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Sample records for immunohistochemical study including

  1. GATA-3 EXPRESSION IN TROPHOBLASTIC TISSUES: An Immunohistochemical Study of 445 Cases, Including Diagnostic Utility

    PubMed Central

    Banet, Natalie; Gown, Allen M.; Shih, Ie-Ming; Li, Qing Kay; Roden, Richard B.S.; Nucci, Marisa R.; Cheng, Liang; Przybycin, Christopher G.; Nasseri-Nik, Niloofar; Wu, Lee-Shu-Fune; Netto, George J.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vang, Russell

    2014-01-01

    . None of the atypical smooth muscle tumors and 3% of squamous cell carcinomas were positive, all of which exhibited weak staining. We conclude that GATA-3 is frequently expressed in normal and lesional trophoblastic tissues. It is also differentially expressed in intermediate trophoblast and cytotrophoblast/syncytiotrophoblast, which varies according to time during pregnancy. This study expands the spectrum of neoplasms known to express GATA-3. Thus, recognition of expression in trophoblastic tumors is important because it can present a diagnostic pitfall in the assessment of suspected metastatic bladder or breast carcinomas involving the gynecologic tract. In the evaluation of diagnostically problematic tumors for which trophoblastic neoplasms are in the differential diagnosis, such as leiomyosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma, GATA-3 can be included as part of an immunohistochemical panel particularly when other trophoblastic markers are either not available or yield ambiguous results. PMID:25188865

  2. Evaluating breast lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates: a multiparameter immunohistochemical study, including assessment of IgG4.

    PubMed

    Berg, Aaron N; Soma, Lorinda; Clark, Beth Z; Swerdlow, Steven H; Roth, Christine G

    2015-08-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the breast, a modified skin appendage, include lymphocytic lobulitis, other nonspecific benign proliferations, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma. Distinguishing these entities, all of which may be B-cell rich and may have associated sclerosis, can be difficult. In addition, the proportion that represents IgG4-related disease is unknown, and the similarity of MALT lymphomas to primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma is uncertain. To address these questions, the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of 50 benign and malignant breast lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (10 lymphocytic lobulitis, 1 granulomatous, 19 not otherwise specified, 20 MALT lymphomas) were evaluated. Compared with the MALT lymphomas, benign cases had a less dense infiltrate (P < .001), fewer but more histologically apparent germinal centers (P < .001), and more marked fibrosis (P < .0001). Greater than 60% B cells were present in 23% (7/30) benign cases versus 75% (15/20) MALT lymphomas (P = .0003). Plasma cells were predominantly IgG+ in 83% (24/29) benign cases and predominantly IgM+ in 73% (14/19) MALT lymphomas (P < .0001). None of the benign cases had greater than 50 IgG4+ plasma cells/high-power field, and only 1 lymphocytic lobulitis case had an IgG4/IgG ratio exceeding 40% and no clinical evidence for extramammary IgG4-related disease. Although there may be some overlapping features, routine histopathology together with limited immunohistochemical stains can distinguish benign from neoplastic lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the breast. Despite frequent sclerosis, the breast is not a common site of unrecognized IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Although there are similarities, breast MALT lymphomas can be separated from cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma.

  3. Immunohistochemical study of pancreatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ohaki, Y; Misugi, K; Fukuda, J; Okudaira, M; Hirose, M

    1987-10-01

    Three cases of pancreatoblastoma in children were examined immunohistochemically and the results were compared with those of pancreatic duct carcinoma in adults. The pancreatoblastoma demonstrated positive reactions to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (67%: 2/3), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) (100%: 3/3), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (67%: 2/3) and keratin (33%: 1/3), although CEA was only weakly positive in both cases. On the other hand, adult pancreatic duct carcinoma showed positive reactions as follows; AFP: 3% (1/29), AAT: 21% (6/29), CEA: 97% (28/29) and keratin: 93% (27/29). Also, endocrine substances including insulin, glucagon and somatostatin were all negative in the pancreatoblastomas. Two cases of pancreatoblastoma which were immunohistochemically positive for AFP also showed elevation of the serum AFP level clinically. The different expressive pattern of oncofetal antigens in pancreatoblastoma as compared with pancreatic duct carcinoma in adults may provide further supporting evidence for the embryonic nature of pancreatoblastoma, and suggests that such a pattern might be used as a tumor marker for pancreatoblastoma.

  4. Sessile serrated adenomas of the large bowel. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study including comparison with common hyperplastic polyps and adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chlumská, A; Boudová, L; Zámecník, M

    2006-07-01

    Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) is a newly characterized type of the large bowel adenoma. It arises in hyperplastic polyp (HP) and represents a precursor lesion of colorectal carcinoma with microsatellite instability. SSAs differ from common HPs by abnormal proliferation of the crypt epithelium and by nuclear atypia. We examined 15 SSAs from 15 patients. The age range was 25-80 years (average 60 years). Six patients were females and 9 were males. For comparison, we examined 10 conventional tubular adenomas and 10 common HPs with vesicular cells. The sites of SSAs were as follows: 8 in rectum, 4 in rectosigmoid colon, 1 in transverse colon, 1 next to mucinous carcinoma of ascending colon, 1 in anastomosis after resection of the transverse colon adenocarcinoma. The diameter of the lesions ranged from 5 to 12 mm. Histologically, SSAs showed asymmetrical proliferation of the epithelium, irregular shape of the crypts with their branching and some crypt dilatations especially in the basal parts of the crypts. Cellular atypia (dysplasia) was usually low. In 5 cases the nuclei were focally stratified and localized in the lower part of the cells. High-grade dysplasia was found only in SSA adjacent to mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, SSAs showed secretion of gastrointestinal mucin expressing MUC2 and MUC5A. Both MUC2 and MUC5A were also positive in mucinous carcinoma. In previous studies these expressions were considered specific for serrated type of carcinogenesis. However, our study found positivity of MUC2 and MUC5A also in conventional adenomas. Expression of p53 in SSAs was minimal. SSAs have malignant potential comparable with conventional adenomas and for this reason they must be distinguished from HPs.

  5. CD44 expression in colorectal cancer. An immunohistochemical study including correlation with cathepsin D immunoreactivity and some tumour clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, B; Famulski, W; Sulkowska, M; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Piotrowski, Z; Kisielewski, W; Sulkowski, S

    2001-01-01

    CD44 is a cell adhesion molecule involved in tumour growth and progression. This study was undertaken to evaluate the expression of CD44 standard protein in a series of 54 colorectal adenocarcinomas in correlation with cathepsin D immunoreactivity and some other clinicopathological variables. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues were investigated with anti-CD44 standard protein and anti-cathepsin D antibody. Immunolocalisation of CD44 protein and cathepsin D was performed using LSAB method. 13 (41.9%) out of 31 carcinomas without lymph-node metastases had positive CD44 expression, whereas only 6 (26.1%) out of 23 carcinomas with lymph-node metastases were found positive for CD44 expression. CD44 expression in carcinomas was positively correlated with tumour cells cathepsin D (p<0.01) immunostaining. statistically significant correlation was found between the expression of CD44 standard protein and the tumour site, age and sex of the patients. These results suggest that the standard-type CD44 protein lymph-node metastases, probably with cooperation of cathepsin D.

  6. Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and esophagus: an immunohistochemical study of 60 cases including comparison with normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chlumská, Alena; Mukenšnabl, Petr; Mareček, Petr; Zámečník, Michal

    2014-07-01

    Recently, a new classification of intestinal metaplasia (IM) using immunohistochemical mucin markers was proposed. Two following types of IM were defined: (1) a mixed gastric and intestinal type also called incomplete IM; (2) a purely intestinal type, also called complete IM. We present a series of 30 cases of gastric IM and 30 cases of IM of the esophagus, using this new classification. In all gastric cases, IM developed in the mucus-neck region in the form of incomplete IM. Toward the mucosa surface, it matured gradually into complete IM. This maturation showed a gradual reduction of both foveolar mucin MUC5AC and pyloric gland mucin MUC6. In two of 30 cases, IM was of the incomplete hyperproliferative type. In one case, focal high-grade adenomatous dysplasia was found in the incomplete IM. In the esophageal cases, IM was found in inflamed cardiac-type mucosa, and it was usually of the incomplete type, with almost diffuse positivity for MUC5AC and with rare positivity of MUC6. The goblet cells and some cylindrical cells expressed intestinal mucin MUC2. The proliferation was higher than in the complete IM, and in one case, focal low grade adenomatous dysplasia was found. In addition, we examined the expression of mucins in normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa. These cases included 50 duodenal biopsies, 50 biopsies from the ileum, and 50 biopsies from the colon. The inflamed cases included celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Some goblet cells of the normal intestinal mucosa expressed both MUC2 and MUC5AC. More numerous MUC5AC+ goblet cells were found in the inflamed intestinal mucosa. In the duodenal and small intestinal mucosa, even the MUC6 positivity of a few goblet or cylindrical cells was found. In sum, our results indicate that incomplete IM is an initial step of the metaplastic process. It can mature into complete IM, or alternatively, it can develop dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. In addition, we found that gastric-type mucins are also

  7. Pigmented spindle cell nevus: clues for differentiating it from spindle cell malignant melanoma. A comprehensive survey including clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and FISH studies.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alba; Valera, Alexandra; Carrera, Cristina; Hakim, Sofía; Aguilera, Paula; García, Adriana; Palou, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Alos, Llúcia

    2011-11-01

    Pigmented spindle cell nevus (PSCN), also known as Reed nevus, is a distinctive melanocytic tumor that can show worrisome clinical and histologic features mimicking a malignant melanoma. From a series of 46 pigmented spindle cell melanocytic lesions, including 22 PSCN and 24 spindle cell malignant melanomas (SCMMs), we collected clinical and histopathologic characteristics and evaluated cell cycle and apoptosis regulators by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes targeting 6p25 (RREB1), 11q13 (CCND1), 6q23 (MYB), and centromere 6 was performed. PSCN presented in younger people, frequently in women, and were small lesions under 7 mm in diameter affecting the lower limbs, whereas SCMMs arose more frequently in the trunk, upper limbs, and head and neck region. Histologically, symmetry, good lateral demarcation, and uniformity of cellular nests were significantly differential features of PSCN, whereas pagetoid and adnexal spread were frequently seen in both tumors. Immunohistochemical markers that significantly differed from melanomas were Ki-67, cyclin D1, and survivin. FISH was positive in 1 of 15 PSCN and was negative in 4 of 15 SCMMs. These results correlated to a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93%. In conclusion, in the evaluation of pigmented spindle cell melanocytic tumors, the integration of clinical and histologic assessment is essential. However, ancillary techniques such as proliferation antigen Ki-67, cyclin D1, survivin, and FISH can be useful as adjunctive tools.

  8. Plantar fibromatosis: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    de Palma, L; Santucci, A; Gigante, A; Di Giulio, A; Carloni, S

    1999-04-01

    The analogies between plantar fibromatosis and Dupuytren's disease (palmar fibromatosis) are well known. The latter is clinically more frequent and has been the object of extensive immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies, with a view to investigating its pathogenesis. By contrast, such data on plantar fibromatosis are quite scarce. A histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study was performed on nodule tissue from six patients who were subjected to total fasciectomy for plantar fibromatosis. The study of myofibroblasts revealed features suggestive of their fibroblastic origin and evidenced a cytoskeleton and an extracellular filamentous system that could enable myofibroblasts to generate and exert the intracellular forces that contribute to the contraction of the aponeurosis. These aspects are similar to those observed in Dupuytren's disease and seem to lend support to the theory that the two diseases are expressions of the same disorder.

  9. An immunohistochemical study of verrucous hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Felicidade; Torrelo, Antonio; Requena, Luis; Tellechea, Oscar; Del Pozo, Jesus; Sacristán, Felipe; Esteve-Martínez, Altea; de Unamuno, Blanca; de Miquel, Víctor Alegre; Colmenero, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    According to the International Society for the study of vascular Anomalies, vascular anomalies are classified as vascular neoplasms and vascular malformations. In some vascular lesions, categorization as a neoplasm or malformation has not been established with confidence so far. In order to further clarify the nosology of verrucous hemangioma, we studied 13 cases. To analyze immunohistochemical characteristics of verrucous hemangiomas in order to gain further insight in its histogenesis. We carried out a retrospective review. Immunohistochemical expression for Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), Glut-1 and D2-40 was performed in 13 cases. Immunohistochemistry performed with Glut-1 and WT1 showed positive staining in all lesions. All verrucous hemangiomas lacked D2-40 immunostaining. This is the first report in the literature investigating WT1 in verrucous hemangioma in order to further clarify the nosology of this vascular anomaly. Despite the clinical features of verrucous hemangioma, which are similar to those seen in vascular malformations, verrucous hemangioma exhibited an immunoprofile similar to vascular neoplasms, according to WT1 and Glut-1 positivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. High-grade fetal adenocarcinoma of the lung is a tumour with a fetal phenotype that shows diverse differentiation, including high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and mutational study of 20 cases.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masaki; Yazawa, Takuya; Ota, Satoshi; Morimoto, Junichi; Yoshino, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Shoji; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Komatsu, Masayo; Notohara, Kenji; Koda, Kenji; Nakatani, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    High-grade fetal adenocarcinoma (H-FLAC) is a rare variant of pulmonary adenocarcinoma; this study aims to elucidate its clinicopathological features and genetic abnormalities. Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and mutational analyses were performed on 20 surgically resected lung cancers that showed H-FLAC histology in various proportions. These tumours predominantly occurred in elderly males and in 10 patients who were heavy smokers. Four cases were pure H-FLAC, and 16 cases were mixed H-FLAC, which were found to be combined with conventional-type adenocarcinoma (15 cases), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (three cases), small-cell carcinoma (one case), enteric adenocarcinoma (two cases), choriocarcinoma (two cases), and a solid-clear cell pattern (seven cases). The fetal phenotype and diverse differentiation were supported by the immunoexpression of α-fetoprotein (95%), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) (50%), neuroendocrine markers (30-45%), proneural markers (50-69%), and CDX2 (40%). Except for TTF-1 expression (pure H-FLACs, 0%; mixed H-FLACs, 63%), there were no significant differences in histological or immunohistochemical findings between pure and mixed H-FLACs. EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were identified in 20%, 0%, 0% and 7% of the tumours, respectively. Lung adenocarcinomas with H-FLAC features possess the potential for multidirectional differentiation, and are not strongly associated with known major driver gene mutations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vera Sempere, Francisco José; Artes Martínez, María Jose; Vera Sirera, Beatriz; Bonet Marco, Jaime

    2006-07-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion that affects young patients, with female predominance, mainly in second decade, showing a radiolucent unilocular image associated with an unerupted tooth, usually a canine. In spite of previous and confusing denominations, such as adenoameloblastoma or adenomatoid ameloblastic tumor, AOT is a benign tumor with a very low rate of recurrence, that show a peculiar morphological picture (basaloid appearance with glandular-like structures, calcifying areas, and amiloid-like material) that allow its histopathological recognition. We present a clinicopathological analysis of a case of follicular AOT affecting the mandible in a 9 years-old female patient associated with unerupted lower left canine. Immunohistochemical study showed some data previously unrecognised. All cellular types that composed AOT showed nuclear positivity for p63 indicating a basal characterization in the different cellular components. According to its benign character and low potential for recurrence, AOT revealed a scant proliferative activity (2-3% nuclei showed Ki-67 positivity) limited to some epithelial nodules (AE1-3 +) of fusiform appearance. Absence of reactivity for hormonal receptors (RE and RPg) excluded a possible hormonodependence in AOT that could explain the observed female predominance.

  12. Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Studies of Keratoglobus

    PubMed Central

    Meghpara, Beeran; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Vemuganti, Geeta K.; Murthy, Somasheila I.; Sugar, Joel; Yue, Beatrice Y. J. T.; Edward, Deepak P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of human corneal buttons from patients who developed keratoglobus. Methods Nine corneal buttons were obtained during penetrating keratoplasty from patients with keratoglobus. Histologic features were examined using hematoxylin-eosin– stained sections. Immunohistochemical staining for α1-proteinase inhibitor, Sp1, and matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3 was performed, with 2 normal and 2 corneal sections with keratoconus as controls. Results Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed diffuse stromal thinning and focal disruptions in Bowman's layer in all keratoglobus specimens. Similar abnormal immunostaining results for α1-proteinase inhibitor and Sp1 were detected in keratoglobus and keratoconus at their respective active disease sites. Immunostaining for matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3 was significantly more intense in corneas with keratoglobus than in normal controls. Matrix metalloproteinase staining intensity was especially prominent in areas where the underlying Bowman's layer was disrupted. Conclusions Histological features in our keratoglobus specimens are consistent with previous reports. The similarities in immunohistochemical labeling between keratoglobus and keratoconus suggest that these entities may share common mechanisms that are involved in stromal thinning. PMID:19667340

  13. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metaplastic breast carcinoma is a rare entity of breast cancer expressing epithelial and/or mesenchymal tissue within the same tumor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features of metaplastic breast carcinoma and to confirm the triple negative, basal-like and/or luminal phenotype of this type of tumor by using immunohistochemical staining. Methods Seven cases of MBC were evaluated for clinico-pathological features including follow up data. Cases were studied immunohistochemically by CK-Pan, Vimentin, ER, PR, HER2, basal markers (CK5/6, p63, EGFR, SMA and S-100), luminal cytokeratins (CK8, CK18 and CK19), markers for syncytial cells (β-HCG and PLAP), as well as prognostic markers (p53, ki-67 and calretinin). Results The mean age of the patients was 36 years. Three cases showed choriocarcinomatous features. All of our cases were negative for ER, PR and HER2. Six out of the 7 cases showed basal-like differentiation by demonstrating positivity with at least one of the basal/myoepithelial markers. Also 6 out of the 7 cases expressed luminal type cytokeratins (CK8, CK18 and/or CK19). P53 was positive in 3 cases, ki-67 was strongly expressed in only one case, while calretinin was expressed in 6 cases. Conclusion Metaplastic breast carcinoma presents in our population at a younger age group than other international studies. All cases are categorized immunohistochemically under the triple negative group of breast cancer and 86% of them exhibited basal-like and luminal phenotype. Majority of cases developed local recurrence and distant metastasis in a relatively short period of time. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1101289295115804 PMID:25030022

  14. Immunohistochemical studies in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU).

    PubMed

    Romeike, A; Brügmann, M; Drommer, W

    1998-11-01

    Despite extensive clinical research, the etiology of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is still unknown. After an immunologic pathogenesis was established in recurrent uveitis in humans, a similar pathogenic mechanism was assumed to exist in ERU. To investigate whether immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in ERU, 20 eyes of 15 horses with ERU were examined immunohistochemically with a T cell marker, B cell marker, and anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antibodies. Twenty-six eyes of 20 horses were used for investigation of MHC class II antigen expression in normal equine eyes. In 18 eyes of 14 horses, the number of T cells in the inflammatory cell population within the uvea was assessed. In 16/18 eyes (89%), the T lymphocyte fraction was > 70%. This cell population was distributed mostly in a diffuse manner throughout the uvea and also within the mantle zone of follicular lymphocytic aggregates. Foci of B lymphocytes could be found within the center of follicular aggregates in three eyes. The expression of MHC class II antigen on resident ocular cells was evaluated in 10 eyes of six horses with ERU. An increase of MHC class II antigen expression in the trabecular meshwork and on the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium was noted as was a deviant expression on proliferating Müller cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The predominance of T cells in the inflammatory infiltrates supports the central role of a cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, the observation of a deviant MHC class II expression on resident ocular cells suggests that aberrant immune regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ERU.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of muscle biopsy in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Marbini, Adriana; Ferrari, A; Cioni, G; Bellanova, M F; Fusco, C; Gemignani, F

    2002-03-01

    Muscle biopsy was examined in 20 children with cerebral palsy, using immunohistochemical methods for marker of denervation neural cell adhesion molecules (N-CAM) in addition to standard techniques. Histological and histochemical study showed mild myopathic changes, type 1 predominance, and type 1 and type 2 hypotrophy, in accord with previous observations. Immunohistochemical study showed N-CAM expression in most biopsies (15/20), usually in scattered fibers, whereas in four patients aged less than 6 years it was expressed in grouped fibers. Our study supports the hypothesis of motor unit remodeling as a consequence of spasticity, especially in early phases of the disease.

  16. The morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma: study including 132 cases with pure type 1 and type 2 morphology as well as tumors with overlapping features.

    PubMed

    Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Arseneault, Madeleine; Aprikian, Armen; Kassouf, Wassim; Tanguay, Simon; Latour, Mathieu; Brimo, Fadi

    2014-07-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC) are classically divided into type 1 and 2 tumors. However, many cases do not fulfill all the criteria for either type. We describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of 132 pRCCs to better characterize the frequency and nature of tumors with overlapping features. Cases were reviewed and classified; IHC evaluation of CK7, EMA, TopoIIα, napsin A, and AMACR was performed on 95 cases. The frequencies of type 1, type 2, and "overlapping" pRCC were 25%, 28%, and 47%, respectively. The 2 categories of "overlapping" tumors were: (1) cases with bland cuboidal cells but no basophilic cytoplasm (type A); and (2) cases with predominantly type 1 histology admixed with areas showing prominent nucleoli (type B). The pathologic stage of "overlapping" cases showed concordance with type 1 tumors. Using the 2 discriminatory markers (CK7, EMA), "type A" cases were similar to type 1. Although the high-nuclear grade areas of "type B" tumors showed some staining differences from their low-nuclear grade counterpart, their IHC profile was closer to type 1. Single nucleotide polymorphism array results, although preliminary and restricted to only 9 cases (3 with overlapping features), also seemed to confirm those findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that variations in cytoplasmic quality and/or presence of high-grade nuclei in tumors otherwise displaying features of type 1 pRCCs are similar in stage and IHC profile those with classic type 1 histology, suggesting that their spectrum might be wider than originally described.

  17. [Collagenous colitis. Morphologic and immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Genova, G; Arena, N; Guddo, F; Vita, C; Reitano, R; Nagar, C; Tralongo, V

    1993-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a clinico-pathological entity characterized by chronic diarrhoeas and deposition of collagen beneath the epithelium surface of large bowel. We revised 265 endoscopy biopsy specimens of the large bowel from 198 consecutive patients with "aspecific chronic colitis". Morphometric study showed that were not significant differences among various tracts in the same patients regarding to the thickness of basament membrane. It was more than 11.9 +/- 0.49 mu only in 13 pts (6.6%), while it was 3.96 +/- 1.4 mu in the others. Immunohistochemistry study confirmed the normality of subepithelial basement membrane and the below deposition of the large quantity of collagen IV.

  18. Sonic hedgehog in oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Sahana; Iyengar, Asha R; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have revealed the involvement of hedgehog (Hh) signaling component in proliferation and invasive behavior of many carcinomas. Aim: This study aims to identify the expression of sonic Hh (SHH) protein of SHH pathway in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using SHH (H-160) (Santa Cruz, sc-9042) which could have therapeutic implication in future. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 cases comprising 50 normal oral mucosa, 50 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, 50 well, 50 moderate and 50 poorly differentiated OSCCs were included in the study. Immunohistochemical evaluation of SHH protein expression was conducted using monoclonal antibody. Interpretation of the expression was done by immunoreactive score of Remmele and Stegner (IRS) scoring method. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test was used to analyze the results. Results: The study showed that SHH signaling molecules are highly expressed in OSCC, and their expression was mainly in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Conclusion: The SHH signaling component is associated with the pathological parameter in OSCC and oral epithelial dysplasia. PMID:27721600

  19. Immunohistochemical study of basal cell adenoma in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hamano, H; Abiko, Y; Hashimoto, S; Inoue, T; Shimono, M; Takagi, T; Noma, H

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland was studied with immunohistochemical methods. We observed cells in the tumor with positive reaction to polyclonal keratin, prekeratin, monoclonal PKK-1, polyclonal S-100 protein, monoclonal S-100 protein (alpha), secretory component, actin and laminin. However, no cells which stained positively with monoclonal KL-1, amylase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or epithelial membrane antigen were recognized. From these immunohistochemical results and our ultrastructural observations reported previously, we conclude that the cells constituting the basal cell adenoma are ductal, myoepithelial, and squamous cells but not secretory ones. It is also suggested that the origins of basal cell ademona as well as those of pleomorphic and clear cell adenoma are undifferentiated cells of intercalated duct.

  20. Ulcerative Granular Cell Tumor: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Khalawany, Mohamed; Mosbeh, Al-Sadat; Abd-Al Salam, Fatma; Abou-Bakr, Amany

    2011-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is uncommonly presented with cutaneous ulcer. We examined the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of this ulcerative form in fourteen cases that may raise the awareness of this variant. The study included 11 males and 3 females with a mean age 31.5 ± 7.42 years. All cases were presented with large solitary ulcer with indurated base, elevated border, skin colored margin, and necrotic floor. Twelve lesions were located on the extremities and two lesions on the genital region. Histologically, the lesions showed dermal infiltrate composed of large polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm and characteristic infiltration of the dermal muscles in all cases. Immunostaining showed positive reaction for S100 (14/14), NSE (14/14), CD68 (5/14), and Vimentin (7/14) while HMB45, CK, EMA, and Desmin were negative. We hope that this paper increases the awareness of ulcerative GCT and consider it in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions. PMID:22132340

  1. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of lethal primary brain stem injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many of the deaths that occur shortly after injury or in hospitals are caused by mild trauma. Slight morphological changes are often found in the brain stems of these patients during autopsy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histopathological changes involved in primary brain stem injuries (PBSI) and their diagnostic significance. Methods A total of 65 patients who had died of PBSI and other conditions were randomly selected. They were divided into 2 groups, an injury group (25 cases) and a control group (20 cases). Slides of each patient’s midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata were prepared and stained with HE, argentaffin, and immunohistochemical agents (GFAP, NF, amyloid-ß, MBP). Under low power (×100) and NF staining, the diameter of the thickest longitudinal axon was measured at its widest point. Ten such diameters were collected for each part of the brain (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata). Data were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results Brain stem contusions, astrocyte activity, edema, and pathological changes in the neurons were visibly different in the injury and control groups (P < 0.05). Characteristic changes occurred in the neural axons, axon diameter varied from axon to axon and even over different segments of one axon, and several pathological phenomena were observed. These included segmental thickening and curving, wave-like processing, disarrangement, and irregular swelling. A few axons ruptured and intumesced into retraction balls. Immunohistochemical MBP staining showed enlargement and curving of spaces between the myelin sheaths and axons in certain areas. The myelin sheaths lining the surfaces of the axons were in some cases incomplete and even exfoliated, and segmentation disappeared. These pathological changes increased in severity over time (P < 0.05). Conclusions These histopathological changes may prove beneficial to the pathological diagnosis of PBSI during autopsy. The measurement of axon

  2. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of lethal primary brain stem injuries.

    PubMed

    Rongchao, Sun; Shudong, Yang; Zhiyi, Zhou

    2012-05-21

    Many of the deaths that occur shortly after injury or in hospitals are caused by mild trauma. Slight morphological changes are often found in the brain stems of these patients during autopsy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histopathological changes involved in primary brain stem injuries (PBSI) and their diagnostic significance. A total of 65 patients who had died of PBSI and other conditions were randomly selected. They were divided into 2 groups, an injury group (25 cases) and a control group (20 cases). Slides of each patient's midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata were prepared and stained with HE, argentaffin, and immunohistochemical agents (GFAP, NF, amyloid-β, MBP). Under low power (×100) and NF staining, the diameter of the thickest longitudinal axon was measured at its widest point. Ten such diameters were collected for each part of the brain (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata). Data were recorded and analyzed statistically. Brain stem contusions, astrocyte activity, edema, and pathological changes in the neurons were visibly different in the injury and control groups (P < 0.05). Characteristic changes occurred in the neural axons, axon diameter varied from axon to axon and even over different segments of one axon, and several pathological phenomena were observed. These included segmental thickening and curving, wave-like processing, disarrangement, and irregular swelling. A few axons ruptured and intumesced into retraction balls. Immunohistochemical MBP staining showed enlargement and curving of spaces between the myelin sheaths and axons in certain areas. The myelin sheaths lining the surfaces of the axons were in some cases incomplete and even exfoliated, and segmentation disappeared. These pathological changes increased in severity over time (P < 0.05). These histopathological changes may prove beneficial to the pathological diagnosis of PBSI during autopsy. The measurement of axon diameters provides a referent quantitative index

  3. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  4. Distinction between endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Castrillon, Diego H; Lee, Kenneth R; Nucci, Marisa R

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of distinguishing between primary endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas by using a panel of immunohistochemical stains, which included vimentin (VIM), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and cytokeratins 7 and 20 (CK7 and CK20). Twenty-nine endocervical adenocarcinomas (CCAs) and 30 endometrial adenocarcinomas (EMCAs) including cases with overlapping histologic features (CCAs with endometrioid differentiation [15/29] and EMCAs with mucinous differentiation [16/30]) were evaluated. Most EMCAs (29/30, 97%) were VIM positive, whereas only 2/29 (7%) CCAs were VIM positive. The great majority of EMCAs (28/30) and all 29 CCAs were CK7 positive, whereas all 30 EMCAs and 27/29 CCAs were negative for CK20. CEA positivity was more common in CCAs (18/29, 62%) than in EMCAs (8/30, 27%). EMA positivity was present in all 30 EMCAs and in 26 of 29 (90%) CCAs. We conclude that VIM and CEA are useful immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing EMCAs and CCAs, but CK7, CK20, and EMA are not useful in this distinction.

  5. Spiradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of three cases.

    PubMed

    Biernat, W; Wozniak, L

    1994-08-01

    Three cases of malignant transformation within spiradenoma are described. All of them occurred close to the elbow. In every case we found a benign component, characteristic of the spiradenoma, and a structure of carcinoma, which in some areas showed transition into the spiradenoma. In one case the structure of the spiradenocarcinoma resembled that of the spiradenoma, whereas in the remaining two cases adenocarcinoma was the malignant counterpart of the tumor. We performed immunohistochemical studies and revealed various intensities of expression of cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen and a dearth of S-100 protein, vimentin, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the examined cases of spiradenocarcinoma.

  6. A clinical and immunohistochemical study of gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Joon Joon; Gunn, Andrew

    2005-06-01

    To study the clinical features, histology and immunohistochemical properties of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs); and establish any parameters that can help prognosticate the malignant potential. Twenty-six patients with GISTs who were seen in Sultanah Aminah Hospital Johor, Malaysia from 1999 to 2003 were selected for study. Patient, clinical characteristics and outcome based on surgical records were analysed. Tumour variables (tumour size, cellularity, mitotic count, necrosis and haemorrhage) were compared between very low to low risk groups and intermediate to high risk groups. The immunohistochemical properties of GISTs were also studied. Patients with GISTs presented mainly with pain, palpable mass or gastrointestinal tract bleeding. The tumours were seen in stomach (50%) followed by small intestine (38.5%) and rectum (11.5%). In the period of study, six patients had metastasis, mainly in the liver or peritoneum. Immunoreactivity for CD117, CD34, vimentin, S100, neuron specific enolase, alpha-smooth-muscle-actin and desmin were observed in 100%, 76.9%, 61.5%, 46.1%, 80.8%, 11.5% and 0% of tumours respectively. The behaviour of GISTs was largely dependent on tumour size and number of mitosis. Necrosis and haemorrhage were seen in tumours with high risk potential.

  7. Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tavasoli, Abbas; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Rad, Maryam Nobakht; Taymouri, Afra

    2013-05-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author's knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature.

  8. Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Tavasoli, Abbas; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Rad, Maryam Nobakht; Taymouri, Afra

    2013-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author's knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature. PMID:23646307

  9. Collagenase-3 expression in periapical lesions: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, G; Astekar, M S; Ramesh, G; Kaur, P; Sowmya, G V

    2014-08-01

    Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) is a metalloproteinase (MMP) that is associated with bone lesions and exhibits variable expression patterns in odontogenic cysts; it may play a role in regulating focal proliferation and maturation of jaw cyst epithelium. We studied the localization, staining intensity and distribution of collagenase-3 in 13 periapical granulomas with epithelium, 16 periapical granulomas without epithelium and 10 radicular cysts using archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues. A monoclonal antibody against human collagenase-3 was used to evaluate its expression. Immunohistochemical staining intensities of collagenase-3 in all periapical lesions were (-), 4 (10%); (+), 1 (3%); (++), 22 (56%) and (+++), 12 (31%); differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical distribution of collagenase-3 in epithelial cells was (-), 17 (44%); (+), 17 (44%); (++), 5 (13%); in fibroblasts it was (-), 8 (20%); (+), 23 (59%); (++), 8 (21%); in plasma cells it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), 22 (56%); (++), 10 (26%); in macrophages it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), and 15 (38%); and (++), 17 (44%). Statistically significant differences were found in epithelial cells (p = 0.00) and fibroblasts (p = 0.02), whereas differences were not statistically significant for plasma cells and macrophages. Collagenase-3 may play a role in the conversion of a periapical granuloma with epithelium to radicular cyst. MMP's influence not only epithelial rest cell migration, but also invasion of various stromal cells into granulomatous tissue.

  10. Immunohistochemical study of pseudohypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Katsuhiko; Kamei, Satoshi; Ichihara, Kazuaki; Uehara, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshio; Uchihara, Toshiki; Yoshihashi, Hirokazu; Chong, Ja-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis of pseudohypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus (PH-IO) was analyzed based on immunohistochemical study. Immunostained medullas with PH-IO were observed with confocal laser microscopy. αB-crystallin (αBC) was frequently expressed in the neurons and co-localized with microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). The neurons were occasionally positive for SMI-31. αBC and SMI-31 were co-localized in some neurons. Synaptophysin (SYP)-immunoreactive dots were present around MAP2-positive hypertrophic neurons and hypertrophic thick neurites. Periphery-stained Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL)-positive neurons were shown. Central chromatolytic neurons were found with Klüver-Barrera staining, which indicated that the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was distributed to the periphery of the cytoplasm. αBC prevents microtubule disassembly and phosphorylation of the neurofilaments under stressful conditions. Our results indicated that αBC protected microtubules and neurofilaments in PH-IO. The retrograde transport of KDEL receptors from the Golgi complex to the ER is increased under stressful conditions. We considered that KDEL receptors were retro-transported to ER, and then the ER containing KDEL receptors was distributed to the periphery of the cytoplasm. PH-IO showed various immunohistochemical changes due to trans-synaptic degeneration.

  11. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    THONGTHARB, Atigan; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; KAGAWA, Yumiko; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50–64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  12. Do canine parvoviruses affect canine neurons? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Schmidt, P

    2005-08-01

    In cats (most of which died from panleukopenia), cerebral neurons have recently been shown to be susceptible to canine parvovirus infection. In addition to positive immunostaining and distinct in situ hybridization signals, signs of neurodegeneration were identified by histopathology, mainly in the diencephalic area. Similar histological lesions of the diencephalic regions in dogs have also attracted attention; therefore, an immunohistochemical study was initiated to determine the possible infection of canine neurons with canine parvoviruses. The study was carried out on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue, with and without signs of neurodegeneration, from 40 dogs, most of them dying from parvovirus enteritis. Immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antiserum against canine parvoviruses, was negative in all 40 cases, suggesting that, unlike cats, canine parvoviruses do not seem capable of infecting canine neurons.

  13. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14, and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nobusawa, Aiko; Sano, Takaaki; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of the exact grade of oral epithelial dysplasia is difficult, and interobserver variations in grading are common. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of cytokeratins (CKs) in dysplastic oral epithelia, to identify useful double immunostaining diagnostic markers. Immunoexpression of CK13, CK14, CK17, and Ki-67 were investigated in 21 normal epithelial specimens and 146 epithelial dysplasia specimens. In epithelial dysplasia specimens, orthokeratotic dysplasia (OKD) was identified using CK10 immunostaining. Most mild dysplasia specimens were CK13+ and CK17-. In moderate dysplasia, CK13 expression tended to be lower and CK17 expression tended to be higher than in mild dysplasia. All carcinoma in situ (CIS) specimens were CK17+. In differentiated type CIS specimens, CK13 expression was weakly positive. Most epithelial dysplasia specimens were CK14+. There were no significant differences in the expression patterns of CKs between OKD and non-OKD specimens in any of the grades of dysplasia. These results indicate that CK14 expression can be used to detect early epithelial dysplasia, and that CK13 and CK17 expression are useful for detecting neoplastic changes. © 2014 The Authors. Pathology International © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  15. Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shoukat A; Shah, Munawar H; Meo, Sultan A; Jamal, Qamar

    2003-02-01

    Thyroid diseases affect women approximately 3 times more frequently than men. It has been suggested that the female sex steroids stimulate thyroid growth such as in the breast. Seventeen beta-estradiol, the major estrogen in the body acts via estrogen receptors (ER) present in the nucleus of the cell. The aim of the study is to determine the ER status in the thyroid gland tissues. Our study was based on immunohistochemical staining for ER. Fifty previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan between March and August 2000. The staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER antibody (clone 1D5). Out of 50 cases, 8 were nodular goiter, 9 cases of adenoma, 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions. Out of 50 cases, 10 (20%) were males and 40 (80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 14-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-year-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone 1D5) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER are not detectable. The effect of estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one.

  16. Immunohistochemical study of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in Panthera tigris tigris.

    PubMed

    Nyska, A; Goldstein, J; Eshkar, G; Klein, B

    1996-07-01

    The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a case of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor are described in a 14-yr-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed at the New Biblical Zoo of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, 1994. The neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically negative for insulin and glucagon, slightly positive for neuron-specific enolase, moderately positive for serotonin and somatostatin, and markedly positive for chromogranine A and gastrin. This is the first documentation of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in the tiger.

  17. Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Nicole Nicosia; Mohan, Deepak; Brufsky, Adam; Lin, Yan; Kapali, Malathy; Dabbs, David J

    2006-10-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are biphasic neoplasms composed of epithelium and a spindle-cell stroma. Currently, PTs are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on histopathologic features. However, histologic classification does not always predict outcome. Objective.-To determine the prognostic value of a variety of clinicopathologic features and immunoreactivities in PTs. Sixteen benign, 8 borderline, and 6 malignant PTs with follow-up were examined for reactivity across a panel of immunohistochemical stains, including c-Kit, endothelin 1, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67. Clinicopathologic features, including stromal cellularity, mitotic rate, and margin status, were also assessed. Tumor variables were compared among tumor subgroups and between tumors that did and did not recur. Of the 30 PTs, 4 recurred (1 benign, 2 borderline, 1 malignant). One patient with a malignant tumor died of metastatic disease 34 months after initial diagnosis. The overall positive rate of c-Kit immunoreactivity was 13% in benign, 63% in borderline, and 67% in malignant PTs. Endothelin 1 epithelial cytoplasmic staining was seen in 100% of benign, 50% of borderline, and 17% of malignant PTs. Additionally, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67 were differentially expressed among benign, borderline, and malignant tumors. Positive surgical resection margins was the only variable that significantly predicted recurrent disease (P = .02). Stromal c-Kit positivity and epithelial endothelin 1 negativity are more often associated with malignant PTs; however, only positive margin status is significantly associated with tumor behavior.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of the cavernous nerves in the periprostatic region.

    PubMed

    Costello, Anthony J; Dowdle, Benjamin W; Namdarian, Benjamin; Pedersen, John; Murphy, Declan G

    2011-04-01

    Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The anatomy of the periprostatic tissues, in particular the fascial layers and neurovascular structures, remain a somewhat enigmatic and controversial area. Despite the considerable advances made in this area since the original dissections of Walsh and Donker almost thirty years ago, the precise location and function of these structures remains uncertain. The topic is of tremendous importance as we continue to refine surgical techniques to allow men the maximum opportunity to recover erectile function following radical prostatectomy. Yet many of these surgical refinements are not based on definitive knowledge of the relevant anatomy and clearly more knowledge is required. For the first time, we have not just characterized the quantitative nature of the periprostatic nerves, but we also offer some insight into the likely functional nature of these nerves by selectively staining the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves using immunohistochemical methods. • To characterize the immunohistochemical nature of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves surrounding the prostate. • Using serial sectioning, four male cadavers were investigated using a combination of haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic contributions to the autonomic nervous system in the periprostatic region were assessed by staining analysis, the number of nerves fibres was quantified, their position relative to the prostate recorded and their function inferred. • The fascial architecture of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) was also quantified. • Approximately 27.8% of all nerve fibres identified were found on the anterior half of the prostate, above the 3 to 9 o'clock level. At the base, mid, and apex of prostate, parasympathetic fibres accounted for 4%, 5% and 6.8% of the nerves located on the anterolateral aspect of the prostate

  19. Oxidative stress in the human fetal brain: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shibata, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Fumiaki; Sakayori, Noriko; Kobayashi, Makio

    2002-02-01

    Because accumulation of oxidative modification products seems to relate to aging and has not been fully studied in fetal brains, an immunohistochemical examination was performed on nine brains ranging from 22-40 weeks of gestation. These brains did not demonstrate lesions except hypoxic-ischemic changes. Advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal are generally reported to be negative in neurons of normal young brains, but, in the present study, distinct positive immunoreaction was observed in neurons of fetal brains. Positive immunoreaction appeared earlier in the medulla oblongata than in the cerebrum, and 4-hydroxynonenal began to accumulate earlier than advanced glycation end products. As for glial cells, advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal were positive in reactive astrocytes in mid- to late gestation. Because hypoxic-ischemic changes were observed in most of the patients, it is possible that oxidative stress caused by hypoxic-ischemic may be involved in the accumulation of these products in the fetal brain. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was negative even in patients demonstrating positive reaction for advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal. In the fetal brain, DNA might be strongly protected from oxidative damage. 4-Hydroxynonenal is generally positive in the cytoplasm but was positive in the nucleus of immature neurons and glial cells in the present study, suggesting a unique metabolism of the fetal brain.

  20. Apoptosis Activation in Human Carious Dentin. An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Psaila, A.; Musumeci, G.; Castorina, S.; Leonardi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanisms and enzymes involved in caries progression are largely unclear. Apoptosis plays a key role in dentin remodelling related to damage repair; however, it is unclear whether apoptosis in decayed teeth is activated through the extrinsic or the intrinsic pathway. This ex vivo immunohistochemical study explored the localization of TRAIL, DR5, Bcl-2 and Bax, the main proteins involved in apoptosis, in teeth with advanced caries. To evaluate TRAIL, DR5, Bcl-2 and Bax immunoexpressions twelve permanent carious premolars were embedded in paraffin and processed for immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TRAIL and DR5 were overexpressed in dentin and in pulp vessels and mononuclear cells; strong Bax immunostaining was detected in dilated dentinal tubules close to the lesion, and Bcl-2 staining was weak in some dentin areas under the cavity or altogether absent. These findings suggest that both apoptosis pathways are activated in dental caries. Further studies are required to gain insights into its biomolecular mechanisms. PMID:26428882

  1. Hepatic metastasis of thymoma: case report and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Speisky, Daniela; de Davila, María Teresa García; Vigovich, Felix; Mendez, Julian; Maurette, Rafael; Ejarque, Marcos García; Spina, Juan Carlos; Iotti, Alejandro; Dezanzo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Thymomas are rare tumours characterised by their slow growth and capacity to invade directly by contiguity. While distant dissemination is infrequent, all sub-types of thymoma have the capacity to metastasise to extrathoracic organs. We present here the case of a female patient with a liver mass discovered 13 years after the removal of a mediastinal thymoma and after ten years from thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma. The histopathological study showed that the lesion contained an epithelial component, which was immunohistochemically positive for pankeratin. It was accompanied by numerous small lymphocytes testing positive for TdT, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD99, and CD43. The result was consistent with hepatic metastatic thymoma sub-type B1, according to the World Health Organisation classification (WHO). Our case highlights the importance of morphological and immunohistological examinations in the differential diagnosis of visceral masses in patients with a history of thymoma. Given the infrequency of its metastasis and the increased risk of developing other primary tumours that these patients have, these studies play a significant role. PMID:28101136

  2. [Expression of type VI collagen in arthrofibrosis. An immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Zeichen, J; van Griensven, M; Lobenhoffer, P; Bosch, U

    2000-08-01

    Arthrofibrosis is a disabling complication after trauma and surgery due to massive connective tissue proliferation. The etiology and pathogenesis have never been fully understood. A strong immune response may lead to activation and proliferation of fibroblasts with excessive and disordered deposition of matrix proteins. In similar pathological conditions, like lung fibrosis or superficial fibromatoses with fibrotic transformation an increased expression of collagen type VI has been reported. We investigated fibrotic tissue samples taken from 18 patients (average age: 32.7 years), who underwent arthrolysis of the knee joint because of symptomatic arthrofibrosis following ligament injury. The mean interval between trauma and arthrolysis was 13.8 months (range 4-50 months). Tissue samples were taken from the infrapatellar fat pad and intercondylar connective tissue. All samples were stained with HE. The expression of type III and VI collagen was studied immunohistochemically using an immunoperoxidase method for light microscopic visualization. Histologic analysis from patients with arthrofibrosis showed a synovial hyperplasia with cell infiltration and vascular proliferation compared to synovial tissue samples from knee joints without any detectable pathology. Subsynovial an increased deposition of matrix proteins was visible. Type VI collagen was widely distributed as a network subsynovial and around capillary walls. Type III collagen showed a diffuse distribution. Arthrofibrotic tissue is, similar to pathological conditions with fibrotic transformation characterized by an increased expression of collagen type VI. Collagen type VI may play an important role in matrix homeostasis. It serves as an anchoring element between collagen fibers and as a cell binding structure.

  3. Immunohistochemical study of the digestive tract of Oligosarcus hepsetus

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Lopes, Danielle A; Pinheiro, Nadja L; Sales, Armando; Ventura, Adriana; Araújo, Francisco G; Gomes, Iracema D; Nascimento, Aparecida A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the histology of the digestive tract and to investigate the occurrence of endocrine cells in Oligosarcus hepsetus (O. hepsetus). METHODS: The digestive tract (DT) of O. hepsetus was divided into esophagus, two stomach regions (glandular and non-glandular) and two intestinal regions (anterior and posterior). These specimens were processed by routine histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori’s trichrome, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB). An immunohistochemical method using avidin-biotin-peroxidase was employed. RESULTS: The esophagus is lined with a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is reactive to PAS and AB. The stomach has a mucosa lined with a simple columnar epithelium with mucus-secreting cells that are reactive only to PAS. The intestine has a simple columnar epithelium with a brush border and goblet cells that are reactive to PAS and AB. Somatostatin, serotonin and cholecystokinin immunoreactive cells were identified throughout the DT. CONCLUSION: This study revealed adaptations for the species’ diet and showed that the distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells are similar to those of other fish. PMID:23569337

  4. R1: Immunohistochemical study of mucins in human intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2017-02-08

    Most patients with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS; a colorectal bacterial infection caused by Brachyspira species) seem asymptomatic, and its pathogenicity remains unclear. Recently, alterations in mucin expression were reported in animal Brachyspira infection. The present question was "Is mucin expression altered in HIS?". Using antibodies for MUCs 1, 2, 4, 5 AC, and 6, we immunohistochemically compared 215 specimens from 83 histology-confirmed HIS cases with 106 specimens from 26 non-HIS cases. Positive staining (which included even focal positive staining) was rated "high (+)" or "low (+)". Results were analysed for four categories of lesions, and associations between MUC expression and spirochetal presence were also analysed. In the "specimens without polyps or adenocarcinoma" category: high (+) MUC2-positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. In the hyperplasia/serrated polyp category: in HIS (vs. control), the MUC5AC-positivity rate was lower, while high (+) MUC4-positivity was more frequent. In the conventional adenoma category: in HIS (vs. control), the MUC1-positivity rate was lower, while both high (+) MUC2-positivity and high (+) MUC5AC-positivity were less frequent. In the adenocarcinoma category: high (+) MUC2-positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. Among the above mucins, only MUC1-positivity was significantly associated with an absence of the so-called fringe formation, an absence of spiral organisms within mucus, and an absence of strong immunopositive materials within the epithelial layer and within the subepithelial layer. The results suggest that Brachyspira infection or a related change in the microbiome may alter the large intestine mucin-expression profile in humans.

  5. A morphometric and immunohistochemical study of melanocytes in periorbital hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Boruah, Dibyajyoti; Manu, V; Malik, Ajay; Chatterjee, Manas; Vasudevan, Biju; Srinivas, V

    2015-01-01

    An increase in number of melanocytes in the basal cell layer of the epidermis is an important feature in many disorders of hyperpigmentation. In this study, we attempted an objective evaluation of the linear density of melanocytes and keratinocytes, along with other epidermal characteristics, in periorbital hyperpigmentation using immunohistochemistry and morphometric techniques. Melanocytes and epidermal parameters were assessed by digital morphometry in 30 newly diagnosed cases of periorbital hyperpigmentation and 14 controls from the post-auricular region. Melanocytes were labelled with the immunohistochemical stains, Melan-A and tyrosinase. We studied the linear keratinocyte density, mean linear melanocyte density, ratio of melanocytes to keratinocytes, the ratio between inner and outer epidermal length, maximum epidermal thickness and minimum epidermal thickness. Melan-A expression of melanocytes showed strong positive correlation (r=0.883) with the tyrosinase expression. Mean linear melanocyte density was 24/mm (range: 13-30/mm) in cases and 17/mm (13-21/mm) in controls and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The mean ratio of melanocyte to keratinocyte was 0.22 (0.12-0.29) in cases and 0.16 (0.12-0.21) in controls; again, this difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). There was a mild negative correlation with linear keratinocyte density (r=-0.302) and the ratio between inner and outer epidermal length (r=-0.456). However, there were no differences in epidermal thicknesses. There were fewer control biopsies than optimal, and they were not taken from the uninvolved periorbital region. Mean linear melanocyte density and the ratio of melanocytes to keratinocytes is increased in cases with periorbital hyperpigmentation. It is, therefore, likely that increased melanocyte density may be the key factor in the pathogenesis of periorbital hyperpigmentation.

  6. Immunohistochemical study of oestrogen receptors in 351 human thyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Tavangar, S M; Monajemzadeh, M; Larijani, B; Haghpanah, V

    2007-08-01

    It is well recognised that the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases is complex and different factors such as genetic factors, iodine deficiency, sex, age, radiation therapy in childhood, growth stimulating antibodies, and other epithelial growth factors can influence them. Epidemiological features of thyroid tumours and experimental evidence suggest that female sex hormones may exert effects on the thyroid gland and its neoplasms. This possibility was addressed by investigating the expression of oestrogen receptor protein in 351 thyroid lesions. The tissues from 351 human thyroid glands comprising 130 nodular goitres and 221 neoplastic lesions were used for the present immunohistochemical assessment of oestrogen receptor expression. Incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cases were 24 percent (31/130) for nodular goitres, 22 percent (8/37) for follicular adenomas, 11 percent (2/18) for follicular carcinomas, 31 percent (37/119) for papillary carcinomas, zero percent (0/35) for medullary carcinomas and zero percent (0/12) for undifferentiated carcinomas. The incidence of oestrogen receptor positivity, which is compatible with other studies, is higher in well-differentiated thyroid lesions. The incidence of oestrogen receptor reactivity does not significantly differ between females and males of different age groups and it does not correlate with lymph node status, and vascular and capsular invasions. The relatively high proportion of oestrogen receptor positivity in goitres, follicular adenomas and papillary carcinomas, compared with its reactivity in other thyroid neoplasms, and contrasted against normal thyroid tissue, suggests that the incidence of oestrogen receptor reactivity tends to increase with better differentiation of thyroid lesions. This finding may have clinical relevance.

  7. Macrophage origin of Reed-Sternberg cells: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Payne, SV; Wright, DH; Jones, KJM; Judd, MA

    1982-01-01

    In an immunohistochemical study of 26 biopsies from 24 patients with Hodgkin's disease a granular staining pattern for alpha-1-antitrypsin (α1AT) and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (α1ACT) was seen in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and mononuclear Hodgkin's (H) cells in over half the cases. The pattern of staining for these antiproteases seen in RS and H cells has previously only been observed in normal and malignant cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage within the lymphoreticular system. A faintly granular evenly distributed staining for IgG was found in viable RS and H cells. This staining was associated with a similar distribution of both light chains but not J chain, suggesting that the immunoglobulin had not been synthesised by these cells but had been taken up from the extracellular environment. It is suggested that this uptake is an active process occurring in viable RS and H cells, possibly via Fcγ receptors and further supports an origin from cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. IgA, IgD, albumin, fibrinogen, C1q, C4 and C3 were present in some cells, IgM was more rarely found and lysozyme was absent. The fact that cells staining for these serum proteins generally showed signs of degeneration and that the extent of staining correlated with the molecular weight, but not serum concentration, of the protein suggests that they are passively acquired by dead or dying cells and thus represent a separate phenomenon from IgG uptake. The function of IgG uptake and accumulation by RS cells and the α1AT and α1ACT markers may prove of use in identifying the macrophage subtype from which these cells are derived. Images PMID:7040482

  8. Magnetoreception in birds: I. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the cryptochrome cycle

    PubMed Central

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2014-01-01

    Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the magnetic compass of birds. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of chicken retinae with an antiserum that labelled only activated cryptochrome 1a had shown activation of cryptochrome 1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light. Green light, however, does not allow the first step of photoreduction of oxidized cryptochromes to the semiquinone. As the chickens had been kept under ‘white’ light before, we suggested that there was a supply of the semiquinone present at the beginning of the exposure to green light, which could be further reduced and then re-oxidized. To test this hypothesis, we exposed chickens to various wavelengths (1) for 30 min after being kept in daylight, (2) for 30 min after a 30 min pre-exposure to total darkness, and (3) for 1 h after being kept in daylight. In the first case, we found activated cryptochrome 1a under UV, blue, turquoise and green light; in the second two cases we found activated cryptochrome 1a only under UV to turquoise light, where the complete redox cycle of cryptochrome can run, but not under green light. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis that activated cryptochrome 1a is found as long as there is some of the semiquinone left, but not when the supply is depleted. It supports the idea that the crucial radical pair for magnetoreception is generated during re-oxidation. PMID:25472972

  9. Magnetoreception in birds: I. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the cryptochrome cycle.

    PubMed

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2014-12-01

    Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the magnetic compass of birds. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of chicken retinae with an antiserum that labelled only activated cryptochrome 1a had shown activation of cryptochrome 1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light. Green light, however, does not allow the first step of photoreduction of oxidized cryptochromes to the semiquinone. As the chickens had been kept under 'white' light before, we suggested that there was a supply of the semiquinone present at the beginning of the exposure to green light, which could be further reduced and then re-oxidized. To test this hypothesis, we exposed chickens to various wavelengths (1) for 30 min after being kept in daylight, (2) for 30 min after a 30 min pre-exposure to total darkness, and (3) for 1 h after being kept in daylight. In the first case, we found activated cryptochrome 1a under UV, blue, turquoise and green light; in the second two cases we found activated cryptochrome 1a only under UV to turquoise light, where the complete redox cycle of cryptochrome can run, but not under green light. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis that activated cryptochrome 1a is found as long as there is some of the semiquinone left, but not when the supply is depleted. It supports the idea that the crucial radical pair for magnetoreception is generated during re-oxidation.

  10. Primary oral and maxillofacial liposarcoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of eleven cases

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Yu, Hongbo; Wang, Lizhen; Wang, Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study was aimed to characterize the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical features and treatment outcomes of primary oral and maxillofacial liposarcomas by presenting the experience over a 16-year period at a tertiary referral Chinese institution for head neck cancer. Material and methods This retrospective clinical study included 11 cases of pathologically confirmed primary liposarcomas treated from January 1993 to September 2009. Detailed information regarding primary site, clinical manifestations, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, treatments and prognosis was collected and reported. Results Eight female and 3 male patients aged from 8 to 76 years old. These lesions occurred in buccal (3), parotid (2), temporal (2), tongue (2), palate (1) and oropharyngeal (1) region. They were histopathologically categorized into 4 subtypes based on WHO classification scheme: atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated (4), myxoid (4), mixed-type (2) and pleomorphic (1) liposarcomas. Immunohistochemical staining indicated mostly positive for Vimentin and S-100 but negative for other markers. Most patients presented as slow-growing painless masses and underwent surgery alone or combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Two patients were misdiagnosed and inappropriate treated and developed local relapse before referred to our institute. No distant metastasis and one disease-related death were recorded during the follow-up (ranging: 1-11 years, mean: 4.5 years). Conclusions Oral and maxillofacial liposarcoma is exceedingly rare and has atypical clinical manifestations but characteristic histopathology. Complete excision with negative margins followed by long-term follow-up is recommended as the treatment of choice for these uncommon entities. PMID:22662006

  11. COTA (colon-ovarian tumor antigen). An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pant, K D; Fenoglio-Preiser, C M; Berry, C O; Zamora, P O; Ram, M D; Fulks, R M; Rhodes, B A

    1986-07-01

    A goat anti-serum was prepared against mucinous ovarian cyst fluid and absorbed with normal colon and a variety of normal tissues until the only residual immunoreactivity was directed against colon cancer and ovarian tumor mucin. The set of antigenic determinants defined by this anti-serum has been called COTA, standing for colon-ovarian-tumor-antigen. This highly absorbed anti-serum (anti-COTA) was used for immunohistochemical staining of 42 different tissues in parallel with staining with a goat anti-CEA, which was also highly absorbed. The results suggest that COTA is a highly sensitive and specific antigen for colon carcinoma and may have potential for the early detection of malignant changes predictive of cancer of the colon.

  12. Neurofilaments in Thyrotrophs of Hypothyroid Rats: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Eva; Quintanar, J. Luis

    2000-01-01

    We examined by immunohistochemistry the expression of 200-kDa (NF-H) neurofilaments in pituitary thyrotrophs of rats, made hypothyroid by propylthiouracil (PTU) administration. Rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of PTU administration as well as at 3, 7, and 14 d after interruption of a 14-d PTU treatment. The pituitaries were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in paraffin. Consecutive sections were prepared for the immunohistochemical demonstration of thyroid-stimulation hormone and NF-H. NF-H were found in some thyrotrophs of the adenohypophysis of control rats. NF-H were expressed in thyroidectomy cells of hypothyroid rats. Discontinuation of PTU treatment led to recovery from cytologic alterations in the thyroidectomy cells expressing NF-H.

  13. Esophageal Cancers: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study of 223 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The author reviewed 950 cases of consecutive esophageal biopsies in the last 15 years in out pathology laboratory of our hospital. There were 223 malignant lesions (23.5%). The number and frequency (percentages) were as follows: 54 mild dysplasia (5.7%), 30 moderate dyplasia (3.2%), 32 severe dysplasia (3.4%), 13 carcinoma in situ (1.4%), 71 squamous cell carcinoma (7.5%), 7 primary adenocarcinoma (0.7%), 1 primary signet ring cell carcinoma (0.1%), 4 primary small cell carcinoma (0.4%), 2 primary amelanotic malignant melanoma (0.2%), 1 primary undifferentiated sarcoma (0.1%), 7 gastric cancer invasion (0.7%), and 1 primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (0.1%). In this article, the clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of these esophageal cancers were described. PMID:27933124

  14. Immunohistochemical study of Metallothionein in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Buentello-García, Masao; Yescas-Gómez, Petra; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Rios, Camilo; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common serious neurological example of acquired and frequent epilepsy. Oxidative stress is recognized as playing a contributing role in several neurological disorders, and most recently have been implicated in acquired epilepsies. The MTs occur in several brain regions and may serve as neuroprotective proteins against reactive oxygen species causing oxidative damage and stress. The main aim of this work was to describe the immunohistochemical localization of MT in the specimens derived from the patients affected by TLE. Histopathological examination showed NeuN, GFAP and MT immunopositive cells that were analyzed for determinate in hippocampal and parietal cortex samples. An increase in the reactive gliosis associated with increased MT expression was observed in patients with TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Endometrium: An Expanded Immunohistochemical Analysis Including PAX-8 and Basal-Like Carcinoma Surrogate Markers.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Preetha; Masand, Ramya P; Euscher, Elizabeth D; Malpica, Anais

    2016-09-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the endometrium (UCAe) is an aggressive, underrecognized high-grade carcinoma that can occur either in pure form or in conjunction with low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (i.e. dedifferentiated carcinoma). The typical solid growth pattern of UCAe can create a diagnostic dilemma as it is frequently misinterpreted as the solid component of an endometrial carcinoma or as a sarcoma. In addition, the high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, high mitotic index, and geographic necrosis are reminiscent of basal-like carcinoma of breast (BLCB). This study was undertaken to determine the role of a selected group of immunomarkers in the distinction of UCAe from other endometrial carcinomas, and assess the expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins, and surrogate BLCB immunomarkers in this type of tumor. Cases of UCAe were stained with antibodies against keratin cocktail, CK8/18, PAX-8, and estrogen receptor: 35 cases; progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu: 33 cases; CD44, e-cadherin, p16, and p53: 32 cases; and CK5/6, EGFR, and c-Kit: 18 cases. In addition, mismatch repair protein markers MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 were performed in 34 cases. We found that PAX-8 expression was lost in most cases (83%). In addition, estrogen and progesterone receptors were negative in 83% and 82% of cases, respectively. Seventy-seven percent of cases were positive for keratin cocktail and keratin 8/18, whereas only 11% of cases were positive for keratin 5/6. p16 was diffusely positive in 34% of cases, whereas p53 was expressed in >75% of the tumor cells in 31% of cases. MLH1 and PMS2 were concurrently lost in 50% of cases, whereas MSH2 and MSH6 were lost in 1 case (3%). E-cadherin and CD44 were completely lost in 50% of cases, whereas Her-2/neu was negative in all cases. EGFR was negative in 67% of cases, whereas 22% of cases showed diffuse membranous staining for this marker. UCAe is a high-grade carcinoma of Müllerian origin which tends to be negative for PAX-8. The

  16. Distinctive immunohistochemical profile of penile intraepithelial lesions: a study of 74 cases.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Pfannl, Rolf; Rodríguez, Ingrid M; Barreto, José E; Velazquez, Elsa F; Lezcano, Cecilia; Piris, Adriano; Netto, George J; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2011-04-01

    Several classification schemes for penile precancerous lesions have been proposed, but none of them seems to correlate with the current understanding of penile cancer pathogenesis. Recently, a system, which takes into account morphologic features and purported etiopathogenesis, was proposed, separating penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) in differentiated and warty/basaloid subtypes. This study was designed to seek an immunohistochemical profile that can be helpful in the classification and differential diagnosis of penile epithelial abnormalities and precancerous lesions using the aforementioned system. The immunohistochemical panel included stains for p16, p53, and Ki-67. For p16 immunostaining, only full-thickness positivity in all epithelial cells was considered as positive; for p53 and Ki-67 immunostaining, patchy or diffuse nuclear positivity above the basal layer was considered as positive. Seventy-four lesions in 59 patients were selected and classified as follows: differentiated PeIN, 34 cases; squamous hyperplasia (SH), 21 cases; basaloid PeIN, 15 cases; and warty PeIN, 4 cases. The mean age of patients was 64 years. Forty-two lesions (56.8%) were located in the glans and 32 (43.2%) in the foreskin. Overexpression of p16 was useful for distinguishing SH from warty/basaloid PeINs (0% vs. 94.7%, P<0.0001) but not SH from differentiated PeINs (0% vs. 5.9%, P=0.519). In addition, p16 allowed the distinction of differentiated and warty/basaloid PeINs (5.9% vs. 94.7%, P<0.0001). Immunohistochemistry results for p53 allowed the separation of SH and differentiated PeIN (9.5% vs. 44.1%, P=0.0078) and SH and warty/basaloid PeIN (9.5% vs. 55.6%, P=0.0042). Ki-67 immunostain was useful for distinguishing SH from differentiated PeIN (52.6% vs. 89.7%, P=0.0062) and SH from PeIN with warty and/or basaloid features (52.6% vs. 100%, P=0.0011). There seems to be a distinctive immunohistochemical profile for associated and precursor epithelial lesions of the penis. SH

  17. Phyllodes tumor of borderline malignancy: seven year follow up with immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Tatsuo; Ren, Yafei; Davis, Marilyn; Tawfik, Ossama

    2005-09-01

    The patient was 80 years old when she initially presented with a left breast mass. Originally, a needle biopsy showed benign stromal and ductal cells. Five years later, the breast mass increased in size and a core needle biopsy showed a biphasic intraductal papillomatous tumor with cellular stroma. Eighteen months later, another biopsy was taken from the breast mass, revealing a well-developed phyllodes tumor (PT) of borderline malignancy. One month later, a simple mastectomy was performed for this 87-year-old woman. Histolopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, including estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67 and p53, performed on tissues from the different biopsy specimens confirmed the progressive transition of the tumor in a 7 year period. An increase in mitotic activity was noted in the later samples. Similarly, percentages of p53- and Ki-67-positive cells were much higher in the stromal and ductal cells of the later samples compared to the original specimen. These findings support the notion that Ki-67 and p53 immunohistochemical staining may be used as simple and practical markers for the evaluation of the malignant potential of PT.

  18. Meningeal Hemangiopericytomas and Meningomas: a Comparative Immunohistochemical and Genetic Study.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Saoussen; Mama, Nadia; Chourabi, Maroua; Mastouri, Maroua Haddaji; Ladib, Mohamed; Popov, Sergey; Burford, Anna; Mokni, Moncef; Tlili, Kalthoum; Krifa, Hedi; Jones, Chris; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Saad, Ali; Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHPC) is a vascular tumor arising from pericytes. Most intracranial MHPCs resemble meningiomas (MNGs) in their clinical presentation and histological features and may therefore be misdiagnosed, despite important differences in prognosis. We report 8 cases of MHPC and 5 cases of MNG collected from 2007 to 2011 from the Neuro-Surgery and Histopathology departments. All 13 samples were re reviewed by two independent pathologists and investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using mesenchymal, epithelial and neuro-glial markers. Additionally, we screened all tumors for a large panel of chromosomal alterations using multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA). Presence of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene was inferred by immunohistochemical staining for STAT6. Compared with MNG, MHPCs showed strong VIM (100% of cases), CD99 (62%), bcl-2 (87%), and p16 (75%) staining but only focal positivity with EMA (33%) and NSE (37%). The p21 antibody was positive in 62% of MHPC and less than 1% in all MNGs. MLPA data did not distinguish HPC from MNG, with PTEN loss and ERBB2 gain found in both. By contrast, STAT6 nuclear staining was observed in 3 MHPC cases and was absent from MNG. MNG and MHPC comprise a spectrum of tumors that cannot be easily differentiated based on histopathology. The presence of STAT6 nuclear positivity may however be a useful diagnostic marker.

