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Sample records for immunohistochemical study including

  1. Evaluating breast lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates: a multiparameter immunohistochemical study, including assessment of IgG4.

    PubMed

    Berg, Aaron N; Soma, Lorinda; Clark, Beth Z; Swerdlow, Steven H; Roth, Christine G

    2015-08-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the breast, a modified skin appendage, include lymphocytic lobulitis, other nonspecific benign proliferations, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma. Distinguishing these entities, all of which may be B-cell rich and may have associated sclerosis, can be difficult. In addition, the proportion that represents IgG4-related disease is unknown, and the similarity of MALT lymphomas to primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma is uncertain. To address these questions, the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of 50 benign and malignant breast lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (10 lymphocytic lobulitis, 1 granulomatous, 19 not otherwise specified, 20 MALT lymphomas) were evaluated. Compared with the MALT lymphomas, benign cases had a less dense infiltrate (P < .001), fewer but more histologically apparent germinal centers (P < .001), and more marked fibrosis (P < .0001). Greater than 60% B cells were present in 23% (7/30) benign cases versus 75% (15/20) MALT lymphomas (P = .0003). Plasma cells were predominantly IgG+ in 83% (24/29) benign cases and predominantly IgM+ in 73% (14/19) MALT lymphomas (P < .0001). None of the benign cases had greater than 50 IgG4+ plasma cells/high-power field, and only 1 lymphocytic lobulitis case had an IgG4/IgG ratio exceeding 40% and no clinical evidence for extramammary IgG4-related disease. Although there may be some overlapping features, routine histopathology together with limited immunohistochemical stains can distinguish benign from neoplastic lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the breast. Despite frequent sclerosis, the breast is not a common site of unrecognized IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Although there are similarities, breast MALT lymphomas can be separated from cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma.

  2. Immunohistochemical study of pancreatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ohaki, Y; Misugi, K; Fukuda, J; Okudaira, M; Hirose, M

    1987-10-01

    Three cases of pancreatoblastoma in children were examined immunohistochemically and the results were compared with those of pancreatic duct carcinoma in adults. The pancreatoblastoma demonstrated positive reactions to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (67%: 2/3), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) (100%: 3/3), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (67%: 2/3) and keratin (33%: 1/3), although CEA was only weakly positive in both cases. On the other hand, adult pancreatic duct carcinoma showed positive reactions as follows; AFP: 3% (1/29), AAT: 21% (6/29), CEA: 97% (28/29) and keratin: 93% (27/29). Also, endocrine substances including insulin, glucagon and somatostatin were all negative in the pancreatoblastomas. Two cases of pancreatoblastoma which were immunohistochemically positive for AFP also showed elevation of the serum AFP level clinically. The different expressive pattern of oncofetal antigens in pancreatoblastoma as compared with pancreatic duct carcinoma in adults may provide further supporting evidence for the embryonic nature of pancreatoblastoma, and suggests that such a pattern might be used as a tumor marker for pancreatoblastoma.

  3. Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and esophagus: an immunohistochemical study of 60 cases including comparison with normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chlumská, Alena; Mukenšnabl, Petr; Mareček, Petr; Zámečník, Michal

    2014-07-01

    Recently, a new classification of intestinal metaplasia (IM) using immunohistochemical mucin markers was proposed. Two following types of IM were defined: (1) a mixed gastric and intestinal type also called incomplete IM; (2) a purely intestinal type, also called complete IM. We present a series of 30 cases of gastric IM and 30 cases of IM of the esophagus, using this new classification. In all gastric cases, IM developed in the mucus-neck region in the form of incomplete IM. Toward the mucosa surface, it matured gradually into complete IM. This maturation showed a gradual reduction of both foveolar mucin MUC5AC and pyloric gland mucin MUC6. In two of 30 cases, IM was of the incomplete hyperproliferative type. In one case, focal high-grade adenomatous dysplasia was found in the incomplete IM. In the esophageal cases, IM was found in inflamed cardiac-type mucosa, and it was usually of the incomplete type, with almost diffuse positivity for MUC5AC and with rare positivity of MUC6. The goblet cells and some cylindrical cells expressed intestinal mucin MUC2. The proliferation was higher than in the complete IM, and in one case, focal low grade adenomatous dysplasia was found. In addition, we examined the expression of mucins in normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa. These cases included 50 duodenal biopsies, 50 biopsies from the ileum, and 50 biopsies from the colon. The inflamed cases included celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Some goblet cells of the normal intestinal mucosa expressed both MUC2 and MUC5AC. More numerous MUC5AC+ goblet cells were found in the inflamed intestinal mucosa. In the duodenal and small intestinal mucosa, even the MUC6 positivity of a few goblet or cylindrical cells was found. In sum, our results indicate that incomplete IM is an initial step of the metaplastic process. It can mature into complete IM, or alternatively, it can develop dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. In addition, we found that gastric-type mucins are also

  4. Pigmented spindle cell nevus: clues for differentiating it from spindle cell malignant melanoma. A comprehensive survey including clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and FISH studies.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alba; Valera, Alexandra; Carrera, Cristina; Hakim, Sofía; Aguilera, Paula; García, Adriana; Palou, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Alos, Llúcia

    2011-11-01

    Pigmented spindle cell nevus (PSCN), also known as Reed nevus, is a distinctive melanocytic tumor that can show worrisome clinical and histologic features mimicking a malignant melanoma. From a series of 46 pigmented spindle cell melanocytic lesions, including 22 PSCN and 24 spindle cell malignant melanomas (SCMMs), we collected clinical and histopathologic characteristics and evaluated cell cycle and apoptosis regulators by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes targeting 6p25 (RREB1), 11q13 (CCND1), 6q23 (MYB), and centromere 6 was performed. PSCN presented in younger people, frequently in women, and were small lesions under 7 mm in diameter affecting the lower limbs, whereas SCMMs arose more frequently in the trunk, upper limbs, and head and neck region. Histologically, symmetry, good lateral demarcation, and uniformity of cellular nests were significantly differential features of PSCN, whereas pagetoid and adnexal spread were frequently seen in both tumors. Immunohistochemical markers that significantly differed from melanomas were Ki-67, cyclin D1, and survivin. FISH was positive in 1 of 15 PSCN and was negative in 4 of 15 SCMMs. These results correlated to a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93%. In conclusion, in the evaluation of pigmented spindle cell melanocytic tumors, the integration of clinical and histologic assessment is essential. However, ancillary techniques such as proliferation antigen Ki-67, cyclin D1, survivin, and FISH can be useful as adjunctive tools.

  5. Plantar fibromatosis: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    de Palma, L; Santucci, A; Gigante, A; Di Giulio, A; Carloni, S

    1999-04-01

    The analogies between plantar fibromatosis and Dupuytren's disease (palmar fibromatosis) are well known. The latter is clinically more frequent and has been the object of extensive immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies, with a view to investigating its pathogenesis. By contrast, such data on plantar fibromatosis are quite scarce. A histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study was performed on nodule tissue from six patients who were subjected to total fasciectomy for plantar fibromatosis. The study of myofibroblasts revealed features suggestive of their fibroblastic origin and evidenced a cytoskeleton and an extracellular filamentous system that could enable myofibroblasts to generate and exert the intracellular forces that contribute to the contraction of the aponeurosis. These aspects are similar to those observed in Dupuytren's disease and seem to lend support to the theory that the two diseases are expressions of the same disorder.

  6. Follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vera Sempere, Francisco José; Artes Martínez, María Jose; Vera Sirera, Beatriz; Bonet Marco, Jaime

    2006-07-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion that affects young patients, with female predominance, mainly in second decade, showing a radiolucent unilocular image associated with an unerupted tooth, usually a canine. In spite of previous and confusing denominations, such as adenoameloblastoma or adenomatoid ameloblastic tumor, AOT is a benign tumor with a very low rate of recurrence, that show a peculiar morphological picture (basaloid appearance with glandular-like structures, calcifying areas, and amiloid-like material) that allow its histopathological recognition. We present a clinicopathological analysis of a case of follicular AOT affecting the mandible in a 9 years-old female patient associated with unerupted lower left canine. Immunohistochemical study showed some data previously unrecognised. All cellular types that composed AOT showed nuclear positivity for p63 indicating a basal characterization in the different cellular components. According to its benign character and low potential for recurrence, AOT revealed a scant proliferative activity (2-3% nuclei showed Ki-67 positivity) limited to some epithelial nodules (AE1-3 +) of fusiform appearance. Absence of reactivity for hormonal receptors (RE and RPg) excluded a possible hormonodependence in AOT that could explain the observed female predominance.

  7. Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Studies of Keratoglobus

    PubMed Central

    Meghpara, Beeran; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Vemuganti, Geeta K.; Murthy, Somasheila I.; Sugar, Joel; Yue, Beatrice Y. J. T.; Edward, Deepak P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of human corneal buttons from patients who developed keratoglobus. Methods Nine corneal buttons were obtained during penetrating keratoplasty from patients with keratoglobus. Histologic features were examined using hematoxylin-eosin– stained sections. Immunohistochemical staining for α1-proteinase inhibitor, Sp1, and matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3 was performed, with 2 normal and 2 corneal sections with keratoconus as controls. Results Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed diffuse stromal thinning and focal disruptions in Bowman's layer in all keratoglobus specimens. Similar abnormal immunostaining results for α1-proteinase inhibitor and Sp1 were detected in keratoglobus and keratoconus at their respective active disease sites. Immunostaining for matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 3 was significantly more intense in corneas with keratoglobus than in normal controls. Matrix metalloproteinase staining intensity was especially prominent in areas where the underlying Bowman's layer was disrupted. Conclusions Histological features in our keratoglobus specimens are consistent with previous reports. The similarities in immunohistochemical labeling between keratoglobus and keratoconus suggest that these entities may share common mechanisms that are involved in stromal thinning. PMID:19667340

  8. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metaplastic breast carcinoma is a rare entity of breast cancer expressing epithelial and/or mesenchymal tissue within the same tumor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features of metaplastic breast carcinoma and to confirm the triple negative, basal-like and/or luminal phenotype of this type of tumor by using immunohistochemical staining. Methods Seven cases of MBC were evaluated for clinico-pathological features including follow up data. Cases were studied immunohistochemically by CK-Pan, Vimentin, ER, PR, HER2, basal markers (CK5/6, p63, EGFR, SMA and S-100), luminal cytokeratins (CK8, CK18 and CK19), markers for syncytial cells (β-HCG and PLAP), as well as prognostic markers (p53, ki-67 and calretinin). Results The mean age of the patients was 36 years. Three cases showed choriocarcinomatous features. All of our cases were negative for ER, PR and HER2. Six out of the 7 cases showed basal-like differentiation by demonstrating positivity with at least one of the basal/myoepithelial markers. Also 6 out of the 7 cases expressed luminal type cytokeratins (CK8, CK18 and/or CK19). P53 was positive in 3 cases, ki-67 was strongly expressed in only one case, while calretinin was expressed in 6 cases. Conclusion Metaplastic breast carcinoma presents in our population at a younger age group than other international studies. All cases are categorized immunohistochemically under the triple negative group of breast cancer and 86% of them exhibited basal-like and luminal phenotype. Majority of cases developed local recurrence and distant metastasis in a relatively short period of time. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1101289295115804 PMID:25030022

  9. Immunohistochemical studies in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU).

    PubMed

    Romeike, A; Brügmann, M; Drommer, W

    1998-11-01

    Despite extensive clinical research, the etiology of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is still unknown. After an immunologic pathogenesis was established in recurrent uveitis in humans, a similar pathogenic mechanism was assumed to exist in ERU. To investigate whether immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in ERU, 20 eyes of 15 horses with ERU were examined immunohistochemically with a T cell marker, B cell marker, and anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antibodies. Twenty-six eyes of 20 horses were used for investigation of MHC class II antigen expression in normal equine eyes. In 18 eyes of 14 horses, the number of T cells in the inflammatory cell population within the uvea was assessed. In 16/18 eyes (89%), the T lymphocyte fraction was > 70%. This cell population was distributed mostly in a diffuse manner throughout the uvea and also within the mantle zone of follicular lymphocytic aggregates. Foci of B lymphocytes could be found within the center of follicular aggregates in three eyes. The expression of MHC class II antigen on resident ocular cells was evaluated in 10 eyes of six horses with ERU. An increase of MHC class II antigen expression in the trabecular meshwork and on the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium was noted as was a deviant expression on proliferating Müller cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The predominance of T cells in the inflammatory infiltrates supports the central role of a cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, the observation of a deviant MHC class II expression on resident ocular cells suggests that aberrant immune regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ERU.

  10. The morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma: study including 132 cases with pure type 1 and type 2 morphology as well as tumors with overlapping features.

    PubMed

    Chevarie-Davis, Myriam; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Arseneault, Madeleine; Aprikian, Armen; Kassouf, Wassim; Tanguay, Simon; Latour, Mathieu; Brimo, Fadi

    2014-07-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinomas (pRCC) are classically divided into type 1 and 2 tumors. However, many cases do not fulfill all the criteria for either type. We describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of 132 pRCCs to better characterize the frequency and nature of tumors with overlapping features. Cases were reviewed and classified; IHC evaluation of CK7, EMA, TopoIIα, napsin A, and AMACR was performed on 95 cases. The frequencies of type 1, type 2, and "overlapping" pRCC were 25%, 28%, and 47%, respectively. The 2 categories of "overlapping" tumors were: (1) cases with bland cuboidal cells but no basophilic cytoplasm (type A); and (2) cases with predominantly type 1 histology admixed with areas showing prominent nucleoli (type B). The pathologic stage of "overlapping" cases showed concordance with type 1 tumors. Using the 2 discriminatory markers (CK7, EMA), "type A" cases were similar to type 1. Although the high-nuclear grade areas of "type B" tumors showed some staining differences from their low-nuclear grade counterpart, their IHC profile was closer to type 1. Single nucleotide polymorphism array results, although preliminary and restricted to only 9 cases (3 with overlapping features), also seemed to confirm those findings. In conclusion, we demonstrate that variations in cytoplasmic quality and/or presence of high-grade nuclei in tumors otherwise displaying features of type 1 pRCCs are similar in stage and IHC profile those with classic type 1 histology, suggesting that their spectrum might be wider than originally described.

  11. [Collagenous colitis. Morphologic and immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Genova, G; Arena, N; Guddo, F; Vita, C; Reitano, R; Nagar, C; Tralongo, V

    1993-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a clinico-pathological entity characterized by chronic diarrhoeas and deposition of collagen beneath the epithelium surface of large bowel. We revised 265 endoscopy biopsy specimens of the large bowel from 198 consecutive patients with "aspecific chronic colitis". Morphometric study showed that were not significant differences among various tracts in the same patients regarding to the thickness of basament membrane. It was more than 11.9 +/- 0.49 mu only in 13 pts (6.6%), while it was 3.96 +/- 1.4 mu in the others. Immunohistochemistry study confirmed the normality of subepithelial basement membrane and the below deposition of the large quantity of collagen IV.

  12. Sonic hedgehog in oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Sahana; Iyengar, Asha R; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have revealed the involvement of hedgehog (Hh) signaling component in proliferation and invasive behavior of many carcinomas. Aim: This study aims to identify the expression of sonic Hh (SHH) protein of SHH pathway in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using SHH (H-160) (Santa Cruz, sc-9042) which could have therapeutic implication in future. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 cases comprising 50 normal oral mucosa, 50 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, 50 well, 50 moderate and 50 poorly differentiated OSCCs were included in the study. Immunohistochemical evaluation of SHH protein expression was conducted using monoclonal antibody. Interpretation of the expression was done by immunoreactive score of Remmele and Stegner (IRS) scoring method. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test was used to analyze the results. Results: The study showed that SHH signaling molecules are highly expressed in OSCC, and their expression was mainly in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Conclusion: The SHH signaling component is associated with the pathological parameter in OSCC and oral epithelial dysplasia. PMID:27721600

  13. Ulcerative Granular Cell Tumor: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Khalawany, Mohamed; Mosbeh, Al-Sadat; Abd-Al Salam, Fatma; Abou-Bakr, Amany

    2011-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is uncommonly presented with cutaneous ulcer. We examined the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of this ulcerative form in fourteen cases that may raise the awareness of this variant. The study included 11 males and 3 females with a mean age 31.5 ± 7.42 years. All cases were presented with large solitary ulcer with indurated base, elevated border, skin colored margin, and necrotic floor. Twelve lesions were located on the extremities and two lesions on the genital region. Histologically, the lesions showed dermal infiltrate composed of large polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm and characteristic infiltration of the dermal muscles in all cases. Immunostaining showed positive reaction for S100 (14/14), NSE (14/14), CD68 (5/14), and Vimentin (7/14) while HMB45, CK, EMA, and Desmin were negative. We hope that this paper increases the awareness of ulcerative GCT and consider it in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions. PMID:22132340

  14. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  15. Distinction between endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Castrillon, Diego H; Lee, Kenneth R; Nucci, Marisa R

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of distinguishing between primary endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas by using a panel of immunohistochemical stains, which included vimentin (VIM), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and cytokeratins 7 and 20 (CK7 and CK20). Twenty-nine endocervical adenocarcinomas (CCAs) and 30 endometrial adenocarcinomas (EMCAs) including cases with overlapping histologic features (CCAs with endometrioid differentiation [15/29] and EMCAs with mucinous differentiation [16/30]) were evaluated. Most EMCAs (29/30, 97%) were VIM positive, whereas only 2/29 (7%) CCAs were VIM positive. The great majority of EMCAs (28/30) and all 29 CCAs were CK7 positive, whereas all 30 EMCAs and 27/29 CCAs were negative for CK20. CEA positivity was more common in CCAs (18/29, 62%) than in EMCAs (8/30, 27%). EMA positivity was present in all 30 EMCAs and in 26 of 29 (90%) CCAs. We conclude that VIM and CEA are useful immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing EMCAs and CCAs, but CK7, CK20, and EMA are not useful in this distinction.

  16. Spiradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of three cases.

    PubMed

    Biernat, W; Wozniak, L

    1994-08-01

    Three cases of malignant transformation within spiradenoma are described. All of them occurred close to the elbow. In every case we found a benign component, characteristic of the spiradenoma, and a structure of carcinoma, which in some areas showed transition into the spiradenoma. In one case the structure of the spiradenocarcinoma resembled that of the spiradenoma, whereas in the remaining two cases adenocarcinoma was the malignant counterpart of the tumor. We performed immunohistochemical studies and revealed various intensities of expression of cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen and a dearth of S-100 protein, vimentin, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the examined cases of spiradenocarcinoma.

  17. Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tavasoli, Abbas; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Rad, Maryam Nobakht; Taymouri, Afra

    2013-05-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author's knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature.

  18. Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Tavasoli, Abbas; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Rad, Maryam Nobakht; Taymouri, Afra

    2013-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author's knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature. PMID:23646307

  19. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    THONGTHARB, Atigan; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; KAGAWA, Yumiko; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50–64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  20. Do canine parvoviruses affect canine neurons? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Schmidt, P

    2005-08-01

    In cats (most of which died from panleukopenia), cerebral neurons have recently been shown to be susceptible to canine parvovirus infection. In addition to positive immunostaining and distinct in situ hybridization signals, signs of neurodegeneration were identified by histopathology, mainly in the diencephalic area. Similar histological lesions of the diencephalic regions in dogs have also attracted attention; therefore, an immunohistochemical study was initiated to determine the possible infection of canine neurons with canine parvoviruses. The study was carried out on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue, with and without signs of neurodegeneration, from 40 dogs, most of them dying from parvovirus enteritis. Immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antiserum against canine parvoviruses, was negative in all 40 cases, suggesting that, unlike cats, canine parvoviruses do not seem capable of infecting canine neurons.

  1. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  2. Oxidative stress in the human fetal brain: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shibata, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Fumiaki; Sakayori, Noriko; Kobayashi, Makio

    2002-02-01

    Because accumulation of oxidative modification products seems to relate to aging and has not been fully studied in fetal brains, an immunohistochemical examination was performed on nine brains ranging from 22-40 weeks of gestation. These brains did not demonstrate lesions except hypoxic-ischemic changes. Advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal are generally reported to be negative in neurons of normal young brains, but, in the present study, distinct positive immunoreaction was observed in neurons of fetal brains. Positive immunoreaction appeared earlier in the medulla oblongata than in the cerebrum, and 4-hydroxynonenal began to accumulate earlier than advanced glycation end products. As for glial cells, advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal were positive in reactive astrocytes in mid- to late gestation. Because hypoxic-ischemic changes were observed in most of the patients, it is possible that oxidative stress caused by hypoxic-ischemic may be involved in the accumulation of these products in the fetal brain. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was negative even in patients demonstrating positive reaction for advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal. In the fetal brain, DNA might be strongly protected from oxidative damage. 4-Hydroxynonenal is generally positive in the cytoplasm but was positive in the nucleus of immature neurons and glial cells in the present study, suggesting a unique metabolism of the fetal brain.

  3. Hepatic metastasis of thymoma: case report and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Speisky, Daniela; de Davila, María Teresa García; Vigovich, Felix; Mendez, Julian; Maurette, Rafael; Ejarque, Marcos García; Spina, Juan Carlos; Iotti, Alejandro; Dezanzo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Thymomas are rare tumours characterised by their slow growth and capacity to invade directly by contiguity. While distant dissemination is infrequent, all sub-types of thymoma have the capacity to metastasise to extrathoracic organs. We present here the case of a female patient with a liver mass discovered 13 years after the removal of a mediastinal thymoma and after ten years from thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma. The histopathological study showed that the lesion contained an epithelial component, which was immunohistochemically positive for pankeratin. It was accompanied by numerous small lymphocytes testing positive for TdT, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD99, and CD43. The result was consistent with hepatic metastatic thymoma sub-type B1, according to the World Health Organisation classification (WHO). Our case highlights the importance of morphological and immunohistological examinations in the differential diagnosis of visceral masses in patients with a history of thymoma. Given the infrequency of its metastasis and the increased risk of developing other primary tumours that these patients have, these studies play a significant role. PMID:28101136

  4. Immunohistochemical study of the digestive tract of Oligosarcus hepsetus

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Lopes, Danielle A; Pinheiro, Nadja L; Sales, Armando; Ventura, Adriana; Araújo, Francisco G; Gomes, Iracema D; Nascimento, Aparecida A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the histology of the digestive tract and to investigate the occurrence of endocrine cells in Oligosarcus hepsetus (O. hepsetus). METHODS: The digestive tract (DT) of O. hepsetus was divided into esophagus, two stomach regions (glandular and non-glandular) and two intestinal regions (anterior and posterior). These specimens were processed by routine histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori’s trichrome, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB). An immunohistochemical method using avidin-biotin-peroxidase was employed. RESULTS: The esophagus is lined with a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is reactive to PAS and AB. The stomach has a mucosa lined with a simple columnar epithelium with mucus-secreting cells that are reactive only to PAS. The intestine has a simple columnar epithelium with a brush border and goblet cells that are reactive to PAS and AB. Somatostatin, serotonin and cholecystokinin immunoreactive cells were identified throughout the DT. CONCLUSION: This study revealed adaptations for the species’ diet and showed that the distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells are similar to those of other fish. PMID:23569337

  5. R1: Immunohistochemical study of mucins in human intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2017-02-08

    Most patients with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS; a colorectal bacterial infection caused by Brachyspira species) seem asymptomatic, and its pathogenicity remains unclear. Recently, alterations in mucin expression were reported in animal Brachyspira infection. The present question was "Is mucin expression altered in HIS?". Using antibodies for MUCs 1, 2, 4, 5 AC, and 6, we immunohistochemically compared 215 specimens from 83 histology-confirmed HIS cases with 106 specimens from 26 non-HIS cases. Positive staining (which included even focal positive staining) was rated "high (+)" or "low (+)". Results were analysed for four categories of lesions, and associations between MUC expression and spirochetal presence were also analysed. In the "specimens without polyps or adenocarcinoma" category: high (+) MUC2-positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. In the hyperplasia/serrated polyp category: in HIS (vs. control), the MUC5AC-positivity rate was lower, while high (+) MUC4-positivity was more frequent. In the conventional adenoma category: in HIS (vs. control), the MUC1-positivity rate was lower, while both high (+) MUC2-positivity and high (+) MUC5AC-positivity were less frequent. In the adenocarcinoma category: high (+) MUC2-positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. Among the above mucins, only MUC1-positivity was significantly associated with an absence of the so-called fringe formation, an absence of spiral organisms within mucus, and an absence of strong immunopositive materials within the epithelial layer and within the subepithelial layer. The results suggest that Brachyspira infection or a related change in the microbiome may alter the large intestine mucin-expression profile in humans.

