct stages of melanoma progression. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the differential expression of these markers, and immunohistochemistry-based multimarker assays were developed to assess melanoma diagnosis and prognosis at the molecular level. In this chapter we review the development of these assays and the methodologies used to assess marker expression in both nevi and primary melanomas. PMID:24258983

  12. Influence of Exposure to Chronic Persistent Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Tumor Biology of Clear-Cell Renal-Cell Carcinoma. An Immunohistochemical and Morphometric Study of Angiogenesis and Vascular Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; Valencia-Villa, Gerardo; Romanenko, Alina; Pérez, Jesús; García, Raúl; García, Heydi; Benavent, José; Sancho-Tello, María; Carda, Carmen; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Increased angiogenesis is related to boosted growth and malignancy in carcinomas. "Chronic Persistent Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation" (CPLDIR) exposure increases incidence and aggressive behavior of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The aim was to study the biology of angiogenesis, including microvessel density (MVD), in human clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas (CCRCC) originating from a radio-contaminated geographical area (Ukraine) and to compare with similar tumors diagnosed in non-contaminated regions of Europe (Spain, Valencia) and Latin America (Colombia, Barranquilla). MVD was comparatively examined in 124 patients diagnosed with CCRCC from three geographical areas by means of digital micro-imaging and computerized analysis. Additionally, 50 adult normal kidneys were used for controls (autopsy kidneys from Valencia and Barranquilla). Furthermore, an immunohistochemical study of several vascular related growth factors was undertaken using a similar methodology. MVD as well as VEFG are the most discriminating factors associated with an aggressive behavior of CCRCC. Their expression increased in proportion to the level of exposure to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation in Ukrainian patients in the 25 years since the Chernobyl accident substantiated by comparison with the two control groups of renal carcinomas present in non-irradiated areas (Spain and Colombia). No major biological differences relating to angiogenesis appear to exist between the CCRCC diagnosed in two distant geographical areas of the world. HIF-1α expression was similar in all groups, with no statistical significance. Present findings demonstrate the existence of a significant relationship between MVD and VEGF in CCRCC: an increased expression of VEGF is associated with a high level of angiogenesis. PMID:27156071

  13. An immunohistochemical study of the middle ear muscles of some carnivores and primates, with special reference to the IIM and slow-tonic fibre types.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A; Cerpenè, E; Rowlerson, A

    1983-01-01

    The middle ear muscles of several species of carnivores (cat, dog, fox, ferret and stone-marten) and some New World monkeys (Callithrix, Saimiri) and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecus, Macaca) were examined. The fibre type compositions of these muscles were determined by a combination of the standard histochemical myofibrillar ATPase method, and immunohistochemical techniques using myosintype-specific antisera. Immunohistochemically slow-tonic fibres were found in the stapedius muscles of only two carnivores, the ferret and stone-marten. In all the carnivores and the New World monkeys, tensor tympani muscle contained IIM, slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibres, but in the Old World monkeys it resembled stapedius muscle, and contained only Type I (slow-twitch) and IIA fibres. Thus, because all the species examined had IIM fibres in the jaw-closer muscles, this means that the common embryological origin of tensor tympani muscle and the jaw-closers does not necessarily result in tensor tympani muscle containing this fibre type even though IIM fibres occur only in first branchial arch muscles. This fact, together with other species differences in the fibre type composition of these muscles, shows that there is no typical composition of middle ear muscles in general, and suggests that the differences are related to very different functional requirements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6415024

  14. An immunohistochemical study in a fatal case of acute interstitial pneumonitis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) in a 15-year-old boy presenting as sudden death.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Di Donato, Sabina; Neri, Margherita; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2007-11-15

    Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), also known as Hamman-Rich syndrome, is a distinct type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia affecting patients of both genders without pre-existing lung diseases. We describe the case of a fulminant form of AIP and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIP with reference to the histological pattern. A 15-year-previously-healthy male boy presented to the Hospital with a 6-day history of malaise, fever and cough. The clinical prodromes were followed by the acute onset of increasing shortness of breath rapidly progressing in acute respiratory failure. Chest X-ray demonstrated bilateral diffuse airspace opacification; the high resolution CT confirmed the presence of bilateral, symmetric diffuse ground-glass attenuation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, but died after few hours. An autopsy was performed within 24h. The histological examination of lung specimens showed a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage. immunohistochemical, microbiological and toxicological tests were also carried out. The clinical presentation, the histological findings and the exclusion of infective, traumatic, toxic and metabolic causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) allowed us to conclude that the boy was affected by AIP. In conclusion, AIP is a diagnosis of exclusion. It has a mortality rate ranging about 50%, despite mechanical ventilation. In fatal cases of AIP diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation, radiological, histological and microbiological findings and can be further confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.

  15. Immunohistochemical characterization of brain-invasive meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Backer-Grøndahl, Thomas; Moen, Bjørnar H; Arnli, Magnus B; Torseth, Kathrin; Torp, Sverre H

    2014-01-01

    Brain-invasive meningiomas have an adverse prognosis, so it is important to detect and correctly evaluate brain invasion by light microscopy. Furthermore, the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for brain-invasive growth are incompletely understood. The primary aim of this study was to identify immunohistochemical markers that could improve identification and evaluation of brain invasion in meningiomas. A second aim was to investigate the process of brain invasion using immunohistochemical markers of proliferation, extracellular matrix modulation, and cell adhesion. From a series of 196 human meningiomas, 67 cases were selected for analysis because of the presence of brain tissue in tumor specimens. Fourteen of these 67 meningiomas were brain-invasive. Invasiveness was determined primarily by evaluation of hematoxylin-erytrosin-saffron- (HES-) stained specimens, although glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), anti-collagen IV, and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) markers provided additional information. It was important to examine microscopic sections from various levels of the paraffin-embedded tissue block to adequately assess invasiveness. Sections stained using antibodies against Ki-67/MIB-1, phospohistone-H3 (PHH3), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin D, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and E-cadherin antigens were used to characterize brain-invasive meningiomas and to investigate the process of brain invasion. Only increased expression of the extracellular matrix modulator MMP-9 correlated with brain-invasive growth (p=0.025). Examination of HES-stained sections identified brain invasion. Use of relevant immunohistochemical markers did not contribute substantially to this evaluation. Evaluation of stepwise sections should be considered when brain-invasive growth is suspected. MMP-9 may be an important mediator of brain-invasive growth. PMID:25400818

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in oral nevi and melanoma

    PubMed Central

    León, Jorge E.; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Paes-de-Almeida, Oslei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in 38 oral nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. Study Design: Expression of this ubiquitin protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 49 oral melanocytic lesions, including 38 intramucosal nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. The labeling index (LI) was assessed considering the percentage of cells expressing nuclear positivity out of the total number of cells, counting 1000 cells per slide. Results: Skp2 protein was rarely expressed in intramucosal nevi, in contrast to oral melanomas, which showed high levels of this protein. Conclusion: These results indicate that Skp2 protein may play a role in the development and progression of oral melanomas, and it also could be useful as an immunohistochemical marker for differential diagnosis of oral benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Key words:Oral melanoma, oral nevi, Skp2, cell cycle, immunohistochemistry. PMID:23385514

  17. Effect of sofalcone on localization of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, an enzyme that metabolizes prostaglandin E2, in rat gastric mucosa: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Higuchi, K; Arakawa, T; Matsumoto, T; Nagura, H

    1992-01-01

    We identified the cells containing 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-HPGD) in rat gastric mucosa and examined the effects of sofalcone on the localization of the enzyme by use of an immunohistochemical technique. Also, we investigated the effects of sofalcone on the localization of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Specific stainings for 15-HPGD and PGE2 were similarly observed in a granular pattern mainly in the cytoplasm of parietal and surface epithelial cells. The number of the stained cells for 15-HPGD, especially surface epithelial cells, decreased when rats were given sofalcone, with a concomitant increase in PGE2 staining. These results suggest that parietal and surface epithelial cells are responsible for the degeneration of PGE2 in the rat gastric mucosa, and that sofalcone increased the PGE2 level in the mucosa through inactivation of 15-HPGD in these cells, especially surface epithelial cells. PMID:1629577

  18. Improved immunohistochemical detection of postsynaptically located PSD-95/SAP90 protein family by protease section pretreatment: a study in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, M; Watanabe, M

    2000-10-30

    Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, SAP102, and Chapsyn-110 are members of the PSD-95/SAP90 protein family, which interact with the C-terminus of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and shaker-type potassium channel subunits. Here we report that appropriate section pretreatment with pepsin has led to qualitative and quantitative changes in light microscopic immunohistochemical detection of the protein family. First, pepsin pretreatment lowered the concentration of affinity-purified primary antibodies, while it greatly increased the intensity of immunoreactions. Second, the resulting overall distributions of PSD-95, SAP102, and Chapsyn-110 in the adult mouse brain were consistent with their mRNA distributions. Third, instead of the reported patterns of somatodendritic labeling, tiny punctate staining in the neuropil became overwhelming. Fourth, many PSD-95-immunopositive puncta were apposed closely to synaptophysin-positive nerve terminals and overlapped with NMDA receptor subunits. By postembedding immunogold, the PSD-95 antibody was shown to label exclusively the postsynaptic density at asymmetrical synapses. Based on these results, we conclude that antibody access and binding to the postsynaptically located PSD-95/SAP90 protein family are hindered when conventional immunohistochemistry is adopted, and that pepsin pretreatment effectively unmasks the postsynaptic epitopes. On the other hand, PSD-95 in axon terminals of cerebellar basket cells, where high levels of potassium channels are present, was detectable irrespective of pepsin pretreatment, suggesting that PSD-95 antibody is readily accessible to the presynaptic epitopes. Consequently, the present immunohistochemical results have provided light microscopic evidence supporting the prevailing notion that the PSD-95/SAP90 protein family interacts with NMDA receptor subunits and potassium channel subunits. PMID:11027400

  19. Clinical significance of immunohistochemically detected extracellular matrix proteins and their spatial distribution in primary cancer.

    PubMed

    Čunderlíková, B

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of cancer has evolved mainly from results of studies utilizing experimental models. Simplification inherent to in vitro cell culture models enabled potential ways of cell behaviour in response to various external stimuli to be described, but it has led also to disappointments in clinical trials, presumably due to the lack of crucial tissue components, including extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM and its role in healthy and diseased tissues are being explored extensively and significance of ECM for cell behaviour has been evidenced experimentally. Part of the information gathered in such research that is relevant for natural conditions of a human body can be identified by carefully designed analyses of human tissue samples. This review summarizes published information on clinical significance of ECM in cancer and examines whether effects of ECM on cell behaviour evidenced in vitro, could be supported by clinically based data acquired from analysis of tissue samples. Based on current approaches of clinical immunohistochemical analyses, impact of ECM components on tumour cell behaviour is vague. Except of traditionally considered limitations, other reasons may include lack of stratification of analyzed cases based on clinicopathologic parameters, inclusion of patients treated postoperatively by different treatments or neglecting complexity of interactions among tumour constituents. Nevertheless, reliable immunohistochemical studies represent a source of crucial information for design of tumour models comprising ECM corresponding to real clinical situation. Knowledge gathered from such immunohistochemical studies combined with achievements in tissue engineering hold promise for reversal of the unfavourable trends in the current translational oncologic research. PMID:27443915

  20. Immunohistochemical techniques for the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ivan A; Ishiyama, Gail; Hosokawa, Seiji; Hosokawa, Kumiko; Acuna, Dora; Linthicum, Fred H; Ishiyama, Akira

    2016-10-01

    In this review, we provide a description of the recent methods used for immunohistochemical staining of the human inner ear using formalin-fixed frozen, paraffin and celloidin-embedded sections. We also show the application of these immunohistochemical methods in auditory and vestibular endorgans microdissected from the human temporal bone. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the different types of embedding media. IHC in frozen and paraffin-embedded sections yields a robust immunoreactive signal. Both frozen and paraffin sections would be the best alternative in the case where celloidin-embedding technique is not available. IHC in whole endorgans yields excellent results and can be used when desiring to detect regional variations of protein expression in the sensory epithelia. One advantage of microdissection is that the tissue is processed immediately and IHC can be made within 1 week of temporal bone collection. A second advantage of microdissection is the excellent preservation of both morphology and antigenicity. Using celloidin-embedded inner ear sections, we were able to detect several antigens by IHC and immunofluorescence using antigen retrieval methods. These techniques, previously applied only in animal models, allow for the study of numerous important proteins expressed in the human temporal bone potentially opening up a new field for future human inner ear research. PMID:27480257

  1. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 85 cases.

    PubMed

    Mahta, Ali; Haghpanah, Vahid; Lashkari, Anahita; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas without clinically active hypersecretion are summarized under the term non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Since there are no specific serum markers, the differential diagnosis and treatment imply special difficulties. By using immunohistochemical methods we will have new insight into the nature and pathogenesis of these tumours. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its labelling index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of immunohistochemistry and MIB1-LI determination in NFPAs to predict tumoural behaviour and better management. In this clinicopathological study, 85 cases of NFPAs were analysed immunohistochemically. MIB1-LI was also determined in studied cases. Clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up data were also reviewed and the correlation between clinical and pathologic findings was established. Eighteen adenomas (21.2%) were immunoreactive to one or two adenohypophysial hormones of which 4 GH positive adenomas had aggressive behaviour (2 significant juxtasellar extensions and 2 recurrences). MIB-1 LI was more than 5% in only 5 cases including 2 invasive adenomas but with no evidence of recurrence. No significant statistical difference between clinical presentations in immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive NFPAs was observed except for unilateral temporal hemianopia which was more common in immunoreactive adenomas (P=0.022). NFPAs comprise several pathologically different types of tumours, some of which are potentially hormone producing, but some defects in hormone secretion or production of biologically inactive or insufficient amount of hormone may be the culprit in the lack of evidence of rising serum hormone levels. MIB-1 LI may be indicative of invasiveness but not a predictor of recurrence. Silent somatotropinomas may have more aggressive behaviour in comparison with other NFPAs. PMID

  2. Prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers in malignant thymic epithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Leisibach, Priska; Schneiter, Didier; Soltermann, Alex; Yamada, Yoshi; Weder, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Background Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare neoplasms with inconsistent treatment strategies. When researching for molecular pathways to find new therapies, the correlation between specific molecular markers and outcome has only rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between survival, metastatic potential and invasiveness of aggressive subtypes of TET and immunohistochemical markers. Methods Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) of patients with WHO type B2/B3 mixed type thymoma (MT), thymoma type B3 (B3) and thymic carcinoma (TC), undergoing surgery [1998–2013] were determined. Tumor specimens were stained using a tissue microarray (TMA) (CD117, CD5, p63, p40, p21, p27, p53, Bcl-2, Ki67, podoplanin, synaptophysin, PTEN and Pax8). Invasive behavior of primary tumors and the presence of extrathoracic metastases were assessed. Results We found in 23 patients included into this study (four MT, ten B3, nine TC) that (I) p21 expression in the cytoplasm significantly correlated with a decrease of OS (P=0.016), PFS (P=0.034) and MFS (P=0.005); (II) MFS was significantly shorter when the combination of p21-low p27-low p53-high was present (P=0.029); and (III) nuclear p27 (P=0.042), Ki-67 (P=0.024) and podoplanin (P=0.05) expression correlated with the presence of extrathoracic metastases. Conclusions The main finding of this study is that cytoplasmic p21 expression negatively influences the outcome of malignant TETs and correlates with metastatic activity. Additionally, selected immunohistochemical markers correlate with the distant metastatic potential of TETs. These results may contribute to the stratification of diagnosis and improvement of treatment strategies for thymic malignancies. PMID:27747012