  19. A molecular, clinical, and immunohistochemical study of vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Irving, R M; Moffat, D A; Hardy, D G; Barton, D E; Xuereb, J H; Holland, F J; Maher, E R

    1997-04-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of vestibular schwannoma has been investigated by determining the extent of chromosome 22 loss of heterozygosity in 77 tumors and relating these findings to clinical and immunohistochemical indexes of tumor behavior. Loss of heterozygosity was looked for at eight chromosome 22q loci. Clinical details were obtained in all 77 cases, and a clinical growth index was calculated for each tumor. The proliferative index was estimated in all tumors by using a monoclonal antibody to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen and by calculating the labeling index. Forty percent (31 of 77) of the tumors showed allele loss, and in each case this loss involved the region of the neurofibromatosis type 2 gene. No evidence was found that the presence of chromosome 22 allele loss was associated with the clinical growth index. On the log scale, however, an association was seen between the clinical growth index and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index p = 0.001). These results suggest that chromsome 22 allele loss is a frequent event in vestibular schwannoma. Tumor behavior, however, appears to be independent of the chromosome 22 mutation. It is proposed that chromosome 22 allele loss and neurofibromatosis type 2 gene inactivation is an early event, possibly involved in the initiation of tumorigenesis in vestibular schwannoma. Tumor growth appears to be independent of this mutation and is likely to be determined by other as yet undefined factors.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of congenital gingival granular cell tumor (congenital epulis).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Fujita, S; Satoh, H; Okabe, H

    1990-11-01

    The congenital gingival granular cell tumor (CGGT) or congenital epulis is a rare lesion of unknown origin found only in newborn infants. The tumor consists mainly of large eosinophilic granular cells arranged in solid nests that are separated by thin fibrovascular areas. In addition, there are some spindle-shaped cells and medium-sized polygonal cells (so-called interstitial cells) among the neoplastic granular cells. Three CGGTs were investigated with a panel of poly- and monoclonal antibodies, using immunoperoxidase methods on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. Neoplastic granular cells of these three cases show cytoplasmic staining for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and vimentin. However, all other reactions were negative. Our results suggest that the lesion may be derived from uncommitted nerve-related mesenchymal cells. On the other hand, interstitial cells show strong S-100 protein-, cytokeratin-, vimentin-, and NSE-immunostainings, and these cells are consistent with neuroendocrine nature. The presence of a biphasic cell population with granular cells and interstitial cells must be considered the main immunohistochemical feature.

  1. BCOR is a robust diagnostic immunohistochemical marker of genetically diverse high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, including tumors exhibiting variant morphology.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sarah; Lee, Cheng-Han; Stewart, Colin J R; Oliva, Esther; Hoang, Lien N; Ali, Rola H; Hensley, Martee L; Arias-Stella, Javier A; Frosina, Denise; Jungbluth, Achim A; Benayed, Ryma; Ladanyi, Marc; Hameed, Meera; Wang, Lu; Kao, Yu-Chien; Antonescu, Cristina R; Soslow, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Recognition of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is important because of its aggressive clinical behavior. Morphologic features of YWHAE-NUTM2 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma may overlap with other uterine sarcoma types. BCOR immunoexpression was studied in these tumors and their morphologic mimics to assess its diagnostic utility. BCOR immunohistochemical staining was performed on archival tissue from 28 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas with classic morphology (20 YWHAE-NUTM2, 5 ZC3H7B-BCOR, 3 BCOR-ZC3H7B), 3 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas with unusual morphology and unknown gene rearrangement status, 66 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, 21 endometrial stromal nodules, 38 uterine leiomyosarcomas, and 19 uterine leiomyomas. Intensity of nuclear staining and percentage of positive tumor cells were recorded. Strong diffuse nuclear BCOR staining (defined as >95% of tumor cells) was seen in the round cell component of all 20 (100%) classic YWHAE-NUTM2 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas and the 3 unusual high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas which prompted FISH studies confirming YWHAE rearrangement in 2 tumors. Genomic PCR confirmed the presence of BCOR exon 16 internal tandem duplication in the third case. Diffuse BCOR staining was strong in three and weak in one BCOR-rearranged high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma while absent in the remaining four BCOR-rearranged tumors. BCOR staining was weakly positive in <5% of tumor cells in 4 of 66 (6%) low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas and 1 of 18 (6%) endometrial stromal nodules and weakly to moderately positive in <5-40% of tumor cells in 6 of 31 (19%) leiomyosarcomas. No BCOR staining was seen in the remaining low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, endometrial stromal nodules, leiomyosarcomas, or any of the leiomyomas. BCOR immunohistochemical staining is a highly sensitive marker for YWHAE-NUTM2 high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with both classic and unusual morphology

  2. Two Different Cell Populations Is an Important Clue for Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Banu Ince; Karadeniz, Müjde; Bozdoğan, Nazan

    2017-01-01

    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a very rare malignancy. The differential diagnosis of PCACCs in pathology practice can be difficult and a group of primary and metastatic lesions, including adenoid basal cell carcinoma of the skin, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Besides histomorphological clues, immunohistochemistry studies are very helpful in the differential diagnosis of PCACC. We report herein a case of PCACC with extensive immunohistochemical studies and review the literature from an immunohistochemistry perspective. PMID:28243477

  3. IMP3 Is Strongly Expressed in Malignant Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Bellezza, Guido; Prosperi, Enrico; Del Sordo, Rachele; Colella, Renato; Rulli, Antonio; Sidoni, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare biphasic neoplasms and are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Many biological markers have been studied to discriminate between different grades of PTs. IMP3 is a member of the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein (IMP) family and is expressed in developing tissues during embryogenesis, whereas in adult tissues it is found only at low or undetectable levels. IMP3 is considered a marker of biological aggressiveness in many cancers, including breast and lung. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in a series of PTs and to determine its association with histological grade and clinical outcome. We reviewed retrospectively 62 cases of PTs including their recurrences and 20 cases of fibroadenoma. PTs have been classified as benign in 40 cases, borderline in 13 cases, and malignant in 9 cases. There were significant differences in IMP3 expression: in malignant PTs IMP3 expression was higher (56% of cases) than in borderline (15%) and benign cases (5%), (P = .001). Fibroadenoma showed no expression for IMP3. IMP3 expression was different in cases with recurrence than cases without recurrence. Furthermore, 3 of the recurrences had a higher histological grade with a positive IMP3 expression compared with the primary tumor. This is the first study evaluating the IMP3 immunohistochemical expression in PTs. Its expression correlates with histological grade and could be used in the differential diagnosis of fibroepithelial tumors and in predicting a more aggressive behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Vulvar angiomyxoma, aggressive angiomyxoma, and angiomyofibroblastoma: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Alameda, Francesc; Munné, Assumpció; Baró, Teresa; Iglesias, Mar; Condom, Enric; Lloreta-Trull, Josep; Serrano, Sergi

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the histogenetical unifying theory of a single, pluripotential primitive cell for vulvar angiomyxoma, aggresive angiomyxoma, and angiomyofibroblastoma, an optical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of a superficial angiomyxoma, aggressive angiomyxoma, and angiomyofibroblastoma was performed. These three tumors showed immunohistochemical and ultrastructural overlapping features. The results of the study suggest that these three tumor entities probably arise on a common pluripotential primitive cell located around the vessels of connective tissue, which could show the capacity for modulating its penotype toward similar but distinct mature cell types.

  5. Adam (MDMA) and Eve (MDEA) misuse: an immunohistochemical study on three fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Centini, F; Mazzeo, E; Turillazzi, E

    1999-09-30

    Three fatal cases of MDMA/MDEA misuse have been examined. These referred to white males between 19 and 20 years of age, in which post-mortem toxicology showed the presence of MDMA (in one case), MDEA (in one case) and both (in one case). The clinical data were analysed and the histopathological findings were studied following immunohistochemical investigations. A complete immunohistochemical study has made it possible to demonstrate rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria with alterations of the organs typical of a DIC. Clinical, histopathological and toxicological data suggest that severe or fatal complications following ecstasy ingestion could be related to idiosyncratic response.

  6. Immunohistochemical study of calretinin in normal skin and cutaneous adnexal proliferations.

    PubMed

    González-Guerra, Elena; Kutzner, Heinz; Rutten, Arno; Requena, Luis

    2012-07-01

    Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein member of the EF-hand family. The presence of calretinin has been demonstrated in certain stages of the cellular cycle in a wide variety of normal and neoplastic tissues. The main aims of our study were (1) to investigate what structures of the normal skin and cutaneous adnexal proliferations express immunoreactivity for calretinin and (2) to determine the value of immunohistochemical expression for calretinin as a marker for follicular, sebaceous, apocrine, and eccrine differentiation in cutaneous adnexal proliferations. We studied 139 biopsy specimens, including 10 cases of normal skin of different locations and 129 benign and malignant cutaneous adnexal proliferations. In normal skin, we found that calretinin is expressed in the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath in anagen hair follicle, in both the duct and sebolemma of the sebaceous gland, in the secretory portion of eccrine glands, and in mast cells of the stroma. In cutaneous adnexal proliferations, we found strong immunoreactivity for calretinin in tricholemmal cysts, tricholemmomas/inverted follicular keratoses, tumors of follicular infundibulum, and in some basal cell carcinomas. Focal positivity was also seen in trichoadenomas, trichoblastomas/trichoepitheliomas, pilomatricomas, proliferating tricholemmal tumors, pilar sheath acanthomas, trichofolliculomas, follicular hybrid cysts, cutaneous mixed tumors, steatocystomas, sebaceous hyperplasias, and sebaceomas. These results demonstrate that immunohistochemical study for calretinin may be helpful to identify the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath in anagen hair follicle and the cutaneous adnexal proliferations showing differentiation toward this structure. Calretinin immunoreactivity supports eccrine differentiation in some sweat gland neoplasms, and it is also useful in identifying neoplasms with ductal sebaceous differentiation.

  7. Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a Tenerife Lizard (Gallotia galloti): an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Orós, J; Hernández, J D; Gallardo, J; Lupiola, P; Jensen, H E

    2013-01-01

    Reports of dermatophytosis in reptiles are rare. This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical findings in a case of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a 2-year-old Tenerife lizard (Gallotia galloti) with ulcerative and pustular skin lesions. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by superficial epidermal pustules containing heterophils with numerous fungal hyphae that stained by periodic acid-Schiff and Grocott's stain. Fungal culture was not performed, but a panel of polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera was applied to tissue sections. These immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactivity of the hyphae only with antiserum specific for Trichophyton spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparative Study of Immunohistochemical Myoepithelial Cell Markers in Cutaneous Benign Cystic Apocrine Lesions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew; Houghton, Sinatra L; Biswas, Asok

    2016-07-01

    The use of immunohistochemical markers for myoepithelial cells (MEC) is a useful tool in the distinction of benign from malignant epithelial neoplasms. Although their use in breast tumors is well recognized, little is known concerning its application in comparable cutaneous lesions. Using benign cutaneous cystic apocrine lesions as a study model, the aim of this study was to compare 5 immunohistochemical markers [calponin, p63, smooth muscle actin (SMA), cytokeratin 14, and CD10] in their effectiveness to highlight MEC. Cases of apocrine hidrocystoma and cystadenoma (n = 44) were reviewed with a particular emphasis on proliferative features and apocrine change. The MEC staining pattern and the intensity and distribution scores in proliferative (n = 29) and nonproliferative (n = 15) lesions were assessed, and the differences between the 2 groups were statistically analyzed using Fisher exact test. Calponin and SMA stained MEC in the most consistent manner. Being a nuclear stain, p63 was easy to interpret but typically showed discontinuous staining. Cytokeratin 14 not only effectively highlighted MEC but also stained some luminal epithelial cells in an unpredictable manner. Because of prominent background dermal fibroblast staining, CD10 was often difficult to interpret. Only SMA and p63 showed a statistically significant difference in MEC staining intensity scores between the proliferative and nonproliferative groups. Our results show that immunohistological staining for MEC in benign cystic apocrine lesions of the skin is variable. The authors recommend that a panel of markers that includes calponin and p63 be used and highlight the need for awareness of specific caveats associated with individual markers.

  9. Role of Osteopontin in Psoriasis: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Mawla, M Yousry; El-Kasheshy, Kamal Ahmed; Ghonemy, Soheir; Al Balat, Walid; Elsayed, Amira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteopontin (OPN) has been postulated to have a role in several T-helper (Th) 1 and Th 17-mediated diseases including psoriasis (PS), through multiple mechanisms sharing in the onset and worsening of PS, OPN shares in induction of keratinocyte proliferation through inhibiting keratinocyte apoptosis, OPN acts as a proinflammatory agent that participates in the upregulation of Th cell lineages, among which are the Th 1 and Th 17 cells. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the possible role of OPN in the pathogenesis of PS. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was carried out on 18 patients of chronic plaque PS (mean age 37.61 ± 14.48) and a control group of 18 apparently healthy volunteers (mean age 41.11 ± 11.02 years). Severity of PS was assessed using the PS area and severity index score. Two skin biopsies were taken from psoriatic patients. The first was taken from the lesional skin and the other from a counter apparently healthy site. Results: Our results showed statistically significant differences in the expression of OPN, between lesional and nonlesional skin as well as between nonlesional skin and control group (P ≤ 0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference in the expression of OPN, between control and lesional group. Conclusions: OPN involvement in PS enlarges the list of cytokines able to stimulate the inflammatory response in this disease, anti-OPN antibodies, may eventually become a useful therapeutic approach in PS. PMID:27293251

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma With Matrical Differentiation: Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Biological Study of 22 Cases.

    PubMed

    Kyrpychova, Liubov; Carr, Richard A; Martinek, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Perret, Raul; Chottová-Dvořáková, Magdalena; Zamecnik, Michal; Hadravsky, Ladislav; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2017-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with matrical differentiation is a fairly rare neoplasm, with about 30 cases documented mainly as isolated case reports. We studied a series of this neoplasm, including cases with an atypical matrical component, a hitherto unreported feature. Lesions coded as BCC with matrical differentiation were reviewed; 22 cases were included. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies against BerEp4, β-catenin, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Molecular genetic studies using Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 by massively parallel sequencing on Ion Torrent PGM were performed in 2 cases with an atypical matrical component (1 was previously subjected to microdissection to sample the matrical and BCC areas separately). There were 13 male and 9 female patients, ranging in age from 41 to 89 years. Microscopically, all lesions manifested at least 2 components, a BCC area (follicular germinative differentiation) and areas with matrical differentiation. A BCC component dominated in 14 cases, whereas a matrical component dominated in 4 cases. Matrical differentiation was recognized as matrical/supramatrical cells (n=21), shadow cells (n=21), bright red trichohyaline granules (n=18), and blue-gray corneocytes (n=18). In 2 cases, matrical areas manifested cytologic atypia, and a third case exhibited an infiltrative growth pattern, with the tumor metastasizing to a lymph node. BerEP4 labeled the follicular germinative cells, whereas it was markedly reduced or negative in matrical areas. The reverse pattern was seen with β-catenin. EMA was negative in BCC areas but stained a proportion of matrical/supramatrical cells. Genetic studies revealed mutations of the following genes: CTNNB1, KIT, CDKN2A, TP53, SMAD4, ERBB4, and PTCH1, with some differences between the matrical and BCC components. It is concluded that matrical differentiation in BCC in most cases occurs as multiple foci. Rare neoplasms manifest atypia in the matrical areas

  11. [An intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. An immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Pérez del Río, M J; Molina Suárez, R; Fresno Forcelledo, M F; Veiga González, M; Madrigal Rubiales, B; González González, M; Herrero Zapatero, A

    1998-10-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas tend to be presented with symptoms of pulmonary thromboembolism and grow regionally, with little capacity to metastasize. They probably originate from subendothelial cells, that become myofibroblasts. Knowledge of it is important to establish a presurgery diagnosis, with the possibility of a total resection, the only useful treatment until now. We report a case of a pulmonary artery primary sarcoma, in a 73 year old woman, admitted with hemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain, who died ten days after. Autopsy revealed an intraluminal mass at the pulmonary artery trunk, without regional nor distance involvement. Microscopic study showed a pleomorphic tumor with spindle and epithelioid cells, positive for actin, desmin and vimentin. All these data support the diagnosis of primary intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. We want to emphasize the myogenic differentiation of the tumor, uncommon in previously reported cases.

  12. An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-12-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, Saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Three islet types were identified: type A mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (A)-secreting cells, type B mixed islets with predominantly insulin (B)-secreting cell component and type M mixed islets (type M) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (D)-secreting cells. The latter were further characterized into Type I, II or III according to the cell distribution of the three cell types. A and D cells were also randomly scattered within the exocrine pancreas. The results of this study suggest that the classical concept in birds of a segregation of A and B cells in well-defined and distinct islets is not applicable in raptors, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation to different dietary habits and variation in developmental mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ovarian and uterine alterations following forced swimming: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Saadat, Seyedeh Nazanin; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Rafati Sajedi, Hanieh; Chatrnour, Gelayol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical exercise is known to be a stressor stimulus that leads to reproductive disruption. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forced swimming on the uterus and ovaries in mice. Materials and Methods: Adult mice (N=24) were divided into the following three groups: A, control; B, swimming in water (10oC); and C, swimming in water (23oC). Swimmers swam for 5 min daily for 5 consecutive days/ wk during 2 wks. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels. Immunohistochemistry was performed to study apoptotic cells or estrogen receptor (ER) expression in uterine epithelial cells and ovaries. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: Swimming in both groups reduced the serum FSH and estradiol levels (p<0.01) without having a significant effect on the serum testosterone level or percentage of apoptosis in ovarian and uterine tissues (p<0.01) compared with controls. A significant reduction in the number of ERs in the uterus and ovaries, and secondary and graafian follicles were observed in groups B and C compared with controls (p<0.01); however the number of primordial and primary follicles were not significantly changed in the ovaries. Conclusion: Forced swimming of 2 wks duration reduces the serum levels of FSH and estradiol without having effects on apoptosis in the ovaries or uteri of mice. Over a long period of time, forced swimming may have an adverse effect on fertility. PMID:27921086

  14. Immune system cells in healthy ferrets: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vidaña, B; Majó, N; Pérez, M; Montoya, M; Martorell, J; Martínez, J

    2014-07-01

    The ferret has emerged as an excellent animal model to characterize several physiologic and pathologic conditions. The distribution and characterization of different types of immune system cells were studied in healthy ferret tissues. Eight primary antibodies were tested for immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed tissues: anti-CD3, anti-CD79α, anti-CD20, anti-HLA-DR, anti-lysozyme, anti-CD163, anti-SWC3, and anti-Mac387. The anti-CD3 antibody labeled T cells mainly in interfollicular and paracortical areas of lymph nodes, cortex and thymic medulla, and periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths in the spleen. The anti-CD79α and anti-CD20 antibodies immunolabeled B cells located in lymphoid follicles at lymph nodes, spleen, and Peyer patches. The CD79α and CD20 antibodies also labeled cells with nonlymphoid morphology in atypical B-cell locations. The anti-HLA-DR antibody labeled macrophages, some populations of B and T lymphocytes, and different populations of dendritic cells in lymph nodes, Peyer patches, spleen, and thymus. The anti-lysozyme antibody immunolabeled macrophages in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. The Mac-387, CD163, and SWC3 antibodies did not show any positive reaction in formalin-fixed or frozen tissues. To elucidate the origin of the uncommon CD79α/CD20 positive cells, a double immunohistochemistry was carried out using the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD79α, the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD20, and the anti-lysozyme + the anti-CD79α antibodies. Double labeling was mainly observed when the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD79α antibodies were combined. The immunohistologic characterization and distribution of these immune system cells in healthy ferret tissues should be of value in future comparative studies of diseases in ferrets. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of tissue engineered odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki J; Sumita, Yoshinori; Kagami, Hideaki; Ueda, Minoru

    2005-06-01

    The successful regeneration of complex tooth structures based on tissue-engineering principles was recently reported. The process of this regeneration, however, remains poorly characterized. In this study, we have used histochemistry to examine the regeneration process of tissue engineered teeth in order to determine the cell types that give rise to these engineered tooth structures. Porcine third molar tooth buds were dissociated into single-cell suspensions and seeded onto a biodegradable polyglycolic acid polymer scaffold. Following varying periods of growth in rat hosts, the specimens were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Aggregates of epithelial cells were first observed 4-6 weeks after implantation. These aggregates assumed three different shapes: a natural tooth germ-like shape, a circular shape, or a bilayer-bundle. Based on the structure of the stellate reticulum in the dental epithelium, the circular and bilayer-bundle aggregates could be clearly classified into two types: one with extensively developed stellate reticulum, and the other with negligible stellate reticulum. The epithelial cells in the circular aggregates differentiated into ameloblasts. The continuous bilayer bundles eventually formed the epithelial sheath, and dentin tissue was evident at the apex of these bundles. Finally, enamel-covered dentin and cementum-covered dentin formed, a process most likely mediated by epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. These results suggest that the development of these engineered teeth closely parallels that of natural odontogenesis derived from the immature epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

  16. [Cutaneous histiocytosarcoma: clinical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural aspects; difficulties of study and problems of nosology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Forestier, J Y; Schmitt, D; Thivolet, J

    1980-01-01

    Reporting a case of cutaneous tumor of the back of recent occurrence and rapid increase in a 79-years-old woman, according to Crosti's "reticulosis", the authors discuss the following points:--the histiocytic nature of the tumor cells particularly based on immunohistochemical studies (peroxidase activity, anti-HTLA serum) and on electron microscopy with special reference to the multivesicular bodies found in their cytoplasm;--the tests for correct identification of the histiocyte (including electron microscopy, tests for HTLA and HBLA antigens, peroxidatic reaction, acid phosphatase activity, and in vivo or in vitro phagocytosis);--the out of date character of the concept of malignant "reticulosis" in the hematologica and dermatologic classifications, the recent advances in the knowledge of the nature of the so-called "reticulum" (or "reticular") cell which seems to be a distinct entity derived from the mesenchymal cell (as the fibroblast);--the clinical and evolutive characteristics of histiocytic tumors (no hematologic involvement, slow evolution, high radiosensitivity), the difficulties in defining their malignancy and, above all, in finding comparable references in the literature with complete cellular study;--the nosologic place of this affection among the group of haematodermas and in the pathology of the mononuclear phagocyte system. The generic term of cutaneous histiocytosarcoma (stage I or II) is suggested, including the whole malignant and isolated tumoral proliferations developing from the dermic histiocyte.

  17. Melasma treatment using an erbium:YAG laser: a clinical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Attwa, Enayat; Khater, Mohamed; Assaf, Magda; Haleem, Manal Abdel

    2015-02-01

    Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder that remains resistant to available therapies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of erbium:YAG lasers in the treatment of refractory melasma and investigate the histopathological and ultrastructural changes between melasma skin and adjacent control skin before and after surgery. Fifteen Egyptian female patients with melasma unresponsive to previous therapy of bleaching creams and chemical peels were included in this study. Full-face skin resurfacing using an erbium:YAG laser was performed. Clinical parameters included physician and patient assessment, and melasma area and severity index score were done. Adverse effects after laser resurfacing were recorded. Biopsies of lesions and adjacent healthy skin were stained using hematoxylin-eosin, immunohistochemically marked for Melan-A, and evaluated by electron microscopy. The amount of melanin, staining intensity, and number of epidermal melanocytes are increased in melasma lesions as compared to normal skin. Electron microscopic analysis revealed an increased number of mature melanosomes in keratinocytes and melanocytes, with more marked cytoplasmic organelles in melasma skin than in biopsy specimens from normal skin, suggesting increased cell activity. After surgery, the number of melanocytes and concentration of melanin decreased in melasma skin, and the mean melasma area and severity index score decreased dramatically. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing effectively improves melasma; however, the almost universal appearance of transient postinflammatory hyperpigmentation necessitates prompt and persistent intervention. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Gliomatosis peritonei: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; Zhang, Yifen; Malpica, Anais; Ramalingam, Preetha; Euscher, Elizabeth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Liu, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Gliomatosis peritonei, a rare condition often associated with immature ovarian teratoma, is characterized by the presence of mature glial tissue in the peritoneum. We retrospectively evaluated 21 patients with gliomatosis peritonei and studied their clinicopathologic features and immunophenotype. The patients’ ages ranged from 5 to 42 years (median, 19 years). Their primary ovarian tumors consisted of immature teratoma (n = 14), mixed germ cell tumors (n = 6), and mature teratoma with a carcinoid tumor (n = 1). Gliomatosis peritonei was diagnosed at the same time as primary ovarian neoplasm in 16 patients and secondary surgery in 5 patients. Also, 11 of 21 patients had metastatic immature teratoma (n = 4), metastatic mature teratoma (n = 2), or both (n = 5). One patient developed glioma arising from gliomatosis peritonei. Seventeen patients had follow-up information and were alive with no evidence of disease (n = 13), alive with disease (n = 3), or alive with an unknown disease status (n = 1). The follow-up durations ranged from 1 to 229 months (mean, 49 months; median, 23 months). Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that SOX2 was expressed in all cases of gliomatosis peritonei and glioma with tissue available (9 of 9 cases), whereas OCT4 and NANOG were negative in all cases with available tissue (8 of 8 cases). In conclusion, both gliomatosis peritonei and glioma arising from it show a SOX2+/OCT4−/NANOG− immunophenotype. These findings demonstrated that gliomatosis peritonei is associated with favorable prognosis, although it is important to rule out potentially associated immature teratoma and maligant transformation. SOX2 may play an important role in the development of gliomatosis peritonei. PMID:26564007

  19. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L

    2013-03-01

    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  20. Comparative study of the immunohistochemical phenotype in breast cancer and its lymph node metastatic location.

    PubMed

    De la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan R; Ruiz Borrego, Manuel; Gómez España, Auxiliadora; Villar Pastor, Carlos; Japón, Miguel A; Travado, Paulino; Moreno Nogueira, José Andrés; López Rubio, Fernando; Aranda Aguilar, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    At present, an important part of prognostic information, together with particular treatment strategies in breast cancer, take into account the immunohistochemical phenotype of the primary tumor location. However, the changing heterogeneity intrinsic to neoplastic cells in general leads us to consider the possibility that the expression of these proteins is modified during tumoral development and dissemination. With this hypothesis as a starting point, 60 patients with breast cancer were studied with immunohistochemistry, the expression of estrogen and progestagenic receptors, proliferation through the Ki-67 expression, and the overexpression of HER-2 and p53 in both the primary location and the lymph node metastases. If we consider significant change to be loss (from positive to negative) or gain (negative to positive) of expression in some of the studied determinations, we find that this is produced in 60% of the tumors studied. These results demonstrate the modification of immunohistochemical expression of the proteins studied between the primary tumor location and the lymph node metastases.

  1. Development and characterization of a JAK-2-specific antibody suitable for immunohistochemical investigative studies.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher; Nagappan, Mathialagan; Huang, Xiaoying; Heintz, Catherine; Gardner, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are tyrosine kinases called JAK-1, JAK-2, JAK-3, and Tyk-2, which have been shown to participate in the signaling pathways of several cytokines that are believed to play a key role in several autoimmune-mediated disorders including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the availability of JAK-specific antibodies to be used in investigative efficacy studies in RA models is very limited. Therefore, in this study we developed and characterized a JAK-2-specific antibody that was used to evaluate its immunohistochemical expression in the joints of a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (rAIA) RA preclinical model. An immunogen peptide sequence design was used to generate JAK-2-specific mouse, rat, and human polyclonal antibodies. JAK-2 plasmid cDNA was then generated and HEK293 transfected cell lines, gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to further characterize the generated JAK-2 antibodies. We show that the generated JAK-2 antibody exhibits specificity and lacks cross-reactivity to JAK-1 and JAK-3. In addition, marked JAK-2 expression is shown in the rAIA in mixed inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils), mast cells, and bone marrow elements. In conclusion, we show the development and characterization of a JAK-2-specific antibody that can be used in investigative and mechanistic studies such as preclinical efficacy models.

  2. [Immunohistochemical assessment of HER2 expression in gastric cancer. A clinicopathologic study of 93 cases].

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Gil-Hernández, Sara; Ruelas-Perea, Ana; Villaverde-Rodríguez, Diego; Montes-Ochoa, José Roberto; Medrano-Guzmán, Rafael

    2017-01-06

    Gastric cancer in Mexico is ranked third in both males and females. Most patients present clinically with advanced disease and treatment options are sparse. HER2 overexpression in gastric cancer is related to poor outcome. Immunohistochemical testing for HER2 is becoming the standard of care for guiding adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer with trastuzumab. To determine the frequency of HER2 overexpression in patients with gastric cancer in the Hospital de Oncología del Centro Médico Nacional, Siglo XXI and its association with other histopathological findings. Patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery between March 12, 2006-August 31, 2011, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review of slides and immunohistochemistry with anti-HER2 antibody was performed. Scoring was done by Hoffman scoring system. Medical records were evaluated. Ninety-three patients were included in the study, with 43 (46.2%) male and 50 (53.7%) female patients. The median age was 64 years. HER2-positive tumours were identified in 6 patients (6.45%) and located most frequently in the proximal stomach. There was no difference in HER2 overexpression in relation to age, gender or histologic type. In our study, about 7% of patients with gastric cancer were HER2-positive on immunohistochemistry. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Digital squamous cell carcinoma in dogs: epidemiological, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Belluco, S; Brisebard, E; Watrelot, D; Pillet, E; Marchal, T; Ponce, F

    2013-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma represents 47.4% of all malignant canine digital lesions, but despite its frequency, there are few published studies available. Pathology submission records of 154 cases and follow-up of 49 animals were analyzed. On the 49 cases, histological evaluation was performed of the differentiation degree, mitotic index, presence of emboli, and immunohistochemical expression of vimentin and E-cadherin. The mean (SD) age of affected animals was 10.2 (2.3) years; no sex predisposition was recorded. Beauceron and Briard were 2 new overrepresented breeds. Dark-haired animals comprised 97 of 105 (92%); 94 dogs of 125 (75.2%) belonged to large and giant breeds. The forelimb was affected twice more than the hind limb. Probable metastases were observed in 4 dogs; new tumor development was recorded in 11 of 49 (22.4%). Epidemiologic factors, histological grade, mitotic index, and expression of immunohistochemical markers seemed not to be related to the clinical outcome.

  4. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Nasal glioma or nasal glial heterotopia? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Sanchez Fernandez de Sevilla, C; Lopez-Ginés, C; Peydro-Olaya, A; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2002-01-01

    The term nasal glioma has been used to describe a congenital benign tumor of the nasal region containing neural tissue. The nature of these lesions remains open to controversy, because of the different locations of the heterotopic neural tissue involved, the deficient development of the bony structures and the persistence or not of the structural relations with the central nervous system. More recent terms define these lesions as ectopic nervous tissue. A clinical, morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study is made of two cases of nasal glioma, one associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In this case, the mother had been treated with clomiphene. In such cases, morphological and immunohistochemical findings support that "nasal glioma" remain valid as a descriptive term defining a congenital benign tumor composed of heterotopic neural tissue within the nasal region and covered by skin, that may recur following incomplete surgical resection.

  6. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways. PMID:20854283

  7. Differentiation of hidroacanthoma simplex from clonal seborrheic keratosis--an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han-Nan; Chang, Yun-Ting; Chen, Chih-Chiang

    2004-06-01

    Hidroacanthoma simplex (HS) is an uncommon poroid neoplasm confined within the epidermis. The clinical features of HS are not distinctive and histopathologically HS may be confused with clonal seborrheic keratosis (CSK) if cystic or ductal structure is not present. The purpose of our study was to differentiate HS from CSK by the immunohistochemical expressions of various cytokeratins, CEA, CD1a, and S-100 protein, as well as by the degrees of deposition of melanins and glycogen. Four cases of HS and seven cases of CSK were included in the research. In contrast with CSK, HS showed a very low density of Langerhans cells (19.9 +/- 7.7 versus 3.1 +/- 1.0 CD1a (+) cells/mm, P = 0.027) and sparse melanin deposition in the nests. However, HS could not be set apart from CSK by the expressions of cytokeratins. The nests of both HS and CSK showed very similar patterns of cytokeratin expression and seemed to be mainly composed of basaloid cells with focal differentiation toward epidermal suprabasal cells.

  8. Primary extragastrointestinal stromal tumors in the omentum and mesentery: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Llenas-García, J; Guerra-Vales, J M; Moreno, A; Ibarrola, C; Castelbon, F J; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Meneu, J C; Ballestin, C; Moreno, E

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the clinical, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of primary extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) of the omentum and mesentery diagnosed in the Hospital 12 de Octubre, in Madrid, Spain, from 1993-2005. The clinical data and histological and immunohistochemical findings of primary mesenchymal neoplasias were revised using the Department of Pathological Anatomy databases. Six EGISTs were identified. Three were primarily of the omentum and 3 mesenteric. They were found in 4 males and 2 females with an average age of 65.16 years. All were c-KIT positive, and the majority CD34 positive, while 3 were positive for muscle-specific actin. The 3 omentum cases had a mixed spindle/epithelioid pattern and low mitotic rate, while the 3 mesenteric cases had a spindle pattern, with a high mitotic rate in 2 cases, where hepatic metastasis appeared at 6 and 32 months respectively. The 3 omentum cases were alive at the time of writing, and free of disease at 16, 21 and 34 months of follow-up. EGISTs represent 11.9% of GIST cases diagnosed in the hospital over the period 2000-2005. In this study primary EGISTs of the omentum and mesentery showed clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics similar to those previously in the literature for GISTs of the digestive tract, which supports the hypothesis that these tumors originate from extragastrointestinal c-KIT positive cells. Mesenteric location appears to be associated with a poorer prognosis.

  9. Diethylcarbamazine and Non-Diethylcarbamazine Related Bancroftian Granuloma: An Immunohistochemical Study of Eosinophil Toxic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo-Silva, Jose; Cavalcanti, Carmelita; Montenegro, Luciano Tavares; Norões, Joaquim; Dreyer, Gerusa

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested, mostly using in vitro experiments, that defenses against parasites involve mainly activated eosinophils and their toxic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil degranulation has been described around degenerating onchocercal microfilariae in patients treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). In bancroftian filariasis, traditional histopathologic studies have shown remarkable numbers of eosinophils in granulomatous lesions associated with both DEC-induced and spontaneous death of adult Wuchereria bancrofti parasites. No immunohistochemical study targeting eosinophil degranulation has been previously performed in these granulomas, which are found mainly within intrascrotal lymphatic vessels. This investigation was undertaken in 22 (12 DEC-treated and 10 untreated) male patients in order to determine the immunohistochemical expressions of MBP, EPO and ECP in bancofitian granulomas, using the indirect method. Stained intact esosinophils, as well as granular, extra-cellular material positive for all three proteins, were found in all granulomas. The immunohistochemical patterns were similar in both DEC-treated and untreated cases, irrespective of microfilaremia, blood eosinophilia, and granuloma age. Positive intact cells were observed mostly at the periphery of the granulomas, whereas granular material predominated in central areas around dead or degenerating parasites. These results indicate that eosinophils accumulate in the granulomas and degranulate preferentially in close proximity to degenerating or dead adult parasites. In bancroftian granulomas, influx and degranulation of eosinophils are considered a consequence of parasite death, rather than its cause. PMID:23675184

  10. An Immunohistochemical Study on the Role of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Irradiated Skin.

    PubMed

    Koerdt, Steffen; Tanner, Nadine; Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation through the generation of free radicals, reactive aldehydes, and other oxidative and nitrosative by-products account for skin injuries as side effects of radiation therapy (RT). This study aims to identify cellular pathways in oxidative and nitrosative stress in irradiated skin using well-established marker proteins in an immunohistochemical analysis. Tissue specimens of 51 patients were obtained during operative access to the neck. Twenty patients (39.2%) received RT prior to the surgical intervention. Immunohistochemical analysis of stable degradation products of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), 3-nitrotyrosine, 8-isoprostane, phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) was performed in specimens which were exposed to RT and those without a history of RT. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significantly increased expression of nitrotyrosine in superficial and basal epidermal regions of interest (ROI), p-AKT in all epidermal ROI, and p-ERK in all the investigated epidermal and dermal ROI, as well as in an overall analysis. No significance could be detected in immunostaining against isoprostane. This study summarizes the influence of RONS in RT. Moreover, a detailed histological analysis was able to identify epidermal ROI as a main starting point of RONS in irradiated skin. Even though the role of RONS in high-dose therapeutic radiation remains a subject for further research, these data underlines the crucial role of RONS in high-dose radiation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Immuno-Histochemical and Quantitative Study of Melanocytes and Melanin Granules in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Honwad, Swapna; Ravi, S V; Donoghue, Mandana; Joshi, Manjiri

    2017-07-01

    Oral Epithelial dysplasia (OED) is a potentially malignant disorder that is characterized by the presence of architectural and cytological changes. One of the prime factors responsible for the development of these lesions is the usage of tobacco. A variety of factors provide protective mechanism in order to prevent the effects of chemotoxic agents including tobacco products of which, melanin pigmentation is one of the vital elements. Role of melanocytes in progression of OED has remained unclear, so the present study was done to evaluate density of melanocyte and melanin granules in different grades of epithelial dysplasia and to correlate both findings with different grades of epithelial dysplasia. The study included 60 OED cases, of which three histopathogical sections were prepared from each block. The sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson Fontana and Human Melanoma Black (HMB-45), an immunohistochemical stain. Quantification of melanin granules was evaluated under 40X magnification using arbitrary scale with micrometer square as, 0= Absence of melanin granules, 1= Rare and scattered melanin granules, 2= Dense but not aggregated melanin granules, 3= Dense and aggregated melanin granules. Density of melanocytes was evaluated under 10X magnification. Five consecutive fields were evaluated for melanocytes and melanin granules starting from the field of highest density. There was an insignificant increase in number of melanocytes and melanin granules in mild and moderate dysplasia compared to normal but significant reduction was observed in severe dysplasia. The decrease in number of melanocytes and melanin granules was proportional to severity of epithelial dysplasia. This could be due to chronic irritation by chemical products leading to death of melanocytes.

  12. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours.

  13. Immunohistochemical study of expression of immunoglobulins in canine B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, J; Micuń, J; Zabielska, K; Malicka, E; Lechowski, R

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen canine lymphomas were included in this study. Tumors were classified according to the updated Kiel classification adapted for canine lymphomas by Fournel-Fleury et al. Immunoglobulin light chains (kappa and lambda) and IgM and IgG expression were determined by immunohistochemical method. In all examined cases neoplastic cells were positive for one of the immunoglobulin light chains. Expression of lambda light chains and kappa light chains was observed in 18/19 and 1/19 tumors, respectively. In the majority of neoplastic cells in each examined specimen this reaction had a membranous pattern (skappa/slambda). In all examined cases the presence of immunoglobulin light chains was also observed in the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells (ckappa/clambda). These cells were usally rare and never constituted a dominant population. The expression of immunoglobulin was found in 13/19 cases. Most lymphomas were sIgM positive (11/13 cases). In one case expression of IgG was found, and in another lymphoma two populations of neoplastic cells with different expression of examined immunoglobulins (cells with IgM+ and IgG+ phenotypes) were observed. The reaction also had a membranous pattern. The cells containing cytoplasmic immunoglobulins were rare, and in most cases were of the same type as the surface immunoglobulins. Our study has confirmed that canine lymphomas are a monoclonal proliferation of B-cells usually expressing immunoglobulin lambda light chains and that the vast majority of tumors deriving from B-cells express IgM. Our study also indicates a possibility of occurence of biclonal lymphomas in canine species.

  14. Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Vranic, Semir; Bilalovic, Nurija; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Trpkov, Kiril; Vesela, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Kalusova, Kristyna; Sperga, Maris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Alvarado Cabrero, Isabel; Bulimbasic, Stela; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-02-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) may present with a tubulocystic growth in 3% to 7% of cases, and in such cases its morphology may significantly overlap with tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC). We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors, aiming to clarify the differential diagnostic criteria, which facilitate the discrimination of RO from TCRCC. Twenty-four cystic ROs and 15 TCRCCs were selected and analyzed for: architectural growth patterns, stromal features, cytomorphology, ISUP nucleolar grade, necrosis, and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical panel included various cytokeratins (AE1-AE3, OSCAR, CAM5.2, CK7), vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CA-IX, antimitochondrial antigen (MIA), EMA, and Ki-67. The presence of at least focal solid growth and islands of tumor cells interspersed with loose stroma, lower ISUP nucleolar grade, absence of necrosis, and absence of mitotic figures were strongly suggestive of a cystic RO. In contrast, the absence of solid and island growth patterns and presence of more compact, fibrous stroma, accompanied by higher ISUP nucleolar grade, focal necrosis, and mitotic figures were all associated with TCRCC. TCRCC marked more frequently for vimentin, CD10, AMACR, and CK7 and had a higher proliferative index by Ki-67 (>15%). CD117 was negative in 14/15 cases. One case was weakly CD117 reactive with cytoplasmic positivity. All cystic RO cases were strongly positive for CD117. The remaining markers (AE1-AE3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, CA-IX, MIA, EMA) were of limited utility. Presence of tumor cell islands and solid growth areas and the type of stroma may be major morphologic criteria in differentiating cystic RO from TCRCC. In difficult cases, or when a limited tissue precludes full morphologic assessment, immunohistochemical pattern of vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CK7, and Ki-67 could help in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of human papilloma virus in conjunctival neoplasias: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjana; Panda, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extent of association of human papilloma virus (HPV) in human conjunctival neoplasias has been debated in studies originating from different parts of the world, but no substantial evidence has been generated on Indian subjects. This prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on conjunctival neoplasias diagnosed over the past 12 years. Materials and Methods: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 65 specimens of ocular neoplasias and 30 normal controls diagnosed between 1991 and 2002 at a tertiary eye care hospital, was undertaken. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed for confirming histopathological diagnosis, presence of koilocytosis and changes related to actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was done using HPV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clinicopathological correlation and the association of HPV antigen with the histopathological features were performed. Results: Out of the 65 cases analyzed, 35 were papillomas and 30 were ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSN). The mean age was 48 years with a male preponderance. Histologically, koilocytosis was observed in 17.1% of papillomas and 36.6% of OSSN. Actinic keratosis was present in 33% of OSSN. Immunohistochemically 17.1% conjunctival papillomas stained positive for HPV antigen, all cases of OSSN were negative for HPV. There was no correlation between koilocytosis or actinic keratosis and the detection of HPV antigen. Conclusions: The association between HPV and conjunctival neoplasias is variable in different geographical areas and also depends on the methods of detection used. This study warrants the need for applying more advanced techniques at a molecular level to determine the possible etiology of HPV in conjunctival neoplasias among Asian-Indians. PMID:17699945

  16. Serotonin-producing cells in human gastric mucosa--immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Penkova, Nadya I; Baltadjiev, Georgi A; Koeva, Yvetta A; Atanassova, Pepa K; Andonov, Vladimir N; Trichkova, Valentina A

    2010-01-01

    The great many hormones released by the endocrine cells of the glands and lining epithelium of gastric mucosa determine its significance for the processes in the gastrointestinal tract. One of these hormones, serotonin, plays an important role in the regulation of the motility, secretion and sensation in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to conduct immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies of serotonin-producing EC cell of gastric mucosa. Gastric mucosa biopsies were obtained and studied immunihistochemically for serotonin expression in the mucosa endocrine cells. Electron microscopic study was performed to specify the processes of synthesis, accumulation and release of secretory product by those cells. The immunohistochemical study revealed a considerable number of serotonin-containing EC cells scattered in the lining epithelium and between the glands in the corpus and pyloric region of the stomach. The electron microscopic study followed the stages of formation of the secretory granules from the initial accumulation of granular substance, its membrane packing and formation of mature granules to their disintegration in the secretory process. Serotonin as a neurotransmitter and gastrointestinal hormone appears to be a key to understanding a number of symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders like nausea, vomiting, pain, diarrhea and constipation. A detailed study of serotonin functions in the gastrointestinal tract realised through different types of receptors, and of the development of specific antagonists and agonists to these receptors would open up new opportunities for a more efficient treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

  17. Immunohistochemical study of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 expression in skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Ju; Cho, Han Suk; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Kwang Joong; Park, Hye Rim

    2006-05-01

    Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been demonstrated in various cancers, including experimentally promoted tumors, gastrointestinal cancers, breast tumors and skin tumors. The mechanism that controls COX-2 expression is not yet clear. Currently, it is reported that COX-2 expression is frequently associated with mutated p53 genes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of COX-2 and p53 in several skin tumors and their correlation. An immunohistochemical method was used to investigate the expression of COX-2 and p53 proteins on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), basal cell carcinomas (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD), actinic keratosis (AK) and porokeratosis. The expression of COX-2 increased in 50% (5/10) of SCC, 80% (8/10) of BCC, 40% (4/10) of BD, 50% (5/10) of AK, and 20% (2/10) of porokeratosis cases. The expression of p53 increased in 90% (9/10) of SCC, 70% (7/10) of BCC, 70% (7/10) of BD, 50% (5/10) of AK, and 40% (4/10) of porokeratosis cases. COX-2 positivity rates of the p53-positive skin tumors were 56%, 100%, 57%, 80% and 25% in SCC, BCC, BD, AK and porokeratosis, respectively. However, the correlation between p53 and COX-2 expression in skin tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Our results indicate that skin COX-2 and p53 may play roles in skin tumors, but that there is no apparent correlation between the two markers.

  18. Tumor markers and oncogene expression in thyroid cancer using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, T; Matsubara, F; Mizukami, Y; Miyazaki, I; Michigishi, T; Yanaihara, N

    1990-04-01

    In 111 thyroid cancer patients consisting of 89 papillary carcinomas, 17 follicular carcinomas, 2 medullary carcinomas, 1 squamous cell carcinoma and 2 malignant lymphomas, the levels of 12 tumor markers, including thyroglobulin (Tg), were measured in the serum by radioimmunoassay and radioimmunoassay related methods. Serum levels of Tg were elevated in 58.6%, those of CA-M26 in 15.7%, CA 19-9 in 5.3%, CT in 3.6%, NSE in 3.6%, CA 15-3 in 2.6%, CA 125 in 2.6%, CEA in 0.9%, CA-M 29 in 0%, ferritin in 0%, SCC in 0% and AFP in 0% of cases. Among the patients, there was a case of thyroid carcinoma secreting thyroglobulin and CA 19-9, both of whose titer decreased after surgery. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 57 of the above mentioned patients plus 6 anaplastic carcinomas, 15 adenomas, 5 adenomatous goiters, 6 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 Graves' disease and 15 normal subjects. CA 19-9 was positive in 58% of the papillary carcinomas, EGF in 73% of papillary carcinomas, 67% of anaplastic carcinomas, and 33% of follicular carcinomas, while EGF-R was found in 73% of the papillary carcinomas, and 33% of the follicular carcinomas. Enhanced expression of ras p 21 oncogene and (c-myc oncogene) was demonstrated in 100% (100%) of anaplastic carcinomas, in 100% (67%) of follicular carcinomas and in 63% (90%) of papillary carcinomas. Our results indicate that a better tumor marker is required and more extensive molecular oncology research should be pursued.

  19. Cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma - an immunohistochemical study with histopathological association

    PubMed Central

    Matthai, Smita Mary; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumour recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was carried out to evaluate the association between histological parameters and liver CSCs (LCSC) in HCC, and to compare distribution of liver CSCs in HCC associated with and without hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Seventy nine tumours (49 surgical resections from 46 patients, and 30 from autopsy) were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for the LCSC marker EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), liver progenitor cell (LPC) markers CK19 (cytokeratin 19) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) were performed and were associated with histological features of tumour behaviour. Results: Thirty three tumours (41.8%) showed positive staining for EpCAM. CK19 and NCAM expression were seen in 26 (32.9%) and four (5.1%) tumours, respectively. The expression of EpCAM and CK19 was significantly associated with each other (P<0.001). EpCAM expression was significantly associated with clinical and histological features indicating aggressive tumour behaviour, including younger age of onset, higher serum alpha foetoprotein (AFP) levels, tumour cell dedifferentiation, increased mitotic activity, and vascular invasiveness. There was no significant difference in expression of EpCAM, CK19 and NCAM between HBV positive and negative HCC. Interpretation & conclusions: The LCSC marker EpCAM was expressed in less than half of HCC, was independent of HBV aetiology, and was strongly associated with clinical and histological features of aggressive tumour behaviour. Positive staining for CK19 suggests a possible LPC origin of the EpCAM positive HCCs. PMID:26609030

  20. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Park, Sok; Chun, Yoonseok; Song, Wook; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-09-02

    In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  1. Peritoneal cystic mesothelioma: an electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study of two male patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sienkowski, I K; Russell, A J; Dilly, S A; Djazaeri, B

    1986-01-01

    The clinical, pathological, and ultrastructural features of two cases of peritoneal cystic mesothelioma occurring in men were studied. The results of immunohistochemical staining for CAM 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and Factor VIII related antigen are reported for the first time and compared with the staining results of two peritoneal cystic lymphangiomas. Although resembling cystic lymphangioma by light microscopy, cystic mesothelioma may have a greater tendency for local recurrence. Staining for CAM 5.2 or epithelial membrane antigen may facilitate the differentiation of these two entities. Images PMID:2422221

  2. The immune environment of paediatric solid malignancies: evidence from an immunohistochemical study of clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Apps, John R; Hasan, Fyeza; Campus, Oliver; Behjati, Sam; Jacques, Thomas S; J Sebire, Neil; Anderson, John

    2013-07-01

    Childhood malignancies are relatively poorly studied in terms of tumour/host interaction. Using tissue arrays of childhood cancers, we analysed immunohistochemical staining for CD68, CD3 and FOXP3 to evaluate infiltration of myeloid cells, lymphocytes and regulatory T cells. Staining for phosphorylated STAT3 was performed in a subset. The majority of paediatric tumours demonstrated a marked infiltration of CD68+ myeloid cells but, with the exception of neuroblastoma, most showed only sparse infiltration of CD3+/ FOXP3- cells. There was evidence for activation of STAT3 in pPNET (50%), ependymoma (45%) and undifferentiated sarcoma (38%), but it was rarely activated in other tumours.

  3. Immunohistochemical study of epoxide hydrolase induced by trichloroethylene in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, T.; Hobara, T.; Ogino, K.; Takemoto, T.; Nakamura, K.; Imamura, A.; Koshiro, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Sakai, T.

    1987-10-01

    Epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolation of potentially toxic, electrophilic epoxides that are often generated during cytochrome P-450 catalyzed monooxigenation, forming the corresponding transdihydrodiols. It is well-known that trichloroethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 containing mixed-function oxidase systems to trichloroethylene oxide, which decomposes to other metabolites. As trichloroethylene is an epoxide, epoxide hydrolase is suspected to catalyze the hydrolation of trichloroethylene oxide. No reports have appeared about the relationship between trichloroethylene and epoxide hydrolase. In this report, the authors studied the effect of trichloroethylene on epoxide hydrolase immunohistochemically.

  4. Primary oral melanoma: A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of 22 cases of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Toral-Rizo, Víctor H.; León, Jorge E.; Contreras, Elisa; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; de-Almeida, Oslei P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of 22 cases of primary oral melanomas (OM). Study Design: Twenty two cases of primary oral melanoma were analyzed by description of their histopathological features and immunohistochemical study using the antibodies S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and Ki-67. Results: The mean age was 58 years and 14 cases were female. The main affected sites were the hard palate, followed by the upper gingiva. Microscopically, 15 cases presented level III of invasion, 2 cases were amelanotic and 13 showed a mixed epithelioid and plasmacytoid or spindle cells composition. Some cases showed necrosis, perivascular and perineural invasion. S-100 and HMB-45 were positive in all cases, but 3 cases were negative for Melan-A. The proliferative index with Ki-67 was high, with labeling index ranging from 15.51% to 63% of positive cells. Conclusion: S-100 and HMB-45 are more frequently expressed than Melan-A in primary oral melanomas and these markers are helpful to confirm the diagnosis. Key words:Oral melanoma, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:22143732

  5. Immunohistochemical study for the origin of ductular reaction in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Jae; Park, Jae-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Kim, Jung-Yeon; An, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of proliferating bile ductular structures, which is called the “atypical ductular reaction” is frequently observed in various chronic liver diseases associated. However, the origin of these increased bile ductules has been a matter of controversy. In this study, we investigated the origin of ductular cells as an aspect of relation between epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and epithelial members of liver parenchyme, such as hepatocyte and cholangiocyte by immunohistochemical staining of human liver. Thirteen specimens of surgically resected liver with biliary cirrhosis were selected. Three sets of double immunohistochemical stains were done; Hep-Par 1 - cytokeratin 19 (CK19), Hep-Par 1 - α-sm ooth mus cle actin (α-SMA) and CK19 - α-SMA. As a result, we investigated the dual expression of the markers of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte in the same cell; in ductular cell and surrounding hepatocyte. However, there seems to be no dual expression of markers for EMT with epithelial markers. This study suggests a possibility of phenotypic change of mature hepatocyte into cholangiocyte. Future studies will be necessary to determine the role that proliferating cholangiocytes play in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis and how cholangiocytes interact with other cell types of the liver such as hepatic stellate cells or Kupffer cells. PMID:25120786

  6. Expression of connexins 26, 32 and 43 in the human colon--an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kanczuga-Koda, Luiza; Sulkowski, Stanislaw; Koda, Mariusz; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria; Sulkowska, Mariola

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is a mechanism for direct cell-to-cell signalling and is mediated by gap junctions (GJs), which consist of proteins called connexins (Cxs). GJIC plays a critical role in tissue development and differentiation and is important in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the expression of Cx26, Cx32 and Cx43 in the human colon. Surgical specimens were obtained from patients who underwent surgical resection of colorectal tumours. Tissue samples (50 cases) were collected from normal colon, at the maximum distance from the tumor. Using antibodies for Cx26, Cx32 and Cx43, immunohistochemical detection was made. In epithelial cells, strong Cx26 immunoreactivity was found, whereas Cx32 and Cx43 were sparsely distributed. Strong Cx43 immunostaining in muscularis mucosae was observed. In the circular layer of muscularis externa, expression of Cx43 and Cx26 was seen, but only in the portion closest to the submucosa. No immunoreactivity was found in the longitudinal muscle layer. Small vessels stained positively only for Cx43. Furthermore, there was no difference in staining between samples derived from various sections of the colon. This study showed immunohistochemically for the first time the expression of Cx26 in human colon mucosa.

  7. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, D; Giannone, A G; Mascarella, C; Guarnotta, C; Castiglia, M; Pantuso, G; Fiorentino, E

    2014-03-05

    Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO), posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA) combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS), with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  8. Adult urinary bladder tumors with rabdomyosarcomatous differentiation: Clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Adult rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in the urinary bladder is rare, and is the subject of case reports and small series. It consists of sheets of small round blue cells with high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, brisk mitosis and apoptosis. In this study, we reported one case of pure rhabdomyosarcoma and two cases of urothelial carcinomas with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. In addition, their immunohistochemical profile was compared to that of small cell carcinoma of the bladder. Our study showed that sufficient sampling was critical for the diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. As adult RMS in the bladder and urothelial carcinoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation shared morphological features with small cell carcinoma of the bladder, appropriate immunohistochemical stains were necessary in the differential diagnosis. We showed both rhabdomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcomatous areas of the urothelial carcinoma were positive for myogenin, negative for cytokeratin and chromogranin stains. In contrast, small cell carcinoma was positive for cytokeratin, and 7 out of 9 cases were also positive for chromogranin. Both rhabdomyosarcoma and small cell carcinoma could be positive for synaptophysin, a potential pitfall to avoid. In addition, all of the tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation were negative for FKHR rearrangement. PMID:21762516

  9. JMJD2B as a potential diagnostic immunohistochemical marker for hepatocellular carcinoma: a tissue microarray-based study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jeng-Wei; Ho, Yi-Jung; Lin, Liang-In; Huang, Yen-Chi; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Yueh-Min; Tzeng, Tsai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine JMJD2B expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and elucidate relationships between various expression patterns and clinicopathological parameters of HCC patients. Immunohistochemical techniques were performed to detect JMJD2B expression in a tissue microarray from patients with breast, cerebrum, colon, esophagus, kidney, liver, lung, prostate, stomach, and uterus cancers. We performed immunohistochemical staining of a multiple tissue array to examine the expression profile of JMJD2B. Our results demonstrate that JMJD2B protein levels were upregulated in malignant human tumors, including breast, colon, liver, and lung. Immunohistochemistry staining examination of liver tumor tissue microarray revealed that the expression of JMJD2B is significant according to the histological grade and TNM stage of liver tumor. Moreover, JMJD2B was also correlated with Ki-67 expression in HCC samples. These results reveal that JMJD2B is dramatically upregulated in HCC, making it a potential diagnostic marker for the further development of HCC treatment therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral verruciform xanthoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 20 cases.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Bruno A B; Agostini, Michelle; Pires, Fábio R; Rumayor, Alicia; Carlos, Román; de Almeida, Oslei P; Romañach, Mário J

    2015-07-01

    Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity is an uncommon benign lesion that usually affects the palate and gingiva mainly as a well-circumscribed solitary yellowish to whitish plaque or nodule, which is promptly recognized microscopically by identification of sub-epithelial foamy macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 20 cases of oral verruciform xanthoma. All cases were evaluated by conventional hematoxylin/eosin staining and six of those were submitted to immunohistochemical reactions for CD68, CD63, CD163, syndecan-1 (CD138), S-100 protein and cytokeratins (CK) 8, 14 and 19. Oral verruciform xanthoma presented as yellowish papillary nodules affecting mainly the palate (30%), buccal mucosa (30%) and gingiva (25%) of middle-aged male patients. Most cases presented papillary epithelial hyperplasia and sub-epithelial foamy cells, which were immunopositive for CD68, CD63 and CD163 in all cases. The orange parakeratin superficial layer was negative for CK14 and presented a distinct granular membrane pattern of positivity for CD138. S-100 protein, CK8, and CK19 were negative. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract in Rhamdia quelen juvenile: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, D R; Vigliano, F A; Sánchez, S; Bermúdez, R; Domitrovic, H A; Quiroga, M I

    2012-08-01

    In this work, an immunohistochemical study was performed to determine the distribution and relative frequencies of some neuromodulators of the digestive tract of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The digestive tract of silver catfish was divided into six portions; the oesophagus, stomach, intestine (ascendant, descendant and convoluted segments), and rectum. Immunohistochemical method using a pool of specific antisera against-gastrin, -cholecystokinin-8, -leu-enkephalin, -neuropeptide Y, -calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and -vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was employed. Immunoreactivity to all antisera was identified in neuroendocrine cells (NECs) localized in the gut epithelium, although no reaction was observed in the oesophagus or stomach. The morphology of NECs immunopositive to each antibody was similar. They were slender in shape, with basally located nucleus, and their main axis perpendicular to the basement membrane. The number of NECs immunoreactive to all antisera was higher in the ascendant and descendant intestine, exhibiting a decreasing trend toward distal segments of the gut. In addition, immunoreactivity to CGRP and VIP was observed in the myenteric plexus and nerve fibers distributed in the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layers. The higher number of immunopositive NECs in the ascendant and descendant intestine may indicate the primary role of these segments in the control of food intake by means of orexigenic and anorexigenic peripheral signals.

  12. Immunohistochemical studies on the new type of astrocytic inclusions identified in a patient with brain malformation.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Hirano, A; Umahara, T; Herz, F; Shioda, K; Minagawa, M

    1992-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on the new type of cerebral cortical astrocytic inclusions recently discovered in a 20-year-old patient with maldeveloped brain and micropolygyria. The inclusions appeared as eosinophilic structures (hematoxylin and eosin stain) and did not exhibit argyrophilia (modified Bielschowsky method). The inclusions were strongly stained by the antibody against S-100 protein (S 100) and to a lesser extent by the antibody to microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP 1B). In contrast to Rosenthal fibers, the astrocytic inclusions did not react with antibodies to alpha B-crystallin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and ubiquitin. No positive reactions were obtained with antibodies against heat-shock protein 27 (HSP 27), HSP 72, actin, vimentin, desmin, cytokeratin, myelin basic protein, beta-tubulin, MAP 2, tau protein, paired helical filament, phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NFP), nonphosphorylated NFP, synaptophysin, cathepsin D, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin and basic fibroblast growth factor. By immunoelectron microscopy, the products of the reaction with the anti-S 100 antibody appeared as heterogeneous granular deposits and with the antibody to MAP 1B they were randomly scattered throughout the astrocytic inclusions. Our results demonstrate that the immunohistochemical profile of the recently described inclusions differs from that of Rosenthal fibers. Whether the novel inclusions are involved in congenital astrocyte dysfunction and cerebral malformation remains to be established.

  13. Phyllodes tumor with osteosarcomatous differentiation: a comparative immunohistochemical study between epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Zucoloto, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast with osteosarcomatous differentiation is rare and very little is known about its molecular profile. An immunohistochemical panel with 37 primary antibodies including cytokeratins, mesenchymal markers, key regulators of the cell cycle, oncogenes, apoptosis-related proteins, metalloproteinases and their inhibitors was performed on a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sample of phyllodes tumor with osteosarcomatous differentiation in a 49-year-old woman. Antiapoptotic stimuli (survivin) predominated in sarcomatous cells. Antiproteolytic stimuli (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and PAI) were preponderant in all cells, a surprising fact in view of the aggressiveness of the neoplasm. The immunoprofile of the osteoblastic and stromal cells was quite similar, except for c-erbB-3, c-myc, cyclin D1 and p21. Both exhibited positive cells for actin, MyoD1 and GFAP. Our results suggest that this osteosarcoma may have originated from metaplasia of stromal cells that underwent a malignant change.

  14. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of border disease virus in persistently infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, A S; Ehrensperger, F; Straub, O C; Pospischil, A

    1995-08-01

    Three seronegative sheep persistently infected with Border disease virus and six seropositive, non-viraemic sheep were examined for the cellular distribution of the agent. These animals originated from a closed flock which had been kept in an isolation facility for 5 years. They were killed and immediately necropsied. There were no gross abnormalities other than reduced body weight of the persistently infected sheep. Two samples of each major organ were collected. The first sample was fixed by immersion in formalin and processed for histological examination, which showed no lesions unequivocally attributable to the viral infection. The second sample was snap-frozen for immunohistochemical examination. This revealed viral antigen in all organs of the persistently infected, but in none of the seropositive animals. The infected cells included smooth muscle cells of hollow organs and blood vessels, epithelial cells of the alimentary tract and urogenital organs, lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, endocrine cells, neurons and glial cell.

  15. Reovirus infection in psittacine birds (Psittacus erithacus): morphologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Hervás, J; Chacón de Lara, F; Jahn, J; Salguero, F J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we report on an outbreak of reovirus, herpesvirus (Pacheco disease), and/or mycosis infection (Aspergillus spp. and Zygomyces spp.) affecting a batch of young African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), with 80% morbidity and 30% mortality. Study material was taken from five birds (four dead and one euthanatized) with a range of clinical symptoms (depression, diarrhea, respiratory symptoms). Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of avian reovirus, electron microscopy, and virus isolation. Viral antigen of reovirus was detected mainly in large mononuclear cells in the bursa of Fabricius and the spleen, pancreas epithelial cells, and circulating cells; lymphoid organs displayed the largest number of immunopositive cells and severe lymphocyte depletion. Bacteriologic study was negative. Reovirus infection was common in all birds studied, whereas Pacheco disease and mycosis were found in only some, suggesting that reovirus could be the initial cause triggering the outbreak and facilitating infection by other agents and their swift spread through the batch.

  16. [IgG kappa myeloma with Fanconi's syndrome and crystalline inclusions. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study].

    PubMed

    Schillinger, F; Hopfner, C; Montagnac, R; Milcent, T

    1993-04-17

    An IgG kappa light-chain myeloma, remarkable for the presence of inclusions in plasmocytes and proximal renal tubular cells, was discovered during investigations for renal failure associated with partial Fanconi's syndrome. An immunohistochemical study showed that the crystalline inclusions were positive for IgG and kappa light-chain in plasmocytes and exclusively for kappa light-chain in the renal tubular cells. An ultrastructural study showed that the inclusions were localized in lysosomes and had a 55 A periodicity. This case is similar to the forty odd myelomas or light-chain diseases reported in the literature and revealed by Fanconi's syndrome. Their prognosis is good, with a slow progression towards late renal failure. In our patient the preference of lesions for proximal tubular cells, the site of protein catabolism, was particular since in myelomas they are usually located in the distal tubular cells.

  17. Gastric schwannoma misdiagnosed as GIST: A case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study

    PubMed Central

    TATANGELO, FABIANA; CANTILE, MONICA; COLLINA, FRANCESCA; BELLI, ANDREA; DE FRANCISCIS, SILVIA; BIANCO, FRANCO; BOTTI, GERARDO

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are tumors derived from Schwann cells. Generally, they are benign and their typical site of origin is the subcutaneous tissue of the distal extremities or of the head and neck region. Gastrointestinal localization of schwannomas is extremely rare, and the stomach is the prevalent site. The present study describes the case of a gastric schwannoma in a 61-year-old male who underwent subtotal gastrectomy following a clinical diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). A histological, immunohistochemical and molecular study was performed to exclude the misdiagnosis of GIST. The histomorphological features of the lesion and absence of c-Kit and PDGFRA mutations indicated the diagnosis of gastric schwannoma. PMID:27073505

  18. Inflammation and macrophage polarization in cutaneous melanoma: Histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Scali, Elisabetta; Mignogna, Chiara; Di Vito, Anna; Presta, Ivan; Camastra, Caterina; Donato, Giuseppe; Bottoni, Ugo

    2016-12-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are considered to affect tumor growth and progression. Macrophages can be classified into two states of polarized activation, namely classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. The dynamic balance between TAMs and tumor cells has an important impact on tumor homeostasis and progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype of TAMs present in different subtypes of superficial spreading cutaneous melanoma and their relationship with the lymphocytic infiltrate in order to identify new histopathological tools for melanoma prognosis and suitable targets for melanoma therapy. We selected four groups of patients with malignant melanoma in order to analyze the profile of polarized macrophage activation using immunohistochemical methods. Histopathological analysis showed that the macrophage polarization state appears to be more related to the lymphocytic infiltrate than to the thickness of the lesions. Further studies are necessary to increase understanding of the immunopathological dynamic of melanoma that may be modulated by future targeted immunotherapies.