  6. Macrophage origin of Reed-Sternberg cells: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Payne, SV; Wright, DH; Jones, KJM; Judd, MA

    1982-01-01

    In an immunohistochemical study of 26 biopsies from 24 patients with Hodgkin's disease a granular staining pattern for alpha-1-antitrypsin (α1AT) and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (α1ACT) was seen in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and mononuclear Hodgkin's (H) cells in over half the cases. The pattern of staining for these antiproteases seen in RS and H cells has previously only been observed in normal and malignant cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage within the lymphoreticular system. A faintly granular evenly distributed staining for IgG was found in viable RS and H cells. This staining was associated with a similar distribution of both light chains but not J chain, suggesting that the immunoglobulin had not been synthesised by these cells but had been taken up from the extracellular environment. It is suggested that this uptake is an active process occurring in viable RS and H cells, possibly via Fcγ receptors and further supports an origin from cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. IgA, IgD, albumin, fibrinogen, C1q, C4 and C3 were present in some cells, IgM was more rarely found and lysozyme was absent. The fact that cells staining for these serum proteins generally showed signs of degeneration and that the extent of staining correlated with the molecular weight, but not serum concentration, of the protein suggests that they are passively acquired by dead or dying cells and thus represent a separate phenomenon from IgG uptake. The function of IgG uptake and accumulation by RS cells and the α1AT and α1ACT markers may prove of use in identifying the macrophage subtype from which these cells are derived. Images PMID:7040482

  7. Magnetoreception in birds: I. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the cryptochrome cycle.

    PubMed

    Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Peichl, Leo; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2014-12-01

    Cryptochrome 1a, located in the UV/violet-sensitive cones in the avian retina, is discussed as receptor molecule for the magnetic compass of birds. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of chicken retinae with an antiserum that labelled only activated cryptochrome 1a had shown activation of cryptochrome 1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light. Green light, however, does not allow the first step of photoreduction of oxidized cryptochromes to the semiquinone. As the chickens had been kept under 'white' light before, we suggested that there was a supply of the semiquinone present at the beginning of the exposure to green light, which could be further reduced and then re-oxidized. To test this hypothesis, we exposed chickens to various wavelengths (1) for 30 min after being kept in daylight, (2) for 30 min after a 30 min pre-exposure to total darkness, and (3) for 1 h after being kept in daylight. In the first case, we found activated cryptochrome 1a under UV, blue, turquoise and green light; in the second two cases we found activated cryptochrome 1a only under UV to turquoise light, where the complete redox cycle of cryptochrome can run, but not under green light. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis that activated cryptochrome 1a is found as long as there is some of the semiquinone left, but not when the supply is depleted. It supports the idea that the crucial radical pair for magnetoreception is generated during re-oxidation.

  8. Esophageal Cancers: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study of 223 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The author reviewed 950 cases of consecutive esophageal biopsies in the last 15 years in out pathology laboratory of our hospital. There were 223 malignant lesions (23.5%). The number and frequency (percentages) were as follows: 54 mild dysplasia (5.7%), 30 moderate dyplasia (3.2%), 32 severe dysplasia (3.4%), 13 carcinoma in situ (1.4%), 71 squamous cell carcinoma (7.5%), 7 primary adenocarcinoma (0.7%), 1 primary signet ring cell carcinoma (0.1%), 4 primary small cell carcinoma (0.4%), 2 primary amelanotic malignant melanoma (0.2%), 1 primary undifferentiated sarcoma (0.1%), 7 gastric cancer invasion (0.7%), and 1 primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (0.1%). In this article, the clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of these esophageal cancers were described. PMID:27933124

  9. Neurofilaments in Thyrotrophs of Hypothyroid Rats: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Eva; Quintanar, J. Luis

    2000-01-01

    We examined by immunohistochemistry the expression of 200-kDa (NF-H) neurofilaments in pituitary thyrotrophs of rats, made hypothyroid by propylthiouracil (PTU) administration. Rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of PTU administration as well as at 3, 7, and 14 d after interruption of a 14-d PTU treatment. The pituitaries were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in paraffin. Consecutive sections were prepared for the immunohistochemical demonstration of thyroid-stimulation hormone and NF-H. NF-H were found in some thyrotrophs of the adenohypophysis of control rats. NF-H were expressed in thyroidectomy cells of hypothyroid rats. Discontinuation of PTU treatment led to recovery from cytologic alterations in the thyroidectomy cells expressing NF-H.

  10. Distinctive immunohistochemical profile of penile intraepithelial lesions: a study of 74 cases.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Pfannl, Rolf; Rodríguez, Ingrid M; Barreto, José E; Velazquez, Elsa F; Lezcano, Cecilia; Piris, Adriano; Netto, George J; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2011-04-01

    Several classification schemes for penile precancerous lesions have been proposed, but none of them seems to correlate with the current understanding of penile cancer pathogenesis. Recently, a system, which takes into account morphologic features and purported etiopathogenesis, was proposed, separating penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) in differentiated and warty/basaloid subtypes. This study was designed to seek an immunohistochemical profile that can be helpful in the classification and differential diagnosis of penile epithelial abnormalities and precancerous lesions using the aforementioned system. The immunohistochemical panel included stains for p16, p53, and Ki-67. For p16 immunostaining, only full-thickness positivity in all epithelial cells was considered as positive; for p53 and Ki-67 immunostaining, patchy or diffuse nuclear positivity above the basal layer was considered as positive. Seventy-four lesions in 59 patients were selected and classified as follows: differentiated PeIN, 34 cases; squamous hyperplasia (SH), 21 cases; basaloid PeIN, 15 cases; and warty PeIN, 4 cases. The mean age of patients was 64 years. Forty-two lesions (56.8%) were located in the glans and 32 (43.2%) in the foreskin. Overexpression of p16 was useful for distinguishing SH from warty/basaloid PeINs (0% vs. 94.7%, P<0.0001) but not SH from differentiated PeINs (0% vs. 5.9%, P=0.519). In addition, p16 allowed the distinction of differentiated and warty/basaloid PeINs (5.9% vs. 94.7%, P<0.0001). Immunohistochemistry results for p53 allowed the separation of SH and differentiated PeIN (9.5% vs. 44.1%, P=0.0078) and SH and warty/basaloid PeIN (9.5% vs. 55.6%, P=0.0042). Ki-67 immunostain was useful for distinguishing SH from differentiated PeIN (52.6% vs. 89.7%, P=0.0062) and SH from PeIN with warty and/or basaloid features (52.6% vs. 100%, P=0.0011). There seems to be a distinctive immunohistochemical profile for associated and precursor epithelial lesions of the penis. SH

  11. Immunohistochemical study of congenital gingival granular cell tumor (congenital epulis).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Fujita, S; Satoh, H; Okabe, H

    1990-11-01

    The congenital gingival granular cell tumor (CGGT) or congenital epulis is a rare lesion of unknown origin found only in newborn infants. The tumor consists mainly of large eosinophilic granular cells arranged in solid nests that are separated by thin fibrovascular areas. In addition, there are some spindle-shaped cells and medium-sized polygonal cells (so-called interstitial cells) among the neoplastic granular cells. Three CGGTs were investigated with a panel of poly- and monoclonal antibodies, using immunoperoxidase methods on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. Neoplastic granular cells of these three cases show cytoplasmic staining for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and vimentin. However, all other reactions were negative. Our results suggest that the lesion may be derived from uncommitted nerve-related mesenchymal cells. On the other hand, interstitial cells show strong S-100 protein-, cytokeratin-, vimentin-, and NSE-immunostainings, and these cells are consistent with neuroendocrine nature. The presence of a biphasic cell population with granular cells and interstitial cells must be considered the main immunohistochemical feature.

  12. Two Different Cell Populations Is an Important Clue for Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Banu Ince; Karadeniz, Müjde; Bozdoğan, Nazan

    2017-01-01

    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a very rare malignancy. The differential diagnosis of PCACCs in pathology practice can be difficult and a group of primary and metastatic lesions, including adenoid basal cell carcinoma of the skin, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Besides histomorphological clues, immunohistochemistry studies are very helpful in the differential diagnosis of PCACC. We report herein a case of PCACC with extensive immunohistochemical studies and review the literature from an immunohistochemistry perspective. PMID:28243477

  13. Vulvar angiomyxoma, aggressive angiomyxoma, and angiomyofibroblastoma: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Alameda, Francesc; Munné, Assumpció; Baró, Teresa; Iglesias, Mar; Condom, Enric; Lloreta-Trull, Josep; Serrano, Sergi

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the histogenetical unifying theory of a single, pluripotential primitive cell for vulvar angiomyxoma, aggresive angiomyxoma, and angiomyofibroblastoma, an optical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of a superficial angiomyxoma, aggressive angiomyxoma, and angiomyofibroblastoma was performed. These three tumors showed immunohistochemical and ultrastructural overlapping features. The results of the study suggest that these three tumor entities probably arise on a common pluripotential primitive cell located around the vessels of connective tissue, which could show the capacity for modulating its penotype toward similar but distinct mature cell types.

  14. Immunohistochemical study of calretinin in normal skin and cutaneous adnexal proliferations.

    PubMed

    González-Guerra, Elena; Kutzner, Heinz; Rutten, Arno; Requena, Luis

    2012-07-01

    Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein member of the EF-hand family. The presence of calretinin has been demonstrated in certain stages of the cellular cycle in a wide variety of normal and neoplastic tissues. The main aims of our study were (1) to investigate what structures of the normal skin and cutaneous adnexal proliferations express immunoreactivity for calretinin and (2) to determine the value of immunohistochemical expression for calretinin as a marker for follicular, sebaceous, apocrine, and eccrine differentiation in cutaneous adnexal proliferations. We studied 139 biopsy specimens, including 10 cases of normal skin of different locations and 129 benign and malignant cutaneous adnexal proliferations. In normal skin, we found that calretinin is expressed in the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath in anagen hair follicle, in both the duct and sebolemma of the sebaceous gland, in the secretory portion of eccrine glands, and in mast cells of the stroma. In cutaneous adnexal proliferations, we found strong immunoreactivity for calretinin in tricholemmal cysts, tricholemmomas/inverted follicular keratoses, tumors of follicular infundibulum, and in some basal cell carcinomas. Focal positivity was also seen in trichoadenomas, trichoblastomas/trichoepitheliomas, pilomatricomas, proliferating tricholemmal tumors, pilar sheath acanthomas, trichofolliculomas, follicular hybrid cysts, cutaneous mixed tumors, steatocystomas, sebaceous hyperplasias, and sebaceomas. These results demonstrate that immunohistochemical study for calretinin may be helpful to identify the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath in anagen hair follicle and the cutaneous adnexal proliferations showing differentiation toward this structure. Calretinin immunoreactivity supports eccrine differentiation in some sweat gland neoplasms, and it is also useful in identifying neoplasms with ductal sebaceous differentiation.

  15. A Comparative Study of Immunohistochemical Myoepithelial Cell Markers in Cutaneous Benign Cystic Apocrine Lesions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew; Houghton, Sinatra L; Biswas, Asok

    2016-07-01

    The use of immunohistochemical markers for myoepithelial cells (MEC) is a useful tool in the distinction of benign from malignant epithelial neoplasms. Although their use in breast tumors is well recognized, little is known concerning its application in comparable cutaneous lesions. Using benign cutaneous cystic apocrine lesions as a study model, the aim of this study was to compare 5 immunohistochemical markers [calponin, p63, smooth muscle actin (SMA), cytokeratin 14, and CD10] in their effectiveness to highlight MEC. Cases of apocrine hidrocystoma and cystadenoma (n = 44) were reviewed with a particular emphasis on proliferative features and apocrine change. The MEC staining pattern and the intensity and distribution scores in proliferative (n = 29) and nonproliferative (n = 15) lesions were assessed, and the differences between the 2 groups were statistically analyzed using Fisher exact test. Calponin and SMA stained MEC in the most consistent manner. Being a nuclear stain, p63 was easy to interpret but typically showed discontinuous staining. Cytokeratin 14 not only effectively highlighted MEC but also stained some luminal epithelial cells in an unpredictable manner. Because of prominent background dermal fibroblast staining, CD10 was often difficult to interpret. Only SMA and p63 showed a statistically significant difference in MEC staining intensity scores between the proliferative and nonproliferative groups. Our results show that immunohistological staining for MEC in benign cystic apocrine lesions of the skin is variable. The authors recommend that a panel of markers that includes calponin and p63 be used and highlight the need for awareness of specific caveats associated with individual markers.

  16. Role of Osteopontin in Psoriasis: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Mawla, M Yousry; El-Kasheshy, Kamal Ahmed; Ghonemy, Soheir; Al Balat, Walid; Elsayed, Amira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteopontin (OPN) has been postulated to have a role in several T-helper (Th) 1 and Th 17-mediated diseases including psoriasis (PS), through multiple mechanisms sharing in the onset and worsening of PS, OPN shares in induction of keratinocyte proliferation through inhibiting keratinocyte apoptosis, OPN acts as a proinflammatory agent that participates in the upregulation of Th cell lineages, among which are the Th 1 and Th 17 cells. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the possible role of OPN in the pathogenesis of PS. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was carried out on 18 patients of chronic plaque PS (mean age 37.61 ± 14.48) and a control group of 18 apparently healthy volunteers (mean age 41.11 ± 11.02 years). Severity of PS was assessed using the PS area and severity index score. Two skin biopsies were taken from psoriatic patients. The first was taken from the lesional skin and the other from a counter apparently healthy site. Results: Our results showed statistically significant differences in the expression of OPN, between lesional and nonlesional skin as well as between nonlesional skin and control group (P ≤ 0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference in the expression of OPN, between control and lesional group. Conclusions: OPN involvement in PS enlarges the list of cytokines able to stimulate the inflammatory response in this disease, anti-OPN antibodies, may eventually become a useful therapeutic approach in PS. PMID:27293251

  17. Meningeal Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral PNET: Clinicopathological, Immunohistochemical and FISH study of four cases.

    PubMed

    柯昌庶, Changshu Ke; 段秋红, Qiuhong Duan; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Feng; Yan, Meng; Xu, San-Peng; Zhou, Sheng; Wan, Feng; Shu, Kai; Lei, Ting; Xia, Li-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Meningeal Ewing Sarcoma (ES)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is a rare diagnostically challenging small round cell tumor in the CNS. This study investigates the clinical pathological features of four cases of this tumor from archives of 6 years in our hospital. Patients were within the median age of 21.5 years and male to female ratio was 1:1. The tumors distributed at the supra-tentorial location, posterior fossa and lumbar vertebral canal, usually presenting as the dura-sited nodule or having close connection with the meninges within the cranium or vertebral canal. Histopathologically, small round undifferentiated tumor cells with hypercellularities, scant cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli were observed, although some components such as atypical larger vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli of tumor cells, necrotic foci and mesenchymal collagen proliferation forming the lobular structure, were also appreciated. Immunohistochemally, tumor cells displayed membranous positivity of CD99 (4/4), nuclear positivity of FLI-1 (4/4) and NKX2.2 (4/4), negativity of EMA, GFAP and synaptophysin expression. The histochemical PAS staining showed weak positivity in one case. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test using EWSR1 (22q12) dual color break apart rearrangement probe showed positive results in two cases. Results suggest that using a panel of immunohistochemical markers, including NKX2.2, CD99, FLI-1, EMA, GFAP and synaptophysin, combined with the supplementary EWSR1 FISH test, helps to define the diagnosis of meningeal ES/pPNET of CNS.

  18. [Cutaneous histiocytosarcoma: clinical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural aspects; difficulties of study and problems of nosology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Forestier, J Y; Schmitt, D; Thivolet, J

    1980-01-01

    Reporting a case of cutaneous tumor of the back of recent occurrence and rapid increase in a 79-years-old woman, according to Crosti's "reticulosis", the authors discuss the following points:--the histiocytic nature of the tumor cells particularly based on immunohistochemical studies (peroxidase activity, anti-HTLA serum) and on electron microscopy with special reference to the multivesicular bodies found in their cytoplasm;--the tests for correct identification of the histiocyte (including electron microscopy, tests for HTLA and HBLA antigens, peroxidatic reaction, acid phosphatase activity, and in vivo or in vitro phagocytosis);--the out of date character of the concept of malignant "reticulosis" in the hematologica and dermatologic classifications, the recent advances in the knowledge of the nature of the so-called "reticulum" (or "reticular") cell which seems to be a distinct entity derived from the mesenchymal cell (as the fibroblast);--the clinical and evolutive characteristics of histiocytic tumors (no hematologic involvement, slow evolution, high radiosensitivity), the difficulties in defining their malignancy and, above all, in finding comparable references in the literature with complete cellular study;--the nosologic place of this affection among the group of haematodermas and in the pathology of the mononuclear phagocyte system. The generic term of cutaneous histiocytosarcoma (stage I or II) is suggested, including the whole malignant and isolated tumoral proliferations developing from the dermic histiocyte.

  19. An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-12-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, Saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Three islet types were identified: type A mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (A)-secreting cells, type B mixed islets with predominantly insulin (B)-secreting cell component and type M mixed islets (type M) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (D)-secreting cells. The latter were further characterized into Type I, II or III according to the cell distribution of the three cell types. A and D cells were also randomly scattered within the exocrine pancreas. The results of this study suggest that the classical concept in birds of a segregation of A and B cells in well-defined and distinct islets is not applicable in raptors, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation to different dietary habits and variation in developmental mechanisms.

  20. [An intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. An immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Pérez del Río, M J; Molina Suárez, R; Fresno Forcelledo, M F; Veiga González, M; Madrigal Rubiales, B; González González, M; Herrero Zapatero, A

    1998-10-01

    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas tend to be presented with symptoms of pulmonary thromboembolism and grow regionally, with little capacity to metastasize. They probably originate from subendothelial cells, that become myofibroblasts. Knowledge of it is important to establish a presurgery diagnosis, with the possibility of a total resection, the only useful treatment until now. We report a case of a pulmonary artery primary sarcoma, in a 73 year old woman, admitted with hemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain, who died ten days after. Autopsy revealed an intraluminal mass at the pulmonary artery trunk, without regional nor distance involvement. Microscopic study showed a pleomorphic tumor with spindle and epithelioid cells, positive for actin, desmin and vimentin. All these data support the diagnosis of primary intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. We want to emphasize the myogenic differentiation of the tumor, uncommon in previously reported cases.

  1. Immune system cells in healthy ferrets: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vidaña, B; Majó, N; Pérez, M; Montoya, M; Martorell, J; Martínez, J

    2014-07-01

    The ferret has emerged as an excellent animal model to characterize several physiologic and pathologic conditions. The distribution and characterization of different types of immune system cells were studied in healthy ferret tissues. Eight primary antibodies were tested for immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed tissues: anti-CD3, anti-CD79α, anti-CD20, anti-HLA-DR, anti-lysozyme, anti-CD163, anti-SWC3, and anti-Mac387. The anti-CD3 antibody labeled T cells mainly in interfollicular and paracortical areas of lymph nodes, cortex and thymic medulla, and periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths in the spleen. The anti-CD79α and anti-CD20 antibodies immunolabeled B cells located in lymphoid follicles at lymph nodes, spleen, and Peyer patches. The CD79α and CD20 antibodies also labeled cells with nonlymphoid morphology in atypical B-cell locations. The anti-HLA-DR antibody labeled macrophages, some populations of B and T lymphocytes, and different populations of dendritic cells in lymph nodes, Peyer patches, spleen, and thymus. The anti-lysozyme antibody immunolabeled macrophages in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. The Mac-387, CD163, and SWC3 antibodies did not show any positive reaction in formalin-fixed or frozen tissues. To elucidate the origin of the uncommon CD79α/CD20 positive cells, a double immunohistochemistry was carried out using the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD79α, the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD20, and the anti-lysozyme + the anti-CD79α antibodies. Double labeling was mainly observed when the anti-HLA-DR + the anti-CD79α antibodies were combined. The immunohistologic characterization and distribution of these immune system cells in healthy ferret tissues should be of value in future comparative studies of diseases in ferrets.

  2. Ovarian and uterine alterations following forced swimming: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Saadat, Seyedeh Nazanin; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Rafati Sajedi, Hanieh; Chatrnour, Gelayol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical exercise is known to be a stressor stimulus that leads to reproductive disruption. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forced swimming on the uterus and ovaries in mice. Materials and Methods: Adult mice (N=24) were divided into the following three groups: A, control; B, swimming in water (10oC); and C, swimming in water (23oC). Swimmers swam for 5 min daily for 5 consecutive days/ wk during 2 wks. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels. Immunohistochemistry was performed to study apoptotic cells or estrogen receptor (ER) expression in uterine epithelial cells and ovaries. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: Swimming in both groups reduced the serum FSH and estradiol levels (p<0.01) without having a significant effect on the serum testosterone level or percentage of apoptosis in ovarian and uterine tissues (p<0.01) compared with controls. A significant reduction in the number of ERs in the uterus and ovaries, and secondary and graafian follicles were observed in groups B and C compared with controls (p<0.01); however the number of primordial and primary follicles were not significantly changed in the ovaries. Conclusion: Forced swimming of 2 wks duration reduces the serum levels of FSH and estradiol without having effects on apoptosis in the ovaries or uteri of mice. Over a long period of time, forced swimming may have an adverse effect on fertility. PMID:27921086

  3. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L

    2013-03-01

    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  4. Gliomatosis peritonei: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; Zhang, Yifen; Malpica, Anais; Ramalingam, Preetha; Euscher, Elizabeth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Liu, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Gliomatosis peritonei, a rare condition often associated with immature ovarian teratoma, is characterized by the presence of mature glial tissue in the peritoneum. We retrospectively evaluated 21 patients with gliomatosis peritonei and studied their clinicopathologic features and immunophenotype. The patients’ ages ranged from 5 to 42 years (median, 19 years). Their primary ovarian tumors consisted of immature teratoma (n = 14), mixed germ cell tumors (n = 6), and mature teratoma with a carcinoid tumor (n = 1). Gliomatosis peritonei was diagnosed at the same time as primary ovarian neoplasm in 16 patients and secondary surgery in 5 patients. Also, 11 of 21 patients had metastatic immature teratoma (n = 4), metastatic mature teratoma (n = 2), or both (n = 5). One patient developed glioma arising from gliomatosis peritonei. Seventeen patients had follow-up information and were alive with no evidence of disease (n = 13), alive with disease (n = 3), or alive with an unknown disease status (n = 1). The follow-up durations ranged from 1 to 229 months (mean, 49 months; median, 23 months). Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that SOX2 was expressed in all cases of gliomatosis peritonei and glioma with tissue available (9 of 9 cases), whereas OCT4 and NANOG were negative in all cases with available tissue (8 of 8 cases). In conclusion, both gliomatosis peritonei and glioma arising from it show a SOX2+/OCT4−/NANOG− immunophenotype. These findings demonstrated that gliomatosis peritonei is associated with favorable prognosis, although it is important to rule out potentially associated immature teratoma and maligant transformation. SOX2 may play an important role in the development of gliomatosis peritonei. PMID:26564007

  5. Comparative study of the immunohistochemical phenotype in breast cancer and its lymph node metastatic location.

    PubMed

    De la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan R; Ruiz Borrego, Manuel; Gómez España, Auxiliadora; Villar Pastor, Carlos; Japón, Miguel A; Travado, Paulino; Moreno Nogueira, José Andrés; López Rubio, Fernando; Aranda Aguilar, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    At present, an important part of prognostic information, together with particular treatment strategies in breast cancer, take into account the immunohistochemical phenotype of the primary tumor location. However, the changing heterogeneity intrinsic to neoplastic cells in general leads us to consider the possibility that the expression of these proteins is modified during tumoral development and dissemination. With this hypothesis as a starting point, 60 patients with breast cancer were studied with immunohistochemistry, the expression of estrogen and progestagenic receptors, proliferation through the Ki-67 expression, and the overexpression of HER-2 and p53 in both the primary location and the lymph node metastases. If we consider significant change to be loss (from positive to negative) or gain (negative to positive) of expression in some of the studied determinations, we find that this is produced in 60% of the tumors studied. These results demonstrate the modification of immunohistochemical expression of the proteins studied between the primary tumor location and the lymph node metastases.

  6. Digital squamous cell carcinoma in dogs: epidemiological, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Belluco, S; Brisebard, E; Watrelot, D; Pillet, E; Marchal, T; Ponce, F

    2013-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma represents 47.4% of all malignant canine digital lesions, but despite its frequency, there are few published studies available. Pathology submission records of 154 cases and follow-up of 49 animals were analyzed. On the 49 cases, histological evaluation was performed of the differentiation degree, mitotic index, presence of emboli, and immunohistochemical expression of vimentin and E-cadherin. The mean (SD) age of affected animals was 10.2 (2.3) years; no sex predisposition was recorded. Beauceron and Briard were 2 new overrepresented breeds. Dark-haired animals comprised 97 of 105 (92%); 94 dogs of 125 (75.2%) belonged to large and giant breeds. The forelimb was affected twice more than the hind limb. Probable metastases were observed in 4 dogs; new tumor development was recorded in 11 of 49 (22.4%). Epidemiologic factors, histological grade, mitotic index, and expression of immunohistochemical markers seemed not to be related to the clinical outcome.