  3. A comparative study of fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia with regard to expressions of c-fos and c-jun products and bone matrix proteins: a clinicopathologic review and immunohistochemical study of c-fos, c-jun, type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, A; Oda, Y; Iwamoto, Y; Tsuneyoshi, M

    1999-12-01

    Fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia are both benign fibro-osseous lesions of the bone and are generally seen during childhood or adolescence. Histologically, the features of these bone lesions sometimes look quite similar, but their precise nature remains controversial. We retrospectively studied clinicopathologic findings in 62 cases of fibrous dysplasia and 20 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia with regard to their anatomic location and histological appearance. From among these cases, the immunohistochemical expressions of c-fos and c-jun proto-oncogene products and bone matrix proteins of type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were evaluated in 20 typical fibrous dysplasias and 17 osteofibrous dysplasias using paraffin sections, and these expressions were then assessed semiquantitatively. Microscopically, fibrous dysplasia showed various secondary changes, such as hyalinization, hemorrhage, xanthomatous reaction, and cystic change in 22 of the 62 cases (35%). This was a higher incidence than in osteofibrous dysplasia, in which only 2 of the 20 cases (10%) showed such changes. In the elderly fibrous dysplasia cases, the cellularity of fibroblast-like cells was rather low, and those cases were hyalinized. Almost all of the cases of fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia showed positive expressions of c-fos and c-jun products. The expressions of type I collagen and osteopontin showed no difference between fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia. Immunoreactivity for osteonectin in bone matrix was detected in only 1 case of fibrous dysplasia (1 of 20), whereas it was recognized in 14 of the 17 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia. Furthermore, the immunoreactivity for osteocalcin in bone matrix and fibroblast-like cells was higher in fibrous dysplasia than it was in osteofibrous dysplasia, semiquantitatively. Our immunohistochemical results regarding osteonectin and osteocalcin suggest that the bone matrix of fibrous dysplasia is

  4. Immunohistochemical study of temporal variations in cytochrome P-450 isozymes in rat testis and their modifications by the inductive effects of cadinenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Motohashi, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Yatagai, Mitsuyoshi; Takano, Takehito

    1991-12-01

    Temporal variations in cytochrome P-450 isozymes of rat testis, PB-P-450 (forms of cytochrome P-450 strongly induced by phenobarbital) and MC-P-448 (forms of cytochrome P-450 strongly induced by 3-methylcholanthrene), were investigated immunohistochemically by the avidin-biotin-complex method using specific antibodies against PB-P-450 and MC-P-448 isozymes. Immunoreactivity to both PB-P-450 and MC-P-448 isozymes was observed in Leydig cells. The number of PB-P-450 positive Leydig cells was found to undergo significant time-of-day variation with a peak time of 0000 hours (light phase from 0800 to 2000 hours). Injection of cadinenes (300 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally at 48 and 96 h before sacrifice) induced PB-P-450 isozyme but did not induce MC-P-448 isozyme. The induction of PB-P-450 isozyme by cadinenes was time dependent, and the early dark phase (2000 and 0000 hours) was most sensitive. These results suggest that temporal variation of cytochrome P-450 isozymes is one of the important physiological variations in detoxification and activation of various xenobiotics and chemicals in the testis.

  5. Lymphocyte subpopulations in the liver, spleen, intestines, and mesenteric nodes: an immunohistochemical study using human fetuses at 15-16 weeks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Si Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2014-08-01

    The roles of the liver and intestines in lymphocyte differentiation in human fetuses were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, liver, spleen, intestines, and lymph nodes of 15-16 week human fetuses using primary antibodies against IgM, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD20, CD45RO, HLA-DR, and CD68. The density of immunoreactive lymphocytes was high in the thymus and lymph nodes, but much lower in the bones, liver, spleen, and intestines. The medulla of the thymus contained IgM-positive mature B lymphocytes as well as CD20-positve B lymphocytes. In contrast, CD10-positive immature B lymphocytes were restricted in the cortex. There were no site-dependent differences among axillary, mediastinal, mesenteric, and pelvic lymph nodes. CD68-positive cells were observed at all sites examined. Many HLA-DR-positive round cells were present in the thymus, with fewer in the liver and spleen. The absolute number of lymphocytes was estimated to be ≥10-fold higher in lymph nodes than in liver. Although limited by analysis of only one fetal stage, these findings suggest that mesenteric nodes are likely to be more important than the liver, spleen, and intestines for lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation in human mid-term fetuses.

  6. Proto-oncogene HER-2 in normal, dysplastic and tumorous feline mammary glands: an immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridization study

    PubMed Central

    Ordás, Javier; Millán, Yolanda; Dios, Rafaela; Reymundo, Carlos; Martín de las Mulas, Juana

    2007-01-01

    Background Feline mammary carcinoma has been proposed as a natural model of highly aggressive, hormone-independent human breast cancer. To further explore the utility of the model by adding new similarities between the two diseases, we have analyzed the oncogene HER-2 status at both the protein and the gene levels. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 30 invasive carcinomas, 7 benign lesions and two normal mammary glands were analyzed. Tumour features with prognostic value were recorded. The expression of protein HER-2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the number of gene copies by means of DNA chromogenic in situ hybridization. Results Immunohistochemical HER-2 protein overexpression was found in 40% of feline mammary carcinomas, a percentage higher to that observed in human breast carcinoma. As in women, feline tumours with HER-2 protein overexpression had pathological features of high malignancy. However, amplification of HER-2 was detected in 16% of carcinomas with protein overexpression, a percentage much lower than that observed in their human counterpart. Conclusion Feline mammary carcinoma would be a suitable natural model of that subset of human breast carcinomas with HER-2 protein overexpression without gene amplification. PMID:17880730

  7. Primary amyloidosis A. Immunohistochemical and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Picken, M. M.; Pelton, K.; Frangione, B.; Gallo, G.

    1987-01-01

    Primary "idiopathic" amyloidosis is usually related to immunoglobulin light chain (AL) associated with immunocytic dyscrasias, while secondary "reactive" amyloidosis (AA) is related to serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and typically occurs with chronic inflammation, malignancy, or familial Mediterranean fever. In the present study, amyloid fibril protein extracted from frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue from a patient (CAR) with primary systemic amyloidosis proved to be AA protein by immunohistochemical, immunochemical, and amino terminal sequence. Extracts from both frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kidney and spleen yielded similar monomers and dimers of the AA protein. The additional high-molecular-weight bands and a distinct 12,000-dalton fragment in the amyloid protein extracted from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung suggest that different processing of proteins, ie, by polymerization and/or degradation, may occur in different organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3425691

  8. Comparative analysis of Napsin A, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, P504S), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 beta as diagnostic markers of ovarian clear cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of 279 ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Zhao, Chengquan; Khabele, Dineo; Parkash, Vinita; Quick, Charles M; Gwin, Katja; Desouki, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Napsin A and α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, P504S) have recently been described as being frequently expressed in clear cell carcinomas (CCC) of the gynecological tract. The present study was conducted to assess the test performance of these newer markers relative to the more traditional marker, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β), in a large and histotypically diverse dataset. A total of 279 ovarian tumours in tissue microarrays were immunohistochemically assessed for the expression of Napsin A, AMACR and HNF1β. HNF1β, Napsin A and AMACR were expressed in 92%, 82% and 63% of 65 CCC, 7%, 1% and 1% of 101 serous carcinomas, 37%, 5.3% and 0% of 19 endometrioid carcinomas, 60%, 0% and 0% of 45 mucinous tumours, 100%, 0% and 0% of seven yolk sac tumours, and 0%, 16.7% and 16.7% of six steroid cell tumours NOS, respectively. All other tumours, including 18 adult-type granulosa cell tumours, eight dysgerminomas and nine other miscellaneous tumour types were negative for all three markers. Using a benchmark of ≥1% of tumour cells for positivity and CCC as the diagnostic end-point, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of Napsin A expression were 0.82, 0.99, 0.94, and 0.98, respectively (odds ratio 439, p < 0.0001). Respective parameters were 0.92, 0.79, 0.97, and 0.58 (odds ratio 44, p < 0.0001) for HNF1β and 0.63, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.5 (odds ratio 112, p < 0.0001) for AMACR. The combination of any two positive markers, irrespective of the staining pattern of the third, significantly predicted the CCC histotype in every analytic scenario. In summary, HNF1β is highly sensitive but is suboptimally specific in isolation, whereas AMACR is highly specific but is suboptimally sensitive. Napsin A is specific but of intermediate sensitivity. Napsin A, AMACR and HNF1β are all viable markers of CCC that can be deployed as components of larger panels when CCC is a diagnostic consideration.

  9. Comparative analysis of Napsin A, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, P504S), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 beta as diagnostic markers of ovarian clear cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of 279 ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Zhao, Chengquan; Khabele, Dineo; Parkash, Vinita; Quick, Charles M; Gwin, Katja; Desouki, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Napsin A and α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, P504S) have recently been described as being frequently expressed in clear cell carcinomas (CCC) of the gynecological tract. The present study was conducted to assess the test performance of these newer markers relative to the more traditional marker, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β), in a large and histotypically diverse dataset. A total of 279 ovarian tumours in tissue microarrays were immunohistochemically assessed for the expression of Napsin A, AMACR and HNF1β. HNF1β, Napsin A and AMACR were expressed in 92%, 82% and 63% of 65 CCC, 7%, 1% and 1% of 101 serous carcinomas, 37%, 5.3% and 0% of 19 endometrioid carcinomas, 60%, 0% and 0% of 45 mucinous tumours, 100%, 0% and 0% of seven yolk sac tumours, and 0%, 16.7% and 16.7% of six steroid cell tumours NOS, respectively. All other tumours, including 18 adult-type granulosa cell tumours, eight dysgerminomas and nine other miscellaneous tumour types were negative for all three markers. Using a benchmark of ≥1% of tumour cells for positivity and CCC as the diagnostic end-point, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of Napsin A expression were 0.82, 0.99, 0.94, and 0.98, respectively (odds ratio 439, p < 0.0001). Respective parameters were 0.92, 0.79, 0.97, and 0.58 (odds ratio 44, p < 0.0001) for HNF1β and 0.63, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.5 (odds ratio 112, p < 0.0001) for AMACR. The combination of any two positive markers, irrespective of the staining pattern of the third, significantly predicted the CCC histotype in every analytic scenario. In summary, HNF1β is highly sensitive but is suboptimally specific in isolation, whereas AMACR is highly specific but is suboptimally sensitive. Napsin A is specific but of intermediate sensitivity. Napsin A, AMACR and HNF1β are all viable markers of CCC that can be deployed as components of larger panels when CCC is a diagnostic consideration. PMID:25551297

  10. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-07-09

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae.

  11. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  12. Enhancement of Immunohistochemical Detection of Salmonella in Tissues of Experimentally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, J.; Janczyk, P.; Hünigen, H.; Plendl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1×1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni’s fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  13. Clinical, dermoscopic and immunohistochemical assessment of actinic keratoses and evaluation of the effectiveness of diclofenac therapy with immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Çayirli, Mutlu; Köse, Osman; Demiriz, Murat

    2013-07-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) is a keratinocytic neoplasm that typically develops on the face of elderly patients. Little is known regarding the clinical, dermatoscopic and immunohistochemical assessments of AK using topical diclofenac therapy. We sought to determine these assessments and evaluate the efficacy of topical diclofenac gel in AK. In this prospective, open-label study, 44 patients with 66 AKs were treated for 12 weeks with topically applied diclofenac (3% gel in 2.5% hyaluronic acid). Immunohistopathologic analyses were performed before and after diclofenac treatment using epidermal stem cell markers such as Cytokeratin 15 (CK15), Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and p63, in addition to proliferation markers (Bcl-2, Ki-67). Diclofenac gel was found to be effective in AK, including the hyperkeratotic type. Surprisingly, complete remission was observed at a significantly higher rate in Grade 3 lesions (p = 0.017). However, imunohistochemical and histopathologic examinations revealed that 12-week treatment periods may not be sufficient to fully cure AK. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed no change in the expression levels of CK15, CK19 and Bcl-2 following diclofenac therapy. However, the expression of Ki-67 (p = 0.042) and p63 (p = 0.030) exhibited a significant decrease after therapy. Dermatoscopy is an effective method for diagnosis of AK, and topical diclofenac sodium gel was found as an effective additional treatment modality. Since positive histopathological findings were detected in some patients even with significant remission, a 12-week treatment period should be extended even in patients presenting with positive clinical response. Importantly, anti-proliferative effects of diclofenac were demonstrated by decreased Ki-67 and p63 expression levels.

  14. HER2 in gastric cancer: an immunohistochemical study on tissue microarrays and the corresponding whole-tissue sections with a supplemental fish study.

    PubMed

    Gasljevic, Gorana; Lamovec, Janez; Contreras, Juan Antonio; Zadnik, Vesna; Blas, Mateja; Gasparov, Slavko

    2013-10-01

    Since focal HER2 expression is an issue in GC, TMA construction from the paraffin-embedded surgically-obtained tissue may not reflect its real status. The aim of this study was to assess the HER2 status in tissue microarrays (TMAs) and the corresponding whole sections using HercepTest immunohistochemistry (IHC), and to correlate it and to assess the concordance of HER2 IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in TMAs. Concordance of the HER2 expression status for 302 cases of gastric cancer using 9 paired TMAs was evaluated using a 2-mm core size and 305 corresponding whole sections. Concordance of the IHC and FISH HER2 status was compared. In addition,, the HER2 status was compared to clinicopathological characteristics and patients' survival. Using the whole-section approach, HER2 over-expression was found in 25.2 % (HER2 3+ 6.6 %, HER2 2+ 18.7 %) of tumours. The overall concordance of IHC between the cores and the whole section was 84.9 %; 15.1 % of the tumours showed HER2 amplification. The overall concordance of IHC and FISH on cores was 75.7 %. The level of amplification correlated with the IHC score. Relationship between the intestinal and papillary types and tumour grade was observed for tumours with over-expression and amplification, whereas tumour location was related only to over-expression. There was a statistically significant difference in the overall survival of the patients, which was related to HER2 amplification. In conclusion, good concordance of the IHC HER2 results between tissue cores in TMA and whole sections, and excellent concordance of the IHC and FISH results on tissue cores was found. At least a part of the observed IHC HER2 heterogeneity could very likely be explained by fixation artifacts. With adequate fixation, a higher concordance of IHC HER2 between the cores and the whole sections can be expected. The TMA approach could enable an easier analysis of more than one representative tumour block.