  19. [Intestinal type adenocarcinoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Histological and immunohistochemical study of 14 cases].

    PubMed

    Bonato, M; Piantanida, R; Riva, C; Cis, C; Capella, C

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen cases of intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (IADC) of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses were studied at the Regional Hospital of Varese during the period from 1973 to 1988. They were 13 males and 1 female, mean age 57.5 years; the five year survival was 25% and tumors were preferentially located in the ethmoidal sinus. Morphological study and the use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies made it possible to define the structural features of IADC and to detect specific antigenic markers such as CAR-5 (a glycoprotein contained within intestinal goblet-cells) and M1 (a glycoprotein contained within gastric foveolar cells). For comparison 10 cases of colonic adenocarcinomas and 14 cases of non-AIDC carcinomas of the nose and paranasal sinuses were also examined. The parallel morphological and immuno-histochemical investigations based on specific markers demonstrated that it was impossible to differentiate IADC from large bowel adenocarcinoma for both the structural pattern and antigenic expression. Moreover, AIDC also showed a CAR-5 and M1 immunoreactivity (IR) different from that displayed by the nasal carcinomas of different histotypes. From a histopathological standpoint IADC appears to be a distinctive entity even when compared to salivary gland tumors. In addition, the present immunohistochemical investigation demonstrates that gastric and intestinal glycoproteic antigens (M1 and CAR-5 respectively) occur in the normal nasosinusal mucosa. Both CAR-5 and M1 were observed in the mucous produced by nasal goblet cells with a distribution pattern resembling that of colonic goblet cells. Therefore, the present data confirm the similarity between nasal and colonic goblet cells which has already been pinpointed in previous morphological and ultrastructural studies. The common antigenic expression shared by the naso-sinusal and colonic mucosa might suggest a histogenetic hypothesis alternative to those of the malformative or metaplastic origin of naso

  20. So-called embryonal hyperplasia of Bowman's capsular epithelium: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Hajikano, H; Sakaguchi, H

    1991-01-01

    The so-called embryonal hyperplasia of Bowman's capsular epithelium (EHBCE) is a rather specific lesion occurring in kidneys of patients maintained on chronic dialysis. It consists of poorly differentiated cells proliferating around sclerosed or obsolescent glomeruli. In this study, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of EHBCE was performed. The poorly differentiated cells in the lesion exhibited a positive reaction for vimentin and a negative one for cytokeratin (PKK 1) and epithelial membrane antigen. On ultrastructural examination, specialized junctions between adjoining cells, microvilli-like structures on their surfaces, and immature basal folds were observed. These observations suggest that the cells of EHBCE may be associated with the anlage of glomerular epithelium. The background in which neoplasms like renal cell carcinoma or atypical epithelium of cyst wall develop in end-stage kidneys of adult patients on long-term dialysis may cause such a proliferation of poorly differentiated cells in young or paediatric age group patients.

  1. Primary extra-cranial meningioma of head and neck: clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study of three cases.

    PubMed

    Possanzini, P; Pipolo, C; Romagnoli, S; Falleni, M; Moneghini, L; Braidotti, P; Salvatori, P; Paradisi, S; Felisati, G

    2012-10-01

    Extracranial meningiomas of the head and neck region are rare neoplasms, the majority being a secondary location of a primary intracranial tumour. We herewith report three rare cases of extracranial meningiomas, located in the temporal muscle, parotid gland and nasal cavity, together with complete pathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. Prognosis of this tumour is generally excellent. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, with no need for further treatment; nevertheless, differential diagnosis must consider other more common tumours of the head and neck and be based on histopathologic examination and relative techniques, including examination of frozen sections. This procedure is particularly useful assessing surgical treatment and should be performed whenever possible to exclude the malignant nature of the lesion and avoid over-treatment. All three patients underwent surgery and are alive and disease-free.

  2. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ait Bali, Yassine; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH) exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF), the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs). Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes. PMID:28848410

  3. Mucin-rich variant of salivary duct carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of four cases.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Roderick H W; Prasad, Anil R; Lewis, Jean E; Skálová, Alena; David, Leonor

    2003-08-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma is a relatively uncommon aggressive neoplasm, typically found in the parotid glands of older men. The histologic appearance is that of an in situ and invasive high-grade adenocarcinoma, and it closely resembles ductal carcinoma of the breast. Several variants of the latter are very well known, but only papillary, sarcomatoid, and low-grade subtypes have so far been reported in salivary duct carcinoma. This study describes the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in four examples of an additional previously undescribed variant, rich in mucin. Each tumor showed areas of typical salivary duct carcinoma, but in addition there were lakes of epithelial mucin-containing malignant cells, i.e., mucinous (colloid) carcinoma. All four tumors expressed androgen receptors, cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and carcinoembryonic antigen, but S-100 protein, other myoepithelial markers, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were negative. The mucin antigen profile showed positivity for MUC2, MUC5B, and MUC6 in all cases but only rare staining with MUC5AC and MUC7. Strong immunohistochemical overexpression of HER2/neu was demonstrated in one tumor, together with amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization; another case was weakly positive with just one antiserum, but the remaining two tumors were completely negative. Small quantities of mucin have often been described in salivary duct carcinoma but not large extracellular mucinous lakes, which though prominent in the present series, were not as extensive as in mucinous adenocarcinoma. The relatively poor clinical outcome of the patients in our study mirrored that seen in usual-type salivary duct carcinoma and emphasizes the importance of differentiating mucin-rich salivary duct carcinoma from pure mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma, a tumor not fully defined, but possibly with a better prognosis.

  4. Observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rodler, D; Stein, K; Korbel, R

    2015-06-01

    In most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. Right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. However, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. Four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparrow hawk and goshawk. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate structural differences of the gonads and tried to correlate the findings with folliculogenesis and endocrine functions. The right ovaries showed different sizes and shapes. Cytoskeletal elements (tubulin and vimentin) and α-smooth muscle actin have been detected in different structures of the right ovaries, but their staining intensity was weaker compared with the left ovary. This shows that also the right ovary is mechanically able to ovulate. We could also demonstrate the expression of oestrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the right ovaries, which indicates that also the right ovary can respond to steroid hormone stimuli. We assume that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the presumptive gonad is still sufficient to mediate the development of a right ovary in the studied species. We conclude that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the right ovary is involved in its post-natal development. The histological and immunohistochemical data also imply that in the right ovary, folliculogenesis and ovulation can occur. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Signet-ring cell lymphoma: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanxiang; Sun, Jihong; Fang, Yanan; Nassiri, Mehdi; Liu, Lanting; Zhou, Jiehao; Stohler, Ryan; Choi, Haki; Vance, Gail H

    2017-02-01

    Signet-ring cell lymphoma (SRCL) is a rare morphologic variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Although it was initially reported as a rare morphologic variant of follicular lymphoma (FL), SRCL has to date been described in most types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, mostly as single-case reports. To study SRCL systematically by immunohistochemical stains and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses. Seven SRCL cases were stained for CD3, CD5, CD20, PAX-5, CD10, CD21, CD23, cyclin D1, BCL2, BCL6, Ki-67, and MUM-1, and were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization for BCL2, BCL6, MYC, and MALT1 rearrangements. Clinical information and patient outcome were reviewed in all patients. The patients were 3 women and 3 men, ranging in age from 31 to 75 years (average 60.3 years). The lesions involved lymph nodes, tonsil, parotid gland, soft tissue, and breast. There were 4 FLs, 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 1 DLBCL with FL, and 1 DLBCL with marginal zone lymphoma. All cases had typical signet-ring cell morphology. They were positive for CD20 and BCL-2, and had low-to-intermediate Ki-67 proliferation index (10%-40%) except in the parotid DLBCL with FL (70%). BCL-6 was detected in all but 1 FL (6/7). Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected IGH/BCL2 translocation in 1 FL, increased BCL6 copy number in another FL, BCL6 rearrangement, and increased copy number of MYC and MALT1 in the DLBCL with marginal zone lymphoma. The FL with signet-ring cell morphology (1/5) tends to lack IGH/BCL2 translocation, and an extended immunohistochemical study is recommended for correct diagnosis and classification of SRCL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nipple eczema, an indicative manifestation of atopic dermatitis? A clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyo Sang; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So

    2015-04-01

    Nipple eczema exhibits as a minor manifestation of atopic dermatitis (AD) or occurs as a single skin symptom on the nipple. To characterize the relationship between nipple eczema and AD, a clinical evaluation and an immunohistochemical study were performed. All cases of nipple eczema were confirmed histopathologically. We divided the patients with nipple eczema into 2 groups, namely, those with AD and those without AD, and compared several clinical features. Upon histological examination, the degree of inflammation was subjectively graded as mild, moderate, or severe by 2 separate investigators. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed by using antiinterleukin (IL)-4, anti-IL-13, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 antibodies, and the results were scored semiquantitatively. In 43 cases evaluated, 12 were nipple eczema with AD. The clinical analysis and histological examination showed no significant differences between the groups. There were consistent findings of IL-4 expressions throughout the epidermis and IL-13 expression mainly in the perivascular area of the dermis. Although CD4 and CD8 were expressed in the cells in the dermis, CD8 expression was detected in the serocrusts of the epidermis. Expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, CD4, and CD8 exhibited no significant differences between the nipple eczema group with AD and the nipple eczema group without AD. Although nipple eczema may accompany AD, we found no definite differences in the degree or pattern of inflammation and cytokine expression level regardless of whether AD was present or not. Serocrust formation seemed to be mainly a collection of CD8-positive cells.

  7. Morphological and Immunohistochemical Study of Ovarian and Tubal Dysplasia Associated with Tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Chene, G.; Radosevic-Robin, N.; Tardieu, A.S.; Cayre, A.; Raoelfils, I.; Dechelotte, P.; Dauplat, J.; Penault-Llorca, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies for BReast CAncer gene (BRCA) mutation. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Given that tamoxifen (TAM) has a clomid-like effect and is sometimes used to induce ovulation, we studied the morphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of neoplasia-associated markers in adnexectomies previously exposed to TAM for breast cancer. We blindly reviewed 173 histopathological slides of adnexectomies according to three groups – oophorectomies associated with TAM exposure (n=42), oophorectomies associated with clomiphene exposure (n=15) and a spontaneously fertile non cancerous control group (n=116). Morphological features (with an ovarian and tubal dysplasia scoring system) and immunohistochemical expression patterns of Ki-67, p53 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 is an enzyme significantly associated with earlystage ovarian cancer) were evaluated and correlated. Mean tubal dysplasia score was significantly higher in the TAM group and clomiphen group than in controls (respectively 7.8 vs 3.5, P<0.007 and 6.8 vs 3.5, P=0.008). There is no statistical difference for the ovarian score in TAM group in comparison with the control group whereas we found a significant score for clomiphen group (6.5, P=0.009). Increased ALDH1 expression was observed in the two exposed group whereas expression patterns of Ki67 and p53 were moderate. Interestingly, ALDH1 expression was low in non-dysplastic epithelium, high in dysplasia, and constantly low in the two carcinoma. Furthemore, we confirm our previous results showing that ALDH1 may be a useful tissue biomarker in the subtle histopathological diagnosis of tubo-ovarian dysplasia. PMID:24998918

  8. Elemental and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs and hilar lymph node in a patient with asbestos exposure, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yasuhiko; Satoh, Takahiro; Kaira, Kyoichi; Koka, Masashi; Hisada, Takeshi; Hirato, Junko; Altan, Bolag; Yatomi, Masakiyo; Ono, Akihiro; Kamide, Yosuke; Shimizu, Yasuo; Aoki-Saito, Haruka; Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Mogi, Akira; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Yamada, Masanobu; Dobashi, Kunio

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that inhaled mine dust, such as asbestos, can be translocated to various organs including the lymph nodes. Recently, we have established a protocol that enables us to identify inhaled elements using paraffin embedded lung specimens by in-air microparticle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). However, little research has examined the concentration of these inhaled fibers in various organs or the mechanisms of their translocation. In this study, we compared the concentration of inhaled fibers in the lung parenchyma to the concentration in the hilar lymph node as well as to determine the elemental spatial distribution of the inhaled fibers in a patient with occupational asbestos exposure. Lung tissues and hilar lymph node in a patient with asbestos exposure were used in this study. Elemental analysis was performed by in-air micro-PIXE. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti CD163, smooth muscle actin, vimentin and β-catenin antibody. The analysis revealed that the amount of inhaled silicon was approximately 6 times higher in the lymph node than in the lungs. The spatial analysis showed that silicon, iron and aluminium were co-localized in the hilar lymph node. The immunohistochemical analysis showed localized agreement of the inhaled fibers with macrophages, smooth muscle actin, and vimentin in the hilar lymph node. This study showed that in-air micro-PIXE could be useful for analyzing the elemental distribution and quantification of inhaled fibers in the human body. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry in combination with in-air micro-PIXE analyses may help to determine the mechanism of mine dust distribution in vivo.

  9. Expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral precancerous and cancerous lesions: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Sfakianou, Aikaterini; Avgoustidis, Dimitrios; Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral premalignant and malignant lesions and to investigate their possible correlation with the presence of subepithelial inflammation. Material and Methods Thirty two oral premalignant lesions, clinically compatible with leukoplakia or erythroplakia, were investigated. Microscopically, 11 of them showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis (epithelial hyperplasia) and 21 showed dysplasia of varying degrees. Nine cases of OSCC and four control cases of normal oral mucosa were also included in the study. Immunohistochemical staining with NF-κB (p65) and IL-6 was performed. IL-6 and nuclear NF-κB staining were assessed as positive or negative. For cytoplasmic localization of NF-κB, a total score combining intensity and percentage of positive epithelial cells was additionally calculated. The presence of inflammation was also recorded. Results Intensity and total scores for NF-κΒ cytoplasmic immunostaining showed a statistically significant gradual increase from normal mucosa to OSCC (p=0.012 and p=0.026 respectively). Non-statistically significant increased NF-κΒ nuclear localization was detected in dysplasias and OSCCs. Positive statistical correlation was detected between the presence of inflammation and IL-6 expression (p=0.015). No correlation between NF-κΒ and IL-6 was detected. Conclusions NF-κΒ is activated in the early stages of oral carcinogenesis. IL-6 may have an NF-κΒ-independent role, possibly through regulation of the inflammatory response. Key words:NF-κB, IL-6, immunohistochemistry, oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral precancerous lesion. PMID:26595830

  10. Immunohistochemical COX-2 overexpression correlates with HER-2/neu overexpression in invasive breast carcinomas: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Çiriş, Ibrahim Metin; Bozkurt, Kemal Kürşat; Başpinar, Sirin; Kapucuoğlu, Fatma Nilgün

    2011-03-15

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a prostaglandin synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of prostaglandin G2 and H2. It has been shown that COX-2 plays an important role in tumorigenesis of different tumor types and it is thought to take part in breast carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of immunohistochemical COX-2 expression with clinicopathological parameters, including HER-2/neu overexpression in invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). Our study population comprised 10 normal breasts, 25 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 51 invasive breast carcinomas. Immunohistochemical overexpressions of COX-2 and HER-2/neu were investigated in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks by 3 observers. In normal breast, DCIS and IBC, the COX-2 overexpression rate was 0%, 84%, and 58.8%, respectively. In IBC, COX-2 overexpression had a significant relationship with HER-2/neu overexpression (p=0.026) and a high histological grade (p=0.026). COX-2 expression in both DCIS (n=25) and IBC (n=51) was significantly higher than in normal breast tissue (p<0.0001). In addition, the COX-2 expression rate was significantly higher in DCIS than in IBC (p=0.042). Our results indicated that COX-2 overexpression correlates with aggressive phenotypic features, such as HER-2/neu overexpression and high histological grade in IBC. Increased expression of COX-2 in both DCIS and IBC in comparison to normal breast could indicate a role in breast carcinogenesis. COX-2 overexpression may provide a clinically useful biomarker for estimating tumor aggressiveness.

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of COX-2 expression in dentigerous cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Shafaee, Shahryar; Siadati, Sepideh; Moghaddam, Elham Alizadeh; Ghasemi, Nafiseh; Bijani, Ali; Najafi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an early response gene that is induced by growth factors, oncogenes and carcinogens and its expression is increased in various tumors. Increased expression of COX-2 plays a significant role in the development and growth of tumors by interfering in biological processes such as cell division, cellular immunity, cell adhesion, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of COX-2 in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) in comparison with ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst with regards to different clinical behavior and histopathological features of these lesions. Materials and Methods: Paraffined blocks of 45 cases including 15 cases of dentigerous cyst, 15 cases of KOT and 15 cases of ameloblastoma were stained with immunohistochemical method for COX-2. Five high-power fields of each sample were evaluated to determine the percentage of stained cells and the intensity of staining. Degree of immunoreactivity was obtained from the sum of two. Statistical evaluation was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05). Results: Overexpression of COX-2 in ameloblastoma and KOT was observed compared with dentigerous cyst (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed between the expression of COX-2 in ameloblastoma and KOT (P = 0.148). Conclusion: The COX-2 expression in odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastoma and cystic neoplasm with aggressive behavior such as KOT increases. However, it does not seem that COX-2 affects the development and growth of cysts with noninvasive behavior like dentigerous cyst. PMID:26005470

  12. Immunohistochemical study of MIB1 expression in phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Umekita, Y; Yoshida, H

    1999-09-01

    The histogenesis of phyllodes tumor (PT) and fibroadenoma (FA) is closely related, and discrimination between them by histopathological analysis is sometimes problematic. Moreover, objective criteria by which to categorize the grade of malignancy in PT are still controversial. The aim in this study is to clarify whether immunohistochemical evaluation using the MIB1 antibody, which reacts with the ki-67 antigen, correlates with the histological grade of malignancy in PT, and can discriminate between PT and FA. The 47 cases of phyllodes tumor (PT) were categorized into three groups (malignant, 4 cases; borderline, 6 cases; benign, 37 cases) according to the criteria proposed by Azzopardi (1979) and were investigated by immunohistochemistry. There were significant differences in stromal MIB1-index among the three groups (P < 0. 0001), and, unexpectedly, benign PT was easily divided into two groups according only to the MIB1-index. There were significant differences in the stromal MIB1-index (P < 0.001) and stromal cellularity (P < 0.01) between the two benign PT groups. A total of 478 cases of FA was reviewed and these were divided into 403 conventional fibroadenomas (CFA), 36 cellular fibroadenomas (CEFA) and 39 fibroadenomas with focal phyllodes structure (FAPS). All cases of CEFA and FAPS, and 140 cases of CFA were studied by immunohistochemistry. The 21/215 (9.8%) cases of FA, which were designated as FAMIB, showed a high stromal MlB1-index (more than 10/0.0625 mm2). Conversely, 77% cases of FA showed no MIB1-positive stromal cells. The incidence of MIB1-positive epithelium of FAMIB was much higher than that of FA. These results suggest that high proliferative activity may be present in both stromal and epithelial cells of FAMIB. Our study suggests that immunohistochemical evaluation using MIB1 antibody correlates with the histological grade of malignancy in PT, and can select FA with high proliferative activity. However, new objective diagnostic factors useful

  13. Extra-facial melasma: clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C G; Fiss, D V C; Borges da Costa, J A T; de Carvalho, R R; Bauermann, G; Cestari, T F

    2013-09-01

    Extra-facial melasma is a prevalent dermatosis in some populations with special characteristics in relation to its clinical aspects and probable etiopathogenic factors. Few studies have attempted to address this alteration of pigmentation, which has become a challenge in clinical Dermatology. To assess the clinical histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of extra-facial melasma, comparing affected, and unaffected sites. Case-control study with 45 patients in each group (melasma and disease-free volunteers), assessing their clinical characteristics. In 36 patients, biopsies were performed on the lesion and the normal perilesional skin. Specimens were stained with HE and Fontana-Masson, and melanocytes analysed by immunohistochemistry. Objective measurements were accomplished by a specifically designed image analysis software. The melasma group had a mean age ± SD of 56.67 ± 8 years, the majority of them were women (86.7%) and 82.1% of the female cases had reached menopause. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of presence of comorbidities, use of medications or hormone therapies. For extra-facial melasma patients, family history of this dermatose and of previous facial melasma was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The HE staining showed increased rectification and basal hyperpigmentation, solar elastosis, and collagen degeneration in the pigmented area (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in melanin density in melasma biopsies, but the immunohistochemical tests did not detect a difference between the groups in terms of number of melanocytes. Extra-facial melasma appears to be related to menopause, family history, and personal history of facial melasma, in the studied population. Histopathology revealed a pattern similar to what has been described for facial melasma, with signs of solar degeneration, and a similar number of melanocytes, when comparing patients, and controls, suggesting that

  14. Lubricin expression in human osteoarthritic knee meniscus and synovial fluid: a morphological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosalia; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castorina, Sergio; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lubricin, the product of the human PRG4 (proteoglycan 4) gene, in menisci and synovial fluid from normal donors and patients with osteoarthritis (OA), using a combination of histology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting analysis, to provide further insight on the role of this protein in the progression of OA and pathological processes in the meniscus. Lubricin expression was studied in samples from 40 patients and in 9 normal donors after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Histological analysis confirmed normal microanatomy and the absence of structural changes in control samples. Menisci derived from OA patients showed evidence of structural alterations, fibrillations and clefts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed very strong lubricin immunostaining in normal menisci in contrast to weak/moderate staining seen in osteoarthritic menisci. Quantitative ELISA and Western blot analysis confirmed the above results. The findings of this study support the notion that changes in lubricin expression and boundary-lubricating ability of cartilage is followed by the development of OA. This study could provide the biological foundation for the development of novel therapeutic treatments, to be applied before the surgery, for the prevention of post-traumatic cartilage damage.

  15. Case of clear cell ependymoma of medulla oblongata: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study with literature review.

    PubMed

    Amatya, Vishwa Jeet; Takeshima, Yukio; Kaneko, Mayumi; Nakano, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru; Nakazato, Yoichi; Inai, Kouki

    2003-05-01

    Clear cell ependymoma has been included in the WHO classification of the central nervous system in 1993, after the first report by Kawano et al. Since then, only a few cases have been reported. Most clear cell ependymoma cases reported in the literature so far were located in the supra-tentorial compartment and/or cerebellum, and one case was in the cervical spinal cord. We report a case of clear cell ependymoma whose histological features were sufficient for the diagnosis and was unusually located in the fourth ventricle originating from the medulla oblongata. The tumor showed uniform tumor cells with perinuclear halo, nuclei being centrally located. Most of the tumor cells were arranged as perivascular pseudorosettes, and no ependymal canals or rosettes were evident. Mitotic figures were not frequent. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly reactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, and weak and dot-like positive for epithelial membrane antigen. Clear cell change of the tumor cells appeared to be fixation artifact because this feature was not evident in the frozen section.

  16. Primary synovial sarcomas of the mediastinum: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Suster, Saul; Moran, Cesar A

    2005-05-01

    A series of 15 cases of primary mediastinal neoplasms displaying histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of synovial sarcoma is presented. The patients' ages ranged from 3 to 83 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Nine cases presented as anterior mediastinal masses with chest pain, shortness of breath, and pleural effusion, and 6 cases were in paravertebral location in the posterior mediastinum and presented with neck or back pain and pleural effusion. The tumors measured from 5 to 20 cm in greatest diameter and showed a tan white, soft to rubbery cut surface with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis and foci of gelatinous material. Four cases showed areas of cystic degeneration. In 7 cases, the tumors were well circumscribed; in 6 cases, the tumors grossly invaded the pleura, pericardium, heart, great vessels, chest wall, rib, and vertebra. Histologically, 5 cases displayed a biphasic growth pattern, with well-formed glandular elements admixed with a monotonous spindle cell population. Ten cases were exclusively composed of a monotonous atypical spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical studies showed focal positivity of the tumor cells for cytokeratin and/or epithelial membrane antigen, and strong positivity for vimentin and bcl-2 in the spindle cells in all cases studied (10 of 10). Eight cases also showed focal positivity for CD99. Electron microscopic examination in 5 cases showed oval to spindle tumor cells with closely apposed cell membranes, abundant cytoplasmic intermediate filaments and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and immature desmosome-type cell junctions. Ten patients were treated by complete surgical excision and two by partial excision followed by radiation therapy. In 4 patients, the tumors were inoperable and treated with radiation therapy only. Clinical follow-up was available in 5 patients and showed local recurrence with metastases to lung, lymph nodes, and epidural space from 1 to 3 years in 4 cases and liver

  17. Expression of PPARγ and PTEN in human colorectal cancer: An immunohistochemical study using tissue microarray methodology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao Song; Huang, Jun Xing; Chen, Wei Chang; Zhang, Bao Feng; Fang, Jing; Zhou, Qiong; Hu, Ying; Gao, Heng Jun

    2011-11-01

    Although aberrations of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression have been identified in several other cancer types, certain previous studies have revealed that PPARγ is abundant in normal and malignant tissue in the colon. The question of whether aberrant PTEN is involved in the initial stage or is a later event during colorectal carcinogenesis remains controversial. Relatively few studies have focused on the correlation of expression of PPARγ and PTEN in various tissues. In the present study, paraffin-embedded blocks from 139 patients with CRC, 18 adenomatous polyps and 50 paired paracancerous benign mucosas were selected and analysed in 4 tissue microarray (TMA) blocks comprising 104, 72, 130 and 54 cores, respectively. Expression of PPARγ and PTEN was examined using immunohistochemical staining on TMAs. There were no significant differences in the expression of PPARγ (P=0.055) and PTEN (P=0.100) between the colorectal cancers, adenomas and paracancerous mucosas. However, correlations of PPARγ expression with clinical stage (P=0.004) and PTEN expression with histological grade (P=0.006) and distant metastasis (P=0.015) were demonstrated in the CRC specimens. Although the differences in PPARγ and PTEN protein expression in human colorectal cancer may not be considered as early diagnostic markers, our results indicate that CRCs with a low expression or deletion of PTEN may progress towards invasion and even metastasis; thus, PTEN may have potential as a prognostic marker in human CRC.

  18. Postnatal development of Mongolian gerbil female prostate: An immunohistochemical and 3D modeling study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Zani, Bruno C; Maldarine, Juliana S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-05-01

    The development of the prostate in male rodents, which involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE) and the urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), has been deeply studied. In females, however, this process is not very clear. In this study, the postnatal development of the prostate in female Mongolian gerbils employing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques was characterized. It was observed that prostatic branching and differentiation in females was induced by a single mesenchyme localized at a ventrolateral position, which was named as ventrolateral mesenchyme (VLM); furthermore, the canalization of solid buds began on the third postnatal day (P3) and the branching morphogenesis on P5. We observed secretions in the acini at the end of the first month, and, on P45, the acini were completely differentiated. The strong cell proliferation phase in the first week coincided with the mesenchymal expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The expression of androgen receptor (AR) paralleled cell differentiation, and, on P30, immunolabelling with p63 was restricted to basal cells. This study serves as a baseline parameter for future research on disruptions that could affect the development of the female prostate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Possible nociceptive structures in the sacroiliac joint cartilage: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Szadek, Karolina M; Hoogland, Piet V J M; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; De Lange, Jaap J; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2010-03-01

    The sacroiliac joint (SI joint) is a known source of low back pain. In the absence of validated physical signs and imaging studies, the diagnosis of SI joint pain can be secured by positive response to SI joint intra-articular infiltration with local anesthetics. The current anatomical and histological knowledge concerning intra-articular structures of the sacroiliac joint is insufficient to explain the efficacy of this infiltration. Consequently, this study was undertaken to detect the intra-articular presence of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive nerve fibers, providing indirect evidence of nociceptive innervation of the SI joint. Free-floating sections, obtained from iliac and sacral cartilage and subchondral bone of the SI joint and adjacent ligamentous tissue, of 10 human cadavers were studied immunohistochemically. Tissue of nine human cadavers showed the presence of substance P and CGRP immunoreactivity in the superficial layer of sacral and iliac cartilage, and the surrounding ligamentous structures. Subchondral bone reacted weakly to the antisera used. These findings support the view that the SI joint may be capable of intra-articular nociception and may explain the positive response to the intra-articular deposition of local anesthetic.

  20. An immunohistochemical study of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in various feline neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Beam, S L; Rassnick, K M; Moore, A S; McDonough, S P

    2003-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of prostaglandins and exist as two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is a potent inducible mediator of inflammation. COX-2 is also upregulated in several human tumors and in canine squamous cell, renal cell, and transitional cell carcinomas, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and intestinal neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether COX-2 is expressed in various feline tumors. Results of this study may help determine whether COX-2 is a potential target for therapeutic and preventive strategies in cats. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissues using the amplified streptavidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase system. COX-2 was found in 7 of 19 (37%) feline transitional cell carcinomas and in 2 of 21 (9%) feline oral squamous cell carcinomas. No COX-2 immunoreactivity was detected in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (6), adenocarcinomas (nine mammary, eight pulmonary, seven intestinal), lymphomas (six nasal, six intestinal), or 10 vaccine-associated sarcomas. The widespread absence of COX-2 expression in most feline neoplasms might suggest that COX-2 inhibitors would have a low potential as anticancer agents.

  1. Immunohistochemical biomarkers in ameloblastomas.

    PubMed

    do Canto, Alan Motta; Rozatto, Juliana Rodrigues; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; de Freitas, Ronaldo Rodrigues; Hasséus, Bengt; Braz-Silva, Paulo Henrique

    2016-08-30

    Ameloblastoma is an aggressive odontogenic tumour, which is locally invasive and highly recurrent. Studies show that ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasia, being relatively rare and occasionally presenting behaviour of malignant lesions. In addition to these particularities, the histological diagnosis of ameloblastoma can be challenging when the tumour shows high rates of mitosis, absence of nuclear pleomorphism, basilar hyperplasia and neural invasion. In order to help in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of this neoplasia, some immunohistochemical markers were shown to be associated with tumoural epithelium. The identification of these markers as well as of their association with clinical signs can be useful to elaborate more efficient treatment strategies and to control this pathology, including improvement of the quality of life of patients affected by this neoplasia. This article aims to review some markers associated with specific molecular pathways, bone remodelling, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell signalling and tumour suppression.

  2. Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 18 cases with additional observation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Sheng, Weiqi; Wang, Jian

    2013-04-01

    To present our experience with 18 cases of well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM), with an emphasis on its relationship to adenomatoid tumour and multicystic mesothelioma. Eighteen cases of WDPM were retrieved. Twenty cases of multicystic mesothelioma were selected for comparative study. The WDPM patients comprised 14 females and four males, with age ranging from 18 to 60 years (median 37 years). The tumour involved the abdominal or pelvic peritoneum (14 cases), the pleura (two cases), and the testicular tunica vaginalis (two cases). The majority of WDPMs were incidental findings during surgery for a wide variety of conditions. Histologically, 13 cases were consistent with classical WDPM. Two cases had a combined component of adenomatoid tumour, and three cases contained coexisting areas of multicystic mesothelioma. Among the multicystic mesothelioma cases, four had adenomatoid tumour-like foci present in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, all cases of WDPM and multicystic mesothelioma, as well as the coexisting combined components, were positive for mesothelial markers, with a low Ki67 index. This study also showed that WDPM was negative for epithelial membrane antigen and desmin. The simultaneous occurrence of WDPM, adenomatoid tumour and multicystic mesothelioma in some cases suggested histogenetic relationships among these three less aggressive mesotheliomas. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  4. Ovarian Brenner tumors and Walthard nests: a histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Masand, Ramya P

    2014-12-01

    Brenner tumors are composed of urothelial/transitional-type epithelium and, hence, are morphologically similar to Walthard nests and tubal/mesothelial transitional metaplasia. In this study, we analyzed immunohistochemical markers on Brenner tumors to explore Müllerian as well as Wolffian and germ cell derivation. We also attempted to explore their possible association with tubal/paratubal Walthard nests/transitional metaplasia, using the same immunostains. Thirty-two consecutive cases of Brenner tumors were identified. Thirteen (43%) of the patients had Walthard nests in the tubal/periovarian soft tissue. All Brenner tumors were diffusely positive for GATA3 (strongly positive in 30/32 and weakly positive in the remaining 2) and negative for PAX8, PAX2, and SALL4. Similarly, all Walthard nests were positive for GATA3, whereas only 3 (23%) of 13 showed occasional PAX8 expression; all were negative for PAX2 and SALL4. In our study, more than 40% of Brenner tumors had associated Walthard nests. The similar morphology and immunoprofile of Brenner tumors and Walthard nests suggest a probable link between Brenner tumors and Walthard nests. Two additional cases presented highlight small transitional lesions involving the ovary: a possible precursor lesion or the initial steps of Brenner tumor formation. Brenner tumors and most Walthard nests lacked staining for Müllerian (PAX8 and PAX2) and germ cell tumor markers (SALL4). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of mast cells in skin tag development: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Maraee, Alaa Hassan; Antar, Azza Gaber; Fareed, Shimaa

    2014-08-01

    To detect mast cell density by toluidine blue and immunohistochemical staining for mast cell tryptase in skin tags as compared to normal skin to determine whether they have a role in skin tag development. This study was carried out on 30 patients with skin tags and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without skin tags. There was a significant difference between skin tag and control groups regarding mast cell density evaluated by toluidine blue staining (p = 0.003) and mast cell tryptase expression (p = 0.001), where the density was higher in skin tags as compared to normal skin. Mast cells were higher in number using toluidine blue staining in lesions arising in sites other than the head and neck (p = 0.028). High expression of mast cell tryptase was significantly associated with marked collagenosis (p = 0.02) and presence of eosinophils (p = 0.04). The present study demonstrates the possible role of mast cells in promoting fibrosis and facilitating the development of skin tags. Mast cells may attract eosinophils to cooperate in inducing more fibrosis in skin tag development.

  6. Immunohistochemical studies of angiogenin in the skin of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Kazuhiro; Tsukie, Tomomi; Fukazawa, Hiroyuki; Fujikura, Mikio; Ono, Seiitsu

    2013-03-15

    Angiogenin (ANG) is a member of the ribonuclease superfamily which is implicated in angiogenesis. ANG maintains normal vasculature and thereby protects motor neurons from various stress conditions. It is suggested that ANG may play a role in pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, there have been no studies of ANG in ALS skin. We made a quantitative immunohistochemical study of the expression of ANG in the skin from 20 patients with sporadic ALS, 20 patients with other neurologic or muscular disorders (control group A), and 20 patients without neurologic or muscular disorders (control group B). The nuclei of the epidermal cells showed a weak ANG immunoreactivity in ALS patients. These findings became more marked as ALS progressed. The optical density for ANG immunoreactivity of the nucleus in the epidermal cells in ALS patients was significantly lower (p<0.001) than in control groups A and B. There was a significant negative relationship (r=-0.82, p<0.001) between the optical density for ANG immunoreactivity of the nucleus and duration of illness in ALS patients. These data suggest that changes of ANG in ALS skin are related to the disease process and that metabolic alterations of ANG may take place in the skin of ALS patients.

  7. Morphometric study on the development of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus utilising immunohistochemical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano, M A; Bentura, M L; Toledano, A

    1990-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)- and oxytocin (OXY)-producing neurons, components of the rat supraoptic nucleus, have been located with immunohistochemical methods, with the purpose of studying their morphofunctional characteristics during different phases of life (embryonic, juvenile, adult and senile). To carry out this study, an IBAS I (Kontron) computerised image analyser has been utilised. The hormone VP is first detected in the neuronal cytoplasm of 21 days old rat embryos and the hormone OXY appears in the neuronal cytoplasm later, in the newborn phase. The neuronal area with a positive reaction for the two neurohormones has been evaluated and it has been found that the quantity of reaction substance is proportional to the age. In the adult period, VP neurons possess a reaction area (198 microns 2) greater than that of OXY neurons (153 microns 2). In the SON, there are two neuronal shapes, fusiform and round; these shapes coexist in both hormonal types of neurons. Until Day 15 of postnatal development, the SON neurons are intermixed in the interior of the nucleus but in this period a neuronal redistribution is initiated. In the adult phase, OXY neurons are situated preferentially in the anterior, posterior and dorsal parts and VP neurons in the ventral and posterior parts, with both neurons being present in the intermediate part of the SON. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:2182586

  8. Immunohistochemical study of skin nerve regeneration after toe-to-finger transplantation: correlations with clinical, quantitative sensory, and electrophysiological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Chu, Nai-Shin

    2004-12-01

    Cutaneous nerve regeneration following toe-to-finger transplantation was studied by immunohistochemical technique using antibody to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) which is a specific neuronal marker. By this technique, epidermal and dermal nerves were semi-quantified and the Meissner's corpuscles were quantified. There were also quantitative sensory tests (QST) including pinprick, pressure and temperature, as well as electrophysiological studies including digital nerve sensory conduction, digital nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and sympathetic skin response at the pulp of the transplanted toes. The opposite corresponding normal finger and normal toe served as controls. Study subjects were 20 adult patients with toe-to-finger transplantation for at least one year. A score system was used to quantify the results of histochemical, psychophysiological and electrophysiological studies. Clinically 7 patients had good recovery and 13 patients had poor recovery. Cutaneous nerve regeneration in the transplanted toes was incomplete with epidermal nerve, dermal nerve and the Meissner's corpuscle significantly reduced. The nerve regeneration was correlated with clinical recovery, QST and electrophysiological data. These findings indicate that immunohischemical technique is useful to evaluate skin nerve regeneration following toe-to-finger transplantation, and that although nerve regeneration did occur, it was incomplete and correlated with the severity of hand injury.

  9. Sarcoglycan Complex in Masseter and Sternocleidomastoid Muscles of Baboons: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Cutroneo, G.; Centofanti, A.; Speciale, F.; Rizzo, G.; Favaloro, A.; Santoro, G.; Bruschetta, D.; Milardi, D.; Micali, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Vermiglio, G.; Anastasi, G.; Trimarchi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status. PMID:26150161

  10. Immunohistochemical study of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in transverse sections of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Youn; Yang, Jun-Mo; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2011-05-01

    In the frozen longitudinal section of the nail unit, CD10 was previously found in nail mesenchymal cells beneath nail matrix, and we proposed calling the nail mesenchymal cells onychofibroblasts. In this study, to further characterize nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts, we examined the expression of several mesenchymal markers immunohistochemically in transverse paraffin sections of the nail unit. CD10 was strongly expressed in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts beneath the nail matrix. However, CD10 was not observed in dermal fibroblasts and surrounding extracellular matrix of the lateral nail fold (LNF), except around blood vessels and eccrine structures. In addition, versican was expressed diffusely in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in contrast to the dermis of LNF. Fibrillin, which is a major component of elastic fiber in the dermis, was expressed very weakly on the nail mesenchyme below the nail matrix but was expressed strongly in the dermis of LNF. These findings support the existence of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts that is distinguished from the dermis of LNF.

  11. Comparative light-microscopic and immunohistochemical study of traumatic and palisaded encapsulated neuromas of the skin.

    PubMed

    Argenyi, Z B; Santa Cruz, D; Bromley, C

    1992-12-01

    The primary hyperplastic nature of palisaded encapsulated neuromas (PENs) has been recently challenged by suggesting a traumatic origin. We studied eight cases of traumatic neuroma (TN) and 12 cases of PEN by routine light-microscopic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical methods to assess evidence of previous tissue injury. Sections from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, trichrome, elastic, reticulin, Giemsa, colloidal iron (with and without hyaluronidase), and Bielschowsky silver stains. Antibodies were applied to collagen types I, III, and IV, MAC 387, factor XIIIa, alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), Leu-7, and myelin basic protein using ABC techniques. We found that (a) in TN the individual fascicles were usually surrounded by perineurial cells, whereas in PEN the perineurial cells were observed mainly in the capsular areas and only rarely within the fascicles as evidenced by EMA antibodies; (b) histochemically TN contained considerably larger amounts of collagen (types I and III), acidic mucin, and myelin products than did PEN; and (c) neither PEN nor TN contained increased inflammatory cells or cells positive for factor XIIIa, MAC 387, or A1AT. We conclude that (a) there are substantial structural and histochemical differences between TN and PEN, (b) the changes suggest that the classic form of PEN has a different histogenesis than TN, and (c) on histologic grounds, chronic minor trauma could not be excluded as an etiologic factor for PEN.

  12. Expression of osteogenic proteins during the intrasplenic transplantation of Meckel's chondrocytes: A histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ishizeki, Kiyoto; Kagiya, Tadayoshi; Fujiwara, Naoki; Otsu, Keishi; Harada, Hidemitsu

    2009-03-01

    Meckel's chondrocytes, derived from the ectomesenchyme, have the potential to transform into other phenotypes. In this study, we transplanted cell pellets of Meckel's chondrocytes into isogenic mouse spleens and analyzed their phenotypic transformation into osteogenic cells using histological and immunohistochemical methods. With the increasing duration of transplantation, chondrocytes were incorporated into splenic tissues and formed a von Kossa-positive calcified matrix containing calcium and phosphoric acid, similar to that of intact bone. Type I, II, and X collagens, and the bone-marker proteins osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteonectin, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were immunolocalized in the matrix formed by the transplanted chondrocytes. Osteopontin and osteonectin were detected in the calcified matrix at earlier stages than osteocalcin and BMP-2. Type II collagen was expressed during the first week of transplantation, and type X collagen-positive cells appeared scattered during the initial stage of calcification, these collagens being later replaced by type I collagen formed by osteocyte-like cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed that chondrocytes surrounded by the calcified matrix transformed into spindle-shaped osteocytic cells accompanying the formation of bone-type thick-banded collagen fibrils. These results suggest that phenotypic switching of Meckel's chondrocytes can occur under in vivo conditions at a cellular morphological level.

  13. Distribution of cardiac myosin isozymes in human conduction system. Immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kuro-o, M; Tsuchimochi, H; Ueda, S; Takaku, F; Yazaki, Y

    1986-01-01

    To determine the presence and distribution of cardiac myosin isozymes in the human conduction system, we performed an immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies CMA19 and HMC14, which are specific for myosin heavy chains of human atrial type (alpha-type) and ventricular type (beta-type), respectively. Serial frozen sections of human hearts were obtained from autopsy samples and examined by indirect immunofluorescence. Alpha-type was found in all myofibers of sinus node and atrio-ventricular node, and in 55.2 +/- 10.2% (mean +/- SD, n = 5) of the myofibers of ventricular conduction tissue, which consists of the bundle of His, bundle branches, and the Purkinje network. In contrast, beta-type was found in all myofibers of the atrio-ventricular node and ventricular conduction tissue, whereas almost all myofibers of the sinus node were unlabeled by HMC14. Although the number of ventricular myofibers labeled by CMA19 was small, the labeled myofibers were more numerous in the subepicardial region than in the subendocardial region. These findings show that the gene coding for alpha-type is expressed predominantly in specialized myocardium compared with the adjacent ordinary working myocardium. Images PMID:3511096

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Gomez, Enrique; Tamboli, Pheroze; Bondaruk, Jolanta E; Kamat, Ashish; Bassett, Roland; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2009-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon histologic type in the urinary bladder. We searched our surgical pathology files and identified 16 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The mean age of patients was 65.4 years (range, 41-77 years). All patients received transurethral resection of the bladder, which demonstrated pure squamous cell carcinomas. Seven patients had clinical evidence of tumor spreading out of the bladder (T4) and did not undergo radical cystectomy. The other 9 patients underwent cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. The cystectomy specimens revealed tumors invading muscularis propria (T2) (n = 4) or perivesical soft tissue (T3) (n = 5). Two patients also had metastasis to lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that squamous cell carcinoma cells were positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (n = 16) and for p53 (n = 11). For the 9 patients who received cystectomy, 5 patients were alive at a mean of 92.8 months (range, 59-128 months) and 4 patients died of disease at a mean of 24.0 months (range, 6-58 months). For the 7 patients who did not receive cystectomy, 6 died at a mean of 5.7 months (range, 3-9 months), and no follow-up was available for the remaining patient. In conclusion, squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder frequently presents at an advanced stage and is associated with enhanced expression of EGFR and p53.

  15. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of medullary bone calcification, with special reference to sulphated glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshio; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Hirata, Azumi; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Inoue, Miho; Kawai, Mariko; Ikegame, Mika

    2005-01-01

    Histochemical, immunohistochemical and electron energy-loss spectroscopic studies were performed to examine the relationship between sulphated glycosaminoglycans and medullary bone calcification using oestrogen-injected male Japanese quail. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans, detected by high iron diamine (HID) or HID-thiocarbohydrazide-silver protein (HID-TCH-SP) methods, were distributed throughout the matrix of medullary bone, some periphery and extending tips of the trabeculae stained weakly, and the globular structures at osteoid areas were exclusively positive for HID-TCH-SP stain. Immunohistochemistry identified keratan sulphate located in the globular structures at osteoid areas and calcified matrix, but chondroitin-4 sulphate and chondroitin-6 sulphate were not detected in the matrix. Using electron spectroscopic imaging, sulphur was determined to be localized in the globular structures. These results demonstrate that medullary bone matrix accumulates keratan sulphate in the globular structures, which are the foci for calcification, and eventually in the calcified areas. This suggests that keratan sulphate containing sulphur is maintained in the calcified matrix. These results indicate a unique process of calcification exists in medullary bone.

  16. Effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on phosphorylated CREB in rat cerebellum: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Casu, Maria Antonietta; Pisu, Carla; Sanna, Angela; Tambaro, Simone; Spada, Gabriele Pinna; Mongeau, Raymond; Pani, Luca

    2005-06-28

    Several converging lines of evidence indicate that drugs of abuse may exert their long-term effects on the central nervous system by modulating signaling pathways controlling gene expression. Cannabinoids produce, beside locomotor effects, cognitive impairment through central CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Data clearly indicate that the cerebellum, an area enriched with CB1 receptors, has a role not only in motor function but also in cognition. This immunohistochemical study examines the effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), the principal psychoactive component of marijuana, on the levels of phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the rat cerebellum. Acute treatments with delta9-THC at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg induced a significant increase of p-CREB in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, an effect blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A. Following chronic delta9-THC administration (10 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), the density of p-CREB was markedly attenuated compared to controls, and this attenuation persisted 3 weeks after withdrawal from delta9-THC. These data provide evidence for the involvement of cerebellar granule cells in the adaptive changes occurring during acute and chronic delta9-THC exposure. This might be a mechanism by which delta9-THC interferes with motor and cognitive functions.

  17. Sarcoglycan complex in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles of baboons: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cutroneo, G; Centofanti, A; Speciale, F; Rizzo, G; Favaloro, A; Santoro, G; Bruschetta, D; Milardi, D; Micali, A; Di Mauro, D; Vermiglio, G; Anastasi, G; Trimarchi, F

    2015-06-05

    The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status.

  18. The impact of black seed oil on tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity: Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Omar, Nesreen Moustafa; Mohammed, Mohammed Amin

    2017-06-01

    The natural herb, black seed (Nigella Sativa; NS) is one of the most important elements of folk medicine. The aim was to evaluate the impact of Nigella Sativa Oil (NSO) on the changes induced by tramadol in rat liver. Twenty four albino rats were used. given intraperitoneal and oral saline for 30days. TR-group: given intraperitoneal tramadol (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day) in the first, middle and last 10days of the experiment, respectively. TR+NS group: administered intraperitoneal tramadol in similar doses to TR-group plus oral NSO (4ml/kg/day) for 30days. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopic, biochemical and statistical studies were performed. TR-group displayed disarranged hepatic architecture, hepatic congestion, hemorrhage and necrosis. Apoptotic hepatocytes, mononuclear cellular infiltration and a significant increase in the number of anti-CD68 positive cells were observed. Ultrastructurally, hepatocytes showed shrunken nuclei, swollen mitochondria, many lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles. Activated Ito and Von Kupffer cells were also demonstrated. Elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin were noticed. NSO administration resulted in preservation of hepatic histoarchitecture and ultrastructure and significant reductions in the number of anti-CD68 positive cells and serum levels of liver seromarkers. In conclusion, NSO administration could mitigate the alterations induced by tramadol in rat liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Is the Wnt/β catenin signalling pathway activated in Seminoma?: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Guerra; Paul, Fisch; Laura, Jufe; Alejandra, Avagnina Marí; Gabriela, Mendeluk; Alberto, Palaoro Luis

    2016-01-01

    The loss of reduction of some adhesion molecules is associated with the invasive phenotype of carcinomas. The aim of this paper was to study the expression of some proteins related to the Wnt/β catenin signalling pathway in seminomas by immunohistochemical techniques in order to assess the contribution of this pathway to the tumoral development. Immunohistochemistry for E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin, C-Myc, cyclin D1 (CD1) and placental alkaline phosphatase. (PALP) was carried out in 24 archival tissue blocks of seminomas. Two cellular lines were used as E-cadherin and β-catenin controls. (JKT-1 and TCam-2). E-cadherin was positive in two seminomas and in one carcinoma in situ. (CIS), showing a membranous pattern. βcatenin was principally expressed in Sertoli cells, in some malignant gonocytes of CIS and in the membranes of seminomatous cells. No β-catenin immunostaining was detectable in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of neoplastic cells. Seminomas were weakly possitive for vimentin in 11/24 cases. None of the tumors displayed expression of C-Myc or CD1. The results does not indicate the activation of the Wnt pathway, due to the lack of vimentin expression in 13/24 seminomas, the low expression in the rest of the cases, the lack of β-catenin in nuclei and the absence of CD1 and C-Myc expression. Further work is needed to confirm these observations and to test other signaling pathways in seminomas.

  20. Immunohistochemical and Morphofunctional Studies of Skeletal Muscle Tissues with Electric Nerve Stimulation by In Vivo Cryotechnique

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Yuki; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Saigusa, Takeshi; Arita, Jun; Ohno, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphological and immunohistochemical alterations of skeletal muscle tissues during persistent contraction were examined by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT). Contraction of gastrocnemius muscles was induced by sciatic nerve stimulation. The IVCT was performed immediately, 3 min or 10 min after the stimulation start. Prominent ripples of muscle fibers or wavy deformation of sarcolemma were detected immediately after the stimulation, but they gradually diminished to normal levels during the stimulation. The relative ratio of sarcomere and A band lengths was the highest in the control group, but it immediately decreased to the lowest level and then gradually recovered at 3 min or 10 min. Although histochemical intensity of PAS reaction was almost homogeneous in muscle tissues of the control group or immediately after the stimulation, it decreased at 3 min or 10 min. Serum albumin was immunolocalized as dot-like patterns within some muscle fibers at 3 min stimulation. These patterns became more prominent at 10 min, and the dots got larger and saccular in some sarcoplasmic regions. However, IgG1 and IgM were immunolocalized in blood vessels under nerve stimulation conditions. Therefore, IVCT was useful to capture the morphofunctional and metabolic changes of heterogeneous muscle fibers during the persistent contraction. PMID:26019372

  1. Immunohistochemical and morphofunctional studies of skeletal muscle tissues with electric nerve stimulation by in vivo cryotechnique.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Yuki; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Saigusa, Takeshi; Arita, Jun; Ohno, Shinichi

    2015-04-28

    In this study, morphological and immunohistochemical alterations of skeletal muscle tissues during persistent contraction were examined by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT). Contraction of gastrocnemius muscles was induced by sciatic nerve stimulation. The IVCT was performed immediately, 3 min or 10 min after the stimulation start. Prominent ripples of muscle fibers or wavy deformation of sarcolemma were detected immediately after the stimulation, but they gradually diminished to normal levels during the stimulation. The relative ratio of sarcomere and A band lengths was the highest in the control group, but it immediately decreased to the lowest level and then gradually recovered at 3 min or 10 min. Although histochemical intensity of PAS reaction was almost homogeneous in muscle tissues of the control group or immediately after the stimulation, it decreased at 3 min or 10 min. Serum albumin was immunolocalized as dot-like patterns within some muscle fibers at 3 min stimulation. These patterns became more prominent at 10 min, and the dots got larger and saccular in some sarcoplasmic regions. However, IgG1 and IgM were immunolocalized in blood vessels under nerve stimulation conditions. Therefore, IVCT was useful to capture the morphofunctional and metabolic changes of heterogeneous muscle fibers during the persistent contraction.

  2. Isolated necrotizing arteritis of the female genital tract: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Francke, M L; Mihaescu, A; Chaubert, P

    1998-07-01

    Isolated necrotizing arteritis (INA) of the polyarteritis-nodosa type localized to the female genital tract is rare. Approximately 30 case reports have been published to date. Eleven additional patients are described here, all with a favorable follow-up. INA is usually localized in the uterine cervix, but, when multifocal lesions are present, the latter is almost always involved. Patients most frequently report menorrhagia or postmenopausal bleeding. With immunohistochemical studies, immune-complex deposits (IgM, IgG, and C'3) in 7 of 11 patients with INA of the female genital tract were demonstrated for the first time. The inflammatory cells were composed mainly of T-lymphocytes with macrophages and scarce B-lymphocytes also present. These results suggest that INA is primarily an immune complex-mediated disease, implicating humoral and cellular mediator systems. Possible pathogenetic factors of INA are immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, foreign materials (after cone biopsy or curettage), and cancers, or an autoimmune reaction against constituents of the vessel walls caused by tissue injury after local surgical intervention through in situ immune-complex formation.

  3. An immunohistochemical study of the inflammatory infiltrate associated with nasal carcinoma in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Vanherberghen, M; Day, M J; Delvaux, F; Gabriel, A; Clercx, C; Peeters, D

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the inflammatory infiltrate associated with nasal carcinoma in dogs and cats and to determine whether this differed between the two species or with different types of carcinoma. Sections from fixed tissue biopsy samples of intranasal carcinoma from 31 dogs and six cats were labelled immunohistochemically to detect expression of the T-lymphocyte marker CD3, class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC II), the myelomonocytic antigen MAC387 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM within the cytoplasm of plasma cells. All canine carcinomas were heavily infiltrated by MAC387(+) neutrophils, with smaller numbers of MAC387(+) macrophages. T cells were particularly prominent in the infiltrate associated with transitional carcinoma, and in such tumours were frequently mixed with MHC II(+) cells having macrophage or dendritic cell morphology. IgG(+) and IgA(+) plasma cells were detected at the peripheral margins of all types of canine carcinoma. In contrast, feline intranasal carcinoma was invariably associated with a marked infiltration of CD3(+) T cells. The feline tumour infiltrates contained sparse neutrophils and macrophages and few IgG(+) and IgA(+) plasma cells. These findings suggest that qualitatively different immune responses are induced in response to specific types of canine intranasal carcinoma, and that the canine and feline immune response to these neoplasms is also distinct.

  4. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of anterior pituitary cells in the female Afghan pika, Ochotona rufescens rufescens.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, F; Suzuki, Y; Yoshimura, F

    1986-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the anterior pituitary gland of the female Afghan pika was carried out to distinguish the ultrastructural features of GH, PRL, ACTH, TSH and LH cells. The histochemically identified GH cells resembled ultrastructurally oval or round GH cells of the rat laden with large, dense secretory granules. PRL cells were divided into three subtypes based on differences in the diameter of their spherical secretory granules. They lacked polymorphic or irregularly shaped secretory granules. ACTH cells resembled ultrastructurally, in some respects, Siperstein's "corticotrophs" of the rat with peripheral arrangement of secretory granules. However, they were not always stellate, but elongate or angular in shape. The dense secretory granules were concentrated in the peripheral area of cytoplasm. TSH cells were non-stellate, but usually oval in shape, containing the smallest spherical secretory granules (100-200 nm in diameter). Almost all LH cells reacted also with FSH antiserum. They were irregular in shape, sometimes in contact with or surrounded the GH cells. They contained an abundance of medium-sized secretory granules (140-260 nm in diameter) which were larger than those in the LH cells of the female rat throughout the estrous cycle. Large secretory granules in the LH cells of the female pika seemed to be related to the endocrine state of persistent estrus.

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Histologic and Immunohistochemical Study of Autopsy Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Terayama, Noboru; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Gabata, Toshifumi; Miyayama, Shiro; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Isao; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the histologic findings associated with stenosed and occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) tracts. Methods: Four TIPS tracts within three autopsy livers were histologically studied for vascular components by routine staining and immunohistochemical staining. TIPS had been performed for bleeding from esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Results: Two TIPS, examined on days 4 and 53, showed occlusion by fibrin thrombus. In the former, no endothelial cells were detected, but coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes was found in the surrounding liver. In the latter, bile pigments were seen on the luminal surface. In the two other TIPS without tract occlusion, examined on days 49 and 293, a layer of endothelial cells, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and deposition of an extracellular matrix such as collagen were confirmed. In the tract examined on day 293, there was protrusion of hepatocytes into the lumen through the stent wires. Conclusion: Short- and midterm TIPS occlusions were caused by thrombus forming after necrosis of hepatocytes and bile leakage, respectively. Long-term TIPS stenosis was associated with a combination of pseudointimal hyperplasia and ingrowth of hepatocytes.

  6. The quality of lactation studies including antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Hummels, Hazel; Bertholee, Daphne; van der Meer, Douwe; Smit, Jan Pieter; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review the quality of articles including antipsychotic use during breastfeeding. We used PubMed and Lactmed for the literature search. Furthermore, cross references were searched for additional studies. Of the 51 studies, only one olanzapine and one quetiapine study calculated the milk to plasma ratio (M:P ratio), the Absolute Infant Dose (AID), and the Relative Infant Dose (RID) correctly. In the remaining studies, at least one of the three endpoints was not determined properly. No correct endpoints were calculated in studies containing chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, clozapine, haloperidol, sulpiride, trifluoperazine, ziprasidone, zonisamide, and zuclopenthixol. This review investigated that there was a lack of information on the sampling methods of breast milk. Furthermore, the concentrations needed for the calculations of the three endpoints were mainly based on single measurements instead of at least five measurements during one dose interval. In many studies, the RID was not calculated correctly due to the fact that the RID was not normalized by the maternal weight or an average maternal weight of 70 kg was used as a standard. Except for two studies, most studies about the safety of antipsychotic use during lactation did not meet the criteria of the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines. Further research is mandatory to assess the safety of using antipsychotics while breastfeeding.

  7. Chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia: clinico-statistical, histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Dîrnu, Rodica; Secureanu, F A; Neamţu, Carmen; Totolici, B D; Pop, O T; Mitruţ, P; Mălăescu, D Gh; Mogoantă, L

    2012-01-01

    Chronic gastritis has a high incidence in adults, causing progressive destruction of glandular structures, favoring the development of gastric atrophy. The association of chronic gastritis with intestinal type metaplasia of gastric mucosa has a poor outcome as intestinal metaplasia is regarded as a precancerous lesion. Metaplasia is common in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and also heavy smokers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The study was conducted on a total of 1218 patients, aged between 5 and 90 years, who presented for dyspeptic disorders in the period 2007-2010 and were examined clinically and endoscopically. During the gastroscopic examination, fragments of gastric mucosa were collected for the histopathological study and for highlighting the H. pylori infection. For the histopathological study, the Hematoxylin-Eosin and PAS-Alcian Blue stains were performed, while for the immunohistochemical study the anti-TAG72 and anti-PCNA antibodies were used. A diagnosis of gastritis was established in 615 patients, representing approximately 50.5% of all cases. Most cases with gastritis were found in people of middle age. Gastritis was present in almost all age groups, from teenagers to the elders. Of the 615 cases of gastritis, urease test was positive in 353 patients, representing approximately 57.40% of all patients with gastritis. Histopathological examination identified the presence of intestinal metaplasia in 61.60% of patients with chronic gastritis, mostly complete metaplasia. PCNA immunohistochemistry revealed that cell proliferation processes are intensified in intestinal metaplasia. This study highlights the importance of chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and H. pylori infection in the etiopathogeny of gastric cancer.

  8. Cyclin D1 is a useful marker for soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor in children and adolescents: A comparative immunohistochemical study with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Magro, Gaetano; Brancato, Franca; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Alaggio, Rita; Parenti, Rosalba; Salvatorelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin D1 amplification and/or overexpression contribute to the loss of the regulatory circuits that govern G1-S transition phase of the cell cycle, playing pivotal roles in different human malignant tumors, including breast, colon, prostate cancer, lymphoma, melanoma and neuroblastoma. In vitro studies have shown that cyclin D1 is overexpressed in Ewing's sarcoma (EWS)/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (pPNET), but not in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Only a few immunohistochemical studies are available on cyclin D1 expression in EWS/pPNET, which confirmed its expression only in a limited number of cases. The aim of the present study was a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of the expression and distribution of cyclin D1 in a large series of pediatric/adolescent soft tissue EWS/pPNETs and rhabdomyosarcomas (both embryonal and alveolar subtypes) to assess its potential usefulness in their differential diagnosis. Notably cyclin D1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all cases (20/20) of EWS/pPNET, while it was lacked in all cases (15/15) of rhabdomyosarcomas. Immunohistochemical overexpression of cyclin D1 in EWS/pPNET is a novel finding which could be exploitable as a diagnostic immunomarker for this tumor. Although highly sensitive, cyclin D1 is not specific for EWS/pPNET, and thus it should not be evaluated alone but in the context of a wide immunohistochemical panel. Accordingly, we first emphasize that when pathologists are dealing with a small round blue cell tumor of soft tissues in pediatric/adolescent patients, a strong and diffuse nuclear expression of cyclin D1 is of complementary diagnostic value to CD99 and FLI-1 in confirming diagnosis of EWS/pPNET and in ruling out rhabdomyosarcoma.

  9. Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under Different Exposure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Risalde, María de los Ángeles; Moyano, Rosario; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Ángeles; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw), and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L) for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days). The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms. PMID:24406981

  10. A comparative immunohistochemical and immunophenotypical study on lymphocytes expression in patients affected by oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Guido; Viviano, Massimo; Chisci, Elettra; Chisci, Glauco; Picciotti, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology. OLP has many manifestations: reticular, erosive, atrophic, plaque like, papular, bullous, with unique etiopathogenetic working. The purpose of this study is to find a link between different clinical types of lichen and the alterations of lymphocytes on peripheral blood and oral mucosa. A total of 21 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was 53.82 years, between 31 and 78 years. OLP Diagnosis was afterwards confirmed by histopathology. Selected patients underwent to clinical evaluation, lesion characterization, incisional biopsy, samples histological analysis, peripheral blood collection. Blood specimens were submitted to cell count determination with differential, characterization of populations and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations using monoclonal antibodies in flow cytometry. Referring to the clinical presentation of lesions, patients were divided in two groups: red lesions (RL) and white lesions (WL) and compared with an age-matched control group. The results of the immunophenotypic study showed correlation between WL and the expression of CD19 lymphocytes (r = 0.693, P = 0.0005). The results of immunohistochemical study performed on histological specimens showed a significant correlation between RL group and expression of all lymphocyte tested (CD3 r = 0.722 P = 0.0002, CD4 r = 0.579 P = 0.0060, CD56 r = 0.513 P = 0.0173, CD8 r = 0.548 P = 0.0102). We assume there is the responsibility of the expression of lymphocytes, not only type but also as quantity, in determining RL or WL manifestation of OLP. Circulating lymphocytes may have a role, too. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2008-12-01

    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  12. Betacellulin in Chronic Periodontitis Patients With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.; Bilichodmath, Shivaprasad; Warad, Shivaraj B.; Ugale, Mahesh S.; Koregol, Arati C.; Bijjargi, Shobha C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The host immune response to bacterial dental plaque determines periodontal disease susceptibility by increasing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The Epidermal Growth Factor family cytokines stimulate proliferation and keratinization of cells in dermis and oral epithelium. Epidermal Growth Factor family consists of Amphiregulin, Betacellulin, Epiregulin, Epigen, Heparin binding Epidermal Growth Factor like growth factor and transforming Growth Factor-alpha. Aim The current study aimed to investigate expression of Betacellulin in chronic periodontitis patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and thereby assessing role of betacellulin in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Present study comprised of 90 participants, age ranges from 18 to 60-year-old, for the period of March 2010 to May 2011. Participants were categorized into three groups based Gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CA Loss). Group 1 consisted 30 individuals with clinically healthy periodontium, Group-2 consisted 30 individuals with GI>1, PD≥5 mm, and CA Loss>3 mm. Group-3 (Chronic Periodontitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus) consisted 30 with GI >1, PD≥5 mm, and CA Loss>3 mm. Immunohistochemical localization and quantification of Betacellulin was done in gingival tissue samples from all groups. Results Data showed expression of Betacellulin were higher in chronic periodontitis as compared to healthy. A positive correlation found in Betacellulin expression and Probing Depth in chronic periodontitis. Conclusion This footmark study impacts the role of Betacellulin in pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease which will help in exploration of novel immunotherapeutic strategies and immunological research activity in this field. PMID:26673371

  13. Gingival advanced glycation end-products in diabetes mellitus-associated chronic periodontitis: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zizzi, A; Tirabassi, G; Aspriello, S D; Piemontese, M; Rubini, C; Lucarini, G

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) seems to play an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM)-associated periodontitis; however, some aspects of this issue are still scarcely known, such as the expression of AGEs in type 1 DM-associated periodontitis and the clinical factors able to affect their accumulation. This study aimed to clarify these points by evaluating the expression of AGEs in DM-associated periodontitis. Sixteen systemically and periodontally healthy subjects and 48 subjects suffering from generalized, severe, chronic periodontitis (16 with type 1 DM, 16 with type 2 DM and 16 systemically healthy subjects) were studied clinically, periodontally and metabolically. The immunohistochemical expression of AGEs in gingival tissues was also evaluated. Subjects affected with type 1 DM presented a significantly higher percentage of AGE-positive cells than did subjects affected with type 2 DM, not only in the epithelium, but also in vessels and fibroblasts. A positive and significant correlation was found between gingival expression of AGEs and length of time affected with DM both in type 1 and type 2 DM; glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, body mass index and age did not correlate significantly with gingival AGEs in any of the classes of subjects studied. Gingival AGEs are increased in both type 1 and type 2 DM-associated periodontitis; however, the clinical parameter that determines their accumulation, and therefore their degree of influence on the development of DM-associated periodontitis, may be the duration of DM. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Immunohistochemical Study of MUC1 and MUC5AC Expression in Gall Bladder Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bhoge, Amit; Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Joshi, Avinash R; Gogate, Bageshri; Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Bhayekar, Pallavi

    2017-07-01

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers of mucin family are associated with various Gallbladder Lesions (GBLs). To study the distribution of GBL with respect to age and sex as well as to analyse the IHC profile of MUC1 and MUC5AC in GBLs and attempt correlation with clinical and histopathological findings. The present study was conducted over a period of six years. A technique of manual tissue array was employed for cases subjected to IHC using MUC1 and MUC5AC. Results were statistically analysed using software program "The Primer of Biostatistics 5.0". A total of 629 GBL were encountered. Out of 605 of non-neoplastic lesions, 32 (5.29%) expressed MUC1 while 515 (85.12%) cases expressed MUC5AC. Out of 24 cases of neoplastic GBL, 20 cases (83.33%) showed positivity for MUC1 and 9 cases (37.5%) were positive for MUC5AC. The rate of MUC1 expression was significantly higher in Gall Bladder Cancer (GBC) {18GB carcinoma (ca) +3 Carcinoma In Situ (CIS)} (85.71%) than chronic cholecystitis (4.71%). The positive rate of MUC5AC expression was significantly lower in GBC (28.57%) than chronic cholecystitis (87.19%). The percentage of cases showing MUC1 expression increased as the severity of disease progressed from hyperplasia to CIS. The percentage of cases showing MUC5AC expression decreased as the severity of disease progressed from hyperplasia to CIS. In this study, 96.18% cases were non neoplastic GBL of which chronic cholecystitis (87.77%) was predominant. 3.81% of the GBL constituted for neoplastic lesions of which 75% were GBC. MUC1 showed higher rates of expression in neoplastic GBL. MUC5AC showed higher rates of expression in non neoplastic GBL. Expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC might be closely related to pathogenesis of neoplastic and non neoplastic GBL.