  7. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways.

  8. Nasal glioma or nasal glial heterotopia? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Sanchez Fernandez de Sevilla, C; Lopez-Ginés, C; Peydro-Olaya, A; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2002-01-01

    The term nasal glioma has been used to describe a congenital benign tumor of the nasal region containing neural tissue. The nature of these lesions remains open to controversy, because of the different locations of the heterotopic neural tissue involved, the deficient development of the bony structures and the persistence or not of the structural relations with the central nervous system. More recent terms define these lesions as ectopic nervous tissue. A clinical, morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study is made of two cases of nasal glioma, one associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In this case, the mother had been treated with clomiphene. In such cases, morphological and immunohistochemical findings support that "nasal glioma" remain valid as a descriptive term defining a congenital benign tumor composed of heterotopic neural tissue within the nasal region and covered by skin, that may recur following incomplete surgical resection.

  9. Differentiation of hidroacanthoma simplex from clonal seborrheic keratosis--an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han-Nan; Chang, Yun-Ting; Chen, Chih-Chiang

    2004-06-01

    Hidroacanthoma simplex (HS) is an uncommon poroid neoplasm confined within the epidermis. The clinical features of HS are not distinctive and histopathologically HS may be confused with clonal seborrheic keratosis (CSK) if cystic or ductal structure is not present. The purpose of our study was to differentiate HS from CSK by the immunohistochemical expressions of various cytokeratins, CEA, CD1a, and S-100 protein, as well as by the degrees of deposition of melanins and glycogen. Four cases of HS and seven cases of CSK were included in the research. In contrast with CSK, HS showed a very low density of Langerhans cells (19.9 +/- 7.7 versus 3.1 +/- 1.0 CD1a (+) cells/mm, P = 0.027) and sparse melanin deposition in the nests. However, HS could not be set apart from CSK by the expressions of cytokeratins. The nests of both HS and CSK showed very similar patterns of cytokeratin expression and seemed to be mainly composed of basaloid cells with focal differentiation toward epidermal suprabasal cells.

  10. Immunohistochemical study of expression of immunoglobulins in canine B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, J; Micuń, J; Zabielska, K; Malicka, E; Lechowski, R

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen canine lymphomas were included in this study. Tumors were classified according to the updated Kiel classification adapted for canine lymphomas by Fournel-Fleury et al. Immunoglobulin light chains (kappa and lambda) and IgM and IgG expression were determined by immunohistochemical method. In all examined cases neoplastic cells were positive for one of the immunoglobulin light chains. Expression of lambda light chains and kappa light chains was observed in 18/19 and 1/19 tumors, respectively. In the majority of neoplastic cells in each examined specimen this reaction had a membranous pattern (skappa/slambda). In all examined cases the presence of immunoglobulin light chains was also observed in the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells (ckappa/clambda). These cells were usally rare and never constituted a dominant population. The expression of immunoglobulin was found in 13/19 cases. Most lymphomas were sIgM positive (11/13 cases). In one case expression of IgG was found, and in another lymphoma two populations of neoplastic cells with different expression of examined immunoglobulins (cells with IgM+ and IgG+ phenotypes) were observed. The reaction also had a membranous pattern. The cells containing cytoplasmic immunoglobulins were rare, and in most cases were of the same type as the surface immunoglobulins. Our study has confirmed that canine lymphomas are a monoclonal proliferation of B-cells usually expressing immunoglobulin lambda light chains and that the vast majority of tumors deriving from B-cells express IgM. Our study also indicates a possibility of occurence of biclonal lymphomas in canine species.

  11. Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Vranic, Semir; Bilalovic, Nurija; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Trpkov, Kiril; Vesela, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Kalusova, Kristyna; Sperga, Maris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Alvarado Cabrero, Isabel; Bulimbasic, Stela; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-02-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) may present with a tubulocystic growth in 3% to 7% of cases, and in such cases its morphology may significantly overlap with tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC). We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors, aiming to clarify the differential diagnostic criteria, which facilitate the discrimination of RO from TCRCC. Twenty-four cystic ROs and 15 TCRCCs were selected and analyzed for: architectural growth patterns, stromal features, cytomorphology, ISUP nucleolar grade, necrosis, and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical panel included various cytokeratins (AE1-AE3, OSCAR, CAM5.2, CK7), vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CA-IX, antimitochondrial antigen (MIA), EMA, and Ki-67. The presence of at least focal solid growth and islands of tumor cells interspersed with loose stroma, lower ISUP nucleolar grade, absence of necrosis, and absence of mitotic figures were strongly suggestive of a cystic RO. In contrast, the absence of solid and island growth patterns and presence of more compact, fibrous stroma, accompanied by higher ISUP nucleolar grade, focal necrosis, and mitotic figures were all associated with TCRCC. TCRCC marked more frequently for vimentin, CD10, AMACR, and CK7 and had a higher proliferative index by Ki-67 (>15%). CD117 was negative in 14/15 cases. One case was weakly CD117 reactive with cytoplasmic positivity. All cystic RO cases were strongly positive for CD117. The remaining markers (AE1-AE3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, CA-IX, MIA, EMA) were of limited utility. Presence of tumor cell islands and solid growth areas and the type of stroma may be major morphologic criteria in differentiating cystic RO from TCRCC. In difficult cases, or when a limited tissue precludes full morphologic assessment, immunohistochemical pattern of vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CK7, and Ki-67 could help in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  12. Tumor markers and oncogene expression in thyroid cancer using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, T; Matsubara, F; Mizukami, Y; Miyazaki, I; Michigishi, T; Yanaihara, N

    1990-04-01

    In 111 thyroid cancer patients consisting of 89 papillary carcinomas, 17 follicular carcinomas, 2 medullary carcinomas, 1 squamous cell carcinoma and 2 malignant lymphomas, the levels of 12 tumor markers, including thyroglobulin (Tg), were measured in the serum by radioimmunoassay and radioimmunoassay related methods. Serum levels of Tg were elevated in 58.6%, those of CA-M26 in 15.7%, CA 19-9 in 5.3%, CT in 3.6%, NSE in 3.6%, CA 15-3 in 2.6%, CA 125 in 2.6%, CEA in 0.9%, CA-M 29 in 0%, ferritin in 0%, SCC in 0% and AFP in 0% of cases. Among the patients, there was a case of thyroid carcinoma secreting thyroglobulin and CA 19-9, both of whose titer decreased after surgery. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 57 of the above mentioned patients plus 6 anaplastic carcinomas, 15 adenomas, 5 adenomatous goiters, 6 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 Graves' disease and 15 normal subjects. CA 19-9 was positive in 58% of the papillary carcinomas, EGF in 73% of papillary carcinomas, 67% of anaplastic carcinomas, and 33% of follicular carcinomas, while EGF-R was found in 73% of the papillary carcinomas, and 33% of the follicular carcinomas. Enhanced expression of ras p 21 oncogene and (c-myc oncogene) was demonstrated in 100% (100%) of anaplastic carcinomas, in 100% (67%) of follicular carcinomas and in 63% (90%) of papillary carcinomas. Our results indicate that a better tumor marker is required and more extensive molecular oncology research should be pursued.

  13. Cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma - an immunohistochemical study with histopathological association

    PubMed Central

    Matthai, Smita Mary; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumour recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was carried out to evaluate the association between histological parameters and liver CSCs (LCSC) in HCC, and to compare distribution of liver CSCs in HCC associated with and without hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Seventy nine tumours (49 surgical resections from 46 patients, and 30 from autopsy) were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for the LCSC marker EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), liver progenitor cell (LPC) markers CK19 (cytokeratin 19) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) were performed and were associated with histological features of tumour behaviour. Results: Thirty three tumours (41.8%) showed positive staining for EpCAM. CK19 and NCAM expression were seen in 26 (32.9%) and four (5.1%) tumours, respectively. The expression of EpCAM and CK19 was significantly associated with each other (P<0.001). EpCAM expression was significantly associated with clinical and histological features indicating aggressive tumour behaviour, including younger age of onset, higher serum alpha foetoprotein (AFP) levels, tumour cell dedifferentiation, increased mitotic activity, and vascular invasiveness. There was no significant difference in expression of EpCAM, CK19 and NCAM between HBV positive and negative HCC. Interpretation & conclusions: The LCSC marker EpCAM was expressed in less than half of HCC, was independent of HBV aetiology, and was strongly associated with clinical and histological features of aggressive tumour behaviour. Positive staining for CK19 suggests a possible LPC origin of the EpCAM positive HCCs. PMID:26609030

  14. Immunohistochemical study of epoxide hydrolase induced by trichloroethylene in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, T.; Hobara, T.; Ogino, K.; Takemoto, T.; Nakamura, K.; Imamura, A.; Koshiro, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Sakai, T.

    1987-10-01

    Epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolation of potentially toxic, electrophilic epoxides that are often generated during cytochrome P-450 catalyzed monooxigenation, forming the corresponding transdihydrodiols. It is well-known that trichloroethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 containing mixed-function oxidase systems to trichloroethylene oxide, which decomposes to other metabolites. As trichloroethylene is an epoxide, epoxide hydrolase is suspected to catalyze the hydrolation of trichloroethylene oxide. No reports have appeared about the relationship between trichloroethylene and epoxide hydrolase. In this report, the authors studied the effect of trichloroethylene on epoxide hydrolase immunohistochemically.

  15. Peritoneal cystic mesothelioma: an electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study of two male patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sienkowski, I K; Russell, A J; Dilly, S A; Djazaeri, B

    1986-01-01

    The clinical, pathological, and ultrastructural features of two cases of peritoneal cystic mesothelioma occurring in men were studied. The results of immunohistochemical staining for CAM 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and Factor VIII related antigen are reported for the first time and compared with the staining results of two peritoneal cystic lymphangiomas. Although resembling cystic lymphangioma by light microscopy, cystic mesothelioma may have a greater tendency for local recurrence. Staining for CAM 5.2 or epithelial membrane antigen may facilitate the differentiation of these two entities. Images PMID:2422221

  16. Primary oral melanoma: A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of 22 cases of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Toral-Rizo, Víctor H.; León, Jorge E.; Contreras, Elisa; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; de-Almeida, Oslei P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of 22 cases of primary oral melanomas (OM). Study Design: Twenty two cases of primary oral melanoma were analyzed by description of their histopathological features and immunohistochemical study using the antibodies S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and Ki-67. Results: The mean age was 58 years and 14 cases were female. The main affected sites were the hard palate, followed by the upper gingiva. Microscopically, 15 cases presented level III of invasion, 2 cases were amelanotic and 13 showed a mixed epithelioid and plasmacytoid or spindle cells composition. Some cases showed necrosis, perivascular and perineural invasion. S-100 and HMB-45 were positive in all cases, but 3 cases were negative for Melan-A. The proliferative index with Ki-67 was high, with labeling index ranging from 15.51% to 63% of positive cells. Conclusion: S-100 and HMB-45 are more frequently expressed than Melan-A in primary oral melanomas and these markers are helpful to confirm the diagnosis. Key words:Oral melanoma, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:22143732

  17. Immunohistochemical study for the origin of ductular reaction in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Jae; Park, Jae-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Kim, Jung-Yeon; An, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of proliferating bile ductular structures, which is called the “atypical ductular reaction” is frequently observed in various chronic liver diseases associated. However, the origin of these increased bile ductules has been a matter of controversy. In this study, we investigated the origin of ductular cells as an aspect of relation between epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and epithelial members of liver parenchyme, such as hepatocyte and cholangiocyte by immunohistochemical staining of human liver. Thirteen specimens of surgically resected liver with biliary cirrhosis were selected. Three sets of double immunohistochemical stains were done; Hep-Par 1 - cytokeratin 19 (CK19), Hep-Par 1 - α-sm ooth mus cle actin (α-SMA) and CK19 - α-SMA. As a result, we investigated the dual expression of the markers of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte in the same cell; in ductular cell and surrounding hepatocyte. However, there seems to be no dual expression of markers for EMT with epithelial markers. This study suggests a possibility of phenotypic change of mature hepatocyte into cholangiocyte. Future studies will be necessary to determine the role that proliferating cholangiocytes play in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis and how cholangiocytes interact with other cell types of the liver such as hepatic stellate cells or Kupffer cells. PMID:25120786

  18. Neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract in Rhamdia quelen juvenile: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, D R; Vigliano, F A; Sánchez, S; Bermúdez, R; Domitrovic, H A; Quiroga, M I

    2012-08-01

    In this work, an immunohistochemical study was performed to determine the distribution and relative frequencies of some neuromodulators of the digestive tract of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The digestive tract of silver catfish was divided into six portions; the oesophagus, stomach, intestine (ascendant, descendant and convoluted segments), and rectum. Immunohistochemical method using a pool of specific antisera against-gastrin, -cholecystokinin-8, -leu-enkephalin, -neuropeptide Y, -calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and -vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was employed. Immunoreactivity to all antisera was identified in neuroendocrine cells (NECs) localized in the gut epithelium, although no reaction was observed in the oesophagus or stomach. The morphology of NECs immunopositive to each antibody was similar. They were slender in shape, with basally located nucleus, and their main axis perpendicular to the basement membrane. The number of NECs immunoreactive to all antisera was higher in the ascendant and descendant intestine, exhibiting a decreasing trend toward distal segments of the gut. In addition, immunoreactivity to CGRP and VIP was observed in the myenteric plexus and nerve fibers distributed in the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layers. The higher number of immunopositive NECs in the ascendant and descendant intestine may indicate the primary role of these segments in the control of food intake by means of orexigenic and anorexigenic peripheral signals.

  19. Oral verruciform xanthoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 20 cases.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Bruno A B; Agostini, Michelle; Pires, Fábio R; Rumayor, Alicia; Carlos, Román; de Almeida, Oslei P; Romañach, Mário J

    2015-07-01

    Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity is an uncommon benign lesion that usually affects the palate and gingiva mainly as a well-circumscribed solitary yellowish to whitish plaque or nodule, which is promptly recognized microscopically by identification of sub-epithelial foamy macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 20 cases of oral verruciform xanthoma. All cases were evaluated by conventional hematoxylin/eosin staining and six of those were submitted to immunohistochemical reactions for CD68, CD63, CD163, syndecan-1 (CD138), S-100 protein and cytokeratins (CK) 8, 14 and 19. Oral verruciform xanthoma presented as yellowish papillary nodules affecting mainly the palate (30%), buccal mucosa (30%) and gingiva (25%) of middle-aged male patients. Most cases presented papillary epithelial hyperplasia and sub-epithelial foamy cells, which were immunopositive for CD68, CD63 and CD163 in all cases. The orange parakeratin superficial layer was negative for CK14 and presented a distinct granular membrane pattern of positivity for CD138. S-100 protein, CK8, and CK19 were negative.

  20. Immunohistochemical studies on the new type of astrocytic inclusions identified in a patient with brain malformation.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Hirano, A; Umahara, T; Herz, F; Shioda, K; Minagawa, M

    1992-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on the new type of cerebral cortical astrocytic inclusions recently discovered in a 20-year-old patient with maldeveloped brain and micropolygyria. The inclusions appeared as eosinophilic structures (hematoxylin and eosin stain) and did not exhibit argyrophilia (modified Bielschowsky method). The inclusions were strongly stained by the antibody against S-100 protein (S 100) and to a lesser extent by the antibody to microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP 1B). In contrast to Rosenthal fibers, the astrocytic inclusions did not react with antibodies to alpha B-crystallin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and ubiquitin. No positive reactions were obtained with antibodies against heat-shock protein 27 (HSP 27), HSP 72, actin, vimentin, desmin, cytokeratin, myelin basic protein, beta-tubulin, MAP 2, tau protein, paired helical filament, phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NFP), nonphosphorylated NFP, synaptophysin, cathepsin D, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin and basic fibroblast growth factor. By immunoelectron microscopy, the products of the reaction with the anti-S 100 antibody appeared as heterogeneous granular deposits and with the antibody to MAP 1B they were randomly scattered throughout the astrocytic inclusions. Our results demonstrate that the immunohistochemical profile of the recently described inclusions differs from that of Rosenthal fibers. Whether the novel inclusions are involved in congenital astrocyte dysfunction and cerebral malformation remains to be established.

  1. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of border disease virus in persistently infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, A S; Ehrensperger, F; Straub, O C; Pospischil, A

    1995-08-01

    Three seronegative sheep persistently infected with Border disease virus and six seropositive, non-viraemic sheep were examined for the cellular distribution of the agent. These animals originated from a closed flock which had been kept in an isolation facility for 5 years. They were killed and immediately necropsied. There were no gross abnormalities other than reduced body weight of the persistently infected sheep. Two samples of each major organ were collected. The first sample was fixed by immersion in formalin and processed for histological examination, which showed no lesions unequivocally attributable to the viral infection. The second sample was snap-frozen for immunohistochemical examination. This revealed viral antigen in all organs of the persistently infected, but in none of the seropositive animals. The infected cells included smooth muscle cells of hollow organs and blood vessels, epithelial cells of the alimentary tract and urogenital organs, lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, endocrine cells, neurons and glial cell.

  2. Inflammation and macrophage polarization in cutaneous melanoma: Histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Scali, Elisabetta; Mignogna, Chiara; Di Vito, Anna; Presta, Ivan; Camastra, Caterina; Donato, Giuseppe; Bottoni, Ugo

    2016-12-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are considered to affect tumor growth and progression. Macrophages can be classified into two states of polarized activation, namely classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. The dynamic balance between TAMs and tumor cells has an important impact on tumor homeostasis and progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype of TAMs present in different subtypes of superficial spreading cutaneous melanoma and their relationship with the lymphocytic infiltrate in order to identify new histopathological tools for melanoma prognosis and suitable targets for melanoma therapy. We selected four groups of patients with malignant melanoma in order to analyze the profile of polarized macrophage activation using immunohistochemical methods. Histopathological analysis showed that the macrophage polarization state appears to be more related to the lymphocytic infiltrate than to the thickness of the lesions. Further studies are necessary to increase understanding of the immunopathological dynamic of melanoma that may be modulated by future targeted immunotherapies.

  3. Gastric schwannoma misdiagnosed as GIST: A case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study

    PubMed Central

    TATANGELO, FABIANA; CANTILE, MONICA; COLLINA, FRANCESCA; BELLI, ANDREA; DE FRANCISCIS, SILVIA; BIANCO, FRANCO; BOTTI, GERARDO

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are tumors derived from Schwann cells. Generally, they are benign and their typical site of origin is the subcutaneous tissue of the distal extremities or of the head and neck region. Gastrointestinal localization of schwannomas is extremely rare, and the stomach is the prevalent site. The present study describes the case of a gastric schwannoma in a 61-year-old male who underwent subtotal gastrectomy following a clinical diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). A histological, immunohistochemical and molecular study was performed to exclude the misdiagnosis of GIST. The histomorphological features of the lesion and absence of c-Kit and PDGFRA mutations indicated the diagnosis of gastric schwannoma. PMID:27073505

  4. [Intestinal type adenocarcinoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Histological and immunohistochemical study of 14 cases].

    PubMed

    Bonato, M; Piantanida, R; Riva, C; Cis, C; Capella, C

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen cases of intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (IADC) of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses were studied at the Regional Hospital of Varese during the period from 1973 to 1988. They were 13 males and 1 female, mean age 57.5 years; the five year survival was 25% and tumors were preferentially located in the ethmoidal sinus. Morphological study and the use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies made it possible to define the structural features of IADC and to detect specific antigenic markers such as CAR-5 (a glycoprotein contained within intestinal goblet-cells) and M1 (a glycoprotein contained within gastric foveolar cells). For comparison 10 cases of colonic adenocarcinomas and 14 cases of non-AIDC carcinomas of the nose and paranasal sinuses were also examined. The parallel morphological and immuno-histochemical investigations based on specific markers demonstrated that it was impossible to differentiate IADC from large bowel adenocarcinoma for both the structural pattern and antigenic expression. Moreover, AIDC also showed a CAR-5 and M1 immunoreactivity (IR) different from that displayed by the nasal carcinomas of different histotypes. From a histopathological standpoint IADC appears to be a distinctive entity even when compared to salivary gland tumors. In addition, the present immunohistochemical investigation demonstrates that gastric and intestinal glycoproteic antigens (M1 and CAR-5 respectively) occur in the normal nasosinusal mucosa. Both CAR-5 and M1 were observed in the mucous produced by nasal goblet cells with a distribution pattern resembling that of colonic goblet cells. Therefore, the present data confirm the similarity between nasal and colonic goblet cells which has already been pinpointed in previous morphological and ultrastructural studies. The common antigenic expression shared by the naso-sinusal and colonic mucosa might suggest a histogenetic hypothesis alternative to those of the malformative or metaplastic origin of naso

  5. Primary extra-cranial meningioma of head and neck: clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study of three cases.

    PubMed

    Possanzini, P; Pipolo, C; Romagnoli, S; Falleni, M; Moneghini, L; Braidotti, P; Salvatori, P; Paradisi, S; Felisati, G

    2012-10-01

    Extracranial meningiomas of the head and neck region are rare neoplasms, the majority being a secondary location of a primary intracranial tumour. We herewith report three rare cases of extracranial meningiomas, located in the temporal muscle, parotid gland and nasal cavity, together with complete pathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. Prognosis of this tumour is generally excellent. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, with no need for further treatment; nevertheless, differential diagnosis must consider other more common tumours of the head and neck and be based on histopathologic examination and relative techniques, including examination of frozen sections. This procedure is particularly useful assessing surgical treatment and should be performed whenever possible to exclude the malignant nature of the lesion and avoid over-treatment. All three patients underwent surgery and are alive and disease-free.

  6. Observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rodler, D; Stein, K; Korbel, R

    2015-06-01

    In most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. Right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. However, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. Four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparrow hawk and goshawk. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate structural differences of the gonads and tried to correlate the findings with folliculogenesis and endocrine functions. The right ovaries showed different sizes and shapes. Cytoskeletal elements (tubulin and vimentin) and α-smooth muscle actin have been detected in different structures of the right ovaries, but their staining intensity was weaker compared with the left ovary. This shows that also the right ovary is mechanically able to ovulate. We could also demonstrate the expression of oestrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the right ovaries, which indicates that also the right ovary can respond to steroid hormone stimuli. We assume that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the presumptive gonad is still sufficient to mediate the development of a right ovary in the studied species. We conclude that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the right ovary is involved in its post-natal development. The histological and immunohistochemical data also imply that in the right ovary, folliculogenesis and ovulation can occur.

  7. Immunohistochemical study on Fas and Fas ligand in skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Guan, D W; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T

    2000-02-01

    An immunohistochemical study on the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (Fas L) was performed in order to examine the role of apoptosis through Fas-Fas L in mouse skin wound healing. After a 1-cm-long incision in the central dorsum skin, mice were sacrificed at intervals ranging from 0.5 to 240 h, followed by the sampling of wound margin. The expression of Fas and Fas L in the wound margins and in uninjured skin controls was studied using frozen sections. In uninjured skin controls, a very weak expression of Fas and Fas L was detected immunohistochemically in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and epidermal cells. In wounded specimens, polymorphonuclear cells and inflammatory mononuclear ones (round-shaped and spindle-shaped types) were evident. A single immunostaining showed that Fas or Fas L was detectable in inflammatory mononuclear cells involved in the skin wound healing process. Double immunostaining for Fas and Fas L revealed that inflammatory mononuclear cells co-expressed both antigens. In situ TUNEL combined with immunostaining showed that the inflammatory mononuclear cells expressing Fas or Fas L and the polymorphonuclear cells were TUNEL-stained, although neither Fas nor Fas L was detected in the polymorphonuclear cells. The number of TUNEL-positive, inflammatory mononuclear cells expressing Fas or Fas L per 0.01 x 0.01 cm2 was counted. The average number of 10 randomly selected microscope fields reached a peak at the fibro-proliferative phase of wound healing. These results indicate that apoptosis through Fas and Fas L may play an important role for reducing the cellularity during skin wound healing in mice.