  15. Comparison of immunohistochemical, histochemical and immunochemical methods for the detection of wheat protein allergens in meat samples and cooked, dry, raw and fermented sausage samples.

    PubMed

    Lukášková, Z Řezáčová; Tremlová, B; Pospiech, M; Renčová, E; Randulová, Z; Steinhauser, L; Reichová, A; Bednář, J

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays is it a common practice to add vegetable protein in the production of meat products. Because of the possible substitution of high-quality raw meat with vegetable protein without the labelling the product package and because of the allergenic potential of many vegetable proteins, it is important to develop accurate methods for its detection. The objective of the study was to compare histochemical, immunochemical (ELISA, ALERT gliadin screening test) and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of wheat protein in meat samples and sausages. Histochemical methods were useful for the detection of flour in meat samples, but the immunohistochemical method was better for the detection of wheat protein. ALERT gliadin screening test detected gliadin from 10 mg kg(-1), while an immunohistochemical method detected wheat protein concentrations from 1 g kg(-1) and an ELISA method detected wheat protein concentrations from 4 g kg(-1). ALERT gliadin screening test showed results within 1 day, whilst an ELISA detection method took 2 days, and an immunohistochemical procedure took 5 days at the soonest, all including sample preparation. This study also focused on optimisation of an immunohistochemical method for samples of cooked sausage. In addition, three samples were sufficient for wheat protein detection at a concentration of 1 g kg(-1) (and greater) with a confidence level greater than 95%.

  16. Immunohistochemical characterization of 13 canine renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, R M; Oliveira, J P; Saraiva, A L; Seixas, F; Faria, F; Gärtner, F; Pires, M A; Lopes, C

    2011-03-01

    Canine renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are uncommon aggressive tumors that occur mainly in middle-aged male dogs. Their histologic classification bears no relationship with prognosis, and little information is available concerning their immunohistochemical properties. In this retrospective study, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 13 canine RCCs were retrieved from the archives, classified histologically, and evaluated immunohistochemically. The dogs were 7 males and 6 females (1 spayed) of 10 different breeds, averaging 8 years in age. The tumors were classified as papillary, tubulopapillary, papillary-cystic, solid, or sarcomatoid. All 13 tumors were immunohistochemically positive for uromodulin, 12 for c-KIT, 11 for vimentin, 9 for wide-spectrum-screening cytokeratins, 7 for cytokeratins AE1/AE3 and carcinoembryonic antigen, 4 for cytokeratins CAM 5.2, and 3 for CD10. All 3 solid RCCs expressed vimentin, c-KIT, and carcinoembryonic antigen and were negative for cytokeratins. All 7 papillary and tubulopapillary tumors expressed vimentin; 6 (86%), cytokeratins; and 6 (86%), c-KIT. Both papillary-cystic RCCs were positive for cytokeratins and c-KIT and negative for vimentin. These results indicate that the different histologic types of RCC have characteristic immunohistochemical profiles and that c-KIT may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine RCC.

  17. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of the gonads and paramesonephric ducts of male and female hatchlings of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Sarı, F; Kaska, Y

    2016-08-01

    The sex of neonatal sea turtles is difficult to determine, because neonates lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dimorphic external characteristics; internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We used histochemical staining and made measurements in the gonads and paramesonephric ducts (PD) of both sexes to determine structural differences in female and male loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) hatchlings. We detected differences in the gonads and PD between the sexes including the amounts of mucopolysaccharides, collagen and elastic fibers. We determined that the thickness of the gonadal cortex and the diameter of the PD lumen are reliable sex-specific characteristics. We also assessed immunolocalization of aromatase, an enzyme complex that converts androgens to estrogens, and found differences in the localization and intensity of aromatase immunostaining in the gonads and PD of female and male hatchlings. Comprehensive studies of the sexual differences of sea turtles are important for conservation programs. PMID:27437606

  18. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of the gonads and paramesonephric ducts of male and female hatchlings of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Sarı, F; Kaska, Y

    2016-08-01

    The sex of neonatal sea turtles is difficult to determine, because neonates lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dimorphic external characteristics; internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We used histochemical staining and made measurements in the gonads and paramesonephric ducts (PD) of both sexes to determine structural differences in female and male loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) hatchlings. We detected differences in the gonads and PD between the sexes including the amounts of mucopolysaccharides, collagen and elastic fibers. We determined that the thickness of the gonadal cortex and the diameter of the PD lumen are reliable sex-specific characteristics. We also assessed immunolocalization of aromatase, an enzyme complex that converts androgens to estrogens, and found differences in the localization and intensity of aromatase immunostaining in the gonads and PD of female and male hatchlings. Comprehensive studies of the sexual differences of sea turtles are important for conservation programs.

  19. Canine nail bed keratoacanthoma diagnosed by immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Chang-Bum; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, A-Jin; Suh, Hyun-Jung; Yoo, Saejong; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Eom, Ki Dong

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old, Shih Tzu dog was presented with an enlarged, curled 2nd nail in the left forelimb. Digital amputation was performed and the mass was diagnosed as a nail bed keratoacanthoma (infundibular keratinizing acanthoma) histopathologically. There was no recurrence postoperatively. This is the first case report of a canine nail bed keratoacanthoma diagnosed by histologic and immunohistochemical examination including Ki-67 and p53 expression. PMID:26538676

  20. HPV immunohistochemical testing and cervical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    MUREŞAN, DANIEL; ROTAR, IOANA CRISTINA; APOSTOL, SILVANA; COROIU, GEORGIANA; STAMATIAN, FLORIN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) infection represents a necessary condition for cervical carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of HPV testing using an immunohistochemical staining kit with implications upon both diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods Seventy-nine patients and eighty-six controls were enrolled in the study. Each patient had completed a physical examination, gynecological examination with cervical sampling using a liquid-based cytology system and also colposcopy. The cervical samples were analyzed according to Bethesda terminology and HPV-HR immunohistochemical staining was performed. In all the patients with high-grade lesion a surgical excision procedure was performed followed by pathological examination of the specimen. The collected data were analyzed using statistical software. Results The colposcopic examination has detected acetowhite modifications of the cervical epithelium in 47% of patients with ASC-US (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) in 71% of patients with LSIL (Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and in 100% of patients with HSIL ( High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of LSIL in 27% of biopsy specimens in patients with ASC-US and in 79.99% of patients with LSIL respectively. In all patients with HSIL the diagnosis was CIN II or higher. The percentage of HPV-HR (Human Papilloma Virus – High Risk) positivity porportionaly increased with the severity of cytological diagnosis: 30% in ASC-US, 42.86% in LSIL and 75% in HSIL patients. The sensitivity of detection of HPV-HR was 50% with CI 95% [17.45;82.55] for ASC-US, 77.77% with CI 95% [51.91;92.62] for LSIL and 81.81% with CI 95% [58.99;94.00] for HSIL. Conclusion HPV testing can be an important screening tool for cervical dysplasia. The HPV testing targeting high risk types is indicated for ASC-US and LSIL triage. The present work

  1. The "Including Studies of Asia in Curriculum" Professional Development Program: Who's Doing It and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevaskis, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general overview of the cohort of teachers who undertook a major professional development program Including Studies of Asia in Curriculum in South Australia in 2000. As the program was the principal vehicle for introducing South Australian teachers to Studies of Asia, ensuring its ongoing relevance was critical. The…

  2. Adult Education Literacy Instruction. Appendix: Tables of Studies Included in the Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Included here are two appendixes to "Adult Education Literacy Instruction: A Review of the Research." Appendix A, "Adult Studies," contains: (1) Assessment Profiles; (2) Alphabetics; (3) Fluency; (4) Vocabulary; and (5) Comprehension. Appendix B, "Adolescent Studies," contains: (1) Alphabetics; (2) Fluency; (3) Vocabulary; and (4) Comprehension.…

  3. Trouble in Paradise: A Study of Who Is Included in an Inclusion Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zindler, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: This study is based on prior research regarding the need for explicit social instruction for children with special needs, cooperative educational models, and the goals and relative successes of inclusive educational practices. The author refers to several studies on these subjects, including those by Kavale and Forness; Salend;…

  4. Skin regenerated from cultured epithelial autografts on full-thickness burn wounds from 6 days to 5 years after grafting. A light, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Compton, C C; Gill, J M; Bradford, D A; Regauer, S; Gallico, G G; O'Connor, N E

    1989-05-01

    Regeneration of skin from cultured keratinocyte autografts used in the treatment of full-thickness burn wounds was studied in 21 pediatric patients from 6 days to 5 years after grafting. Findings were compared both to controls of age- and site-matched normal skin and to controls for epithelial wound-healing, re-epithelialized interstices of meshed split-thickness skin grafts of comparable postgrafting age. Six days after transplantation, a mildly hypertrophic, flat epidermis with all normal strata had regenerated, and the process of de novo dermal-epidermal junction formation had begun. Hemidesmosomes, basal lamina, and anchoring fibrils reformed conjointly in punctate fashion along the attachment face of the grafts. Within 3 to 4 weeks, the dermal-epidermal junction was complete, but full maturation of anchoring fibrils required more than a year. The process was comparable to that observed in meshed graft interstices. Rete ridges regenerated from 6 weeks to 1 year after grafting. The subjacent connective tissue initially healed to form normal scar, but it remodeled dramatically, regenerated elastin, and resembled a true dermis within 4 to 5 years. Meshed-graft interstice controls showed no rete ridge regeneration, subepithelial connective tissue remodeling, or elastin production up to 5 years after grafting. Langerhans cells repopulated grafts within 1 week, and normal population densities were reached within 2 to 6 months. After 1 year, Langerhans cell densities were increased compared with normal skin but were lower than those in age-matched meshed graft controls. Melanocytes were present in cultures at the time of transplantation, but functional epidermal melanin units were not seen in groin- or axilla-derived grafts for 6 to 8 weeks or in sole-derived epidermis until a year or more after transplantation. Normal histologic features were maintained for years after grafting. Transitory pathologic changes including parakeratosis, dyskeratosis, and intraepithelial

  5. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Leukocytic Subpopulations in Chronic Endometritis

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, Susan; Brown, Sharla; Collins, Julie

    1996-01-01

    Objective: We analyzed the histologic and immunohistochemical changes in the endometrial leukocytic subpopulations to determine which of them are characteristic of chronic endometritis. Results: Endometrial biopsies from 25 cases of chronic endometritis and 35 controls were studied. Characteristic morphologic findings included the presence of a plasma cell infiltrate, and a prominent, albeit non-specific, lymphocytic infiltrate in all patients with endometritis. A neutrophilic infiltrate was also noted in 90% of the patients. Other non-specific histologic findings included occasional prominent lymphoid aggregates, stromal edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis and cystic dilation of some glands in endometria of patients with chronic endometritis. Endometrial immune cells were investigated immunohistochemically using antibodies to CD3 (pan-T), CD20 (pan-B, L26), and Ham-56 (macrophage). In control patients, endometrial immune cells were predominantly composed of CD3 and Ham-56 positive cells. CD20 positive cells comprised <2% of immune cells in control patients [mean: <2 cells/high power field (HPF)]. Large numbers of CD20 and CD3 lymphocytes were seen in endometria of patients with chronic endometritis. A semiquantitative analysis showed that the numbers of CD20 and CD3 positive cells in patients with chronic endometritis were increased 50- and 3-fold, respectively, when compared to those of control patients (mean B cells: 49 vs. 2 cells/HPF; mean T cells: 149 vs. 45 cells/HPF). CD20 positive cells were predominantly seen in subepithelial and periglandular aggregates. CD3 positive cells had a predominant stromal distribution and an occasional intra- or subepithelial localization. There was no difference in the number and distribution of Ham-56 positive cells in patients with or without endometritis. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CD20 cells may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic endometritis and that immunostaining for B and T lymphocytes

  6. Negative pressure wound therapy using gauze and foam: histological, immunohistochemical and ultrasonography morphological analysis of the granulation tissue and scar tissue. Preliminary report of a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Fraccalvieri, Marco; Zingarelli, Enrico; Ruka, Erind; Antoniotti, Umberto; Coda, Renato; Sarno, Antonino; Bocchiotti, Maria Alessandra; Bruschi, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is becoming routine for the preparation of wounds prior to grafting for wound closure. We have been using both foam- and gauze-based NPWT to prepare wounds for closure prior to skin grafting and have obtained similar proportions of closed wounds; 7/7 for wounds treated with gauze-based NPWT and 11/11 for wounds treated with foam-based NPWT. In our follow-up consultations we observed that skin grafts on the foam-treated patients were less pliable than those on the gauze-treated patients. To assess what the mechanism of this effect might be, we compared the specific details of the treatments of both 11 foam and 7 gauze patients, including depth, location, patients' age and co-morbidity; biopsies of granulation and scar tissue were taken and stained with haematoxylin-eosin and by Masson's trichrome staining and conducted ultrasound analysis of the closed wounds, to see if there were features which explained those effects. All foam patients were treated at -125 mm Hg for an average of 25·9 days before skin grafts were applied. All gauze patients were treated at -80 mm Hg for an average of 24·7 days before skin grafts were applied. Biopsies of granulation tissue prior to skin grafting from five foam and four gauze-based NPWT patients did not reveal any obvious histological differences between the treatments. Ultrasound analysis of the skin-grafted wounds showed an average depth of scar tissue of 18 mm in the wound beds of the foam-treated wounds and 7 mm in the gauze-treated ones. Biopsies taken on the scar tissue after treatment with the gauze showed a minor tissue thickness and disorganisation and less sclerotic components. The findings of this preliminary analysis suggest that foam-based NPWT may induce a thicker layer of scar tissue beneath skin grafts than gauze-based NPWT which might explain a reduced pliability of the reconstructed bed. At present it is unclear which mechanism might be responsible for the difference in

  7. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  8. Immunohistochemical localization of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, M; Carrozza, M

    1990-04-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was first isolated from colonic carcinoma and has been used as a diagnostic marker. CEA has also been observed in a variety of epithelial tumors and normal tissues. In this study, CEA was localized by means of immunohistochemical procedures in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, as well as in normal parotid gland, indicating that CEA is not a reliable marker for differentiation between benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms.