  15. Two types of vascularisation of intramural uterine leiomyomata revealed by corrosion casting and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Walocha, Jerzy A; Miodoński, Adam J; Szczepański, Wojciech; Skrzat, Janusz; Stachura, Jerzy

    2004-02-01

    The blood supply of myomatous uteri collected upon autopsy was examined. The uterine vascular beds were perfused via afferent vessels with fixative followed by Mercox resin and corroded after polymerisation of the resin. The vascular casts thus obtained were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The vascular system of the uterine fibroids was also examined using immunohistochemical analysis (FVIII, factor VIII-related antigen).

  16. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of plasminogen and plasminogen activators in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Venning, V A; Wojnarowska, F; Cederholm-Williams, S

    1993-03-01

    Abnormalities of the cutaneous plasminogen/plasminogen activator system have been associated with acantholytic disorders, psoriasis, keratinocytes in culture, and epidermis in healing wounds. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible role of the plasmin/plasminogen protease system in lesion development in bullous pemphigoid (BP). Using polyclonal antibodies and a fluorescent technique, the immunohistochemical distribution of plasmin/plasminogen, fibrinogen and the plasminogen activators, urokinase (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), were studied in lesional and non-lesional skin from nine BP patients, one with linear IgA disease (LAD) and one with pemphigoid gestationis (PG). The distribution of the proteases was compared with that in normal skin (n = 4) and in suction blisters (n = 2). In normal skin, fibrinogen, tPA and uPA were absent from the epidermis and plasminogen was confined to the basal layer. Uninvolved BP skin was identical to controls. Focal areas of suprabasal plasminogen expression in the region of a blister was seen in 3/9 BP lesions and in 1/2 suction blisters. In 6/9 BP lesions and both uninvolved and lesional LAD and PG skin were identical to controls, and no suprabasal expression of plasminogen was present. These findings suggest that suprabasal plasminogen expression is unlikely to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of blister formation in BP as enhanced expression was not present in every case and the finding was not specific to BP, also occurring in a suction blister. Enhanced plasminogen expression rather may be a reflection of the processes of tissue repair.

  17. Clinico-pathologic, immunohistochemical, and TUNEL study in early cardiac allograft failure.

    PubMed

    Panizo-Santos, A; Lozano, M D; Distefano, S; Inogés, S; Pardo, J

    2000-01-01

    Early cardiac allograft failure (ECAF) was defined as acute allograft failure in the early transplant period. The aim of this study is to elucidate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics and the role of apoptosis in ECAF in nine patients. We reviewed preoperative clinical data and morphological data at the time of autopsy or retransplantation. We also performed TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry to study fibronectin and tubulin beta-II. The average recipient and donor age was 48 +/- 10.3 and 28 +/- 7.11 respectively. Seven patients died at a mean time of 26 hours. The remaining two patients underwent retransplantation and are alive. The mean cold ischemic time was 124. 1 +/- 44.5 minutes. No patient had a panel reactive antibody >15% and lymphocytic crossmatch was positive in one case. All cases had grade 2-3 of coagulative necrosis, which correlated positively with fibonectin accumulation in myocyte cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic tubulin loss (p < 0.05). TUNEL technique showed in all cases some degree of DNA strand breaks in cardiomyocytes. Endothelium DNA strand breaks were seen in seven cases. Patients transplanted because of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy had a significantly higher degree of DNA strand breaks in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02) than those transplanted because of ischemic cardiomyopathy. These results indicate that ECAF may be caused by ischemic-reperfusion damage to the donor heart assessed by myocyte coagulative necrosis, fibronectin accumulation in myocytes, tubulin loss, and DNA strand breaks of cardiomyocytes and endothelium. The use of a combination of these techniques might be appropriate in the diagnosis of ECAF in endomyocardial biopsies when it is suspected clinically.

  18. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Redder, C Pramod; Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Kandagal, V Suresh; Ingaleshwar, Pramod S.; Shetty, Sharan J.; Vibhute, Nupura

    2014-01-01

    Background: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP) and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. Materials and Methods: This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered <0.05. Results: In two types of lichen planus, erosive type (66.86%) showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%). Overall, P value was <0.001, which was statistically significant. It indicates that proliferation activity is more in erosive lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. Conclusion: PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type. PMID:25097640

  19. CD34, CD117, and Ki-67 expression in phyllodes tumor of the breast: an immunohistochemical study of 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Yvonne; Raza, Anwar; Hutchins, Brian; Chase, Donald; Garberoglio, Carlos; Chu, Peiguo; Weiss, Lawrence; Wang, Jun

    2011-04-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are biphasic lesions, comprising an epithelial component set within a neoplastic spindle-celled stroma. These tumors have been classified as benign, borderline, and malignant based on a combination of histological criteria, including stromal cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic rate, stromal overgrowth, and margin appearance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of CD34, CD117 (c-kit), and Ki-67 in PT of the breast and attempt to correlate the staining pattern with tumor grade by morphology. Immunohistochemical expression of CD117, CD34, and Ki-67 was studied on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue material from 33 cases of PT. Histologically, there were 21 benign, 6 borderline, and 6 malignant (high-grade) tumors. All 6 histologically malignant PTs were positive for CD117 (100%), but only 1 marked with CD34 (16.7%). Borderline PTs frequently coexpressed CD34 and CD117 (66.7%). The benign PTs, on the other hand, most commonly (52.4%) showed a CD34(+)/CD117(-) immunoprofile with 33.3% cases coexpressing the markers: that is, CD34(+)/CD117(+). Although most benign PTs (80.6%) showed a Ki-67 of <2%, a few cases showed slightly higher proliferation indices. This study indicates that CD34 and CD117 are differentially expressed in benign and malignant PTs. These markers, therefore, in combination, may be used as an adjunct to morphology in the subclassification of PTs.

  20. Ghrelin and obestatin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Alnema, Manar M; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile F; Ozercan, Hanifi I; Yildirim, Nezahat; Sahin, Ibrahim; Karaoglu, Aziz; Kilic, Nermin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ozercan, Mehmet R; Donder, Emir

    2010-06-01

    The underlying molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is poorly understood and appears to be controlled on many genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Obestatin and ghrelin, two recently discovered hormones, are co-expressed in endocrine cells. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunohistochemical features of OSCCs in relation to the tissue concentration of ghrelin and obestatin. The association between OSCC and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) status was also explored. The expression of ghrelin and obestatin was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoassay in oral biopsy specimens: 10 benign squamous epithelial cell samples, 10 microinvasive squamous cell carcinomas, and seven well-differentiated and seven poorly differentiated OSCCs. The presence of EBV was evaluated in these samples using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin in tissue homogenates were measured by RIA and ELISA, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas and benign tissue samples were positive for anti-EBV antibody, and obestatin and ghrelin were shown to be co-expressed in all stratified squamous epithelium samples. Expression of ghrelin and obestatin was decreased or absent in OSCCs in relation to the invasiveness of the carcinoma; ghrelin and obestatin levels in cancerous tissue homogenates were lower than in benign tissue homogenates. These results indicate that the concentrations and distribution of immunoreactive obestatin and ghrelin might be helpful in distinguishing OSCC from benign tumors. Maintaining normal levels of these hormones might be required for regulation of normal cell division. However, detailed studies will be required for better understanding of the complex mechanism of carcinogenesis relating to OSCCs.

  1. Peptidergic innervation in the cerebral blood vessels of the guinea pig: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Nakakita, K

    1990-11-01

    The distribution of peptidergic nerve fibers containing substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the cerebral arteries and veins of the guinea pig was studied using immunohistochemical techniques. The ultrastructure of these immunoreactive nerve terminals was also compared. The cerebral arteries were innervated by abundant peptidergic nerve fibers with characteristic running patterns, i.e., SP fibers in a meshwork, VIP and NPY fibers in a spiral fashion. Only CGRP fibers showed both meshwork and spiral patterns. In the cerebral veins, the abundant SP fibers innervated the cortical veins, deep cerebral veins, and dural sinuses. However, CGRP, VIP, and NPY fibers in extremely low density were noted merely in the cortical veins. Electron microscopic observations demonstrated that SP-immunoreactive nerve terminals existed apart from the arterial smooth muscle cells, while VIP- and NPY-immunoreactive nerve terminals adjoined them. As for CGRP nerve terminals, some existed close to the arterial smooth muscle cells, and others were found some distance from them. These morphological characteristics observed by light and electron microscopy suggest that SP fibers are not related directly to the vasomotor function, but VIP and NPY fibers are, and that CGRP fibers have a more complicated function. The distribution patterns of the peptidergic nerve fibers are consistent with the suggestion that vasomotor peptidergic fibers may function actively on cerebral arteries and passively on cerebral veins and that SP fibers regarded as sensory fibers may provide information regarding cerebral vascular conditions, innervating every part of both cerebral arteries and veins.

  2. An immunohistochemical study of metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma, phyllodes tumor and fibromatosis of the breast.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Barbara; Lee, Andrew H S; Pinder, Sarah E; Bell, Jane A; Ellis, Ian O

    2003-10-01

    The diagnosis of metaplastic (sarcomatoid) carcinoma (MSC) of breast often requires immunohistochemistry with a cytokeratin (CK) panel to distinguish them from phyllodes tumors (PT), primary sarcomas, and fibromatoses. CK staining may be heterogeneous in metaplastic carcinomas. The aim of the study was to investigate the theory that MSCs show evidence of myoepithelial differentiation and to evaluate immunohistochemical markers that may be helpful in distinguishing MSCs from PT and fibromatosis. We reviewed histology and performed immunohistochemistry for AE1/AE3, 34betaE12, CK5 and CK14, Cam5.2, CK7 and CK19, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (B55), smooth muscle actin (SMA), S100, desmin, vimentin, CD31, CD34, and bcl-2 on paraffin-embedded tissue from 18 MSCs, 26 PTs, and 8 fibromatoses. We assessed staining by using a semiquantitative method. Sarcomatous areas in MSCs were positive for 34betaE12 in 11 cases; for SMA in 10; for CK5 in 7; for CK14 in 6; for Cam5.2, AE1/AE3, and S100 in 5; and for CK7 and CK19 in 3. No CK expression was seen in stromal areas in PT or in fibromatoses. CD34 and bcl-2 were more frequently expressed in spindle cell areas in PTs (18 and 12 of 26, respectively) than in MSCs (0 and 2 of 18, respectively). MSCs show strong evidence of myoepithelial differentiation. CD34 and, to a lesser extent, bcl-2 positivity in PTs may be helpful in differentiating these two lesions from MSCs, particularly in small biopsies, because CK staining in MSCs may be heterogeneous. In our hands, 34betaE12 was the CK most frequently expressed in sarcomatoid areas in MSCs.

  3. Expression of Myofibroblasts in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, B Vikas; Kakatkar, Gauri S; Jain, Preet; Jain, Meetu; Patel, Maulik; Khan, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancy affecting the orafacial region and with a high mortality rate. The fact that stroma of the tumor modulates and facilitates the progression and metastasis of the malignancy has been shown in the past studies. The cells of the activated stroma that are responsible for the progression and metastasis of the tumor are the fibroblasts having smooth muscle properties. These myofibroblasts are said to secrete numerous inflammatory mediators and factors which are said to play a crucial role in tumor progression. Therefore, we evaluated the presence of myofibroblasts in OSCC, by immunohisto-chemistry using alpha smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) antibody. We evaluated a total of 50 biopsy specimens from the archives of the oral pathology, where 20 specimens out of 50 were of well-differentiated OSCC (WDOSCC), 20 were of poorly differentiated OSCC (PDOSCC), and 10 were of normal healthy controls. All the specimens were stained by immunohistochemically using with monoclonal antihuman α-SMA. Etemad-Moghadam et al method was used for assessing the myofibroblast distribution. Staining index was evaluated for the groups and compared. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The mean percentage of myofibroblasts score for WDOSCC and PDOSCC were 2.88 and 2.92 respectively. The mean staining intensity score in WDOSCC and PDOSCC were 2.88 and 2.55 respectively. Statistically significant results were obtained while comparing the final staining index score between the OSCC group and normal control group. No significant correlation could be obtained while comparing the mean staining index score in between WDOSCC and PDOSCC. Malignant epithelium might induce the adjacent stromal tissue to produce myofibroblasts. These specialized cells may be utilized as therapeutic targets for the treatment of OSCC. Proliferation of myofibroblasts may be used as a stromal

  4. Expression of iNOS and NF-κB in melasma: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Samaka, Rehab Monir; Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Shoeib, Mohamed Abd El Monaem; Zaaza, Marwa M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the pathogenesis of melasma through their immunohistochemical (IHC) co-localization in skin of melasma and to correlate their expression with the clinical and the histopathological data. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 34 female patients with melasma and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control group for evaluation of IHC expression of iNOS and NF-κB in melasma. There were significant differences between lesional and perilesional skin regarding iNOS intensity, iNOS histo-score (H-score), NF-κB intensity, and NF-κB H-score (p < 0.001 for all). There were significant associations between the higher values of H-scores for both iNOS and NF-κB and positive family history (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively) and very severe melasma areas and severity index score (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was a positive correlation between H-score values of both iNOS and NF-κB (r = +0.604 and p < 0.001). The IHC co-localization and direct correlation of both iNOS and NF-κB in melasma could provide evidence about their role as co-players in melanogenesis and might provide new targets for a more efficient treatment for melasma.

  5. Comparative immunohistochemical study of tissue integration of macroporous and laminar surgical meshes.

    PubMed

    Takács, Ildikó; Horváth, Szabolcs; Molnár, Ágnes; Gáspár, Sarolta; Hajós, Rebeka; Meczker, Ágnes; Kóbor, Péter; Lantos, János; Jávor, Szaniszló; Balatonyi, Borbála; Szekeres, György; Röth, Erzsébet; Wéber, György

    2011-07-01

    Intraperitoneal surgical mesh implantation is required for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. Composite meshes are well known in animal models and human practice. The aim of our study is to compare the biological behaviour of two different textured silicone-covered polypropylene meshes. Transmural abdominal wall defect was created in 40 rabbits and treated as follows: In 20 animals a polypropylene mesh with a laminar silicone covering (LSPP) and in the rest a macroporous textured mesh knitted of silicone-impregnated polypropylene filaments (MSPP) was applied. One and three weeks after implantation we evaluated the intraperitoneal adhesion formation of the mesh macroscopically, histologically and immunohistochemically to detect the reactive cells, especially inflammatory, endothelial and mesothelial cells, as well as their proliferative activity, and with Scanning Electron microscopy to visualize the surface of the meshes. The adhesion formation caused by the composites showed no statistical difference after one week although in the three weeks old samples the LSPP adhesion was significantly weaker than that of MSPP. As complications, serome formation in both groups, fistulas, abscesses, and sc. haematoma in the LSPP group were found. Only in MSPP containing tissues was the decrease of Ki-67 positive proliferating cells significant. A significant increase in VEGF expressing cells was observed only in MSPP containing three week old samples, suggesting better regulation of vascular growth in tissues surrounding the implants. In one week old specimens we observed an irregular proliferation of cytokeratin containing mesothelial cells in both group. The intraperitoneal surface of MSPP mesh was covered with neoperitoneum, while it was not regularly seen on LSPP mesh after three week.

  6. Immunohistochemical and functional studies on calcium-sensing receptors in rat uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Marc J; Petrik, James J; Holloway, Alison C; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2012-01-01

    1. Activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaS) leads to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. However, the role of CaS in uterine smooth muscle is unknown. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and function of CaS in the uterus. 2. The expression of CaS in the oestrogen-dominated rat uterus was investigated using immunohistochemistry. The effects of putative CaS ligands on oxytocin-induced contractions of longitudinally orientated uterine strips from oestrogen-dominated rats were determined at reduced extracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations using conventional organ bath techniques. 3. Immunohistochemical evidence showed the presence of CaS in the endometrium and smooth muscle layers of the rat uterus. Oxytocin-induced contractions were inhibited by cations (Gd³⁺ > Ca²⁺ = Mg²⁺), polyamines (spermine > spermidine) and the positive allosteric modulators cinacalcet and calindol. However (R)- and (S)-cinacalcet were equipotent, indicating a lack of stereoselectivity, and the negative allosteric modulator calhex-231 also caused dose-dependent relaxation. In addition, although intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and cytochrome P450-dependent signal transduction have been implicated in CaS-induced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, neither Tram-34 nor miconazole (1 μmol/L), which block these pathways, respectively, had any effect on the ability of cinacalcet to inhibit oxytocin-induced contractions. 4. Calcium-sensing receptors are expressed in smooth muscle layers of the rat uterus and their ligands produce potent relaxation of longitudinally orientated uterine strips. However, the pharmacological profile of inhibition of contractility by CaS ligands is not consistent with a role for CaS in the regulation of uterine contractility in the rat.

  7. Thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2013-08-01

    Twelve cases of thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation are presented. The patients were 7 men and 5 women aged between 45 and 68 years (average, 56.5 years). Clinically, the patients presented with nonspecific symptoms of chest pain, cough, and fatigue. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis or other autoimmune syndrome. Thymectomy was performed in all patients. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 7 cm in greatest diameter. Macroscopically, the tumors were described as firm and light tan without areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic change. Histologically, 7 tumors were classified as spindle cell (World Health Organization type A), 2 as mixed spindle cell and conventional (A+B1), 2 as conventional (B1), and 1 as atypical thymoma (B3). In 4 cases, the tumors showed invasion into periadipose thymic tissue. All cases showed the typical growth patterns of their particular subtypes. In addition, a distinct glandular component was present in all cases showing mucinous differentiation in 4 of them. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, and Pax8 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor 1, and epithelial membrane antigen. Calretinin showed focal weak staining in the nonmucinous glandular components in 3 cases. Follow-up information obtained in 8 patients showed that all were alive and well in a period ranging from 2 to 5 years. The possibility of a glandular component in thymomas should be kept in mind in the assessment of mediastinoscopic biopsies to avoid misdiagnosis for other neoplasms that may require different treatment modalities.

  8. Pure (non-papillary) serous cystadenoma of the epididymis: a histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pich, Achille; Galliano, Diego

    2005-01-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with painless right scrotal swelling of 2 years duration. A cystic tumor strictly attached to the head of the epididymis was surgically resected. The pathologic examination revealed a unilocular cyst with a thin fibrous capsule, lined by ciliated cubical or cylindrical columnar cells, mostly arranged in a single layer. No papillary projection could be detected. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for epithelial membrane antigen, low- and high molecular weight cytokeratins, progesterone receptor, vimentin, and S-100 protein, but was negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, CD10, p53 protein, and calretinin. Single MIB-1 positive cells were noted. Histologic and immunohistochemical features suggest a Müllerian origin or differentiation. The lesion was diagnosed as pure serous cystadenoma of the epididymis, possibly originating from vestigial remnants of the Müller duct in male. The differential diagnosis to spermatocele and adenomatoid tumor of the epididymis is discussed.

  9. Cardiac myxoma with glandular elements: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of five new cases with an emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghui; Ding, Li; Liu, Yanhui; Xue, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported five new cases of cardiac myxoma with glandular components, known as glandular cardiac myxoma. The goals of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of this disease and to explore new features for differential diagnosis. The patient series included three women and two men. All tumors were located in the left atrium without invasion of the adjacent myocardium. Patients presented with cardiac-related or embolization symptoms. Histologically, neoplasms consisted of well-formed glandular structures and typical myxoma areas. No nuclear atypia, mitosis, or necrosis was identified in the glandular structures. Glandular lining cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CAM5.2 and cytokeratin 7, but were negative for some organ-specific markers, such as thyroid transcription factor-1, calretinin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein, prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeobox 2. In conclusion, glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare disease which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma. Because of its rarity, glandular cardiac myxoma must be distinguished from adenocarcinoma metastatic to the heart. The combination of histopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles should improve the diagnostic accuracy of glandular cardiac myxoma.

  10. Primary epithelioid sarcoma of the kidney and adrenal gland: report of 2 cases with immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Mir B; Pease, Garrison; Watkin, William; Grogan, Raymon; Krausz, Thomas; Antic, Tatjana

    2017-03-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm with some morphologic or immunophenotypic evidence of epithelial differentiation. The "classic" subtype occurs in younger patients, often in distal extremities as compared with the "proximal" type. Tumors of the proximal type primarily arising in solid organs are rare with only few case reports in the literature. We report 2 cases of primary ES in the kidney of a 27-year-old woman and the adrenal gland of a 73-year-old man. Clinical examination and imaging, including computed tomography and positron-emission tomography, did not reveal tumor elsewhere in both cases. Histologic features were those of ES, proximal type with epithelioid/rhabdoid phenotype. Immunohistochemical study in both cases showed strong, diffuse expression of epithelial markers, CD34, and CD31. Nuclear expression of SMARCB1 protein was lost, but fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was negative for SMARCB1 deletion. We believe that these are the first reports of primary kidney and adrenal gland ES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The postulated mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer: Histological and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Salah Khalil, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    There are many available drugs for treating gastric ulcer, but they have various side effects. Ginger is a folk, herbal medicine, which is used for treatment of various diseases including gastric ulcer. This study investigates the possible mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into four groups (10 animal per each group) and orally received the followings once daily for 5 days: Group I: 3 ml of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose; Group II: ginger powder (200 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 mL of 1% carboxymethylcellulose; Group III: aspirin (400 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 ml of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in water. Group IV: ginger and 30 minutes later, received aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose, in similar doses as received in groups II and III. On day 6, rats were sacrificed. The animals were anesthetized and the stomach was removed for the macroscopic, histological (Haematoxylin & Eosin and Periodic Acid Shiff) and immunohistochemical investigations (Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase and heat shock protein 70). Aspirin induced a significant increase of the macroscopic ulcer score, shed and disrupted epithelium, mucosal hemorrhage, submucosal edema and leukocyte infiltration, loss of the mucus of the mucosal surface significantly increased expression of apoptosis regulator Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Ginger ameliorated the histological changes by reducing Bax and iNOS and increasing HSP70 expressions.

  12. Cellular localization of aquaporins along the secretory pathway of the lactating bovine mammary gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Ali; Kendall, Bryony Heather; Maxwell, Judith Elizabeth Joan; Sawran, Ami Veronica; German, Alexander James; Marples, David; Luck, Martin Richard; Royal, Melissa Dawn

    2011-02-01

    In this study we examined the cellular localization of aquaporins (AQPs) along the secretory pathway of actively lactating bovine mammary glands using immunohistochemistry. Mammary tissues examined included secretory ducts and acini, gland cisterns, teats, stromal and adipose tissues. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) was localized in capillary endothelia throughout the mammary gland in addition to myoepithelial cells underlying teat duct epithelia. AQP2 and AQP6 were not detected and AQP9 was found only in leukocytes. AQP3 and AQP4 were observed in selected epithelial cells in the teat, cistern and secretory tubuloalveoli. AQP5 immunopositivity was prominent in the cistern. AQP3 and AQP7 were found in smooth muscle bundles in the teat, secretory epithelial cells and duct epithelial cells. These immunohistochemical findings support a functional role for aquaporins in the transport of water and small solutes across endothelial and epithelial barriers in the mammary gland and in the production and secretion of milk. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Glutathione S-transferase (placental) as a marker of transformation in the human cervix uteri: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, B. J.; Angus, B.; Akiba, R.; Hall, A.; Cattan, A. R.; Proctor, S. J.; Jones, R. A.; Horne, C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Using an indirect immunohistochemical technique on paraffin sections, employing a polyclonal antibody to the acidic (placental) form of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), we have evaluated cytoplasmic and nuclear staining in a series of 67 cervical biopsies including normal non neoplastic tissue, immature squamous metaplasia, all grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive carcinomas of keratinising and non-keratinising types. No differences in cytoplasmic staining between the varied lesions studied were seen. However, there were marked differences in nuclear staining. While normal non-neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium showed weak staining of the lower one-third of the epithelium only, in immature squamous metaplasia and in all grades of CIN there was intense nuclear staining in all layers of the epithelium. Invasive carcinomas showed generally less intense nuclear staining than CIN lesions. Endocervical cell nuclei also showed intense nuclear staining. These findings indicate that GST is of limited use as a marker of transformation in the human cervix uteri. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2223578

  14. Retinoblastoma protein in human breast carcinoma: immunohistochemical study using a new monoclonal antibody effective on routinely processed tissues.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J J; Tiniakos, D G; McIntosh, G G; Autzen, P; Henry, J A; Thomas, M D; Reed, J; Horne, G M; Lennard, T W; Angus, B; Horne, C H

    1996-09-01

    Cyclic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) has been found to play a central role in the progression of the normal cell cycle, through modulation of the activity of the E2F family of transcription factors. Mutations of the retinoblastoma gene have been described in a wide variety of human malignancies including carcinomas of the breast. The present investigation reports the production and application of a new monoclonal antibody in an immunohistochemical study of pRB expression in 233 primary breast carcinomas, allowing an assessment of the contribution made by this tumour suppressor gene to tumour development and progression. Overall, there was loss of pRB expression in 21 per cent of breast tumours. Although high-grade tumours were found to lack detectable pRB more frequently than low-grade tumours, the difference did not prove statistically significant. In addition, pRB immunostaining was not related significantly to relapse or survival. No significant correlations were observed between apparent loss of pRB and tumour size, parity, patient lymph-node status, p53, c-erbB-2, c-jun, EGFR or steroid hormone receptor expression. Preliminary findings, however, did suggest a relationship between pRB expression and response to endocrine therapy.

  15. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in brain tumors, and its prognostic role in ependymomas: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, D; Chiò, A; Giordana, M T; Pezzulo, T; Vigliani, M C

    1993-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin is currently often investigated immunohistochemically in tumors as a marker of cell proliferation, but many problems remain open concerning its reliability as a prognostic factor. PCNA has been studied in a series of 123 brain tumors using the monoclonal antibody PC10. A clear intra- and inter-tumor variability of PCNA-positive nuclei has been found, but taking into account the tumor areas with the highest number of positive nuclei, a positive correlation between this number and the histological malignancy of tumors has been demonstrated. The staining intensity of nuclei was variable; very-intensely positive nuclei, counted separately, are hypothesized to represent nuclei in S-phase of the cell cycle. In ependymomas the investigation included a quantitative statistical analysis. The number of PCNA-positive nuclei correlated with cell density and mitotic index, but only very intensely positive nuclei showed a significant statistical correlation with survival. In spite of the many possibilities of wrong interpretation of PCNA expression, the most important of which is its deregulation, the method is useful in the practice for prognostic purposes. Its important advantages are the possibility of a retrospective application and a visual analysis of the proliferation potential of tumors.

  16. Developmental profile of neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengbo; Zhang, Junfeng; Shi, Hangyu; Zhang, Jianshui; Xu, Xi; Xiao, Xinli; Liu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Hippocampus has attracted the attention of the neuroscientists for its involvement in a wide spectrum of higher-order brain functions and pathological conditions, especially its persistent neurogenesis in subgranular zone (SGZ). The development of hippocampus was intensively investigated on animals such as rodents. However, in prenatal human hippocampus, little information on the distribution of neural stem/progenitor cells, newly generated neurons and mature neurons is available and the timetable of a series of neurogenesis event is even more obscure. So in the present study, we aim at immunohistochemically providing more information on neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks of gestation. We found that the ki67-positive cells were always detected in hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks, with a peak at 9 weeks in cornu ammonis (CA) or 14 weeks in dentate gyrus (DG). At 9 weeks the nestin-expressing cells were distributed throughout the hippocampus, with concentrated immunoreactivity in intermediate zone (IZ), marginal zone (MZ), fimbria, and relatively sparse immunoreactivity in the ventricular zone (VZ) and hippocampal plate (HP). With development, the optical density (OD) and the number of nestin-positive cells decreased gradually. At 32 weeks, there were relatively more nestin-positive cells in DG than that in CA. About DCX-positive cells, they displayed a similar distribution as nestin-positive cells (immunoreactivity concentrated in IZ, MZ, fimbria and HP) and a dramatic decrease of OD or cell number density from 9 weeks on. NeuN-positive cells, with small nuclei, were firstly found in MZ and subplate of hippocampus at 9 weeks. After 14 weeks, many NeuN-positive cells extended from subplate into HP and the density of NeuN-positive cells peaked at 22 weeks. That the immunoreactivity for NeuN was the strongest and the nuclei were the biggest at 32 weeks suggests that the neurons reach maturity gradually. Therefore this study provides

  17. Intralymphatic granulomas as a pathogenic factor in cheilitis granulomatosa/Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome: report of a case with immunohistochemical and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    González-García, Carmen; Aguayo-Leiva, Ingrid; Pian, H; Fernández-Guarino, Montserrat; Jaén-Olasolo, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis, an uncommon immunologically mediated disorder, includes cheilitis granulomatosa and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. It is clinically characterized by recurrent or persistent swelling of the orofacial tissues with a spectrum of other orofacial features and sometimes with neurological symptoms. The pathological findings are varied but are often characterized by the presence of noncaseating granuloma. We present a new case of orofacial granulomatosis with unusual histopathological findings, namely, intralymphatic granulomas. These may be the cause of the tissue edema. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemical studies, the lymphatic nature of the vessels affected by the granulomatous process.

  18. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the omasum of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, E; Franco, AJ; Masot, AJ

    2005-01-01

    The red deer is an important study species because of its value in the national economy and because it provides a wealth of genetic material. To date, there has been little research into the prenatal development of the stomach of ruminants, and none of the red deer. We therefore performed a histological evaluation of the ontogenesis of the omasum in the red deer. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of deer from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. For test purposes, the animals were divided into five experimental groups: Group I (1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length, CRL; 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation); Group II (4.5–7.2 cm CRL; 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation); Group III (8–19 cm CRL; 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation); Group IV (21–33 cm CRL; 142–191 days, 50–70% of gestation); and Group V (36–40 cm CRL; 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation). At 67 embryonic days, the omasum wall was differentiated, and comprised three layers: the epithelial layer, pluripotential blastemic tissue and serosa. The stratification of the epithelial layer was accompanied by changes in its structure, with the appearance of four laminae of different sizes; in order of appearance these were: primary at 67 days, secondary at 90 days, tertiary at 97 days and quaternary at 135 days. At around mid-gestation, lateral evaginations were formed from the stratum basale of the primary and secondary smaller laminae. These were the primitive corneum papillae. From 205 days, the corneum papillae were present in all four sizes of laminae. The histodifferentiation of the lamina propia-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa showed patterns of development similar to those reported for the rumen and reticulum of red deer. The omasum of red deer during prenatal life, especially from 67 days of gestation, was shown to be an active structure with full secretory capacity. Its histological development, its secretory

  19. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Masot, A J; Franco, A J; Redondo, E

    2007-01-01

    The red deer is well suited to scientific study, given its economic importance as an animal to be hunted, and because it has a rich genetic heritage. However, there has been little research into the prenatal development of the stomach of ruminants in general, and none for the red deer. For this reason, we undertook histological evaluation of the ontogenesis of the abomasum in red deer. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. The animals were divided for test purposes into five experimental groups: group I [1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length (CRL); 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation]; group II (4.5–7.2 cm CRL; 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation); group III (8–19 cm CRL; 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation); group IV (21–33 cm CRL; 142–191 days, 50–70% of gestation) group V (36–40 cm CRL; 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation). In the organogenesis of the primitive gastric tube of red deer, differentiation of the abomasum took place at 67 days, forming a three-layered structure: the epithelial layer (pseudostratified), pluripotential blastemic tissue and serosa. The abomasal wall displayed the primitive folds of the abomasum and by 97 days abomasal peak areas were observed on the fold surface. At 135 days the abomasal surface showed a single mucous cylindrical epithelium, and gastric pits were observed in the spaces between abomasal areas. At the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands could be observed. The histodifferentiation of the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa showed patterns similar to those described for the forestomach of red deer. The abomasum of red deer during prenatal life, especially from 67 days of gestation, was shown to be an active structure with full secretory capacity. Its histological development, its secretory capacity (as revealed by the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides) and its

  20. Immunohistochemical Expression of Cyclin B1 in Epithelial Hyperplasia, Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas - A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Kochli Channappa; Tayaar, Amsavardani; Kumar, G S; Krishnapillai, Rekha; Hallikeri, Kaveri; Hunasgi, Santosh

    2016-09-01

    Cyclin B1 is important in the cell cycle progression from G2 to M phase. Cyclin B1 binds to CDC2, which then becomes dephosphorylated and gets relocated to the nucleus, ensuring the transition toward mitosis. Over expression of Cyclin B1, has been reported more recently in breast, colon, prostate, oral and esophageal carcinomas. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the expression of Cyclin B1 in hyperplasia, dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCC). A total of 64 histopathologically diagnosed cases of epithelial hyperplasias, dysplastic oral epithelium and OSCC were included in the study. Immunohistochemical procedure was carried out using the monoclonal mouse Cyclin B1 antibody (Clone V-152). The Cyclin B1 positive tumor cells counted were expressed as percentage of positive tumor cells. Nuclear and cytoplasmic labeling index (n&cLI) were calculated. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test- One Way ANOVA and Mann Whitney U- test. Combined n&cLI was considered only in 28.57% of epithelial hyperplasias, 40.7% of oral epithelial dysplasias and 72% of OSCC showed over expression of Cyclin B1 with p value being 0.029. Cyclin B1 expression was not significantly different between the grades of dysplasia, between the grades of OSCC and between the marginal groups. The present study demonstrates more than 50% of the study group showing less than 20% of nuclear staining. The importance of such variations within a type of lesion requires further investigation, since Cyclin B1 has proved useful in many studies from esophageal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma as a prognostic indicator, an indicator of recurrence and as an indicator for tumor sensitivity to radiotherapy. Further studies are to be extended towards evaluating the role of Cyclin B1 as a prognostic indicator.

  1. Immunohistochemical Expression of PCNA and CD34 in Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas Using Specified Automated Cellular Image Analysis System: A Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban J.; Ali, Hussam H.; Hussein, Alaa G.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD34 in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, and to correlate this expression with different clinicopathologic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was retrospectively designed. A total of 86 tissue samples, including 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenomas, 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, and a control group of 20 samples of nontumerous colonic tissue, were included in the study. From each block, 3 sections of 5 ΅m thickness were taken, 1 section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and the other 2 sections were stained immunohistochemically for PCNA and CD34. Scoring of the immunohistochemical staining was performed using a specified automated cellular image analysis system (Digimizer). Results: PCNA expression was significantly increased in a sequence of normal mucosa–adenoma–carcinoma. It was significantly higher in adenomas ≥ 1 cm and those with severe dysplasia, and it showed a significant positive correlation with grade and lymph node involvement in colorectal carcinoma. CD34 showed significantly higher expression in carcinoma than adenoma and in adenoma than in the control group. CD34 expression showed a significant correlation with adenomas carrying severe dysplasia and large-sized adenomas (≥1cm). It was significantly correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node involvement in colorectal carcinoma. Conclusion: PCNA plays an important role in colorectal neoplastic progression and can be utilized as ancillary marker for the risk of malignant transformation in colorectal adenomas as it correlates with high grade dysplasia and size. Intratumoral quantification of the mean (A and N) of CD34 in colorectal carcinoma reflects the grade of tumors and can predict lymph node involvement and lymphovascular invasion, to make a useful additional prognostic

  2. [An immunohistochemical study of the proliferating activity of ameloblastic fibroma and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Takata, T; Wang, L; Zhou, Z; Wu, L; Zhao, M; Nikai, H

    1998-12-01

    Six cases of ameloblastic fibroma (AF) and three cases of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) were immunohistochemically investigated with a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) monoclone antibody. Data on the PCNA labeling index (LI) of both epithelial and mesenchymal components were analyzed. The results showed that the PCNA LI of mesenchymal component of AFS (40.8%) was significantly higher than that of AF (3.2%) (P < 0.01) and that of the epithelial component of AFS (5.3%) was significantly lower than that of the mesenchymal one of AFS (P < 0.01). The results suggested that PCNA LI be a useful marker for the differentiation diagnosis of AF and AFS.

  3. Evaluation of the Role of ALDH1 as Cancer Stem Cell Marker in Colorectal Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Aiad, Hayam Abd-El-Samie; Asaad, Nancy Yousif; Elkhouly, Enas Abobakr; Lasheen, Ayat Gamal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal Carcinoma (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. Stem Cells (SC) may be involved in tumour growth, including colon cancer. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is a detoxifying enzyme that might modulate SC proliferation. Aims To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1 as stem cell marker in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 71 colorectal specimens (49 colorectal carcinoma, 13 adenoma and 9 normal cases) that were collected from Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University during the period from 2011 to 2015. All cases were stained by ALDH 1 antibody. Survival data were available for 31cases. Results There was a statistical significant association between epithelial positivity of ALDH1 and younger age (p=0.003), right sided tumour (p=0.038), presence of lymph node invasion (p= 0.04), ulcerating gross picture (p=0.01) and presence of vascular invasion (p=0.05). Moreover, there was statistical significant association between stromal positivity of ALDH1 and smaller tumour size (p=0.03) and inverse association between stromal expression of ALDH1 and grade of tumour (p=0.000) and perineural invasion (p= 0.05). Furthermore, there was an inverse significant relation between CD44 and ALDH1 expression (p=0.001). Univariate recurrence free survival analysis revealed the bad prognostic impact of high grade (p=0.03) and female sex (p=0.02) on patient outcome. Conclusion Epithelial expression of ALDH1 might be associated with poor prognosis while its stromal expression might be associated with good prognosis. PMID:28273973

  4. MCM3 could be a better marker than Ki-67 for evaluation of dysplastic oral lesions: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lameira, Aladim Gomes; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Guimarães, Douglas Magno; Alves, Ana Carolina Garcia; de Jesus, Adriana Souza; Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Pinto, Décio Dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the expression of MCM3, Ki-67 and p27 in normal mucosa, leucoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and determine whether altered expression could serve as a prognostic marker of a malignant progression of dysplastic lesions. The samples were collected from 37 patients with oral leucoplakia (13 with mild dysplasia - MLD, 12 with moderate dysplasia - MD and 12 with severe dysplasia - SD). Eleven samples of mouth floor mucocele (M) and 50 floor mouth and tongue samples OSCC of untreated patients were included in this study. Immunohistochemical expression of MCM3, Ki-67 and p27 of all the groups was analysed. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test were used to determine differences among groups, and a Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation between the proteins. Ki-67 expression was higher in OSCC than M (P < 0.001) and MLD (P < 0.01) groups, and there was a lower expression in M compared with MD and SD (P < 0.05). Regarding p27, its expression was lower in OSCC compared with M, MD and SD. MCM3 expression was lower in M compared with SD and OSCC (P < 0.001), and MLD showed a lower expression when compared SD (P < 0.01) and OSCC (P < 0.001). Moreover, a better correlation was observed between the proteins MCM3 and p27 than between Ki-67 and p27 proteins when all lesions were examined together. This study showed that MCM3 could be a better marker than Ki-67 for evaluation of dysplastic oral lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Respiratory immunohistochemical study in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Karla Luciana; Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Evaristo, Thaiane Cristine; Cataneo, Antônio José Maria

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of exposure to cigarette and alcohol on immunohistochemical disorders caused by these attacks to respiratory system of rats. Sixty male Wistar rats in four groups: control, cigarette smoke, alcohol and cigarette smoke + alcohol during 260 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed by researching survivin and protein P53 expressions and apoptotic index in parenchymal lung and trachea using TUNEL technique. There was body growth impairment in all experimental groups. Both smoker groups animals had higher trachea survivin expression and bronchial higher apoptotic index. The trachea apoptotic index was also higher in the cigarette smoke group as well as in the alveoli in the cigarette smoke + alcohol group. The three experimental groups showed negative immunoexpression for P53. this model resulted in immunohistochemical changes caused mainly by exposure to cigarette smoke. There was a synergistic action between alcohol and tobacco in the growth impairment in animals as well as in the cellular apoptotic index. The positive immunoexpression for tracheal survivin in animals from both groups exposed to tobacco smoke and associated with a negative P53 immunoexpression suggests that despite the aggression, carcinogenesis has not happened yet. In addition, the bronchial higher apoptotic index in smokers may be responsible for emphysema.

  6. Novel morphological study of solar lentigines by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tessin; Tahira, Makoto; Morino, Shinichi; Horie, Takashi; Adachi, Koji; Tsutsumi, Reiko; Yamada, Nanako; Yoshida, Yuich; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Solar lentigines (SL) are hyperpigmented lesions generally seen in elderly people. Their pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated. We examined 75 cases of SL using routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry. In addition, seven cases were evaluated by electron microscopy. Histopathologically, we observed vacuolar changes in the dermoepidermal junction in 85% of the cases. Dermal melanophages were seen in 77% of the cases. The immunohistochemical expression rates in the epidermis for cytokeratin (CK)15, CK14, CK10, p63 and nestin were 76%, 100%, 100%, 100% and 17%, respectively. In 58 cases showing dermal melanophages, expression rates of CD163 and factor XIIIa on melanophages were 79% and 83%, respectively. Double positivity for both proteins was identified in 44 cases (75%). Ultrastructurally, vacuolar structures were seen in the cytoplasm of basal cells and upper dermis in all cases examined. We observed elimination processes of damaged basal keratinocytes, which were probably produced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, into the papillary dermis. The segregated damaged cell bodies containing melanin granules seemed to be phagocytosed by poorly immunostimulatory macrophages labeled immunohistochemically by CD163 and factor X IIIa, contributing to prolonged pigmentation of SL. In addition, repeated basal keratinocyte damages may be in association with altered CK and p63 expression patterns in the constituent cells of SL.

  7. [Primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an immunohistochemical and prognostic study of 90 cases].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Min, Min; Bi, Cheng-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-You; Zhao, Sha; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2011-04-01

    To study the immunophenotype and prognostic significance of primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with reference to Hans, Choi and Tally algorithms. The clinicopathologic features and follow-up data in 90 cases of primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, Log-rank test and Cox regression model. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using EliVision and EnVision methods for CD20, CD3ε, CD10, bcl-6, MUM-1, CD5, bcl-2, GCET1, FOXP1, LMO2, BLIMP1 and Ki-67. The age of patients ranged from 27 to 83 years (mean = 58 years). The male-to-female ratio was 1.31:1. Amongst the 90 cases studied, 64.4% (58/90) involved the stomach and 35.6% (32/90) involved the intestine. The immunohistochemical findings were as follows: 100% positivity for CD20, 0% for CD3ε and CD5, 17.8% (16/90) for CD10, 75.6% (68/90) for bcl-6, 52.2% (47/90) for MUM-1 (cut off was 30%), 43.3% (39/90) for MUM-1 (cut off was 80%), 50.0% (45/90) for GCET1, 45.6% (41/90) for FOXP1, 23.3% (21/90) for LMO2, 42.2% (38/90) for bcl-2 and 8.9% (8/90) for BLIMP1. The Ki-67 index ranged from 20% to 95% (median = 80%). According to Hans algorithm, 51.1% of the cases belonged to germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype and 48.9% belonged to non-GCB subtype. In contrast, Choi algorithm classified 55.6% cases as GCB subtype and 44.4% as activated B-cell (ABC) subtype. According to Tally algorithm, 34.4% were of GCB subtype and 65.6% of non-GCB subtype. Most of the patients (67.8%, 61/90) received chemotherapy and 68.9% (62/90) underwent surgical resection. The overall 2, 3 and 5-year survival rates were 58.5%, 52.8% and 49.8%, respectively. The overall 2, 3 and 5-year survival rates in the CHOP therapy group were 68.5%, 61.2% and 52.9%, respectively. There is no significant difference in ratio between the GCB and non-GCB/ABC subtypes by Hans and Choi algorithms. The non-GCB subtype seems to be more prevalent according to Tally algorithm. Although there is no

  8. Postnatal maturation of the gastrointestinal tract: a functional and immunohistochemical study in the guinea-pig ileum at weaning.

    PubMed

    Abalo, Raquel; Vera, Gema; Rivera, Antonio José; Moro-Rodríguez, Ernesto; Martín-Fontelles, María Isabel

    2009-12-25

    Gastrointestinal motility is mainly controlled by the myenteric plexus. The longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparation from the guinea-pig ileum is the best characterised adult gastrointestinal preparation; it has also been studied in old and neonatal animals, but not at weaning, when milk is substituted with the food typical of adult animals. We used LMMP preparations from weanling and adult guinea-pigs to study different functional parameters and immunohistochemically identified subpopulations of myenteric neurones, including the excitatory motor neurones to the longitudinal muscle (LM-EMN). Excitatory stimuli (low-frequency electrical stimulation, acetylcholine, substance P, and naloxone in morphine-tolerant preparations) produced similar responses in weanling and adult guinea-pigs. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, but not the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 or the opioid morphine, inhibited the electrically stimulated twitches less efficaciously, and in vitro tolerance to morphine was also lower in weanling compared to adult animals. The packing densities of the calbindin-immunoreactive neurones (sensory neurones) and of neurones immunoreactive to both calretinin (CR) and neurofilament triplet protein (NFT; ascending interneurones) were slightly but significantly lower in weanling animals, whereas those of the neurones immunoreactive to CR but not NFT (LM-EMN) or immunoreactive to nitric oxide synthase (mainly inhibitory motor neurones) were comparable to the adult. Although guinea-pigs are relatively mature and can even ingest solid food at birth, their myenteric plexus is still not fully mature at the standard time of weaning. The nutritional, behavioural and environmental changes associated with weaning may be essential to attain full maturation of the myenteric plexus and gastrointestinal motility.

  9. The human neurosecretory neurones under perinatal hypoxia: a quantitative immunohistochemical study of the supraoptic nucleus in autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Pagida, M A; Konstantinidou, A E; Malidelis, Y I; Ganou, V; Tsekoura, E; Patsouris, E; Panayotacopoulou, M T

    2013-12-01

    In the rat, experimental manipulations that cause activation of the magnocellular neurosecretory neurones result in the synthesis, in addition to vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY), of other neurotransmitters or peptides, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis. In the human neonate, our previous study showed that TH was selectively increased in AVP neurones of subjects that died from prolonged perinatal hypoxia. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively investigate the expression of TH, AVP, OXY and neurophysin in magnocellular neurones of the human neonate in relation to the severity/duration of perinatal hypoxia, as estimated by neuropathological criteria. Autopsy was performed after obtaining parental written consent for diagnostic and research purposes. The intensity of the immunohistochemical reactions and the cellular/nuclear size were measured in the dorsolateral supraoptic nucleus using a computerised image analysis system. We showed that prolonged perinatal hypoxia resulted in the activation of the magnocellular neuroendocrine neurones of the human neonate, as indicated by their increased neuronal and nuclear size. OXY neurones appeared larger than the AVP ones at birth, possibly indicating an active role of foetal OXY during labour or even earlier. The gradual increase in the duration of the insult resulted in the reduction of intracellular AVP content, in parallel with a dramatic increase in the expression of TH, indicating a functional interaction of these peptides under neuronal activation. Ιsolated evidence in our series, obtained from an infant of a diabetic mother, raises the probability that in the case of hyperglycaemia the above pathogenetic mechanisms are diversified. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  10. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the rumen of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A J; Masot, A J; Aguado, MaC; Gómez, L; Redondo, E

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study of the ontogenesis of deer stomach has not been undertaken to date, and our aim was to sequence several histological phenomena that occur during the ontogenesis of one of the gastric compartments, the rumen. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of deer from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. For the purposes of testing, the animals were divided into five experimental groups: group I, 1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length, 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation; group II, 4.5–7.2 cm crown–rump length, 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation; group III, 8–19 cm crown–rump length, 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation; group IV, 21–33 cm crown–rump length, 142–191 days, 45–70% of gestation; and group V, 36–40 cm crown–rump length, 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation. The rumen of the primitive gastric tube was observed at approximately 60 days. At 67 days the rumen consisted of three layers: internal or mucosal, middle or muscular, and external or serosal layer. The stratification of the epithelial layer was accompanied by changes in its structure with the appearance of ruminal pillars and papillae. The outline of the ruminal papillae began to appear at 142 days of prenatal development as evaginations of the basal zone toward the ruminal lumen, pulling with it in its configuration the stratum basale, the lamina propria and the submucosa. From the pluripotential blastemic tissue at 60 days we witnessed the histodifferentiation of the primitive tunica muscularis, composed of two layers of myoblasts with a defined arrangement. It was also from the pluripotential blastemic tissue, at 97 days, that the lamina propria and the submucosa were differentiated. The serosa showed continuity in growth as well as differentiation, already detected in the undifferentiated outline phase. The tegumentary mucosa of deer rumen was shown without secretory capacity in the initial embryonic

  11. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the rumen of red deer during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Franco, A J; Masot, A J; Aguado, Ma C; Gómez, L; Redondo, E

    2004-06-01

    Abstract A detailed study of the ontogenesis of deer stomach has not been undertaken to date, and our aim was to sequence several histological phenomena that occur during the ontogenesis of one of the gastric compartments, the rumen. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of deer from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. For the purposes of testing, the animals were divided into five experimental groups: group I, 1.4-3.6 cm crown-rump length, 30-60 days, 1-25% of gestation; group II, 4.5-7.2 cm crown-rump length, 67-90 days, 25-35% of gestation; group III, 8-19 cm crown-rump length, 97-135 days, 35-50% of gestation; group IV, 21-33 cm crown-rump length, 142-191 days, 45-70% of gestation; and group V, 36-40 cm crown-rump length, 205-235 days, 75-100% of gestation. The rumen of the primitive gastric tube was observed at approximately 60 days. At 67 days the rumen consisted of three layers: internal or mucosal, middle or muscular, and external or serosal layer. The stratification of the epithelial layer was accompanied by changes in its structure with the appearance of ruminal pillars and papillae. The outline of the ruminal papillae began to appear at 142 days of prenatal development as evaginations of the basal zone toward the ruminal lumen, pulling with it in its configuration the stratum basale, the lamina propria and the submucosa. From the pluripotential blastemic tissue at 60 days we witnessed the histodifferentiation of the primitive tunica muscularis, composed of two layers of myoblasts with a defined arrangement. It was also from the pluripotential blastemic tissue, at 97 days, that the lamina propria and the submucosa were differentiated. The serosa showed continuity in growth as well as differentiation, already detected in the undifferentiated outline phase. The tegumentary mucosa of deer rumen was shown without secretory capacity in the initial embryonic phases; neutral mucopolysaccharides

  12. Immunohistochemical studies of pediatric intestinal pseudo-obstruction: bcl2, a valuable biomarker to detect immature enteric ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hye; Min, Hyesook; Chi, Je G; Park, Kwi Won; Yang, Hye Ran; Seo, Jeong Kee

    2005-08-01

    To identify the diagnostic pitfalls as well as the value of immunohistochemical studies in making a pathologic evaluation of a pediatric intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO), this study reassessed the pathology of 87 surgically resected intestines from 80 patients under the impression of IPO and 10 normal controls using immunohistochemical studies. The main diagnostic pitfall was the interpretation of the enteric nervous plexuses in the transitional zone and the detection of the indistinct or immature neurons indistinguishable from enteric glial cells or satellite cells. Immunohistochemical study was a very helpful diagnostic adjunct to delineating the immature neurons (bcl2), the size of the enteric ganglia and neuromuscular innervation (S-100 protein, synaptophysin, and CD56), and the interstitial cell of Cajal (c-Kit) and myopathy (SMA). With help of immunohistochemistry, our series of IPO could classify as neuropathy (92.5%), myopathy (2.5%), and the idiopathic forms (3.8%) more clearly. In terms of the types of neuropathy, Hirschsprung's disease (HD), pure hypoganglionosis, and intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND-B) were diagnosed in 71.3%, 6.3%, and 48.8% of patients, respectively. IND-B was associated with other neuropathies, HD in 77.0% and hypoganglionosis in 7.7%, rather than being present in a pure form. Immature ganglion cells were found in 48.8%. Because a reduced number of interstitial cells of Cajal was commonly associated with HD in 84.2%, hypoganglionosis in 40%, and IND-B in 76.9% of cases, it might be a preceding or aggravating factor related to an IPO. In terms of detecting immature ganglion cells, we found bcl2 most helpful.

  13. Urothelial Carcinoma with shadow cell, lipid cell and sebaceous (skin adnexal) differentiation: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the histological and immunohistochemical features of 6 cases of urothelial carcinomas of lipid cell variant and 4 cases with shadow cell differentiation, one of which showed additionally sebaceous differentiation, one of which shows additional sebaceous differentiation, from our archive cases from the last 15 years. Conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC) was seen in all lipid cell variant cases, and micropapillary carcinoma was seen in 3. The ratio of the lipid cell component was between 10% and 40% in these 6 cases. Typical histologic features of the lipid cell variant include lipoblast-like cells with a notched nuclear appearance, abundant vacuoles, an eccentric nucleus, and pagetoid spread in some areas. GATA3 and pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunohistochemical staining were positive in all cases. Adipophilin was positive in various degrees in 5 of the 6 lipid cell variant cases but was also positive in the case with sebaceous differentiation. α-methylacyl-CoA racemase was positive in the lipid cell areas and negative or focal weakly positive in the conventional UC areas in 4 of the 6 cases. Vimentin, S-100 protein, and PAX8 were negative in the lipid cell component. Follow-up information was available for all cases with follow-up ranging from 6 to 84 months (mean, 34 months). Four patients died of the disease. One pT4 patient who had been followed up for 6 months lives with the disease, whereas another is disease free. In conclusion, the lipid cell variant is a rare UC variant that usually presents at an advanced stage, and tumor cells are histologically similar to lipoblasts, resemble sebaceous differentiation, and show positive immunohistochemical staining with adipophilin.

  14. Ameliorative effect of parsley oil on cisplatin-induced hepato-cardiotoxicity: A biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Abdellatief, Suhair A; Galal, Azza A A; Farouk, Sameh M; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2017-02-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is an effective DNA alkylating agent used in the treatment of different types of tumors; however, its clinical use is associated with hepato-cardiotoxicity. The current study was designed to assess the potential protective effect of parsley oil (PO) against CDDP-induced hepato-cardiotoxicity. For this purpose, 25 adult male rats were assigned into five groups, each containing five animals. Group I (control) was administered saline solution. Group II was administered PO at a dosage of 0.42ml/kg BW. Group III were administered CDDP at a dosage of 5mg/kg BW. Group IV was administered PO in addition to CDDP. Group V was administered saline solution in addition to CDDP, after which they were administered PO for five days. Oral administration of either saline solution or PO was performed each day for 10days, while administration of CDDP was via a single intraperitoneal injection five days following the commencement of the experiment. The recorded results revealed that CDDP induced obvious hepatic and cardiac injuries that were indicated by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical alterations, including elevation of serum hepatic and cardiac injury markers as well as proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, CDDP induced an increase in the level of hepatic and cardiac injury biomarkers, decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, a decrease in GSH concentration, and an increase in MDA concentration. CDDP also induced histopathological hepatocellular and myocardial changes, and overexpression of p53 and COX-2 in hepatic and cardiac tissues. Administration of PO either as a preventative medicine or as treatment significantly improved all the observed deleterious effects induced by CDDP in rat liver and heart. Thus, it may be concluded that PO, with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities, can potentially be used in the treatment of CDDP-induced hepatic and cardiac injuries. Copyright

  15. [Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of intra-abdominal non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma occurring in children].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-ping; Zhu, Cai-di; Gong, Li-ping; Lü, Bei-bei; Zou, Yin; Zhong, Hua-sheng; Xiao, Qiang; Wu, Yan; Xu, Hong-yan; Zeng, Song-tao; Huang, Hui

    2009-11-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features, immunohistochemical findings, EBV and c-myc gene status of intra-abdominal non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma occurring in children. Seventy-four cases of pediatric intra-abdominal non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma were retrieved from the archival file. The cases were classified according to the 2008 WHO classification. Tissue microarray including tumor tissues from all the 74 cases was produced. Immunohistochemical study (SP method) for CD20, CD3, CD79a, CD10, bcl-6, MUM1, bcl-2, CD43, CD38 and Ki-67 was performed. In-situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization for c-myc gene were also carried out. Amongst the 74 cases studied, 65 of them (87.8%) were Burkitt lymphoma (BL), 4 cases (5.4%) were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the remaining 5 cases (6.8%) showed features in-between DLBCL and BL (DLBCL/BL). The patients often presented with abdominal pain, abdominal masses, ileus and intussusception. The ileocecal bowel wall and mesenteric lymph nodes were commonly involved. The lymphoma cells were of high histologic grade and suggested an aggressive clinical behavior. The staining for CD20 and CD79a were positive in all of the cases, while CD3 was negative. The positive rates of CD10, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM1, CD43, CD38 and EBER in BL were 96.9% (63 cases), 95.4% (62 cases), 0 (0 case), 23.1% (15 cases), 70.8% (46 cases), 96.9% (63 cases) and 41.5% (27 cases), respectively. Fifty-four cases carried translocation of c-myc gene. As for DLBCL, the positive cases of CD10, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM1, CD43, CD38 and EBER were 3 cases, 2 cases, 3 cases, 2 cases, 2 cases, 2 cases and 0 case, respectively. One of these cases showed c-myc gene translocation. Amongst the 4 cases of DLBCL, 2 of them belonged to germinal center B-cell-like subtype, while the remaining 2 cases were of non-germinal center B-cell-like subtype. The expression rates of CD10, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM1, CD43, CD38 and EBER in

  16. Immunohistochemical studies for the neuronal elements in the vomeronasal organ of the one-humped camel

    PubMed Central

    IBRAHIM, Dalia; ABDEL-MAKSOUD, Fatma; TANIGUCHI, Kazumi; YAMAMOTO, Yoshio; TANIGUCHI, Kazuyuki; NAKAMUTA, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal elements of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of camel were investigated immunohistochemically. PGP 9.5 labeled the receptor cells in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, but not the supporting or basal cells. OMP stained some receptor cells, but no immunoreactive signals for OMP were detected in the non-sensory epithelium. PLCβ2 labeled scattered cells in the sensory epithelium and a larger number of cells in the non-sensory epithelium. Double labeling immunohistochemistry revealed that the PLCβ2-positive cells were surrounded by substance P-positive nerve fibers. Collectively, these data suggest that the camel VNO bears, in addition to the mature vomeronasal receptor cells, trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells which are expected to play a substantial role in the control of stimulus access to the VNO. PMID:25319516

  17. Immunohistochemical studies for the neuronal elements in the vomeronasal organ of the one-humped camel.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Abdel-Maksoud, Fatma; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Nakamuta, Nobuaki

    2015-02-01

    The neuronal elements of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of camel were investigated immunohistochemically. PGP 9.5 labeled the receptor cells in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, but not the supporting or basal cells. OMP stained some receptor cells, but no immunoreactive signals for OMP were detected in the non-sensory epithelium. PLCβ2 labeled scattered cells in the sensory epithelium and a larger number of cells in the non-sensory epithelium. Double labeling immunohistochemistry revealed that the PLCβ2-positive cells were surrounded by substance P-positive nerve fibers. Collectively, these data suggest that the camel VNO bears, in addition to the mature vomeronasal receptor cells, trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells which are expected to play a substantial role in the control of stimulus access to the VNO.

  18. Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma: report of a case. Immunohistochemical study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huguet, P; Castellví, J; Avila, M; Alejo, M; Autonell, F; Basas, C; Bescos, M S

    2001-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is a rare malignant odontogenic tumour characterized by a benign epithelial component within a malignant fibrous stroma. Its behaviour is relatively benign, with absence of metastatic disease, and the prognosis is reported to be good. It is a paradoxical neoplasm with "sarcomatous" morphological and immunohistochemical patterns but with a favourable clinical course. We report a new case of this tumour in a mandibular ramus of a 31-years-old male patient, that was surgically excised and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Five years later the patient is free of disease. The growth potential of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is evaluated and compared with a related lesion, the ameloblastic fibroma. The sarcomatous mesenchymal component of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is positive to Ki67, PCNA and p53, in front of the negativity of ameloblastic fibroma.

  19. [Immunohistochemical study of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx].

    PubMed

    Nishiya, M

    1989-01-01

    Formalin- or alcohol-fixed, paraffin-embedded laryngeal specimens were stained immunohistochemically with several kinds of monoclonal anti-Keratin antibody (KL-1, PKK-1, PKK-2, PKK-3), polyclonal anti-Keratin antibody, and epithelial membrane antigen. Immunohistochemical technique was used by Avidin-Biotin Complex method with the following subjects; normal epithelium 6 cases, dysplasia 15 cases, inflammation and polyp 12 cases, squamous cell carcinoma 47 cases. 6 specimens of squamous cell carcinoma were totally resected and alcohol-fixed, and other specimens were all biopsied and formalin-fixed. Comparing these two methods, the alcohol-fixed specimen gave superior result to those obtained with formalin-fixed in its staining. Non-staining area was recognized around basal layer by KL-1 stain in the normal epithelium. Enlargement of non-staining area was recognized in the dysplasia. Also, KL-1 staining showed positive staining with the keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, and weak staining with the non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. And, PKK-3 showed weak staining in the keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. The results indicate that high molecular weight keratin (56 kilodalton) hardly localize around the basal layer in the squamous epithelium, and also in the non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. The other way, this also suggests that low molecular weight keratin (45 kilodalton) hardly localize in the keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. It is supposed that intracellular localization of keratin of dysplastic epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma varies from that in the normal squamous epithelium. Accordingly, monoclonal keratin stain is thought to be an useful method for the diagnosis of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Effect of dacarbazine (DTIC) on cultures from malignant melanoma of the choroid: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Sivkova, N; Steuhl, K P; Rohrbach, J; Popova, L

    1999-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a very effective chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma; it also could have a potential therapeutic value as an antimetastatic agent in the treatment of choroidal melanoma. To study the HMB-45 and S100 protein expression in choroidal melanoma cultures with and without DTIC, and compare the immunohistochemical and electron microscopic changes in both groups. Five- and seven-day cultures of choroidal melanoma (n = 21) were cultivated in diffusion chambers. The cultures were divided in two groups: I group (control group)--the cells were grown in 199-medium; II group--the cells were in 199-medium supplemented with 0.03 mg/ml of DTIC. Immunohistochemical studies were performed with paraffin-embedded material of the cultures by the avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase technique. Araldit-embedded material was studied by electron microscopy. The expression of HMB-45 and S100 protein in the cultures with DTIC ranged from slightly positive to negative. The tumor cells were severely damaged. Electron microscopy in this group showed presence only of cellular fragments. In the DTIC-free group the HMB-45 and S100 expressions were strongly positive. There were no electron microscopic evidence of cellular death. DTIC suppresses the growth of choroidal melanoma in vitro. These results indicate that further studies are warranted to elucidate the effect of DTIC in vivo.

  1. Immunohistochemical expression study of proapoptotic BH3-only protein bad in canine nonneoplastic tissues and canine lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, M; Croci, M; Vaughan, L; Guscetti, F

    2013-09-01

    The BH3-only protein Bad is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member that acts as a sensitizer in intrinsic apoptosis by inactivating antiapoptotic members through heterodimer formation. Bad has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis, including lymphoma formation in humans and mice, through alteration in expression or functional status. Here, its immunohistochemical expression was analyzed in canine nonneoplastic and lymphoma tissues using tissue microarrays. Bad was expressed in the cytoplasm of a wide range of nonneoplastic tissues, especially epithelial cells. Nonneoplastic lymph nodes displayed weak immunostaining in the follicular germinal centers only. Immunoblotting supported these observations but also revealed presence of nonspecific labeling in some organs. Of 81 lymphomas, 29 (35.8%) displayed moderate to strong immunohistochemical Bad labeling, and a significant expression increase was found in lymphomas (especially B cell and double negative) compared to nonneoplastic lymph nodes. These findings warrant further investigations of the functional status, the involvement of partner proteins, and a possible impact of Bad on prognosis in canine lymphoma.