  8. Nipple eczema, an indicative manifestation of atopic dermatitis? A clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyo Sang; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So

    2015-04-01

    Nipple eczema exhibits as a minor manifestation of atopic dermatitis (AD) or occurs as a single skin symptom on the nipple. To characterize the relationship between nipple eczema and AD, a clinical evaluation and an immunohistochemical study were performed. All cases of nipple eczema were confirmed histopathologically. We divided the patients with nipple eczema into 2 groups, namely, those with AD and those without AD, and compared several clinical features. Upon histological examination, the degree of inflammation was subjectively graded as mild, moderate, or severe by 2 separate investigators. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed by using antiinterleukin (IL)-4, anti-IL-13, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 antibodies, and the results were scored semiquantitatively. In 43 cases evaluated, 12 were nipple eczema with AD. The clinical analysis and histological examination showed no significant differences between the groups. There were consistent findings of IL-4 expressions throughout the epidermis and IL-13 expression mainly in the perivascular area of the dermis. Although CD4 and CD8 were expressed in the cells in the dermis, CD8 expression was detected in the serocrusts of the epidermis. Expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, CD4, and CD8 exhibited no significant differences between the nipple eczema group with AD and the nipple eczema group without AD. Although nipple eczema may accompany AD, we found no definite differences in the degree or pattern of inflammation and cytokine expression level regardless of whether AD was present or not. Serocrust formation seemed to be mainly a collection of CD8-positive cells.

  9. Morphological and Immunohistochemical Study of Ovarian and Tubal Dysplasia Associated with Tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Chene, G.; Radosevic-Robin, N.; Tardieu, A.S.; Cayre, A.; Raoelfils, I.; Dechelotte, P.; Dauplat, J.; Penault-Llorca, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies for BReast CAncer gene (BRCA) mutation. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Given that tamoxifen (TAM) has a clomid-like effect and is sometimes used to induce ovulation, we studied the morphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of neoplasia-associated markers in adnexectomies previously exposed to TAM for breast cancer. We blindly reviewed 173 histopathological slides of adnexectomies according to three groups – oophorectomies associated with TAM exposure (n=42), oophorectomies associated with clomiphene exposure (n=15) and a spontaneously fertile non cancerous control group (n=116). Morphological features (with an ovarian and tubal dysplasia scoring system) and immunohistochemical expression patterns of Ki-67, p53 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 is an enzyme significantly associated with earlystage ovarian cancer) were evaluated and correlated. Mean tubal dysplasia score was significantly higher in the TAM group and clomiphen group than in controls (respectively 7.8 vs 3.5, P<0.007 and 6.8 vs 3.5, P=0.008). There is no statistical difference for the ovarian score in TAM group in comparison with the control group whereas we found a significant score for clomiphen group (6.5, P=0.009). Increased ALDH1 expression was observed in the two exposed group whereas expression patterns of Ki67 and p53 were moderate. Interestingly, ALDH1 expression was low in non-dysplastic epithelium, high in dysplasia, and constantly low in the two carcinoma. Furthemore, we confirm our previous results showing that ALDH1 may be a useful tissue biomarker in the subtle histopathological diagnosis of tubo-ovarian dysplasia. PMID:24998918

  10. Immunohistochemical COX-2 overexpression correlates with HER-2/neu overexpression in invasive breast carcinomas: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Çiriş, Ibrahim Metin; Bozkurt, Kemal Kürşat; Başpinar, Sirin; Kapucuoğlu, Fatma Nilgün

    2011-03-15

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a prostaglandin synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of prostaglandin G2 and H2. It has been shown that COX-2 plays an important role in tumorigenesis of different tumor types and it is thought to take part in breast carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of immunohistochemical COX-2 expression with clinicopathological parameters, including HER-2/neu overexpression in invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). Our study population comprised 10 normal breasts, 25 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 51 invasive breast carcinomas. Immunohistochemical overexpressions of COX-2 and HER-2/neu were investigated in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks by 3 observers. In normal breast, DCIS and IBC, the COX-2 overexpression rate was 0%, 84%, and 58.8%, respectively. In IBC, COX-2 overexpression had a significant relationship with HER-2/neu overexpression (p=0.026) and a high histological grade (p=0.026). COX-2 expression in both DCIS (n=25) and IBC (n=51) was significantly higher than in normal breast tissue (p<0.0001). In addition, the COX-2 expression rate was significantly higher in DCIS than in IBC (p=0.042). Our results indicated that COX-2 overexpression correlates with aggressive phenotypic features, such as HER-2/neu overexpression and high histological grade in IBC. Increased expression of COX-2 in both DCIS and IBC in comparison to normal breast could indicate a role in breast carcinogenesis. COX-2 overexpression may provide a clinically useful biomarker for estimating tumor aggressiveness.

  11. Expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral precancerous and cancerous lesions: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Sfakianou, Aikaterini; Avgoustidis, Dimitrios; Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral premalignant and malignant lesions and to investigate their possible correlation with the presence of subepithelial inflammation. Material and Methods Thirty two oral premalignant lesions, clinically compatible with leukoplakia or erythroplakia, were investigated. Microscopically, 11 of them showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis (epithelial hyperplasia) and 21 showed dysplasia of varying degrees. Nine cases of OSCC and four control cases of normal oral mucosa were also included in the study. Immunohistochemical staining with NF-κB (p65) and IL-6 was performed. IL-6 and nuclear NF-κB staining were assessed as positive or negative. For cytoplasmic localization of NF-κB, a total score combining intensity and percentage of positive epithelial cells was additionally calculated. The presence of inflammation was also recorded. Results Intensity and total scores for NF-κΒ cytoplasmic immunostaining showed a statistically significant gradual increase from normal mucosa to OSCC (p=0.012 and p=0.026 respectively). Non-statistically significant increased NF-κΒ nuclear localization was detected in dysplasias and OSCCs. Positive statistical correlation was detected between the presence of inflammation and IL-6 expression (p=0.015). No correlation between NF-κΒ and IL-6 was detected. Conclusions NF-κΒ is activated in the early stages of oral carcinogenesis. IL-6 may have an NF-κΒ-independent role, possibly through regulation of the inflammatory response. Key words:NF-κB, IL-6, immunohistochemistry, oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral precancerous lesion. PMID:26595830

  12. Lubricin expression in human osteoarthritic knee meniscus and synovial fluid: a morphological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosalia; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castorina, Sergio; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lubricin, the product of the human PRG4 (proteoglycan 4) gene, in menisci and synovial fluid from normal donors and patients with osteoarthritis (OA), using a combination of histology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting analysis, to provide further insight on the role of this protein in the progression of OA and pathological processes in the meniscus. Lubricin expression was studied in samples from 40 patients and in 9 normal donors after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Histological analysis confirmed normal microanatomy and the absence of structural changes in control samples. Menisci derived from OA patients showed evidence of structural alterations, fibrillations and clefts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed very strong lubricin immunostaining in normal menisci in contrast to weak/moderate staining seen in osteoarthritic menisci. Quantitative ELISA and Western blot analysis confirmed the above results. The findings of this study support the notion that changes in lubricin expression and boundary-lubricating ability of cartilage is followed by the development of OA. This study could provide the biological foundation for the development of novel therapeutic treatments, to be applied before the surgery, for the prevention of post-traumatic cartilage damage.

  13. Expression of PPARγ and PTEN in human colorectal cancer: An immunohistochemical study using tissue microarray methodology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao Song; Huang, Jun Xing; Chen, Wei Chang; Zhang, Bao Feng; Fang, Jing; Zhou, Qiong; Hu, Ying; Gao, Heng Jun

    2011-11-01

    Although aberrations of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression have been identified in several other cancer types, certain previous studies have revealed that PPARγ is abundant in normal and malignant tissue in the colon. The question of whether aberrant PTEN is involved in the initial stage or is a later event during colorectal carcinogenesis remains controversial. Relatively few studies have focused on the correlation of expression of PPARγ and PTEN in various tissues. In the present study, paraffin-embedded blocks from 139 patients with CRC, 18 adenomatous polyps and 50 paired paracancerous benign mucosas were selected and analysed in 4 tissue microarray (TMA) blocks comprising 104, 72, 130 and 54 cores, respectively. Expression of PPARγ and PTEN was examined using immunohistochemical staining on TMAs. There were no significant differences in the expression of PPARγ (P=0.055) and PTEN (P=0.100) between the colorectal cancers, adenomas and paracancerous mucosas. However, correlations of PPARγ expression with clinical stage (P=0.004) and PTEN expression with histological grade (P=0.006) and distant metastasis (P=0.015) were demonstrated in the CRC specimens. Although the differences in PPARγ and PTEN protein expression in human colorectal cancer may not be considered as early diagnostic markers, our results indicate that CRCs with a low expression or deletion of PTEN may progress towards invasion and even metastasis; thus, PTEN may have potential as a prognostic marker in human CRC.

  14. An immunohistochemical study of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in various feline neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Beam, S L; Rassnick, K M; Moore, A S; McDonough, S P

    2003-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of prostaglandins and exist as two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is a potent inducible mediator of inflammation. COX-2 is also upregulated in several human tumors and in canine squamous cell, renal cell, and transitional cell carcinomas, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and intestinal neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether COX-2 is expressed in various feline tumors. Results of this study may help determine whether COX-2 is a potential target for therapeutic and preventive strategies in cats. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissues using the amplified streptavidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase system. COX-2 was found in 7 of 19 (37%) feline transitional cell carcinomas and in 2 of 21 (9%) feline oral squamous cell carcinomas. No COX-2 immunoreactivity was detected in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (6), adenocarcinomas (nine mammary, eight pulmonary, seven intestinal), lymphomas (six nasal, six intestinal), or 10 vaccine-associated sarcomas. The widespread absence of COX-2 expression in most feline neoplasms might suggest that COX-2 inhibitors would have a low potential as anticancer agents.

  15. An immunohistochemical study on the localization of type II collagen in the developing mouse mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Kenzaki, Keiichi; Tsuchikawa, Kohzo; Kuwahara, Toru

    2011-08-01

    The present chronological investigation assessed the distribution of type II collagen expression in the developing mouse mandibular condyle using immunohistochemical staining with respect to the anatomy of the anlage of the mandibular condyle, the histological characteristics of which were disclosed in our previous investigation. We analyzed fetuses, obtained by cross breeding of ICR strain mice, between 14.0 and 19.0 days post-conception (dpc) and pups on 1, 3, and 5 days post-natal (dpn) using immunohistochemical staining with 2 anti-type II collagen antibodies. The expression of type II collagen was first detected at 15.0 dpc in the lower part of the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone; thereafter, this type II collagen-positive layer was expanded and intensified (P1 layer). At 17.0 dpc, we identified a type II collagen-negative layer (N layer) around the P1 layer and we also identified another newly formed type II collagen-positive layer (P, layer) on the outer surface of the N layer. The most typical and conspicuous 3-layered distribution was observed at 1 dpn; thereafter, there was a reduction in the intensity of expression, and with it, the demarcation between the layers was weakened by 5 dpn. The P1 layer was derived from the central region of the core cell aggregate of the anlage of the mandibular condyle and participated in endochondral bone formation. The N layer was derived from the fringe of the core cell aggregate of the anlage, formed the bone collar at the side of the condyle by intramembranous bone formation, and showed a high level of proliferative activity at the vault. The P2 layer was formed from the outgrowth of the N layer, and could be considered as the secondary cartilage. The intensive expression of type II collagen from 17.0 dpc to 3 dpn was detected in the fibrous sheath covering the condylar head, which is derived from the peripheral cell aggregate of the anlage. Since its expression in the fibrous sheath was not detected in the neighboring

  16. Ovarian Brenner tumors and Walthard nests: a histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Masand, Ramya P

    2014-12-01

    Brenner tumors are composed of urothelial/transitional-type epithelium and, hence, are morphologically similar to Walthard nests and tubal/mesothelial transitional metaplasia. In this study, we analyzed immunohistochemical markers on Brenner tumors to explore Müllerian as well as Wolffian and germ cell derivation. We also attempted to explore their possible association with tubal/paratubal Walthard nests/transitional metaplasia, using the same immunostains. Thirty-two consecutive cases of Brenner tumors were identified. Thirteen (43%) of the patients had Walthard nests in the tubal/periovarian soft tissue. All Brenner tumors were diffusely positive for GATA3 (strongly positive in 30/32 and weakly positive in the remaining 2) and negative for PAX8, PAX2, and SALL4. Similarly, all Walthard nests were positive for GATA3, whereas only 3 (23%) of 13 showed occasional PAX8 expression; all were negative for PAX2 and SALL4. In our study, more than 40% of Brenner tumors had associated Walthard nests. The similar morphology and immunoprofile of Brenner tumors and Walthard nests suggest a probable link between Brenner tumors and Walthard nests. Two additional cases presented highlight small transitional lesions involving the ovary: a possible precursor lesion or the initial steps of Brenner tumor formation. Brenner tumors and most Walthard nests lacked staining for Müllerian (PAX8 and PAX2) and germ cell tumor markers (SALL4).

  17. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  18. Morphometric study on the development of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus utilising immunohistochemical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano, M A; Bentura, M L; Toledano, A

    1990-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)- and oxytocin (OXY)-producing neurons, components of the rat supraoptic nucleus, have been located with immunohistochemical methods, with the purpose of studying their morphofunctional characteristics during different phases of life (embryonic, juvenile, adult and senile). To carry out this study, an IBAS I (Kontron) computerised image analyser has been utilised. The hormone VP is first detected in the neuronal cytoplasm of 21 days old rat embryos and the hormone OXY appears in the neuronal cytoplasm later, in the newborn phase. The neuronal area with a positive reaction for the two neurohormones has been evaluated and it has been found that the quantity of reaction substance is proportional to the age. In the adult period, VP neurons possess a reaction area (198 microns 2) greater than that of OXY neurons (153 microns 2). In the SON, there are two neuronal shapes, fusiform and round; these shapes coexist in both hormonal types of neurons. Until Day 15 of postnatal development, the SON neurons are intermixed in the interior of the nucleus but in this period a neuronal redistribution is initiated. In the adult phase, OXY neurons are situated preferentially in the anterior, posterior and dorsal parts and VP neurons in the ventral and posterior parts, with both neurons being present in the intermediate part of the SON. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:2182586

  19. Immunohistochemical studies of angiogenin in the skin of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Kazuhiro; Tsukie, Tomomi; Fukazawa, Hiroyuki; Fujikura, Mikio; Ono, Seiitsu

    2013-03-15

    Angiogenin (ANG) is a member of the ribonuclease superfamily which is implicated in angiogenesis. ANG maintains normal vasculature and thereby protects motor neurons from various stress conditions. It is suggested that ANG may play a role in pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, there have been no studies of ANG in ALS skin. We made a quantitative immunohistochemical study of the expression of ANG in the skin from 20 patients with sporadic ALS, 20 patients with other neurologic or muscular disorders (control group A), and 20 patients without neurologic or muscular disorders (control group B). The nuclei of the epidermal cells showed a weak ANG immunoreactivity in ALS patients. These findings became more marked as ALS progressed. The optical density for ANG immunoreactivity of the nucleus in the epidermal cells in ALS patients was significantly lower (p<0.001) than in control groups A and B. There was a significant negative relationship (r=-0.82, p<0.001) between the optical density for ANG immunoreactivity of the nucleus and duration of illness in ALS patients. These data suggest that changes of ANG in ALS skin are related to the disease process and that metabolic alterations of ANG may take place in the skin of ALS patients.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of skin nerve regeneration after toe-to-finger transplantation: correlations with clinical, quantitative sensory, and electrophysiological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Chu, Nai-Shin

    2004-12-01

    Cutaneous nerve regeneration following toe-to-finger transplantation was studied by immunohistochemical technique using antibody to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) which is a specific neuronal marker. By this technique, epidermal and dermal nerves were semi-quantified and the Meissner's corpuscles were quantified. There were also quantitative sensory tests (QST) including pinprick, pressure and temperature, as well as electrophysiological studies including digital nerve sensory conduction, digital nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and sympathetic skin response at the pulp of the transplanted toes. The opposite corresponding normal finger and normal toe served as controls. Study subjects were 20 adult patients with toe-to-finger transplantation for at least one year. A score system was used to quantify the results of histochemical, psychophysiological and electrophysiological studies. Clinically 7 patients had good recovery and 13 patients had poor recovery. Cutaneous nerve regeneration in the transplanted toes was incomplete with epidermal nerve, dermal nerve and the Meissner's corpuscle significantly reduced. The nerve regeneration was correlated with clinical recovery, QST and electrophysiological data. These findings indicate that immunohischemical technique is useful to evaluate skin nerve regeneration following toe-to-finger transplantation, and that although nerve regeneration did occur, it was incomplete and correlated with the severity of hand injury.

  1. Immunohistochemical biomarkers in ameloblastomas.

    PubMed

    do Canto, Alan Motta; Rozatto, Juliana Rodrigues; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; de Freitas, Ronaldo Rodrigues; Hasséus, Bengt; Braz-Silva, Paulo Henrique

    2016-08-30

    Ameloblastoma is an aggressive odontogenic tumour, which is locally invasive and highly recurrent. Studies show that ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasia, being relatively rare and occasionally presenting behaviour of malignant lesions. In addition to these particularities, the histological diagnosis of ameloblastoma can be challenging when the tumour shows high rates of mitosis, absence of nuclear pleomorphism, basilar hyperplasia and neural invasion. In order to help in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of this neoplasia, some immunohistochemical markers were shown to be associated with tumoural epithelium. The identification of these markers as well as of their association with clinical signs can be useful to elaborate more efficient treatment strategies and to control this pathology, including improvement of the quality of life of patients affected by this neoplasia. This article aims to review some markers associated with specific molecular pathways, bone remodelling, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell signalling and tumour suppression.

  2. An immunohistochemical study of the inflammatory infiltrate associated with nasal carcinoma in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Vanherberghen, M; Day, M J; Delvaux, F; Gabriel, A; Clercx, C; Peeters, D

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the inflammatory infiltrate associated with nasal carcinoma in dogs and cats and to determine whether this differed between the two species or with different types of carcinoma. Sections from fixed tissue biopsy samples of intranasal carcinoma from 31 dogs and six cats were labelled immunohistochemically to detect expression of the T-lymphocyte marker CD3, class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC II), the myelomonocytic antigen MAC387 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM within the cytoplasm of plasma cells. All canine carcinomas were heavily infiltrated by MAC387(+) neutrophils, with smaller numbers of MAC387(+) macrophages. T cells were particularly prominent in the infiltrate associated with transitional carcinoma, and in such tumours were frequently mixed with MHC II(+) cells having macrophage or dendritic cell morphology. IgG(+) and IgA(+) plasma cells were detected at the peripheral margins of all types of canine carcinoma. In contrast, feline intranasal carcinoma was invariably associated with a marked infiltration of CD3(+) T cells. The feline tumour infiltrates contained sparse neutrophils and macrophages and few IgG(+) and IgA(+) plasma cells. These findings suggest that qualitatively different immune responses are induced in response to specific types of canine intranasal carcinoma, and that the canine and feline immune response to these neoplasms is also distinct.

  3. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of anterior pituitary cells in the female Afghan pika, Ochotona rufescens rufescens.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, F; Suzuki, Y; Yoshimura, F

    1986-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the anterior pituitary gland of the female Afghan pika was carried out to distinguish the ultrastructural features of GH, PRL, ACTH, TSH and LH cells. The histochemically identified GH cells resembled ultrastructurally oval or round GH cells of the rat laden with large, dense secretory granules. PRL cells were divided into three subtypes based on differences in the diameter of their spherical secretory granules. They lacked polymorphic or irregularly shaped secretory granules. ACTH cells resembled ultrastructurally, in some respects, Siperstein's "corticotrophs" of the rat with peripheral arrangement of secretory granules. However, they were not always stellate, but elongate or angular in shape. The dense secretory granules were concentrated in the peripheral area of cytoplasm. TSH cells were non-stellate, but usually oval in shape, containing the smallest spherical secretory granules (100-200 nm in diameter). Almost all LH cells reacted also with FSH antiserum. They were irregular in shape, sometimes in contact with or surrounded the GH cells. They contained an abundance of medium-sized secretory granules (140-260 nm in diameter) which were larger than those in the LH cells of the female rat throughout the estrous cycle. Large secretory granules in the LH cells of the female pika seemed to be related to the endocrine state of persistent estrus.

  4. Effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on phosphorylated CREB in rat cerebellum: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Casu, Maria Antonietta; Pisu, Carla; Sanna, Angela; Tambaro, Simone; Spada, Gabriele Pinna; Mongeau, Raymond; Pani, Luca

    2005-06-28

    Several converging lines of evidence indicate that drugs of abuse may exert their long-term effects on the central nervous system by modulating signaling pathways controlling gene expression. Cannabinoids produce, beside locomotor effects, cognitive impairment through central CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Data clearly indicate that the cerebellum, an area enriched with CB1 receptors, has a role not only in motor function but also in cognition. This immunohistochemical study examines the effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), the principal psychoactive component of marijuana, on the levels of phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the rat cerebellum. Acute treatments with delta9-THC at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg induced a significant increase of p-CREB in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, an effect blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A. Following chronic delta9-THC administration (10 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), the density of p-CREB was markedly attenuated compared to controls, and this attenuation persisted 3 weeks after withdrawal from delta9-THC. These data provide evidence for the involvement of cerebellar granule cells in the adaptive changes occurring during acute and chronic delta9-THC exposure. This might be a mechanism by which delta9-THC interferes with motor and cognitive functions.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Gomez, Enrique; Tamboli, Pheroze; Bondaruk, Jolanta E; Kamat, Ashish; Bassett, Roland; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2009-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon histologic type in the urinary bladder. We searched our surgical pathology files and identified 16 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The mean age of patients was 65.4 years (range, 41-77 years). All patients received transurethral resection of the bladder, which demonstrated pure squamous cell carcinomas. Seven patients had clinical evidence of tumor spreading out of the bladder (T4) and did not undergo radical cystectomy. The other 9 patients underwent cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. The cystectomy specimens revealed tumors invading muscularis propria (T2) (n = 4) or perivesical soft tissue (T3) (n = 5). Two patients also had metastasis to lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that squamous cell carcinoma cells were positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (n = 16) and for p53 (n = 11). For the 9 patients who received cystectomy, 5 patients were alive at a mean of 92.8 months (range, 59-128 months) and 4 patients died of disease at a mean of 24.0 months (range, 6-58 months). For the 7 patients who did not receive cystectomy, 6 died at a mean of 5.7 months (range, 3-9 months), and no follow-up was available for the remaining patient. In conclusion, squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder frequently presents at an advanced stage and is associated with enhanced expression of EGFR and p53.

  6. Immunohistochemical and Morphofunctional Studies of Skeletal Muscle Tissues with Electric Nerve Stimulation by In Vivo Cryotechnique

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Yuki; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Saigusa, Takeshi; Arita, Jun; Ohno, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphological and immunohistochemical alterations of skeletal muscle tissues during persistent contraction were examined by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT). Contraction of gastrocnemius muscles was induced by sciatic nerve stimulation. The IVCT was performed immediately, 3 min or 10 min after the stimulation start. Prominent ripples of muscle fibers or wavy deformation of sarcolemma were detected immediately after the stimulation, but they gradually diminished to normal levels during the stimulation. The relative ratio of sarcomere and A band lengths was the highest in the control group, but it immediately decreased to the lowest level and then gradually recovered at 3 min or 10 min. Although histochemical intensity of PAS reaction was almost homogeneous in muscle tissues of the control group or immediately after the stimulation, it decreased at 3 min or 10 min. Serum albumin was immunolocalized as dot-like patterns within some muscle fibers at 3 min stimulation. These patterns became more prominent at 10 min, and the dots got larger and saccular in some sarcoplasmic regions. However, IgG1 and IgM were immunolocalized in blood vessels under nerve stimulation conditions. Therefore, IVCT was useful to capture the morphofunctional and metabolic changes of heterogeneous muscle fibers during the persistent contraction. PMID:26019372

  7. Immunohistochemical and morphofunctional studies of skeletal muscle tissues with electric nerve stimulation by in vivo cryotechnique.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Yuki; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Saigusa, Takeshi; Arita, Jun; Ohno, Shinichi

    2015-04-28

    In this study, morphological and immunohistochemical alterations of skeletal muscle tissues during persistent contraction were examined by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT). Contraction of gastrocnemius muscles was induced by sciatic nerve stimulation. The IVCT was performed immediately, 3 min or 10 min after the stimulation start. Prominent ripples of muscle fibers or wavy deformation of sarcolemma were detected immediately after the stimulation, but they gradually diminished to normal levels during the stimulation. The relative ratio of sarcomere and A band lengths was the highest in the control group, but it immediately decreased to the lowest level and then gradually recovered at 3 min or 10 min. Although histochemical intensity of PAS reaction was almost homogeneous in muscle tissues of the control group or immediately after the stimulation, it decreased at 3 min or 10 min. Serum albumin was immunolocalized as dot-like patterns within some muscle fibers at 3 min stimulation. These patterns became more prominent at 10 min, and the dots got larger and saccular in some sarcoplasmic regions. However, IgG1 and IgM were immunolocalized in blood vessels under nerve stimulation conditions. Therefore, IVCT was useful to capture the morphofunctional and metabolic changes of heterogeneous muscle fibers during the persistent contraction.