  9. Updating RIGs: Including the Systematic Influence of Online Study on Student Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart; Smith, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Based on student evaluation of teaching (SET) ratings from 1,432 units of study over a period of a year, representing 74,490 individual sets of ratings, and including a significant number of units offered in wholly online mode, we confirm the significant influence of class size, year level, and discipline area on at least some SET ratings. We also…

  10. Immunohistochemical prognostic index for breast cancer in young women

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, I; Algorta, J; Díaz de Otazu, R; Pelayo, A; Fariña, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Women under 35 years of age comprise a small proportion of patients with breast cancer, but determining their prognosis can be difficult. This prospective, multivariate study looked at several factors with the aim of obtaining a useful index to evaluate the prognosis of these women. Methods: In total, 108 patients below 35 years of age affected by invasive ductal carcinoma without distant metastasis were studied. The mean duration of the follow up period was six years. Histopathological (tumour size, histological grade, and lymph node stage) and immunohistochemical (c-erbB-2, p53, oestrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor) factors were measured in all patients, and the Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) was then calculated. An immunohistochemical prognostic index (IHPI) was created using the arithmetic sum of the four individual immunohistochemical factors. Results: In univariate assessment of survival, all the studied factors yielded a significant association with either overall survival or disease free survival, except for c-erbB-2 and p53 with disease free survival. In univariate calculation of risk, all the factors gave significant results; however, in multivariate analysis only tumour size, histological grade, and progesterone receptor were significant. Both NPI and IHPI correlated significantly with prognosis. In multivariate regression analysis, IHPI correlated with tumour size and there was a significant interaction between both variables. Conclusion: IHPI is very useful in determining the prognosis of tumours ⩽ 2 cm and of moderate use for tumours > 2, although it has no use in tumours > 5 cm. PMID:14645694

  11. Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical examination.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kei; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Ohbuchi, Toshiro; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to study clinical and biological characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura. We reviewed the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of 12 patients who underwent surgical resection for SFT. Ten cases were histologically defined as benign; two were found to be malignant. CD34 negativity and strong expression of p53 could be observed in a patient with fatal outcome. Ki-67 expression was increased in malignant cases, as compared with benign. We also found that Bcl-2 expression inversely correlated with a tumor diameter. As the development of malignant SFT might be associated with these molecular statuses, immunohistochemical staining should be performed in all cases to identify the biological characteristics of the tumor.

  12. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    PubMed

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind.

  13. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of the liver and hepatic lymph nodes in goats infected with one or more doses of Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J; Martín de las Mulas, J; Carrasco, L; Gutierrez, P N; Martínez-Cruz, M S; Martínez-Moreno, A

    1999-02-01

    Lesions produced by Fasciola hepatica in the liver, gall-bladder and hepatic lymph nodes (HLNs) of four groups of five goats are described; in addition, the distribution of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgG-lambda light chain-bearing cells was analysed in the hepatic lesions and HLNs. One group of goats received a single oral dose of metacercariae, but the other four groups received four or five doses at different intervals over a period of 11 weeks. Animals that survived were killed 53-55 weeks after the first infective dose. Goats were more susceptible to multiple doses than to a single dose, even when the total number of metacercariae was the same. This greater susceptibility was manifested by the occurrence of deaths and the severity of hepatic lesions. CD3+ lymphocytes were sparse in the infiltrate surrounding the acute migratory tracts, suggesting inhibition of the local cell-mediated immune response. Goats with numerous hepatic calcareous granulomas showed the most severe hepatic damage, including marked cirrhosis, with a striking infiltrate of CD3+ T lymphocytes and lambda IgG- plasma cells, replacing extensive areas of hepatic parenchyma, in which hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes was evident. These findings were observed mainly in the goats given more than one infective dose.

  14. Regular consumption of a silicic acid-rich water prevents aluminium-induced alterations of nitrergic neurons in mouse brain: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Foglio, E; Buffoli, B; Exley, C; Rezzani, R; Rodella, L F

    2012-08-01

    Silicon is not generally considered an essential nutrient for mammals and, to date, whether it has a biological role or beneficial effects in humans is not known. The results of a number of studies suggest that dietary silicon supplementation might have a protective effect both for limiting aluminium absorption across the gut and for the removal of systemic aluminium via the urine, hence, preventing potential accumulation of aluminium in the brain. Since our previous studies demonstrated that aluminium exposure reduces the number of nitrergic neurons, the aim of the present study was to compare the distribution and the morphology of NO-containing neurons in brain cortex of mice exposed to aluminium sulphate dissolved in silicic acid-rich or poor drinking water to assess the potential protective role of silicon against aluminium toxicity in the brain. NADPH-d histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry showed that high concentrations of silicon in drinking water were able to minimize the impairment of the function of nitrergic neurons induced by aluminium administration. We found that silicon protected against aluminium-induced damage to the nitrergic system: in particular, we demonstrated that silicon maintains the number of nitrergic neurons and their expression of nitrergic enzymes at physiological levels, even after a 12 and 15 month exposure to aluminium.

  15. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of myocarditis on (infantile) autopsy material: Does it improve the diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Grasmeyer, Sarah; Madea, Burkhard

    2015-06-01

    The standard for the histopathologic diagnosis of myocarditis has been the Dallas criteria. Recently, immunohistochemical studies that include the specification and quantification of interstitial inflammatory cells have been proposed as the diagnostic approach for myocarditis. Cut-off limits regarding inflammatory cell numbers for the positive diagnosis of myocarditis have been recommended. However, it is unclear whether these can be applied to postmortem tissues or to infants, as they were established from endomyocardial biopsies and for adults. Nevertheless, cut-off limits for the postmortem diagnosis of myocarditis in the first year of life have been proposed. Studies using these cut-off limits identified myocarditis in a high percentage of presumed sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases. These results were re-evaluated by the present study, which examined heart specimens from infants less than 1 year of age. The study had a test group of 92 SIDS cases and a control group of 15. Myocardial tissue was examined from eight standardized locations, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and for three different immunohistochemical reagents (LCA for leukocytes, CD68 for macrophages, CD45-RO for T-lymphocytes). Histopathological assessment of the number of inflammatory cells was carried out on an aggregate of 80 mm(2) of myocardial tissue per case. Myocarditis, based on the Dallas criteria, was histologically diagnosed in only two cases. Immunohistochemical quantification revealed elevated cell counts in the SIDS group for LCA and CD45-RO. However, those differences were neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant as the mean cell counts per mm(2) were low. The density of inflammatory cells differed considerably from section to section and even within single sections. Therefore the commonly used arithmetic mean value was not diagnostically relevant, suggesting cut-off values based on the arithmetic mean value as recommended in the literature, cannot be regarded

  16. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  17. Immunohistochemical study of hepatocyte, cholangiocyte and stem cell markers of hepatocellular carcinoma: the second report: relationship with tumor size and cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Arisa; Sano, Keiji; Inoue, Masafumi; Fujii, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Masato; Soejima, Yurie; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Tokairin, Takuo; Saito, Koji; Sasajima, Yuko; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to investigate whether ordinary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) show positivity of stem/progenitor cell markers and cholangiocyte markers during the process of tumor progression. Methods Ninety‐four HCC lesions no larger than 8 cm from 94 patients were immuno‐histochemically studied using two hepatocyte markers (Hep par 1 and α‐fetoprotein), five cholangiocyte markers (cytokeratin CK7, CK19, Muc1, epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen) and three hepatic stem/progenitor cell markers (CD56, c‐Kit and EpCAM). The tumors were classified into three groups by tumor size: S1, < 2.0 cm; S2, 2.0–5.0 cm; S3, 5.0–8.0 cm. The tumors were also classified according to tumor differentiation: well, moderately and poorly differentiated. The relationship between the positive ratios of these markers, tumor size and tumor differentiation was examined. Results The positive ratios of cholangiocyte markers tended to be higher in larger sized and more poorly differentiated tumors (except for CK7). The positive ratios of stem/progenitor cell markers tended to be higher in larger sized and more poorly differentiated tumors (except for c‐Kit). Conclusion Ordinary HCC can acquire the characteristic of positivity of cholangiocyte and stem/progenitor cell markers during the process of tumor progression. PMID:27161394

  18. Immunohistochemical and developmental studies to elucidate the mechanism of action of the snowdrop lectin on the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal).

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.; Bharathi, M; Spence, J; Powell, K S.

    1998-07-01

    Rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) were fed on artificial diet containing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA), which has been shown to be toxic towards this insect pest. In addition to decreasing survival, the lectin affected development, reducing the growth rate of nymphs by approximately 50% when present at a concentration of 5.3&mgr;M. Immunolocalisation studies showed that lectin binding was concentrated on the luminal surface of the midgut epithelial cells within the planthopper, suggesting that GNA binds to cell surface carbohydrate moieties in the gut. Immunolabelling at a lower level was also observed in the fat bodies, the ovarioles, and throughout the haemolymph. These observations suggest that GNA is able to cross the midgut epithelial barrier, and pass into the insect's circulatory system, resulting in a systemic toxic effect. Electron microscope studies showed morphological changes in the midgut region of planthoppers fed on a toxic dose of GNA, with disruption of the microvilli brush border region. No significant proteolytic degradation of GNA was observed either in the gut or honeydew of planthoppers fed on lectin-containing diet. The presence of glycoproteins which bind GNA in the gut of the brown planthopper was confirmed using digoxigen-labeled lectins to probe blots of extracted gut polypeptides.

  19. Macrophage polarisation changes within the time between diagnostic biopsy and tumour resection in oral squamous cell carcinomas—an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, M; Moebius, P; Büttner-Herold, M; Amann, K; Preidl, R; Neukam, F W; Wehrhan, F

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of solid malignancies has been shown to depend on immunological parameters, such as macrophage polarisation (M1/M2). Recently, it was reported that preoperative oral surgery leads to a worsening of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) prognosis. Diagnostic incision biopsies are oral surgery procedures that might lead to healing-associated M2 macrophage polarisation with a potential negative influence on tumour biology. No studies have compared macrophage polarisation in OSCC biopsies and tumour specimens. Methods: Preoperative diagnostic incision biopsies (n=25) and tumour resection specimens (n=34) of T1/T2 OSCC were processed for immunohistochemistry to detect CD68-, CD11c-, CD163- and MRC1-positive cells. Samples were digitised using whole-slide imaging, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively analysed. Results: Carcinoma tissues obtained during OSCC tumour resections showed a significantly (P<0.05) increased CD163 cell count (M2 macrophages) compared with tissues obtained during preoperative incision biopsies. Additionally, the CD163/CD68 ratio (an indicator of M2 polarisation) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumour resection specimens than in biopsies. Conclusions: This study revealed for the first time an increase in M2 polarisation in samples obtained during OSCC tumour resection surgery compared with preoperative incision biopsies. The biopsy-induced tissue trauma might explain the observed shift in macrophage polarisation towards the tumour-promoting M2 type and could lead to accelerated tumour progression. PMID:26110975

  20. Expression of Intermediate Filaments and Germ Cell Markers in the Developing Bovine Ovary: An Immunohistochemical and Laser-Assisted Microdissection Study.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, Rebecca Anna-Maria; Sauer, Ulrich; Vermehren, Margarete; Sinowatz, Fred

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, bovine ovary prenatal development was studied using immunohistochemistry and laser-assisted microdissection (LAM). A major aim of this study was to evaluate the protein expression pattern of intermediate filaments (IF) and distinguish S100 protein (S100 alpha and S100 beta protein) isoforms during prenatal follicle differentiation, subsequently correlating them with germ cell marker expression. A development-specific expression pattern of different keratins as well as vimentin was detected in the prenatal bovine ovary; K18-specific expression was found during all developmental stages (i.e. in surface epithelium, germ cell cord somatic cells, and follicle cells), and keratins 5, 7, 8, 14, and 19 and vimentin had a stage-specific expression pattern in the different cell populations of the prenatal ovaries. Additionally, our results represent new data on the expression pattern of germ cell markers during bovine ovary prenatal development. S100 alpha and beta protein was localized to oocyte cytoplasm of different follicle stages, and S100 alpha staining could be observed in granulosa cells. Furthermore, through isolation of characteristic ovary cell populations using LAM, specific confirmation of some genes of interest (KRT8, KRT18, S100 alpha, S100 beta, and OCT4, DDX4) could be obtained by RT-PCR in single cell groups of the developing bovine ovary.

  1. Afferent connections of the laterodorsal and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei in the rat: a retro- and antero-grade transport and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Semba, K; Fibiger, H C

    1992-09-15

    Increasingly strong evidence suggests that cholinergic neurons in the mesopontine tegmentum play important roles in the control of wakefulness and sleep. To understand better how the activity of these neurons is regulated, the potential afferent connections of the laterodorsal (LDT) and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (PPT) were investigated in the rat. This was accomplished by using retrograde and anterograde axonal transport methods and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Immunohistochemistry was also used to identify the transmitter content of some of the retrogradely identified afferents. Following injections of the retrograde tracer wheatgerm agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into either the LDT or the PPT, labelled neurons were seen in a number of limbic forebrain structures. The medial prefrontal cortex and lateral habenula contained more retrogradely labelled neurons from the LDT, whereas in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala, more cells were labelled from the PPT. Moderate numbers of neurons were seen in the magnocellular regions of the basal forebrain, and many labelled neurons were observed in the lateral hypothalamus, the zona incerta, and the midbrain central gray from both the LDT and the PPT. Accessory oculomotor nuclei in the midbrain as well as eye movement-related structures in the lower brainstem contained some neurons labelled from the LDT, and fewer neurons from the PPT. A few labelled neurons were seen in somatosensory and other sensory relay nuclei in the brainstem and the spinal cord. Retrograde labelling was seen in a number of extrapyramidal structures, including the globus pallidus, entopenduncular and subthalamic nuclei, and substantia nigra following PPT injections; with LDT injections, labelling was similar in density in the substantia nigra but virtually absent in the entopeduncular and subthalamic nuclei. Data with the fluorescent retrograde tracer fluorogold combined with

  2. Mouse papillary lung tumors transplacentally induced by N-nitrosoethylurea: evidence for alveolar type II cell origin by comparative light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Rehm, S; Ward, J M; ten Have-Opbroek, A A; Anderson, L M; Singh, G; Katyal, S L; Rice, J M

    1988-01-01

    A histogenetic study was designed to evaluate controversial findings on the cell of origin of tubular/papillary lung tumors in mice, i.e., bronchiolar Clara cell versus alveolar type II cell. N-Nitrosoethylurea (0.5 mmol or 0.74 mmol/kg) was given to pregnant C3H (C3H/HeNCr MTV-) and Swiss Webster [Tac:(SW)fBR] mice as a single i.p. injection on Day 14, 15, 16, or 18 of gestation. The offspring were studied at various ages ranging from 7 days to 52 wk. Serial sections of the whole lung (100 to 200 sections per mouse) showed that solid/alveolar and papillary tumors arose from the pulmonary acinus, invading the bronchioles only as the tumors grew. Furthermore, a mixture of solid and papillary patterns within a single module did not represent a merging of two tumors but a progression from the solid to the papillary form. By use of two rabbit antisera against mouse lung surfactant apoproteins found in normal alveolar type II cells, it was shown by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex procedure, by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, and by indirect immunofluorescence that both solid and papillary tumors contained these proteins that are specific markers for alveolar type II cells. With a rabbit anti-rat Clara cell antiserum, none of the tumors studied was immunoreactive while normal Clara cells were reactive. The nitroblue tetrazolium formazan stain for dehydrogenase enzymes, found particularly in Clara cells, did not reveal these enzymes in any lung tumors from either strain. Ultrastructurally, no typical features of the mature Clara cell were detected in papillary or other pulmonary neoplasms. However, all tumors showed characteristic alveolar type II cell structures such as various stages of lamellar body formation, although these features were less well differentiated in the papillary tumors. Argentaffin dense bodies, representing lysosomes and immature forms of lamellar bodies, were commonly observed in papillary tumors. Some features of the papillary tumors