  2. An Immunohistochemical Study of Inflammatory Cell Changes and Matrix Remodeling With and Without Acute Hydrops in Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Fan Gaskin, Jennifer C; Loh, I-Ping; McGhee, Charles N J; Sherwin, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    To determine the inflammatory cell and matrix changes in advanced keratoconus, including acute hydrops, using immunohistochemical analysis. The corneal tissue from eight subjects with keratoconus undergoing corneal transplantation (three keratoconic buttons, five buttons post acute hydrops—one of them with extensive neovascularization following hydrops) was compared with tissue from two normal corneoscleral rims (n = 10). The corneas were sectioned and analyzed with specific markers for macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and scar associated matrix molecules laminin, fibronectin, tenascin-C, and type III collagen. Populations of cells using markers for macrophages, leucocytes and antigen presenting cells were found to be associated with the epithelium and stroma of keratoconic tissue. Populations of these cells appeared decreased in hydrops-associated keratoconus except for a large increase in leucocytes in the stroma and endothelium associated with neovascularization. Extracellular matrix deposition was found to be uniquely demonstrated in localized areas of the stroma, corresponding to the site of hydrops involvement. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a chronic, inflammatory process with recruitment of immunoinflammatory cells and deposition of scar tissue in keratoconus. The inflammatory markers were somewhat attenuated in hydrops-associated keratoconus corneas and thus inflammation was not considered to be a major factor in the development of acute corneal hydrops.

  3. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; da Silva Lascane, Nelise Alexandre; Altemani, Albina; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, 3 cases of very rare intraoral carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas showing a striking differentiation of the malignant component towards epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were described. The tumors occurred in 2 men and 1 woman with median age of 56 years. Involved sites included palate and buccal mucosa. Two patients experienced local recurrences, of which one died of disease complications. In all cases, residual pleomorphic adenoma was present. The malignant component in all cases shared morphological aspects with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Those areas were characterized by eosinophilic duct-forming cells surrounded by layers of clear cells. The studied immunohistochemical markers highlighted a biphasic cell population. Duct-forming cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and focally cytokeratin 14, whereas the clear cell component strongly stained to cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and p63 but weakly stained to pan-cytokeratin and focally to α-smooth muscle actin, an immunophenotype compatible with both epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation index was up to 40% in malignant areas. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component are rare, locally aggressive, and potentially lethal tumors. The peculiar morphological and immunohistochemical aspects described may raise problems in diagnosis and classification of such cases, particularly in incisional biopsies.

  4. A histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study of superficial temporal arteries and middle meningeal arteries in moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Wang, C C; Zhao, Z Z; Hu, Y; Aihara, K; Ghazizadeh, M; Sasaki, Y; Yang, S Y; Pan, J

    1991-07-01

    Pathologic changes in superficial temporal arteries (STA) and middle meningeal arteries (MMA) biopsied from 15 patients with moyamoya disease (MD) who had undergone cerebro-temporal arterio-synangiosis were studied histologically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically. The main pathologic features were: proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and thickening of the intima, degeneration and destruction of SMCs in the media and intima, and the presence of condensed organelles in necrosed SMCs or the interstitium among SMCs, or both outside and within the elastica interna (EI). The EI had become thin, porous, fragmented and was even absent in some segments. These changes are different from those of other forms of angiopathy, but identical with those at the ends of internal carotid arteries (ICA) reported by us previously, being pathognomonic for MD. These changes in the STA and MMA reveal that MD involves not only the ICA but also the intra- and extracranial branches of external carotid arteries. The medial necrosis of SMCs seems to be the primary injury of the arterial wall in MD. STA tissue blocks from two cases of MD were stained immunohistochemically. By electron microscopy, IgG-, IgM-, and C3-positive granules were observed on the ER of endothelial and intimal cells. Further studies on more cases are needed to determine whether an immunoreaction has occurred in these arteries.

  5. Comparative evaluation of diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation: A clinical and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Bakutra, Gaurav; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Mathur, Lalit; Manohar, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There are various treatment modalities to remove the black patches of melanin pigmentation. The aim of the study is to clinically compare the diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation and to evaluate their effect on the histological changes in melanocyte activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 sites of 20 patients with bilateral melanin hyperpigmentation were treated with the surgical stripping and diode laser ablation technique. Change in Hedin index score, change in area of pigmentation using image analyzing software, pain perception, patient preference of treatment were recorded. All 40 sites were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using HMB-45 immunohistochemical marker. Results: At 12 months post-operative visit, in all sites, repigmentation was observed with different grades of Hedin index. Paired t-test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Repigmentation in surgical stripping is significantly lesser compared to laser ablation. Lesser numbers of melanocytes were found on immunohistological examination at 12 months postoperatively. Comparison for patient preference and pain indices give statistically significant values for diode laser techniques. Conclusion: Gingival hyperpigmentation is effectively managed by diode laser ablation technique and surgical stripping method. In this study, surgical stripping technique found to be better compared to diode laser ablation. PMID:28539864

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using CD68 Marker: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bagul, Neeta; Roy, Souparna; Ganjre, Anjali; Meher, Aishwarya; Singh, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in India. Clear evidence regarding inflammation being an etiological factor of cancer was found only in the last few decades. A major inflammatory component in the tumor tissue is Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs). The CD68 antibody is a marker for staining TAMs. Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the macrophage count in healthy oral mucosa and OSCC and comparing TAMs in different histopathological grades of OSCC immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods Thirty archival specimens of OSCC patients and 10 healthy biopsy samples were collected. Immunohistochemical staining was done using a CD68 marker. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Comparing CD68 expression in various study groups showed a significant difference (p=0.000). The pair-wise analysis showed different grades of OSCC, which differed significantly for CD68 expression from the normal oral mucosa. Conclusion The most significant cells present in tumor stroma are TAMs, which remain in close proximity to neoplastic cells and interact with them via several chemical mediators, which may serve to increase the invasiveness of the malignant epithelium. Dense infiltration of TAMs adjacent to tumor cells and islands vividly implies their role in tumor progression. PMID:27190959

  7. Comparative evaluation of diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation: A clinical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bakutra, Gaurav; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Mathur, Lalit; Manohar, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    There are various treatment modalities to remove the black patches of melanin pigmentation. The aim of the study is to clinically compare the diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation and to evaluate their effect on the histological changes in melanocyte activity. A total of 40 sites of 20 patients with bilateral melanin hyperpigmentation were treated with the surgical stripping and diode laser ablation technique. Change in Hedin index score, change in area of pigmentation using image analyzing software, pain perception, patient preference of treatment were recorded. All 40 sites were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using HMB-45 immunohistochemical marker. At 12 months post-operative visit, in all sites, repigmentation was observed with different grades of Hedin index. Paired t-test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Repigmentation in surgical stripping is significantly lesser compared to laser ablation. Lesser numbers of melanocytes were found on immunohistological examination at 12 months postoperatively. Comparison for patient preference and pain indices give statistically significant values for diode laser techniques. Gingival hyperpigmentation is effectively managed by diode laser ablation technique and surgical stripping method. In this study, surgical stripping technique found to be better compared to diode laser ablation.

  8. Brainstem projections to the medial preoptic region containing the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone perikarya in the rat. An immunohistochemical and retrograde transport study.

    PubMed

    Castañeyra-Perdomo, A; Pérez-Delgado, M M; Montagnese, C; Coen, C W

    1992-05-11

    The afferent projections to the anterior medial preoptic area (MPA) from the brainstem have been studied, in female Wistar rats, by retrograde tracing with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The HRP was injected by iontophoresis into the preoptic region containing the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) perikarya. The brain sections including the MPA were reacted with diaminobenzidine (DAB) to reveal the injection site; the LHRH cells were then immunohistochemically identified using DAB with ammonium nickel sulphate. When the injection site incorporated the LHRH cells, the brainstem sections were reacted with the DAB nickel solution to detect lysosomal HRP and then immunohistochemically processed to locate the adrenaline-synthesizing cells using DAB alone. The results confirm the brainstem projections to the MPA from the central grey matter, ventral tegmental area, subcoeruleus area, the dorsal raphe nucleus, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the raphe pontis nucleus, the raphe obscurus nucleus, the region of the paragigantocellular nucleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Given the considerable evidence implicating the ascending adrenergic systems in the regulation of LHRH, we focused our attention on the afferents from the locus coeruleus, area postrema and the adrenaline-synthesizing cell groups (C1-3). The only cells which were retrogradely labelled and immunopositive for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase were found in C3.

  9. Prognostic significance of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in LNG-IUS (Mirena) treatment of endometrial hyperplasia: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Emelie; Gallos, Ioannis D; Ganesan, Raji; Varma, Rajesh; Gupta, Janesh K

    2010-03-01

    We performed immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptors (PRA and PRB), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and aromatase in endometrial hyperplasia treated with Mirena (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system; LNG-IUS) and explored their prognostic significance. The baseline pre-treatment endometrial hyperplasia of a selected prospective cohort was analyzed [complex (n = 29) and atypical (n = 5)]. Study participants were categorized into those that showed endometrial regression (responders, n = 28) and those that showed non-regression or histological progression to atypia or malignancy (non-responders, n = 6). Immunohistochemical expression was expressed as a histological score (HS). Responders compared to non-responders showed significantly higher HSs for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors predicted non-responder status with likelihood ratios of 9.33 (95% CI 2.19-39.81) and 2.92 (95% CI 1.47-5.79), respectively. Neither PTEN nor aromatase expression were associated with LNG-IUS therapy responsiveness. Responsiveness of endometrial hyperplasia to LNG-IUS therapy may be determined through analysis of baseline estrogen and progesterone receptors, but these exploratory findings require confirmation in a larger dataset.

  10. Non-specific labelling of mast cells in feline oral mucosa--a potential problem in immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2002-01-01

    Non-specific labelling of mast cells was found to occur in formalin-fixed sections of feline oral mucosa during immunohistochemical procedures. The phenomenon occurred when normal goat, rabbit or mouse serum was applied as a negative control in place of primary antibodies. In addition, with murine isotype-specific negative control reagents, non-specific labelling of mast cells was intense when IgG2b was applied as the primary reagent, but absent or mild when IgGl or IgG2a isotypes were utilized. The non-specific labelling could be eliminated or diminished by reducing the pH of the washing and dilution buffers from 7.4 to 6.0, or by preincubating sections with heparin. The non-specific binding could also be abolished by preincubating sections with heparinase-I. The results suggest that the non-specific binding was mediated by heparin present within feline oral mucosal mast cells. These findings illustrate the importance of the inclusion of adequate control sections in immunohistochemical studies.

  11. The hormonal receptor status of uterine carcinosarcomas (mixed müllerian tumours): an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Ansink, A C; Cross, P A; Scorer, P; de Barros Lopes, A; Monaghan, J M

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of oestrogen and progesterone receptor status in uterine carcinosarcomas (mixed Müllerian tumours) to see whether the receptors were identifiable, and if so whether they were of significance clinically. METHODS: 11 cases of uterine carcinosarcoma were identified from clinical and pathology records. An immunohistochemical method was used to demonstrate oestrogen and progesterone hormone receptors on paraffin embedded material, with suitable tissue controls, staining being recorded. RESULTS: 10 of 11 cases showed staining for one or both hormone receptors in normal tissue adjacent to tumour. In four carcinosarcoma cases, staining for one or both receptors was shown within the epithelial component (appearing to correlate with the degree of epithelial differentiation); two of these cases had staining within sarcomatous areas. Two of the three patients still alive had epithelial hormone receptor positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Receptors for oestrogen and progesterone were found in four of 11 cases of uterine carcinosarcoma, using paraffin embedded material. There may be an association between hormone receptor positivity and clinical outcome. Images PMID:9215151

  12. Immunohistochemical Studies of Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Matrix Components in Dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L. Notochordal Cells.

    PubMed

    Restović, Ivana; Vukojević, Katarina; Paladin, Antonela; Saraga-Babić, Mirna; Bočina, Ivana

    2015-10-01

    Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques were used to define the distribution of cytoskeletal (cytokeratin 8, vimentin) and extracellular matrix components (collagen type I, collagen type II, hyaluronic acid, and aggrecan) and bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 7 (BMP4 and BMP7) in the notochord of the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L. Immunolocalization of hyaluronic acid was observed in the notochord, vertebral centrum, and neural and hemal arches, while positive labeling to aggrecan was observed in the ossified centrum, notochord, and the perichondrium of the hyaline cartilage. Type I collagen was observed in the mineralized cartilage of the vertebral bodies, the notochord, the fibrocartilage of intervertebral disc, and the perichondrium. A positive labeling to type II collagen was observed in the inner part of the cartilaginous vertebral centrum and the notochord, as well as in the neural arch and muscle tissue, but there was no appreciable labeling of the hyaline cartilage. The presence of both BMP4 and BMP7 was seen in the mineralized vertebral centrum, notochordal cells, and neural arch. The notochordal cells expressed both cytokeratin 8 and vimentin, but predominantly vimentin. Hyaluronic acid, collagen type I, and collagen type II expression confirmed the presence of a mixture of notochordal and fibrocartilaginous tissue in the intervertebral disc, while BMPs confirmed the presence of an ossification in the cartilaginous skeleton of the spotted dogfish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An Immunohistochemical Study of Matrix Proteins in the Craniofacial Cartilage in Midterm Human Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Baba, O.; Qin, C.; Murakami, G.; Cho, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of collagen types I, II, and X, aggrecan, versican, dentin matrix protein (DMP)-1, martix extracellular phosphoprotein (MEPE) were performed for Meckel’s cartilage, cranial base cartilage, and mandibular condylar cartilage in human midterm fetuses; staining patterns within the condylar cartilage were compared to those within other cartilaginous structures. Mandibular condylar cartilage contained aggrecan; it also had more type I collagen and a thicker hypertrophic cell layer than the other two types of cartilage; these three characteristics are similar to those of the secondary cartilage of rodents. MEPE immunoreactivity was first evident in the cartilage matrix of all types of cartilage in the human fetuses and in Meckel’s cartilage of mice and rats. MEPE immunoreactivity was enhanced in the deep layer of the hypertrophic cell layer and in the cartilaginous core of the bone trabeculae in the primary spongiosa. These results indicated that MEPE is a component of cartilage matrix and may be involved in cartilage mineralization. DMP-1 immunoreactivity first became evident in human bone lacunae walls and canaliculi; this pattern of expression was comparable to the pattern seen in rodents. In addition, chondroid bone was evident in the mandibular (glenoid) fossa of the temporal bone, and it had aggrecan, collagen types I and X, MEPE, and DMP-1 immunoreactivity; these findings indicated that chondroid bone in this region has phenotypic expression indicative of both hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocytes. PMID:24441192

  14. Pulmonary synovial sarcoma with polypoid endobronchial growth: a case report, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Hideki; Masuda, Shinji; Kobayashi, Chikashi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2004-08-01

    A rare case of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma with polypoid endobronchial growth in a 42-year-old Japanese woman is described. Left upper sleeve lobectomy was performed for the polypoid tumor measuring 2.5 cm in the left major bronchus and the patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Three years later, a recurrent tumor was discovered. Microscopically, this tumor was characterized by a proliferation of oval to spindle-shaped cells arranged in sheets and fascicles and covered by the thin normal bronchial epithelium. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for vimentin, and focally positive for pancytokeratin recognized by AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7 and epithelial membrane antigen. A chimera gene, SYT-SSX1, was detected. Recently, primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is an increasingly recognized clinical entity; however, most of these tumors present as a parenchymal mass. The present case is a unique example of primary synovial sarcoma of endobronchial polypoid type. This case suggests that pulmonary synovial sarcoma might originate from bronchial submucosal stromal tissue.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of the nervous system of the tunicate Thalia democratica (Forsskal, 1775).

    PubMed

    Pennati, R; Dell'Anna, A; Zega, G; De Bernardi, F

    2012-04-20

    Thalia democratica is a cosmopolitan tunicate belonging to the Thaliacea class. To further investigate the anatomy of this species, immunohistochemical labelling was performed using anti-tubulin and anti-serotonin antibodies on specimens collected in the Mediterranean Sea. The anti-tubulin antibody stained the cilia of the endostyle, the pericoronal bands and of the gill bar, enabling a detailed description of these structures. Moreover, immunolabelling of the nervous system showed the presence of eight pairs of nerve fibres emerging from the neural ganglion. Serotonergic cells were observed in the distal tract of the intestine, along the pericoronal bands, and in the placenta of gravid blastozooids, as well as in the neural ganglion. The presence of serotonin in the central nervous system has also been reported in the larvae of ascidians and may be linked to the planktonic life of these animals, a condition shared by adult thaliaceans and ascidian larvae. This work improves our knowledge of the anatomy of T. democratica and demonstrates the presence of a complex serotonergic system.

  16. [Surfactant protein and thyroid transcription factor 1 in pleuro-pulmonary neoplasia. Immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Dessy, E; Falleni, M; Del Curto, B; Braidotti, P; Pietra, G G

    2000-12-01

    Aim of this work was to investigate the ability of the antibodies against Surfactant proteins (SP) and Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) to distinguish primary neoplasms of the lung from metastatic carcinomas to the lung and pleural mesotheliomas. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the antibodies anti SP-A, SP-B, pro SP-C, SP-D, and TTF-1 in a series of 56 primary lung carcinomas, 9 metastatic carcinomas to the lung, 5 pleural mesotheliomas and 8 non-pulmonary carcinomas. Among primary lung neoplasms, only adenocarcinomas immunostained for all SP (specificity = 1; total sensitivity = 0.52). TTF-1 had an excellent specificity (= 1), but a weak sensitivity (= 0.34) in recognizing primary lung carcinomas. TTF-1 was present in lung adenocarcinomas which were negative for SPs; however it failed to distinguish the subtypes. Pleural mesotheliomas, pulmonary metastases and non-pulmonary carcinomas were not immunoreactive for SP-A, SP-B, SP-D, and TTF-1. Pro SP-C was positive also in the adenocarcinomas of the large bowel and in their pulmonary and nodal metastases. These results demonstrate that the combined use of antibodies anti SP-A, SP-B and TTF-1 is the best association in distinguishing primary lung carcinomas from metastatic carcinomas to the lung and pleural mesotheliomas.

  17. Distinctive eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in melanocytic nevi: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Shon, Wonwoo; Wada, David A; Gibson, Lawrence E; Flotte, Thomas J; Scheithauer, Bernd W

    2011-11-01

    We sought to further determine the histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural properties of eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in melanocytic nevi. Skin specimens from four patients with a known diagnosis of conventional melanocytic nevus (3) or Spitz nevus (1) and containing intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies were selected. In addition, melanomas (25), Spitz nevi (10) and blue nevi (4) were examined to determine the frequency of the inclusions. Inclusions tended to be located in multinucleated melanocytes with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. In conventional (hematoxylin and eosin-stained) sections, the degree of density and eosinophilia of intracytoplasmic inclusions varied with size. Periodic acid-Schiff, Fontana and Congo red stains showed no reactivity. All bodies were immunoreactive for ubiquitin but negative for tyrosinase, keratin and vimentin. Ultrastructurally, inclusion bodies were non-membrane bound, ranged from 4 to 7 µm, and were comprised of radiating filamentous structures with or without an electron-dense core. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis revealed no significant peaks. None of additional melanomas, Spitz nevi and blue nevi that were evaluated showed similar inclusions. The inclusion bodies described herein bear no resemblance to other cytoplasmic inclusion bodies previously described in melanocytic lesions. There is no discernible relationship to melanosomes by ultrastructural analysis. We postulate a relationship with dysfunction of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation occurring in melanocytes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. An immunohistochemical study of the pancreatic endocrine cells of the Korean golden frog, Rana plancyi chosenica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H.S.; Chang, J.H.; Ku, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The regional distribution and quantitative frequency of pancreatic endocrine cells were demonstrated in the Korean golden frog (Rana plancyi chosenica Okada), which is known as a Korean endemic species, for the first time by immunohistochemical methods using specific mammalian antisera to insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and human pancreatic polypeptide (PP). In the pancreas of the Korean golden frog, all four endocrine cell types were demonstrated. Insulin- and glucagon-positive cells were located in the pancreas as single cells or islet-like clusters, respectively. Somatostatin-containing cells were also dispersed in the pancreas as single cells or clusters but in the case of clusters, they are exclusively situated in the marginal regions of insulin- or glucagon-positive cell clusters. PP-containing cells were also distributed as single cells or clusters. Clusters consisted of PP-positive cells are distributed as a core type and a marginally distributed type. Overall, there were 40.84±3.81% insulin-, 26.02±1.71% glucagon-, 7.63±2.09% somatostatin- and 25.51±3.26% PP-IR cells. PMID:22472893

  19. An immunohistochemical study of matrix proteins in the craniofacial cartilage in midterm human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Shibata, S; Sakamoto, Y; Baba, O; Qin, C; Murakami, G; Cho, B H

    2013-12-02

    Immunohistochemical localization of collagen types I, II, and X, aggrecan, versican, dentin matrix protein (DMP)-1, martix extracellular phosphoprotein (MEPE) were performed for Meckel's cartilage, cranial base cartilage, and mandibular condylar cartilage in human midterm fetuses; staining patterns within the condylar cartilage were compared to those within other cartilaginous structures. Mandibular condylar cartilage contained aggrecan; it also had more type I collagen and a thicker hypertrophic cell layer than the other two types of cartilage; these three characteristics are similar to those of the secondary cartilage of rodents. MEPE immunoreactivity was first evident in the cartilage matrix of all types of cartilage in the human fetuses and in Meckel's cartilage of mice and rats. MEPE immunoreactivity was enhanced in the deep layer of the hypertrophic cell layer and in the cartilaginous core of the bone trabeculae in the primary spongiosa. These results indicated that MEPE is a component of cartilage matrix and may be involved in cartilage mineralization. DMP-1 immunoreactivity first became evident in human bone lacunae walls and canaliculi; this pattern of expression was comparable to the pattern seen in rodents. In addition, chondroid bone was evident in the mandibular (glenoid) fossa of the temporal bone, and it had aggrecan, collagen types I and X, MEPE, and DMP-1 immunoreactivity; these findings indicated that chondroid bone in this region has phenotypic expression indicative of both hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocytes.

  20. Severe necrotizing encephalitis in a Yorkshire terrier: topographic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lezmi, S; Toussaint, Y; Prata, D; Lejeune, T; Ferreira-Neves, P; Rakotovao, F; Fontaine, J J; Marchal, T; Cordonnier, N

    2007-05-01

    Necrotizing encephalitis of the Yorkshire terrier is a chronic non-suppurative encephalitis that was reported in approximately 15 cases worldwide. We report the case of a 10-year-old female Yorkshire terrier with gross evidence of severe cortical degeneration and necrosis. Microscopically, affected areas were mainly located in the cortical white matter and in the mesencephalon without implication of the cerebellum. Cavitation necrosis, demyelination, gemistocytic astrocytosis, marked perivascular lymphocytic cuffing with a diffuse lymphocytic/histiocytic/gitter cell infiltration characterized the lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis identified the major infiltration of T lymphocytes and macrophages with implication of some cytotoxic lymphocytes and IgG-producing plasma cells; depositions of IgG in the affected white matter were also observed. Specific stains did not reveal fungal, protozoal or bacterial organisms and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis for distemper virus was also negative. The lympho-histiocytic inflammation suggests a T-cell-mediated and a delayed-type immune reaction as a possible pathogenic mechanism for this brain disorder.

  1. [Differential diagnosis of precancerous and regenerative changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri, by applying an immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Mal'kov, P G

    2011-01-01

    Precancerous changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri include low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL and HGSIL). Morphologically, these must be differentiated, among other conditions, immature squamous metaplasia (ISM) of the cervix uteri. This study involved 119 cases divided into 3 groups: 1) LGSIL (n = 28); 2) HGSIL (n = 56); 3) ISM (n = 35). An immunohistochemical study was conducted using antibodies to p16INK4a, CK17, and Ki-67 according to the standard protocol. Ki-67 expression was mainly low and moderate in 67.9% of cases in the LGSIL group; it was seen in 100% of cases in the HGSIL group, being significant in 73.5%. In the ISM group, Ki-67 was identified in 65.7% of cases, most of which demonstrated a low-to-moderate expression. In the LGSIL group, the expression of p16INK4a was recorded in 46.4% of cases. In the HGSIL group, the reaction was observed in 73.2% of cases; of them 57.2% it was strong. In the ISM group, the reaction was chiefly low in 38.6% of cases. In the LGSIL group, CK17 expression was found in 17.9% of cases. In the HGSIL group, the reaction was recorded in 19.7% of cases, the expression being predominantly low. In the ISM group, the marker was detectable in 88.5% of cases; of them 51.4% showing a high expression. The expressions of p16NK4a and Ki-67 were statistically significantly higher in the HGSIL group (p < 0.05) than those in the LGSIL and ISM groups. On the contrary, the expression of CK1 7 was significantly higher in the ISM group (p < 0.05) than in the HGSIL and LGSIL groups. Thus, evaluation of p16INK4a, Ki-67, and CK17 expressions is a valuable diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of HGSIL, LGSIL, and ISM.

  2. Significance of immunohistochemical findings in Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: The need for more validation studies.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Muhammed

    2013-07-01

    Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has been validated as clinically useful tool for prognostication of individual patients with IgAN. The original classification did not address the significance of immunostaining pattern in IgAN. A subsequent study by the same authors found immunostaining data to be potentially useful in predicting some of the morphological variables of Oxford classification. The study under discussion also addresses the potential significance of these ancillary data in refining the individual prognostication in this disease. Please cite this paper as: Mubarak M. Significance of immunohistochemical findings in Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: The need for more validation studies. J Nephropathology. 2013; 2(3): 210-213. DOI: 10.5812/nephropathol.11089.

  3. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): a histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N J; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Cole, R A; Meteyer, C U

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neurona meningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondii meningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  4. Detection of Cancer Stem Cells in Colorectal Cancer: Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ismaiel, Nour El Hoda S.; Sharaf, Walid M.; Helmy, Dina O.; Zaki, Mona M.; Badawi, Manal A.; Soliman, Ahmed S. A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports the notion that the onset of tumorigenesis could occur through cancer stem cells (CSCs). These tumour cells show low proliferative rates, high self-renewal capacity, propensity to differentiate into active proliferating tumour cells & resistance to chemoradiotherapy thus, possibly causing local recurrences & metastasis formation. CD44 has been used as a marker to isolate CSCs from colorectal carcinoma (CRC). AIM: To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of cancer stem cells marker (CD44) in CRC and correlate its expression with the clinicopathological aspects, TNM staging and modified Dukes’ classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumour biopsies from colectomy specimens of 60 patients with CRC were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological evaluation then immunostained with monoclonal antibodies against CD44 which was detected in term of negative or positive expression. RESULTS: CD44 was demonstrated in 58.3% (35/60) of cases and showed statistically significant correlation with tumour site and histological type (p-value < 0.05). However, CD44 showed statistically insignificant inverse correlation with tumour invasiveness (T), lymph node status (N), grade, TNM stage grouping and modified Dukes’ classification, while it was directly correlated with distant metastasis (M) (p-value > 0.05). Chi-square /Fisher exact test proportion independence and the p-value are set significant at 0.05 level. CONCLUSION: the CD44 rate of expression is higher in the colon than rectum and in adenocarcinoma than mucinous and undifferentiated carcinoma. CD44 showed statistically insignificant relation with T, N, M, grade, TNM stage grouping and modified Dukes’ classification. PMID:28028388

  5. Protozoal Meningoencephalitis in Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris): a Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Naturally Occuring Cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Cole, R.A.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neurona meningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondii meningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  6. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of pituitary folliculostellate cells during aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Cónsole, G M; Jurado, S B; Riccillo, F L; Gómez Dumm, C L

    2000-01-01

    The impact of aging on pituitary folliculostellate (FS) cells is not well known. The aim of the work reported here was to carry out a quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of the FS population in male and female rats during aging and to correlate the findings with possible changes at the ultrastructural level. Young (4 months), old (20 months) and senescent (29 months) Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were sacrificed by rapid decapitation, their pituitaries dissected and processed by both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Serial sections (4 microm) were obtained at different levels and immunostained by means of rabbit anti-S100 serum as the primary antibody and a peroxidase-mediated EnVision System (Dako). Measurement of volume density (VD) and cell density (CD) was made in S100-reacting elements by means of an image analysis system (Imaging Technology, Optimas). These parameters were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in old and senescent rats as compared to young animals. In senescent females, which presented a high incidence of microprolactinomas, a significant (p < 0.01) increment of VD and CD was observed in FS cells in the area surrounding the adenomas, together with a marked decrease in those parameters within the tumors. Sexual dimorphism was not found except for the prolactinoma-bearing female group. The ultrastructure of FS cells showed the typical characteristics previously described in the pituitary gland. Only moderate changes in the endoplasmic reticulum were observed in old and senescent animals. We conclude that aging has a clear effect on the morphology of the pituitary FS cell population. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Tatiana Maria Folador; da Silva, Silvana; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30) or 60 days (group C60) or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo). The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30) or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30); fluoxetine (group FS60) or venlafaxine (group VS60) with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60) or venlafaxine (group VP60) with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05). RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60) induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days. PMID:22179167

  8. Atrial development in the human heart: an immunohistochemical study with emphasis on the role of mesenchymal tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessels, A.; Anderson, R. H.; Markwald, R. R.; Webb, S.; Brown, N. A.; Viragh, S.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the atrial chambers in the human heart was investigated immunohistochemically using a set of previously described antibodies. This set included the monoclonal antibody 249-9G9, which enabled us to discriminate the endocardial cushion-derived mesenchymal tissues from those derived from extracardiac splanchnic mesoderm, and a monoclonal antibody recognizing the B isoform of creatine kinase, which allowed us to distinguish the right atrial myocardium from the left. The expression patterns obtained with these antibodies, combined with additional histological information derived from the serial sections, permitted us to describe in detail the morphogenetic events involved in the development of the primary atrial septum (septum primum) and the pulmonary vein in human embryos from Carnegie stage 14 onward. The level of expression of creatine kinase B (CK-B) was found to be consistently higher in the left atrial myocardium than in the right, with a sharp boundary between high and low expression located between the primary septum and the left venous valve indicating that the primary septum is part of the left atrial gene-expression domain. This expression pattern of CK-B is reminiscent of that of the homeobox gene Pitx2, which has recently been shown to be important for atrial septation in the mouse. This study also demonstrates a poorly appreciated role of the dorsal mesocardium in cardiac development. From the earliest stage investigated onward, the mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium protrudes into the dorsal wall of the primary atrial segment. This dorsal mesenchymal protrusion is continuous with a mesenchymal cap on the leading edge of the primary atrial septum. Neither the mesenchymal tissues of the dorsal protrusion nor the mesenchymal cap on the edge of the primary septum expressed the endocardial tissue antigen recognized by 249-9G9 at any of the stages investigated. The developing pulmonary vein uses the dorsal mesocardium as a conduit to reach

  9. Atrial development in the human heart: an immunohistochemical study with emphasis on the role of mesenchymal tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessels, A.; Anderson, R. H.; Markwald, R. R.; Webb, S.; Brown, N. A.; Viragh, S.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the atrial chambers in the human heart was investigated immunohistochemically using a set of previously described antibodies. This set included the monoclonal antibody 249-9G9, which enabled us to discriminate the endocardial cushion-derived mesenchymal tissues from those derived from extracardiac splanchnic mesoderm, and a monoclonal antibody recognizing the B isoform of creatine kinase, which allowed us to distinguish the right atrial myocardium from the left. The expression patterns obtained with these antibodies, combined with additional histological information derived from the serial sections, permitted us to describe in detail the morphogenetic events involved in the development of the primary atrial septum (septum primum) and the pulmonary vein in human embryos from Carnegie stage 14 onward. The level of expression of creatine kinase B (CK-B) was found to be consistently higher in the left atrial myocardium than in the right, with a sharp boundary between high and low expression located between the primary septum and the left venous valve indicating that the primary septum is part of the left atrial gene-expression domain. This expression pattern of CK-B is reminiscent of that of the homeobox gene Pitx2, which has recently been shown to be important for atrial septation in the mouse. This study also demonstrates a poorly appreciated role of the dorsal mesocardium in cardiac development. From the earliest stage investigated onward, the mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium protrudes into the dorsal wall of the primary atrial segment. This dorsal mesenchymal protrusion is continuous with a mesenchymal cap on the leading edge of the primary atrial septum. Neither the mesenchymal tissues of the dorsal protrusion nor the mesenchymal cap on the edge of the primary septum expressed the endocardial tissue antigen recognized by 249-9G9 at any of the stages investigated. The developing pulmonary vein uses the dorsal mesocardium as a conduit to reach

  10. Effect of oral lactulose on clinical and immunohistochemical parameters in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hafer, Anne; Krämer, Sigrid; Duncker, Swantje; Krüger, Martin; Manns, Michael P; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2007-01-01

    Background The prebiotic potential of lactulose is well established and preclinical studies demonstrated a protective effect of lactulose in murine models of colitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and histological efficacy of lactulose in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for which probiotic therapy yielded promising results. Methods Patients were treated with standard medication alone or combined with 10 g lactulose daily as adjuvant therapy for 4 months. Clinical efficacy of treatment was assessed using clinical activity indices, a quality of life index (IBDQ), endoscopic scores, defecation frequency and monitoring corticosteroid medication. Orsomucoid, alpha1-antitrypsin and other laboratory parameters were determined. In addition, in some participants colonic biopsies were analyzed with haematoxylin-eosin staining or with antibodies against HLA-DR, CD68, IgA and CD3, and evaluated systematically. All measurements were performed both at enrolment and at the end of the trial. Results 14 patients presenting ulcerative colitis (UC) and 17 patients presenting Crohn's disease (CD), most of them in a clinically active state, were enrolled in this pilot study. After 4 month no significant improvement of clinical activity index, endoscopic score or immunohistochemical parameters was observed in CD or UC patients receiving lactulose in comparison to the control group. However, significant improvement of quality of life was observed in UC patients receiving lactulose compared to the control group (p = 0.04). Conclusion The findings of the present pilot study indicate that oral lactulose has no beneficial effects in IBD patients in particular with regard to clinical activity, endoscopic score or immunohistochemical parameters. The importance of the beneficial effect of lactulose in UC patients regarding the quality of life needs further evaluation in larger controlled clinical trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  11. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of the meridian-like system on the surface of internal organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Su; Yoo, Jung Sun; Hong, Ju Young; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Youn-Joong; Kang, Dae-In; Ahn, Byung Soo; Wo, Hee-Jong

    2007-01-01

    Threadlike structures on the surfaces of mammalian internal organs were recently observed, and they can be the anatomical basis of the meridian-like network of internal organs as detected by the Bi-Digital O-Ring test imaging method. Morphological and histological studies were performed to reveal their novel features by using confocal and electron microscopy, and there is evidence that reveals that they have a ductal structure in which some liquid flows. They form a part of the network of acupuncture meridians that is thought to be a circulatory system distributed throughout an animal body. In order to confirm further the circulatory function it was necessary to provide evidences for the existence of endothelial cells at the inner boundaries of the microchannels that form the threadlike ducts. In this work we performed immunohistochemical studies for the identification of endothelial cells. In addition, we identified the extracellular matrices between the microchannels in the threadlike structure by using antifibronectin, elastin, laminin, and collagen type IV. Since immunohistochemical data are not sufficient for definite proof we supplemented the analysis with ultra structural information by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Yet TEM images show only ultrathin sections (50 nm) of a specimen, we needed to take 3-dimentional images to provide a visual demonstration of the microchannels in the threadlike ducts. We conducted high voltage electron microscopic studies for this purpose and obtained corroborating tomograms that exhibit the microchannels. In conclusion, the meridian-like tissues are ducts with microchannels, which implies the circulatory function of the acupuncture meridian network.

  12. New Markers in Atherosclerosis: Thrombospondin-2 (THBS-2) and Leukocyte Cell-Derived Chemotaxin-2 (LECT-2); An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, Fatma Cavide; Yildiz, Pelin; Akhtar, Muhammad Salman; Aydin, Cemalettin; Sonmez, Osman; Ay, Nuray; Vatankulu, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Background Current research investigating the role of THBS2 and LECT-2 in atherogenesis is very limited. Therefore, we designed this study to demonstrate the role of THBS-2 and LECT-2 in atherosclerosis at the tissue level in fresh specimens. Material/Methods A total of 32 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery were enrolled. Aortic wall punch biopsies were obtained at the site of proximal aortosaphenous bypass graft anastomosis. A specimen of left internal mammarian artery (LiMA) was taken from the segment just proximal to its anastomosis. The aortic tissue is representive of the atherosclerotic tisue, and LiMA tissue is representative of the non-atherosclerotic area. The specimens were painted with CD68 for macrophage, and THBS-2 and LECT-2 antibodies for immunohistochemical staining. Results Aortic THBS-2 levels were significantly lower, whereas aortic LECT-2 levels were significantly higher when compare to LiMA (14.4±9.9 (5–30) and 36.9±13.0 (5–60) p: 0.0001 and 20.3±15.0 (5–60) and 20.8±13,8 (10–30) p: 0.0001, respectively). CD68+ and monocyte level correlated significantly with AHA atherosclerosis grade (p=0.01, r=0.45 and p=0.001, r=0.56, Spearman’s test). CD68+ level correlated significantly with LECT-2 levels in atherosclerotic aortic tissue (p=0.026, r=0.392, Spearman’s test), whereas aortic TSBN-2 levels were not. Conclusions The present study has taken the first steps to highlight new markers in atherosclerosis by using immunohistochemical method. The study results suggest that the tissue levels of THBS2 and LECT-2 may correlate with the stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:28039493

  13. Pleomorphic and dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 41 cases.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Marlo M; Tamboli, Pheroze; Gomez, Jose A; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2010-05-01

    In this article, we supplement the few published articles by describing the clinical and pathologic features of pleomorphic and dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma from 41 patients (27 women and 14 men) with an age range of 25 to 75 years (mean, 56.5 years), representing the largest cohort reported to date. The typical leiomyosarcoma component accounted for <5% to 60% (mean, 15%) of the tumor. The pleomorphic sarcoma component was composed of polygonal cells in 57% of cases, spindle cells in 21%, a combination of polygonal, epithelioid, rhabdoid, and/or spindle cells in 18%, and predominantly epithelioid cells in 3%. The classical leiomyosarcoma component was positive for at least one myogenic immunohistochemical marker in 29 tumors tested; smooth muscle actin in 100% (27/27), calponin in 90% (9/10), muscle-specific actin in 90% (10/11), desmin in 86% (23/27), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMS-1) in 67% (4/6), and caldesmon in 57% (4/7). The pleomorphic sarcoma component was reactive for at least one muscle marker in 77% (23/30) of cases; smooth muscle actin in 63% (17/27), calponin in 60% (6/10), SMMS-1 in 60% (3/5), desmin in 59% (16/27), muscle-specific actin in 40% (4/10), and caldesmon in 29% (2/7). The classical leiomyosarcoma component was often strongly positive for myogenic markers, and the pleomorphic sarcoma component usually showed focal and less intense immunoreactivity. Based on staining for muscle markers in the pleomorphic component, twenty-three cases were designated as pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, and 7 cases were designated as dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma (negative for all muscle markers used). Eleven cases, in which tissue was not available for immunhistochemical stains, the question of pleomorphic versus dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma could not be answered. The incidence of metastasis was 89% (32/36) and the mortality rate was 50% (18/36) at last follow-up (3-104 months; mean, 27.5 months).

  14. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the reticulum of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A J; Redondo, E; Masot, A J

    2004-01-01

    Iberian red deer need to be conserved for their economic role and for their genetic importance as an important component of the ecosystem. Modifications currently being made to traditional management systems require a better understanding of the structure, function and development of their alimentary system. Here we describe a histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of the stomach of 25 red deer embryos and fetuses from 30 days of gestation until birth (235 days). Differentiation of the reticular compartment from the primitive gastric tube begins at 67 days, forming a three-layered structure: epithelium, pluripotential blastemal tissue and serosa. The primitive reticular cells are initiated as small epithelial evaginations (primary ribs) at 117 days. At 142 days, lateral growths appear from the primary reticular ribs, forming the corneum papillae. The secondary reticular ribs form at 142 days as growths from the primary ribs. The uneven height of primary and secondary reticular ribs leads to the formation of cells of varying size. Growth of the reticular ribs involves the lamina propria but not the submucosa, so clear separation of these layers is maintained during histodifferentiation. Formation of the tunica muscularis from the pluripotential blastemal tissue begins at 67 days of intrauterine life, as two layers of longitudinally and circularly arranged myoblasts. Differentiation of the muscularis from the mucosa occurs at approximately 205 days, as longitudinal projections of the internal bundles of the tunica muscularis form the musculature of the primary ribs. The secretion of neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides by the reticular epithelial layer begins at 67 days, establishing the gradual adaptation of the mucosa to its protective function in postnatal life. Neuroendocrine (non-neuron enolase) and glial cells (glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin) were detected by immunohistochemistry, in a similar localization and intensity to that

  15. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study of the Lamellae of Oocytes in Atretic Follicles in Relation to Different Processes of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, M.L.; Echeverría, O.M.; García, G.; Ortiz, R.; Vázquez-Nin, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Atresia is the process through which non-selectable oocytes are eliminated; it involves apoptosis and/or autophagy. This study used immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques to characterize the lamellae present in the cytoplasm of oocytes in follicles in the process of atresia in prepubertal and adult Wistar rats. The results indicate that the lamellae are positive to tubulin and myosin immunodetection under light and electron microscopy. Labeling is greater with anti-tubulin and lesser with anti-myosin. Our observations indicate that lamellae are present in oocytes at the initial antral stage in prepubertal rats; that is, from day 14 post-birth to adult age. We were able to determine that the increase in altered lamellae principally occurs in the apoptotic cells rather than in the autophagic cells. PMID:26428888

  16. Effects of Melatonin on the Cerebellum of Infant Rat Following Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus: a Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Uyanıkgil, Yiğit; Turgut, Mehmet; Baka, Meral

    2017-02-01

    Hydrocephalus is a developmental disorder causing abnormally collected cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles. It leads to bigger skulls and many dysfunctions related to the nervous system. Here, we addressed whether exogenous melatonin administration could reverse the clinical features of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in infantile rats. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in 2-week-old 45 Wistar albino rats, which were divided into three groups: Group A, the control group, received intracisternal sham injection with solely the needle insertion; group B, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with isotonic NaCl after kaolin injection; and group C, the hydrocephalus + melatonin group, was given i.p. exogenous melatonin at a dose of 0.5 mg/100 g body weight after kaolin injection. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed after the induction of hydrocephalus and melatonin administration. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was stained by immunohistochemical method. TUNEL method was used to define and quantitate apoptosis in the cerebellar tissues. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test, and once significance was determined among means, post hoc pairwise comparisons were carried out using Mann-Whitney U test. We found that melatonin administration significantly ameliorated ratio of substantia grisea area/substantia alba area in the cerebellum of infantile rats. Histologically, there was a significant reduction in the number of cerebellar apoptotic cells after the hydrocephalus induced by kaolin (P < 0.05). Our results clearly revealed that the histopathological changes in the cerebellum were reversed by systemic melatonin administration in infantile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to suggest melatonin as a candidate protective drug in children with hydrocephalus.

  17. TTF1 expression in normal lung neuroendocrine cells and related tumors: immunohistochemical study comparing two different monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Chiaravalli, Anna Maria; Placidi, Claudia; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Cerati, Michele; Capella, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) regulates lung morphogenesis and differentiation, and its immunohistochemical expression is used for identifying lung neoplasms. The 8G7G3/1 antibody has been used in previous studies, but a different and more sensitive anti-TTF1 antibody, named SPT24, has become commercially available. Since the immunohistochemical expression of TTF1 in normal lung neuroendocrine (NE) cells has not been previously investigated and its utility in the diagnosis of lung NE tumors is a controversial issue, we studied the TTF1 expression in normal adult and fetal lungs, in 83 pulmonary NE neoplasms, in 131 non-lung NE tumors and in 36 metastases from these neoplasms using these two antibodies. A TTF1 immunoreactivity was demonstrated in normal fetal and adult NE cells when using the SPT24 clone. Conversely, using the 8G7G3/1 antibody, only rare fetal neuroendocrine cells were TTF1 positive while adult NE cells were negative. The SPT24 clone identified TTF1 expression in more carcinoids, most of them peripherally located, and poorly differentiated NE carcinomas than the 8G7G3/1 clone. Non-pulmonary well-differentiated NE tumors were negative for both antibodies. Among the 45 non-pulmonary poorly differentiated NE carcinomas 11% were positive for 8G7G3/1 and 18% for SPT24. TTF1 expression in metastases perfectly reflected that detected in the related primary tumors. Our results indicate that the SPT24 antibody is more sensitive than the 8G7G3/1 clone for labeling lung carcinoids and it appears particularly useful in detecting peripheral neoplasms. In addition, the expression of TTF1 in normal NE cells suggests a possible role for the transcription factor in their development and differentiation.

  18. Immunohistochemical features of the gastrointestinal tract tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hannah H.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract tumors include a wide variety of vastly different tumors and on a whole are one of the most common malignancies in western countries. These tumors often present at late stages as distant metastases which are then biopsied and may be difficult to differentiate without the aid of immunohistochemical stains. With the exception of pancreatic and biliary tumors where there are no distinct immunohistochemical patterns, most gastrointestinal tumors can be differentiated by their unique immunohistochemical profile. As the size of biopsies decrease, the role of immunohistochemical stains will become even more important in determining the origin and differentiation of gastrointestinal tract tumors. PMID:22943017

  19. Immunohistochemical and molecular study on the protective effect of curcumin against hepatic toxicity induced by paracetamol in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Abdo Nassan, Mohamed; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed

    2014-11-29

    An overdose of paracetamol is a frequent reason for liver and renal toxicity and possible death and curcumin has hepatoprotective properties against liver damage. The exact mechanism of such protection is not clear. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the molecular levels of the protective effect of curcumin on paracetamol overdose induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were allocated into 4 groups. Control group, administered corn oil; curcumin group, administered curcumin (400 mg/kg BW daily intra-gastric) dissolved in corn oil; paracetamol group, administered corn oil with a single dose of paracetamol (500 mg/kg BW intra-gastric) and protective group, administered curcumin with a single dose of paracetamol. Curcumin was administered for 7 successive days, while paracetamol was administered at day six of treatment. Blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular examination. Serum analysis revealed an alteration in parameters of kidney and liver. A decrease in the antioxidant activity of liver was recorded in paracetamol group while curcumin administration restored it. Histopathological findings showed an extensive coagulative necrosis in hepatocytes together with massive neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration. Immunostaining of liver matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in paracetamol administered rats showed an increase in MMP-8 expression in the area of coagulative necrosis surrounding the central vein of hepatic lobules. Curcumin administration decreased MMP-8 expression in liver of paracetamol administered rats. Gene expression measurements revealed that paracetamol decreased the expression of antioxidant genes and increased the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and acute phase proteins. Curcumin administration ameliorated paracetamol-induced alterations in genes expression of antioxidant and inflammatory cytokines. The results

  20. Stem/Progenitor Cells in the Developing Human Cerebellum: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pibiri, V.; Ravarino, A.; Gerosa, C.; Pintus, M.C.; Fanos, V.; Faa, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella. SOX2 was expressed in precursors of different neural cell types, including Purkinje neurons, stellate cells, basket cells and Golgi cells. In the cerebellar cortex, SOX2 expression changed during gestation, being highly expressed from the 20th up to the 24th week, whereas at the 30th and at the 34th week SOX2 immunoreactivity was restricted to the Purkinje cell layer and the inner zone. Cerebellar human cortex was negative at the 38th week of gestation. PAX6 immunoreactivity was restricted to granule cell precursors in the external granule layer (EGL), being detected at all gestational ages. Our study indicates SOX2 and PAX6 as two useful markers of stem/progenitor cells that highlight the different germinative zones in the developing human cerebellum. PMID:27734996

  1. Heterogeneous expression of cholecystokinin and gastrin receptor in stomach and pancreatic cancer: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajani; Kim, Jong Joo; Tewari, Mallika; Shukla, Hari Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin (Gs) are a well known trophic factor for the gastrointestinal tract and their trophic effects are shown mainly toward pancreas and stomach, respectively. Though, the exact characterization of CCK and Gs receptors subtype (cholecystokinin type A receptor [CCKAR] and cholecystokinin type B receptor/gastrin receptor [CCKBR/GR]) in stomach cancer (SC) and pancreatic cancer (PC) is still controversial and necessities further validation. CCKAR and CCKBR/GR expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 55 SC, 25 benign gastric diseases (BGDs), 38 PC (including periampullary carcinoma), and 10 normal pancreatic tissue. The results were statistically correlated with the patient's clinical history to observe the prognostic significance if any. CCKAR expression was detected in 18.2% of SC, 20% of BGD, 65.8% of PC, and 30.0% of normal pancreas tissue samples. The CCKBR/GR expression was detected in 58.2% of SC, 48.0% of BGD, 18.4% of PC, and 60.0% of normal pancreas tissue samples. CCKBR/GR expression was significantly high in well and moderately differentiated SC samples as compared to poorly differentiated samples. Our study showed significantly higher expression of CCKAR and down regulation of CCKBR in PC as compared to control while CCKBR/GR was detected in majority of SC samples. Thus, our study suggests that CCK and Gs receptors may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. However, study need to be validated in significantly bigger sample size and need to be replicated in different cohorts.

  2. Cell talk: a phenomenon observed in the keloid scar by immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Soad Ali; Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Hajrah, Nahid Hassan

    2011-03-01

    Keloid is a common complication of the wound healing process. Scarce histologic studies describing changes in keloid growth or progression, regarding detailed descriptions of cellular distribution, relationship, or interaction are available. This study aimed to describe the nature, types, and interactions of immune cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, and mast cells), which predominate in keloid complications and may play a role in fibroblastic activation. In this study, 44 samples of keloid were collected, processed, and examined using both light (including routine and immunocytochemical staining) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This histologic study showed the characteristic disposition of abnormally thick collagen bundles and newly formed blood vessels in the keloid tissue. The latter showed endothelial hypertrophy, thickened walls with the disposition of homogenous substances, and fibrillar collagen in the perivascular tissue. Numerous mast cells were also observed. Marked cellular infiltration in the perivascular regions and among abnormal collagen was observed. Immunohistochemistry showed the dominance of (CD3) T lymphocytes together with the macrophages (CD68). Among the interesting findings that this study focused on was the cellular interaction. The contact was noticed between the fibroblast and mast cell, the fibroblast and T lymphocyte, the macrophage and both fibroblast and lymphocyte. This cell-cell interaction or contact may explain what was called in literature "cell talk" via cytokines secreted by these cells or through direct gap junctions. In conclusion, cell talk is a phenomenon that was noticed in many pathologic lesions and could explain the mechanism by which different cytokines are secreted by different cells to initiate disease or promote healing.

  3. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: a clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical study of 18 Chinese cases.

    PubMed

    Liping Cao; Jun Ni; Risheng Que; Zhengrong Wu; Zhenya Song

    2008-07-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) was first reported in 1989. Generally, DSRCT is considered to be an aggressive malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in the abdominal cavity and has been often seen in adolescents and young male adults. In the present study, a total of 18 cases of DSRCT reported in China between October 1998 and June 2006, including one case treated by the authors, were reviewed and analyzed. Among them, 14 had tumors in the abdominal cavity; the other four cases had tumors in the left fossa orbitalis, the root of the tongue, the soft tissue behind the left eyeball, and the abdominal wall (umbilicus). Overall, the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 52.36%, 27.92%, and 27.92%, respectively. The survival rate of DSRCT patients is disappointing; however, the survival of patients who had resection of the tumor or received comprehensive clinical treatment is satisfactory.

  4. Effects of hypoxia and its relationship with apoptosis, stem cells, and angiogenesis on the thymus of children with congenital heart defects: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ceyran, A Bahar; Şenol, Serkan; Güzelmeriç, Füsun; Tunçer, Eylem; Tongut, Aybala; Özbek, Babürhan; Şavluk, Ömer; Aydın, Abdullah; Ceyran, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The thymus slowly involutes with age after puberty. Various stress conditions accelerate the involution of the thymus and cause changes in the histologic structure of the gland. The present study performed histomorphological and immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluations of the thymus glands removed during surgical repair in patients with cyanotic or acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD). The thymus glands in the hypoxic group were compared to those in the non-hypoxic group. This study suggested that the activation of HIF-1 alpha promotes tumor progression and impair prognosis due to the inhibition of apoptosis, increased population of stem cells, and induction of angiogenesis also suggested that inactivation of HIF-1 alpha in tumor-infiltrated tissues could halt tumor progression and improve prognosis. The study included 76 thymus glands removed from patients who underwent an operation due to CHD. Of these cases, 38 had cyanotic CHD, and constituted the hypoxic group. The remaining 38 patients had acyanotic CHD, and constituted the non-hypoxic group. IHC procedures were performed for HIF-1 alpha, FoxP3, CD44, Bcl-2, and CD34. There were statistically significant differences between the hypoxic and non-hypoxic groups only in terms of medullary enlargement toward the cortex and effacement of the corticomedullary junction. In the immunohistochemical examination for five markers, staining intensity and staining rates increased with decreasing oxygen saturation. It can be concluded that the activation of HIF-1 alpha promotes tumor progression and impair prognosis due to the inhibition of apoptosis, increased population of stem cells, and induction of angiogenesis.

  5. The cutaneous manifestations of atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome: a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Selim, Maria Angelica; Markert, Mary L; Burchette, James L; Herman, Christopher M; Turner, John W

    2008-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a congenital anomaly with a constellation of findings that includes thymic hypoplasia. Only a small subset of patients with DiGeorge syndrome has complete athymia, classified as complete DiGeorge anomaly; one third of these patients show an eczematous dermatitis, oligoclonal T-cells and lymphadenopathy, known as atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. Six biopsies from six patients with the distinctive clinical phenotype of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly were studied. Every biopsy showed exocytosis (100%), parakeratosis, often confluent and spongiosis (100%). Neutrophilic abscesses (50%), dyskeratosis (67%) and satellite cell necrosis (50%) were seen. Perieccrine and perivascular inflammation were seen in half of the cases. Eosinophils were identified (83%); most commonly in both the epidermis and dermis. All of lymphocytes were CD3 positive. Most (83%) of cases contained T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) positive cells. Special testing of the selected patients using spectratyping identified oligoclonal T-cell populations. The presence of dyskeratotic keratinocytes, satellite cell necrosis and parakeratotic scale with neutrophils characterizes the cutaneous rash seen in this subset of complete DiGeorge syndrome patients. Such skin lesions from patients with DiGeorge anomaly should alert the pathologist to the potential diagnosis of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. The pathophysiologic role of the oligoclonal T-cells in this entity requires additional study.

  6. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2--An Imperative Prognostic Biomarker in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma--An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Byatnal, Aditi Amit; Byatnal, Amit; Sen, Subhalakshmi; Guddattu, Vasudev; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with metastasis and tumor recurrence resulting in 90 % of cancer associated mortality. COX-2, an inflammatory biomarker, has been shown to play a significant role in tumorigenesis of OSCC. To study the expression of COX-2 in OSCC by immunohistochemistry and investigate its association with the clinicopathological parameters including patient survival. A cross sectional study was carried out in 75 histologically confirmed cases of OSCC. COX-2 expression was evaluated by indirect streptavidin biotin method. The expression was semi-quantitatively assessed using established criteria. The expression profile of COX-2 was correlated with the clinicopathological details like tumor size, regional lymphnode metastasis, distant metastasis, clinical stage, local recurrence of tumor, histological grade, and survival of patient. Chi square and Kaplan Meier statistical tests were applied for assessing this association. COX-2 expression was absent in normal oral mucosa. Over expression of COX-2 was seen in 58 out of 75 specimens of OSCC. Overexpression of COX-2 was significantly associated with the lymphnode involvement, histological grade, local recurrence of tumor and patient survival. COX-2 expression represents an important biomarker of prognostic significance that may be used to identify a subset of patients at high risk and to predict patient survival.

  8. Ancillary Studies, Including Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Studies, in Pancreatic Cytology.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle D; Centeno, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is indicated for sampling of solid and cystic masses. Preoperative cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cystic lesions on cytology can be problematic, and ancillary studies may help confirm diagnosis. Ancillary studies in pancreatic cytology include special stains, immunohistochemistry, mutational analyses of specific genes, cyst fluid analysis of tumor markers and enzymes, and, in some instances, flow cytometry. Proteomics, microRNA sequencing, and whole-exome gene sequencing have been used to illustrate the progression of pancreatic neoplasms and identify key diagnostic markers. This article summarizes recent literature on ancillary studies in pancreatic fine-needle aspiration samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Electrochemotherapy with Cisplatin and Peritumoral IL-12 Gene Electrotransfer on Canine Mast Cell Tumors: a Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Claudia; Svara, Tanja; Rocchigiani, Guido; Millanta, Francesca; Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Lampreht Tratar, Ursa; Sersa, Gregor; Tozon, Natasa; Poli, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The study was aimed to characterize tumor response after combined treatment employing electrochemotherapy with IL-12 gene electrotransfer in dogs with spontaneous mast cell tumors (MCT). Eleven dogs with eleven MCTs were included in the study. Histological changes were investigated in biopsy specimens collected before the treatment (T0), and 4 (T1) and 8 weeks (T2) later. Cellular infiltrates were characterized immunohistochemically by using anti CD3, CD20, Foxp3 (Treg), CD68 and anti MHC-class II antibodies. Proliferation and anti-apoptotic activity of neoplastic cells were assessed using anti Ki-67 and Bcl-2 antibodies. Angiogenetic processes were investigated immunohistochemically by using anti Factor VIII and anti CD31 antibodies and micro vessel density quantification. Histopathological examination of samples at T0 confirmed the diagnosis and the presence of scanty infiltrates consisted mainly of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. At T1 and T2 neoplastic cells were drastically reduced in 7/11 cases, small clusters of neoplastic cells were detected in 3/11 cases and 1/11 cases neoplastic cells were still evident. Proliferation activity of neoplastic cells was significantly reduced at T1 and T2 and expression of anti-apoptotic protein at T1. Microvessel density was drastically reduced in all samples after treatment. The number of T-lymphocytes increased at T1, although not significant, while Treg were significant higher at T1 and macrophages at T2. The combined electrochemotherapy and IL-12 gene electrotransfer effectively induced a cellular response against neoplastic cells characterized mainly by the recruitment of T-lymphocytes and macrophages and a fibrotic proliferation with reduction of microvessels.

  10. Early Stages of Hyaline Membrane Formation Detected in Alveolar Mouths in Diffuse Alveolar-Damage-Associated Diseases: A Detailed Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Fujita, Jiro; Yoshinouchi, Takeo; Enzan, Hideaki; Iguchi, Mitsuko; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2015-10-01

    To study the early stages of hyaline membrane (HM) formation, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was thoroughly investigated using immunohistochemical methods in 15 autopsy cases, which consisted of various types of interstitial pneumonias and pulmonary diseases derived from nonmalignant or malignant diseases. Alveolar mouths (AMs) that were presumed to be normal were ultrastructurally examined in detail, by using pulmonary tissues in the pneumothorax. It is interesting to note that during the initial stages of HM formation in AMs, fragmented eosinophilic masses were closely attached to AMs as irregular fragments or by a cap-like structure. The ultrastructure revealed some distance between the capillary spaces and surface epithelium of the AMs, indicating that the epithelial cells at the AMs might be often easily damaged even by minor stimuli; they can be considered as "locus minoris resistentiae." HMs were found to be formed initially at the site of AMs derived from fragmented eosinophilic masses in not only pulmonary but also extrapulmonary diseases, including both nonmalignant and malignant diseases. These irregular eosinophilic masses, representing the early shape of HMs, were immunohistochemically positive for the epithelial membrane antigens, namely, surfactant protein A and factor VIII antigen, and occasionally for KL-6 and cytokeratins. These results suggested that fragmented irregular masses represent the initial phase of HM formation. Five of 15 cases were focally negative for KL-6 at the initial irregular mass of HMs. Because KL-6 is one of the fundamental components of pulmonary surface elements, it needs to be studied further by detailed clinicopathological examination. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Molecular analysis of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Bondareff, W.; Wischik, C. M.; Novak, M.; Amos, W. B.; Klug, A.; Roth, M.

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies directed against three regions of tau, ubiquitin, and B-amyloid were used in a histologic study of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease to distinguish two populations of neurofibrillary tangles. Intracellular tangles were immunolabeled exclusively by two antibodies raised against antigens in the fuzzy coat of the paired helical filament (PHF). Extracellular tangles were distinguished by selective immunolabeling with a monoclonal antibody raised against antigens in the PHF core. This was associated with removal of the fuzzy coat and exposure of PHF-core epitopes. In the transition from intracellular to extracellular compartments in vivo, tangles appeared to undergo changes similar to protease digestion in vitro. The transition was associated with the appearance of amyloid immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that tangle degradation occurs in a series of distinct stages, including ubiquitination of some unknown molecule, a change in tau immunoreactivity, and partial proteolysis of tangle-bound tau in extracellular tangles. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2169192

  12. Expression of claudin-5 in canine pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma - An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Gálfi, Péter; Halász, Judit; Kulka, Janina

    2011-03-01

    Claudin-5 is an endothelium-specific tight junction protein. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression pattern of this molecule in intact pancreatic tissues and in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas from dogs by the use of cross-reactive humanised anticlaudin-5 antibody. The necropsy samples taken from dogs included 10 nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues, 10 well-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 10 poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 5 intrahepatic metastases of well-differentiated and 5 intrahepatic metastases of poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinomas. A strong lateral membrane claudin-5 positivity was detected in exocrine cells in all intact pancreas samples. The endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans and the epithelial cells of the ducts were negative for claudin-5. The endothelial cells of vessels and lymphatic channels in the stroma of the intact pancreas showed strong membrane positivity for this claudin. All well-differentiated exocrine pancreas carcinomas and all poorly-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma samples showed a diffuse loss of claudin-5 expression. The claudin-5-positive peritumoural vessels and lymphatic channels facilitated the detection of vascular invasion of the claudin-5-negative cancer cells. In liver metastasis samples, the pancreatic carcinomas were negative for claudin-5. It seems that the loss of expression of claudin-5 may lead to carcinogenesis in canine exocrine pancreatic cells.

  13. Immunohistochemical study of constitutive neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the central nervous system of goat with natural listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, T; Weinstock, D; Castro, M D; Acland, H; Walter, M; Kim, H Y; Purchase, H G

    2000-12-01

    The expression of both constitutive and inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections in normal and Listeria monocytogenes-infected brains of goats. In normal control goats, a small number of neurons showed immunoreactivity of both iNOS and nNOS, and the number of iNOS-positive neurons was higher than the number of nNOS-positive neurons. In natural listeriosis, listeria antigens were easily immunostained in the inflammatory cells of microabscesses. In this lesion, the immunoreactivity of iNOS in neurons was more intense than the control, but nNOS was not. In microabscesses, nNOS was weakly visualized in macrophages and neutrophils, while iNOS was expressed in macrophages, but not in neutrophils. These findings suggest that normal caprine brain cells, including neurons, constitutively express iNOS and nNOS, and the expressions of these molecules is increased in Listeria monocytogenes infections. Furthermore, inflammatory cells, including macrophages, expressing both nNOS and iNOS may play important roles in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningoencephalitis in goat.

  14. An immunohistochemical, enzymatic, and behavioral study of CD157/BST-1 as a neuroregulator.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Liang, Mingkun; Yoshihara, Toru; Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam; Stanislav, Cherepanov; Nam, Tae-Sik; Kim, Uh-Hyun; Kasai, Satoka; Nishimura, Tomoko; Al Mahmuda, Naila; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Gerasimenko, Maria; Salmina, Alla; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Tsuji, Chiharu; Lopatina, Olga

    2017-03-24

    Recent rodent and human studies provide evidence in support of the fact that CD157, well known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1) and a risk factor in Parkinson's disease, also meaningfully acts in the brain as a neuroregulator and affects social behaviors. It has been shown that social behaviors are impaired in CD157 knockout mice without severe motor dysfunction and that CD157/BST1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with autism spectrum disorder in humans. However, it is still necessary to determine how this molecule contributes to the brain's physiological and pathophysiological functions. To gain fresh insights about the relationship between the presence of CD157 in the brain and its enzymatic activity, and aberrant social behavior, CD157 knockout mice of various ages were tested. CD157 immunoreactivity colocalized with nestin-positive cells and elements in the ventricular zones in E17 embryos. Brain CD157 mRNA levels were high in neonates but low in adults. Weak but distinct immunoreactivity was detected in several areas in the adult brain, including the amygdala. CD157 has little or no base exchange activity, but some ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, indicating that CD157 formed cyclic ADP-ribose but much less nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, with both mobilizing Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) pools. Social avoidance in CD157 knockout mice was rescued by a single intraperitoneal injection of oxytocin. CD157 may play a role in the embryonic and adult nervous systems. The functional features of CD157 can be explained in part through the production of cyclic ADP-ribose rather than nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Further experiments are required to elucidate how the embryonic expression of CD157 in neural stem cells contributes to behaviors in adults or to psychiatric symptoms.

  15. p53 Mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Travis, W.H.; Linehan, H.M.; Karl, M.; Mastorakos, G.; Chrousos, G.P.