  8. Comparative light-microscopic and immunohistochemical study of traumatic and palisaded encapsulated neuromas of the skin.

    PubMed

    Argenyi, Z B; Santa Cruz, D; Bromley, C

    1992-12-01

    The primary hyperplastic nature of palisaded encapsulated neuromas (PENs) has been recently challenged by suggesting a traumatic origin. We studied eight cases of traumatic neuroma (TN) and 12 cases of PEN by routine light-microscopic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical methods to assess evidence of previous tissue injury. Sections from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, trichrome, elastic, reticulin, Giemsa, colloidal iron (with and without hyaluronidase), and Bielschowsky silver stains. Antibodies were applied to collagen types I, III, and IV, MAC 387, factor XIIIa, alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), Leu-7, and myelin basic protein using ABC techniques. We found that (a) in TN the individual fascicles were usually surrounded by perineurial cells, whereas in PEN the perineurial cells were observed mainly in the capsular areas and only rarely within the fascicles as evidenced by EMA antibodies; (b) histochemically TN contained considerably larger amounts of collagen (types I and III), acidic mucin, and myelin products than did PEN; and (c) neither PEN nor TN contained increased inflammatory cells or cells positive for factor XIIIa, MAC 387, or A1AT. We conclude that (a) there are substantial structural and histochemical differences between TN and PEN, (b) the changes suggest that the classic form of PEN has a different histogenesis than TN, and (c) on histologic grounds, chronic minor trauma could not be excluded as an etiologic factor for PEN.

  9. Isolated necrotizing arteritis of the female genital tract: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Francke, M L; Mihaescu, A; Chaubert, P

    1998-07-01

    Isolated necrotizing arteritis (INA) of the polyarteritis-nodosa type localized to the female genital tract is rare. Approximately 30 case reports have been published to date. Eleven additional patients are described here, all with a favorable follow-up. INA is usually localized in the uterine cervix, but, when multifocal lesions are present, the latter is almost always involved. Patients most frequently report menorrhagia or postmenopausal bleeding. With immunohistochemical studies, immune-complex deposits (IgM, IgG, and C'3) in 7 of 11 patients with INA of the female genital tract were demonstrated for the first time. The inflammatory cells were composed mainly of T-lymphocytes with macrophages and scarce B-lymphocytes also present. These results suggest that INA is primarily an immune complex-mediated disease, implicating humoral and cellular mediator systems. Possible pathogenetic factors of INA are immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, foreign materials (after cone biopsy or curettage), and cancers, or an autoimmune reaction against constituents of the vessel walls caused by tissue injury after local surgical intervention through in situ immune-complex formation.

  10. Sarcoglycan complex in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles of baboons: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cutroneo, G; Centofanti, A; Speciale, F; Rizzo, G; Favaloro, A; Santoro, G; Bruschetta, D; Milardi, D; Micali, A; Di Mauro, D; Vermiglio, G; Anastasi, G; Trimarchi, F

    2015-06-05

    The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status.

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Histologic and Immunohistochemical Study of Autopsy Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Terayama, Noboru; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Gabata, Toshifumi; Miyayama, Shiro; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Isao; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the histologic findings associated with stenosed and occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) tracts. Methods: Four TIPS tracts within three autopsy livers were histologically studied for vascular components by routine staining and immunohistochemical staining. TIPS had been performed for bleeding from esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Results: Two TIPS, examined on days 4 and 53, showed occlusion by fibrin thrombus. In the former, no endothelial cells were detected, but coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes was found in the surrounding liver. In the latter, bile pigments were seen on the luminal surface. In the two other TIPS without tract occlusion, examined on days 49 and 293, a layer of endothelial cells, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and deposition of an extracellular matrix such as collagen were confirmed. In the tract examined on day 293, there was protrusion of hepatocytes into the lumen through the stent wires. Conclusion: Short- and midterm TIPS occlusions were caused by thrombus forming after necrosis of hepatocytes and bile leakage, respectively. Long-term TIPS stenosis was associated with a combination of pseudointimal hyperplasia and ingrowth of hepatocytes.

  12. Immunohistochemical study of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in transverse sections of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Youn; Yang, Jun-Mo; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2011-05-01

    In the frozen longitudinal section of the nail unit, CD10 was previously found in nail mesenchymal cells beneath nail matrix, and we proposed calling the nail mesenchymal cells onychofibroblasts. In this study, to further characterize nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts, we examined the expression of several mesenchymal markers immunohistochemically in transverse paraffin sections of the nail unit. CD10 was strongly expressed in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts beneath the nail matrix. However, CD10 was not observed in dermal fibroblasts and surrounding extracellular matrix of the lateral nail fold (LNF), except around blood vessels and eccrine structures. In addition, versican was expressed diffusely in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in contrast to the dermis of LNF. Fibrillin, which is a major component of elastic fiber in the dermis, was expressed very weakly on the nail mesenchyme below the nail matrix but was expressed strongly in the dermis of LNF. These findings support the existence of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts that is distinguished from the dermis of LNF.

  13. Sarcoglycan Complex in Masseter and Sternocleidomastoid Muscles of Baboons: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Cutroneo, G.; Centofanti, A.; Speciale, F.; Rizzo, G.; Favaloro, A.; Santoro, G.; Bruschetta, D.; Milardi, D.; Micali, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Vermiglio, G.; Anastasi, G.; Trimarchi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status. PMID:26150161

  14. Chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia: clinico-statistical, histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Dîrnu, Rodica; Secureanu, F A; Neamţu, Carmen; Totolici, B D; Pop, O T; Mitruţ, P; Mălăescu, D Gh; Mogoantă, L

    2012-01-01

    Chronic gastritis has a high incidence in adults, causing progressive destruction of glandular structures, favoring the development of gastric atrophy. The association of chronic gastritis with intestinal type metaplasia of gastric mucosa has a poor outcome as intestinal metaplasia is regarded as a precancerous lesion. Metaplasia is common in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and also heavy smokers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. The study was conducted on a total of 1218 patients, aged between 5 and 90 years, who presented for dyspeptic disorders in the period 2007-2010 and were examined clinically and endoscopically. During the gastroscopic examination, fragments of gastric mucosa were collected for the histopathological study and for highlighting the H. pylori infection. For the histopathological study, the Hematoxylin-Eosin and PAS-Alcian Blue stains were performed, while for the immunohistochemical study the anti-TAG72 and anti-PCNA antibodies were used. A diagnosis of gastritis was established in 615 patients, representing approximately 50.5% of all cases. Most cases with gastritis were found in people of middle age. Gastritis was present in almost all age groups, from teenagers to the elders. Of the 615 cases of gastritis, urease test was positive in 353 patients, representing approximately 57.40% of all patients with gastritis. Histopathological examination identified the presence of intestinal metaplasia in 61.60% of patients with chronic gastritis, mostly complete metaplasia. PCNA immunohistochemistry revealed that cell proliferation processes are intensified in intestinal metaplasia. This study highlights the importance of chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and H. pylori infection in the etiopathogeny of gastric cancer.

  15. Cyclin D1 is a useful marker for soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor in children and adolescents: A comparative immunohistochemical study with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Magro, Gaetano; Brancato, Franca; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Alaggio, Rita; Parenti, Rosalba; Salvatorelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin D1 amplification and/or overexpression contribute to the loss of the regulatory circuits that govern G1-S transition phase of the cell cycle, playing pivotal roles in different human malignant tumors, including breast, colon, prostate cancer, lymphoma, melanoma and neuroblastoma. In vitro studies have shown that cyclin D1 is overexpressed in Ewing's sarcoma (EWS)/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (pPNET), but not in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Only a few immunohistochemical studies are available on cyclin D1 expression in EWS/pPNET, which confirmed its expression only in a limited number of cases. The aim of the present study was a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of the expression and distribution of cyclin D1 in a large series of pediatric/adolescent soft tissue EWS/pPNETs and rhabdomyosarcomas (both embryonal and alveolar subtypes) to assess its potential usefulness in their differential diagnosis. Notably cyclin D1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all cases (20/20) of EWS/pPNET, while it was lacked in all cases (15/15) of rhabdomyosarcomas. Immunohistochemical overexpression of cyclin D1 in EWS/pPNET is a novel finding which could be exploitable as a diagnostic immunomarker for this tumor. Although highly sensitive, cyclin D1 is not specific for EWS/pPNET, and thus it should not be evaluated alone but in the context of a wide immunohistochemical panel. Accordingly, we first emphasize that when pathologists are dealing with a small round blue cell tumor of soft tissues in pediatric/adolescent patients, a strong and diffuse nuclear expression of cyclin D1 is of complementary diagnostic value to CD99 and FLI-1 in confirming diagnosis of EWS/pPNET and in ruling out rhabdomyosarcoma.

  16. Diversity of desmosomal proteins in regenerating epidermis: immunohistochemical study using a human skin organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Moll, I; Houdek, P; Schäfer, S; Nuber, U; Moll, R

    1999-01-01

    We recently established a skin organ culture model for epithelial healing by creating a central defect in freshly excised human skin specimens and keeping them in culture for up to 7 days, either untreated or with transplantation of allogenic or autologous keratinocytes. In this study the molecular diversity of cell-cell junction proteins in the regenerating epidermis was analysed immunohistochemically using a broad spectrum of monoclonal antibodies against glycoproteins (cadherins) and plaque proteins of desmosomes. At all stages studied the entire set of desmosomal cadherins [desmogleins (Dsg) 1-3 and desmocollins (Dsc) 1-3] was detected, with Dsg3, Dsc2 and Dsc3 being the most prominent. In the disordered neoepithelium at day 3 (after transplantation) some desmosomal cadherins appeared in their respective stratum compartments. In regenerating epidermis on day 7, which exhibited a more ordered stratification and a compact horny layer, stratification-related patterns of desmosomal cadherins were more pronounced. However, some immaturity of the day-7 neoepidermis was reflected by relatively low levels of the maturation-associated Dsgl and Dsc1 and a strong basal layer expression of Dsg2 which is sparse in normal epidermis. Desmosomal plaque proteins showed expression patterns similar to those in normal healthy epidermis. The adherens junction-related E-cadherin was also detected. Dendritic cells (melanocytes, Langerhans cells) were mainly present at the wound margins. In conclusion, this study demonstrated partial but not complete epidermal maturation and junction development during regeneration up to day 7. This model should also be useful in future studies to evaluate the effects of growth hormones to be used in therapeutic trials on chronic leg ulcers.

  17. Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under Different Exposure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Risalde, María de los Ángeles; Moyano, Rosario; Prieto, Ana Isabel; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Ángeles; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw), and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L) for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days). The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms. PMID:24406981

  18. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2008-12-01

    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  19. Betacellulin in Chronic Periodontitis Patients With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.; Bilichodmath, Shivaprasad; Warad, Shivaraj B.; Ugale, Mahesh S.; Koregol, Arati C.; Bijjargi, Shobha C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The host immune response to bacterial dental plaque determines periodontal disease susceptibility by increasing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The Epidermal Growth Factor family cytokines stimulate proliferation and keratinization of cells in dermis and oral epithelium. Epidermal Growth Factor family consists of Amphiregulin, Betacellulin, Epiregulin, Epigen, Heparin binding Epidermal Growth Factor like growth factor and transforming Growth Factor-alpha. Aim The current study aimed to investigate expression of Betacellulin in chronic periodontitis patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and thereby assessing role of betacellulin in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Present study comprised of 90 participants, age ranges from 18 to 60-year-old, for the period of March 2010 to May 2011. Participants were categorized into three groups based Gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CA Loss). Group 1 consisted 30 individuals with clinically healthy periodontium, Group-2 consisted 30 individuals with GI>1, PD≥5 mm, and CA Loss>3 mm. Group-3 (Chronic Periodontitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus) consisted 30 with GI >1, PD≥5 mm, and CA Loss>3 mm. Immunohistochemical localization and quantification of Betacellulin was done in gingival tissue samples from all groups. Results Data showed expression of Betacellulin were higher in chronic periodontitis as compared to healthy. A positive correlation found in Betacellulin expression and Probing Depth in chronic periodontitis. Conclusion This footmark study impacts the role of Betacellulin in pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease which will help in exploration of novel immunotherapeutic strategies and immunological research activity in this field. PMID:26673371

  20. IMP-3 expression in keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Soddu, S.; Di Felice, E.; Cabras, S.; Castellanos, M.E.; Atzori, L.; Faa, G.; Pilloni, L.

    2013-01-01

    The protein insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP-3) is an important factor for cell migration and adhesion in malignancies. Recent studies have shown a remarkable overexpression of IMP-3 in different human malignant neoplasms and also revealed it as an important prognostic marker in some tumor entities. The purpose of this study is to compare IMP-3 immunostaining in cutaneous squamous cell tumors and determine whether IMP-3 can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. To our knowledge, IMP-3 expression has not been investigated in skin squamous cell proliferations thus far. Immunohi-stochemical staining for IMP-3 was performed on slides organized by samples from 67 patients, 34 with keratoacanthoma (KA) and 33 with primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (16 invasive and 17 in situ). Seventyfour percent of KAs (25/34) were negative for IMP-3 staining, while 57% of SCCs (19/33) were positive for IMP-3 staining. The percentage of IMP-3 positive cells increased significantly in the invasive SCC group (P=0.0111), and particularly in the SCC in situ group (P=0.0021) with respect to the KA group. IMP-3 intensity staining was significantly higher in invasive SCCs (P=0.0213), and particularly in SCCs in situ (P=0.008) with respect to KA. Our data show that IMP-3 expression is different in keratoacanthoma with respect to squamous cell carcinoma. IMP-3 assessment and staining pattern, together with a careful histological study, can be useful in the differential diagnosis between KA e SCC. PMID:23549465

  1. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of plasminogen and plasminogen activators in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Venning, V A; Wojnarowska, F; Cederholm-Williams, S

    1993-03-01

    Abnormalities of the cutaneous plasminogen/plasminogen activator system have been associated with acantholytic disorders, psoriasis, keratinocytes in culture, and epidermis in healing wounds. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible role of the plasmin/plasminogen protease system in lesion development in bullous pemphigoid (BP). Using polyclonal antibodies and a fluorescent technique, the immunohistochemical distribution of plasmin/plasminogen, fibrinogen and the plasminogen activators, urokinase (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), were studied in lesional and non-lesional skin from nine BP patients, one with linear IgA disease (LAD) and one with pemphigoid gestationis (PG). The distribution of the proteases was compared with that in normal skin (n = 4) and in suction blisters (n = 2). In normal skin, fibrinogen, tPA and uPA were absent from the epidermis and plasminogen was confined to the basal layer. Uninvolved BP skin was identical to controls. Focal areas of suprabasal plasminogen expression in the region of a blister was seen in 3/9 BP lesions and in 1/2 suction blisters. In 6/9 BP lesions and both uninvolved and lesional LAD and PG skin were identical to controls, and no suprabasal expression of plasminogen was present. These findings suggest that suprabasal plasminogen expression is unlikely to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of blister formation in BP as enhanced expression was not present in every case and the finding was not specific to BP, also occurring in a suction blister. Enhanced plasminogen expression rather may be a reflection of the processes of tissue repair.

  2. Clinico-pathologic, immunohistochemical, and TUNEL study in early cardiac allograft failure.

    PubMed

    Panizo-Santos, A; Lozano, M D; Distefano, S; Inogés, S; Pardo, J

    2000-01-01

    Early cardiac allograft failure (ECAF) was defined as acute allograft failure in the early transplant period. The aim of this study is to elucidate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics and the role of apoptosis in ECAF in nine patients. We reviewed preoperative clinical data and morphological data at the time of autopsy or retransplantation. We also performed TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry to study fibronectin and tubulin beta-II. The average recipient and donor age was 48 +/- 10.3 and 28 +/- 7.11 respectively. Seven patients died at a mean time of 26 hours. The remaining two patients underwent retransplantation and are alive. The mean cold ischemic time was 124. 1 +/- 44.5 minutes. No patient had a panel reactive antibody >15% and lymphocytic crossmatch was positive in one case. All cases had grade 2-3 of coagulative necrosis, which correlated positively with fibonectin accumulation in myocyte cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic tubulin loss (p < 0.05). TUNEL technique showed in all cases some degree of DNA strand breaks in cardiomyocytes. Endothelium DNA strand breaks were seen in seven cases. Patients transplanted because of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy had a significantly higher degree of DNA strand breaks in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02) than those transplanted because of ischemic cardiomyopathy. These results indicate that ECAF may be caused by ischemic-reperfusion damage to the donor heart assessed by myocyte coagulative necrosis, fibronectin accumulation in myocytes, tubulin loss, and DNA strand breaks of cardiomyocytes and endothelium. The use of a combination of these techniques might be appropriate in the diagnosis of ECAF in endomyocardial biopsies when it is suspected clinically.

  3. Comparative immunohistochemical study of tissue integration of macroporous and laminar surgical meshes.

    PubMed

    Takács, Ildikó; Horváth, Szabolcs; Molnár, Ágnes; Gáspár, Sarolta; Hajós, Rebeka; Meczker, Ágnes; Kóbor, Péter; Lantos, János; Jávor, Szaniszló; Balatonyi, Borbála; Szekeres, György; Röth, Erzsébet; Wéber, György

    2011-07-01

    Intraperitoneal surgical mesh implantation is required for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. Composite meshes are well known in animal models and human practice. The aim of our study is to compare the biological behaviour of two different textured silicone-covered polypropylene meshes. Transmural abdominal wall defect was created in 40 rabbits and treated as follows: In 20 animals a polypropylene mesh with a laminar silicone covering (LSPP) and in the rest a macroporous textured mesh knitted of silicone-impregnated polypropylene filaments (MSPP) was applied. One and three weeks after implantation we evaluated the intraperitoneal adhesion formation of the mesh macroscopically, histologically and immunohistochemically to detect the reactive cells, especially inflammatory, endothelial and mesothelial cells, as well as their proliferative activity, and with Scanning Electron microscopy to visualize the surface of the meshes. The adhesion formation caused by the composites showed no statistical difference after one week although in the three weeks old samples the LSPP adhesion was significantly weaker than that of MSPP. As complications, serome formation in both groups, fistulas, abscesses, and sc. haematoma in the LSPP group were found. Only in MSPP containing tissues was the decrease of Ki-67 positive proliferating cells significant. A significant increase in VEGF expressing cells was observed only in MSPP containing three week old samples, suggesting better regulation of vascular growth in tissues surrounding the implants. In one week old specimens we observed an irregular proliferation of cytokeratin containing mesothelial cells in both group. The intraperitoneal surface of MSPP mesh was covered with neoperitoneum, while it was not regularly seen on LSPP mesh after three week.

  4. Immunohistochemical and functional studies on calcium-sensing receptors in rat uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Marc J; Petrik, James J; Holloway, Alison C; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2012-01-01

    1. Activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaS) leads to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. However, the role of CaS in uterine smooth muscle is unknown. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and function of CaS in the uterus. 2. The expression of CaS in the oestrogen-dominated rat uterus was investigated using immunohistochemistry. The effects of putative CaS ligands on oxytocin-induced contractions of longitudinally orientated uterine strips from oestrogen-dominated rats were determined at reduced extracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations using conventional organ bath techniques. 3. Immunohistochemical evidence showed the presence of CaS in the endometrium and smooth muscle layers of the rat uterus. Oxytocin-induced contractions were inhibited by cations (Gd³⁺ > Ca²⁺ = Mg²⁺), polyamines (spermine > spermidine) and the positive allosteric modulators cinacalcet and calindol. However (R)- and (S)-cinacalcet were equipotent, indicating a lack of stereoselectivity, and the negative allosteric modulator calhex-231 also caused dose-dependent relaxation. In addition, although intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and cytochrome P450-dependent signal transduction have been implicated in CaS-induced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, neither Tram-34 nor miconazole (1 μmol/L), which block these pathways, respectively, had any effect on the ability of cinacalcet to inhibit oxytocin-induced contractions. 4. Calcium-sensing receptors are expressed in smooth muscle layers of the rat uterus and their ligands produce potent relaxation of longitudinally orientated uterine strips. However, the pharmacological profile of inhibition of contractility by CaS ligands is not consistent with a role for CaS in the regulation of uterine contractility in the rat.

  5. Ghrelin and obestatin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Alnema, Manar M; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile F; Ozercan, Hanifi I; Yildirim, Nezahat; Sahin, Ibrahim; Karaoglu, Aziz; Kilic, Nermin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ozercan, Mehmet R; Donder, Emir

    2010-06-01

    The underlying molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is poorly understood and appears to be controlled on many genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Obestatin and ghrelin, two recently discovered hormones, are co-expressed in endocrine cells. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunohistochemical features of OSCCs in relation to the tissue concentration of ghrelin and obestatin. The association between OSCC and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) status was also explored. The expression of ghrelin and obestatin was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoassay in oral biopsy specimens: 10 benign squamous epithelial cell samples, 10 microinvasive squamous cell carcinomas, and seven well-differentiated and seven poorly differentiated OSCCs. The presence of EBV was evaluated in these samples using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin in tissue homogenates were measured by RIA and ELISA, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas and benign tissue samples were positive for anti-EBV antibody, and obestatin and ghrelin were shown to be co-expressed in all stratified squamous epithelium samples. Expression of ghrelin and obestatin was decreased or absent in OSCCs in relation to the invasiveness of the carcinoma; ghrelin and obestatin levels in cancerous tissue homogenates were lower than in benign tissue homogenates. These results indicate that the concentrations and distribution of immunoreactive obestatin and ghrelin might be helpful in distinguishing OSCC from benign tumors. Maintaining normal levels of these hormones might be required for regulation of normal cell division. However, detailed studies will be required for better understanding of the complex mechanism of carcinogenesis relating to OSCCs.

  6. Thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2013-08-01

    Twelve cases of thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation are presented. The patients were 7 men and 5 women aged between 45 and 68 years (average, 56.5 years). Clinically, the patients presented with nonspecific symptoms of chest pain, cough, and fatigue. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis or other autoimmune syndrome. Thymectomy was performed in all patients. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 7 cm in greatest diameter. Macroscopically, the tumors were described as firm and light tan without areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic change. Histologically, 7 tumors were classified as spindle cell (World Health Organization type A), 2 as mixed spindle cell and conventional (A+B1), 2 as conventional (B1), and 1 as atypical thymoma (B3). In 4 cases, the tumors showed invasion into periadipose thymic tissue. All cases showed the typical growth patterns of their particular subtypes. In addition, a distinct glandular component was present in all cases showing mucinous differentiation in 4 of them. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, and Pax8 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor 1, and epithelial membrane antigen. Calretinin showed focal weak staining in the nonmucinous glandular components in 3 cases. Follow-up information obtained in 8 patients showed that all were alive and well in a period ranging from 2 to 5 years. The possibility of a glandular component in thymomas should be kept in mind in the assessment of mediastinoscopic biopsies to avoid misdiagnosis for other neoplasms that may require different treatment modalities.

  7. The postulated mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer: Histological and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Salah Khalil, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    There are many available drugs for treating gastric ulcer, but they have various side effects. Ginger is a folk, herbal medicine, which is used for treatment of various diseases including gastric ulcer. This study investigates the possible mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into four groups (10 animal per each group) and orally received the followings once daily for 5 days: Group I: 3 ml of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose; Group II: ginger powder (200 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 mL of 1% carboxymethylcellulose; Group III: aspirin (400 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 ml of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in water. Group IV: ginger and 30 minutes later, received aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose, in similar doses as received in groups II and III. On day 6, rats were sacrificed. The animals were anesthetized and the stomach was removed for the macroscopic, histological (Haematoxylin & Eosin and Periodic Acid Shiff) and immunohistochemical investigations (Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase and heat shock protein 70). Aspirin induced a significant increase of the macroscopic ulcer score, shed and disrupted epithelium, mucosal hemorrhage, submucosal edema and leukocyte infiltration, loss of the mucus of the mucosal surface significantly increased expression of apoptosis regulator Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Ginger ameliorated the histological changes by reducing Bax and iNOS and increasing HSP70 expressions.

  8. Cardiac myxoma with glandular elements: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of five new cases with an emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghui; Ding, Li; Liu, Yanhui; Xue, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported five new cases of cardiac myxoma with glandular components, known as glandular cardiac myxoma. The goals of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of this disease and to explore new features for differential diagnosis. The patient series included three women and two men. All tumors were located in the left atrium without invasion of the adjacent myocardium. Patients presented with cardiac-related or embolization symptoms. Histologically, neoplasms consisted of well-formed glandular structures and typical myxoma areas. No nuclear atypia, mitosis, or necrosis was identified in the glandular structures. Glandular lining cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CAM5.2 and cytokeratin 7, but were negative for some organ-specific markers, such as thyroid transcription factor-1, calretinin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein, prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeobox 2. In conclusion, glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare disease which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma. Because of its rarity, glandular cardiac myxoma must be distinguished from adenocarcinoma metastatic to the heart. The combination of histopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles should improve the diagnostic accuracy of glandular cardiac myxoma.