  3. Increased malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc) is associated with macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is largely accepted that specific immunological parameters in solid malignancies are associated with patient’s prognosis. Recently a correlation of macrophage polarization with histomorphological parameters could also be shown in oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc). The observed tumor derived peripheral immune tolerance could be associated with the macrophage polarization in regional tumor draining lymph nodes. So far there are no studies analyzing the macrophage polarization in cervical lymph nodes of oscc patients. In the present study we aimed to correlate macrophage polarization in different anatomical lymph node compartments of patients diagnosed with oscc with histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor (T-, N-, L-, V-, Pn-status, grading). Methods Tumor free (n = 37) and metastatic (n = 17) lymph nodes of T1 and T2 oscc patients were processed for immunohistochemistry to detect CD68, CD11c, CD163 and MRC1 positive cells. Samples were digitized using whole slide imaging and the number of cells expressing the aforementioned markers in the region of interest quantitatively analyzed. Results The malignancy of the primary tumor (defined by T-, L-, Pn-status, grading) correlated with the lymph node macrophage polarization. L1 and Pn1 tumor cases displayed a significantly (p < 0.05) decreased M1 and increased M2 polarization in the sinus of the lymph nodes. G3 cases presented a significantly (p < 0.05) increased M2 polarization in the sinus compared to G2 cases. T2 tumors had significantly (p < 0.05) increased M2 polarization in the interfollicular zone of regional lymph nodes compared to T1 tumors. Metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes did not differ regarding their macrophage polarization. Conclusions The current study revealed for the first time an influence of oscc on the macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes. Markers of malignant behavior in the primary tumor were associated with a shift of macrophage

  4. The effects of particulate ambient air pollution on the murine umbilical cord and its vessels: a quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Veras, Mariana Matera; Guimarães-Silva, Rosane Maria; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Mayhew, Terry M

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particulate matter (PM) compromise birth weight and placental morphology. We hypothesized that exposing mice to ambient PM would affect umbilical cord (UC) morphology. To test this, mice were kept in paired open-top exposure chambers at the same location and ambient conditions but, in one chamber, the air was filtered (F) and, in the other, it was not (NF). UCs were analysed stereologically and by immunohistochemistry to localize isoprostane and endothelin receptors. The cords of mice from NF chambers were smaller in volume due to loss of mucoid connective tissue and decrease in volume of collagen. These structural changes and in umbilical vessels were associated with greater volumes of regions immunostained for isoprostane, ET(A)R and ET(B)R. Findings indicate that the adverse effects of PM on birth weight may be mediated in part by alterations in UC structure or imbalances in the endogenous regulators of vascular tone and oxidative stress.

  5. Histological and immunohistochemical study of estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal human breast tissue in adult age groups vulnerable to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R; Gupta, T; Gupta, R; Aggarwal, A; Sahni, D; Singh, G

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of receptor status has become standard procedure for assessing breast cancer patients. Estrogen causes epithelial proliferation in breast tissue via the estrogen receptor (ER). The progesterone receptor (PR) is also regulated by the estrogen gene. Analyzing ER and PR together gives information regarding the likely response of carcinoma patients to hormonal therapy. The aim of the present study was to record the expression patterns of ER and PR in normal mammary tissue in different age groups to provide reference data to facilitate histological diagnosis. Breast tissues from the upper outer quadrant of each side of 27 adult female cadavers were examined after H & E staining. ER and PR were identified and examined by immunohistochemistry. The percentage area occupied by parenchyma relative to stromal tissue was calculated in different age groups and was about 4:6, 3.5:6.5, 3:7, 2:8, and 1.5:8.5 in the 3rd, 4th and 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th, and 10th decades of life, respectively. Both ER and PR were present in all age groups and the numbers of both receptors were maximal during the 4th decade. The distribution and staining patterns for both ER and PR were recorded in different age groups. The contiguous pattern of ER, which is considered pathognomonic of breast carcinoma, was not seen except in one case in the 6th decade. Moderately stained ER and PR receptor sites predominated throughout. The study of normal breast tissue of similar age might provide comparisons that will help histopathologists to make clinical diagnoses from breast biopsies. Clin. Anat. 29:729-737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038435

  6. The Protective Effect of Human Umbilical Cord Blood CD34+ Cells and Estradiol against Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Female Ovariectomized Rat: Cerebral MR Imaging and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Liu, Ho-Ling; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood derived CD34+ stem cells are reported to mediate therapeutic effects in stroke animal models. Estrogen was known to protect against ischemic injury. The present study wished to investigate whether the protective effect of CD34+ cells against ischemic injury can be reinforced with complemental estradiol treatment in female ovariectomized rat and its possible mechanism. Experiment 1 was to determine the best optimal timing of CD34+ cell treatment for the neuroprotective effect after 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Experiment 2 was to evaluate the adjuvant effect of 17β-estradiol on CD34+ cell neuroprotection after MCAO. Experiment 1 showed intravenous infusion with CD34+ cells before MCAO (pre-treatment) caused less infarction size than those infused after MCAO (post-treatment) on 7T magnetic resonance T2-weighted images. Experiment 2 revealed infarction size was most significantly reduced after CD34+ + estradiol pre-treatment. When compared with no treatment group, CD34+ + estradiol pre-treatment showed significantly less ADC reduction at 2 h and 2 d, less CBF reduction at 2 h and less hyperperfusion at 2 d. The immunoreactivity of c-Fos, c-Jun and GFAP was attenuated, and BDNF showed significant recovery from 2 h to 2 d after MCAO, especially after CD34+ + estradiol pre-treatment. The present study suggests pre-treatment with CD34+ cells with complemental estradiol can be most protective against ischemic injury, which may act through stabilization of cerebral hemodynamics and normalization of the expressions of immediate early genes and BDNF. PMID:26760774

  7. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides.

  8. An Immunohistochemical Algorithm for Ovarian Carcinoma Typing

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Kurosh; Rambau, Peter F.; Naugler, Christopher; Le Page, Cécile; Meunier, Liliane; de Ladurantaye, Manon; Lee, Sandra; Leung, Samuel; Goode, Ellen L.; Ramus, Susan J.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Li, Xiaodong; Ewanowich, Carol A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Provencher, Diane; Huntsman, David; Lee, Cheng-Han; Gilks, C. Blake; Mes Masson, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    There are 5 major histotypes of ovarian carcinomas. Diagnostic typing criteria have evolved over time, and past cohorts may be misclassified by current standards. Our objective was to reclassify the recently assembled Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type cohorts using immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers and to develop an IHC algorithm for ovarian carcinoma histotyping. A total of 1626 ovarian carcinoma samples from the Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type were subjected to a reclassification by comparing the original with the predicted histotype. Histotype prediction was derived from a nominal logistic regression modeling using a previously reclassified cohort (N=784) with the binary input of 8 IHC markers. Cases with discordant original or predicted histotypes were subjected to arbitration. After reclassification, 1762 cases from all cohorts were subjected to prediction models (χ2 Automatic Interaction Detection, recursive partitioning, and nominal logistic regression) with a variable IHC marker input. The histologic type was confirmed in 1521/1626 (93.5%) cases of the Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type cohorts. The highest misclassification occurred in the endometrioid type, where most of the changes involved reclassification from endometrioid to high-grade serous carcinoma, which was additionally supported by mutational data and outcome. Using the reclassified histotype as the endpoint, a 4-marker prediction model correctly classified 88%, a 6-marker 91%, and an 8-marker 93% of the 1762 cases. This study provides statistically validated, inexpensive IHC algorithms, which have versatile applications in research, clinical practice, and clinical trials. PMID:26974996

  9. Early AD pathology in a [C-11]PiB-negative case: a PiB-amyloid imaging, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Eric E.; Price, Julie C.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Mathis, Chester A.; Paljug, William R.; Debnath, Manik L.; Cohen, Anne D.; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; DeKosky, Steven T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(−)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(−) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (<100 pmol/g) and Aβ1–42 (<500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1–42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800–1,700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ1–40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1–40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1–42 only in the [C-11]PiB(−) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(−) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11

  10. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies in presumed Alzheimer cases, including 13 serial scans.

    PubMed

    McGeer, E G; Peppard, R P; McGeer, P L; Tuokko, H; Crockett, D; Parks, R; Akiyama, H; Calne, D B; Beattie, B L; Harrop, R

    1990-02-01

    Positron emission tomographic (PET) data on local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (LCMR) are reported for 32 regions of interest (ROI)s in cross-sectional studies on 57 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 neurologically normal controls, and in serial studies on 13 of the AD cases, including a familial, young-onset case where the diagnosis has been confirmed at autopsy. Extensive psychological testing was done on all the AD cases. Almost all cortical regions showed a significant decline in LCMR with age in the control subjects. There were the expected cortical metabolic deficits in AD and the serial studies showed a general increase in such deficits over time in 12 of the 13 cases. The regions showing the greatest declines with time in serial studies are the same as those showing the most severe deficiencies in cross-sectional studies. The young-onset case did not show a greater rate of metabolic decline than many of the older cases studied. Results on individual psychological tests tended to correlate with metabolic rates in multiple, rather than single, cortical regions, suggesting intact neuronal networks are required for good performance. The correlations with cortical metabolic activity found were of a sign indicating that the higher the metabolic rates and the better the left:right asymmetry index, the better was the performance.

  11. Statistical issues including design and sample size calculation in thorough QT/QTc studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joanne; Machado, Stella G

    2008-01-01

    After several drugs were removed from the market in recent years because of death due to ventricular tachycardia resulting from drug-induced QT prolongation (Khongphatthanayothin et al., 1998; Lasser et al., 2002; Pratt et al., 1994; Wysowski et al., 2001), the ICH Regulatory agencies requested all sponsors of new drugs to conduct a clinical study, named a Thorough QT/QTc (TQT) study, to assess any possible QT prolongation due to the study drug. The final version of the ICH E14 guidance (ICH, 2005) for "The Clinical Evaluation of QT/QTc Interval Prolongation and Proarrhythmic Potential for Nonantiarrhythmic Drugs" was released in May 2005. The purpose of the ICH E14 guidance (ICH, 2005) is to provide recommendations to sponsors concerning the design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation of clinical studies to assess the potential of a drug to delay cardiac repolarization. The guideline, however, is not specific on several issues. In this paper, we try to address some statistical issues, including study design, primary statistical analysis, assay sensitivity analysis, and the calculation of the sample size for a TQT study.

  12. Immunohistochemical study of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor alpha response in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Coscelli, Germán; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens. In this study, the distribution and kinetic of iNOS and TNFα-producing cells of kidney and spleen of turbot experimentally inoculated with A. salmonicida was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In control and challenged fish, individual iNOS(+) and TNFα(+) cells, showing a similar pattern of distribution, were detected. In challenged fish, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the evaluated organs, as well as the melanomacrophage centres showed variable positivity for both antigens. These results indicate that A. salmonicida induced an immune response in challenged turbot, which involved the increase of the activity of iNOS and TNFα in the leukocytic population from kidney and spleen. PMID:27431586

  13. Immunohistochemical study of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor alpha response in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Coscelli, Germán; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens. In this study, the distribution and kinetic of iNOS and TNFα-producing cells of kidney and spleen of turbot experimentally inoculated with A. salmonicida was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In control and challenged fish, individual iNOS(+) and TNFα(+) cells, showing a similar pattern of distribution, were detected. In challenged fish, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the evaluated organs, as well as the melanomacrophage centres showed variable positivity for both antigens. These results indicate that A. salmonicida induced an immune response in challenged turbot, which involved the increase of the activity of iNOS and TNFα in the leukocytic population from kidney and spleen.

  14. Macrophage density in pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles greatly exceeds that in other striated muscles: an immunohistochemical study using elderly human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sunki; Kitamura, Kei; Masaaki, Kasahara; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in aging-related muscle atrophy (i.e., sarcopenia). We examined macrophage density in six striated muscles (cricopharyngeus muscle, posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle, genioglossus muscle, masseter muscle, infraspinatus muscle, and external anal sphincter). We examined 14 donated male cadavers and utilized CD68 immunohistochemistry to clarify macrophage density in muscles. The numbers of macrophages per striated muscle fiber in the larynx and pharynx (0.34 and 0.31) were 5–6 times greater than those in the tongue, shoulder, and anus (0.05–0.07) with high statistical significance. Thick muscle fibers over 80 µm in diameter were seen in the pharynx, larynx, and anal sphincter of two limited specimens. Conversely, in the other sites or specimens, muscle fibers were thinner than 50 µm. We did not find any multinuclear muscle cells suggestive of regeneration. At the beginning of the study, we suspected that mucosal macrophages might have invaded into the muscle layer of the larynx and pharynx, but we found no evidence of inflammation in the mucosa. Likewise, the internal anal sphincter (a smooth muscle layer near the mucosa) usually contained fewer macrophages than the external sphincter. The present result suggest that, in elderly men, thinning and death of striated muscle fibers occur more frequently in the larynx and pharynx than in other parts of the body. PMID:27722010

  15. The role of rosiglitazone treatment in the modulation of islet hormones and hormone-like peptides: a combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Sukriye; Bolkent, Sema; Sundler, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Rosiglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, is an insulin sensitizing agent in peripheral tissues. This study investigated islet hormones and hormone-like peptides expression patterns in rosiglitazone treated streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods. Animals were divided into four groups. I. Group: Intact control rats. II. Group: Rosiglitazone-treated controls. III. Group: STZ-diabetic rats. IV. Group: Rosiglitazone-treated diabetic animals. Rosiglitazone was given for 7 days at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. In the STZ-diabetic group, there were significant differences in islet hormones and hormone like peptides cell numbers compared to rosiglitazone control group and intact control group. There were significant differences in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cell numbers between rosiglitazone control group and rosiglitazone + STZ-diabetic group. We detected a significant decrease in glucagon mRNA signals in rosiglitazone-treated control group compared to intact controls. We found a statistically significant difference in islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) mRNA signals between the STZ-diabetic group and the rosiglitazone + STZ-diabetic group. Besides, we also demonstrated co-localization of peptides by using double and triple histochemistry. In conclusion, our results show that short-term rosiglitazone treatment had a preservative effect to some extent on the expression of islet hormones and hormone-like peptides to maintain the islet function.