    1994-03-01

    p53 is a recessive tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p. Mutations in the p53 gene play an important role in the tumorigenesis of diverse types of human neoplasms including breast and colon cancers. More than 90% of all mutations discovered in such tumors have been detected in 4 hot spot areas that lie between exons 5 and 8. In contrast to wild-type p53, mutant p53 accumulates intracellularly and can be easily detected by immunohistochemistry. The authors therefore investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms using molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Five patients with adrenocortical adenomas (5 female; ages 39-72 yr), 11 patients with adrenocortical carcinomas (8 female, 3 male; ages 15-50 yr), and two adrenocortical tumor cell lines were studied. After DNA extraction from frozen tumor tissue or paraffin-embedded material, exons 5 through 8 were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced by the dideoxy termination method. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens obtained during adrenalectomy using a monoclonal antibody reacting with both wild-type and mutant p53. Prevalence of mutations was adenomas, 0/5, carcinomas, 3/11, and adrenocortical cell lines, 2/2. Single point mutations were detected in 3 cases (exons 5, 6, and 7, respectively), and rearrangements of exon 7/8 and 8 were found in 2 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected strong nuclear and/or cytoplasmic p53 immunoreactivity in all adrenocortical carcinomas with point mutations of the p53 gene but not in adenomas and carcinomas with the wild-type sequence or with deletion/rearrangement of the p53 gene. They conclude that p53 plays a role in the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinomas but is of less importance to benign adenomas. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study of α-SMA, Collagen, and PCNA in Epithelial Ovarian Neoplasm

    PubMed

    Anggorowati, Nungki; Ratna Kurniasari, Chatarina; Damayanti, Karina; Cahyanti, Titik; Widodo, Irianiwati; Ghozali, Ahmad; Romi, Muhammad Mansyur; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Arfian, Nur

    2017-03-01

    Background: Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is an isoform of actin, positive in myofibroblasts and is an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. EMT is a process by which tumor cells develop to be more hostile and able to metastasize. Progression of tumor cells is always followed by cell composition and extracellular matrix component alteration. Increased α-SMA expression and collagen alteration may predict the progressivity of ovarian neoplasms. Objective: The aim of this research was to analyse the characteristic of α-SMA and collagen in tumor cells and stroma of ovarian neoplasms. In this study, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression was also investigated. Methods: Thirty samples were collected including serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell subtypes. The expression of α-SMA and PCNA were calculated in cells and stroma of ovarian tumors. Collagen was detected using Sirius Red staining and presented as area fraction. Results: The overexpressions of α-SMA in tumor cells were only detected in serous and clear cell ovarian carcinoma. The histoscore of α-SMA was higher in malignant than in benign or borderline ovarian epithelial neoplasms (105.3±129.9 vs. 17.3±17.1, P=0.011; mean±SD). Oppositely, stromal α-SMA and collagen area fractions were higher in benign than in malignant tumors (27.2±6.6 vs 20.5±8.4, P=0.028; 31.0±5.6 vs. 23.7±6.4, P=0.04). The percentages of epithelial and stromal PCNA expressions were not significantly different between benign and malignant tumors. Conclusion: Tumor cells of serous and clear cell ovarian carcinoma exhibit mesenchymal characteristic as shown by α-SMA positive expression. This expression might indicate that these subtypes were more aggressive. This research showed that collagen and α-SMA area fractions in stroma were higher in benign than in malignant neoplasms. 10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.3.667

  17. Study of P21 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Immunohistochemical Technique.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Afshar-Moghaddam, Noushin; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Rastin, Verisheh; Nasr, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common in middle aged individuals. Some studies have shown that oral lichen planus has a potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the cell cycle, thus it acts as an inhibitor in cell proliferation. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the immunostaining of p21 (as a proliferation inhibitory factor) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, p21expression was investigated in 24 samples of oral lichen planus (OLP), 24 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 24 samples of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) by employing immunohistochemical staining. The mean percentage of p21-positive cells in OSCC (54.5±6.6) was significantly higher than that in OLP (32.8±6.08) and OEH (9.4±3.8). Moreover, OLP samples expressed p21 significantly higher than the OEH. Kruskal Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the intensity of staining (p< 0.001). According to the findings of this study, the expression of p21 might be related to the potential carcinogenic transformation of lichen planus to SCC. Therefore, continuous follow-up periods for OLP are recommended for diagnosis of the malignant transformations in early stages.

  18. Histogenesis of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses. An electron-microscopic, biochemical, enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, M.; Torikata, C.; Iri, H.; Mikata, A.; Kawai, T.; Hanaoka, H.; Yakumaru, K.; Kageyama, K.

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the histogenesis of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses (CCS) as well as the problem of whether or not CCS is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, studies based on various methods were performed. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans gave the same results for amelanotic CCS and synovial sarcoma, and the DOPA reaction gave the same negative results for amelanotic CCS and synovial sarcoma. However, the DOPA reaction was also negative in an amelanotic recurrent tumor of a melanotic CCS, and electron-microscopic studies revealed a close resemblance between amelanotic CCS and melanotic CCS. Further, enzyme histochemical studies showed definite differences between synovial sarcoma and amelanotic CCS but gave identical results for amelanotic and melanotic CCS. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of S-100 protein in all CCS cases, both amelanotic and melanotic. These results indicate that CCS is not a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, and that both amelanotic and melanotic CCS are of neural crest origin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6320649

  19. Modulatory effects of levamisole and garlic oil on the immune response of Wistar rats: Biochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Essam Hassan; Baiomy, Ahmed Abdel-Aziz; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Levamisole (LEVA) and garlic are prevalent immunomodulators in humans and animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effects of LEVA and garlic oil (GO) alone or in combination on the immune response of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were allocated into four equal groups: Control group, which was given ad libitum access to food and water; and groups 2‑4, which were orally administered LEVA [2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) every 2 days], GO, (5 ml/kg BW daily), or LEVA plus GO, respectively for 4 consecutive weeks. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM levels were measured using a radial immunodiffusion assay. Serum cytokine levels, including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Total blood counts were measured automatically using a cell counter. Serum lysozyme enzymatic activity was determined by measuring the diameters of the zones of clearance relative to lysozyme. Immunohistochemical detection of CD4 and CD8 was carried out using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of IL‑4, IL‑5 and IL‑12 were measured in the leukocytes and thymus gland by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that LEVA increased serum levels of IFN‑γ, IL‑5 and TNF‑α cytokines, whereas co‑administration of LEVA and GO decreased the stimulatory action of LEVA alone. LEVA and GO alone increased the serum levels of IgG, IgM and total blood cell counts, and co‑administration of GO and LEVA inhibited the effects of LEVA. At the cellular level, in the spleen, LEVA increased immunoreactivity of CD4 and CD8, whereas co‑administration of GO with LEVA decreased this strong expression. At the molecular level, in leukocytes, LEVA upregulated the mRNA expression levels of IL‑2, IL‑4 and IL‑5, whereas GO alone downregulated mRNA expression. Co‑administration of

  20. Complete absence of KSHV/HHV-8 in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders: an immunohistochemical and molecular study of 52 cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Qin; Zuppan, Craig W; Rowsell, Edward H; Cao, Jeffrey D; Weiss, Lawrence M; Wang, Jun

    2009-05-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs), a heterogeneous group of monoclonal or polyclonal lesions, occur in immunosuppressed patients after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Although most PTLDs are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ and seem to represent EBV-induced proliferations of monoclonal (or less often polyclonal) B, T, or plasma cells, a subset of PTLDs is EBV-. Because Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8) has been described in association with the development of hematolymphoid and nonhematolymphoid neoplasms in HIV+ patients, we investigated whether there is an association between KSHV/HHV-8 and PTLDs. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 52 confirmed PTLD cases were analyzed immunohistochemically for expression of KSHV/HHV-8 latent nuclear antigen (LNA)-1 protein and by polymerase chain reaction-hybridization analysis for the KSHV/HHV-8 genome. The PTLD subtypes included 12 with early lesions (1 plasmacytic hyperplasia and 11 infectious mononucleosis-like), 10 polymorphic, 23 monomorphic (5 Burkitt, 14 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 1 plasmacytoma, 1 multiple myeloma, and 2 T-cell), 1 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 5 HL-like lesions, and 1 unclassified or other. None of the 51 tested specimens showed expression of KSHV/HHV-8 LNA-1. Furthermore, all 46 specimens tested demonstrated complete absence of the KSHV/HHV-8 genome. Our data clearly indicated that KSHV/HHV-8 is not associated with PTLDs.

  1. A somatostatin-secreting cell line established from a human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma (somatostatinoma): release experiment and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, H; Hayashi, I; Kono, A

    1990-06-15

    Production and secretion of somatostatin (SRIF) were studied using a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing cell line (QGP-1) established from a human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. High concentrations of SRIF (274 +/- 51 ng/mg of protein, mean +/- SD, n = 5) and CEA (3083 +/- 347 ng/mg of protein, mean +/- SD, n = 5) were present in QGP-1 cells, and the basal secretion rates of SRIF and CEA by the cells (n = 5) were 46.4 +/- 4.8 and 1690 +/- 78 pg/10(5) cells/h, respectively. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of SRIF in xenografts of QGP-1 cells and colocalization of SRIF and CEA. Secretion of SRIF by QGP-1 cells was stimulated in the presence of high K+ (50 mmol) and theophylline (10 mmol), but arginine (10 mmol) and glucose (300 mg/dl) had no effect on the SRIF secretion. The QGP-1 cell line may be useful for studying the regulation mechanism of SRIF secretion.

  2. Evidence of intra-hepatic vascular proliferation remodeling early after cure in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni: an immunohistochemical descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Abdel Fattah, Nashwa S; Ahmed, Naglaa S

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated the occurrence of angiogenesis, blood vessels formation from pre-existing vessels, in the initial phase of bilharzial granuloma formation and during fibrosis progression in chronic hepatic schistosomiasis. Paradoxically, a recent work demonstrated an occurrence of angiogenesis during fibrosis regression months after curative treatment. Studies regarding the in situ kinetics of blood vessels in the phase of granuloma resolution and liver tissue healing early after treatment are lacking. The current work compared the kinetics of blood vessels by immunohistochemical staining using CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and actin in the livers of normal control mice, Schistosoma mansoni infected mice and mice 2 weeks after curative treatment. The present study demonstrated a process of angiogenesis remodeling in the liver in the curative phase of hepatic schistosomiasis during the stage of granuloma resolution. Such finding raises the evidence of the importance and potential beneficial effect of vascular proliferation in the process of healing and restoration of liver tissue functions. Thus, blocking of angiogenesis may not represent the appropriate therapeutic target for the early treatment of schistosomal liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of galectin-3 in primary and metastatic melanoma: immunohistochemical studies on human lesions and nude mice xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Pierre; Debray, Charles; Petein, Michel; Awada, Ahmad; Lalmand, Marie-Claude; Laporte, Marianne; Van Den Heule, Bernard; Verhest, Alain; Pochet, Roland; Heenen, Michel

    2005-02-01

    Galectins are a large family of proteins which bind galactoside-containing glycans. Their role in cancer seems to be important since members of the family may mediate cell adhesion and modulate cell growth. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is expressed in the nucleus, in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface, and can also be secreted into the extracellular matrix. A series of experimental and clinical data have been reported which indicate that Gal-3 may play a putative role in carcinogenesis, cancer progression and the process of metastasis. To study the possible correlation between Gal-3 expression and malignant potential in primary melanoma lesions, we conducted an immunohistochemical study with monoclonal anti-Gal-3 antibody in a series of primary and metastatic melanoma lesions as well as benign skin pigmented lesions. We also developed a xenograft melanoma model in nude mice with two melanoma cell lines (ATCC G-361 and ATCC HT-144) and assessed staining with the Gal-3 antibody in the xenografts and the metastases. The expression of anti-Gal-3 staining was determined semiquantitatively. The expression of Gal-3 was higher in thin primary melanoma lesions than in benign pigmented skin lesions or metastases and seemed to correlate inversely with the aggressiveness as estimated by the Breslow index which is recognized as the main prognostic factor in melanoma. We propose Gal-3 expression in melanoma as a diagnostic and/or a prognostic parameter and suggest that further studies of such a role for Gal-3 are warranted.

  4. An Immunohistochemical Study of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sonal; Kumar, Madhu; Kumari, Malti; Mehrotra, Raj; Kushwaha, R A S; Goel, Madhumati; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kant, Surya

    2017-07-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related death. Targeted treatment for specific markers may help in reducing the cancer related morbidity and mortality. To study expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NSCLC, that are the targets for specific ALK inhibitors and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Total 69 cases of histologically diagnosed NSCLC were examined retrospectively for immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and ALK, along with positive control of normal placental tissue and anaplastic large cell lymphoma respectively. Of the NSCLC, Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) accounted for 71.0% and adenocarcinoma was 26.1%. ALK expression was seen in single case of 60-year-old female, non-smoker with adenocarcinoma histology. EGFR expression was seen in both SCC (59.18%) and adenocarcinoma in (77.78%) accounting for 63.77% of all cases. Both ALK and EGFR mutation were mutually exclusive. EGFR expression was seen in 63.77% of cases, highlighting the importance of its use in routine analysis, for targeted therapy and better treatment results. Although, ALK expression was seen in 1.45% of all cases, it is an important biomarker in targeted cancer therapy. Also, the mutually exclusive expression of these two markers need further studies to develop a diagnostic algorithm for NSCLC patients.

  5. High density of peritumoral lymphatic vessels is a potential prognostic marker of endometrial carcinoma: a clinical immunohistochemical method study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Liu, Zi; Gao, Fei; Meng, Xiao-yu

    2010-04-08

    The lymphatic system is a major route for cancer cell dissemination and also a potential target for antitumor therapy. To investigate whether increased lymphatic vessel density (LVD) is a prognostic factor for nodal metastasis and survival, we studied peritumoral LVD (P-LVD) and intratumoral LVD (I-LVD) in samples from 102 patients with endometrial carcinoma; Endometrial carcinoma tissues were analyzed for lymphatic vessels by immunohistochemical staining with an antibody against LYVE-1. Univariate analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier life-table curves to estimate survival, and was compared using the log rank test. Prognostic models used multivariate Cox regression analysis for multivariate analyses of survival; Our study showed that P-LVD, but not I-LVD, was significantly correlated with lymph vascular space invasion (LVSI), lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, and CD44 expression in endometrial carcinoma. Moreover, P-LVD was an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival and overall survival of endometrial carcinoma; P-LVD may serve as a prognostic factor for endometrial carcinoma. The peritumoral lymphatics might play an important role in lymphatic vessel metastasis.

  6. [Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in splenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Lima, Flávia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs.

  7. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the neuronal cell cycle of the cat using PCNA, Ki-67 and p53 markers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Schmidt, P; Url, A

    2004-12-01

    Recent studies about parvovirus replication in mature neurones of cats indicate that even feline neurones do not seem to be terminally differentiated. For further determination of the proliferative capability of feline neurones, an immunohistochemical study investigating the neuronal expression of the cell cycle-related proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki-67 and p53 was initiated. Brains of 50 cats of different age and gender, dying of various diseases, were examined. Strong PCNA clone PC10 expression could be observed in neurones of the cerebellar cortex and the vestibular nuclei, whereas entorhinal cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus and cerebral cortex revealed only weak immunolabelling. The PCNA clone 19F4 labelled numerous neurones in vestibular nuclei and some Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Nuclear expression of Ki-67 was sporadic in the vestibular nuclei, but p53 expression could not be detected anywhere in the feline brain. However, the presence of nuclear PCNA and Ki-67 expression indicates that certain feline neurones are capable of re-entering the cell cycle.

  8. CENTRAL GIANT CELL GRANULOMA OF THE JAWS AND GIANT CELL TUMOR OF LONG BONES - AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, Maria do Socorro; Piva, Marta Rabello; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; de Souza, Lélia Batista; Pinto, Leão Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether some components of the extracellular matrix and CD68 expression may drive the differences between the central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaws and giant cell tumor (GCT) of long bones, which present distinct evolution and clinical behavior. Material and Methods: Eight cases of CGCG and 7 cases of GCT were selected and immunohistochemically analyzed to verify the pattern of expression of CD68, tenascin (Tn) and fibronectin (Fn). Results: A large number of the mononuclear cells and multinucleated giant cells CD68+ was observed in both of the studied lesions, indicating histiocyte/macrophage origin. Seven cases of CGCG of the jaws showed intense staining of Fn, with uniform distribution predominantly. In all 7 cases of GCT of long bones the Fn displayed intense expression, with distribution pattern varying from uniform to reticulate/fibrillar. Six cases of CGCG were intensively stained by Tn, presenting focal expression in half of specimens, and reticulate/fibrillar pattern of expression in 4 cases. All cases of GCT of the long bones presented intense expression of Tn, uniform distribution, and reticulate/fibrillar pattern of expression in four cases. Conclusions: The immunoexpression of CD68 in mononuclear cells and multinucleated giant cells and staining patterns of Fn and Tn were similar in both entities. These findings indicate that these proteins could not be used to explain the differences between the CGCG of the jaws and GCT of the long bones. PMID:19089150

  9. The novel neuropeptide phoenixin is highly co-expressed with nesfatin-1 in the rat hypothalamus, an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, Artur; Rojczyk, Ewa; Bogus, Katarzyna; Worthington, John J; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-04-10

    The hypothalamus regulates a number of autonomic functions essential for homeostasis; therefore, investigations concerning hypothalamic neuropeptides and their functions and distribution are of great importance in contemporary neuroscience. Recently, novel regulatory factors expressed in the hypothalamus have been discovered, of which nesfatin-1 and phoenixin (PNX), show intriguing similarities in their brain distributions. There are currently few studies characterizing PNX expression, so it is imperative to accurately trace its localization, with particular attention to the hypothalamic nuclei and nesfatin-1 co-expression. Using fluorescence and classical immunohistochemical stainings on adult rat brain, we visualized the potential co-expression of nesfatin-1 and PNX immunoreactive cells. We have demonstrated a distinct PNX-immunoreactivity in 21-32% of cells in the arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus. Nesfatin-1 expression reached 45-68% of all neurons in the same sites, while co-expression was strikingly seen in the vast majority (70-86%) of PNX-immunoreactive neurons in the rat hypothalamic nuclei. Our results demonstrate for the first time, a wide distribution of PNX in the hypothalamus which could implicate a potential functional relationship with nesfatin-1, possibly in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis or other autonomic functions, which require further study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Immunohistochemical study of hair follicle stem cells in regenerated hair follicles induced by Wnt10b

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiming; Xing, Yizhan; Guo, Haiying; Ma, Xiaogen; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the periodic regeneration of hair follicles is complicated. Although Wnt10b has been reported to induce hair follicle regeneration, the characteristics of induced hair follicles, especially the target cells of Wnt10b, have not yet been clearly elucidated. Thus, we systematically evaluated the expression and proliferation patterns of Wnt10b-induced hair follicles. We found that Wnt10b promoted the proliferation of hair follicle stem cells from 24 hours after AdWnt10b injection. Seventy-two hours after AdWnt10b injection, cells outside of bulge area began to proliferate. When the induced hair follicle entered full anagen, although the hair follicle stem cells were normal, canonical Wnt signaling was maintained in the hair precortex cells. Our results reveal that the target cells that overexpressed Wnt10b included hair follicle stem cells, hair precortex cells, and matrix cells. PMID:27766026

  11. Immunohistochemical study of p21 and Bcl-2 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Rakesh V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2016-11-01

    Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results from genetic damage, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation of damaged cells and the cell death. In the course of its progression, visible changes are taking place at the cellular level (atypical) and the resultant at the tissue level (epithelial dysplasia). The Aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the expressions of intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 in Leukoplakia, oralsubmucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Total 60 cases, 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, 15 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 15 cases of Leukoplakia were evaluated immunohistochemically for p21 and Bcl-2 expression. p21 showed positive expression in 13 (86.67%) cases out of 15 cases of OSMF, 12 (80%) cases of leukoplakia out of 15 cases and 24 (80%) cases out of 30 cases of OSCC. The Bcl-2 expression was positive in 13 (86.67%) cases of OSMF, all cases of Leukoplakia and 25 (83.33%) cases of OSCC. No statistical significance was noted in the expression of p21 and Bcl-2 positive expression between OSMF, Leukoplakia and OSCC. Statistical analysis for comparison of intensity of p21 expression in different grades of OSCC showed no significance. Statistical significance difference was found between the expressions of Bcl-2 in moderately and poorly differentiated SCC. The intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 expressions in different grades of OSCC indicates a key role in progression of oral neoplasia.

  12. Immunohistochemical study on the neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), infected by Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Quiroga, M I; Nieto, J M; Bosi, G; Domeneghini, C

    2007-03-01

    In recent years a new parasite, causing severe losses, has been detected in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), in Northwestern Spain. Dead fish showed emaciation and cachexia caused by severe necrotizing enteritis, which affected all areas of the digestive tract. The parasite was classified as a myxosporean and named Enteromyxum scophthalmi. This study was designed to assess the response of the turbot neuroendocrine system against E. scophthalmi infection. Immunohistochemical tests were applied to sections of the gastrointestinal tract of uninfected and E. scophthalmi-infected turbot, and the presence of cholecystokinin (CCK-8), serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were documented. A higher abundance of both endocrine epithelial cells (ECs) and nerve cell bodies and fibres for CCK-8, 5-HT and SP were recorded in the gastrointestinal tract of infected turbot, whereas VIP-like substance decreased. The results indicate that E. scophthalmi infection in turbot induced changes in the neuroendocrine system, which may cause alterations in gut motility, electrolyte and fluid secretion, and vascular and immune functions.

  13. Immunohistochemical study on the distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan Pangolin, Manis javanica.

    PubMed

    Nisa, C; Kitamura, N; Sasaki, M; Agungpriyono, S; Choliq, C; Budipitojo, T; Yamada, J; Sigit, K

    2005-12-01

    The distribution and relative frequency of six kinds of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica were studied immunohistochemically using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. The stomach of the pangolin has three regions of mucous gland, one oxyntic gland and one pyloric gland. Cells immunoreactive for chromogranin, serotonin, somatostatin, BPP and glucagon were detected in all of the gastric glands, while gastrin-immunoreactive cells were found in the entire gastric gland except for the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of endocrine cells in the mucous gland and pyloric gland was mainly from the middle to apical portions of the glands. The endocrine cells were rare or not detected in the basal portion of all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland, but they were also found in the basal portion of the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of the endocrine cells in the mucous and pyloric glands suggested that this position facilitates a quick response to the luminal ingesta. The wide distribution of gastrin-immunoreactive cells in all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland was the most remarkable finding. This distribution suggests a major function of gastrin-immunoreactive cells for the digestive process in the Malayan pangolin stomach.

  14. Atypical spindle cell lipoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study emphasizing its relationship to classical spindle cell lipoma.

    PubMed

    Creytens, David; van Gorp, Joost; Savola, Suvi; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Mentzel, Thomas; Libbrecht, Louis

    2014-07-01

    We studied a series of spindle cell lipomas arising in atypical sites and showing unusual morphologic features (which we called atypical spindle cell lipoma) to assess if these lesions have the same chromosomal alterations as classical spindle cell lipoma but different from those found in atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. We investigated alterations of different genes in the 13q14 region and the amplification status of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes at 12q14-15 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In the atypical spindle cell lipomas, MLPA revealed deletions in the two nearest flanking genes of RB1 (ITM2B and RCBTB2) and in multiple important exons of RB1. In contrast, in classical spindle cell lipomas, a less complex loss of RB1 exons was found but no deletion of ITM2B and RCBTB2. Moreover, MLPA identified a deletion of the DLEU1 gene, a finding which has not been reported earlier. We propose an immunohistochemical panel for lipomatous tumors which comprises of MDM2, CDK4, p16, Rb, which we have found useful in discriminating between atypical or classical spindle cell lipomas and other adipocytic neoplasms, especially atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. Our findings strengthen the link between atypical spindle cell lipoma and classical spindle cell lipoma, and differentiate them from atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma.

  15. Placental apoptosis in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, and HELLP syndrome: an immunohistochemical study with caspase-3 and bcl-2.

    PubMed

    Cali, U; Cavkaytar, S; Sirvan, L; Danisman, N

    2013-01-01

    To examine the placental expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, IUGR, and HELLP syndrome. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 50 pregnant women between December 2006 and August 2007 at Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women Health Research and Education Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Placental tissue samples were obtained from 15 pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, 15 pregnancies with normotensive IUGR, five pregnancies with HELLP syndrome, and 15 gestational age-matched normotensive pregnancies without intrauterine infection as a control group. The placental expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 has been investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Caspase-3 immunostaining score was significantly higher in each group when compared with the control group (p = 0.002). However there was no statistically signifant difference with bcl-2 immunostaining in each group when compared with the control group. Apoptotic marker caspase-3 is significantly increased in the villous trophoblasts of patients with preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and IUGR indicating increased placental apoptosis.

  16. Immunohistochemical study of the local inflammatory infiltrate in spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumour at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J; Day, M J; Mozos, E

    1998-07-08

    In this study, the immunohistochemical distribution of CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD79 (B lymphocytes and plasma cells), IgG, IgM, IgA, IgG subclasses (IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) L1 (macrophages) and MHC Class II antigen was analysed in the inflammatory infiltrates associated with spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumours (CTVT) at different stages of growth. With all antibodies used, except IgM and IgA, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the infiltrate of CTVT undergoing spontaneous regression or with stable growth (14 cases), than in tumours undergoing progressive growth (nine cases). This result suggests that T lymphocytes in addition to B cells, plasma cells expressing IgG, IgG2 and IgG4, and macrophages participate in the effective immune response against CTVT and mediate spontaneous regression of the tumour. MHC Class II antigen was expressed by infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages, and also by fibroblasts within and around the tumours. Class II was also expressed by a variable number of neoplastic cells, particularly those in regressing or stable tumours with a marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. This suggests that the expression of Class II by neoplastic cells is associated with the effective immune response and regression of CTVT.

  17. [Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis: a study of the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of 19 cases and their diagnostic differential].

    PubMed

    Granados-López, Sandy Lucero; Tousaint-Caire, Sonia; Moreno-Collado, Clemente; Brindis-Zabaleta, Mauricio; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis (PLF) is a rare benign cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia that most commonly occurs in the facial region as a dome-shaped or flat elevated nodule. We studied the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of 19 cases of PLF. The patients comprised 11 females and eight men (mean age 44.9; age range 9-77 years). All cases were solitary except one case with multiple lesions. The lesions were located in the facial region except one that was located in the back. Histologically, there was a diffuse or nodular lymphoid infiltrate with hyperplastic and distorted hair follicles and occasionally enlarged eccrine units with a clear nuclear morphology. Immunohistologically, three cases showed predominantly B-cells, eight cases predominantly B-cells with numerous T-cells, six cases predominantly T-cells with numerous B-cells, and two cases predominantly T-cells. All lesions showed increased numbers of perifollicular dendritic cells expressing anti-S-100 protein and CD1a. PLF is a rare, benign, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia that may resemble cutaneous lymphoma. It has characteristic clinical and pathologic features showing abundant periadnexal S-100/CD1a -positive dendritic cells with dilated and activated pilosebaceous units. The lesion may resolve with complete excision or present spontaneous regression.

  18. Perianal basal cell carcinoma: a comparative histologic, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric study with basaloid carcinoma of the anus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cañas, M C; Fernández, F A; Rodilla, I G; Val-Bernal, J F

    1996-08-01

    Perianal basal cell carcinoma is a very rare tumor accounting for only 0.2% of the anorectal tumors. It must be distinguished from basaloid carcinoma of the anus, which resembles it histologically but shows a much more aggressive behavior, metastasizes early, and often proves fatal, thus requiring different therapy. Differential diagnosis of both entities by light microscopy may be difficult. Five cases of perianal basal cell carcinoma and five cases of basaloid carcinoma were studied by means of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Some immunohistochemical markers, such as epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembrionic antigen, and keratins, as well as the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I stained basaloid carcinoma and were negative for basal cell carcinoma. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 seems to be a good marker for perianal basal cell carcinoma and useful in differentiating it from basaloid carcinoma of the anus. Basaloid carcinomas are associated with a significantly higher S-phase fraction than are perianal basal cell carcinomas (p < 0.01).

  19. An immunohistochemical study of human platelets using a rabbit antibody against H18-K24 of apolipoprotein CIII (HATKTAK).

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takao; Sakamoto, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Tanaka, Sumiko; Matsumoto, Kouichi; Ueno, Masaki

    2013-08-01

    H18-K24 of human apolipopotein CIII (Apo CIII) (HATKTAK) is an activator of the macromolecular activators of phagocytosis from platelets (MAPPs). Using a rabbit antibody against HATKTAK, we performed an immunohistochemical study of human platelets. Indirect ELISA showed that this antibody reacts with Apo CIII-derived peptides with a C-terminal of HATKTAK, but not with Apo CIII. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that reaction of anti-HATKTAK antibody occurred in the pseudopods of activated platelets. In blood coagula produced from the peripheral blood and formalin-fixed after various incubation periods, reaction of this antibody with platelets appeared rapidly with a peak at 3 to 6 h of incubation, and then diminished gradually. Leukocytes in the blood coagula were stained strongly positive. In tissue sections, fresh thrombi and hemorrhages with slight fibrin formation revealed a positive response of platelets to anti-HATKTAK antibody, whereas older ones with leukocytic infiltration, fibrin formation and organization did not. In addition to platelets, endothelial cells and leukocytes were stained positive by anti-HATKTAK antibody. All of the positive reactions by anti-HATKTAK antibody disappeared or diminished by co-incubation with HATKTAK. In conclusion, the anti-HATKTAK antibody reveals platelets during the early phase of activation.

  20. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

    PubMed

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  1. [Expression of the stress-response protein 60 in iritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis--an immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Kumagami, T; Kato, S; Ohama, E

    1997-04-01

    Uveitis of unknown etiology is known to occur in association with various systemic disorders. We did an immunohistochemical study on the expression of stress-response proteins (srp's) in iritis associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is regarded as a model of multiple sclerosis. EAE was induced in Lewis rats by sensitization with homogenized spinal cord of guinea pig in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (Group EAE). For controls, we used rats sensitized with CFA only (Group CFA) and untreated rats (normal controls). All rats developed iritis in Group EAE. In Group CFA, no rats developed iritis. No expression of ubiquitin, alpha B-crystallin, srp 27, srp 60, or srp 72 was seen in the epithelium of the iris of the rats in Group CFA. In the rats in Group EAE, srp 60 was expressed in the epithelium of the iris in 20/22 (90.9%) of the eyes examined, ubiquitin in 4/22 (18.2%), and alpha B-crystallin in 3/22 (13.6%). In the untreated rats, only ubiquitin was expressed in the epithelium of the iris in 1/6 (16.7%) of the eyes examined. These results suggest that srp 60, 60 kDa srp, plays an important role in the occurrence of iritis associated with EAE.

  2. Early development of chick embryo respiratory nervous system: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, R; Parisi Salvi, E; Renda, T

    2006-10-01

    The extrinsic and intrinsic respiratory nervous systems receive specific contributions from the vagal and sympathetic components. Using specific markers for vagal and sympathetic structures, we studied the distribution patterns of immunoreactivity to galanin (GAL), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP) and the tachykinin substance P in extrinsic and intrinsic nerve of chick embryo respiratory system, during development from the very early age to hatching. All peptides studied appeared in the intrinsic and extrinsic nervous systems early. We found substance P in both the vagal and sympathetic systems, PACAP in vagal components alone and GAL mainly in the sympathetic system. The intrinsic nervous system showed high immunoreactivity for all peptides studied. These data accord with the well known early trophic functions that peptides have on the development of nervous networks and modulatory activity on the intrinsic nervous system. The GAL again proves to be the main peptide in chick embryo sympathetic respiratory system.

  3. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar

    PubMed Central

    Costa, C.A.X.; Brito, K.N.O.; Gomes, M.A.; Caliari, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar were described in details, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Variation in the virulence is therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to better understand the disease. PMID:20819776

  4. Mesenchymal-epithelial differentiation of adamantinoma of long bones: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sarita-Reyes, Carmen D; Greco, M Alba; Steiner, German C

    2012-02-01

    Three cases of adamantinoma were studied by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In the tubular pattern, well-differentiated epithelial cells and glandular structures were present, in addition to ill-defined glands. In the basaloid pattern, less differentiated epithelial cells with discohesion were seen in the central epithelial masses. This study established the epithelial nature of some tubular structures with slit-like lumina, easily misinterpreted as capillaries by light microscopy. Results also showed that the irregular spaces observed within the basaloid pattern probably result from cell discohesion. Moreover, this investigation demonstrates the epithelial nature of a subset of spindle cells within the stroma of adamantinoma and offers ultrastructural evidence for a probable mesenchymal-epithelial transformation as its histogenesis.

  5. Immunohistochemical study of lymphoid tissues in adjuvant arthritis (AA) by image analysis; relationship with synovial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Carol, M; Pelegrí, C; Castellote, C; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine leucocyte populations in lymphoid organs during AA and to ascertain the relationship with lesions in synovial joints. Popliteal lymph nodes, spleen and knee synovial membranes were removed from both healthy and AA rats at intervals of 3–4 days over a 3-week period. Cryostat sections were stained with MoAbs directed against lymphocyte and macrophage subpopulations, and studied by image analysis. Throughout the arthritic period, high numbers of ED1+ and ED3+ macrophages were seen in both lymphoid compartments and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression also increased in some zones of lymph nodes and spleen. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells rose in the splenic zones studied but fell in the lymph node cortex. Very few natural killer (NK) cells were found in lymphoid tissues, but the number rose after AA induction. In synovia from AA rats, ED2+ macrophages proliferated but α/β T cell infiltration was only occasionally observed, accompanied by ED1+ cells and ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion, synovitis developing after AA induction seems to be caused directly by macrophages and indirectly by lymphocytes placed both in popliteal lymph nodes and spleen. PMID:10759784

  6. Expression of maspin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Reshma, V; Rao, Kavita; Priya, N S; Umadevi, H S; Smitha, T; Sheethal, H S

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with multifaceted tumor-suppressive activities. It was originally identified in normal human breast myoepithelial cells and shows variable expression in different types of cancer cells. Maspin displays anti-metastatic properties in mammary and prostate cancer. Its expression is maintained during ovarian, lung and pancreatic carcinogenesis, indicating that Maspin regulated metastatic potential is tissue specific. Thus, it is possible that Maspin participates in salivary gland tumor biology as well. In this study, expression pattern of maspin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors is analyzed, to understand the biological behavior of salivary gland tumors with respect to maspin expression. The aim of this study was to demonstrate, record, and correlate the expression pattern of maspin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. A retrospective study of maspin expression in 30 diagnosed cases of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors retrieved from archives of our department. Anti-maspin antibody and horseradish peroxidase detection system. Descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square/Fisher Exact test. Intense expression with P < 0.001 is associated with benign tumors, nuclear staining with P < 0.001 is significantly associated with benign tumors and cytoplasmic staining with P = 0.020 is associated with malignant tumors. Intensity of expression is more in benign tumors when compared with malignant tumors. The benign tumors showed both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression. Some malignant tumors did express maspin, but mainly in the cytoplasm.

  7. Histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of secondary compressed spinal cord injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Wafaa S; Abdel-Hamid, Ghada A; Al-Karim, Saleh; Abbas, Aymn T

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-disrupting condition in which the first few days are the most critical. Secondary conditions remain the main causes of death for people with SCI. The response of different cell types to SCI and their role at different times in the progression of secondary degeneration are not well understood. The aim of this study was to study the histopathological changes of compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI) in a rat model. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. In group I, the rats were left without any surgical intervention (control). In group II, the rats were subjected to laminectomy without spinal cord compression (sham-operated). In group III, the rats were sacrificed one day after CSCI. In group IV, the rats were sacrificed seven days after CSCI. The light microscopy was employed to study the morphology using H&E, osmic acid staining and immunohistochemistry to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The electron microscopy was applied for ultrastructure study. Histopathological examination of the posterior funiculus of the white matter revealed minute hemorrhages and localized necrotic areas on day 1, which transformed to areas of cavitation and fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by a demarcating rim of numerous astrocytes by day 7. The mean percentage of area of GFAP expression increased significantly by day 7. Osmic acid staining revealed swollen nerve fibers after one day, while numerous fibers had been lost by day 7. An ultrastructure study revealed swollen redundant thinned myelin and myelin splitting, as well as degeneration of axoplasm on day 1. On day 7, layers of the myelin sheath were folded and wrinkled with partial or complete demyelination areas. The myelin lamellae were disorganized and loose. The G-ratio was significantly greater on day 1 than day 7 after CSCI. In the rat model of CSCI details of the progressive spinal cord injury can be analyzed by morphological methods and may be helpful

  8. GLUT-1 expression in mesenchymal tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 247 soft tissue and bone neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, William A; Ridenour, Robert V; Caron, Bolette L; Miller, Dylan V; Folpe, Andrew L

    2008-10-01

    GLUT-1, an erythrocyte-type glucose transporter protein expressed in juvenile hemangiomas, has recently been shown to be a sensitive marker of perineurial cells and their tumors in a small number of cases. However, GLUT-1 expression has not been systematically examined in other mesenchymal neoplasms. Prompted by a recent report of GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma, a tumor not generally felt to show perineurial differentiation, we examined GLUT-1 expression in a wide variety of mesenchymal tumors. Sections from 247 mesenchymal tumors of a variety of histologic subtypes were retrieved from our archives and immunostained for GLUT-1 using heat-induced epitope retrieval and the DAKO ADVANCE detection system (DAKO, Carpinteria, CA). Scoring was as follows: negative (<5% of cells), 1+ (5%-25% of cells), 2+ (25%-50% of cells), and 3+ (>50% of cells). All benign nerve sheath tumors showed a peripheral rim of positive normal perineurial cells, with 2 neurofibromas and 3 schwannomas showing more extensive staining. Three of 4 perineuriomas showed strong GLUT-1 expression. All juvenile hemangiomas were GLUT-1 positive. GLUT-1 expression was also seen in a wide variety of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors. However, GLUT-1 expression was absent in nonjuvenile hemangioma endothelial tumors and in almost all low-grade lesions that enter the histologic differential diagnosis of perineurial tumors, including low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and myxofibrosarcoma. We conclude that GLUT-1 expression in mesenchymal tumors is by no means specific for perineurial differentiation, but may instead represent upregulation of this protein within hypoxic zones, secondary to upstream activation of proteins such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha.

  9. Transition of Ki-67 index of uterine cervical tumors during radiation therapy. Immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, T.; Oka, K. )

    1991-08-01

    Histopathologic and Ki-67-staining features of cancer cells were investigated in biopsy specimens before and during radiation therapy in 29 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. No morphologic changes were observed up to doses of 540 cGy. A few intact cancer cells remained up to doses of 2700 cGy. Moderate changes in the cancer cells were noticed in patients who received 900 cGy or more, i.e., multinuclei, swollen nuclei and cytoplasms, and prominent large nucleoli. At doses of 1800 cGy or greater, many cancer nests had severely damaged cancer cells with features such as cytolysis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and bizarre giant cells. There was no mitosis in the cells of patients who received doses greater than 1800 cGy. The Ki-67-positive cancer cells showed diffuse nuclear-stainings and dot-stainings before radiation therapy. Radiation doses more than 900 cGy changed the staining pattern of the Ki-67 antibody; large irregular spot-stainings and ring-stainings were observed predominantly. The Ki-67 index initially increased with the radiation dose; the mean Ki-67 indices before radiation therapy and at radiation doses of 180 cGy, 540 cGy, and 900 cGy were 41%, 50%, 63%, and 68%, respectively. The indices decreased when the dose was increased further, and they were 39% and 20% at doses of 1800 cGy and 2700 cGy, respectively. Possible explanations, including recruitment of quiescent cells, for the change in Ki-67 staining are discussed.

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of ERG in the molecular epidemiology of fatal prostate cancer study.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Sheila; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Haque, Reina; Chen, Chuhe; Richert-Boe, Kathryn; Schwartzman, Jacob; Gao, Lina; Berry, Deborah L; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Alumkal, Joshi J

    2013-09-01

    Gene fusions between the ERG transcription factor and the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 occur in a subset of prostate cancers and contribute to transformation of prostatic epithelial cells. Prior reports have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or quantitative PCR (QPCR) to determine the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions or ERG expression, respectively. Recently, several groups have reported on immunohistochemistry (IHC) to measure ERG expression, which is much more readily performed in clinical practice. However, the prior studies examining ERG expression by IHC had small sample sizes or they failed to clarify the association of ERG protein expression with important clinico-pathological features or prostate cancer-specific mortality. To address these deficits, we evaluated ERG expression by IHC in 208 radical prostatectomy samples from the Kaiser Permanente Molecular Epidemiology of Fatal Prostate Cancer (MEFPC) study, a case-control study of prostate cancer-specific mortality. Nuclear ERG expression was seen in neoplastic prostate epithelia in 49 of the samples (23.7%). ERG expression in tumor cells was associated with higher tumor stage (OR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.0-4.0, P value = 0.04). ERG immunoreactivity was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality, although the confidence interval was wide (OR = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 0.88-4.0, P value = 0.10). Our results demonstrate that ERG protein expression is readily quantifiable with an existing commercial antibody. Evaluating ERG protein expression may improve our ability to identify the subset of more aggressive, invasive prostate cancers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Immunohistochemical study of the submaxillaritis in MRL/1 mouse (lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity)].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, H

    1989-12-01

    MRL/1 mice, reported by Murphy and Roths, are lupus mice in which monogenic mutation has occurred. They are characterized by the expression of massive lymphoadenopathy, splenomegaly, arthritis and glomerulonephritis. These specific characters are attributable to the proliferation of abnormal T cells governed by an autosomal recessive gene, which is called a lymphoproliferative (lpr) gene. In this study, the author has studied the pathology of various organs in MRL/1 mice in relation to their ages. Investigated the pathogenesis of spontaneous submaxillaritis in MRL/1 mice and mechanism of its occurrence. Based on the immunological abnormalities in MRL/1 mice studied thus far, the mechanism of onset of submaxillaritis is believed to be as follows; (1) expression of the lpr gene leads to proliferation of T cells accompanied by focal lymphocyte infiltration in the submandibular gland; (2) the helper T function of these proliferating T cells induces polyclonal B cell activation (PBA); (2) PBA leads to the formation of numerous autoantibodies and anti-gp70 antibody whose antigen is the glycoprotein of endogenous retrovirus, resulting in the massive formation of immune complexes; (4) the immune complexes are deposited on the vascular wall, resulting in activation of the complement system; (5) infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages is induced; and (6) the lysosomal enzymes, released from these cells, effects as a cytotoxic mediator and damages the vascular wall. In brief, submaxillaritis accompanied by granulomatous vasculitis can be regarded as a Type III allergic response caused by immunological abnormalities which are genetically determined by the lpr gene; it is thought to be a subtype of immune complex disease.

  12. PLAG1 expression in mesenchymal tumors: an immunohistochemical study with special emphasis on the pathogenetical distinction between soft tissue myoepithelioma and pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Atsuji; Hisaoka, Masanori; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    PLAG1, a proto-oncogene activated in several types of tumors including pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland and lipoblastoma, is usually overexpressed because of chromosomal aberrations resulting in fusion genes. Myoepithelial tumors in soft tissue are morphologically similar to pleomorphic adenoma, but the genetic profiles of these tumors have not been fully examined. In the present study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of PLAG1 in a series of 243 mesenchymal tumors. We determined that 14 tumors, including eight of 10 lipoblastomas, two of seven gastrointestinal stromal tumors, one of two angiomyofibroblastomas, one of five synovial sarcomas, one of seven leiomyomas and one of 12 myxofibrosarcomas were positive for PLAG1, whereas all seven soft tissue myoepitheliomas were PLAG1 negative. We examined two soft tissue myoepitheliomas, whose paraffin blocks were available, for fusion gene transcripts involving PLAG1 or HMGA2 specific for pleomorphic adenoma by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, and no fusion transcripts were detected. Our results suggest that soft tissue myoepithelioma may be a pathogenetically distinct tumor entity from pleomorphic adenoma based on the absence of PLAG1 overexpression and characteristic fusion genes. On the other hand, PLAG1 immunohistochemistry is useful for distinguishing lipoblastoma from other lipomatous tumors including liposarcoma.

  13. [An immunohistochemical study of the expression of transcription factor Oct3/4 in mouse spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A N; Kostyleva, E I; Drosdovskiĭ, M A; Seralini, J E; Vorob'ev, V I

    1996-01-01

    The expression of POU-domain transcription factor Oct3/4 in the testis of adult mice has been studied using indirect immunofluorescence with highly specific antibodies. The protein is shown to be expressed in germ cells of seminiferous epithelium in a stage specific manner. The protein synthesis is initiated in mid-pachytene spermatocytes, increases to reach its peak during meiotic division. The Oct3/4 level remains augmented in early spermatids, but gradually declines during their further developmental advancement. These findings imply that Oct3/4 may have a regulatory function providing for the control of meiosis and/or terminal differentiation of spermatogenic cells.

  14. Immunohistochemical and lectin histochemical studies on the developing olfactory organs of fetal camel.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Nakamuta, Nobuaki

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the development of the olfactory organs of camel. In this study, prenatal development and neuronal differentiation of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the one-humped camel were studied by immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry. A neuronal marker, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, but not a marker of fully differentiated olfactory receptor cells, olfactory marker protein, intensely labeled the olfactory receptor cells of the VNO and OE at 395 mm, 510 mm, and 530 mm fetal ages, indicating that the olfactory receptor cells are differentiated, but not fully matured both in the VNO and the OE. In 187 mm and 190 mm fetuses, PGP 9.5 yielded faint immunoreactive signals in the VNO, but not in the OE, although the presence of olfactory receptor cells were demonstrated in both tissues by intense WGA and LEL stainings. We conclude that the camel VNO and OE bear differentiated, but still immature receptor cells; in addition, the onset of neuronal differentiation seems to be somewhat earlier in the VNO than in the OE till half of the prenatal life. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human dental pulp cell apoptosis: immunohistochemical study after applying orthodontic traction.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Angelova Volponi, A; Campanella, C; Guarnotta, C; Abdallah Hajj Hussein, I; Cappello, F; Gerbino, A; Jurjus, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare human dental pulp stress and programmed cell death after 3 and 6 months of orthodontic treatments by assessing the degree of apoptosis and related proteins. Human dental pulps were collected from twenty young patients orthodontically treated by Straight Wire technique. Samples were fixed, paraffin-embedded and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry using anti-heat shock protein 60 kDa (Hsp60), -caspase 3, -caspase 9, and -PCNA antibodies, as well as TUNEL reactions. Moreover, we performed immunoprecipitation for Hsp60 and caspase 3, and for Hsp60 and caspase 9, from paraffin extracted tissues. Increased levels of both caspases and Hsp60 occurred in 6-months treated samples; at the same time, we found increased levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive cells. Immunoprecipitation showed that Hsp60 forms a complex with both Pro-caspase 3 and Caspase 3, and this may accelerate Pro-caspase 3 activation, especially in the 6-months treated group. On the contrary, no complex between Hsp60 and Pro-caspase 9 was detected. The orthodontic tractions may be a cause of stress, apoptosis and proliferation in pulp tissue. These results suggest the need of further studies about the effects of long term orthodontic treatments on the dental pulp.

  16. Microglial Contribution to Glioma Progression: an Immunohistochemical Study in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Samarendranath; Chatterjee, Uttara; Chaudhuri, Swapna; Anirban, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Human glioma, arising from glial cells of the central nervous system, accounts for almost 30%of all brain tumours , neoplasms with a poor prognosis and high mortality rates worldwide. In the present study we assessed tissue architectural modifications associated with macrophage lineage cells, controversial major immune effector cells within the brain, in human glioma tissue samples from eastern India. Ethically cleared post-operative human glioma samples from our collaborative neurosurgery unit with respective CT/MRI and patient history were collected from the Nodal Centre of Neurosciences in Kolkata, over 9 months. Along with conventional histopathology, samples were subjected to silver-gold staining and fluorescence tagged immunophenotyping for the detection of electron dense brain macrophage/microglia cells in glioma tissue, followed by immune-phenotyping of cells. With higher grades, CD11b+/Iba-1+ macrophage/microglia architecture with de-structured boundaries of glioma lesions indicated malfunction and invasive effector state. Present study documented a contribution of microglia to glioma progression in Eastern India.

  17. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of air sac lesions induced by two strains of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, A; Mondal, S P; Buckles, E L

    2011-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory coronavirus of domestic chickens. Although mortality is low, infection with IBV results in substantial losses for the egg and meat chicken industries. Despite the economic importance of IBV and decades of research into the pathogenesis of infection, significant gaps in our knowledge exist. The aim of this study was to compare the early progression of air sac lesions in birds receiving a vaccine strain of the virus or a more virulent field strain. The air sacs are lined by different types of epithelia and are relatively isolated from the environment, so they represent a unique tissue in which to study virus-induced lesions. Both the pathogenic and vaccine strains of the virus produced significant lesions; however, the lesions progressed more rapidly in the birds receiving the pathogenic strain. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that in birds infected with the pathogenic strain of virus, IBV spike protein is detected first in the ciliated cells lining the air sac. These preliminary data provide important clues regarding potential mechanisms for IBV tissue tropism and spread and show that the nature of the virus isolate influences the early progression of IBV infection.

  18. Toxic equine parkinsonism: an immunohistochemical study of 10 horses with nigropallidal encephalomalacia.

    PubMed

    Chang, H T; Rumbeiha, W K; Patterson, J S; Puschner, B; Knight, A P

    2012-03-01

    Chronic ingestion of yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) or Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) causes nigropallidal encephalomalacia (NPE) in horses with an abrupt onset of neurologic signs characterized by dystonia of lips and tongue, inability to prehend food, depression, and locomotor deficits. The objectives of this study were to reexamine the pathologic alterations of NPE and to conduct an immunohistochemistry study using antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein, to determine whether NPE brains show histopathologic features resembling those in human Parkinson disease. Results confirm that the NPE lesions are located within the substantia nigra pars reticulata, sparing the cell bodies of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and in the rostral portion of the globus pallidus, with partial disruption of dopaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) fibers passing through the globus pallidus. No abnormal cytoplasmic inclusions like the Lewy bodies of human Parkinson disease were seen in these NPE brains. These findings indicate that equine NPE may serve as a large animal model of environmentally acquired toxic parkinsonism, with clinical phenotype directly attributable to lesions in globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata rather than to the destruction of dopaminergic neurons.

  19. Immunohistochemical study of neurons in the rat abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L; Rezzani, R; Bianchi, R

    1996-01-01

    The neurons of the rat abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus of the cerebellum were studied by double labelling using the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. Double-labelled cells were present bilaterally in the dorsal and dorsomedial zones of the cranial pole of the nucleus. They represented about half of the total number of HRP-positive neurons. These findings show the existence of a bilateral projection from the abducens nucleus to the flocculus which uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. This projection could be part of the system of the nerve circuits through which the cerebellum modulates visual activities. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8763489

  20. Immunohistochemical study of the lymphatic vessels in major salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Aiyama, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Kenichiro; Takada, Kiyomi; Ikeda, Rie; Sato, Sumie; Kuroki, Jyunya

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to examine whether lymphatic vessels are present in the lobules of major salivary glands in the rat. Immunostaining with an antibody against podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial cell marker, was performed on sections of the submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands. Light microscopy demonstrated podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels around the interlobular ducts and the interlobular arteries and veins in the interlobular connective tissue in all of the major salivary glands. No podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were found in the lobules. Electron microscopy also demonstrated lymphatic endothelial cells showing podoplanin expression only in the interlobular connective tissue. These findings suggest that the lymphatic system of the rat major salivary glands originates in the interlobular connective tissue, and not in the lobules.

  1. Immunohistochemical studies of the uterine cervix after CO2 laser conization.

    PubMed

    Miyako, J; Iwanari, O; Kitao, M

    1993-07-01

    To investigate the process of the maturation of cervical epithelium after CO2 laser conization. Specimens from the uterine cervix (248) resected from 31 premenopausal females who had hysterectomy after CO2 laser conization were studied with 2 kinds of anti-keratin monoclonal antibodies (PKK-1, KL-1). (i) The epithelium covered stroma after 4-6 weeks. (ii) In the normal S-C junction, KL-1 was localized to the middle and upper layers, and PKK-1 to the basal layer. (iii) The staining patterns of KL-1 and PKK-1 in the S-C junctions after conization could be classified into 4 groups according to localization and staining intensity. (iv) The S-C junction appeared normal in all specimens 7 weeks after conization. The regenerating epithelium covered the stroma within 4-6 weeks, but resolution of squamous epithelial metaplasia only occurred 7 weeks after conization.

  2. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu protein expression in meningiomas: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Phaneendra, Bobbidi Venkata; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mowliswara; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meningiomas are common slow-growing primary central nervous system tumors that arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid and spinal cord. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or HER2/neu (also known as c-erbB2) is a 185-kD transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity expressed in meningiomas and various other tumors. It can be used in targeted therapy for HER2/neu positive meningiomas. Aim: To correlate the expression of HER2/neu protein in meningiomas with gender, location, histological subtypes, and grade. Materials and Methods: It was 3½ years prospective (March 2010–October 2011) and retrospective (May 2008–February 2010) study of histopathologically diagnosed intracranial and intraspinal meningiomas. Clinical details of all the cases were noted from the computerized hospital information system. Immunohistochemistry for HER2/neu protein was performed along with scoring. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test to look for any association of HER2/neu with gender, location, grade, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas at 5% level of significance. Results: A total of 100 cases of meningiomas were found during the study period. Of which, 80 were Grade I, 18 were Grade II, and 2 were Grade III meningiomas as per the World Health Organization 2007 criteria. The female-male ratio was 1.9:1 and the mean age was 47.8 years. HER2/neu protein was expressed in 75% of Grade I and 72.2% of Grade II and none of Grade III meningiomas. About 72.7% brain invasive meningiomas showed HER2/neu immunopositivity. Conclusion: HER2/neu protein was expressed in 73% of meningiomas. Statistically significant difference of HER2/neu expression was not seen between females and males of Grade I and Grade II/III meningiomas, intracranial and spinal tumors, Grade I and Grade II/III cases, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas. PMID:27695231

  3. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu protein expression in meningiomas: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Phaneendra, Bobbidi Venkata; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mowliswara; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas are common slow-growing primary central nervous system tumors that arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid and spinal cord. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or HER2/neu (also known as c-erbB2) is a 185-kD transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity expressed in meningiomas and various other tumors. It can be used in targeted therapy for HER2/neu positive meningiomas. To correlate the expression of HER2/neu protein in meningiomas with gender, location, histological subtypes, and grade. It was 3½ years prospective (March 2010-October 2011) and retrospective (May 2008-February 2010) study of histopathologically diagnosed intracranial and intraspinal meningiomas. Clinical details of all the cases were noted from the computerized hospital information system. Immunohistochemistry for HER2/neu protein was performed along with scoring. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test to look for any association of HER2/neu with gender, location, grade, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas at 5% level of significance. A total of 100 cases of meningiomas were found during the study period. Of which, 80 were Grade I, 18 were Grade II, and 2 were Grade III meningiomas as per the World Health Organization 2007 criteria. The female-male ratio was 1.9:1 and the mean age was 47.8 years. HER2/neu protein was expressed in 75% of Grade I and 72.2% of Grade II and none of Grade III meningiomas. About 72.7% brain invasive meningiomas showed HER2/neu immunopositivity. HER2/neu protein was expressed in 73% of meningiomas. Statistically significant difference of HER2/neu expression was not seen between females and males of Grade I and Grade II/III meningiomas, intracranial and spinal tumors, Grade I and Grade II/III cases, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas.

  4. Prenatal development of the bovine epididymis: light microscopical, glycohistochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Sinowatz, Fred

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal development of the epididymis was studied in bovine fetuses ranging from 10 to 90cm crown-rump length (CRL) (75-285 pcd). The studies aimed to apply both glycohistochemistry and immunohistochemistry for the detection of the differentiation of the developing prenatal epididymis. Both conventional histological and histochemical techniques were applied on paraffin sections of the epididymis from different fetal stages. Establishment of the urogenital junction between the extra-testicular rete testis and the mesonephric duct, via the growing efferent ductules (ductuli efferentes) was first evident in fetuses with 10cm CRL. At the fetal age of 110 pcd (24cm CRL), the mesonephric duct began to lengthen and coil forming three distinct regions (caput, corpus and cauda). In addition to the macroscopical modifications in the extra-testicular excurrent duct system, histological differentiation involved both the tubular epithelial and the peritubular mesenchymal cells. The epithelium lining the efferent ductules was differentiated into ciliated and non-ciliated columnar cells. The simple epithelium of the epididymal duct increased in height and developed stereocilia on the apical surface. Additionally, some basal cells first appeared at 185 pcd (56cm CRL), within the epithelium lining the cauda only. Lectin histochemistry (WGA, PNA, GSA-I) showed early immunostaining in epithelium of the efferent ductules and in peritubular mesenchymal structures. Immunoreactivity for different proteins (S-100, fibroblast growth factor-1 and factor-2, angiotensin converting enzyme, laminin, alpha-smooth muscle actin) was evident, both in the epithelial and in the peritubular mesenchymal cells as early as at 75 pcd. On the basis of our histochemical observations, we conclude that both glycohistochemistry and immunohistochemistry are useful tools to demonstrate that the differentiation in the peritubular structures and efferent ductular epithelium begins earlier than other components.

  5. Hippocampal phospho-tau/MAPT neuropathology in the fornix in Alzheimer disease: an immunohistochemical autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Plowey, Edward D; Ziskin, Jennifer L

    2016-10-28

    Whereas early Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology and mild cognitive impairment are relatively common in aging, accurate prediction of patients that will progress to dementia requires new biomarkers. Recently, substantial work has focused on phospho-tau/MAPT (p-MAPT) neuropathology since its regional propagation correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Recent diffusion tensor imaging studies in AD suggest that increased diffusion in the fornix secondary to p-MAPT-related axonal injury could serve as a predictive biomarker of the risk of disease progression. However, our knowledge of p-MAPT neuropathology in the fornix is limited. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined p-MAPT neuropathology in the fornix and basal forebrain nuclei via AT8 immunohistochemistry in 39 brain autopsies spanning the spectrum of AD neuropathologic changes. We found that the fornix and its precommissural efferent target nuclei (septum and nucleus accumbens) demonstrated neuronal and thread-like p-MAPT neuropathology only in National Institute on Aging/Alzheimer Association (NIA/AA) stages B2 and B3 of neurofibrillary degeneration, consistent with involvement after (and propagation from) the hippocampal formation. Interestingly, although tau astrogliopathy was frequently observed in the mammillary bodies in stage B2, neuronal tauopathy was not observed in the postcommissural targets (mammillary bodies and anterior thalamic nucleus) until stage B3. Tauopathy in the nucleus basalis of Meynert was strongly correlated with p-MAPT-positive axons in the fornix, suggesting that projections to the hippocampus also likely contribute to fornix tauopathy. Our cross-sectional autopsy findings indicate that the fornix is involved by p-MAPT neuropathology secondary to hippocampal involvement by AD neuropathology. Furthermore, our findings are compatible with the goal of in vivo detection of p-MAPT-related axonal pathology in the fornix in AD as a possible biomarker of p

  6. An immunohistochemical study of human fetal liver in the Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loo, Christine K C; Freeman, Brian; Killingsworth, Murray; Wu, Xiao-Juan

    2005-04-01

    The ductal plate abnormality of the liver in fetuses with the Meckel-Gruber syndrome has been well characterised, but its aetiology remains unknown. We have analysed liver structure in six fetuses with this syndrome, using routine histology, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy. Liver tissue from six fetuses of 11-27 weeks gestational age was examined by immunoperoxidase staining with antigens to cyokeratin (AE1/3) and polyclonal CEA. We also examined the ultrastructure of the syndromic fetal liver. The findings were compared with livers of control fetuses obtained from miscarriages, of similar size and gestational age but without dysmorphic features or developmental anomalies. The ductal plate abnormality was present in all the fetuses with the Meckel-Gruber syndrome. There were abnormalities of biliary excretion in all syndromic fetuses. Ultrastructural studies of the portal tract revealed abnormal collagen bundles in the Meckel-Gruber syndrome. Our findings, in conjunction with other reports in the literature, suggest that the ductal plate abnormality may be caused by failure of anastomosis of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary systems, perhaps in association with abnormalities of the portal tract stroma and biliary excretion.

  7. Human kallikrein 10 expression in surgically removed human pituitary corticotroph adenomas: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Di Meo, Ashley; Rotondo, Fabio; Kovacs, Kalman; Cusimano, Michael D; Syro, Luis V; Di Ieva, Antonio; Diamandis, Eleftheros P; Yousef, George M

    2015-07-01

    Human kallikrein 10 (hk10), a secreted serine protease, was reported to function as a tumor suppressor. hK10 immunoexpression has been demonstrated in lactrotrophs and corticotrophs of the nontumorous human adenohypophysis. In the present study, for the first time we report hK10 immunoexpression in various surgically removed corticotroph adenoma subtypes. Specimens were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. Immunostaining was performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with an hK10-specific rabbit polyclonal antibody. Results showed that the endocrinologically active adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary tumors and the silent subtypes were immunopositve for hK10. Intensity of staining varied between the different subtypes. Intensity was lowest in the silent subtypes (silent corticotroph subtypes 1 and 2) compared with nontumorous human adenohypophysial corticotrophs, whereas the endocrinologically active subtypes (ACTH-secreting adenomas, corticotroph carcinomas, Crooke cell adenomas, Crooke cell carcinomas), showed the highest hK10 immunoexpression. Immunopositivity in the nuclei of the ACTH-secreting adenomas and carcinomas, as well as dual cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of hK10 in some of the secreting tumor types was an intriguing finding. Immunoexpression of hK10 in the ACTH-secreting tumors as well as in the Crooke cell tumors was significantly increased when compared with the nonfunctioning tumors and in the corticotrophs of nontumorous pituitaries.

  8. Immunohistochemical studies on the poll gland of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the rutting season.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Safwat; Helal, Amr; Alkafafy, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    The poll glands are subcutaneous exocrine glands located on the back of the neck behind the ears in male camels. The function of poll glands is not well known, though they are thought to play a role during the rutting season. The presence, location and degree of immunolocalization of microfilaments and intermediate filament systems: actin and cytokeratins (Cks) and also S100 protein were studied in the poll glands in sexually mature one-humped camels during the rutting season. These proteins were variably expressed between the epithelia, perialveolar, interalveolar tissue and the periductal tissue. Strong α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunoreactivity (IR) was displayed by the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, periductal and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but not in the epithelial cells. Cytokeratin (Ck)-IR was strong in the epithelial lining of the secretory alveoli and excretory ducts, however, the apical blebs of the secretory cells were almost negative. Weak to moderate Ck-IR was observed in the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, but not in the interalveolar tissue or endothelial cells. S100 protein was expressed variably in the epithelial lining of the secretory alveoli. S100-IR was more obvious in the supranuclear region and the apical blebs. Variable reaction was observed in the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, periductal and interductal tissue and endothelial cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. An immunohistochemical study of the gut neuroendocrine system in juvenile pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Vigliano, F A; Muñoz, L; Hernández, D; Cerutti, P; Bermúdez, R; Quiroga, M I

    2011-03-01

    In this study, several neuropeptides were identified by immunohistochemistry in neuroendocrine cells (NEC) located in the gut epithelium and nerve cell bodies of the enteric nervous system of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis, a species that is a promising candidate for intensive aquaculture. The neuropeptides involved in orexigenic or anorexigenic action, i.e. gastrin, cholecystokinin-8, neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), displayed a significantly higher number of immunoreactive NECs in the anterior intestine, suggesting that this region of the gut plays an important role in the peripheral control of food intake. On the other hand, leu-enkephalin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), both associated with the modulation of the enteric immune system, showed no significant variations in the mean value of immunopositive NECs between the anterior and posterior intestine. This may indicate that their activity is required at a similar level along the entire gut. In addition, CGRP and VIP-immunoreactive neurons and nerve fibres were observed in the myenteric plexus, which might exert synergistic effects with the neuropeptides immunolocalized in NECs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Aberrant DKK3 Expression in the Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-dhohrah, T.; Mashrah, M.; Yao, Z.; Huang, J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess and compare the expression of Dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3), a possible tumor suppressor gene (TSG), in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) using immunohistochemistry. Seventy-five cases of normal oral mucosa (NOM), OLK, OSF, and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied. DKK3 was expressed in all cases of NOM, OLK and OSCC. There was steady increases in the percentage of the positive cells progressing toward OSCC. The expression was localized in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cell affected by OLK with mild dysplasia and OLK with severe dysplasia. No significant association was observed between DKK3 expression and dysplastic status of OLK. Loss of DKK3 expression was observed in 15 of 30 cases in the OSF group, which was significantly associated with histological grade of OSF (P<0.0001). The percentage of positive cells gradually declined with the increasing severity of epithelial atrophy. A significant difference (P<0.01) was observed when comparing DKK3 expression among different groups of OLK and OSF cases. DKK3 may have diverse expressions in oral premalignant lesions. Loss of DKK3 expression in dysplastic/advanced stage of OSF may imply a high risk of progression to oral cancer. PMID:27349317

  11. Inflammatory reaction in chronic periodontopathies in patients with diabetes mellitus. Histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Camen, Georgiana Cristiana; Caraivan, O; Olteanu, Mădălina; Camen, A; Bunget, Adina; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Predescu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    Chronic periodontopathies and diabetes mellitus are two clinical entities, which reciprocally condition one another. The periodontal disease is considered a major complication, which induces an unfavorable evolution of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease which favors the occurrence of periodontopathy through gum's microvascular disorders, the selection and development of an aggressive bacterial plaque and through an exaggerate inflammatory response to the microflora within the oral cavity. Both diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease have an increasing incidence in the whole world. Development of periodontopathy is related to the aggression of bacterial flora in dental plaque, flora that is influenced on its turn by the evolution of diabetes mellitus. In our study, we have evaluated the inflammatory reaction in periodontium in patients with slowly and progressive periodontitis in patients with diabetes mellitus who had diabetes longer than five years. It has been found that all patients presented a chronic inflammatory infiltrate, abundant, with round mononuclear cells of lymphocyte, plasma cells and macrophage type, with non-homogenous arrangement, more intensely where the covering epithelium presented erosions or necrotic areas. Out of the immunity system cells, the most numerous where of T-lymphocytes type.