  9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in brain tumors, and its prognostic role in ependymomas: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, D; Chiò, A; Giordana, M T; Pezzulo, T; Vigliani, M C

    1993-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin is currently often investigated immunohistochemically in tumors as a marker of cell proliferation, but many problems remain open concerning its reliability as a prognostic factor. PCNA has been studied in a series of 123 brain tumors using the monoclonal antibody PC10. A clear intra- and inter-tumor variability of PCNA-positive nuclei has been found, but taking into account the tumor areas with the highest number of positive nuclei, a positive correlation between this number and the histological malignancy of tumors has been demonstrated. The staining intensity of nuclei was variable; very-intensely positive nuclei, counted separately, are hypothesized to represent nuclei in S-phase of the cell cycle. In ependymomas the investigation included a quantitative statistical analysis. The number of PCNA-positive nuclei correlated with cell density and mitotic index, but only very intensely positive nuclei showed a significant statistical correlation with survival. In spite of the many possibilities of wrong interpretation of PCNA expression, the most important of which is its deregulation, the method is useful in the practice for prognostic purposes. Its important advantages are the possibility of a retrospective application and a visual analysis of the proliferation potential of tumors.

  10. Retinoblastoma protein in human breast carcinoma: immunohistochemical study using a new monoclonal antibody effective on routinely processed tissues.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J J; Tiniakos, D G; McIntosh, G G; Autzen, P; Henry, J A; Thomas, M D; Reed, J; Horne, G M; Lennard, T W; Angus, B; Horne, C H

    1996-09-01

    Cyclic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) has been found to play a central role in the progression of the normal cell cycle, through modulation of the activity of the E2F family of transcription factors. Mutations of the retinoblastoma gene have been described in a wide variety of human malignancies including carcinomas of the breast. The present investigation reports the production and application of a new monoclonal antibody in an immunohistochemical study of pRB expression in 233 primary breast carcinomas, allowing an assessment of the contribution made by this tumour suppressor gene to tumour development and progression. Overall, there was loss of pRB expression in 21 per cent of breast tumours. Although high-grade tumours were found to lack detectable pRB more frequently than low-grade tumours, the difference did not prove statistically significant. In addition, pRB immunostaining was not related significantly to relapse or survival. No significant correlations were observed between apparent loss of pRB and tumour size, parity, patient lymph-node status, p53, c-erbB-2, c-jun, EGFR or steroid hormone receptor expression. Preliminary findings, however, did suggest a relationship between pRB expression and response to endocrine therapy.

  11. Pure (non-papillary) serous cystadenoma of the epididymis: a histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pich, Achille; Galliano, Diego

    2005-01-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with painless right scrotal swelling of 2 years duration. A cystic tumor strictly attached to the head of the epididymis was surgically resected. The pathologic examination revealed a unilocular cyst with a thin fibrous capsule, lined by ciliated cubical or cylindrical columnar cells, mostly arranged in a single layer. No papillary projection could be detected. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for epithelial membrane antigen, low- and high molecular weight cytokeratins, progesterone receptor, vimentin, and S-100 protein, but was negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, CD10, p53 protein, and calretinin. Single MIB-1 positive cells were noted. Histologic and immunohistochemical features suggest a Müllerian origin or differentiation. The lesion was diagnosed as pure serous cystadenoma of the epididymis, possibly originating from vestigial remnants of the Müller duct in male. The differential diagnosis to spermatocele and adenomatoid tumor of the epididymis is discussed.

  12. Intralymphatic granulomas as a pathogenic factor in cheilitis granulomatosa/Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome: report of a case with immunohistochemical and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    González-García, Carmen; Aguayo-Leiva, Ingrid; Pian, H; Fernández-Guarino, Montserrat; Jaén-Olasolo, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis, an uncommon immunologically mediated disorder, includes cheilitis granulomatosa and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. It is clinically characterized by recurrent or persistent swelling of the orofacial tissues with a spectrum of other orofacial features and sometimes with neurological symptoms. The pathological findings are varied but are often characterized by the presence of noncaseating granuloma. We present a new case of orofacial granulomatosis with unusual histopathological findings, namely, intralymphatic granulomas. These may be the cause of the tissue edema. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemical studies, the lymphatic nature of the vessels affected by the granulomatous process.

  13. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the omasum of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, E; Franco, AJ; Masot, AJ

    2005-01-01

    The red deer is an important study species because of its value in the national economy and because it provides a wealth of genetic material. To date, there has been little research into the prenatal development of the stomach of ruminants, and none of the red deer. We therefore performed a histological evaluation of the ontogenesis of the omasum in the red deer. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of deer from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. For test purposes, the animals were divided into five experimental groups: Group I (1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length, CRL; 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation); Group II (4.5–7.2 cm CRL; 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation); Group III (8–19 cm CRL; 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation); Group IV (21–33 cm CRL; 142–191 days, 50–70% of gestation); and Group V (36–40 cm CRL; 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation). At 67 embryonic days, the omasum wall was differentiated, and comprised three layers: the epithelial layer, pluripotential blastemic tissue and serosa. The stratification of the epithelial layer was accompanied by changes in its structure, with the appearance of four laminae of different sizes; in order of appearance these were: primary at 67 days, secondary at 90 days, tertiary at 97 days and quaternary at 135 days. At around mid-gestation, lateral evaginations were formed from the stratum basale of the primary and secondary smaller laminae. These were the primitive corneum papillae. From 205 days, the corneum papillae were present in all four sizes of laminae. The histodifferentiation of the lamina propia-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa showed patterns of development similar to those reported for the rumen and reticulum of red deer. The omasum of red deer during prenatal life, especially from 67 days of gestation, was shown to be an active structure with full secretory capacity. Its histological development, its secretory

  14. Evaluation of the Role of ALDH1 as Cancer Stem Cell Marker in Colorectal Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Aiad, Hayam Abd-El-Samie; Asaad, Nancy Yousif; Elkhouly, Enas Abobakr; Lasheen, Ayat Gamal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal Carcinoma (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. Stem Cells (SC) may be involved in tumour growth, including colon cancer. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is a detoxifying enzyme that might modulate SC proliferation. Aims To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of ALDH1 as stem cell marker in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 71 colorectal specimens (49 colorectal carcinoma, 13 adenoma and 9 normal cases) that were collected from Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University during the period from 2011 to 2015. All cases were stained by ALDH 1 antibody. Survival data were available for 31cases. Results There was a statistical significant association between epithelial positivity of ALDH1 and younger age (p=0.003), right sided tumour (p=0.038), presence of lymph node invasion (p= 0.04), ulcerating gross picture (p=0.01) and presence of vascular invasion (p=0.05). Moreover, there was statistical significant association between stromal positivity of ALDH1 and smaller tumour size (p=0.03) and inverse association between stromal expression of ALDH1 and grade of tumour (p=0.000) and perineural invasion (p= 0.05). Furthermore, there was an inverse significant relation between CD44 and ALDH1 expression (p=0.001). Univariate recurrence free survival analysis revealed the bad prognostic impact of high grade (p=0.03) and female sex (p=0.02) on patient outcome. Conclusion Epithelial expression of ALDH1 might be associated with poor prognosis while its stromal expression might be associated with good prognosis. PMID:28273973

  15. Novel morphological study of solar lentigines by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tessin; Tahira, Makoto; Morino, Shinichi; Horie, Takashi; Adachi, Koji; Tsutsumi, Reiko; Yamada, Nanako; Yoshida, Yuich; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Solar lentigines (SL) are hyperpigmented lesions generally seen in elderly people. Their pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated. We examined 75 cases of SL using routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry. In addition, seven cases were evaluated by electron microscopy. Histopathologically, we observed vacuolar changes in the dermoepidermal junction in 85% of the cases. Dermal melanophages were seen in 77% of the cases. The immunohistochemical expression rates in the epidermis for cytokeratin (CK)15, CK14, CK10, p63 and nestin were 76%, 100%, 100%, 100% and 17%, respectively. In 58 cases showing dermal melanophages, expression rates of CD163 and factor XIIIa on melanophages were 79% and 83%, respectively. Double positivity for both proteins was identified in 44 cases (75%). Ultrastructurally, vacuolar structures were seen in the cytoplasm of basal cells and upper dermis in all cases examined. We observed elimination processes of damaged basal keratinocytes, which were probably produced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, into the papillary dermis. The segregated damaged cell bodies containing melanin granules seemed to be phagocytosed by poorly immunostimulatory macrophages labeled immunohistochemically by CD163 and factor X IIIa, contributing to prolonged pigmentation of SL. In addition, repeated basal keratinocyte damages may be in association with altered CK and p63 expression patterns in the constituent cells of SL.

  16. The human neurosecretory neurones under perinatal hypoxia: a quantitative immunohistochemical study of the supraoptic nucleus in autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Pagida, M A; Konstantinidou, A E; Malidelis, Y I; Ganou, V; Tsekoura, E; Patsouris, E; Panayotacopoulou, M T

    2013-12-01

    In the rat, experimental manipulations that cause activation of the magnocellular neurosecretory neurones result in the synthesis, in addition to vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY), of other neurotransmitters or peptides, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis. In the human neonate, our previous study showed that TH was selectively increased in AVP neurones of subjects that died from prolonged perinatal hypoxia. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively investigate the expression of TH, AVP, OXY and neurophysin in magnocellular neurones of the human neonate in relation to the severity/duration of perinatal hypoxia, as estimated by neuropathological criteria. Autopsy was performed after obtaining parental written consent for diagnostic and research purposes. The intensity of the immunohistochemical reactions and the cellular/nuclear size were measured in the dorsolateral supraoptic nucleus using a computerised image analysis system. We showed that prolonged perinatal hypoxia resulted in the activation of the magnocellular neuroendocrine neurones of the human neonate, as indicated by their increased neuronal and nuclear size. OXY neurones appeared larger than the AVP ones at birth, possibly indicating an active role of foetal OXY during labour or even earlier. The gradual increase in the duration of the insult resulted in the reduction of intracellular AVP content, in parallel with a dramatic increase in the expression of TH, indicating a functional interaction of these peptides under neuronal activation. Ιsolated evidence in our series, obtained from an infant of a diabetic mother, raises the probability that in the case of hyperglycaemia the above pathogenetic mechanisms are diversified.

  17. Postnatal maturation of the gastrointestinal tract: a functional and immunohistochemical study in the guinea-pig ileum at weaning.

    PubMed

    Abalo, Raquel; Vera, Gema; Rivera, Antonio José; Moro-Rodríguez, Ernesto; Martín-Fontelles, María Isabel

    2009-12-25

    Gastrointestinal motility is mainly controlled by the myenteric plexus. The longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparation from the guinea-pig ileum is the best characterised adult gastrointestinal preparation; it has also been studied in old and neonatal animals, but not at weaning, when milk is substituted with the food typical of adult animals. We used LMMP preparations from weanling and adult guinea-pigs to study different functional parameters and immunohistochemically identified subpopulations of myenteric neurones, including the excitatory motor neurones to the longitudinal muscle (LM-EMN). Excitatory stimuli (low-frequency electrical stimulation, acetylcholine, substance P, and naloxone in morphine-tolerant preparations) produced similar responses in weanling and adult guinea-pigs. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, but not the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 or the opioid morphine, inhibited the electrically stimulated twitches less efficaciously, and in vitro tolerance to morphine was also lower in weanling compared to adult animals. The packing densities of the calbindin-immunoreactive neurones (sensory neurones) and of neurones immunoreactive to both calretinin (CR) and neurofilament triplet protein (NFT; ascending interneurones) were slightly but significantly lower in weanling animals, whereas those of the neurones immunoreactive to CR but not NFT (LM-EMN) or immunoreactive to nitric oxide synthase (mainly inhibitory motor neurones) were comparable to the adult. Although guinea-pigs are relatively mature and can even ingest solid food at birth, their myenteric plexus is still not fully mature at the standard time of weaning. The nutritional, behavioural and environmental changes associated with weaning may be essential to attain full maturation of the myenteric plexus and gastrointestinal motility.

  18. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the rumen of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A J; Masot, A J; Aguado, MaC; Gómez, L; Redondo, E

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study of the ontogenesis of deer stomach has not been undertaken to date, and our aim was to sequence several histological phenomena that occur during the ontogenesis of one of the gastric compartments, the rumen. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of deer from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. For the purposes of testing, the animals were divided into five experimental groups: group I, 1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length, 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation; group II, 4.5–7.2 cm crown–rump length, 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation; group III, 8–19 cm crown–rump length, 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation; group IV, 21–33 cm crown–rump length, 142–191 days, 45–70% of gestation; and group V, 36–40 cm crown–rump length, 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation. The rumen of the primitive gastric tube was observed at approximately 60 days. At 67 days the rumen consisted of three layers: internal or mucosal, middle or muscular, and external or serosal layer. The stratification of the epithelial layer was accompanied by changes in its structure with the appearance of ruminal pillars and papillae. The outline of the ruminal papillae began to appear at 142 days of prenatal development as evaginations of the basal zone toward the ruminal lumen, pulling with it in its configuration the stratum basale, the lamina propria and the submucosa. From the pluripotential blastemic tissue at 60 days we witnessed the histodifferentiation of the primitive tunica muscularis, composed of two layers of myoblasts with a defined arrangement. It was also from the pluripotential blastemic tissue, at 97 days, that the lamina propria and the submucosa were differentiated. The serosa showed continuity in growth as well as differentiation, already detected in the undifferentiated outline phase. The tegumentary mucosa of deer rumen was shown without secretory capacity in the initial embryonic

  19. Urothelial Carcinoma with shadow cell, lipid cell and sebaceous (skin adnexal) differentiation: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the histological and immunohistochemical features of 6 cases of urothelial carcinomas of lipid cell variant and 4 cases with shadow cell differentiation, one of which showed additionally sebaceous differentiation, one of which shows additional sebaceous differentiation, from our archive cases from the last 15 years. Conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC) was seen in all lipid cell variant cases, and micropapillary carcinoma was seen in 3. The ratio of the lipid cell component was between 10% and 40% in these 6 cases. Typical histologic features of the lipid cell variant include lipoblast-like cells with a notched nuclear appearance, abundant vacuoles, an eccentric nucleus, and pagetoid spread in some areas. GATA3 and pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunohistochemical staining were positive in all cases. Adipophilin was positive in various degrees in 5 of the 6 lipid cell variant cases but was also positive in the case with sebaceous differentiation. α-methylacyl-CoA racemase was positive in the lipid cell areas and negative or focal weakly positive in the conventional UC areas in 4 of the 6 cases. Vimentin, S-100 protein, and PAX8 were negative in the lipid cell component. Follow-up information was available for all cases with follow-up ranging from 6 to 84 months (mean, 34 months). Four patients died of the disease. One pT4 patient who had been followed up for 6 months lives with the disease, whereas another is disease free. In conclusion, the lipid cell variant is a rare UC variant that usually presents at an advanced stage, and tumor cells are histologically similar to lipoblasts, resemble sebaceous differentiation, and show positive immunohistochemical staining with adipophilin.

  20. Ameliorative effect of parsley oil on cisplatin-induced hepato-cardiotoxicity: A biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Abdellatief, Suhair A; Galal, Azza A A; Farouk, Sameh M; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2017-02-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is an effective DNA alkylating agent used in the treatment of different types of tumors; however, its clinical use is associated with hepato-cardiotoxicity. The current study was designed to assess the potential protective effect of parsley oil (PO) against CDDP-induced hepato-cardiotoxicity. For this purpose, 25 adult male rats were assigned into five groups, each containing five animals. Group I (control) was administered saline solution. Group II was administered PO at a dosage of 0.42ml/kg BW. Group III were administered CDDP at a dosage of 5mg/kg BW. Group IV was administered PO in addition to CDDP. Group V was administered saline solution in addition to CDDP, after which they were administered PO for five days. Oral administration of either saline solution or PO was performed each day for 10days, while administration of CDDP was via a single intraperitoneal injection five days following the commencement of the experiment. The recorded results revealed that CDDP induced obvious hepatic and cardiac injuries that were indicated by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical alterations, including elevation of serum hepatic and cardiac injury markers as well as proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, CDDP induced an increase in the level of hepatic and cardiac injury biomarkers, decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, a decrease in GSH concentration, and an increase in MDA concentration. CDDP also induced histopathological hepatocellular and myocardial changes, and overexpression of p53 and COX-2 in hepatic and cardiac tissues. Administration of PO either as a preventative medicine or as treatment significantly improved all the observed deleterious effects induced by CDDP in rat liver and heart. Thus, it may be concluded that PO, with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities, can potentially be used in the treatment of CDDP-induced hepatic and cardiac injuries.

  1. Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma: report of a case. Immunohistochemical study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huguet, P; Castellví, J; Avila, M; Alejo, M; Autonell, F; Basas, C; Bescos, M S

    2001-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is a rare malignant odontogenic tumour characterized by a benign epithelial component within a malignant fibrous stroma. Its behaviour is relatively benign, with absence of metastatic disease, and the prognosis is reported to be good. It is a paradoxical neoplasm with "sarcomatous" morphological and immunohistochemical patterns but with a favourable clinical course. We report a new case of this tumour in a mandibular ramus of a 31-years-old male patient, that was surgically excised and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Five years later the patient is free of disease. The growth potential of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is evaluated and compared with a related lesion, the ameloblastic fibroma. The sarcomatous mesenchymal component of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is positive to Ki67, PCNA and p53, in front of the negativity of ameloblastic fibroma.

  2. Immunohistochemical expression study of proapoptotic BH3-only protein bad in canine nonneoplastic tissues and canine lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, M; Croci, M; Vaughan, L; Guscetti, F

    2013-09-01

    The BH3-only protein Bad is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member that acts as a sensitizer in intrinsic apoptosis by inactivating antiapoptotic members through heterodimer formation. Bad has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis, including lymphoma formation in humans and mice, through alteration in expression or functional status. Here, its immunohistochemical expression was analyzed in canine nonneoplastic and lymphoma tissues using tissue microarrays. Bad was expressed in the cytoplasm of a wide range of nonneoplastic tissues, especially epithelial cells. Nonneoplastic lymph nodes displayed weak immunostaining in the follicular germinal centers only. Immunoblotting supported these observations but also revealed presence of nonspecific labeling in some organs. Of 81 lymphomas, 29 (35.8%) displayed moderate to strong immunohistochemical Bad labeling, and a significant expression increase was found in lymphomas (especially B cell and double negative) compared to nonneoplastic lymph nodes. These findings warrant further investigations of the functional status, the involvement of partner proteins, and a possible impact of Bad on prognosis in canine lymphoma.

  3. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; da Silva Lascane, Nelise Alexandre; Altemani, Albina; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, 3 cases of very rare intraoral carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas showing a striking differentiation of the malignant component towards epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were described. The tumors occurred in 2 men and 1 woman with median age of 56 years. Involved sites included palate and buccal mucosa. Two patients experienced local recurrences, of which one died of disease complications. In all cases, residual pleomorphic adenoma was present. The malignant component in all cases shared morphological aspects with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Those areas were characterized by eosinophilic duct-forming cells surrounded by layers of clear cells. The studied immunohistochemical markers highlighted a biphasic cell population. Duct-forming cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and focally cytokeratin 14, whereas the clear cell component strongly stained to cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and p63 but weakly stained to pan-cytokeratin and focally to α-smooth muscle actin, an immunophenotype compatible with both epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation index was up to 40% in malignant areas. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component are rare, locally aggressive, and potentially lethal tumors. The peculiar morphological and immunohistochemical aspects described may raise problems in diagnosis and classification of such cases, particularly in incisional biopsies.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Tumor Associated Macrophages in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using CD68 Marker: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bagul, Neeta; Roy, Souparna; Ganjre, Anjali; Meher, Aishwarya; Singh, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in India. Clear evidence regarding inflammation being an etiological factor of cancer was found only in the last few decades. A major inflammatory component in the tumor tissue is Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs). The CD68 antibody is a marker for staining TAMs. Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the macrophage count in healthy oral mucosa and OSCC and comparing TAMs in different histopathological grades of OSCC immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods Thirty archival specimens of OSCC patients and 10 healthy biopsy samples were collected. Immunohistochemical staining was done using a CD68 marker. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Comparing CD68 expression in various study groups showed a significant difference (p=0.000). The pair-wise analysis showed different grades of OSCC, which differed significantly for CD68 expression from the normal oral mucosa. Conclusion The most significant cells present in tumor stroma are TAMs, which remain in close proximity to neoplastic cells and interact with them via several chemical mediators, which may serve to increase the invasiveness of the malignant epithelium. Dense infiltration of TAMs adjacent to tumor cells and islands vividly implies their role in tumor progression. PMID:27190959

  5. Prognostic significance of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in LNG-IUS (Mirena) treatment of endometrial hyperplasia: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Emelie; Gallos, Ioannis D; Ganesan, Raji; Varma, Rajesh; Gupta, Janesh K

    2010-03-01

    We performed immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptors (PRA and PRB), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and aromatase in endometrial hyperplasia treated with Mirena (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system; LNG-IUS) and explored their prognostic significance. The baseline pre-treatment endometrial hyperplasia of a selected prospective cohort was analyzed [complex (n = 29) and atypical (n = 5)]. Study participants were categorized into those that showed endometrial regression (responders, n = 28) and those that showed non-regression or histological progression to atypia or malignancy (non-responders, n = 6). Immunohistochemical expression was expressed as a histological score (HS). Responders compared to non-responders showed significantly higher HSs for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors predicted non-responder status with likelihood ratios of 9.33 (95% CI 2.19-39.81) and 2.92 (95% CI 1.47-5.79), respectively. Neither PTEN nor aromatase expression were associated with LNG-IUS therapy responsiveness. Responsiveness of endometrial hyperplasia to LNG-IUS therapy may be determined through analysis of baseline estrogen and progesterone receptors, but these exploratory findings require confirmation in a larger dataset.

  6. Non-specific labelling of mast cells in feline oral mucosa--a potential problem in immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2002-01-01

    Non-specific labelling of mast cells was found to occur in formalin-fixed sections of feline oral mucosa during immunohistochemical procedures. The phenomenon occurred when normal goat, rabbit or mouse serum was applied as a negative control in place of primary antibodies. In addition, with murine isotype-specific negative control reagents, non-specific labelling of mast cells was intense when IgG2b was applied as the primary reagent, but absent or mild when IgGl or IgG2a isotypes were utilized. The non-specific labelling could be eliminated or diminished by reducing the pH of the washing and dilution buffers from 7.4 to 6.0, or by preincubating sections with heparin. The non-specific binding could also be abolished by preincubating sections with heparinase-I. The results suggest that the non-specific binding was mediated by heparin present within feline oral mucosal mast cells. These findings illustrate the importance of the inclusion of adequate control sections in immunohistochemical studies.

  7. Immunohistochemical study of the nervous system of the tunicate Thalia democratica (Forsskal, 1775).

    PubMed

    Pennati, R; Dell'Anna, A; Zega, G; De Bernardi, F

    2012-04-20

    Thalia democratica is a cosmopolitan tunicate belonging to the Thaliacea class. To further investigate the anatomy of this species, immunohistochemical labelling was performed using anti-tubulin and anti-serotonin antibodies on specimens collected in the Mediterranean Sea. The anti-tubulin antibody stained the cilia of the endostyle, the pericoronal bands and of the gill bar, enabling a detailed description of these structures. Moreover, immunolabelling of the nervous system showed the presence of eight pairs of nerve fibres emerging from the neural ganglion. Serotonergic cells were observed in the distal tract of the intestine, along the pericoronal bands, and in the placenta of gravid blastozooids, as well as in the neural ganglion. The presence of serotonin in the central nervous system has also been reported in the larvae of ascidians and may be linked to the planktonic life of these animals, a condition shared by adult thaliaceans and ascidian larvae. This work improves our knowledge of the anatomy of T. democratica and demonstrates the presence of a complex serotonergic system.

  8. Immunohistochemical Studies of Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Matrix Components in Dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L. Notochordal Cells.