  16. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) expression in the developing human brain: comparative immunohistochemical study between patients with normal and mutated CFTR.

    PubMed

    Marcorelles, Pascale; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Uguen, Arnaud; Ledé, Françoise; Férec, Claude; Laquerrière, Annie

    2014-11-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein has recently been shown to be expressed in the human adult central nervous system (CNS). As CFTR expression has also been documented during embryonic development in several organs, such as the respiratory tract, the intestine and the male reproductive system, suggesting a possible role during development we decided to investigate the expression of CFTR in the human developing CNS. In addition, as some, although rare, neurological symptoms have been reported in patients with CF, we compared the expression of normal and mutated CFTR at several fetal stages. Immunohistochemistry was performed on brain and spinal cord samples of foetuses between 13 and 40 weeks of gestation and compared with five patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) of similar ages. We showed in this study that CFTR is only expressed in neurons and has an early and widespread distribution during development. Although we did not observe any cerebral abnormality in patients with CF, we observed a slight delay in the maturation of several brain structures. We also observed different expression and localization of CFTR depending on the brain structure or the cell maturation stage. Our findings, along with a literature review on the neurological phenotypes of patients with CF, suggest that this gene may play previously unsuspected roles in neuronal maturation or function.

  17. Colchicine myopathy: a vacuolar myopathy with selective type I muscle fiber involvement. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Figarella-Branger, D; Alla, P; Harlé, J-R; Pellissier, J-F

    2002-02-01

    Colchicine, a microtubule polymerization inhibitor, can very occasionally induce myopathy. We report two cases of colchicine myopathy. Both patients presented with myalgia and proximal muscle weakness. The first patient, an 80-year-old woman, had chronic renal failure related to renal amyloidosis. She had been treated by colchicine for 4 months. The second, a 75-year-old man with normal renal function, suffering from gout, was treated by colchicine for 3 weeks. Muscle biopsies displayed the same alterations, but the degree of severity was different. Conventional histology revealed vacuolar changes characterized by acid phosphatase-positive vacuoles and myofibrillar disarray foci. The lesions were selective for type I fibers. Ultrastructural study demonstrated autophagic vacuoles. Most of the vacuoles expressed dystrophin but not merosin. Several fibers reacted with anti-MHC class I antibody and granular deposits of membrane attack complex were observed on the surface of numerous myofibers. Anti-alphaB-crystallin antibody strongly reacted with vacuolar content. Physiopathologically, microtubules are primordial for vesicle movements and colchicine induces autophagic vacuole accumulation by preventing their fusion with lysosomes. The selective type I involvement is probably due to the higher tubulin amount in type I fibers. AlphaB-crystallin overexpression is related to its microtubule protection properties. Moreover, we suggest that vacuoles randomly floating in sarcoplasm might occasionally meet the plasma membrane and open in the extracellular space, leading to complement activation. Accurate diagnosis of colchicine myopathy is relevant because the treatment is based on colchicine interruption.

  18. HNPCC-associated synchronous early-stage signet-ring cell carcinomas of colonic origin. A comparative morphological and immunohistochemical study of an intramucosal and a submucosal example.

    PubMed

    Klarskov, Louise; Bernstein, Inge; Holck, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) developing in the colorectum (CR) is infrequently identified at an early stage (no deeper than submucosa). Most such examples involve the submucosa. Merely 13 cases of intramucosal CR SRCC are at hand. We recently had the opportunity to study a specimen with two synchronous early-stage SRCC, developed in a 65-year-old hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer male patient with a known disease-causing mutation in MLH1. A right hemicolectomy specimen comprised a 15-mm intramucosal cecal lesion, featuring zones of conventional tubular adenoma and intraepithelial SRCC as well as tumor cells multifocally permeating the lamina propria and a 12-mm submucosally expanding SRCC of the ascending colon. The intramucosal and intraepithelial as well as stromal lesional cells displayed a normal membranous expression of beta-catenin and E-cadherin; submucosally infiltrating cells featured alterations in this complex with loss of membranous expression of both proteins and a shift with nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, suggesting a disruption of the Wingless signaling pathway taking place at the transition from the intramucosal to the submucosal level. PMID:19002494

  19. Molecular and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Historical Long-Term Preserved Fixed Tissues from Different Human Organs

    PubMed Central

    Hühns, Maja; Röpenack, Paula; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    University and museum collections are very important sources of biological samples that can be used to asses the past and present genetic diversity of many species. Modern genetic and immunohistochemical techniques can be used on long-term preserved fixed tissues from museum specimens to answer epidemiological questions. A proof of principle was established to apply modern molecular genetics and immunohistochemical methods to these old specimens and to verify the original diagnosis. We analysed 19 specimens from our university collection including human organs that had been in fixative for more than 80 years. The tissues originated from lung, colon, brain, heart, adrenal gland, uterus and skin. We isolated amplifiable DNA from these wet preparations and performed mutational analysis of BRAF, KRAS and EGFR. The tissues were also embedded in paraffin and used for modern histology and immunohistochemistry. Our data show that amplifiable DNA is extractable and ranged from 0.25 to 22.77 μg of total DNA. In three specimens BRAFV600E or KRASG12D mutations were found. Additionally, expression of different proteins like vimentin and GFAP was detected immunohistochemical in six investigated specimens. On the basis of our results the original diagnosis was altered in three specimens. Our work showed that it is possible to extract amplifiable DNA suitable for sequence analysis from long-term fixed tissue. Furthermore, histology and immunohistochemistry is feasible in specimens fixed long time ago. We conclude that these old preparations are suitable for further epidemiological research and that our methods open up new opportunities for future studies. PMID:26252375

  20. Molecular and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Historical Long-Term Preserved Fixed Tissues from Different Human Organs.

    PubMed

    Hühns, Maja; Röpenack, Paula; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    University and museum collections are very important sources of biological samples that can be used to asses the past and present genetic diversity of many species. Modern genetic and immunohistochemical techniques can be used on long-term preserved fixed tissues from museum specimens to answer epidemiological questions. A proof of principle was established to apply modern molecular genetics and immunohistochemical methods to these old specimens and to verify the original diagnosis. We analysed 19 specimens from our university collection including human organs that had been in fixative for more than 80 years. The tissues originated from lung, colon, brain, heart, adrenal gland, uterus and skin. We isolated amplifiable DNA from these wet preparations and performed mutational analysis of BRAF, KRAS and EGFR. The tissues were also embedded in paraffin and used for modern histology and immunohistochemistry. Our data show that amplifiable DNA is extractable and ranged from 0.25 to 22.77 μg of total DNA. In three specimens BRAFV600E or KRASG12D mutations were found. Additionally, expression of different proteins like vimentin and GFAP was detected immunohistochemical in six investigated specimens. On the basis of our results the original diagnosis was altered in three specimens. Our work showed that it is possible to extract amplifiable DNA suitable for sequence analysis from long-term fixed tissue. Furthermore, histology and immunohistochemistry is feasible in specimens fixed long time ago. We conclude that these old preparations are suitable for further epidemiological research and that our methods open up new opportunities for future studies. PMID:26252375

  1. Distribution of two forms of somatostatin and peptides belonging to the pancreatic polypeptide family in tissues of larval lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L.: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, R; Ferreira, L C; Youson, J H

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistochemistry on tissues of larval lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L., was used to determine the distribution of invariant somatostatin-14 (SST-14) and lamprey somatostatin-34 (SST-34) in the brain while antisera against porcine peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), human neuropeptide Y (NPY), anglerfish peptide YG (aPY), salmon glucagon-like peptide (GLP), SST-14, and SST-34 were used in studies of the pancreas and anterior intestine. In the brain, SST-14 is the major form of somatostatin. SST-14- and SST-34-immunoreactive nerve fibers are distributed throughout the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. In the latter region SST-14 immunoreactivity is concentrated in nerve tracts in the nucleus interpeduncularis. Nerve cells within the olfactory bulbs are immunoreactive only to anti-SST-34. Cells immunostained with anti-SST-14 were localized within the ependymal and subependymal layers of the pars ventralis hypothalami and the subependymal layers of the pars dorsalis thalami. SST-14-immunoreactive perikarya are also distributed within the tegmentum mesencephali. Nerve fibers and cells immunoreactive to anti-SST-34 are detected in the pars ventralis hypothalami but these cells do not colocalize SST-14. Pancreatic islets, distributed within the epithelium and in the submucosal connective tissue at the esophageal-intestinal junction, are only immunoreactive to anti-insulin. The antisera revealed three distinct cell types in the intestinal epithelium: type 1 colocalizes aPY, NPY, and PYY; type 2 colocalizes SST-14 and SST-34; and type 3 demonstrates immunoreactivity only to anti-SST-34. Immunoreactivity to anti-GLP is absent. PMID:1678724

  2. Effect of low-level laser therapy (λ660 nm) on angiogenesis in wound healing: a immunohistochemical study in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Fábio; Neto, Alberto de Aguiar Pires Valença; Sousa, Ana Paula Cavalcanti de; Marchionni, Antônio Márcio Teixeira; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Reis, Silvia Regina de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the angiogenesis on dorsal cutaneous wounds in a rodent model treated with λ660 nm laser light. New vessel formation is a multistep process involving vessel sprouting, endothelial cell migration, proliferation and tube formation. Although several in vivo studies have shown that laser phototherapy influences tissue repair, a fully understanding of angiogenesis mechanisms are not yet known. Twenty-four young adult male Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were used. Under general anesthesia, one excisional wound was created on the dorsum of each animal and they were randomly distributed into two groups: one control and one treated with laser (λ660 nm, 16 mW, 10 J/cm2). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to the animal death timing (2, 4 and 6 days). Laser irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day during the experiment and marked with Sirius Red, specific for collagen, and immunomarked with anti-TGF-β and anti-von Willebrand factor. Marked sections underwent histological analysis by light microscopy and the mean area of the wound of each animal was calculated and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Although at some death periods, collagen expression and number of blood vessels on irradiated animals were higher than in the control ones, no significant differences were found at any time in relation to TGF-β expression (p>0.05). It was concluded that laser treatment (λ660 nm) contributed to increase angiogenesis.

  3. Immunohistochemical expression of glypican 3 in endometrial carcinoma and correlation with prognostic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Sarah A; Raboh, Nermine M Abd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carcinogenesis is associated with several critical regulatory molecules which are involved in different signaling pathways such as the WNT signaling pathways. Among which the β-catenin dependent pathway has been associated with human endometrial cancer. Genetic and biochemical studies have demonstrated that glypicans can regulate several signaling pathways including those triggered by Wnts. Glypican 3 is one of six mammalian members of the glypican family of proteoglycans. Overexpression of glypican 3 has been reported in some types of cancers but only few data are available about its expression in endometrial carcinoma and its role in endometrial carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of glypican 3 in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) and serous endometrial carcinoma (SEC), and to correlate its expression with prognostic factors of endometrial carcinoma. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical expression of glypican 3 was studied in fifty two EEC and nineteen SEC cases. Results: Glypican 3 expression showed a significant difference between EEC and SEC (P = 0.027) and it was significantly correlated with tumor grade, stage and myometrial invasion (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Glypican 3 expression can be used as an adjunct in the differentiation between EEC and SEC. Glypican 3 is associated with poor prognostic parameters in both EEC and SEC, and it can be a promising molecule for targeted immunotherapy in positive cases. PMID:26722522

  4. Malignant melanotic schwannian tumor: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and gene expression profiling study of 40 cases, with a proposal for the reclassification of "melanotic schwannoma".

    PubMed

    Torres-Mora, Jorge; Dry, Sarah; Li, Xinmin; Binder, Scott; Amin, Mitual; Folpe, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    Melanotic schwannomas (MSs), variably associated with the Carney complex, are rare tumors that usually involve spinal nerve roots but may occur in other locations. Clinicopathologic evaluation poorly predicts the behavior of MS. Fewer than 200 cases have been reported. We report a series of 40 well-characterized MSs, one of the largest series to date. The tumors were comprehensively evaluated, and clinical follow-up was obtained. Immunohistochemistry for S100 protein, Melan-A, HMB45, tyrosinase, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), EMA, SMARCB1, Ki-67 antigen, ASMTL, and the Carney complex-associated PRKAR1A gene product was performed using commercially available antibodies and the Ventana Ultraview detection system. Gene microarray study was conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 MSs and the results compared with previous data from melanoma and schwannoma. Differentially expressed genes were selected at >3-fold and P<0.001. The Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. The tumors occurred in 18 male and 22 female patients (mean age 41 y; range, 11 to 84 y) and involved the paravertebral nerve roots (N=31), mediastinum (N=3), sacrum, cauda equina, para-aortic region, fifth cranial nerve, buttock, and cerebellum (N=1 each). Two patients had known Carney complex, and 1 patient also had a cutaneous myxoma, suggestive of Carney complex. The tumors expressed S100 protein (21/25, 84%), Melan-A (23/25, 92%), HMB45 (25/25, 100%), tyrosinase (25/25, 100%), GFAP (0/24, 0%), EMA (0/9, 0%), SMARCB1 (retained in 25/25, 100%), and ASMTL (5/19, 26%); PRKAR1A expression was lost in 7/20 cases (35%). Ki-67-labeling index was <5% in 23/25 cases (92%) and 5% to 10% in 2/25 cases (8%). Gene expression profiling showed significant differences between MS, melanoma, and conventional schwannoma. Clinical follow-up (26/40, 65%; mean 55 mo; range, 1 to 300 mo) showed local recurrences in 9/26 (35%) and metastases in 11/26 (44%) patients. Fourteen

  5. Loss of aquaporin 3 protein expression constitutes an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival: an immunohistochemical study on stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) continues to be a challenge due to its unpredictable clinical course. Reliable molecular markers that help to determine appropriate individual treatment are still lacking. Loss of aquaporin (AQP) 3 protein expression has previously been shown in muscle-invasive UBC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of AQP3 protein expression with regard to the prognosis of stage pT1 UBC. Method AQP 3 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in specimens of 87 stage T1 UBC patients, who were diagnosed by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and subsequent second resection at a high-volume urological centre between 2002 and 2009. Patients underwent adjuvant instillation therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Loss of AQP3 protein expression was defined as complete absence of the protein within the whole tumour. Expression status was correlated retrospectively with clinicopathological and follow-up data (median: 31 months). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the value of AQP3 tumour expression with regard to recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RFS, PFS and CSS were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log rank test. Results 59% of patients were shown to exhibit AQP3-positive tumours, whereas 41% of tumours did not express the marker. Loss of AQP3 protein expression was associated with a statistically significantly worse PFS (20% vs. 72%, p=0.020). This finding was confirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 7.58, CI 1.29 – 44.68; p=0.025). Conclusions Loss of AQP3 protein expression in pT1 UBC appears to play a key role in disease progression and is associated with worse PFS. Considering its potential prognostic value, assessment of AQP3 protein expression could be used to help stratify the behavior of patients with pT1 UBC. PMID:23043286