  12. Vanadium (V)-induced neurotoxicity in the rat central nervous system: a histo-immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Graciela Beatriz; Biancardi, Maria Eugenia; Quiroga, Ariel Dario

    2005-01-01

    As vanadium was found to induce oxidative stress in the central nervous system, the morphological alterations of neurons and astroglial cells in adult rat central nervous system after vanadium exposure was studied, using histological markers of cellular injury. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with 3 mg/kg body weight of sodium metavanadate for 5 consecutive days. NADPH diaphorase histochemistry and heat shock protein (hsp) 70, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and S-100 immunohistochemistry were performed in floating sections of several brain areas. NADPHd staining was higher in the molecular and granular layers of the cerebellar cortex, and small NADPHd-stained interneurons were observed in hippocampal sections in V(+5)-exposed animals. hsp 70 immunostaining showed the presence of reactive neurons in cerebellum of treated animals. GFAP and S-100 immunohistochemistry showed enlarged astrocytes in cerebellum and hippocampus in the V(+5)-exposed animals. The histological markers used showed that the main areas affected by vanadium-mediated free-radical generation were the hippocampus and the cerebellum.

  13. The contrast of immunohistochemical studies of myocardial fibrinogen and myoglobin in early myocardial ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiaohong, Zhao; Xiaorui, Chen; Jun, Hu; Qisheng, Qin

    2002-03-01

    In this study, an animal model of early myocardial ischemia (EMI) was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery of rats. The experimental animals were divided into five groups according to different intervals of MI (15, 30min, 1, 2, and 3h) and one control group. Tissues from the apex of the myocardium and the adjacent myocardium were taken for paraffin sections, followed by hematoxylin-eosin and streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) staining. Results showed that the myoglobin (Mb) depletion and the fibrinogen (Fg) staining increase were detected in the 30min MI group. The wavy-like increasing extension of the size and the intensity of the Mb depletion and the Fg staining intensification from the subendocardial to the subepicardial cells were observed along with the prolongation of the ischemic period. Both changes had similar patterns and sensitivity, except Fg was less reliable than Mb as it is more easily contaminated by blood. After overcoming blood contamination, the SABC-Fg technique will provide a new method for the diagnosis of EMI.

  14. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical study of the lymph nodes of the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Zidan, Mohamed; Pabst, Reinhard

    2012-01-15

    Prescapular, femoral, mesenteric, mediastinal and splenic lymph nodes from nine camels of one to 12 years of age were studied. There were no obvious structural differences between these different lymph nodes or between the ages. The lymph nodes were surrounded by a capsule formed of two layers, an outer thicker layer of connective tissue and an inner thinner layer mainly of smooth muscles. Trabeculae extended from the inner layer of the capsule dividing the parenchyma characteristically into incomplete lobules. Subcapsular and trabecular lymphatic sinuses were supported by a reticular fiber network. The parenchyma was uniquely different from that of other species, as it was arranged in the form of lymphoid follicles and interfollicular lymphoid tissue. The lymphoid follicles of CD22 positive lymphocytes were supported by a reticular fiber network. This fine network of α-smooth muscle actin positive cells enclosed the lymphoid follicles. The interfollicular tissue was mainly made up of diffusely distributed CD3 positive lymphocytes. MHC class II: DR was expressed by most lymphocytes of the follicles and interfollicular tissue. Lymphatic sinuses and high endothelial venules were found in the interfollicular zone. The lymphatic sinuses were lined by discontinuous endothelial cells. The wall of the high endothelial venules was infiltrated by several lymphocytes and enclosed in a layer of α-smooth muscle actin positive cells. Acid phosphatase positive cells were evenly distributed in the interfollicular zone. A few cells were localized in the lymph follicles. Alkaline phosphatase was observed in the endothelium of the lymphatic sinuses and in the lymphoid follicles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on the epididymal duct in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Reda; Emara, Saad; Nada, Mohamed; Helal, Amr

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to underscore the spatial distribution of some biologically active proteins within the epididymal duct in the dromedary camel. Paraffin-embedded sections from different regions of epididymis were stained by conventional histological techniques and by immunohistochemistry. A battery of primary antibodies against six proteins (S100, alpha smooth muscle actin [α-SMA], connexin-43 [Cx43], galactosyltransferase [GalTase], angiotensin converting enzyme [ACE], and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) were used. The epididymal epithelium consisted of five cell populations: principal, basal, apical, dark, and halo cells. The histochemical findings indicated the absence of binding sites for VEGF and Cx43. The principal cells (PCs) showed variable immunoreactivity (IR) for ACE, S100, and GalTase throughout the whole length of the duct. The apical surfaces of most PCs (at the caput) and some PCs (at the corpus) exhibited intense ACE-IR, whereas those at the cauda displayed alternating negative and strong immunostaining. Similarly, moderate S100-IR was found in cytoplasm and nuclei of all PCs at the caput, few PCs at the corpus, and several PCs alternating with negative PCs at the cauda. In contrast, only some PCs showed weak to strong GalTase-IR in different regions. Apart from negative to weak positive S100-IR, basal cells failed to show IR for all other proteins. Apical cells displayed strong IR for ACE, S100, and GalTase with some regional differences. The peritubular and vascular smooth muscle cells revealed strong α-SMA-IR in all regions. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of different proteins in camel epididymis showed similarities and differences to other mammalian species. The region-specific topographic distribution of different proteins and cell types might indicate that the caput and cauda are metabolically more active than that of the corpus. PMID:22254157

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 expression in the epithelium of inflammatory periapical lesions. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, R; Perrotta, R E; Loreto, C; Musumeci, G; Crimi, S; Dos Santos, J N; Rusu, M C; Bufo, P; Barbato, E; Pannone, G

    2015-10-26

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG) and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC) and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC) served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease.

  17. The Er/Ki-67 Proportion in Breast Tumours - An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Rachna; Rai, M K

    2016-04-01

    Breast tumours are classified as benign, proliferative and invasive tumours. Estrogen hormone influences the proliferative activity and progression of the tumour. Estrogen Receptor (ER) status and proliferative index (Ki 67) are important histopathological factors in the development and prognosis of these tumours. The present study was aimed to evaluate the variations in ER and Ki-67 expression in three broad categories of breast lesions namely benign breast disease, proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease. ER% and Ki-67% was evaluated on the histopathological tissues of 15 patients each of benign, proliferative and invasive breast tumours. The ER+/ Ki-67± ratio was calculated and the variation of expression between the three categories was analyzed using student's t-test. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to correlate ER and Ki-67 positivity within each category. The mean ER+/Ki-67+ in benign, proliferative and invasive tumours was 0.81, 0.87 and 1.42 respectively. A statistically significant difference in ER+/Ki-67+ proportions was observed between proliferative breast disease category and malignant breast disease category and also between benign breast disease category and malignant breast disease category (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in benign breast disease category and proliferative breast disease category (p>0.05). A significant correlation was observed in proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease categories. However, no significant correlation was observed in benign breast disease category. ER+/Ki-67+ ratio is an important determinant of the invasive breast cancer and can be used to differentiate invasive cancers from benign and proliferative breast tumours.

  18. The dentin sialoprotein (DSP) expression in rat tooth germs following fluoride treatment: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Izabela; Spodnik, Jan Henryk; Wójcik, Sławomir; Domaradzka-Pytel, Beata; Bereznowski, Zdzisław

    2006-03-01

    Fluoride is known to alter expression of dentin matrix proteins and affect their posttranslational modifications. The objective of our study was to examine dentin sialoprotein (DSP) expression in the early and late bell stages of development of the first molar tooth germs in rats treated with fluoride. Pregnant dumps were divided into three groups. They were fed a standard diet and from the fifth day of pregnancy, each group received either tap water (with trace amounts of fluoride), tap water with a low concentration of fluoride, or tap water with a high concentration of fluoride. Changes in DSP expression and distribution were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity for DSP was detected in the cervical regions of the early bell stage in tooth germs of the 1-day-old animals. The earliest reaction was visible in the control group and the group supplemented with the low fluoride concentration (F(L)) but not in the group supplemented with the high fluoride concentration (F(H)). In early bell stages across all experimental groups, the immunoreactivity to DSP was observed in the cusp tip regions and was localized to preameloblasts, young and mature odontoblasts, dental pulp cells, predentin, and dentin. Generally, more intense positive staining for DSP was detected in animals supplemented with the high fluoride concentration. In the late bell stage found in the 4-day-old control group and the group supplemented with the low fluoride concentration, immunoreactivity for DSP was less intense compared with younger animals. However, immunoreactivity was greater in the group treated with the high dose of fluoride. In this group, the positive immunostaining for DSP, especially in young ameloblasts, was prolonged and relatively strong. Fluoride supplementation causes changes in the developmental pattern of DSP expression and its distribution in rat tooth germs.

  19. Involvement of nigral oxytocin in locomotor activity: A behavioral, immunohistochemical and lesion study in male rats.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Laura; Cocco, Cristina; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Sanna, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    Oxytocin is involved in the control of different behaviors, from sexual behavior and food consumption to empathy, social and affective behaviors. An imbalance of central oxytocinergic neurotransmission has been also associated with different mental pathologies, from depression, anxiety and anorexia/bulimia to schizophrenia, autism and drug dependence. This study shows that oxytocin may also play a role in the control of locomotor activity. Accordingly, intraperitoneal oxytocin (0.5-2000μg/kg) reduced locomotor activity of adult male rats. This effect was abolished by d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, an oxytocin receptor antagonist, given into the lateral ventricles at the dose of 2μg/rat, which was ineffective on locomotor activity. Oxytocin (50-200ng/site) also reduced and d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (2μg/site) increased locomotor activity when injected bilaterally into the substantia nigra, a key area in the control of locomotor activity. Conversely, the destruction of nigral neurons bearing oxytocin receptors by the recently characterized neurotoxin oxytocin-saporin injected into the substantia nigra, increased basal locomotor activity. Since oxytocin-saporin injected into the substantia nigra caused a marked reduction of neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (e.g., nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons) and for vesicular glutamate transporters VGluT1, VGluT2 and VGluT3 (e.g., glutamatergic neurons), but not for glutamic acid decarboxylase (e.g., GABAergic neurons), together these findings suggest that oxytocin influences locomotor activity by acting on receptors localized presynaptically in nigral glutamatergic nerve terminals (which control the activity of nigral GABAergic efferent neurons projecting to brain stem nuclei controlling locomotor activity), rather than on receptors localized in the cell bodies/dendrites of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential diagnosis of malignant epithelial tumours in the liver: an immunohistochemical study on liver biopsy material.

    PubMed

    Al-Muhannadi, Najla; Ansari, Naseem; Brahmi, Urmil; Satir, Ali Abdel

    2011-01-01

    A variety of primary and secondary malignant tumours may present in the liver. In clinical practice the most commonly encountered hepatic tumours are primary hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic carcinoma and primary cholangiocarcinoma, each with its separate prognostic and management implications. When these tumours are poorly differentiated and the biopsy size is limited to a needle core, the distinction can be extremely difficult. All liver tumours reported between 1994 and 2004 were examined. Slides from each case were tested separately with each of nine antibodies (HepPar1, CD10, MOC31, Villin, pCEA, mCEA, CK7, CK19, and CK20). Liver biopsy tissue from 53 patients was examined in this retrospective study. The 53 liver biopsies were classified thus: hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 23); metastatic adenocarcinoma (n = 15); cholangiocarcinoma (n = 5); metastatic small cell carcinoma (n = 7); liver cell dysplasia (n = 1); carcinoid (n = 1); and unclassified (n = 1). Sensitivity and specificity values for different antibodies in relation to their positive staining of specific tumours was as follows: HepPar1 for HCC-81.8% and 100%; MOC31 for MA-73.3% and 92.1%; MOC31 for MA and CC as a combined group-65% and 100%; pCEA (canalicular) for HCC-82.6% and 83.3%; mCEA for MA-93.3% and 75.6%; CK7 for CC-100% and 68%; CK19 for MA and CC as a combined group-90% and 86.3%. An antibody panel consisting of HepPar1, pCEA, CK19 and CK7 together with either MOC31 or mCEA is recommended for use in the differential diagnosis of HCC, MA and CC.

  1. Multinucleated giant cell reaction in lower lip squamous cell carcinoma: a clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hellen Bandeira de Pontes; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; Pinto, Leão Pereira; Gordón-Núñez, Manuel Antonio; Alves, Pollianna Muniz; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege

    2017-10-01

    Multinucleated giant cell (MGC) reactions have been identified in several malignancies, but their frequency and significance in lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are not established. This study evaluated the MGC reactions and their association with clinicopathological parameters in lower lip SCCs. The polarization profile of these cells (M1 or M2 macrophages) was also assessed. The presence and distribution of MGC reactions in high-power fields (400×) were evaluated in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histological sections of 91 lower lip SCCs. The histopathological grade of malignancy was evaluated using two grading systems (World Health Organization [WHO] and Malignancy Grading of the Deep Invasive Margins). The histiocytic nature (CD68) and polarization profile (M1-HLA-DR+ or M2-CD163+) of MGCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Multinucleated giant cell reaction was identified in 36 (39.6%) cases, and its frequency was 3.3 times higher in well/moderately differentiated tumors than in poorly differentiated tumors (WHO grading system) (P = 0.006). For Malignancy Grading of the Deep Invasive Margins, the frequency was 2.03 times higher in highly/moderately keratinized tumors than in tumors with minimal/no keratinization (P = 0.012). No significant associations were observed between the presence/distribution of MGCs and clinical parameters (tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and clinical stage) (P > 0.05). All MGCs were positive for CD68 and there was a predominance of HLA-DR(+) over CD163(+) MGCs (P = 0.031). Multinucleated giant cell reactions may not be involved in tumor progression in lower lip SCCs. In this microenvironment, MGCs tend to exhibit a predominantly M1 phenotype and may represent a foreign body reaction to SCC keratin pearls. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cortactin gene amplification and expression in breast cancer: a chromogenic in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Dedes, Konstantin J; Lopez-Garcia, Maria-Angeles; Geyer, Felipe C; Lambros, Maryou B K; Savage, Kay; Vatcheva, Radost; Wilkerson, Paul; Wetterskog, Daniel; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Natrajan, Rachael; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-12-01

    Amplification of 11q13 is found in approximately 15% of breast cancers. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) has been reported to be the 'driver' of this amplicon, however, multiple genes map to the smallest region of amplification of 11q13. Out of these genes, cortactin (CTTN) has been shown to be consistently overexpressed at the mRNA level in tumours harbouring 11q13 amplification. The aims of this study are to define whether CTTN is consistently co-amplified with the main core of the 11q13 amplicon, whether it is consistently overexpressed when amplified and to determine correlations between CTTN amplification and overexpression with clinicopathological features of breast cancers and survival of breast cancer patients. CTTN and CCND1 chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) probes and a validated monoclonal antibody against CTTN were applied to a tissue microarray of a cohort of breast cancers from patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CTTN and CCND1 amplifications were found in 12.3 and 12.4% of cases, respectively. All cases harbouring CTTN amplification also displayed CCND1 amplification. High expression of CTTN was found in 10.8% of cases and was associated with CTTN amplification, expression of 'basal' markers and topoisomerase IIα. Exploratory subgroup analysis of tumours devoid of 11q13 amplification revealed that high expression of CTTN in the absence of CTTN gene amplification was associated with lymph node negative disease, lack of hormone receptors and FOXA1, expression of 'basal' markers, high Ki-67 indices, p53 nuclear expression, and basal-like and triple negative phenotypes. CTTN expression and CTTN gene amplification were not associated with disease-, metastasis-free and overall survival. In conclusion, CTTN is consistently co-amplified with CCND1 and expressed at higher levels in breast cancers harbouring 11q13 amplification, suggesting that CTTN may also constitute one of the drivers of this amplicon. CTTN expression is not associated with the

  3. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Study of Clinical, Histomorphological, and Immunohistochemical Features in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Sable, Mukund; Pai, Trupti D; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Dhanavade, Sandeep; Desai, Sangeeta B

    2016-09-09

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are characterized by negative expression for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors. Although the majority of basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) diagnosed based on gene expression profiling belong to the TNBC group, both entities are not synonymous. Core BLBCs are TNBCs, which are positive for basal cytokeratin (CK) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We aimed to study and correlate a TNBC cohort for various histomorphological features and immunohistochemical (IHC) profile in Indian patients. We studied 205 naïve TNBCs for histopathological features, which were further evaluated for basal CKs-namely, CK5/6, CK14, CK17-and EGFR expression to classify them as core BLBCs, using criteria of any basal CK and/or EGFR positivity and 7-negative phenotype (7NP). Among 205 TNBCs, 91% of cases were core BLBCs, and absence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was significantly associated (P = .014) with core BLBC. Geographic necrosis was correlated with expression of CK17 (P = .002) and EGFR (P = .038). A ribbon-like trabecular pattern and absence of DCIS were associated with CK17 (P = .0002 and P = .043, respectively) and CK14 (P = .04 and P = .0008, respectively). TNBC is a heterogeneous subgroup with adverse clinicopathological features, and many of them show significant correlation with basal CKs. TNBCs cannot be classified as core BLBC or 7NP based on morphological features, except absence of DCIS. However, this study illustrates the heterogeneity in TNBCs on the basis of IHC markers.

  4. Thearubigins protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatic and renal injury in mice: biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Murad, Hussam A S; Habib, H; Kamel, Y; Alsayed, S; Shakweer, M; Elshal, M

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen toxicity is used as a model for studying chemical toxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used for the treatment of hepatotoxicity; however, there is no specific therapy for nephrotoxicity. This study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of black tea extract (BTE) and its main phenolic pigment, thearubigins (TRs), against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatic and renal injury in mice. Besides control groups, six groups (n = 8) were given intraperitoneally APAP (300 mg/kg) and then after 1.5 hours were treated intraperitoneally as follows: NAC (318 mg/kg), BTE (3%, 4.5%), and TRs (50, 60, and 70 mg/kg). Six hours post-APAP injection, blood was collected for biochemical measurements. Later, liver and kidneys were removed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometry studies. APAP increased alanine aminotransferase and malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione levels in blood. Treatments significantly reversed these changes mostly with NAC and TRs70. TRs showed dose-dependent significant differences. The APAP-induced central lobular hepatic necrosis and increased TUNEL positivity were mild with co-administration of NAC and TRs (60, 70) while moderate with co-administration of BTE (3, 4.5) and TRs50. The APAP-increased serum creatinine level was significantly reversed by treatments (mostly TRs60, 70). The APAP-induced renal tubular epithelial degeneration and necrosis were mild with co-administration of TRs (60, 70) while moderate with co-administration of NAC, BTE (3, 4.5), and TRs50. The APAP-accumulated apoptotic cells in sub-G1 phase were significantly decreased by treatments, mostly by NAC and TRs70 in the liver and TRs (60, 70) in kidneys. Thearubigins protected against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice possibly through their antioxidant activity.

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin on Alveolar Bone Resorption After Experimental Periodontitis in Rats: A Biochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Arabacı, Taner; Kermen, Eda; Özkanlar, Seçkin; Köse, Oğuz; Kara, Adem; Kızıldağ, Alper; Duman, Şuayip Burak; Ibişoğlu, Ebru

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of systemic melatonin administration on alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (control, experimental periodontitis [Ped], and experimental periodontitis treated with melatonin [Mel-Ped]). For periodontitis induction, first molars were ligatured submarginally for 4 weeks. After ligature removal, rats in the Mel-Ped group were treated with a daily single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight melatonin for 15 consecutive days. At the end of the study, intracardiac blood samples and mandible tissues were obtained for histologic, biochemical, and radiographic analysis. Serum markers related to bone turnover, calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and terminal C telopeptide of collagen Type I (CTX) were analyzed. Myeloperoxidase levels were determined in gingival tissue homogenates, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) activation was analyzed in the mandible samples stereologically. Alveolar bone loss was also evaluated radiographically in the mandible samples of each group. Melatonin treatment decreased serum CTX levels and increased b-ALP levels. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were not statistically different among groups (P >0.05). Alveolar bone resorption and myeloperoxidase activity were statistically higher in the Ped group compared to the Mel-Ped group (P <0.05). Immunohistochemical staining of RANKL and osteoclast activity were significantly lower in the Mel-Ped group compared to the Ped group (P <0.05). This study reveals that melatonin treatment significantly inhibits regional alveolar bone resorption and contributes to periodontal healing in an experimental periodontitis rat model.

  6. Differential expression of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in human tissues; tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Scieglinska, Dorota; Piglowski, Wojciech; Chekan, Mykola; Mazurek, Agnieszka; Krawczyk, Zdzisław

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we determined the expression pattern of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in various normal human tissues by tissue-microarray based immunohistochemical analysis. Both proteins belong to the HSPA (HSP70) family of heat shock proteins. The HSPA2 is encoded by the gene originally defined as testis-specific, while HSPA1 is encoded by the stress-inducible genes (HSPA1A and HSPA1B). Our study revealed that both proteins are expressed only in some tissues from the 24 ones examined. HSPA2 was detected in adrenal gland, bronchus, cerebellum, cerebrum, colon, esophagus, kidney, skin, small intestine, stomach and testis, but not in adipose tissue, bladder, breast, cardiac muscle, diaphragm, liver, lung, lymph node, pancreas, prostate, skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid. Expression of HSPA1 was detected in adrenal gland, bladder, breast, bronchus, cardiac muscle, esophagus, kidney, prostate, skin, but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, HSPA2 and HSPA1 proteins were found to be expressed in a cell-type-specific manner. The most pronounced cell-type expression pattern was found for HSPA2 protein. In the case of stratified squamous epithelia of the skin and esophagus, as well as in ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining respiratory tract, the HSPA2 positive cells were located in the basal layer. In the colon, small intestine and bronchus epithelia HSPA2 was detected in goblet cells. In adrenal gland cortex HSPA2 expression was limited to cells of zona reticularis. The presented results clearly show that certain human tissues constitutively express varying levels of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in a highly differentiated way. Thus, our study can help designing experimental models suitable for cell- and tissue-type-specific functional differences between HSPA2 and HSPA1 proteins in human tissues.

  7. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3. PMID:26379312

  8. Comparative morphologic and immunohistochemical studies of estrogen plus alpha-naphthoflavone-induced liver tumors in Syrian hamsters and rats.

    PubMed Central

    Oberley, T. D.; Slattery, A. F.; Gonzalez, A.; Li, S. A.; Li, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were treated with ethinylestradiol and maintained on a diet containing alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha NF), a regimen that produces a high incidence of liver tumors. Morphologic analyses (light microscopy, immunoperoxidase studies, and electron microscopy) were performed on livers of these animals. After 4 months of hormone plus alpha NF treatment, marked hepatocyte cell changes were already present, as demonstrated by loss of eosinophilic staining of hepatocyte cytoplasm. Large multinucleated hepatocytes exhibiting frequent mitoses were observed around central veins. After 5 months of treatment, there was proliferation of bile ducts, and small cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm resembling hepatocytes appeared surrounding these bile ducts. At 7 to 8 months, the first tumor nodules (foci) were seen. Tumor foci in the portal area consisted of small clusters of large cells resembling hepatocytes with irregular nuclei. At the same time, dysplastic glands were identified among proliferating bile ducts. By 8 to 10 months, large tumors were present. These were trabecular hepatocellular carcinomas with widely varying individual cell morphology. Compared with adjacent liver, dysplastic glands in the portal areas, microcarcinomas, and large tumors all showed intense immunostaining for cytokeratin. Rats treated with the same regimen also developed hepatic tumors, but the light and electron microscopy results and immunohistochemical profiles were very different. Altered hepatic foci composed of small hepatocytes were typically prominent; however, malignant tumors did not arise from the portal area. Neither altered foci nor tumors stained significantly for cytokeratin. These data suggest that the biochemical events giving rise to these liver tumors differ between the species studied, despite the animals being exposed to the same treatment regimens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1887866

  9. Immunohistochemical study and mRNA cytokine profile of the local immune response in cattle naturally infected with Calicophoron daubneyi.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel; Manga-González, Yolanda; Benavides, Julio; González-Lanza, M Camino; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Fernández, Miguel; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Castaño, Pablo; Royo, Marcos; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Pérez, Valentín; Ferreras, M Carmen

    2015-11-30

    In order to recognize the local immune response of the definitive host to Calicophoron daubneyi natural infection, an immunohistochemical study was carried out in the reticulum and rumen in 49 naturally infected cattle. The role of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10 interleukins and IFN-γ) in the activation of specific defence mechanisms was evaluated by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays to study cytokine mRNA expression. In all infected animals, CD3+ T lymphocytes seemed to be the main element of the inflammatory infiltrate in the reticular and ruminal lamina propria at the point of the parasite adhesion. Intraepithelial globule leukocytes also showed immunolabelling for CD3. Most CD3+ cells also expressed CD4 (T cell helper) antigen although sporadic CD8+-cytotoxic lymphocytes were observed. Local expression of IFN-γ was observed in damaged papillae at the site of parasite attachment and in scattered cells in the lamina propria. B cells (CD79αcy+, CD45+ and IgG+) were found constantly in relation to lymphoid aggregates. MAC387 was expressed in squamous epithelium and in macrophages of the lamina propria of affected papillae. Macrophages in this location also stained positively for CD163 and CD68. Intraepithelial Langerhans cells and macrophages located in the lamina propria showed immunopositivity for MHCII in the affected areas. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed a statistical significant increase of IFN-γ, and IL-10 expression (p<0.01) in the rumen associated with the presence of flukes. These findings suggest a predominant Th1 polarized local immune response with the probable involvement of Th regulatory cells in cattle C. daubneyi natural infection.

  10. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis plays a major role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. I. Immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary S; Karoui, Khalil El; Karras, Alexandre; Mandet, Chantal; Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Nochy, Dominique; Bruneval, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) often shows lesions morphologically identical with those of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In order to determine the possible role of FSGS in IgAN lesions, we measured glomerular capsular adhesions, often the first step toward FSGS, in biopsies from 127 patients with IgAN, 100 with lupus nephritis, and 26 with primary FSGS. Capsular adhesions with no lesions in the underlying tuft, consistent with podocyte abnormality or loss, were found regularly in FSGS and IgAN, but infrequently in lupus. Fifteen biopsies of patients with IgAN were studied immunohistochemically using markers for podocytes, Bowman's parietal epithelial cells, proliferating cells, and macrophages. Cytokeratins CK-8 and C2562 differentiated normal podocytes (negative) from parietal epithelial cells (variably positive). There was focal loss of the podocyte markers synaptopodin, glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP-1), nephrin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), particularly at sites of capsular adhesions in otherwise histologically normal glomeruli. Cells displaying the parietal epithelial cell markers PAX2 (paired box gene 2) and the cytokeratins were also positive for the proliferating cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These cells gathered at sites of adhesion, and in response to active lesions in the tuft, grew inward along the adhesion onto the tuft, forming a monolayer positive for parietal markers and the podocyte marker Wilms tumor protein-1 (WT-1). These cells deposited a layer of collagen over the sclerosing tuft. Thus, all biopsies of patients with IgAN had changes basically identical to those classically described in FSGS. Hence, our study strongly suggests that podocytopathy of a type similar to that in primary FSGS occurs frequently in IgAN.

  11. Immunohistochemical study of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1 in invasive breast carcinoma of no special type.

    PubMed

    Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Woźniak, Marta; Murawski, Marek; Kołodziej, Paweł; Osiecka, Beata; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate 1 (NUCKS1) in invasive breast carcinoma of no special type, in association with clinicopathological characteristics, including the tumor grade, frequency of lymph node involvement and distant metastasis. In addition, associations between NUCKS1 and other tumor subtype markers, including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6), were investigated. NUCKS1 expression was shown to be associated with the formation of distant metastases and lymph node involvement. Furthermore, an association between the presence of NUCKS1 and histological grading was observed. The results confirmed that the expression of NUCKS1 in low grade invasive breast carcinoma of no special type was significantly less common compared with cases of high grade carcinoma. With regard to the additional tumor subtype markers, NUCKS1 expression was demonstrated to be significantly associated with Ki-67 and CK 5/6; however, no association was identified with ER, PR and HER2. Therefore, NUCKS1 may be a novel prognostic marker in the histopathological evaluation of invasive breast carcinoma of no special type.

  12. What do we know about the structure of human thymic Hassall's corpuscles? A histochemical, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Mikušová, Renáta; Mešťanová, Veronika; Polák, Štefan; Varga, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Hassall's corpuscles are the most prominent structures in the human thymus. However, relatively few analyses have been performed to determine their function and cellular origins during development. In this study, we evaluated the cellular microenvironment of human thymic Hassall's corpuscles using histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. We examined 95 human thymic tissue samples, which were perioperatively obtained from children undergoing cardiac surgery. To characterize the complex cellular microenvironment of human thymic corpuscles, we used a panel of 14 different antibodies to identify discrete cell types. We also utilized various histochemical methods (PAS reaction, alcian blue staining, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activity staining, von Kossa staining of calcified particles) and transmission electron microscopy to visualize these structures. Considerable variation in the sizes, shapes, and numbers of Hassall's corpuscles was observed, even amongst children of the same age. Inside the largest Hassall's corpuscles, cystic dilatation with an accumulation of cellular debris was found. These morphological observations might be associated with disruptions in the formation, migration, or differentiation of cardiac neural crest cells, which are essential for heart and thymus development. Immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy revealed that Hassall's corpuscles resemble other types of stratified squamous epithelia. Most Hassall's corpuscles are heterocellular, consisting of thymic epithelial cells, macrophages, interdigitating dendritic cells, myoid cells, and, occasionally, mast cells and lymphocytes. To explore the potential functions of Hassall's corpuscles, we found that the concentrations of B-lymphocytes and BCL2-positive lymphocytes suggested a role in regulation of lymphopoiesis. We also found that these structures do not originate from the perivascular epithelium as previously proposed, nor

  13. Immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinomas: a tissue microarray study of 112 cases.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Cubilla, Antonio L; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J

    2015-05-01

    ARID1A, a member of the chromatin remodeling genes family, has been suggested as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gynecologic malignancies. However, its role in penile cancer has yet to be determined. This study assesses the immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its association with pathologic features, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and previously reported mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers in the same cohort. Four tissue microarrays were constructed from 112 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded penile SCC from Paraguay. Each tumor was sampled 3 to 12 times. ARID1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal rabbit anti-ARID1A (BAF250A) antibody. An H score was calculated in each spot as the sum of expression intensity (0-3+) by extent (0%-100%). Median H score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was observed in all cases, ranging from 3% to 100% of tumor cells (median, 95%). In 96 cases (86%), ARID1A expression was observed in 90% or more tumor cells. HPV DNA was detected in 20 (38%) of 52 analyzed samples. There was a significant trend of association between ARID1A and histologic grade. ARID1A expression was not associated with histologic subtype (P = .61) or HPV status (P = .18). ARID1A expression decreased with decreasing levels of PTEN expression (P = .01). ARID1A was expressed in penile SCC, in most cases at high levels. A significant trend of association was found between histologic grade and ARID1A expression, with lower ARID1A expression, lower histologic grades, and decreased PTEN expression.

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinomas: a tissue microarray study of 112 cases☆

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Sheila F.; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Cubilla, Antonio L.; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ARID1A, a member of the chromatin remodeling genes family, has been suggested as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gynecologic malignancies. However, its role in penile cancer has yet to be determined. This study assesses the immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its association with pathologic features, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and previously reported mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers in the same cohort. Four tissue microarrays were constructed from 112 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded penile SCC from Paraguay. Each tumor was sampled 3 to 12 times. ARID1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal rabbit anti-ARID1A (BAF250A) antibody. An H score was calculated in each spot as the sum of expression intensity (0-3+) by extent (0%-100%). Median H score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was observed in all cases, ranging from 3% to 100% of tumor cells (median, 95%). In 96 cases (86%), ARID1A expression was observed in 90% or more tumor cells. HPV DNA was detected in 20 (38%) of 52 analyzed samples. There was a significant trend of association between ARID1A and histologic grade. ARID1A expression was not associated with histologic subtype (P = .61) or HPV status (P = .18). ARID1A expression decreased with decreasing levels of PTEN expression (P = .01). ARID1A was expressed in penile SCC, in most cases at high levels. A significant trend of association was found between histologic grade and ARID1A expression, with lower ARID1A expression, lower histologic grades, and decreased PTEN expression. PMID:25776029

  15. Effects of low-frequency noise on cardiac collagen and cardiomyocyte ultrastructure: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Eduardo; Borrecho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Pedro; Alves de Matos, António P; Brito, José; Águas, Artur; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency noise (LFN) leads to the development of tissue fibrosis. We previously reported the development of myocardial and perivascular fibrosis and a reduction of cardiac connexin43 in rats, but data is lacking concerning the affected type of collagen as well as the ultrastructural myocardial modifications. The aim of this study was to quantify cardiac collagens I and III and to evaluate myocardial ultrastructural changes in Wistar rats exposed to LFN. Two groups of rats were considered: A LFN-exposed group with 8 rats continuously submitted to LFN during 3 months and a control group with 8 rats. The hearts were sectioned and the mid-ventricular fragment was selected. After immunohistochemical evaluation, quantification of the collagens and muscle were performed using the image J software in the left ventricle, interventricular septum and right ventricle and the collagen I/muscle and collagen III/muscle ratios were calculated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze mid-ventricular samples taken from each group. The collagen I/muscle and collagen III/muscle ratios increased in totum respectively 80% (p<0.001) and 57.4% (p<0.05) in LFN-exposed rats. TEM showed interstitial collagen deposits and changes in mitochondria and intercalated discs of the cardiomyocytes in LFN-exposed animals. LFN increases collagen I and III in the extracellular matrix and induces ultrastructural alterations in the cardiomyocytes. These new morphological data open new and promising paths for further experimental and clinical research regarding the cardiac effects of low-frequency noise.

  16. Localization of regulatory peptides in the male urogenital apparatus of domestic equidae: a comparative immunohistochemical study in Equus caballus and Equus asinus.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, S; Domeneghini, C

    1997-04-01

    An immunohistochemical study was carried out on specimens of testis, excurrent duct including the male accessory glands and urethra in its various tracts in the horse and the donkey, in order to localize nine regulatory peptides. Immunoreactivities were tested by means of Labelled Strept Avidin-Biotin (LSAB) method. The study has shown that Equine male genitalia are supplied by many peptide immunoreactive nerves containing NPY-, VIP-, leu- and met-Enkephalin-, Substance P-, CGRP- and Bombesin/GRP-like peptides, each of them having a characteristic distribution pattern. These neurotransmitters were localized in nerve fibers running in the connective tissue or in contact with the smooth muscle cells, as well as in sub- and intraepithelial nerve terminals, and in perivascular nerve fibers. In addition, leu- and met-Enkephalin-like-immunoreactive endocrine cells were shown in the bulbourethral gland of the horse. In both species it was evident that an extensive utilization of NPY and VIP exists. A contingent of NPY- and VIP-ir nerve fibers may have an intrinsic origin. The other regulatory peptides tested show a characteristic distribution pattern, limited to some organs and peculiar to each of the two species of Equidae. Differences observed comparing E. caballus and E. asinus might be related to the species-specific balance of the accessory neurotransmitters which in turn accompany adrenergic innervation. In both species it is noteworthy the complete absence of any regulatory peptide in the testis, with the exception of the perivascular localization of NPY-ir nerve fibers.

  17. A morphometric, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization study of the dorsal raphe nucleus in major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and suicide

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Paul R.; Harrison, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence implicate 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and suicide. However, it is unclear whether these conditions include morphological involvement of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the origin of most forebrain 5-HT innervation. Method We used morphometric, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods to compare the DRN in post-mortem tissue of 50 subjects (13 controls, 14 major depressive disorder [MDD], 13 bipolar disorder, 10 schizophrenia; 17 of the cases died by suicide). NeuN and PH8 antibodies were used to assess all neurons and serotonergic neurons respectively; 5-HT1A autoreceptor expression was investigated by regional and cellular in situ hybridization. Measurements were made at three rostrocaudal levels of the DRN. Results In MDD, the area of the DRN was decreased. In bipolar disorder, serotonergic neuronal size was decreased. Suicide was associated with an increased DRN area, and with a higher density but decreased size of serotonergic neurons. Total neuronal density and 5-HT1A receptor mRNA abundance were unaffected by diagnosis or suicide. No changes were seen in schizophrenia. Conclusion The results show that mood disorders and suicide are associated with differential, limited morphological alterations of the DRN. The contrasting influences of MDD and suicide may explain some of the discrepancies between previous studies, since their design precluded detection of the effect. PMID:22129767

  18. SMARCB1/INI1-deficient sinonasal carcinoma shows methylation of RASSF1 gene: A clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study of a recently described entity.

    PubMed

    Laco, Jan; Chmelařová, Marcela; Vošmiková, Hana; Sieglová, Kateřina; Bubancová, Ivana; Dundr, Pavel; Němejcová, Kristýna; Michálek, Jaroslav; Čelakovský, Petr; Mottl, Radovan; Sirák, Igor; Vošmik, Milan; Ryška, Aleš

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was detailed clinicopathological investigation of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient sinonasal carcinomas, including molecular genetic analysis of mutational status and DNA methylation of selected protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes by means of next generation sequencing (NGS) and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). A total of 4/56 (7%) cases of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient carcinomas were detected among 56 sinonasal carcinomas diagnosed over a 19year period using immunohistochemical screening. The series comprised 3 males and 1 female, aged 27-76 years (median 64 years). All tumors arose in the nasal cavity. Three neoplasms were diagnosed in advanced stage pT4. During the follow-up period (range 14-111 months (median 72 months)), three tumors recurred locally, but none of the patients developed regional or distant metastases. Ultimately, two patients died due to the tumor. Microscopically, all tumors consisted of infiltrating nests of polygonal basaloid cells with a variable component of rhabdoid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, there was almost diffuse expression of cytokeratins (CK), p16, p40 and p63 in all cases, while expression of CK5/6, CK7 and vimentin was only focal or absent. The detection of NUT gave negative results. In three cases, the absence of SMARCB1/INI1 expression was due to deletion of SMARCB1/INI1 gene. Methylation of SMARCB1/INI1 gene was not found. One tumor harbored HPV18 E6/E7 mRNA. All 12 genes (BRAF, BRCA1, BRCA2, KIT, EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, RET, and ROS1) tested for mutations using NGS were wild-type. Regarding DNA methylation, all four SMARCB1/INI1-deficient tumors showed methylation of RASSF1 gene by means of MS-MLPA. There was a statistically significant difference in RASSF1 gene methylation between SMARCB1/INI1-deficient and SMARCB1/INI1-positive tumors (p=0.0095). All other examined genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CADM1, CASP8, CD44, CDKN1B

  19. Expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in leukoplakia and oral cancer: an immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandra Dutra da; Maraschin, Bruna Jalfim; Laureano, Natalia Koerich; Daroit, Natália; Brochier, Fernanda; Bündrich, Leonardo; Visioli, Fernanda; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2017-03-06

    To assess the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical correlation of adhesion (E-cadherin) and cell differentiation (involucrin) molecules in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytological samples and biopsies were obtained from male and female patients aged over 30 years with oral leukoplakia (n = 30) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 22). Cell scrapings and the biopsy were performed at the site of the lesion and histological slides were prepared for the immunocytochemical analysis of exfoliated oral mucosal cells and for the immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy tissues using E-cadherin and involucrin. Spearman's correlation and kappa coefficients were used to assess the correlation and level of agreement between the techniques. Immunostaining for E-cadherin and involucrin by both techniques was similar in the superficial layers of the histological sections compared with cell scrapings. However, there was no statistical correlation and agreement regarding the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in oral leukoplakia (R = 0.01, p = 0.958) (Kappa = 0.017, p = 0.92) or in oral squamous cell carcinoma (R = 0.26, p = 0.206) (Kappa = 0.36, p = 0.07). The immunoexpression of E-cadherin and involucrin in tissues is consistent with the expression patterns observed in exfoliated oral mucosal cells, despite the lack of a statistically significant correlation. There is an association of the histopathological characteristics of leukoplakia with the expression E-cadherin and of the microscopic aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma with immunohistochemical expression of involucrin.

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and radicular cyst: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Metgud, Rashmi; Naik, Smitha; Lerra, Sahul; Tiwari, Priya; Mamta; Katakwar, Payal; Tak, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyst and tumors arise from tissue remains of odontogenesis, these interactions have been considered to play an important role in the tumorigenesis of odontogenic lesions. The connective tissue stroma has an essential role in the preservation of epithelial tissues and minor alterations in the epithelium are followed by corresponding changes in the stroma, such as angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered the first factor which maintains its position as the most critical driver of vascular formation and is required to initiate the formation of immature vessels, with this aim, present study was executed to evaluate VEGF expression in kertocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst and radicular cyst (RC). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out comprising a total of 31 cases; 13 cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), nine cases of dentigerous cyst (DC) and nine cases of RC. The sections were stained immunohistochemically with VEGF antibody and were evaluated for the presence and intensity of the immuno reactive cells. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test to inter-compare the VEGF expression between KCOT, DC, and RC. Results: VEGF expression in the epithelium and connective tissue was significantly higher in KCOT compared to dentigerous and RC. One case of KCOT with carcinomatous change also revealed positive results for the VEGF expression in the dysplastic epithelium, tumor islands, and connective tissue. The significant difference was observed on inter-comparison of the VEGF expression in the connective tissue of KCOT and DC, whereas no significant difference was observed in the VEGF expression in the connective tissue of KCOT and DC. Conclusion: The present study data supports the literature finding that angiogenesis can be important in the progression and enlargement of odontogenic cysts similarly to what occurs in neoplastic conditions and further it can be concluded that

  1. Protective effect of ellagic acid on healing alveolar bone after tooth extraction in rat--a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Al Batran, Rami; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2014-09-01

    This study has attempted to evaluate the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction in rats. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats (200-250g) were selected and were anaesthetised for the extraction of upper left incisor. Then, the rats were divided into two groups, comprising 12 rats each; the first group has been considered as a control group and was given only normal saline, whereas, the second group (treated group) was intragastrically administrated with EA daily once, for 28 days. Then three rats from each group had been selected on 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days to dissect their maxilla tissue either for histological observation and homogenisation purposes. The tissues fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5μm thickness were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for the histological study. Similar sections were taken for immunohistochemical analysis to assess osteocalcin (OSC) and osteopontin (OPN). Furthermore, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in homogenated gingival maxilla tissue of rat by commercial kit. Based on the histological analysis we have identified that, EA treatment has induced earlier trabecular bone deposition in the treated group, resulting in more organised bone matrix on the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after tooth extraction, as against the control group. In comparison to control group, the positive labelling of OSC and OPN of the treated group have been highly expressed in the alveolar socket on 14th, and 21st days, which has indicated a the possibility of formation of new bone trabeculae at the beginning of the mineralisation process, after tooth extraction. In the EA treatment group, lipid per-oxidation (MDA) was significantly decreased (P<0.05), as opposed to the control group. However, the antioxidant defense enzyme (SOD) was significantly increased in the maxilla tissue treated with EA (P<0.05), compared to control group

  2. Immunohistochemical study of motoneurons in lumbar spinal cord of c57black/6 mice after 30-days space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkina, Oksana; Islamov, Rustem; Nurullin, Leniz; Petrov, Konstantin.; Rezvyakov, Pavel; Nikolsky, Evgeny

    To investigate mechanisms of hypogravity motor syndrome development the immunoexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsp27 and Hsp70), proteins of synaptic transmission (Synaptophysin and PSD95) and neuroprotective proteins (VEGF and Flt-1) in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in c57black/6 control mice (n=2) and after 30-days space flight (n=2) was studied. For a quantitative assessment of target proteins level in motoneurons frozen cross sections of lumbar spinal cord were underwent to immunohistochemical staining. Primary antibodies against VEGF, Flt-1, Hsp27 and Hsp70 (SantaCruz Biotechnology, inc. USA), against Synaptophysin and PSD95 (Abcam plc, UK) were visualized by streptavidin-biotin method. Images of spinal cords were received using OlympusBX51WI microscope with AxioCamMRm camera (CarlZeiss, Germany) and the AxioVisionRel. 4.6.3 software (CarlZeiss, Germany). The digitized data were analyzed using ImageJ 1.43 software (NIH, the USA). Quantitively, protein level in motoneurons was estimated by the density of immunoprecipitation. Results of research have not revealed any reliable changes in the immunnoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its Flt-1 receptor in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in control and in mice after 30-day space flight. Studying of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp27 and Hsp70, revealed the decrease in level of these proteins immunoexpression in motoneurons of mice from flight group by 15% and 10%, respectively. Some decrease in level of immunnoexpression of presynaptic membrane proteins (synaptophysin, by 21%) and proteins of postsynaptic area (PSD95, by 55%) was observed after space flight. The data obtained testify to possible changes in a functional state (synaptic activity and stress resistance) of motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in mice after space flight. Thus, we obtained new data on involvement of motoneurons innervating skeletal muscles in development of hypogravity motor syndrome. Research was supported

  3. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies of granular cell tumors in seven dogs, three cats, one horse, and one bird.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, A K

    1993-03-01

    In a retrospective study, granular cell tumors in six dogs (Nos. 1-6), three cats (Nos. 1-3), one horse (No. 1), and one cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) (No. 1) and a meningioma with a granular cell component in one dog (No. 7) were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. These tumors were identified by histologic examination of surgical biopsy specimens, except in the horse, in which the tumor was an incidental finding at necropsy. These diagnoses were initially made by more than one pathologist. Five of the six granular cell tumors in the dogs were in the oral cavity; one of these was in the maxillary gingiva of a 6-month-old puppy. The tumors in the cats were located in the tongue, vulva, and digit. The tumor in the horse was in the lung, and the tumor in the cockatiel was in the periocular tissue. Histologically, all granular cell tumors were characterized by oval to polygonal cells of various sizes. The cells had abundant, pale, eosinophilic cytoplasm with distinct intracytoplasmic granules, distinct cell margins, and mostly central nuclei. In the dogs, the gingival tumor had a large amount of collagen tissue, the tumor in the tongue had dilated blood vessels, and the maxillary tumor in the puppy was more cellular than the other tumors. The tumors in the cats were more anaplastic than the other tumors; one, located in the digit, was considered malignant. The granules in all of the tumors stained with periodic acid-Schiff and were diastase resistant. On staining with Luxol fast blue, the granules of all tumors stained different shades of pink, with the exception of the tumor in the tongue of a cat, which stained bluish green. Immunocytochemically, all tumors except the tumor in the cockatiel reacted against antibodies to vimentin. The granular cell tumor in the lung of the horse and the intracranial meningioma in a dog reacted to the antibody S-100 protein; the tumor in the horse reacted to neuron-specific enolase; tumors in two dogs (gingiva and

  4. A Harmonization Study for the Use of 22C3 PD-L1 Immunohistochemical Staining on Ventana's Platform.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Tzahi; London, Michal; Kania-Almog, Juliane; Litvin, Anna; Zohar, Yaniv; Fridel, Ludmila; Sandbank, Judith; Barshak, Iris; Vainer, Gilad W

    2016-11-01

    Immunotherapy is a novel treatment for lung cancer. Pembrolizumab (Merck Sharp and Dohme, Kenilworth, NJ) is a monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death 1 that has been approved for use with NSCLC together with a companion diagnostic by Dako (Carpinteria, CA). Ventana's BenchMark XT (Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, AZ) is a widely used immunohistochemical (IHC) platform. However, data on its reliability and reproducibility with the 22C3 antibody are scant. We performed a comprehensive calibration of 22C3 programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) staining on the BenchMark XT platform using Dako's prediluted 22C3 anti-PD-L1 primary antibody with two of Ventana's detection systems. Forty-one random cases of NSCLC were then independently evaluated by two pathologists. Each case was scored using Dako- or Ventana-stained slides. The scores obtained with the two 22C3 Ventana assays were compared with those obtained using the Dako 22C3 IHC platform. The Dako IHC platform stratified eight, seven, and 26 cases as being strongly positive, weakly positive, and negative for PD-L1, respectively, whereas 36 of 41 cases (87.8%) had the same results with Ventana's UltraView 22C3 protocol (Pearson's correlation score 0.91, p < 0.0001). Moreover, 35 of 41 cases (85.3%) had the same results with Ventana's OptiView 22C3 protocol (Pearson's correlation score 0.89, p < 0.0001). The results of this study demonstrate that the same PD-L1 IHC algorithm can be reliably applied to Ventana's BenchMark XT platform. Furthermore, we were able to detect all of the strongly positive cases with high interobserver and intraobserver agreement by using the Ventana platform. These findings suggest that the Ventana platform can be used to stratify patients for pembrolizumab-based immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Macrophage subsets in mechanical brain injury (MBI)--a contribution to timing of MBI based on immunohistochemical methods: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Jakob, S; Mann, S; Saternus, K S; Pedal, I; Meissner, C

    2009-05-01

    Cortical hemorrhages as a consequence of closed mechanical brain injury (MBI) trigger an inflammatory response including a distinct increase of macrophages. According to published data this reactive macrophage population is heterogenous as to their immunological properties. The expression of certain immunohistochemically detectable epitopes of macrophages, however, may correlate with the posttraumatic interval (PTI). In a pilot study, 50 selected cases of cortical hemorrhages with 1 min to 1.5 years PTI were examined by light microscopy and macrophages were labeled with CD68-, HLA-D-, HAM-56-, LN-5-, and 25F9-antibodies, while hemosiderin was detected by a Prussian-blue reaction. Qualitative and semiquantitative investigations were performed. The semiquantitative study included 5 different classes. The results of the study revealed a distinct timetable of the appearance of macrophages labeled with certain antibodies. While HLA-D immunoreactivity was detected after a PTI of 6h in the cortex and white matter bordering the traumatic hemorrhage, CD68 immunopositive macrophages were present after 12h, LN-5 and HAM-56 after 48h, and 25F9 within 10d. Hemosiderin-containing macrophages were detectable within 100h in the same region. Within the hemorrhage itself a certain immunoreactivity of macrophages starts several hours before: CD68 after 3h, LN-5 after 24h, HAM-56 after 31h, hemosiderin after 76h, and 25F9 after 4d. For forensic purposes these observations are of crucial importance because the time course of the appearance of certain immunopositive macrophages labeled with different antibodies allows a differentiated timing of contusional injuries; however, the cause of this different immunopositive reaction remains unexplained. The observed time dependency of different macrophage antigen expressions in cortical hemorrhages after closed head injury is a suitable method to estimate the PTI and will allow a forensic reliable estimation if future investigations are

  6. JPEG2000 for automated quantification of immunohistochemically stained cell nuclei: a comparative study with standard JPEG format.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Marylène; López, Carlos; Bosch, Ramón; Korzyńska, Anna; Salvadó, Maria-Teresa; García-Rojo, Marcial; Neuman, Urszula; Witkowski, Łukasz; Baucells, Jordi; Jaén, Joaquín

    2011-02-01

    The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard format is one of the most widely used in image compression technologies. More recently, JPEG2000 format has emerged as a state-of-the-art technology that provides substantial improvements in picture quality at higher compression ratios. However, there has been no attempt to date to determine which of the two compression formats produces less variability in the automated evaluation of immunohistochemically stained digital images in agreement with their compression rates and complexity degrees. The evaluation of Ki67 and FOXP3 immunohistochemical nuclear markers was performed in a total of 329 digital images: 47 were captured in uncompressed Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), 141 were converted to three JPEG compressed formats (47 each with 1:3, 1:23 and 1:46 compression) and 141 were converted to three JPEG2000 compressed formats (47 each with 1:3, 1:23 and 1:46 compression). The count differences between images in TIFF versus JPEG formats were compared with those obtained between images in TIFF versus JPEG2000 formats at the three levels of compression. It was found that, using JPEG2000 compression, the results of the stained nuclei count are close enough to the results obtained with uncompressed images, especially in highly complex images at minimum and medium compression. Otherwise, in images of low complexity, JPEG and JPEG2000 had similar count efficiency to that of the original TIFF images at all compression levels. These data suggest that JPEG2000 could give rise to an efficient means of storage, reducing file size and storage capacity, without compromise on the immunohistochemical analytical quality.

  7. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Raghunandan, Bangalore Nagarajachar; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Pandey, Bhavna; Jyothi, Bellur MadhavaRao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality. Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a useful, reliable method of localizing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in tissue sections which permits cellular localization. Although there exists a lot of information on telomerase in oral cancer, little is known about their expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and their progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosa. This study addresses this lacuna. Aims: To compare the expression of hTERT protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC with normal oral mucosa by Immunohistochemical method. Subjects and Methods: In this preliminary study, IHC was used to detect the expression of hTERT protein in OSCC (n = 20), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 21) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10). The tissue localization of immunostain, cellular localization of immunostain, nature of stain, intensity of stain, percentage of cells stained with hTERT protein were studied. A total number of 100 cells were counted in each slide. Statistical Analysis: All the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. The tissue localization, cellular localization of cytoplasmic/nuclear/both of hTERT stain, staining intensity was compared across the groups using Pearson's Chi-square test. The mean percentage of cells stained for oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa were

  8. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Raghunandan, Bangalore Nagarajachar; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Pandey, Bhavna; Jyothi, Bellur MadhavaRao

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality. Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a useful, reliable method of localizing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in tissue sections which permits cellular localization. Although there exists a lot of information on telomerase in oral cancer, little is known about their expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and their progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosa. This study addresses this lacuna. To compare the expression of hTERT protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC with normal oral mucosa by Immunohistochemical method. In this preliminary study, IHC was used to detect the expression of hTERT protein in OSCC (n = 20), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 21) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10). The tissue localization of immunostain, cellular localization of immunostain, nature of stain, intensity of stain, percentage of cells stained with hTERT protein were studied. A total number of 100 cells were counted in each slide. All the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. The tissue localization, cellular localization of cytoplasmic/nuclear/both of hTERT stain, staining intensity was compared across the groups using Pearson's Chi-square test. The mean percentage of cells stained for oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P < 0.05 was

  9. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Bellezza, Guido; Colella, Renato; Mameli, Maria Grazia; Sidoni, Angelo; Cavaliere, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare histologic variant of adenocarcinoma. Generally, this neoplasm occurs in middle age and the clinical presentation does not differ from the most frequent transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is frequently poor as at diagnosis it is often in an advanced phase. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from metastases, as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary. We present 5 cases of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and we used a panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical markers for differential diagnosis from secondary carcinoma in an attempt to elucidate the histogenetic derivation of this neoplasia.

  10. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  11. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  12. Evolutionary changes of astroglia in Elasmobranchii comparing to amniotes: a study based on three immunohistochemical markers (GFAP, S-100, and glutamine synthetase).

    PubMed

    Ari, Csilla; Kálmán, Mihály

    2008-01-01

    This paper supplements former studies on elasmobranch species with an immunohistochemical investigation into glutamine synthetase and S-100 protein, in addition to GFAP, and extends its scope to the representatives of almost every group of Elasmobranchii: squalomorph sharks, galeomorph sharks, skates (Rajiformes) and rays (Torpediniformes and Myliobatifomes). More glial elements were labeled by S-100 protein, and even more so by using glutamine synthetase immunostaining than by GFAP: more astrocytes (mainly non-perivascular ones) were detected in the telencephalon of sharks, skates and rays. Only the markers S-100 and glutamine synthetase, but not GFAP, characterized the Bergmann-glia of skates and rays and astrocyte-like non-ependymal cells in Squalus acanthias. Another squalomorph shark species, Pristiophorus cirratus, however, had GFAP immunopositive astrocytes. Of all the species studied, the greatest number of GFAP positive astrocytes could be observed in Mobula japanica (order Myliobatiformes), in each major brain part. According to anatomical location, perivascular glia comprised varied types, including even a location in Mobula, which can also be found in mammals. Remnants of radial glia were found in confined areas of skates, less so in rays. In the rhombencephalon and in the spinal cord modified ependymoglia predominated in every group. In conclusion, there was no meaningful difference between the astroglial architectures of squalomorph and galeomorph sharks. The difference in the astroglial structure between sharks and batoids, however, was confined to the telencephalon and mesencephalon, and did not take place in the rhombencephalon, the latter structure being quite similar in all the species studied. The appearance of astrocytes in the relatively thin-walled shark telencephalon, however, indicates that the brain thickening promoted the preponderance of astrocytes rather than their appearance itself. Although the evolutionary changes of astroglia had

  13. A Splenic IgG4+ Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation (SANT) Treated by Hemisplenectomy: A Radiologic, Histochemical, and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Raffaele; Donati, Francescamaria; Kauffmann, Emanuele F; Campani, Daniela

    2017-08-02

    Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) is a rare benign lesion of unknown origin for which total splenectomy is the standard treatment. A 54-year-old man with a history of recurrent pancreatitis, bicuspid aortic valve, and aortic dissection underwent abdominal ultrasound, Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed a 6-cm hypoechoic splenic mass diagnosed as cavernous hemangioma. Owing to his relevant past history, he was considered eligible for emisplenectomy and not for total excision, which is associated with long-term risks, especially infections. Histologic examination revealed several nodules of varying size separated by sclerotic stroma with scattered inflammatory cells rich in IgG4+ in a background of splenic red pulp. Immunohistochemical stains showed a characteristic panel for CD34, CD31, and CD8. The diagnosis of SANT should be considered in any patient presenting with a splenic lesion containing an angiomatoid or inflammatory component. The only method able to establish a correct diagnosis is histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Complete splenectomy is generally considered the best approach. However, if the patient is at high risk of infection and localization of the lesion allows for selective devascularization of the affected part of the spleen, the lesion could be removed by hemisplenectomy. In some patients SANT is related to high blood levels of IgG4. Thus, corticosteroids might be useful for treating IgG4+ SANT and for preventing other IgG4-related diseases.

  14. Adaptation of rat jaw muscle fibers in postnatal development with a different food consistency: an immunohistochemical and electromyographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuhiko; Sano, Ryota; Korfage, Joannes A M; Nakamura, Saika; Kinouchi, Nao; Kawakami, Emi; Tanne, Kazuo; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    The development of the craniofacial system occurs, among other reasons, as a response to functional needs. In particular, the deficiency of the proper masticatory stimulus affects the growth. The purpose of this study was to relate alterations of muscle activity during postnatal development to adaptational changes in the muscle fibers. Fourteen 21-day-old Wistar strain male rats were randomly divided into two groups and fed on either a solid (hard-diet group) or a powder (soft-diet group) diet for 63 days. A radio-telemetric device was implanted to record muscle activity continuously from the superficial masseter, anterior belly of digastric and anterior temporalis muscles. The degree of daily muscle use was quantified by the total duration of muscle activity per day (duty time), the total burst number and their average length exceeding specified levels of the peak activity (5, 20 and 50%). The fiber type composition of the muscles was examined by the myosin heavy chain content of fibers by means of immunohistochemical staining and their cross-sectional area was measured. All muscle fibers were identified as slow type I and fast type IIA, IIX or IIB (respectively, with increasing twitch contraction speed and fatigability). At lower activity levels (exceeding 5% of the peak activity), the duty time of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle was significantly higher in the soft-diet group than in the hard-diet group (P < 0.05). At higher activity levels (exceeding 20 and 50% of the peak activity), the duty time of the superficial masseter muscle in the soft-diet group was significantly lower than that in the hard-diet group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the duty time of the anterior temporalis muscle at any muscle activity level. The percentage of type IIA fibers of the superficial masseter muscle in the soft-diet group was significantly lower than that in the hard-diet group (P< 0.01) and the opposite was true with regard to type IIB fibers (P< 0

  15. Adaptation of rat jaw muscle fibers in postnatal development with a different food consistency: an immunohistochemical and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuhiko; Sano, Ryota; Korfage, Joannes A M; Nakamura, Saika; Kinouchi, Nao; Kawakami, Emi; Tanne, Kazuo; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-06-01

    The development of the craniofacial system occurs, among other reasons, as a response to functional needs. In particular, the deficiency of the proper masticatory stimulus affects the growth. The purpose of this study was to relate alterations of muscle activity during postnatal development to adaptational changes in the muscle fibers. Fourteen 21-day-old Wistar strain male rats were randomly divided into two groups and fed on either a solid (hard-diet group) or a powder (soft-diet group) diet for 63 days. A radio-telemetric device was implanted to record muscle activity continuously from the superficial masseter, anterior belly of digastric and anterior temporalis muscles. The degree of daily muscle use was quantified by the total duration of muscle activity per day (duty time), the total burst number and their average length exceeding specified levels of the peak activity (5, 20 and 50%). The fiber type composition of the muscles was examined by the myosin heavy chain content of fibers by means of immunohistochemical staining and their cross-sectional area was measured. All muscle fibers were identified as slow type I and fast type IIA, IIX or IIB (respectively, with increasing twitch contraction speed and fatigability). At lower activity levels (exceeding 5% of the peak activity), the duty time of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle was significantly higher in the soft-diet group than in the hard-diet group (P < 0.05). At higher activity levels (exceeding 20 and 50% of the peak activity), the duty time of the superficial masseter muscle in the soft-diet group was significantly lower than that in the hard-diet group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the duty time of the anterior temporalis muscle at any muscle activity level. The percentage of type IIA fibers of the superficial masseter muscle in the soft-diet group was significantly lower than that in the hard-diet group (P < 0.01) and the opposite was true with regard to type IIB fibers (P < 0

  16. United States/Mexico electricity trade study. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    During energy discussions between the United States and Mexico, it was suggested that the two countries revisit the issue of enhanced electricity trade because 10 years had elapsed since this issue was first studied. Responsibility to organize the updated study was jointly assigned to the US and to the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The study highlights the opportunities for increased cooperation among the electric utilities in the U.S. and Mexico. Direct benefits could include increased reliability of electric power service and cost savings through diversity of peak demand patterns and locational benefits associated with the siting of new generation sources. Indirect benefits could include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. While the study indicates that increased electricity trade is possible, there are significant technical and economic issues to consider. Any major increase in electricity trade would require a higher level of cooperation and coordination among utilities in both countries and would need to be preceded by a detailed analysis of associated benefits and costs (including environmental impacts) on both a short-term and a long-term basis. Whether US utilities and CFE decide to pursue specific projects will depend upon the need for and economics of those projects. The study recommends that the work begun by the two utility groups be continued. The study also recommends that regulators at all levels consider policies to increase coordination and review among all relevant parties so that unnecessary delays in planning and constructing needed facilities are avoided. 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    PubMed

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development.

  18. [Immunohistochemical study of the specific features of expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 9 in the photoaged skin, the foci of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E V; Snarskaya, E S; Zavalishina, L E; Tkachenko, S B

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mediate the degradation of all types of collagens and other extracellular matrix components (elastin, proteoglycans, and laminin), their synthesis and accumulation play a key role in the hydrolysis of basement membrane. MMPs are involved in a wide range of proteolytic processes in the presence of different physiological and pathological changes, including inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. to study the specific features of MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression in different stages of skin photoaging, in the foci of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma by immunohistochemical examination. 12 samples of the healthy skin (6 samples of the eyelid skin with Glogau grade II photoaging; 6 ones of eyelid skin with Glogau grades III-IV photoaging) and biopsies from 8 foci of actinic keratosis and from 8 ones of basal cell carcinoma were examined. A positive reaction to MMPs was shown as different brown staining intensity in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes/tumor cells. MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was recorded in 67% of the histological specimens of the Glogau grade III photoaged skin and in 100% of those of Glogau grade IV. In the foci of actinic keratosis, the expression of MMP-1 was observed in 62.5% of cases and that of MMP-9 was seen in 87.5%. In basal cell carcinoma, the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was detected in all investigated samples. The immunomorphological findings are indicative of the important role of the level of MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression that is associated with the degree of progression of skin photoaging processes. Minimal MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was recorded even in grades III-IV photoaging and in the foci of actinic keratosis. Intense MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was detected in malignant skin epithelial neoplasms as different clinicomorphological types of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Fractional carbon dioxide laser versus low-dose UVA-1 phototherapy for treatment of localized scleroderma: a clinical and immunohistochemical randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, S M; Bosseila, M; Fawzy, M M; Abdel Halim, D M; Sayed, S S; Allam, R S H M

    2016-11-01

    Morphea is a rare fibrosing skin disorder that occurs as a result of abnormal homogenized collagen synthesis. Fractional ablative laser resurfacing has been used effectively in scar treatment via abnormal collagen degradation and induction of healthy collagen synthesis. Therefore, fractional ablative laser can provide an effective modality in treatment of morphea. The study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of fractional carbon dioxide laser as a new modality for the treatment of localized scleroderma and to compare its results with the well-established method of UVA-1 phototherapy. Seventeen patients with plaque and linear morphea were included in this parallel intra-individual comparative randomized controlled clinical trial. Each with two comparable morphea lesions that were randomly assigned to either 30 sessions of low-dose (30 J/cm(2)) UVA-1 phototherapy (340-400 nm) or 3 sessions of fractional CO2 laser (10,600 nm-power 25 W). The response to therapy was then evaluated clinically and histopathologically via validated scoring systems. Immunohistochemical analysis of TGF-ß1 and MMP1 was done. Patient satisfaction was also assessed. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired (matched) samples and Spearman rank correlation equation were used as indicated. Comparing the two groups, there was an obvious improvement with fractional CO2 laser that was superior to that of low-dose UVA-1 phototherapy. Statistically, there was a significant difference in the clinical scores (p = 0.001), collagen homogenization scores (p = 0.012), and patient satisfaction scores (p = 0.001). In conclusion, fractional carbon dioxide laser is a promising treatment modality for cases of localized morphea, with proved efficacy of this treatment on clinical and histopathological levels.

  20. The utility of PAX-2 in distinguishing metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma from its morphologic mimics: an immunohistochemical study with comparison to renal cell carcinoma marker.