    PubMed

    Restović, Ivana; Vukojević, Katarina; Paladin, Antonela; Saraga-Babić, Mirna; Bočina, Ivana

    2015-10-01

    Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques were used to define the distribution of cytoskeletal (cytokeratin 8, vimentin) and extracellular matrix components (collagen type I, collagen type II, hyaluronic acid, and aggrecan) and bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 7 (BMP4 and BMP7) in the notochord of the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L. Immunolocalization of hyaluronic acid was observed in the notochord, vertebral centrum, and neural and hemal arches, while positive labeling to aggrecan was observed in the ossified centrum, notochord, and the perichondrium of the hyaline cartilage. Type I collagen was observed in the mineralized cartilage of the vertebral bodies, the notochord, the fibrocartilage of intervertebral disc, and the perichondrium. A positive labeling to type II collagen was observed in the inner part of the cartilaginous vertebral centrum and the notochord, as well as in the neural arch and muscle tissue, but there was no appreciable labeling of the hyaline cartilage. The presence of both BMP4 and BMP7 was seen in the mineralized vertebral centrum, notochordal cells, and neural arch. The notochordal cells expressed both cytokeratin 8 and vimentin, but predominantly vimentin. Hyaluronic acid, collagen type I, and collagen type II expression confirmed the presence of a mixture of notochordal and fibrocartilaginous tissue in the intervertebral disc, while BMPs confirmed the presence of an ossification in the cartilaginous skeleton of the spotted dogfish.

  9. [Surfactant protein and thyroid transcription factor 1 in pleuro-pulmonary neoplasia. Immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Dessy, E; Falleni, M; Del Curto, B; Braidotti, P; Pietra, G G

    2000-12-01

    Aim of this work was to investigate the ability of the antibodies against Surfactant proteins (SP) and Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) to distinguish primary neoplasms of the lung from metastatic carcinomas to the lung and pleural mesotheliomas. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the antibodies anti SP-A, SP-B, pro SP-C, SP-D, and TTF-1 in a series of 56 primary lung carcinomas, 9 metastatic carcinomas to the lung, 5 pleural mesotheliomas and 8 non-pulmonary carcinomas. Among primary lung neoplasms, only adenocarcinomas immunostained for all SP (specificity = 1; total sensitivity = 0.52). TTF-1 had an excellent specificity (= 1), but a weak sensitivity (= 0.34) in recognizing primary lung carcinomas. TTF-1 was present in lung adenocarcinomas which were negative for SPs; however it failed to distinguish the subtypes. Pleural mesotheliomas, pulmonary metastases and non-pulmonary carcinomas were not immunoreactive for SP-A, SP-B, SP-D, and TTF-1. Pro SP-C was positive also in the adenocarcinomas of the large bowel and in their pulmonary and nodal metastases. These results demonstrate that the combined use of antibodies anti SP-A, SP-B and TTF-1 is the best association in distinguishing primary lung carcinomas from metastatic carcinomas to the lung and pleural mesotheliomas.

  10. Severe necrotizing encephalitis in a Yorkshire terrier: topographic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lezmi, S; Toussaint, Y; Prata, D; Lejeune, T; Ferreira-Neves, P; Rakotovao, F; Fontaine, J J; Marchal, T; Cordonnier, N

    2007-05-01

    Necrotizing encephalitis of the Yorkshire terrier is a chronic non-suppurative encephalitis that was reported in approximately 15 cases worldwide. We report the case of a 10-year-old female Yorkshire terrier with gross evidence of severe cortical degeneration and necrosis. Microscopically, affected areas were mainly located in the cortical white matter and in the mesencephalon without implication of the cerebellum. Cavitation necrosis, demyelination, gemistocytic astrocytosis, marked perivascular lymphocytic cuffing with a diffuse lymphocytic/histiocytic/gitter cell infiltration characterized the lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis identified the major infiltration of T lymphocytes and macrophages with implication of some cytotoxic lymphocytes and IgG-producing plasma cells; depositions of IgG in the affected white matter were also observed. Specific stains did not reveal fungal, protozoal or bacterial organisms and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis for distemper virus was also negative. The lympho-histiocytic inflammation suggests a T-cell-mediated and a delayed-type immune reaction as a possible pathogenic mechanism for this brain disorder.

  11. An immunohistochemical study of matrix proteins in the craniofacial cartilage in midterm human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Shibata, S; Sakamoto, Y; Baba, O; Qin, C; Murakami, G; Cho, B H

    2013-12-02

    Immunohistochemical localization of collagen types I, II, and X, aggrecan, versican, dentin matrix protein (DMP)-1, martix extracellular phosphoprotein (MEPE) were performed for Meckel's cartilage, cranial base cartilage, and mandibular condylar cartilage in human midterm fetuses; staining patterns within the condylar cartilage were compared to those within other cartilaginous structures. Mandibular condylar cartilage contained aggrecan; it also had more type I collagen and a thicker hypertrophic cell layer than the other two types of cartilage; these three characteristics are similar to those of the secondary cartilage of rodents. MEPE immunoreactivity was first evident in the cartilage matrix of all types of cartilage in the human fetuses and in Meckel's cartilage of mice and rats. MEPE immunoreactivity was enhanced in the deep layer of the hypertrophic cell layer and in the cartilaginous core of the bone trabeculae in the primary spongiosa. These results indicated that MEPE is a component of cartilage matrix and may be involved in cartilage mineralization. DMP-1 immunoreactivity first became evident in human bone lacunae walls and canaliculi; this pattern of expression was comparable to the pattern seen in rodents. In addition, chondroid bone was evident in the mandibular (glenoid) fossa of the temporal bone, and it had aggrecan, collagen types I and X, MEPE, and DMP-1 immunoreactivity; these findings indicated that chondroid bone in this region has phenotypic expression indicative of both hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocytes.

  12. The hormonal receptor status of uterine carcinosarcomas (mixed müllerian tumours): an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Ansink, A C; Cross, P A; Scorer, P; de Barros Lopes, A; Monaghan, J M

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of oestrogen and progesterone receptor status in uterine carcinosarcomas (mixed Müllerian tumours) to see whether the receptors were identifiable, and if so whether they were of significance clinically. METHODS: 11 cases of uterine carcinosarcoma were identified from clinical and pathology records. An immunohistochemical method was used to demonstrate oestrogen and progesterone hormone receptors on paraffin embedded material, with suitable tissue controls, staining being recorded. RESULTS: 10 of 11 cases showed staining for one or both hormone receptors in normal tissue adjacent to tumour. In four carcinosarcoma cases, staining for one or both receptors was shown within the epithelial component (appearing to correlate with the degree of epithelial differentiation); two of these cases had staining within sarcomatous areas. Two of the three patients still alive had epithelial hormone receptor positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Receptors for oestrogen and progesterone were found in four of 11 cases of uterine carcinosarcoma, using paraffin embedded material. There may be an association between hormone receptor positivity and clinical outcome. Images PMID:9215151

  13. An Immunohistochemical Study of Matrix Proteins in the Craniofacial Cartilage in Midterm Human Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Baba, O.; Qin, C.; Murakami, G.; Cho, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of collagen types I, II, and X, aggrecan, versican, dentin matrix protein (DMP)-1, martix extracellular phosphoprotein (MEPE) were performed for Meckel’s cartilage, cranial base cartilage, and mandibular condylar cartilage in human midterm fetuses; staining patterns within the condylar cartilage were compared to those within other cartilaginous structures. Mandibular condylar cartilage contained aggrecan; it also had more type I collagen and a thicker hypertrophic cell layer than the other two types of cartilage; these three characteristics are similar to those of the secondary cartilage of rodents. MEPE immunoreactivity was first evident in the cartilage matrix of all types of cartilage in the human fetuses and in Meckel’s cartilage of mice and rats. MEPE immunoreactivity was enhanced in the deep layer of the hypertrophic cell layer and in the cartilaginous core of the bone trabeculae in the primary spongiosa. These results indicated that MEPE is a component of cartilage matrix and may be involved in cartilage mineralization. DMP-1 immunoreactivity first became evident in human bone lacunae walls and canaliculi; this pattern of expression was comparable to the pattern seen in rodents. In addition, chondroid bone was evident in the mandibular (glenoid) fossa of the temporal bone, and it had aggrecan, collagen types I and X, MEPE, and DMP-1 immunoreactivity; these findings indicated that chondroid bone in this region has phenotypic expression indicative of both hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocytes. PMID:24441192

  14. Significance of immunohistochemical findings in Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: The need for more validation studies.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Muhammed

    2013-07-01

    Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has been validated as clinically useful tool for prognostication of individual patients with IgAN. The original classification did not address the significance of immunostaining pattern in IgAN. A subsequent study by the same authors found immunostaining data to be potentially useful in predicting some of the morphological variables of Oxford classification. The study under discussion also addresses the potential significance of these ancillary data in refining the individual prognostication in this disease. Please cite this paper as: Mubarak M. Significance of immunohistochemical findings in Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: The need for more validation studies. J Nephropathology. 2013; 2(3): 210-213. DOI: 10.5812/nephropathol.11089.

  15. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): a histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N J; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Cole, R A; Meteyer, C U

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neurona meningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondii meningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  16. Protozoal Meningoencephalitis in Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris): a Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Naturally Occuring Cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Cole, R.A.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neurona meningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondii meningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  17. Detection of Cancer Stem Cells in Colorectal Cancer: Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ismaiel, Nour El Hoda S.; Sharaf, Walid M.; Helmy, Dina O.; Zaki, Mona M.; Badawi, Manal A.; Soliman, Ahmed S. A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports the notion that the onset of tumorigenesis could occur through cancer stem cells (CSCs). These tumour cells show low proliferative rates, high self-renewal capacity, propensity to differentiate into active proliferating tumour cells & resistance to chemoradiotherapy thus, possibly causing local recurrences & metastasis formation. CD44 has been used as a marker to isolate CSCs from colorectal carcinoma (CRC). AIM: To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of cancer stem cells marker (CD44) in CRC and correlate its expression with the clinicopathological aspects, TNM staging and modified Dukes’ classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumour biopsies from colectomy specimens of 60 patients with CRC were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological evaluation then immunostained with monoclonal antibodies against CD44 which was detected in term of negative or positive expression. RESULTS: CD44 was demonstrated in 58.3% (35/60) of cases and showed statistically significant correlation with tumour site and histological type (p-value < 0.05). However, CD44 showed statistically insignificant inverse correlation with tumour invasiveness (T), lymph node status (N), grade, TNM stage grouping and modified Dukes’ classification, while it was directly correlated with distant metastasis (M) (p-value > 0.05). Chi-square /Fisher exact test proportion independence and the p-value are set significant at 0.05 level. CONCLUSION: the CD44 rate of expression is higher in the colon than rectum and in adenocarcinoma than mucinous and undifferentiated carcinoma. CD44 showed statistically insignificant relation with T, N, M, grade, TNM stage grouping and modified Dukes’ classification. PMID:28028388

  18. Atrial development in the human heart: an immunohistochemical study with emphasis on the role of mesenchymal tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessels, A.; Anderson, R. H.; Markwald, R. R.; Webb, S.; Brown, N. A.; Viragh, S.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the atrial chambers in the human heart was investigated immunohistochemically using a set of previously described antibodies. This set included the monoclonal antibody 249-9G9, which enabled us to discriminate the endocardial cushion-derived mesenchymal tissues from those derived from extracardiac splanchnic mesoderm, and a monoclonal antibody recognizing the B isoform of creatine kinase, which allowed us to distinguish the right atrial myocardium from the left. The expression patterns obtained with these antibodies, combined with additional histological information derived from the serial sections, permitted us to describe in detail the morphogenetic events involved in the development of the primary atrial septum (septum primum) and the pulmonary vein in human embryos from Carnegie stage 14 onward. The level of expression of creatine kinase B (CK-B) was found to be consistently higher in the left atrial myocardium than in the right, with a sharp boundary between high and low expression located between the primary septum and the left venous valve indicating that the primary septum is part of the left atrial gene-expression domain. This expression pattern of CK-B is reminiscent of that of the homeobox gene Pitx2, which has recently been shown to be important for atrial septation in the mouse. This study also demonstrates a poorly appreciated role of the dorsal mesocardium in cardiac development. From the earliest stage investigated onward, the mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium protrudes into the dorsal wall of the primary atrial segment. This dorsal mesenchymal protrusion is continuous with a mesenchymal cap on the leading edge of the primary atrial septum. Neither the mesenchymal tissues of the dorsal protrusion nor the mesenchymal cap on the edge of the primary septum expressed the endocardial tissue antigen recognized by 249-9G9 at any of the stages investigated. The developing pulmonary vein uses the dorsal mesocardium as a conduit to reach

  19. New Markers in Atherosclerosis: Thrombospondin-2 (THBS-2) and Leukocyte Cell-Derived Chemotaxin-2 (LECT-2); An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, Fatma Cavide; Yildiz, Pelin; Akhtar, Muhammad Salman; Aydin, Cemalettin; Sonmez, Osman; Ay, Nuray; Vatankulu, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Background Current research investigating the role of THBS2 and LECT-2 in atherogenesis is very limited. Therefore, we designed this study to demonstrate the role of THBS-2 and LECT-2 in atherosclerosis at the tissue level in fresh specimens. Material/Methods A total of 32 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery were enrolled. Aortic wall punch biopsies were obtained at the site of proximal aortosaphenous bypass graft anastomosis. A specimen of left internal mammarian artery (LiMA) was taken from the segment just proximal to its anastomosis. The aortic tissue is representive of the atherosclerotic tisue, and LiMA tissue is representative of the non-atherosclerotic area. The specimens were painted with CD68 for macrophage, and THBS-2 and LECT-2 antibodies for immunohistochemical staining. Results Aortic THBS-2 levels were significantly lower, whereas aortic LECT-2 levels were significantly higher when compare to LiMA (14.4±9.9 (5–30) and 36.9±13.0 (5–60) p: 0.0001 and 20.3±15.0 (5–60) and 20.8±13,8 (10–30) p: 0.0001, respectively). CD68+ and monocyte level correlated significantly with AHA atherosclerosis grade (p=0.01, r=0.45 and p=0.001, r=0.56, Spearman’s test). CD68+ level correlated significantly with LECT-2 levels in atherosclerotic aortic tissue (p=0.026, r=0.392, Spearman’s test), whereas aortic TSBN-2 levels were not. Conclusions The present study has taken the first steps to highlight new markers in atherosclerosis by using immunohistochemical method. The study results suggest that the tissue levels of THBS2 and LECT-2 may correlate with the stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:28039493

  20. Pleomorphic and dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 41 cases.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Marlo M; Tamboli, Pheroze; Gomez, Jose A; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2010-05-01

    In this article, we supplement the few published articles by describing the clinical and pathologic features of pleomorphic and dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma from 41 patients (27 women and 14 men) with an age range of 25 to 75 years (mean, 56.5 years), representing the largest cohort reported to date. The typical leiomyosarcoma component accounted for <5% to 60% (mean, 15%) of the tumor. The pleomorphic sarcoma component was composed of polygonal cells in 57% of cases, spindle cells in 21%, a combination of polygonal, epithelioid, rhabdoid, and/or spindle cells in 18%, and predominantly epithelioid cells in 3%. The classical leiomyosarcoma component was positive for at least one myogenic immunohistochemical marker in 29 tumors tested; smooth muscle actin in 100% (27/27), calponin in 90% (9/10), muscle-specific actin in 90% (10/11), desmin in 86% (23/27), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMS-1) in 67% (4/6), and caldesmon in 57% (4/7). The pleomorphic sarcoma component was reactive for at least one muscle marker in 77% (23/30) of cases; smooth muscle actin in 63% (17/27), calponin in 60% (6/10), SMMS-1 in 60% (3/5), desmin in 59% (16/27), muscle-specific actin in 40% (4/10), and caldesmon in 29% (2/7). The classical leiomyosarcoma component was often strongly positive for myogenic markers, and the pleomorphic sarcoma component usually showed focal and less intense immunoreactivity. Based on staining for muscle markers in the pleomorphic component, twenty-three cases were designated as pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, and 7 cases were designated as dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma (negative for all muscle markers used). Eleven cases, in which tissue was not available for immunhistochemical stains, the question of pleomorphic versus dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma could not be answered. The incidence of metastasis was 89% (32/36) and the mortality rate was 50% (18/36) at last follow-up (3-104 months; mean, 27.5 months).

  1. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the reticulum of red deer during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A J; Redondo, E; Masot, A J

    2004-01-01

    Iberian red deer need to be conserved for their economic role and for their genetic importance as an important component of the ecosystem. Modifications currently being made to traditional management systems require a better understanding of the structure, function and development of their alimentary system. Here we describe a histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of the stomach of 25 red deer embryos and fetuses from 30 days of gestation until birth (235 days). Differentiation of the reticular compartment from the primitive gastric tube begins at 67 days, forming a three-layered structure: epithelium, pluripotential blastemal tissue and serosa. The primitive reticular cells are initiated as small epithelial evaginations (primary ribs) at 117 days. At 142 days, lateral growths appear from the primary reticular ribs, forming the corneum papillae. The secondary reticular ribs form at 142 days as growths from the primary ribs. The uneven height of primary and secondary reticular ribs leads to the formation of cells of varying size. Growth of the reticular ribs involves the lamina propria but not the submucosa, so clear separation of these layers is maintained during histodifferentiation. Formation of the tunica muscularis from the pluripotential blastemal tissue begins at 67 days of intrauterine life, as two layers of longitudinally and circularly arranged myoblasts. Differentiation of the muscularis from the mucosa occurs at approximately 205 days, as longitudinal projections of the internal bundles of the tunica muscularis form the musculature of the primary ribs. The secretion of neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides by the reticular epithelial layer begins at 67 days, establishing the gradual adaptation of the mucosa to its protective function in postnatal life. Neuroendocrine (non-neuron enolase) and glial cells (glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin) were detected by immunohistochemistry, in a similar localization and intensity to that

  2. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study of the Lamellae of Oocytes in Atretic Follicles in Relation to Different Processes of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, M.L.; Echeverría, O.M.; García, G.; Ortiz, R.; Vázquez-Nin, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Atresia is the process through which non-selectable oocytes are eliminated; it involves apoptosis and/or autophagy. This study used immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques to characterize the lamellae present in the cytoplasm of oocytes in follicles in the process of atresia in prepubertal and adult Wistar rats. The results indicate that the lamellae are positive to tubulin and myosin immunodetection under light and electron microscopy. Labeling is greater with anti-tubulin and lesser with anti-myosin. Our observations indicate that lamellae are present in oocytes at the initial antral stage in prepubertal rats; that is, from day 14 post-birth to adult age. We were able to determine that the increase in altered lamellae principally occurs in the apoptotic cells rather than in the autophagic cells. PMID:26428888

  3. Stem/Progenitor Cells in the Developing Human Cerebellum: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pibiri, V.; Ravarino, A.; Gerosa, C.; Pintus, M.C.; Fanos, V.; Faa, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella. SOX2 was expressed in precursors of different neural cell types, including Purkinje neurons, stellate cells, basket cells and Golgi cells. In the cerebellar cortex, SOX2 expression changed during gestation, being highly expressed from the 20th up to the 24th week, whereas at the 30th and at the 34th week SOX2 immunoreactivity was restricted to the Purkinje cell layer and the inner zone. Cerebellar human cortex was negative at the 38th week of gestation. PAX6 immunoreactivity was restricted to granule cell precursors in the external granule layer (EGL), being detected at all gestational ages. Our study indicates SOX2 and PAX6 as two useful markers of stem/progenitor cells that highlight the different germinative zones in the developing human cerebellum. PMID:27734996

  4. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  5. The cutaneous manifestations of atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome: a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Selim, Maria Angelica; Markert, Mary L; Burchette, James L; Herman, Christopher M; Turner, John W

    2008-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a congenital anomaly with a constellation of findings that includes thymic hypoplasia. Only a small subset of patients with DiGeorge syndrome has complete athymia, classified as complete DiGeorge anomaly; one third of these patients show an eczematous dermatitis, oligoclonal T-cells and lymphadenopathy, known as atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. Six biopsies from six patients with the distinctive clinical phenotype of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly were studied. Every biopsy showed exocytosis (100%), parakeratosis, often confluent and spongiosis (100%). Neutrophilic abscesses (50%), dyskeratosis (67%) and satellite cell necrosis (50%) were seen. Perieccrine and perivascular inflammation were seen in half of the cases. Eosinophils were identified (83%); most commonly in both the epidermis and dermis. All of lymphocytes were CD3 positive. Most (83%) of cases contained T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) positive cells. Special testing of the selected patients using spectratyping identified oligoclonal T-cell populations. The presence of dyskeratotic keratinocytes, satellite cell necrosis and parakeratotic scale with neutrophils characterizes the cutaneous rash seen in this subset of complete DiGeorge syndrome patients. Such skin lesions from patients with DiGeorge anomaly should alert the pathologist to the potential diagnosis of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. The pathophysiologic role of the oligoclonal T-cells in this entity requires additional study.

  6. Expression of claudin-5 in canine pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma - An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Gálfi, Péter; Halász, Judit; Kulka, Janina

    2011-03-01

    Claudin-5 is an endothelium-specific tight junction protein. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression pattern of this molecule in intact pancreatic tissues and in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas from dogs by the use of cross-reactive humanised anticlaudin-5 antibody. The necropsy samples taken from dogs included 10 nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues, 10 well-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 10 poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 5 intrahepatic metastases of well-differentiated and 5 intrahepatic metastases of poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinomas. A strong lateral membrane claudin-5 positivity was detected in exocrine cells in all intact pancreas samples. The endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans and the epithelial cells of the ducts were negative for claudin-5. The endothelial cells of vessels and lymphatic channels in the stroma of the intact pancreas showed strong membrane positivity for this claudin. All well-differentiated exocrine pancreas carcinomas and all poorly-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma samples showed a diffuse loss of claudin-5 expression. The claudin-5-positive peritumoural vessels and lymphatic channels facilitated the detection of vascular invasion of the claudin-5-negative cancer cells. In liver metastasis samples, the pancreatic carcinomas were negative for claudin-5. It seems that the loss of expression of claudin-5 may lead to carcinogenesis in canine exocrine pancreatic cells.

  7. Molecular analysis of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Bondareff, W.; Wischik, C. M.; Novak, M.; Amos, W. B.; Klug, A.; Roth, M.

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies directed against three regions of tau, ubiquitin, and B-amyloid were used in a histologic study of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease to distinguish two populations of neurofibrillary tangles. Intracellular tangles were immunolabeled exclusively by two antibodies raised against antigens in the fuzzy coat of the paired helical filament (PHF). Extracellular tangles were distinguished by selective immunolabeling with a monoclonal antibody raised against antigens in the PHF core. This was associated with removal of the fuzzy coat and exposure of PHF-core epitopes. In the transition from intracellular to extracellular compartments in vivo, tangles appeared to undergo changes similar to protease digestion in vitro. The transition was associated with the appearance of amyloid immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that tangle degradation occurs in a series of distinct stages, including ubiquitination of some unknown molecule, a change in tau immunoreactivity, and partial proteolysis of tangle-bound tau in extracellular tangles. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2169192

  8. Immunohistochemical study of constitutive neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the central nervous system of goat with natural listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, T; Weinstock, D; Castro, M D; Acland, H; Walter, M; Kim, H Y; Purchase, H G

    2000-12-01

    The expression of both constitutive and inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections in normal and Listeria monocytogenes-infected brains of goats. In normal control goats, a small number of neurons showed immunoreactivity of both iNOS and nNOS, and the number of iNOS-positive neurons was higher than the number of nNOS-positive neurons. In natural listeriosis, listeria antigens were easily immunostained in the inflammatory cells of microabscesses. In this lesion, the immunoreactivity of iNOS in neurons was more intense than the control, but nNOS was not. In microabscesses, nNOS was weakly visualized in macrophages and neutrophils, while iNOS was expressed in macrophages, but not in neutrophils. These findings suggest that normal caprine brain cells, including neurons, constitutively express iNOS and nNOS, and the expressions of these molecules is increased in Listeria monocytogenes infections. Furthermore, inflammatory cells, including macrophages, expressing both nNOS and iNOS may play important roles in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningoencephalitis in goat.

  9. p53 Mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Travis, W.H.; Linehan, H.M.; Karl, M.; Mastorakos, G.; Chrousos, G.P.