  6. NUCLEAR BRACHYURY EXPRESSION IS CONSISTENT IN CHORDOMA, COMMON IN GERM CELL TUMORS AND SMALL CELL CARCINOMAS AND RARE IN OTHER CARCINOMAS AND SARCOMAS. AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF 5229 CASES

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Markku; Wang, Zengfeng; Lasota, Jerzy; Heery, Christopher; Schlom, Jeffrey; Palena, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Brachyury is a transcription factor of the T-box family typically expressed in notochord and chordoma. Some studies report brachyury as highly specific for chordoma, whereas others have concluded that brachyury is expressed in many types of common carcinomas by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and could be involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic process. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated 5229 different tumors for nuclear brachyury expression using a new rabbit monoclonal antibody and automated immunostaining (Leica Bond Max). Only nuclear labeling was scored, and antibody dilution of 1:2000 was used. In normal tissues, only rare cells in seminiferous tubules were labeled; all other organs were negative. All chordomas (75/76), except a sarcomatous one, were positive, whereas chondrosarcomas were negative. Among epithelial tumors, positivity was often detected in embryonal carcinoma (74%) and seminoma (45%). Pulmonary small cell carcinoma was often positive (41%), whereas pulmonary and pancreatic adenocarcinomas only rarely showed nuclear brachyury-positivity (3–4%). Common carcinomas such as ductal carcinomas of breast, or adenocarcinomas of the prostate only exceptionally showed nuclear positivity (< 1%). No colorectal, hepatocellular, renal cell, squamous cell, thyroid or urothelial carcinoma, or mesothelioma showed nuclear brachyury-positivity. Among mesenchymal and neuroectodermal tumors, only isolated cases of melanoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and follicular lymphoma showed nuclear expression. However, as shown previously with lung carcinoma, experiments with lower antibody dilutions (1:200–1:500) showed weak cytoplasmic and nuclear labeling in breast cancers. In addition to chordoma, we show here for the first time that nuclear brachyury expression is prevalent in embryonal carcinoma, seminoma, and small cell carcinoma of the lung but very rare in common carcinomas

  7. Nuclear Brachyury Expression Is Consistent in Chordoma, Common in Germ Cell Tumors and Small Cell Carcinomas, and Rare in Other Carcinomas and Sarcomas: An Immunohistochemical Study of 5229 Cases.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Markku; Wang, Zengfeng; Lasota, Jerzy; Heery, Christopher; Schlom, Jeffrey; Palena, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Brachyury is a transcription factor of the T-box family typically expressed in notochord and chordoma. Some studies report brachyury as highly specific for chordoma, whereas others have concluded that brachyury is expressed in many types of common carcinomas by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry and could be involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic process. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated 5229 different tumors for nuclear brachyury expression using a new rabbit monoclonal antibody and automated immunostaining (Leica Bond Max). Only nuclear labeling was scored, and antibody dilution of 1:2000 was used. In normal tissues, only rare cells in seminiferous tubules were labeled; all other organs were negative. All chordomas (75/76), except a sarcomatous one, were positive, whereas chondrosarcomas were negative. Among epithelial tumors, positivity was often detected in embryonal carcinoma (74%) and seminoma (45%). Pulmonary small cell carcinoma was often positive (41%), whereas pulmonary and pancreatic adenocarcinomas only rarely showed nuclear brachyury positivity (3% to 4%). Common carcinomas such as ductal carcinomas of the breast or adenocarcinomas of the prostate only exceptionally showed nuclear positivity (<1%). No colorectal, hepatocellular, renal cell, squamous cell, thyroid or urothelial carcinoma, or mesothelioma showed nuclear brachyury positivity. Among mesenchymal and neuroectodermal tumors, only isolated cases of melanoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and follicular lymphoma showed nuclear expression. However, as shown previously with lung carcinoma, experiments with lower antibody dilutions (1:200 to 1:500) showed weak cytoplasmic and nuclear labeling in breast cancers. In addition to chordoma, we show here for the first time that nuclear brachyury expression is prevalent in embryonal carcinoma, seminoma, and small cell carcinoma

  8. Molecular Beam and Surface Science Studies of Heterogeneous Reaction Kinetics Including Combustion Dynamics. Final Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sibener, S. J.

    2006-06-23

    This research program examined the heterogeneous reaction kinetics and reaction dynamics of surface chemical processes which are of direct relevance to efficient energy production, condensed phase reactions, and mateials growth including nanoscience objectives. We have had several notable scientific and technical successes. Illustrative highlights include: (1) a thorough study of how one can efficiently produce synthesis gas (SynGas) at relatively low Rh(111) catalyst temperatures via the reaction CH{sub4}+1/2 O{sub2} {r_arrow} CO+2H{sub2}. In these studies methane activation is accomplished utilizing high-kinetic energy reagents generated via supersonic molecular beams, (2) experiments which have incisively probed the partial oxidation chemistry of adsorbed 1- and 2- butene on Rh and ice, as well as partial oxidation of propene on Au; (3) investigation of structural changes which occur to the reconstructed (23x{radical}3)-Au(111) surface upon exposure to atomic oxygen, (4) a combined experimental and theoretical examination of the fundamental atomic-level rules which govern defect minimization during the formation of self-organizing stepped nanostructures, (5) the use of these relatively defect-free nanotemplates for growing silicon nanowires having atomically-dimensioned widths, (6) a combined scanning probe and atomic beam scattering study of how the presence of self-assembling organic overlayers interact with metallic supports substrates - this work hs led to revision of the currently held view of how such adsorbates reconfigure surface structure at the atomic level, (7) an inelastic He atom scattering study in which we examined the effect of chain length on the low-energy vibrations of alkanethiol striped phase self-assembled monolayers on Au(111), yielding information on the forces that govern interfacial self-assembly, (8) a study of the vibrational properties of disordered films of SF{sub6} adsorbed on Au(111), and (9) a study of the activated chemistry and

  9. Including stratigraphic hierarchy information in geostatistical simulation: a demonstration study on analogs of alluvial sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comunian, Alessandro; Felletti, Fabrizio; Giacobbo, Francesca; Giudici, Mauro; Bersezio, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    When building a geostatistical model of the hydrofacies distribution in a volume block it is important to include all the relevant available information. Localised information about the observed hydrofacies (hard data) are routinely included in the simulation procedures. Non stationarities in the hydrofacies distribution can be handled by considering auxiliary (soft) data extracted, for example, from the results of geophysical surveys. This piece of information can be included as auxiliary data both in variogram based methods (i.e. co-Kriging) and in multiple-point statistics (MPS) methods. The latter methods allow to formalise some soft knowledge about the considered model of heterogeneity using a training image. However, including information related to the stratigraphic hierarchy in the training image is rarely straightforward. In this work, a methodology to include the information about the stratigraphic hierarchy in the simulation process is formalised and implemented in a MPS framework. The methodology is applied and tested by reconstructing two model blocks of alluvial sediments with an approximate volume of few cubic meters. The external faces of the blocks, exposed in a quarry, were thoroughly mapped and their stratigraphic hierarchy was interpreted in a previous study. The bi-dimensional (2D) maps extracted from the faces, which are used as training images and as hard data, present a vertical trend and complex stratigraphic architectures. The training images and the conditioning data are classified according to the proposed stratigraphic hierarchy, and the hydrofacies codes are grouped to allow a sequence of interleaved binary MPS simulation. Every step of the simulation sequence corresponds to a group of hydrofacies defined in the stratigraphic hierarchy. The blocks simulated with the proposed methodology are compared with blocks simulated with a standard MPS approach. The comparisons are performed on many realisations using connectivity indicators and

  10. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    PubMed

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P < 0.001). The intensity of MFs was significantly higher in odontogenic tumors compared to odontogenic cysts (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between odontogenic tumors, except between UAM and OM (P = 0.041). The difference between OKC and odontogenic tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors. PMID:27092213

  11. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P < 0.001). The intensity of MFs was significantly higher in odontogenic tumors compared to odontogenic cysts (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between odontogenic tumors, except between UAM and OM (P = 0.041). The difference between OKC and odontogenic tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors. PMID:27092213

  12. Immunohistochemical Expression of Leptin in Non Melanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Azza G.A.; El-Dien, Marwa Mohammed Serag

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity in adults is associated with numerous health disorders including some forms of cancer. Various epidemiological studies have found a link between excess adiposity and malignant melanoma; however, the association with non melanoma skin cancer is questionable. Leptin is a hormone produced mainly by the adipose tissue and its serum level may reflect body mass index. Leptin is reported to promote proliferation and angiogenesis and deregulate apoptosis, therefore facilitates the process of carcinogenesis. Aim The current study tried to assess leptin localization and expression in non melanoma skin cancer to verify its possible role in pathogenesis of this cancer. Materials and Methods This study was carried out on 13 Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) cases and 14 Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) cases together with 19 normal skin biopsies as a control group using immunohistochemical method. Results Leptin was expressed in 52.6% of the normal epidermis with pure cytoplasmic and both cytoplasmic and nuclear staining patterns. All cases of SCC (100%) and two cases of BCC (15.4%) showed leptin expression in tumour cells whereas nuclear expression was in favour of SCC. Stromal expression of leptin was seen in both SCC (57.1%) and BCC (38.5%) without significant differences. Percentage of leptin expression by tumour cells in SCC showed positive linear correlation with tumour size (p=0.02) and microvessel density (p=0.000). Stromal expression of leptin in SCC was associated with large tumour size (p=0.04), advanced stage (p=0.01) and tumours arising in sites other than head and neck (p=0.01). Conclusion Leptin could have a more important role in pathogenesis of cutaneous SCC rather than BCC that may reflect the trivial role of obesity in induction of BCC. The expression of leptin by tumour and stromal cells of SCC could co-operate in its progression by promoting angiogenesis with subsequently acquiring large tumour size and then advanced stage. PMID:27656540

  13. Study of the dynamics of orbital assemblies including interactions with geometrical appendages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The complete equations for the Unified Flexible Spacecraft Simulation (UFSS) program developed for the NASA/MSFC are presented. This general purpose simulation program is based on an algorithm which utilizes the digital computer to synthesize the dynamic and kinematic equations for a topological tree configuration of N interconnected bodies (the interconnected system of bodies forms no closed loops), the terminal members of which may be flexible. Necessary input quantities to the dynamic subroutine include the mass and inertia properties of each body and the flexible characteristics of each terminal member in addition to the specification, for each body, of those bodies to which it connects. This latter description involves the specification of the number of rotational degrees of freedom at each interconnection along with the associated position vectors defining these connections relative to the mass centers of the bodies involved. These position vectors can be input as time-varying functions if desired, thus affording the capability of studying the effects of time-varying hinge locations. Springs and dampers are assumed to act at each interconnection and structural damping in the flexible terminal members is included in the form of equivalent viscous damping.

  14. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XVI: postnatal changes of distribution of S-100 protein positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH positive sites in the pars tuberalis of the rat pituitary gland. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Ikuo; Sakuma, Eisuke; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Wakabayashi, Kenjiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Hattori, Kazuki; Yashiro, Takashi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    The architecture of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) nerve ends and the S-100 protein containing folliculo-stellate cells forming gap junctions in the pars tuberalis is basically important in understanding the regulation of the hormone producing mechanism of anterior pituitary glands. In this study, intact male rats 5-60 days old were prepared for immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. From immunostained sections, the S-100 containing cells in pars tuberalis were first detected on day 30 and increased in number to day 60; this was parallel to the immunohistochemical staining of gap junction protein, connexin 43. LH-RH positive sites were clearly observed on just behind the optic chiasm and on the root of pituitary stalk on day 30. On day 60, the width of layer increased, while follicles and gap junctions were frequently observed between agranular cells in 10 or more layers of pars tuberalis. In the present study, we investigated the sexual maturation of the anterior pituitary glands through the postnatal development of S-100 positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH nerves. It is suggested that the folliculo-stellate cell system including the LH-RH neurons in the pars tuberalis participates in the control of LH secretion along with the portal vein system. PMID:24216131

  15. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-12-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl₂ treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  16. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  17. A study on Effective Thermal Conductivity of Packed Bed of Adsorbent Including Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, Yoshio; Ohta, Ryuma; Takegoshi, Eisyun

    In the present study, an effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed of an adsorbent including water was measured experimentally by using the transient hot wire method in temperature range from about -40°C to room temperature. Zeolite particle and activated carbon particle were employed as the adsorbent. The water included in the adsorbent was classified to three kinds; namely, the adsorbed water in the adsorption site with a nanometer order in particle, the osmosis water existing in gap with lager size than the adsorption site and the free water around particle. The measurement was performed with changing the mass ratio of adsorbed water and osmosis water and was also performed for the particle filled by the free water. As the results, the effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed increased with the increase of temperature except the case containing free water. In zeolite, the effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed of particles with adsorbed water became bigger than that of the desorbed particle about 10% though the adsorbed water was trapped in the adsorption site as a single molecular in zeolite particle. In activated carbon, the effective thermal conductivity was larger than that of desorbed particle about 20%. Next, in the packed bed of particle with the osmosis water, the effective thermal conductivity indicated about two times of that of particle with the adsorbed water. In the packed bed of particle filled by free water, the effective thermal conductivity increased suddenly under 0°C. It is considered that the thermal conductivity of ice affected seriously to the effective thermal conductivity because ice was the continuous phase in the bed.