    PubMed

    Gokden, Neriman; Gokden, Murat; Phan, Dan C; McKenney, Jesse K

    2008-10-01

    PAX-2 is a homeogene expressed during kidney development. Although immunohistochemical expression of PAX-2 has been described in a variety of primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes and in metastatic RCC, its specificity as a marker of renal lineage in a metastatic setting has not been fully evaluated. In addition, its utility has not been directly compared with the most widely used antibody in this setting, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCCma). We studied PAX-2 expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) and in a variety of nonrenal neoplasms with clear cytoplasm that may potentially mimic CC-RCC. Archival material from 27 CC-RCCs metastatic to various organs and 50 close morphologic mimics of CC-RCC were retrieved. Immunohistochemistry with PAX-2 and RCCmapi antibodies was performed on each case. Nuclear staining (PAX-2) or membranous staining (RCCma) was scored semiquantitatively. Twenty-three of 27 (85%) metastatic CC-RCCs showed nuclear immunoreactivity for PAX-2, whereas RCCma reactivity was found in 19 of 27 (70%). The immunoprofiles of the metastatic CC-RCC were PAX-2+/RCCma+: 19 of 27 (70%), PAX-2+/RCCma-: 5 of 27 (19%), PAX-2-/RCCma+: 2 of 27 (7%), and PAX-2-/RCCma-: 1 of 27 (4%). Five of the 50 mimics of CC-RCC (10%) had at least focal nuclear reactivity with PAX-2, including 1 of 3 parathyroid carcinomas (33%), 3 of 7 clear cell carcinomas of the ovary (43%), and the 1 clear cell papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. Membranous RCCma reactivity was identified in 26 of the 50 mimics (52%). We conclude that PAX-2 is a useful marker for distinguishing metastatic CC-RCC from its potential morphologic mimics, but caution must be used in certain differential diagnostic settings where nonrenal tumors such as parathyroid carcinoma, ovarian clear cell carcinoma, and clear cell papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis were shown to express both PAX-2 and RCCma.

  1. [Importance of immunohistochemical studies in the diagnosis and the prognostic evaluation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Review].

    PubMed

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma are evaluated in this review. A variety of proteins like p53, bcl2, C-Myc, Ki 67, Cyclines, P16 INK4a, p21, p27, beta-catenin, Wnt and MCM, have been related to the development of cervical neoplasia and human papilloma virus infection. It is described how transcriptional factors of genes induce loss of heterozygosity, numerical chromosome abnormality and inactivation of gene products or the partial loss of some membrane glycoproteins induced by oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV).

  2. A new case of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix with prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As a rule, endocervical tumours with signet-ring cell are classed as metastatic extra-genital neoplasms. In a patient aged 45 years, we describe primary cervical signet-ring cell carcinoma (PCSRCC) characterized by prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement, simulating primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension. In addition, a review was made of the literature to identify the clinical and pathological features of this rare malignancy. Case presentation A 45-year-old woman was referred to our Gynaecology Department due to persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed slight endometrial irregularities in the whole uterine cavity suggestive of endometrial neoplasms. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse enlargement of the cervix, which had been replaced by a mass. Induration extended to the parametria and sigmoid colon fat. Histological examination of endometrial curettage and a cervical biopsy revealed a neoplasm characterized by neoplastic signet-ring cells and trabecular structures. Immunohistochemical analysis and molecular studies showed certain findings consistent with a cervical neoplasm, such as positivity to CEA, keratin 7, Ca-125 and p16 and the presence of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) DNA 18. On examination of the hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, the lesion replacing the cervix, endometrium and myometrium, revealed the same immunohistochemical findings observed on endometrial curettage and cervical biopsy specimens. Metastases were found in an ovarian cystic lesion and the lymph nodes. Conclusion With this report the authors have demonstrated that the spread of cervical adenocarcinoma to the uterine corpus, although rare, may be observed, and that in this instance immunohistochemical and molecular studies can provide sufficient information for accurate diagnosis even on small biopsy specimens. PMID:22236794

  3. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma, a rare entity among GEP-NET: a case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are the most incident neuroendocrine tumors. In the new WHO classification (2010) the embryological derivation of each neoplastic entity is one of the most important parameters. Gangliocytic Paraganglioma is a tumor originating in the hindgut, a rare neoplasm, generally affecting the second portion of the duodenum, the majority of which are benign. Cases of gangliocytic paraganglioma with local metastasis or local recurrence have also been reported. We describe a GP in a 48-year-old caucasian male with an unusual site (4th portion of duodenum) and an interesting immunohistochemical and molecular pattern. In particular, we examined the expression of some neuroendocrine markers and a marker of neuronal differentiation, NeuroD1, whose expression can help to better understand the nature of this neoplasia. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3720959161096807 PMID:24621010

  4. The effects of chronic administration of sumatriptan and dipyrone on serotonergic system in the rat brain: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Genç, E; Avunduk, M C; Genç, B Oğuz; Sahin, A Saide; Oz, M

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of chronic high dose sumatriptan and dipyrone treatment on central serotonergic system in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (seven per group) were daily injected with sumatriptan (3 mg/kg), dipyrone (400 mg/kg) or saline for 30 days. The brains of animals were surgically removed and immunohistochemically stained for serotonin. Serotonin-positive stained cells were counted automatically by using a computerized image analysis program. Statistical analysis carried out using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey test. A significant decrease in serotonin-positive cells in the brainstem was observed after chronic sumatriptan administration while chronic use of dipyrone induced a significant increase in serotonin-positive cells both in the cortex and midbrain. Our data suggest that central serotonergic system might be modified by chronic use of sumatriptan and dipyrone. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  5. Periostin in the Cancer Stroma of Mycosis Fungoides Palmaris et Plantaris: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanita, Kayo; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Mizuashi, Masato; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris (MFPP) is a rare variant of mycosis fungoides limited to the palms and soles. Although little is known about the pathogenesis of MFPP, this variant of mycosis fungoides presents a relatively good prognosis. In this report, we describe an 85-year-old Japanese man with MFPP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the dense deposition of periostin in the cancer stroma, as well as infiltration of CD163+CD206− tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which suggested the phenotypes of TAMs were not polarized to the M2 phenotype in the lesional skin of MFPP. Our present case might suggest one of the possible reasons for the good prognosis of MFPP. PMID:27293391

  6. Immunohistochemical study of melanocyte-melanocyte stem cell lineage in vitiligo; a clue to interfollicular melanocyte stem cell reservoir.

    PubMed

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Dawoud, Noha Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long lasting controversy over whether melanocytes (MCs) in vitiligo are actually lost or still present but functionally inactive. We aimed to evaluate the MC cell lineage in follicular and interfollicular vitiliginous epidermis through immunohistochemical localization of Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45) and Tyrosinase Related Protein 2 (TRP2) and to correlate it with clinicopathologic parameters. Using immunohistochemical techniques, skin biopsies from 50 vitiligo patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were examined. Differentiated active MCs were detected in 44% of interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and 46.7% of follicular epidermis (FE) in lesional skin. Melanocyte precursors/stem cells were detected in 54% of IFE and 63.3% of FE in lesional skin. Melanocyte precursors/stem cells of IFE were significantly associated with residual melanin pigment (p = 0.007) and with absence of angiogenesis (p = 0.05). HMB-45 percentage of expression in IFE was positively correlated with MC precursors/stem cells percentage in FE (r = +0.65, p < 0.001) and IFE (r = +0.33, p = 0.01). Melanocyte precursors/stem cells positivity (p < 0.001) was progressively decreasing with advanced histopathologic grading. There was no significant association between interfollicular or follicular expression of HMB-45, TRP2 or MC precursors/stem cells and the clinical type of vitiligo or its duration. In conclusion, functioning MCs may exist in vitiligo. The presence of MC precursors/stem cells in IFE may provide an additional reservoir needed for repigmentation.

  7. [Celiac disease and negative serology villous atrophy: histological comparison and immunohistochemical study of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD56 lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Arévalo Suárez, Fernando; Portugal, Sabino; Barreda, Carlos; Montes, Pedro; Perez-Narrea, María Teresa; Rodríguez, Omar; Vergara, Greys; Monge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    There is a group of enteropathies recently known as seronegative villous atrophy (SNVA), which can simulate celiac disease. The aim of this study was to describe histological and immunohistochemical differences between a group of Celiac disease and SNVA patients. Microscopy reexamination and Immunohistochemistry study were performed for a group of 15 celiac patients and 19 SNVA patients. Histological features as severe atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, plasma cells number, eosinophils number, neutrophils presence were studied; CD4, CD8, CD3, and CD56 markers were studied through immunohistochemistry. There was a significant difference between the frequency of observation of crypt hyperplasia (p=0.0348) and plasma cells (p=0.0348) in celiac disease patients than SNVA patients. In celiac disease was bigger. The number and distribution of CD 8, CD4 and CD56 lymphocytes was similar in both groups. The percentage of CD3 positive intraepithelial lymphocytes (p=0.0144) was higher in SNVA. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation shows more similarities than differences. The differences found in this study suggest more humoral immune response in celiac disease than in SNVA.

  8. Histochemical and immunohistochemical study on endocrine cells (5HT, GAS, and SST) of the gastrointestinal tract of a teleost, the characin Astyanax bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nathália das Neves; Firmiano, Enely Maris da Silveira; Gomes, Iracema D; do Nascimento, Aparecida A; Sales, Armando; Araújo, Francisco G

    2015-09-01

    Endocrine cells secrete hormones through the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and act on the overall regulation of digestive processes such as nutrient absorption, gut motility and intestinal blood flow. This study aimed to determine regional distribution and frequency of endocrine cells secretory of serotonin (5-HT), somatostatin (SST) and gastrin (GAS) in the GIT of a small-bodied widespread characin Astyanax bimaculatus using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Fragments of the stomach and gut fixed for 8h in Bouin liquid were subjected to histological processing and immunohistochemical routine. For the histological analyses, the technique of staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) was used, whereas for the histochemical analyses Gomori's trichrome, periodic acid+Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue pH 2.5 (AB) were used to further immunohistochemical processing. The stomach has a mucosa lined with a simple columnar epithelium with mucus-secreting cells; the glandular region (proximal and distal portions) has folds and pits, whereas the non-glandular region has pits only. The intestinal epithelium is simple with plain cylindrical grooved and goblet cells. The anterior region has thin folds with few goblet cells, and the posterior region with thick folds and many goblet cells. The regional distribution and frequency of endocrine cells varied across regions of the GIT with the stomach showing the highest amount of immunoreactive (IR) cells. Only the 5-HT was found in the stomach (epithelia and glands) and gut regions, with comparatively higher frequency in the stomach. SST-IR cells were found in the stomach (epithelia and gastric glands) with higher frequency in the glandular region, whereas GAS-IR were found in the gastric glands only. The stomach was the only organ to have all the three types of endocrine cells, indicating that this organ is the main site of digestion of food in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All

  9. Protective effect of hesperidin against lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in adult albino rats: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Elshafhey, Saad H; ElBakary, Reda H; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2014-10-01

    Hesperidin is a naturally common flavonoid. It is an abundant and cheap by-product of citrus cultivation. It is reported to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. This work was performed to investigate the possible protective role of hesperidin in ameliorating the effect of experimentally induced intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) on lung tissue, histologically, immunohistochemically and biochemically. Thirty male Wistar adult albino rats were randomized into three groups named: group I (control group); group II (I/R); and group III (I/R with hesperidin). Intestinal I/R was induced by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 60 min, followed by 120 min of reperfusion period. Animals were given hesperidin orally 1h before the onset of ischemia. At the end of the reperfusion period the lung tissues were extracted for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of the distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pulmonary edema was evaluated by lung tissue wet/dry weight ratios. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, a biomarker of oxidative damage), myeloperoxidase (MPO, an index of the degree of neutrophil accumulation) and glutathione (GSH, a biomarker of protective oxidative injury) were also determined in all dissected tissues. Pretreatment with hesperidin (in group III) alleviated lung morphological changes noticed in I/R group and the levels of MDA and MPO were significantly decreased whereas those of GSH were significantly increased. Immunohistochemical study revealed a significant decrease in the iNOS. Hesperidin also significantly alleviated the formation of pulmonary edema as evidenced by the decreased organ wet/dry weight ratios. Hesperidin exerts a protective effect against lung damage induced by intestinal I/R injury in rats by reducing oxidative stress.

  10. Role of epidermal stem cells in repair of partial-thickness burn injury after using Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO(®)) histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    El-Hadidy, M R; El-Hadidy, A R; Bhaa, A; Asker, S A; Mazroa, S A

    2014-04-01

    Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO(®)) is widely used topical agent applied on skin burn. This study investigated the effect of MEBO topical application on activation and proliferation of epidermal stem cells through the immunohistochemical localization of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) as a known marker expressed in epidermal stem cells. Biopsies from normal skin and burn wounds were taken from 21 patients with partial thickness burn 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment with MEBO. Tissue sections were prepared for histological study and for CK19 immunohistochemical localization. In control skin, only few cells showed a positive CK19 immune-reaction. Burned skin showed necrosis of full thickness epidermis that extended to dermis. Gradual regeneration of skin accompanied with an enhancement in CK19 immune-reactivity was noted 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment with MEBO. On day 28, a complete regeneration of skin was observed with a return of CK19 immune-reactivity to the basal pattern again. In conclusion, the enhancement of epidermal stem cell marker CK19 after treatment of partial thickness burn injuries with MEBO suggested the role of MEBO in promoting epidermal stem cell activation and proliferation during burn wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serotonin receptor of type 6 (5-HT6) in human prefrontal cortex and hippocampus post-mortem: an immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Pirone, Andrea; Giannaccini, Gino; Betti, Laura; Testa, Giovanna; Schmid, Lara; Palego, Lionella; Borsini, Franco; Bordi, Fabio; Piano, Ilaria; Gargini, Claudia; Castagna, Maura; Catena-Dell'osso, Mario; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Given the paucity of data on the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) receptors of type 6 (5-HT(6)) in the human brain, the aim of this study was to investigate their distribution in postmortem human prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus by either immunohistochemical or immunofluorescence techniques. The brain samples were obtained from 6 subjects who had died for causes not involving primarily or secondarily the CNS. The 5-HT(6) receptor distribution was explored by the [(125)I]SB-258585 binding to brain membranes followed by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence evaluations. A specific [(125)I]SB-258585 binding was detected in all the regions under investigation, whilst the content in the hippocampus and cortex being about 10-30 times lower than in the striatum. Immunohistochemistry and double-label immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, carried out in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus only, since data in the striatum were already published, showed the presence of 5-HT(6) receptors in both pyramidal and glial cells of prefrontal cortex, while positive cells were mainly pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. The heterogeneous distribution of 5-HT(6) receptors provides a preliminary explanation of how they might regulate different functions in different brain areas, such as, perhaps, brain trophism in the cortex and neuronal firing in the hippocampus. This study, taking into account all the limitations due to the postmortem model used, represents the starting point to explore the 5-HT(6) receptor functionality and its sub-cellular distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epithelial expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer/CD147 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in neoplasms and precursor lesions derived from cutaneous squamous cells: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ayva, Sebnem Kupana; Karabulut, Ayse Anil; Akatli, Ayşe Nur; Atasoy, Pinar; Bozdogan, Onder

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The study investigated CD147 and MMP-2 expression in epidermis of cutaneous squamous lesions. CD147 and MMP-2 expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically in 44 specimens: 18 actinic keratoses (AK), 6 squamous cell carcinomas in situ (SCCIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; peritumoral and invasive portions assessed), and 7 normal skins. Patterns of expression were assessed, with MMP-2 in nuclei (MMP-2n) and cytoplasm (MMP-2c) evaluated separately. The expression of each marker was quantified using a calculated immunohistochemical/histologic score (H-score). Correlations were analyzed for the marker H-scores in each study group. Associations between H-scores and histopathologic parameters were also evaluated. CD147 H-score was the highest in SCC (invasive islands), followed by AK, SCCIS, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2n and MMP-2c H-scores were the highest in AK, followed by SCCIS, SCC, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2c and MMP-2n H-scores were significantly higher in peritumoral epidermis than in invasive islands of SCC. MMP-2c and CD147 H-scores were positively correlated in the peritumoral SCCs. CD147 H-score was positively correlated with tumor differentiation in SCC. The findings suggest that overexpression of CD147 plays a role in the development of SCC.

  13. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    PubMed Central

    Bruntsch, Richard; Ruch, Willibald

    2017-01-01

    unique variance in irony detection, ironic praise can be postulated as worthwhile to include in future studies—especially when studying the role of mental ability, personality, and humor in irony detection. PMID:28484409

  14. Histopathological and prognostic significance of the expression of sex hormone receptors in bladder cancer: A meta-analysis of immunohistochemical studies

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Hiroki; Inoue, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Emerging preclinical evidence suggests the involvement of sex hormones and their receptor signals in the development and progression of bladder cancer. Meanwhile, previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results on the relationship between the status of sex hormone receptors in urothelial tumors and histopathological characteristics of the tumors or patient outcomes. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to assess the clinicopathological impact of the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERs) in bladder cancer. Methods A comprehensive literature search in databases (i.e. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane) was performed for all immunohistochemical studies stained for AR, ERα, and/or ERβ in surgically resected bladder cancer specimens and analyzed for patient outcomes. We selected eligible studies in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and analyzed data using R software. Results A total of 2,049 patients from 13 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. The difference in ERα expression between non-tumors and tumors was significant [odds ratio (OR) = 0.412; P<0.001], while those of AR (OR = 3.256; P = 0.336) or ERβ (OR = 0.580; P = 0.674) were not statistically significant. AR positivity in tumors was strongly correlated with gender (male vs. female: OR = 0.658; P = 0.027) or tumor grade (low-grade vs. high-grade: OR = 0.575; P<0.001). ERβ positive rates were significantly higher in high-grade (OR = 2.169; P<0.001) and muscle-invasive (OR = 3.104; P<0.001) tumors than in low-grade and non-muscle-invasive tumors, respectively. Survival analysis in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer revealed associations between AR expression and better recurrence-free survival [hazard ration (HR) = 0.593; P = 0.006) as well as between ERβ expression and worse recurrence-free (HR = 1.573; P = 0.013) or progression-free (HR = 4.148; P = 0.089) survivals. Conclusions These data suggest down-regulation of ER

  15. Immunohistochemical characteristics of normal canine eyes.

    PubMed

    Labelle, P; Reilly, C M; Naydan, D K; Labelle, A L

    2012-09-01

    Immunohistochemistry is widely utilized in diagnostic laboratories to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases. Knowledge of the immunohistochemical characteristics of normal tissue is essential for interpretation of immunoreactivity in pathologic conditions. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed with a broad panel of diagnostically relevant antibodies on 4 normal canine globes--namely, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 8/18, cytokeratin 20, α-smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, desmin, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor, S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, triple neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, laminin and CD31. Results include cytokeratin immunoreactivity limited to the conjunctival epithelium, corneal epithelium, and retinal pigment epithelium; distinct patterns of immunopositivity of muscle markers; and widespread immunoreactivity for vimentin and most neural/neuroendocrine markers. These findings in normal eyes provide the basis for interpretation of ocular immunohistochemistry in dogs. Published immunophenotypes of primary ocular neoplasms are also reviewed.

  16. Overall distribution of glucagon-like immunoreactivity in the chicken retina: an immunohistochemical study with flat-mounts.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Y; Ishimoto, I; Fukuda, M; Shimiza, Y; Shiosaka, S; Inagaki, S; Senba, E; Sakanaka, M; Takagi, H; Takatsuki, K; Hara, Y; Kawai, Y; Tohyama, M

    1982-05-01

    Pancreatic glucagon-like immunoreactivity (GLI) in the chicken retina was investigated by immunohistochemical methods with frozen sections and flat-mounts. Observations of the frozen sections showed that GLI is localized in the amacrine cells. Flat-mounts showed the GLI cells are evenly localized in the retina (n= or approximately 400/mm2) and composed to two types of cells--one is larger and the other is small. The former cell type occupies mainly the peripheral retinal region and the latter the central region. In addition, flat-mounts showed two types of GLI fiber plexuses in the inner plexiform layer; one is located in the area between laminae 2 and 3 and runs circularly and the other is located in lamina 1 and runs randomly. The relationship between GLI and cyclic AMP was also examined. an increase of the formation of cyclic AMP was caused by pancreatic glucagon in the chicken retina, suggesting that this peptide might have neurotransmitter or neuromodulator roles in the chicken retina.

  17. Multicentric fibromyxoid peripheral nerve sheath tumor (multicentric schwannoma) in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius): morphopathological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Khordadmehr, M

    2011-11-01

    During postslaughter inspection of a 4-year-old male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), numerous small nodules to large masses up to 4 cm in diameter were found on the serosal surfaces of forestomachs, large intestines, mesentery, liver, and spleen. Grossly, the masses were discrete, round, smooth, and white to gray that bulged from the serosal layer. Cut surfaces of the masses were discrete, round, white, and relatively homogeneous without any necrotic foci. Histopathologically, the masses were encapsulated and composed of a mixture of round and spindle-shaped cells in loose whorls of neoplastic cells with small elongated hyperchromatic wavy nuclei and a small amount of pale eosinophilic, poorly defined cytoplasm. Masson's trichrome staining showed mild amounts of collagen fibers forming an irregular, loose stroma. In immunohistochemistry, immunoreactivity for the Schwann cell marker (S100) was diffusely positive in the neoplastic cells. The immunoreactivity for CK, c-kit, and CD34 were negative. Ultrastructural examination confirmed the tumor was entirely formed of neoplastic Schwann cells. On the basis of the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings, the tumors were diagnosed as multicentric fibromyxoid peripheral nerve sheath tumor (multicentric schwannoma). This tumor has not been previously recorded in camel worldwide.

  18. An Ex Vivo Study on Immunohistochemical Localization of MMP-7 and MMP-9 in Temporomandibular Joint Discs with Internal Derangement

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Leonardi, R.; Musumeci, G.; Pannone, G.; Castorina, S.

    2013-01-01

    Internal derangement (ID) is among the most common disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Previous research by our group highlighted a correlation between apoptosis and TMJ ID. Metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and -9 have been shown to play an important role in extracellular matrix ECM) homeostasis and, through it, in joint disc remodelling. The immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7 and -9 was investigated in discs from patients with TMJ ID and from healthy donors and compared with the degree of histological tissue degeneration. The collagen fibre arrangement in pathological discs exhibited varying degrees of disruption. New vessels were consistently detected; endothelial cells from these vessels were immunolabelled with both MMP-7 and MMP-9. More or less intense MMP-7 and MMP-9 immunolabelling was detected in the cytoplasm of disc cells from all patients. MMP-7 and MMP-9 immunostaining was significantly different between pathological and normal discs and correlated with the extent of histopathological degeneration. MMP-7 and MMP-9 upregulation in discs from patients with TMJ ID demonstrates their involvement in disc damage in this disorder. A greater understanding of these processes could help identify ways to curb MMP overproduction without affecting their tissue remodelling action. The design of specific inhibitors for these MMPs would not only help to gain insights into the biological roles of MMPs, but would also aid in developing therapeutic interventions for diseases associated with abnormal ECM degradation. PMID:23807291

  19. Morphostructural and immunohistochemical study on the role of metallothionein in the detoxification of heavy metals in Apis mellifera L., 1758.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, Antonio; Pecoraro, Roberta; Scalisi, Elena Maria; Tibullo, Daniele; Lombardo, Bianca Maria; Messina, Giuseppina; Loreto, Francesco; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Avola, Roberto; D'amante, Giusi; Genovese, Claudia; Raccuia, Salvatore Antonino; Brundo, Maria Violetta

    2017-08-22

    Honey is a valuable food produced by bees from sugary substances that they gather in nature. The transformation the nectar into honey, by bees, is long and complex. Except for honey, where heavy metals are absent or are found only in traces, the bees and their products have always been considered excellent biomarkers of such contaminants. We have assumed that the absence of heavy metals in honey is due to the presence of a detoxification system in the digestive system of bees, which involves metallothioneins, proteins that have a role in the homeostatic control of essential and non-essential metals. We have placed the beehives in three different zones: industrial, urban and rural. Investigations were carried out with ICP-MS method for the detection of heavy metals in the guts of honey bees and honey. The metallothioneins have been identified by Immunohistochemical and Western-blotting analisys. The investigations have shown the presence of heavy metals only in bees guts but not in honey, while the presence of metallothionein has been highlighted only in epithelium of the honey sac, demonstrating the existence of an efficient system of detoxification of heavy metals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characterization of gonadotropic cells during continuous and seasonal spermatogenesis of two freshwater fish species: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Borella, Maria Inês

    2017-02-01

    This work describes gonadotropic (GtH) cells and their morphological and immunohistochemical changes during the spermatogenic cycle of Serrasalmus maculatus (continuous spermatogenesis) and Pimelodus maculatus (seasonal spermatogenesis). GtH cells, widely distributed in the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, were characterized as round-shaped cells with eccentric nucleus, and cytoplasm with basophilic secretory granules and a variable number of vacuoles for both species. Immunohistochemistry against β-follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and β-luteinizing hormone (Lh) in adjacent sections showed two separated GtH-producing cell populations, and a third population where both GtHs are expressed in the same cell for both species. In the seasonal spermatogenesis of P. maculatus, GtH cells seemed to be more abundant during developing and spawning capable phases. In contrast, no cyclic changes were detected in the continuous spermatogenesis of S. maculatus, except for the strong immunoreaction for Fsh and Lh in males with intense spermiogenesis. We conclude that changes reported here might reflect the type of spermatogenic cycle (seasonal or continuous) which are under different regulatory mechanisms (environmental and internal cues) controlling the reproduction in these species.

  1. An Immunohistochemical Study of Matrix Components in Early-Stage Vascular Canals Within Mandibular Condylar Cartilage in Midterm Human Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Shunichi; Morita, Tsuyoshi; Yokohama-Tamaki, Tamaki; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2015-09-01

    Matrix components of vascular canals (VCs) in human fetal mandibular condylar cartilage (15-16 weeks of gestation) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Prevascular canals (PVCs), consisting of spindle-shaped cells without capillary invasion, were observed within the cartilage. Intense immunoreactivity for collagen type I, weak immunoreactivity for aggrecan and tenascin-C, weak hyaluronan (HA) staining, and abundant argyrophilic fibers in PVCs indicated that they contain noncartilaginous fibrous connective tissues that was different from those in the perichondrium/periosteum. These structural and immunohistochemical features of PVCs are different from those of previously reported cartilage canals of the long bone. Capillaries entered the VCs from the periosteum and ascended through VCs. Following capillary invasion, loose connective tissue had formed in the lower part of VCs, and immunoreactivity for collagen types I and III, tenascin-C, and HA staining was evident in the matrix of loose connective tissue. No chondroclasts or osteogenic cells were seen at the front of capillary invasion, although small, mononuclear tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells were present. Meanwhile, TRAP-positive, multinucleated chondroclasts and flattened, osteoblast-like cells were observed in the loose connective tissue at the lower part of VCs. These results may indicate slow progress of endochondral ossification in human fetal mandibular condyle. Further, unique matrix components in PVCs/VCs, which were different from those in cartilage canals in long bone, may reflect the difference of speed of endochondral ossification in cartilage canals and human fetal mandibular condyles.

  2. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  3. Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Studies on Uptake and Distribution of FITC-Conjugated PLGA Nanoparticles Administered Intratracheally in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kaori; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Huang, C. C.; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Ando, Rie; Kusuoka, Osamu; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Polylactide-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles have been developed as pulmonary drug delivery carriers. To investigate their behavior, small- (d50 = 74 nm) and large-sized (d50 = 250 nm) FITC-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles were intratracheally administered to rats and were traced for 5, 30 and 60 minutes and 24 hours after administration (HAT). Immunohistochemically, a, FITC-positive reaction was observed in type-I alveolar epithelial cells (type-I AEC), endothelial cells and alveolar macrophages in the lungs from 5 minutes after treatment (MAT) to 24 HAT in both nanoparticle groups. In the kidneys, a positive reaction was observed in proximal tubular epithelial cells at 30 MAT; the reaction peaked at 60 MAT and was reduced at 24 HAT, while no positive reaction was seen in other sites. Ultrascructurally, the number of membrane-bound vesicles, which were approximately 70 nm in size and hard to distinguish from pinocytic vesicles, apparently increased in type-I AEC and endothelial cells at 5 MAT in the small-sized group, in comparison with the control group receiving physiological saline. The number of vesicles in the large-sized group was almost same as that in the control group. On the other hand, in both nanoparticle groups, lysosomes filled with nanoparticles appeared in alveolar macrophages from 30 MAT to 24 HAT. These results indicate that PLGA nanoparticles might be quickly transferred from the alveolar space to the blood vessel via type-I alveolar epithelial cells and excreted into urine, and that there is a threshold for particle size, less than approximately 70 nm in diameter, with regard to absorption through the alveolar wall. PMID:22481855

  4. Comparative immunohistochemical study of MUC1 and carbohydrate antigens in breast benign disease and normal mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Demichelis, Sandra O; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Servi, Walter J; Isla-Larrain, Marina T; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, María Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to compare the expression of MUC1 and carbohydrate antigens in 124 tissue samples; 42 fibroadenoma (FA), 23 nonproliferative benign diseases (NPF), 25 usual epithelial hyperplasia (UEH), 7 atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and 27 breast normal tissues. An immunohistochemical approach was adopted, using the following antibodies: reactive with MUC1 variable number of tandem repeats (C595, HMFG2, and SM3 monoclonal antibodies), anti-MUC1-cytoplasmic tail polyclonal antibody (CT33), and anti-carbohydrate antigens (sialyl Lewis x, Lewis x, Lewis y, Tn, and Thomsen-Friedenreich epitopes). Positive area of reaction, intensity, and pattern of expression were considered. A reactivity index was calculated as intensity (I) x 100+percentage of positive area (A). Statistical analysis comprised frequency analysis, P < 0.05, analysis of variance, and multiple correlation with principal component analysis. All samples expressed MUC1, detected by at least one anti-MUC1 antibody whereas Lewis x was the carbohydrate antigen most frequently found in all groups whereas variable number of tandem repeats MUC1 and Lewis x showed the highest correlation: 93% of normal samples, 62.5% of NPF, 87% of FA, 85% of UEH, and finally 80% of ADH. Although principal component analysis using reactivity indexes explained only 39% of data variability, normal samples appeared grouped and separated from benign breast diseases, which remained spread. Thomsen-Friedenreich was the only antigen that showed an increased tendency for positive expression and intensity from NPF through FA, UEH to ADH, whereas it was not detected in normals. With respect to the pattern of expression, an apical pattern was predominantly found in all the groups.

  5. RNA-binding protein LIN28 is a marker for primary extragonadal germ cell tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 131 cases.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dengfeng; Liu, Aijun; Wang, Fenghua; Allan, Robert W; Mei, Kaiyong; Peng, Yan; Du, Jun; Guo, Shuangping; Abel, Ty W; Lane, Zhaoli; Ma, Joe; Rodriguez, Maria; Akhi, Shirin; Dehiya, Neha; Li, Jianping

    2011-02-01

    LIN28 has been shown to have an important role in primordial germ cell development and malignant transformation of germ cells in mouse. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical profile of LIN28 in 131 primary human extragonadal germ cell tumors (central nervous system (CNS) 76, mediastinum 17, sacrococcygeal region 30, pelvis 3, vagina 2, liver 1, omentum 1, and retroperitoneum 1), including the following tumors and/or components: 57 seminomas/germinomas, 10 embryonal carcinomas, 74 yolk sac tumors, 6 choriocarcinomas, 15 mature, and 13 immature teratomas. We compared LIN28 with SALL4 to assess its diagnostic value. To determine its specificity, we examined LIN28 in 406 extragonadal-non-germ cell tumors (103 carcinomas, 91 sarcomas, 9 melanomas, 12 mesotheliomas, 83 lymphomas, 9 plasmacytomas, 82 CNS tumors, and 17 thymic epithelial tumors). The staining was semi-quantitatively scored as 0 (no cell stained), 1+ (0-30%), 2+ (31-60%), 3+ (61-90%), and 4+ (>90%). LIN28 staining was seen in all seminomas/germinomas (3+ in 1 and 4+ in 56), embryonal carcinomas (4+ in all 10), and yolk sac tumors (3+ in 3 and 4+ in 71). Variable LIN28 staining was seen in 5 of 6 choriocarcinomas (1+ to 4+), 8 of 13 immature teratomas (1+ to 2+ in immature elements), and in 1 of 15 mature teratomas (1+). Only 11 of 406 non-germ cell tumors showed 1+ LIN28 staining. Therefore, LIN28 is a sensitive (100% sensitivity) marker for primary extragonadal seminomas/germinomas, embryonal carcinomas, and yolk sac tumors with high specificity. Compared with SALL4, LIN28 demonstrated a similar level of diagnostic sensitivity for seminomas/germinomas and embryonal carcinomas. For primary extragonadal yolk sac tumors, although SALL4 stained all tumors (1+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 3+ in 10, and 4+ in 61), LIN28 stained more tumor cells (mean 95 vs 90%, P = 0.03) and was therefore more sensitive. For primary extragonadal yolk sac tumors, combining LIN28 and SALL4 can achieve a higher diagnostic

  6. ALDH1 is an immunohistochemical diagnostic marker for solitary fibrous tumours and haemangiopericytomas of the meninges emerging from gene profiling study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Solitary Fibrous Tumours (SFT) and haemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare meningeal tumours that have to be distinguished from meningiomas and more rarely from synovial sarcomas. We recently found that ALDH1A1 was overexpressed in SFT and HPC as compared to soft tissue sarcomas. Using whole-genome DNA microarrays, we defined the gene expression profiles of 16 SFT/HPC (9 HPC and 7 SFT). Expression profiles were compared to publicly available expression profiles of additional SFT or HPC, meningiomas and synovial sarcomas. We also performed an immunohistochemical (IHC) study with anti-ALDH1 and anti-CD34 antibodies on Tissue Micro-Arrays including 38 SFT (25 meningeal and 13 extrameningeal), 55 meningeal haemangiopericytomas (24 grade II, 31 grade III), 163 meningiomas (86 grade I, 62 grade II, 15 grade III) and 98 genetically confirmed synovial sarcomas. Results ALDH1A1 gene was overexpressed in SFT/HPC, as compared to meningiomas and synovial sarcomas. These findings were confirmed at the protein level. 84% of the SFT and 85.4% of the HPC were positive with anti-ALDH1 antibody, while only 7.1% of synovial sarcomas and 1.2% of meningiomas showed consistent expression. Positivity was usually more diffuse in SFT/HPC compared to other tumours with more than 50% of tumour cells immunostained in 32% of SFT and 50.8% of HPC. ALDH1 was a sensitive and specific marker for the diagnosis of SFT (SE = 84%, SP = 98.8%) and HPC (SE = 84.5%, SP = 98.7%) of the meninges. In association with CD34, ALDH1 expression had a specificity and positive predictive value of 100%. Conclusion We show that ALDH1, a stem cell marker, is an accurate diagnostic marker for SFT and HPC, which improves the diagnostic value of CD34. ALDH1 could also be a new therapeutic target for these tumours which are not sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. PMID:24252471

  7. Association of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CYCLIN D1 and Cathepsin D with Clinicopathological Parameters in Breast Carcinoma; an Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Külahcı, Özgür; Esen, H. Hasan; Asut, Elife; Güngör, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor detected in women. The hypothesis that increased levels of adhesion molecules and Cathepsin D affect cancerous cells moving away the primary tumor and contributes to migration of the cancerous cell and may cause remote organ metastases is defended. The aim of the present study was to search the association of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), Cyclin D1, cathepsin D immunohistochemically with clinicopathological parameters in the patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods The pathological slides of 153 patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma were evaluated retrospectively. Three groups were created. Group 1 consisted of patients with positive lymph node metastasis and extranodal tumor invasion; Group 2 consisted of patients with positive axillary lymph node metastasis and negative extranodal tumor invasion and Group 3 consisted of the patients with negative axillary lymph node metastasis. In all groups, 20 paraffin blocks belonging to the primary tumor in the breast were stained by ICAM-1, VCAM-1, Cyclin D1 and Cathepsin D. Findings were examined by comparing with clinicopathological parameters. Results The highest number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes and the highest rate of cathepsin D staining were statistically found in the cases with positive axillary lymph node metastasis and extranodal tumor invasion. CerbB2 was negative in the cases with negative ICAM-1 whereas estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor were positive in the cases with positive VCAM-1. Conclusion The present study reveals significant results for the patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma through breast biopsy especially before mastectomy in terms of increased number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes and extranodal tumor invasion by immunohistochemical Cathepsin D stain without any additional invasive intervention

  8. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Golmohammadi, Rahim; Sabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Mojadadi, Mohammad Shafi

    2016-01-01

    Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid) belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice.

  9. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Golmohammadi, Rahim; Sabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Mojadadi, Mohammad Shafi

    2016-01-01

    Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid) belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice. PMID:27499792

  10. Supplementation of dietary vitamins, protein and probiotics on semen traits and immunohistochemical study of pituitary hormones in zinc-induced molted broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rifat Ullah; Rahman, Zia-ur-; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E and vitamin C, probiotics mixture and protein level and their combination on semen quality and immunohistochemical study of some pituitary hormones in male broiler breeders. One hundred and eighty male broiler breeders 65 weeks old were divided into six groups by completely randomized design. The birds were subjected to zinc-induced molt by mixing zinc oxide at the rate of 3000mg/kg in the feed. After molting, one group was fed control diet (CP16%). The other groups were fed vitamin E (100IU/kg), vitamin C (500IU/kg), probiotics (50mg/L of drinking water), protein (CP14%) and combination of these components. These treatments were given for five weeks. After the feeding period, semen samples were taken and analyzed for semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and dead sperm percentage. Pituitary samples were collected from three birds per replicate and were processed for immunohistochemical study. The results of semen quality parameters revealed that semen volume and sperm motility were significantly high in the vitamin E fed group, while the dead sperm percentage decreased significantly in the vitamin C group. The morphometric analysis revealed that compared to other groups, vitamin E caused a significant increase in the size and area of FSH, LH gonadotropes and lactotropes. These results showed that vitamin E alone may play some role in the enhancement of semen quality and growth of gonadotropes and lactotropes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma: histopathological and immunohistochemical profile of a case.

    PubMed

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; de Almeida-Oslei, Paes; Toral-Rizo, Victor; Martínez-Mata, Guillermo

    2010-11-01

    In this study we present a rare case of peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma and discuss its clinical features, histopathology, and immunohistochemical profile. This article reports a new case of this unusual neoplasm in a 66 year-old woman in which the main complaint was an asymptomatic swelling located in the right body of mandible. Histopathological findings were similar to the two previously reported cases of this tumor. Positive immunohistochemical stain for laminin V and type IV collagen suggests an inductive effect of the epithelium over the stroma while the low index of p53 protein and Ki-67 expression in epithelium and stromal cells, as well as CD138 uniform positive-stain in epithelial cells, support the benign biological behavior of this lesion. Including this new case, currently there are only three reports of this rare neoplasm. Reports of new cases of peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma are necessary for a better understanding of the origin and behavior of this particular subtype of ameloblastoma.

  12. Phenotypic analysis of splenic lymphocytes and immunohistochemical study of hepatic granulomas after a murine infection with Salmonella abortusovis.

    PubMed Central

    Guilloteau, L; Buzoni-Gatel, D; Blaise, F; Bernard, F; Pépin, M

    1991-01-01

    Infection in mice with an attenuated strain of Salmonella abortusovis (SAO), a specific pathogen for sheep, was used as a convenient model to understand further the induced immunity against SAO. The hypovirulent Rv6 strain, subcutaneously inoculated in salmonella-susceptible BALB/cby (Itys) mice, colonized the spleen and the liver in less than 6 days post-infection (PI) to be cleared after Day 28 PI. Simultaneously, an increase in spleen cell numbers, splenomegaly and hepatic granulomatous lesions developed to a maximum level on Day 9 PI. In spleen of uninfected mice, the number of Thy-1.2+ cells represents twice the number of surface immunoglobulin-positive cells (sIg+). Cytofluorometric analysis of the spleen lymphoid cell subsets showed a significant increase (10 times, P less than 0.05) in the number of sIg+ cells from Day 6 to Day 28 PI compared to control values. The number of Thy-1.2+ cells also significantly increased, to a lesser degree than the sIg+ cells, on Day 2 and on Day 16 PI (twice control values, P less than 0.05), but decreased on Day 6 PI compared to Day 2 PI. The highest L3T4+:Lyt-2+ ratio was observed on Day 2 PI and the lowest on Day 9 PI. On Day 28 PI, the number of sIg+ cells was still greater than the number of Thy-1.2+ cells. The granulomatous lesions were observed in the liver as early as Day 2 PI and their frequency was maximal on Day 9 PI. Immunohistochemical analysis of the granulomatous lesions showed that macrophages (F4/80+, Mac1+) were the basic cells and that L3T4+ cells were the predominant T cells. In well-developed granulomas observed on Day 9 PI, macrophages were in the centre whereas L3T4+ T cells were preferentially located at the periphery. T cells expressing Lyt-2 antigen were rarely detected. Variations in the proportion of lymphoid cells in the spleen and in hepatic granulomatous lesions suggest different and complementary effector mechanisms in induced immunity against SAO. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID

  13. An immunohistochemical study of the apocrine type of cutaneous mixed tumors with special reference to their follicular and sebaceous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, O; Yasuda, H

    1999-05-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis of 8 cases of the apocrine type of cutaneous mixed tumor is reported. Histologically, 7 cases of the tumor were suggested to have follicular and/or sebaceous differentiation. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 were present in the inner surface and/or in the luminal cell bodies of the tubular structures. CEA and non-specific cross-reacting antigen were also detected in the keratinous cysts. Positive reactions for S-100 protein and vimentin were observed in the solid nests, the outer layer of the tubular structures and some stromal cells. However, smooth muscle actin was only focally expressed in the outer cells of the tubular nests in one case. Involucrin was positive in the inner layers of the keratinous cysts. Various staining patterns were observed in the keratin immunohistochemistry. The solid nests showed heterogeneous expressions of CK1/5/10/14, CK7, CK10/11, CK14, CK8/18 and CK19. The inner cells of the tubular structures were constantly positive for CK7, CK8/18 and CK19, and heterogeneously for CK1/5/10/14, CK10/11 and CK14. The outer cells were heterogeneously positive for CK1/5/10/14 and CK14. The keratinous cysts showed positive reactions for CK1/5/10/14 throughout the whole cell layers, and for CK14 in the basal layer. The inner layers in some keratinous cysts expressed CK6, CK10/11 and CK17, but only CK10 in others. CK13 was positively stained in the transitional portion between the matricial structure and the column of shadow cells in the cyst wall in only one case. When compared with the immunohistochemistry of the normal skin, the apocrine type of cutaneous mixed tumor can show various immunophenotypical patterns similar to those of entire structures of hair follicles, sebaceous glands and all components of apocrine glands, that is to say, the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.

  14. Is mammary not otherwise specified-type sarcoma with CD10 expression a distinct entity? A rare case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mammary sarcoma is extremely rare and the diagnosis is established only after metaplastic carcinomas and malignant phyllodes tumours are excluded. A rare case of not otherwise specified-type sarcoma with CD10 expression in the left breast in a 45-year-old female was presented. It was a high-grade tumour composed of spindle cells histologically. The immunohistochemical results showed that CD10, vimentin and EGFR were positive diffusely and SMA presented focally, whereas epithelial markers and other myoepithelial or myogenic markers were all negative. The electron microscope investigation demonstrated fibroblast-like features. The exact entity of the tumour remains to be studied because it resembles undifferentiated sarcoma or sarcomatoid metaplastic carcinoma to some degree, as well as high-grade malignant phyllodes tumour in particular. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9019879588725702 PMID:23356903

  15. US Army Corps of Engineers program. [including hydrologic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarman, J.; Mcintyre, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The application of satellite remote sensing technology in hydrologic studies and regulatory programs of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is discussed. Site selection, location of construction material, environment impact assessment, analysis of hydrologic systems, reservoir system analysis, water quality, quantity and quality of runoff from urban areas, river hydraulics, and sediment movement are among the applications described. Emphasis is placed on introducing automatic classification of multispectral data into modeling techniques used in hydrologic studies.

  16. US Army Corps of Engineers program. [including hydrologic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarman, J.; Mcintyre, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The application of satellite remote sensing technology in hydrologic studies and regulatory programs of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is discussed. Site selection, location of construction material, environment impact assessment, analysis of hydrologic systems, reservoir system analysis, water quality, quantity and quality of runoff from urban areas, river hydraulics, and sediment movement are among the applications described. Emphasis is placed on introducing automatic classification of multispectral data into modeling techniques used in hydrologic studies.

  17. Lunar surface cosmic ray experiment. [including solar flare studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    The galactic cosmic ray and solar flare experiment on Apollo 16 is reported. The published papers presented describe the experiment, equipment, data processing techniques, and operational history. The principle findings include: (1) The composition of heavy ions in interplanetary space at energies between approximately 30 and 130 MeV/nucleon is the same, within experimental errors. (2) The ability of a Lexan stack to determine simultaneously the energy spectra of major elements from He up to Fe in the energy interval 0.2 to 30 MeV/nucleon revealed systematic changes in the composition of solar flare particles as a function of energy. (3) Heavy ions emitted in a solar flare appear to be completely stripped of electrons, and are not in charge equilibrium at the time of acceleration and releases from the sun.

  18. Including Students with Disabilities in UAE Schools: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anati, Nisreen M.; Ain, Al

    2012-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is devoted to inclusive education, which respects the right for all learners, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, to become part of the mainstream school. This study describes the current practices that shape the nature of inclusive education in UAE schools from the teachers' perspective. Data drawn…

  19. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  20. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  1. Intrathymic T cell differentiation in radiation bone marrow chimeras and its role in T cell emigration to the spleen. An immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Hitomi, K.; Utsuyama, M.

    1985-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies were made on the regeneration of T cells of host- and donor-type in the thymus and spleen of radiation bone marrow chimeras by using B10- and B10.BR-Thy-1 congenic mice. In Thy-1 congenic chimeras, thymocytes of donor bone marrow origin, were first recognized at day 7, when the thymus involuted to the smallest size after the irradiation. The thymocytes of donor-type then proliferated exponentially, showing a slightly faster rate when higher doses of bone marrow cells were used for reconstitution, reaching a level of 100 million by day 17 and completely replacing the cortical thymocytes of host origin by day 21. The replacement of medullary thymocytes from host- to donor-type occurred gradually between days 21 and 35, after the replacement in the cortex was completed. In the spleen, about 1 million survived cells were recovered at day 3 after the irradiation, and approximately 60% of them were shown to be host-type T cells that were observed in the white pulp areas. The host-type T cells in the spleen increased gradually after day 10, due to the influx of host-type T cells from the regenerating thymus. Thus a pronounced increase of T cells of host-type was immunohistochemically observed in the splenic white pulp between days 21 and 28, when thymocytes of host-type were present mainly in the thymic medulla. These host-type T cells were shown to persist in the spleen for a long time, as long as 420 days after the treatment. Phenotypically, they were predominantly Lyt-1+2+ when examined at day 28, but 5 mo later, they were about 50% Lyt-1+2+ and 50% Lyt-1+2-.

  2. Nuclear Localization of β-Catenin in Sertoli Cell Tumors and Other Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors of the Testis: An Immunohistochemical Study of 87 Cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis and subclassification of Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) of the testis are often challenging to general surgical pathologists because of the rarity of the tumors. Immunohistochemical study to date has limited diagnostic value. Nuclear localization of β-catenin, which correlated closely with CTNNB1 gene mutation, was recently reported in SCTs. We investigated the utility of β-catenin nuclear localization in diagnosing SCTs and differentiating them from other testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for β-catenin was evaluated in 87 cases of testicular sex cord-stromal tumor: 33 SCTs, not otherwise specified (SCT-NOS) (15 with benign and 18 with malignant features), 10 sclerosing SCTs (SSCT), 5 large cell calcifying SCTs (LCCSCT), 6 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 10 Leydig cell tumors, 7 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 4 adult granulosa cell tumors, and 12 sex cord-stromal tumors, unclassified. Twenty-one of 33 (64%) SCT-NOS, 6 of 10 (60%) SSCTs, and 4 of 6 (67%) Sertoli-stromal cell tumors showed strong, diffuse β-catenin nuclear staining. Nuclear β-catenin positivity was more frequent in SCTs-NOS with benign features than in those with malignant features (93% and 39%, respectively, P=0.13) and, in the Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, occurred only in the Sertoli component. All 5 LCCSCTs and all other types of sex cord-stromal tumor were negative for β-catenin nuclear staining. In conclusion, SCT-NOS and SSCT frequently show β-catenin nuclear localization. Positive nuclear staining of β-catenin is specific for SCT-NOS, SSCT, and Sertoli-stromal cell tumor among testicular sex cord-stromal tumors but has limited sensitivity (63%) in this group. The similar reactivity of SCT-NOS and SSCT provides additional support that these 2 variants are not distinct entities.

  3. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  4. Involvement of mast cells and microvessels density in reactive lesions of oral cavity: A comparative immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Stephany Vasco; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade de; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Martins, Manoela Domingues; Freitas, Valéria Souza; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2016-09-01

    In view of the similarity of clinicopathological features between reactive lesions of the oral cavity, the objective of the present study was to investigate the density of MCs (mast cells) and microvessels in a series of these lesions. Thirty-seven cases of reactive lesions including fibrous hyperplasia (FH, n=10), inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH, n=10), peripheral giant cell lesion (PGCL, n=10) and lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH, n=7) were investigated using immunohistochemistry for mast cell tryptase and CD34. For comparative purposes, central giant cell lesions (CGCL, n=5) were included. A higher MC density was observed in LCH (37.01), while CGCL exhibited the lowest density (n=8.14). There was a significant difference in MC density when all reactive lesions were compared to CGCL (p=0.001). The largest mean density of microvessels was observed in LCH (n=21.69). The smallest number was observed in CGCL (n=6.24). There was a significant difference in microvessel density when the reactive lesions were compared to CGCL (p=0.003). There was a significant and direct correlation between the density of MCs and microvessels only for IFH (p=0.048) and CGCL (p=0.005). A significant and direct correlation between the mean density of MCs and microvessels was observed when the reactive lesions were analyzed as a whole (p=0.005). Our results suggest that mast cells contribute to the connective tissue framework and angiogenic function, as well as the development, of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including FH, IFH, LCH and PGCL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent atomistic modelling studies of energy materials: batteries included.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Saiful

    2010-07-28

    Advances in functional materials for energy conversion and storage technologies are crucial in addressing the global challenge of green sustainable energy. This article aims to demonstrate the valuable role that modern modelling techniques now play in providing deeper fundamental insight into novel materials for rechargeable lithium batteries and solid oxide fuel cells. Recent work is illustrated by studies on important topical materials encompassing transition-metal phosphates and silicates for lithium battery electrodes, and apatite-type silicates for fuel cell electrolytes.

  6. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  7. Morphological Patterns of Intracranial Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Karnataka: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, Ramdurg Shashank; Karnappa, Andola Sainath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An “Intra-cranial space occupying lesion” (ICSOL)is defined as a mass lesion in the cranial cavity with a diverse aetiology like benign or malignant neoplasm, inflammatory or parasitic lesion, haematoma, or arterio-venous malformation. Central nervous system neoplasms represent a unique, heterogenous population of neoplasms constituting 1.9% of all malignant tumours in India. A broad spectrum of non-neoplastic conditions can mimic a brain tumour, both clinically and radiologically and these patients undergo biopsy. In such cases, the pathologist can readily differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic imitators. Aim The present study attempts to provide preliminary data on morphological patterns of intracranial lesions in North Karnataka region and to study clinicopathological spectrum with correlation of radiological findings of ICSOL. Special emphasis is made on the utility of special stains and IHC markers in CNS tumours. Materials and Methods This retrospective and prospective descriptive study was performed on biopsy specimen of ICSOL received from Departmnet of Neurosurgery, Basaveshwar Teaching Hospital, Kalaburgi. The study period was from January 2012 to June 2013 retrospectively and July 2013 to June 2015 prospectively. All specimens were preserved in 10% formalin and allowed to fix for 24 hours. The haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the CNS lesions were obtained by routine processing and paraffin embedding. Special stains and IHC were done wherever appropriate. Results Sixty two cases of CNS lesions were studied, of which 12 (19.4%) cases were non neoplastic with six (50%) being cystic lesions and four (33.4%) were cerebral abscess. The neoplastic lesions comprised of 50 (80.6%) cases, which included 48 (96%) primary and two (4%) metastatic lesions. Among primary tumours, gliomas constituted the largest category of 24 (50%) cases with 16.7% being Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and pilocytic astrocytomas each, followed by

  8. An immunohistochemical study of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and colorectum: I. cytokeratin profile in 42 cases

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Expression of cytokeratin (CK) profiles in primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the stomach and colorectum have rarely reported; only two such studies are present in the world literature. Herein, an immunohistochemical study on cytokeratin (CK) expression was performed in 42 cases of primary SRCC of the stomach (30 cases) and colorectum (12 cases). SRCC was defined as an adenocarcinoma in which more than 50% adenocarcinoma cells showed SRCC phenotype with prominent intracytoplasmic mucins. In the gastric SRCC, the expression of CK was as follows; CK AE1/3 (30/30, 100%) CK CAM5.2 (30/30, 100%), CK 34BE12 (0/30, 0%), CK5/6 (2/30, 7%), CK7 (26/30, 89%), CK8 (12/30, 40%), CK14 (0/30, 0%), CK18 (30/30, 100%), CK19 (2/30, 7%), and CK20 (3/30, 10%). In the colorectal SRCC, the expression of CK was as follows; CK AE1/3 (12/12, 100%) CK CAM5.2 (12/12, 100%), CK 34BE12 (0/12, 0%), CK5/6 (0/12, 10%), CK7 (2/12, 17%), CK8 (3/12, 25%), CK14 (0/12, 0%), CK18 (12/12, 100%), CK19 (7/12, 58%), and CK20 (8/12, 67%). A statistical analysis showed that significant differences of CK expression between the gastric SRCC and colorectal SRCC were observed in CK7 (stomach 67% vs. colorectum 17%), CK19 (7% vs. 42%) and CK20 (13% vs. 67%); gastric SRCC tended to express CK7, but not CK19 and CK20, while colorectal SRCC tended to express CK19 and CK20, but not CK7. In gastric SRCC, CK7+/CK20- pattern was as follows: CK7+/CK20- (24/30, 81%), CK7+/CK20+ (2/30, 6%), CK7-/CK20+ (1/30, 3%), and CK7-/CK20- (3/30, 10%). CK7/CK19 patterns in gastric SRCC were as follows; CK7+/CK19- (25/30, 83%) CK7+/CK19+ (1/30, 3%), CK7-/CK19+ (1/30, 3%), CK7-/CK19- (3/30, 10%). In colorectal SRCC, the CK7/CK20 patterns were as follows: CK7+/CK20- (2/12, 17%), CK7+/CK20+ (0/12, 0%), CK7-/CK20+ (8/12, 66%), and CK7-/CK20- (2/12, 17%). The CK7/CK19 pattern in colorectal SRCC was as follows; CK7+/CK19- (1/12, 8%), CK7+/CK19+ (1/12, 8%), CK7-/CK19+ (6/12, 50%), and CK7-/CK19- (4/12, 34%). Statistical data

  9. Immunohistochemical study of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in odontogenic keratocyst and periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Sajeevan, Thara Purath; Saraswathi, Tillai Rajasekaran; Ranganathan, Kannan; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Uma Devi K

    2014-07-01

    p53 protein is a product of p53 gene, which is now classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The gene is a frequent target for mutation, being seen as a common step in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and plays a critical role in initiation of cell proliferation. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the expression of p53 and PCNA in lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and periapical cyst (PA). A total of 20 cases comprising 10 OKC and 10 PA were included in retrospective study. Three paraffin section of 4 μm were cut, one was used for routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, while the other two were used for immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. The level of staining and intensity were assessed in all these cases. OKC showed PCNA expression in all cases (100%), whereas in perapical cyst only 60% of cases exhibited PCNA staining. (1) OKC showed p53 expression in 6 cases (60%) whereas in PA only 10% of the cases exhibited p53 staining. Chi-square test showed PCNA staining intensity was more significant than p53 in OKC. (2) The staining intensity of PA using p53, PCNA revealed that PCNA stating intensity was more significant than p53. OKC shows significant proliferative activity than PA using PCNA and p53. PCNA staining was more intense when compared with p53 in both OKC and PA.

  10. Immunohistochemical study about the Flt-1/VEGFR1 expression in the gastrointestinal tract of mouse, rat, dog, swine and monkey.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, A; Germann, P-G; Junker-Walker, U; Tomovic, A; Seewald, W; Polkinghorne, A; Pospischil, A

    2005-11-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt-1) performs a subordinate effector role in mesenchymal angiogenesis and potentially serves an equally important functional role as a self-contained receptor in epithelial cells. In both endothelial cells and epithelial cells, Flt-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) downstream signalling is involved in regulating cellular processes such as cytoskeletal changes and cellular survival protection. Cellular renewal of the gastrointestinal mucosa is based on these processes and might involve Flt-1/VEGFR1 pathway activities; the molecular mechanisms regulating these cellular dynamics remain unclear. This study was performed to investigate the presence and distribution of Flt-1/VEGFR1 in epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Gastrointestinal tissues were taken from eight anatomical sites from mouse, rat, dog, swine and monkey. Present results revealed a cytosolic Flt-1/VEGFR1 staining pattern in mucosal epithelial cells for all investigated species. Non-epithelial structures also displayed a distinct Flt-1/VEGFR1 positivity and included vascular smooth muscle walls, enteric smooth muscle layers, the enteric nervous system and capillary endothelial cells. Diverse intensities of the Flt-1/VEGFR1 binding reaction within each species were observed in the intestinal mucosa with a strong immunoreaction in enterocytes and with a low protein expression in the ileum in most species. Crypt cells in the large intestine were mostly negative for Flt-1/VEGFR1. A peculiar and mainly intranuclear antibody binding reaction was found in Brunner's gland epithelial cells of mouse and rat whereas Brunner's glands of dog, swine and monkey remained completely negative. These results indicate a potential involvement of Flt-1/VEGFR1 in normal restitution of gastrointestinal structures in the species studied. Additionally, intranuclear Flt-1/VEGFR1 antibody binding in Brunner's glands of rodents may suggest

  11. Immunohistochemical study of the neural development transcription factors (TTF1, ASCL1 and BRN2) in neuroendocrine prostate tumours.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Zarco, E; Vallejo-Benítez, A; Umbría-Jiménez, S; Pereira-Gallardo, S; Pabón-Carrasco, S; Azueta, A; González-Cámpora, R; Espinal, P S; García-Escudero, A

    2017-10-01

    Prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that constitutes 0.5-1% of all prostate malignancies. The median cancer-specific survival of patients with prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is 19 months, and 60.5% of the patients have metastatic disease. Neural development transcription factors are molecules involved in the organogenesis of the central nervous system and of neuroendocrine precursors of various tissues, including the suprarenal gland, thyroid glands, lungs and prostate. We present 3 cases of this uncommon condition, applying the new World Health Organisation criteria. We conducted studies through haematoxylin and eosin staining and analysed the expression of the neural development transcription factors achaete-scute homolog like 1, thyroid transcription factor 1 and the class III/IV POU transcription factors, as a new research line in the carcinogenesis of prostatic neuroendocrine tumours. In case 1, there was no TTF1 immunoexpression. Cases 2 and 3 had positive immunostaining for ASCL1, and Case 1 had negative immunostaining. BRN2 immunostaining was negative in case 1 and positive in cases 2 and 3. The World Health Organisation does not recognise any molecular or genetic marker with prognostic value. ASCL-1 is related to the NOTCH and WNT signalling pathways. ASCL-1, TTF1 and BRN2 could be used for early diagnosis and as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 AEU. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunohistochemical Study of Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element as Indicator of Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Developing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Sergio; Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Sánchez-García, Aurora; Heras-Romero, Yesica; Rios, Camilo; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    In developing animals, Cadmium (Cd) induces toxicity to many organs including brain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often implicated in Cd-inducedtoxicity and it has been clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress interferes with the expression of genes as well as transcriptional factors such as Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response Element (Nrf2-ARE). Cd-generated oxidative stress and elevated Nrf2 activity have been reported in vitro and in situ cells. In this study we evaluated the morphological changes and the expression pattern of Nrf2 and correlated them with the Cd concentrations in different ages of developing rats in heart, lung, kidney, liver, and brain. The Cd content in different organs of rats treated with the metal was increased in all ages assayed. Comparatively, lower Cd brain levels were found in rats intoxicated at the age of 12 days, then pups treated at 5, 10, or 15 days old, at the same metal dose. No evident changes, as a consequence of cadmium exposure, were evident in the morphological analysis in any of the ages assayed. However, Nrf2-ARE immunoreactivity was observed in 15-day-old rats exposed to Cd. Our results support that fully developed blood-brain barrier is an important protector against Cd entrance to brain and that Nrf2 increased expression is a part of protective mechanism against cadmium-induced toxicity. PMID:26101558

  13. Immunohistochemical study of pituitary cells in wild and captive Salminus hilarii (Characiformes: Characidae) females during the annual reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Pandolfi, Matias; Shimizu, Akio; Borella, Maria Inês; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater fish that live exclusively in rivers are at particular risk from fragmentation of the aquatic system, mainly the species that migrate upriver for reproduction. That is the case of Salminus hilarii, an important migratory species currently classified as "almost threatened" in the São Paulo State (Brazil), facing water pollution, dam construction, riparian habitat destruction and environmental changes that are even more serious in this State. Additionally, this species show ovulation dysfunction in captivity. Our studies focused on the identification and distribution of the pituitary cell types in the adenohypophysis of S. hilarii females, including a morphometric analysis that compares pituitary cells from wild and captive broodstocks during the reproductive annual cycle. The morphology of adenohypophysial cells showed differences following the reproductive cycle and the environment. In general, optical density suggested a higher cellular activity during the previtellogenic (growth hormone) and vitellogenic (somatolactin) stages in both environments. Additionally, the nucleus/cell ratio analysis suggested that growth hormone and somatolactin cells were larger in wild than in captive females in most reproductive stages of the annual cycle. In contrast, prolactin hormone showed no variation throughout the reproductive cycle (in both environments). Morphometrical analyses related to reproduction of S. hilarii in different environmental conditions, suggest that somatolactin and growth hormone play an important role in reproduction in teleost and can be responsible for the regulation of associated processes that indirectly affect reproductive status.

  14. An immunohistochemical study of the expression of the hypoxia markers Glut-1 and Ca-IX in canine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Abbondati, E; Del-Pozo, J; Hoather, T M; Constantino-Casas, F; Dobson, J M

    2013-11-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been associated with increased malignancy, likelihood of metastasis, and increased resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in human medicine. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that is induced by tumor hypoxia and regulates the pathways involved in cellular response and adaptation to the hostile tumor microenvironment. HIF-1 induces transcription of different proteins, including Ca-IX and Glut-1, which are considered endogenous markers of chronic hypoxia in solid tumors in humans. In this study, sections from 40 canine sarcomas (20 histiocytic sarcomas and 20 low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas) were immunostained for these markers. Expression of Glut-1 was scored based on percentage of positive staining cells (0 = <1%; 1 = 1%-50%; 2 = >50%) and intensity of cellular staining (1 = weak; 2 = strong); Ca-IX was scored based on percentage of positive cells (0 = <1%; 1 = 1%-30%; 2 = >30%). Intratumoral microvessel density was measured using CD31 to assess intratumoral neoangiogenesis. Histiocytic sarcomas showed statistically significant higher Glut-1 immunoreactivity and angiogenesis than did low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas. Intratumoral microvessel density in histiocytic sarcomas was positively associated with Glut-1 immunoreactivity score. These findings suggest a potential role of hypoxia in the biology of these tumors and may provide a base for investigation of the potential prognostic use of these markers in naturally occurring canine tumors.

  15. Distance between intramuscular nerve and artery in the extraocular muscles: a preliminary immunohistochemical study using elderly human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kei; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahito; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Extraocular muscles are quite different from skeletal muscles in muscle fiber type and nerve supply; the small motor unit may be the most well known. As the first step to understanding the nerve-artery relationship, in this study we measured the distance from the arteriole (25-50 μm in thickness) to the nerve terminal twigs in extraocular muscles. With the aid of immunohistochemistry for nerves and arteries, we examined the arteriole-nerve distance at 10-15 sites in each of 68 extraocular muscles obtained from ten elderly cadavers. The oblique sections were nearly tangential to the muscle plate and included both global and orbital aspects of the muscle. In all muscles, the nerve twigs usually took a course parallel to muscle fibers, in contrast to most arterioles that crossed muscles. Possibly due to polyinnervation, an intramuscular nerve plexus was evident in four rectus and two oblique muscles. The arteriole-nerve distance usually ranged from 300 to 400 μm. However, individual differences were more than two times greater in each of seven muscles. Moreover, in each muscle the difference between sites sometimes reached 1 mm or more. The distance was generally shorter in the rectus and oblique muscles than in the levator palpebrae muscle, which reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). The differences in arteriole-nerve distances between sites within each muscle, between muscles, and between individuals might lead to an individual biological rhythm of fatigue in oculomotor performance.

  16. Immunohistochemical phenotype and molecular pathological characteristics of metanephric adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhulei; Kan, Shihai; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Yan; Jing, Hong; Huang, Gui; Yu, Qichun; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    To assess the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of metanephric adenoma (MA). Clinicopathologic data were obtained for 5 cases of MA with follow-up information. Specimens from these patients were stained by HE and immunohistochemistry for the detection of WT1, vimentin, S-100 protein, CK7, P504s, CD10 and renal cell carcinoma marker (RCC). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 4 tumors. The patients included 1 male and 4 females, aged from 30 to 49 (mean=39) years. Tumor diameters ranged from 3 to 5.5 cm. Histologically, the tumors had tubular, papillary, or glomeruloid architectures, and were composed of cells with uniform and round nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, and high ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm. Nuclear polymorphism and mitotic figures were not observed. Immunohistochemically, they expressed WT1 (5/5), vimentin (5/5), S-100 (4/5), CK7 (2/5), P504s (2/5), and CD10 (1/5) and not RCC. FISH study was carried out on 4 metanephric adenoma cases, and no abnormalities were observed in chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and P16 gene of chromosomes 9. MA is an uncommon renal tumor. Its diagnosis depends on morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features. PMID:26261480