  18. Immunohistochemical identification and quantitative analysis of cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in mouse organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yon, Jung-Min; Baek, In-Jeoung; Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Lee, Beom Jun; Yun, Young Won

    2008-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide in cells. Its spatial distribution matches that of superoxide production, allowing it to protect cells from oxidative stress. SOD1 deficiencies result in embryonic lethality and a wide range of pathologies in mice, but little is known about normal SOD1 protein expression in developing embryos. In this study, the expression pattern of SOD1 was investigated in post-implantation mouse embryos and extraembryonic tissues, including placenta, using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses. SOD1 was detected in embryos and extraembryonic tissues from embryonic day (ED) 8.5 to 18.5. The signal in embryos was observed at the lowest level on ED 9.5-11.5, and the highest level on ED 17.5-18.5, while levels remained constant in the surrounding extraembryonic tissues during all developmental stages examined. Immunohistochemical analysis of SOD1 expression on ED 13.5-18.5 revealed its ubiquitous distribution throughout developing organs. In particular, high levels of SOD1 expression were observed in the ependymal epithelium of the choroid plexus, ganglia, sensory cells of the olfactory and vestibulocochlear epithelia, blood cells and vessels, hepatocytes and hematopoietic cells of the liver, lymph nodes, osteogenic tissues, and skin. Thus, SOD1 is highly expressed at late stages of embryonic development in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, and can function as an important antioxidant enzyme during organogenesis in mouse embryos. PMID:18716442

  19. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Large Intestinal Adenocarcinoma in the Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Harbison, C E; Taheri, F; Knight, H; Miller, A D

    2015-07-01

    In rhesus macaques, adenocarcinomas of either the ileocecal junction or colon are common spontaneous tumors in aging populations. The macaque tumors have similar gross and histologic characteristics compared with their human counterpart, but little is known regarding the immunohistochemical expression of proteins that are commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of these tumors in humans. We performed a retrospective review of 22 cases of large intestinal carcinoma in the rhesus macaque and evaluated the expression pattern of a panel of potentially prognostically significant proteins identified from human studies. Histologic characteristics of the tumors included abundant mucin deposition, transmural spread, and lymphatic invasion. All rhesus adenocarcinomas displayed altered expression of 1 or more of CD10, β-catenin, sirtuin 1, cytokeratin 17, and p53 compared with age-matched controls. Zymographic analysis of active matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in the serum from 5 animals failed to reveal statistically significant differences between adenocarcinoma cases and controls. Based on the data presented herein, large intestinal carcinomas in the macaque share many histomorphologic and immunohistochemical similarities to large intestinal tumors in humans. Further validation of this animal model is considered important for the development of novel therapeutics and a better understanding of the pathogenesis.

  20. Immunohistochemical demonstration of fibronectin in the most superficial layer of normal rabbit articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, K; Inoue, H; Murakami, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To locate fibronectin ultrastructurally in the most superficial layer of normal articular cartilage of rabbits, in order to clarify its role in joint physiology. METHODS--Articular cartilage was obtained from the femoral condyle of seven normal adult rabbits and prepared by a method that included tannic acid fixation. Polyclonal antibodies against rabbit fibronectin were used in an immunohistochemical electron microscopic study, without any enzymic digestion but with a pre-embedding method for the transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS--The cartilage surface was successfully preserved by tannic acid fixation. The most superficial layer in electron photomicrographs was approximately 200-300 nm thick, cell free, and appeared to have two parallel components: the more superficial lamina and the deeper lamina. Gold labelled fibronectin lined this layer in immunohistochemical electron photomicrographs. CONCLUSIONS--Fibronectin covering the surface of the articular cartilage may have a role in joint lubrication and protection of the cartilage by binding with the collagenous matrix and hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid. Chondroitin sulphates may act as a charge barrier in close relationship with the collagen fibrils in the deeper lamina. Significant alteration in these functions may be one of the first causal steps leading to destruction of the articular cartilage. Images PMID:8546534

  1. Immunohistochemical identification of myoepithelial, epithelial, and connective tissue cells in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Destexhe, E; Lespagnard, L; Degeyter, M; Heymann, R; Coignoul, F

    1993-03-01

    Fifty-eight formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded canine mammary tumors, 19 malignant and 39 benign, were used in this study. Tumors were obtained from dogs submitted for surgical resection of lesions at private veterinary practices in Brussels or from the surgery unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed, using monoclonal antibodies directed against keratins 8-18 and 19, vimentin, desmin, and alpha-actin and polyclonal antibodies directed against high-molecular-weight keratins and S-100 protein. The main cell types, epithelial, myoepithelial, and connective, were identified, and myoepithelial cells represented the major component of most tumors, both benign and malignant. Myoepithelial cells had five patterns: resting and proliferative suprabasal cells, spindle and star-shaped interstitial cells, and cartilage. Reactivity to keratin 19, vimentin, alpha-actin, and S-100 protein suggested a progressive transformation from resting cells to cartilage. Epithelial cell reactivities were limited to keratins; only keratinized cells were positive for polyclonal keratins. Myofibroblasts were positive for both vimentin and alpha-actin, and connective tissue cells were positive for vimentin. Myoepithelial cells appeared to be the major component of carcinomas, justifying reevaluation and simplification of histomorphologic classifications, with a "pleomorphic carcinoma" group including all carcinomas except squamous, mucinous, and comedo carcinomas. Immunohistochemical evaluation, in addition to routine hematoxylin and eosin histopathologic evaluation is recommended for precise classification of canine mammary tumors. PMID:7682367

  2. Benign, malignant salivary gland tumors: comparison of immunohistochemical expression of e-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sudeendra; Kaveri, H; Rekha, K

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess any variation in the immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. A total of 60 cases of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors were evaluated immunohistochemically for E-cadherin expression. These included 10 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 2 cases of canalicular adenoma (CA), 2 cases of myoepithelioma (MY), 24 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), 12 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), 9 cases of adenocarcinoma (AC) and 1 case of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca Ex PA). 48 cases (80%) showed positive expression, in which benign tumors exhibited relatively increased reactivity (85.7%) as compared to the malignant tumors (78.3%). 10 PA, 2 MY, 20 ACC, 9 MEC, 6 AC and 1 Ca Ex PA expressed E-cadherin. Negative expression was evident in CA, ACC, MEC and AC. Statistically significant reduction in reactivity was evident in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, when compared to pleomorphic adenoma.

  3. PRKAR1A in the development of cardiac myxoma: a study of 110 cases including isolated and syndromic tumors.

    PubMed

    Maleszewski, Joseph J; Larsen, Brandon T; Kip, Nefize Sertac; Castonguay, Mathieu C; Edwards, William D; Carney, J Aidan; Kipp, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac myxoma usually occurs as a solitary mass, but occasionally develops as part of a familial syndrome, the Carney complex (CNC). Two thirds of CNC-associated cardiac myxomas exhibit mutations in PRKAR1A. PRKAR1A mutations occur in both familial and sporadic forms of CNC but have not been described in isolated (nonsyndromic) cardiac myxomas. A total of 127 consecutive cardiac myxomas surgically resected at Mayo Clinic (1993 to 2011) from 110 individuals were studied. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. Of these, 103 patients had isolated cardiac myxomas, and 7 patients had the tumor as a component of CNC. Age and sex distributions were different for CNC (mean 26 y, range 14 to 44 y, 71% female) and non-CNC (mean 62 y, range 18 to 92 y, 63% female) patients. PRKAR1A immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) was performed, and myxoma cell reactivity was graded semiquantitatively. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing was performed in 3 CNC patients and 29 non-CNC patients, to test for the presence of mutations in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the PRKAR1A gene. IHC staining showed that all 7 CNC cases lacked PRKAR1A antigenicity and that 33 (32%) isolated cardiac myxomas were similarly nonreactive. Of tumors subjected to sequencing analysis, 2 (67%) CNC myxomas and 9 (31%) non-CNC myxomas had pathogenic PRKAR1A mutations. No germline mutations were found in 4 non-CNC cases tested. PRKAR1A appears to play a role in the development of both syndromic and nonsyndromic cardiac myxomas. Routine IHC evaluation of cardiac myxomas for PRKAR1A expression may be useful in excluding a diagnosis of CNC. PMID:24618615

  4. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  5. Current concepts in the immunohistochemical evaluation of liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Koehne de Gonzalez, Anne K; Salomao, Marcela A; Lagana, Stephen M

    2015-06-01

    Immunohistochemistry often plays an important role in the evaluation of liver tumors. Recent advances have established a classification system for hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) based on morphology, molecular alterations, and immunohistochemistry. Specifically, loss of liver fatty acid binding protein is seen in HNF1α-inactivated HCA, staining with serum amyloid A is seen in inflammatory HCA, and diffuse staining with glutamine synthetase (GS) is seen in β-catenin activated HCA. A panel of immunohistochemical stains including glypican-3 (GPC-3), heat shock protein 70, and GS are useful in distinguishing HCC from non-malignant dysplastic nodules. Immunohistochemistry is also useful to determine whether a liver tumor is of primary hepatocellular or metastatic origin. Recently described markers useful for this purpose include arginase-1, GPC-3, and bile salt export pump. These newer markers may offer superior utility when compared to traditional markers of hepatocellular differentiation such as alpha-fetoprotein, hepatocyte paraffin-1, polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen, and CD10. This paper will review recent advances in the immunohistochemical evaluation of liver tumors. PMID:26052385

  6. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  7. Morphology and Immunohistochemical Phenotype of the Thymus in Secondary Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Struchko, G Yu; Merkulova, L M; Moskvichev, E V; Kostrova, O Yu; Mikhailova, M N; Drandrova, E G

    2015-10-01

    The thymus of outbred male rats 5 months after splenectomy (experimental secondary immunodeficiency) was studied by common histological and immunohistochemical methods using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to CD3, CD30, CD68, synaptophysin, to S100, p53, bcl-2, and Ki-67 proteins. Removal of the spleen led to acute involution of the thymic parenchyma, which was replaced by the adipose tissue and was associated with restructuring of the thymopoietic and nonthymopoietic components of the gland, changes in cellular composition and antigenic phenotype of the lobular cortical and medullary matter, and by reduction of cell proliferation.

  8. Implementing School Policies That Include Sexual Orientation: A Case Study in School and Community Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    This paper highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in a Rocky Mountain state in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop…

  9. A study of interface crack branching in dissimilar anisotropic bimaterial composites including thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renfu

    The interface crack branching phenomena, including thermal effects, has been investigated by using complex variable method and Stroh's dislocation theory, extended to thermo-elasticity in matrix notation. As one of the most catastrophic failure modes in structures like laminated and sandwich composites in aerospace and marine construction, thin film in electronic packaging, rotators in high speed engine of aircraft and reactor in nuclear power station, the study of interface crack branching has become a topic not only having theoretical importance, but also having practical significance. A unified approach is presented to address the thermoelastic interface crack problems in dissimilar anisotropic bimaterial composites, and a compact closed form solution is formulated by analytical continuation principle of complex analysis. Employing the contour integral method, an explicit solution to the interaction between the dislocations and the interface crack is obtained. By modeling the branched portion as a continuous distribution of the dislocations, the thermoelastic interface crack branching problem is then converted to a set of semi-coupled singular integral equations and solved by Gauss-Jacobi integration schemes. The influence of material property mismatches between the two constituents and the thermal loading effects on the interface crack branching are demonstrated by extensive numerical simulation. Some useful criteria for predicting the interface crack branching growth and guidance for optimal composites design are suggested. Further, a contact model to eliminate the overlapping between the two surfaces of an interface crack is also proposed and some new parameters which could influence the interpenetrating phenomena are also discovered. The technique to extend the current method to three dimensional problems is also outlined. Furthermore, the C++ source code has been implemented to manipulate the complicated complex operations for numerically solving the

  10. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin-orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm-1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ-, and their spin-orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  11. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin–orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin–orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm‑1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ‑, and their spin–orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  12. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: cytometric and immunohistochemical characteristics of 96 cases.

    PubMed

    Skotnicki, Piotr; Ryś, Janusz; Blecharz, Paweł; Reinfuss, Marian; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Kruczak, Anna; Lackowska, Bożena

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to present microscopic, cytometric and immunohistochemical characteristics of a group of 96 invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) of the breast. Ninety six patients treated surgically at the Department of Surgical Oncology, Centre of Oncology - Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Cracow Branch, between 1983 and 1996, were included into the study. In 56 (58.3%) cases, a classical pattern of ILC was diagnosed, whereas atypical variants (solid, pleomorphic, pleomorphic with signet ring cells, signet ring cell, and tubulolobular) were recognized in 40 (41.7%) cases. ILC was characterized by lack of E-cadherin expression, high rate of steroid receptor expression, low rate of P53 and c-erb-B2 expressing tumours, low MIB-1 labelling index, and low S phase fraction, as well as high rate of diploid lesions.

  13. Pleomorphic Carcinoma of the Colon: Morphological and Immunohistochemical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Giovanni; Barresi, Valeria; Ieni, Antonio; Irato, Eleonora; Caruso, Rosario Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a poorly differentiated (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) or undifferentiated carcinoma in which at least 10% spindle and/or giant cells are identified, or as a carcinoma constituted purely of spindle and giant cells. Although this entity has initially been shown in the lung, it has been described also in extrapulmonary locations, with only one report for a colonic site. A 65-year-old woman developed a caecal tumour. Gross examination revealed an endophytic/ulcerative mass 7 cm in length. Microscopically, the tumour was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a pleomorphic component that occupied more than 10% of the specimen. The tumour shared these histopathological findings with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma but differed in other clinicopathological features such as a pushing growth pattern, stage pT3N1, and an uneventful outcome 24 months after operation. The pleomorphic component showed morphological and immunohistochemical features compatible with mitotic catastrophe, a non-apoptotic cell death occurring in cycling cells after aberrant mitosis. These features included multinucleation, micronucleation, atypical mitoses, foci of geographic necrosis, as well as immunohistochemical overexpression of p53 and Ki-67. The interpretation of the pleomorphic component as morphological expression of mitotic catastrophe may be useful in comprehending the pathogenesis of this rare neoplasm, and it may have practical implications as a potential cancer therapeutic target. PMID:27462191

  14. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  15. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baysson, Helene; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-07

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  16. Histiocytoid breast carcinoma: a case report showing immunohistochemical profiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Peifeng; Zheng, Jinfeng; Zhang, Tingguo; Cao, Ruixue; Chen, Xin; Geng, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Histiocytoid breast carcinoma (HBC) is a rare type of breast cancer with a controversial histogenesis. Here we describe a case report of a 65-year old woman with HBC. The patient presented with two masses in the right breast. Histopathologically, the tumors consisted of a diffuse infiltration of large tumor cells and histological components of carcinoma in situ and atypical lobular hyperplasia were also observed. The infiltration pattern was similar to that of invasive lobular carcinoma with targetoid and Indian file arrangements. The invasive histiocytoid cells had finely granular, eosinophilic to vesicular cytoplasm and nuclei with a bland uniform appearance, a single small eosinophilic nucleolus and finely granular chromatin. We compared the immunohistochemical profiles of 17 breast cancer markers between invasive carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, atypical lobular hyperplasia and normal breast epithelium. Although they all shared the same reactivity for many of the proteins, they exhibited differences in GCDFP-15, E-cadherin, P120, CEA, HER-2, ER and PR expression, and these are discussed. This is the first case study of two HBC masses occurring in one breast simultaneously. By analyzing and comparing their morphologic characteristics and spectrum of immunohistochemical expression, our study supports the view that HBC is a variant of lobular carcinoma and our findings may assist in future diagnoses of HBC. PMID:24228128

  17. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of fatty acid transporters and MCT1 in the sebaceous glands of mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Miao; Lee, Shinhye; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The sebaceous glands secrete sebum to protect the epidermis and hairs by the oily products. The glands express several transporters and binding proteins for the production of fatty acids and uptake of their sources. The present immunohistochemical study examined the expression and localization of CD36, MCT1, FATP4, and E-FABP in the sebaceous glands, including the meibomian and preputial glands of mice. CD36 and MCT1 in sebaceous glands were largely co-localized along the plasma membrane of secretory cells, while they wer