    1994-03-01

    p53 is a recessive tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p. Mutations in the p53 gene play an important role in the tumorigenesis of diverse types of human neoplasms including breast and colon cancers. More than 90% of all mutations discovered in such tumors have been detected in 4 hot spot areas that lie between exons 5 and 8. In contrast to wild-type p53, mutant p53 accumulates intracellularly and can be easily detected by immunohistochemistry. The authors therefore investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms using molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Five patients with adrenocortical adenomas (5 female; ages 39-72 yr), 11 patients with adrenocortical carcinomas (8 female, 3 male; ages 15-50 yr), and two adrenocortical tumor cell lines were studied. After DNA extraction from frozen tumor tissue or paraffin-embedded material, exons 5 through 8 were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced by the dideoxy termination method. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens obtained during adrenalectomy using a monoclonal antibody reacting with both wild-type and mutant p53. Prevalence of mutations was adenomas, 0/5, carcinomas, 3/11, and adrenocortical cell lines, 2/2. Single point mutations were detected in 3 cases (exons 5, 6, and 7, respectively), and rearrangements of exon 7/8 and 8 were found in 2 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected strong nuclear and/or cytoplasmic p53 immunoreactivity in all adrenocortical carcinomas with point mutations of the p53 gene but not in adenomas and carcinomas with the wild-type sequence or with deletion/rearrangement of the p53 gene. They conclude that p53 plays a role in the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinomas but is of less importance to benign adenomas. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Morphological and immunohistochemical studies of the lungs and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in a rat model of chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, M; Sato, A

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequently encountered bacterial pathogens in patients with chronic pulmonary infections, including cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), noted frequently in patients with cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis, is considered to play an important role in the local immunologic defense mechanisms in the respiratory tract. To investigate the role of BALT in chronic pulmonary infections, we developed an animal model for chronic pulmonary infection and studied the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of BALT. Experimental pneumonia was produced in rats by intratracheal inoculation of P. aeruginosa enmeshed in agar beads. The histological changes corresponded to those occurring in chronic bronchiolitis. Immunohistochemically, surface immunoglobulin M-positive (sIgM+) cells and sIgA+ cells were recognized in the inflamed bronchial walls from day 4, and sIgG+ cells were recognized from day 14, W3/25+ cells exceeded OX8+ cells in number until day 14. In the BALT, there was a massive accumulation of lymphocytes in the lymphatics and high endothelial venules. The development of germinal centers was accompanied by increased numbers of sIgM+ and sIgA+ cells. W3/25+ cells exceeded OX8+ cells in number in the BALT until day 14. On the other hand, OX8+ cells were predominant in comparison with W3/25+ cells at day 21, and then both sIgM+ and sIgA+ cells and inflammatory changes in the lung decreased at day 28. These findings suggest that BALT regulates the local immune responses against chronic pulmonary infection due to P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:2004830

  11. Histogenesis of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses. An electron-microscopic, biochemical, enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, M.; Torikata, C.; Iri, H.; Mikata, A.; Kawai, T.; Hanaoka, H.; Yakumaru, K.; Kageyama, K.

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the histogenesis of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses (CCS) as well as the problem of whether or not CCS is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, studies based on various methods were performed. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans gave the same results for amelanotic CCS and synovial sarcoma, and the DOPA reaction gave the same negative results for amelanotic CCS and synovial sarcoma. However, the DOPA reaction was also negative in an amelanotic recurrent tumor of a melanotic CCS, and electron-microscopic studies revealed a close resemblance between amelanotic CCS and melanotic CCS. Further, enzyme histochemical studies showed definite differences between synovial sarcoma and amelanotic CCS but gave identical results for amelanotic and melanotic CCS. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of S-100 protein in all CCS cases, both amelanotic and melanotic. These results indicate that CCS is not a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, and that both amelanotic and melanotic CCS are of neural crest origin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6320649

  12. Modulatory effects of levamisole and garlic oil on the immune response of Wistar rats: Biochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Essam Hassan; Baiomy, Ahmed Abdel-Aziz; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Levamisole (LEVA) and garlic are prevalent immunomodulators in humans and animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effects of LEVA and garlic oil (GO) alone or in combination on the immune response of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were allocated into four equal groups: Control group, which was given ad libitum access to food and water; and groups 2‑4, which were orally administered LEVA [2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) every 2 days], GO, (5 ml/kg BW daily), or LEVA plus GO, respectively for 4 consecutive weeks. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM levels were measured using a radial immunodiffusion assay. Serum cytokine levels, including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were measured using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Total blood counts were measured automatically using a cell counter. Serum lysozyme enzymatic activity was determined by measuring the diameters of the zones of clearance relative to lysozyme. Immunohistochemical detection of CD4 and CD8 was carried out using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of IL‑4, IL‑5 and IL‑12 were measured in the leukocytes and thymus gland by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that LEVA increased serum levels of IFN‑γ, IL‑5 and TNF‑α cytokines, whereas co‑administration of LEVA and GO decreased the stimulatory action of LEVA alone. LEVA and GO alone increased the serum levels of IgG, IgM and total blood cell counts, and co‑administration of GO and LEVA inhibited the effects of LEVA. At the cellular level, in the spleen, LEVA increased immunoreactivity of CD4 and CD8, whereas co‑administration of GO with LEVA decreased this strong expression. At the molecular level, in leukocytes, LEVA upregulated the mRNA expression levels of IL‑2, IL‑4 and IL‑5, whereas GO alone downregulated mRNA expression. Co‑administration of

  13. Complete absence of KSHV/HHV-8 in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders: an immunohistochemical and molecular study of 52 cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Qin; Zuppan, Craig W; Rowsell, Edward H; Cao, Jeffrey D; Weiss, Lawrence M; Wang, Jun

    2009-05-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs), a heterogeneous group of monoclonal or polyclonal lesions, occur in immunosuppressed patients after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Although most PTLDs are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ and seem to represent EBV-induced proliferations of monoclonal (or less often polyclonal) B, T, or plasma cells, a subset of PTLDs is EBV-. Because Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8) has been described in association with the development of hematolymphoid and nonhematolymphoid neoplasms in HIV+ patients, we investigated whether there is an association between KSHV/HHV-8 and PTLDs. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 52 confirmed PTLD cases were analyzed immunohistochemically for expression of KSHV/HHV-8 latent nuclear antigen (LNA)-1 protein and by polymerase chain reaction-hybridization analysis for the KSHV/HHV-8 genome. The PTLD subtypes included 12 with early lesions (1 plasmacytic hyperplasia and 11 infectious mononucleosis-like), 10 polymorphic, 23 monomorphic (5 Burkitt, 14 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 1 plasmacytoma, 1 multiple myeloma, and 2 T-cell), 1 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 5 HL-like lesions, and 1 unclassified or other. None of the 51 tested specimens showed expression of KSHV/HHV-8 LNA-1. Furthermore, all 46 specimens tested demonstrated complete absence of the KSHV/HHV-8 genome. Our data clearly indicated that KSHV/HHV-8 is not associated with PTLDs.

  14. A somatostatin-secreting cell line established from a human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma (somatostatinoma): release experiment and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, H; Hayashi, I; Kono, A

    1990-06-15

    Production and secretion of somatostatin (SRIF) were studied using a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing cell line (QGP-1) established from a human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. High concentrations of SRIF (274 +/- 51 ng/mg of protein, mean +/- SD, n = 5) and CEA (3083 +/- 347 ng/mg of protein, mean +/- SD, n = 5) were present in QGP-1 cells, and the basal secretion rates of SRIF and CEA by the cells (n = 5) were 46.4 +/- 4.8 and 1690 +/- 78 pg/10(5) cells/h, respectively. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of SRIF in xenografts of QGP-1 cells and colocalization of SRIF and CEA. Secretion of SRIF by QGP-1 cells was stimulated in the presence of high K+ (50 mmol) and theophylline (10 mmol), but arginine (10 mmol) and glucose (300 mg/dl) had no effect on the SRIF secretion. The QGP-1 cell line may be useful for studying the regulation mechanism of SRIF secretion.

  15. CENTRAL GIANT CELL GRANULOMA OF THE JAWS AND GIANT CELL TUMOR OF LONG BONES - AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, Maria do Socorro; Piva, Marta Rabello; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; de Souza, Lélia Batista; Pinto, Leão Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether some components of the extracellular matrix and CD68 expression may drive the differences between the central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaws and giant cell tumor (GCT) of long bones, which present distinct evolution and clinical behavior. Material and Methods: Eight cases of CGCG and 7 cases of GCT were selected and immunohistochemically analyzed to verify the pattern of expression of CD68, tenascin (Tn) and fibronectin (Fn). Results: A large number of the mononuclear cells and multinucleated giant cells CD68+ was observed in both of the studied lesions, indicating histiocyte/macrophage origin. Seven cases of CGCG of the jaws showed intense staining of Fn, with uniform distribution predominantly. In all 7 cases of GCT of long bones the Fn displayed intense expression, with distribution pattern varying from uniform to reticulate/fibrillar. Six cases of CGCG were intensively stained by Tn, presenting focal expression in half of specimens, and reticulate/fibrillar pattern of expression in 4 cases. All cases of GCT of the long bones presented intense expression of Tn, uniform distribution, and reticulate/fibrillar pattern of expression in four cases. Conclusions: The immunoexpression of CD68 in mononuclear cells and multinucleated giant cells and staining patterns of Fn and Tn were similar in both entities. These findings indicate that these proteins could not be used to explain the differences between the CGCG of the jaws and GCT of the long bones. PMID:19089150

  16. [Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in splenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Lima, Flávia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs.

  17. Immunohistochemical studies concerning the neuronal cell cycle of the cat using PCNA, Ki-67 and p53 markers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Schmidt, P; Url, A

    2004-12-01

    Recent studies about parvovirus replication in mature neurones of cats indicate that even feline neurones do not seem to be terminally differentiated. For further determination of the proliferative capability of feline neurones, an immunohistochemical study investigating the neuronal expression of the cell cycle-related proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki-67 and p53 was initiated. Brains of 50 cats of different age and gender, dying of various diseases, were examined. Strong PCNA clone PC10 expression could be observed in neurones of the cerebellar cortex and the vestibular nuclei, whereas entorhinal cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus and cerebral cortex revealed only weak immunolabelling. The PCNA clone 19F4 labelled numerous neurones in vestibular nuclei and some Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Nuclear expression of Ki-67 was sporadic in the vestibular nuclei, but p53 expression could not be detected anywhere in the feline brain. However, the presence of nuclear PCNA and Ki-67 expression indicates that certain feline neurones are capable of re-entering the cell cycle.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of hair follicle stem cells in regenerated hair follicles induced by Wnt10b

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiming; Xing, Yizhan; Guo, Haiying; Ma, Xiaogen; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the periodic regeneration of hair follicles is complicated. Although Wnt10b has been reported to induce hair follicle regeneration, the characteristics of induced hair follicles, especially the target cells of Wnt10b, have not yet been clearly elucidated. Thus, we systematically evaluated the expression and proliferation patterns of Wnt10b-induced hair follicles. We found that Wnt10b promoted the proliferation of hair follicle stem cells from 24 hours after AdWnt10b injection. Seventy-two hours after AdWnt10b injection, cells outside of bulge area began to proliferate. When the induced hair follicle entered full anagen, although the hair follicle stem cells were normal, canonical Wnt signaling was maintained in the hair precortex cells. Our results reveal that the target cells that overexpressed Wnt10b included hair follicle stem cells, hair precortex cells, and matrix cells. PMID:27766026

  19. Immunohistochemical study on the neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), infected by Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Quiroga, M I; Nieto, J M; Bosi, G; Domeneghini, C

    2007-03-01

    In recent years a new parasite, causing severe losses, has been detected in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), in Northwestern Spain. Dead fish showed emaciation and cachexia caused by severe necrotizing enteritis, which affected all areas of the digestive tract. The parasite was classified as a myxosporean and named Enteromyxum scophthalmi. This study was designed to assess the response of the turbot neuroendocrine system against E. scophthalmi infection. Immunohistochemical tests were applied to sections of the gastrointestinal tract of uninfected and E. scophthalmi-infected turbot, and the presence of cholecystokinin (CCK-8), serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were documented. A higher abundance of both endocrine epithelial cells (ECs) and nerve cell bodies and fibres for CCK-8, 5-HT and SP were recorded in the gastrointestinal tract of infected turbot, whereas VIP-like substance decreased. The results indicate that E. scophthalmi infection in turbot induced changes in the neuroendocrine system, which may cause alterations in gut motility, electrolyte and fluid secretion, and vascular and immune functions.

  20. Perianal basal cell carcinoma: a comparative histologic, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric study with basaloid carcinoma of the anus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cañas, M C; Fernández, F A; Rodilla, I G; Val-Bernal, J F

    1996-08-01

    Perianal basal cell carcinoma is a very rare tumor accounting for only 0.2% of the anorectal tumors. It must be distinguished from basaloid carcinoma of the anus, which resembles it histologically but shows a much more aggressive behavior, metastasizes early, and often proves fatal, thus requiring different therapy. Differential diagnosis of both entities by light microscopy may be difficult. Five cases of perianal basal cell carcinoma and five cases of basaloid carcinoma were studied by means of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Some immunohistochemical markers, such as epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembrionic antigen, and keratins, as well as the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I stained basaloid carcinoma and were negative for basal cell carcinoma. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 seems to be a good marker for perianal basal cell carcinoma and useful in differentiating it from basaloid carcinoma of the anus. Basaloid carcinomas are associated with a significantly higher S-phase fraction than are perianal basal cell carcinomas (p < 0.01).

  1. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

    PubMed

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  2. An immunohistochemical study of human platelets using a rabbit antibody against H18-K24 of apolipoprotein CIII (HATKTAK).

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takao; Sakamoto, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Tanaka, Sumiko; Matsumoto, Kouichi; Ueno, Masaki

    2013-08-01

    H18-K24 of human apolipopotein CIII (Apo CIII) (HATKTAK) is an activator of the macromolecular activators of phagocytosis from platelets (MAPPs). Using a rabbit antibody against HATKTAK, we performed an immunohistochemical study of human platelets. Indirect ELISA showed that this antibody reacts with Apo CIII-derived peptides with a C-terminal of HATKTAK, but not with Apo CIII. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that reaction of anti-HATKTAK antibody occurred in the pseudopods of activated platelets. In blood coagula produced from the peripheral blood and formalin-fixed after various incubation periods, reaction of this antibody with platelets appeared rapidly with a peak at 3 to 6 h of incubation, and then diminished gradually. Leukocytes in the blood coagula were stained strongly positive. In tissue sections, fresh thrombi and hemorrhages with slight fibrin formation revealed a positive response of platelets to anti-HATKTAK antibody, whereas older ones with leukocytic infiltration, fibrin formation and organization did not. In addition to platelets, endothelial cells and leukocytes were stained positive by anti-HATKTAK antibody. All of the positive reactions by anti-HATKTAK antibody disappeared or diminished by co-incubation with HATKTAK. In conclusion, the anti-HATKTAK antibody reveals platelets during the early phase of activation.

  3. Immunohistochemical study on the distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan Pangolin, Manis javanica.

    PubMed

    Nisa, C; Kitamura, N; Sasaki, M; Agungpriyono, S; Choliq, C; Budipitojo, T; Yamada, J; Sigit, K

    2005-12-01

    The distribution and relative frequency of six kinds of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica were studied immunohistochemically using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. The stomach of the pangolin has three regions of mucous gland, one oxyntic gland and one pyloric gland. Cells immunoreactive for chromogranin, serotonin, somatostatin, BPP and glucagon were detected in all of the gastric glands, while gastrin-immunoreactive cells were found in the entire gastric gland except for the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of endocrine cells in the mucous gland and pyloric gland was mainly from the middle to apical portions of the glands. The endocrine cells were rare or not detected in the basal portion of all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland, but they were also found in the basal portion of the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of the endocrine cells in the mucous and pyloric glands suggested that this position facilitates a quick response to the luminal ingesta. The wide distribution of gastrin-immunoreactive cells in all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland was the most remarkable finding. This distribution suggests a major function of gastrin-immunoreactive cells for the digestive process in the Malayan pangolin stomach.

  4. Atypical spindle cell lipoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study emphasizing its relationship to classical spindle cell lipoma.

    PubMed

    Creytens, David; van Gorp, Joost; Savola, Suvi; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Mentzel, Thomas; Libbrecht, Louis

    2014-07-01

    We studied a series of spindle cell lipomas arising in atypical sites and showing unusual morphologic features (which we called atypical spindle cell lipoma) to assess if these lesions have the same chromosomal alterations as classical spindle cell lipoma but different from those found in atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. We investigated alterations of different genes in the 13q14 region and the amplification status of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes at 12q14-15 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In the atypical spindle cell lipomas, MLPA revealed deletions in the two nearest flanking genes of RB1 (ITM2B and RCBTB2) and in multiple important exons of RB1. In contrast, in classical spindle cell lipomas, a less complex loss of RB1 exons was found but no deletion of ITM2B and RCBTB2. Moreover, MLPA identified a deletion of the DLEU1 gene, a finding which has not been reported earlier. We propose an immunohistochemical panel for lipomatous tumors which comprises of MDM2, CDK4, p16, Rb, which we have found useful in discriminating between atypical or classical spindle cell lipomas and other adipocytic neoplasms, especially atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. Our findings strengthen the link between atypical spindle cell lipoma and classical spindle cell lipoma, and differentiate them from atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma.

  5. Immunohistochemical study of the local inflammatory infiltrate in spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumour at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J; Day, M J; Mozos, E

    1998-07-08

    In this study, the immunohistochemical distribution of CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD79 (B lymphocytes and plasma cells), IgG, IgM, IgA, IgG subclasses (IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) L1 (macrophages) and MHC Class II antigen was analysed in the inflammatory infiltrates associated with spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumours (CTVT) at different stages of growth. With all antibodies used, except IgM and IgA, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the infiltrate of CTVT undergoing spontaneous regression or with stable growth (14 cases), than in tumours undergoing progressive growth (nine cases). This result suggests that T lymphocytes in addition to B cells, plasma cells expressing IgG, IgG2 and IgG4, and macrophages participate in the effective immune response against CTVT and mediate spontaneous regression of the tumour. MHC Class II antigen was expressed by infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages, and also by fibroblasts within and around the tumours. Class II was also expressed by a variable number of neoplastic cells, particularly those in regressing or stable tumours with a marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. This suggests that the expression of Class II by neoplastic cells is associated with the effective immune response and regression of CTVT.

  6. [Expression of the stress-response protein 60 in iritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis--an immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Kumagami, T; Kato, S; Ohama, E

    1997-04-01

    Uveitis of unknown etiology is known to occur in association with various systemic disorders. We did an immunohistochemical study on the expression of stress-response proteins (srp's) in iritis associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is regarded as a model of multiple sclerosis. EAE was induced in Lewis rats by sensitization with homogenized spinal cord of guinea pig in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (Group EAE). For controls, we used rats sensitized with CFA only (Group CFA) and untreated rats (normal controls). All rats developed iritis in Group EAE. In Group CFA, no rats developed iritis. No expression of ubiquitin, alpha B-crystallin, srp 27, srp 60, or srp 72 was seen in the epithelium of the iris of the rats in Group CFA. In the rats in Group EAE, srp 60 was expressed in the epithelium of the iris in 20/22 (90.9%) of the eyes examined, ubiquitin in 4/22 (18.2%), and alpha B-crystallin in 3/22 (13.6%). In the untreated rats, only ubiquitin was expressed in the epithelium of the iris in 1/6 (16.7%) of the eyes examined. These results suggest that srp 60, 60 kDa srp, plays an important role in the occurrence of iritis associated with EAE.

  7. PLAG1 expression in mesenchymal tumors: an immunohistochemical study with special emphasis on the pathogenetical distinction between soft tissue myoepithelioma and pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Atsuji; Hisaoka, Masanori; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    PLAG1, a proto-oncogene activated in several types of tumors including pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland and lipoblastoma, is usually overexpressed because of chromosomal aberrations resulting in fusion genes. Myoepithelial tumors in soft tissue are morphologically similar to pleomorphic adenoma, but the genetic profiles of these tumors have not been fully examined. In the present study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of PLAG1 in a series of 243 mesenchymal tumors. We determined that 14 tumors, including eight of 10 lipoblastomas, two of seven gastrointestinal stromal tumors, one of two angiomyofibroblastomas, one of five synovial sarcomas, one of seven leiomyomas and one of 12 myxofibrosarcomas were positive for PLAG1, whereas all seven soft tissue myoepitheliomas were PLAG1 negative. We examined two soft tissue myoepitheliomas, whose paraffin blocks were available, for fusion gene transcripts involving PLAG1 or HMGA2 specific for pleomorphic adenoma by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, and no fusion transcripts were detected. Our results suggest that soft tissue myoepithelioma may be a pathogenetically distinct tumor entity from pleomorphic adenoma based on the absence of PLAG1 overexpression and characteristic fusion genes. On the other hand, PLAG1 immunohistochemistry is useful for distinguishing lipoblastoma from other lipomatous tumors including liposarcoma.

  8. Mesenchymal-epithelial differentiation of adamantinoma of long bones: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sarita-Reyes, Carmen D; Greco, M Alba; Steiner, German C

    2012-02-01

    Three cases of adamantinoma were studied by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In the tubular pattern, well-differentiated epithelial cells and glandular structures were present, in addition to ill-defined glands. In the basaloid pattern, less differentiated epithelial cells with discohesion were seen in the central epithelial masses. This study established the epithelial nature of some tubular structures with slit-like lumina, easily misinterpreted as capillaries by light microscopy. Results also showed that the irregular spaces observed within the basaloid pattern probably result from cell discohesion. Moreover, this investigation demonstrates the epithelial nature of a subset of spindle cells within the stroma of adamantinoma and offers ultrastructural evidence for a probable mesenchymal-epithelial transformation as its histogenesis.

  9. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar

    PubMed Central

    Costa, C.A.X.; Brito, K.N.O.; Gomes, M.A.; Caliari, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar were described in details, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Variation in the virulence is therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to better understand the disease. PMID:20819776

  10. GLUT-1 expression in mesenchymal tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 247 soft tissue and bone neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, William A; Ridenour, Robert V; Caron, Bolette L; Miller, Dylan V; Folpe, Andrew L

    2008-10-01

    GLUT-1, an erythrocyte-type glucose transporter protein expressed in juvenile hemangiomas, has recently been shown to be a sensitive marker of perineurial cells and their tumors in a small number of cases. However, GLUT-1 expression has not been systematically examined in other mesenchymal neoplasms. Prompted by a recent report of GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma, a tumor not generally felt to show perineurial differentiation, we examined GLUT-1 expression in a wide variety of mesenchymal tumors. Sections from 247 mesenchymal tumors of a variety of histologic subtypes were retrieved from our archives and immunostained for GLUT-1 using heat-induced epitope retrieval and the DAKO ADVANCE detection system (DAKO, Carpinteria, CA). Scoring was as follows: negative (<5% of cells), 1+ (5%-25% of cells), 2+ (25%-50% of cells), and 3+ (>50% of cells). All benign nerve sheath tumors showed a peripheral rim of positive normal perineurial cells, with 2 neurofibromas and 3 schwannomas showing more extensive staining. Three of 4 perineuriomas showed strong GLUT-1 expression. All juvenile hemangiomas were GLUT-1 positive. GLUT-1 expression was also seen in a wide variety of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors. However, GLUT-1 expression was absent in nonjuvenile hemangioma endothelial tumors and in almost all low-grade lesions that enter the histologic differential diagnosis of perineurial tumors, including low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and myxofibrosarcoma. We conclude that GLUT-1 expression in mesenchymal tumors is by no means specific for perineurial differentiation, but may instead represent upregulation of this protein within hypoxic zones, secondary to upstream activation of proteins such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha.

  11. Transition of Ki-67 index of uterine cervical tumors during radiation therapy. Immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, T.; Oka, K. )

    1991-08-01

    Histopathologic and Ki-67-staining features of cancer cells were investigated in biopsy specimens before and during radiation therapy in 29 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. No morphologic changes were observed up to doses of 540 cGy. A few intact cancer cells remained up to doses of 2700 cGy. Moderate changes in the cancer cells were noticed in patients who received 900 cGy or more, i.e., multinuclei, swollen nuclei and cytoplasms, and prominent large nucleoli. At doses of 1800 cGy or greater, many cancer nests had severely damaged cancer cells with features such as cytolysis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and bizarre giant cells. There was no mitosis in the cells of patients who received doses greater than 1800 cGy. The Ki-67-positive cancer cells showed diffuse nuclear-stainings and dot-stainings before radiation therapy. Radiation doses more than 900 cGy changed the staining pattern of the Ki-67 antibody; large irregular spot-stainings and ring-stainings were observed predominantly. The Ki-67 index initially increased with the radiation dose; the mean Ki-67 indices before radiation therapy and at radiation doses of 180 cGy, 540 cGy, and 900 cGy were 41%, 50%, 63%, and 68%, respectively. The indices decreased when the dose was increased further, and they were 39% and 20% at doses of 1800 cGy and 2700 cGy, respectively. Possible explanations, including recruitment of quiescent cells, for the change in Ki-67 staining are discussed.

  12. [Immunohistochemical study of the submaxillaritis in MRL/1 mouse (lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity)].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, H

    1989-12-01

    MRL/1 mice, reported by Murphy and Roths, are lupus mice in which monogenic mutation has occurred. They are characterized by the expression of massive lymphoadenopathy, splenomegaly, arthritis and glomerulonephritis. These specific characters are attributable to the proliferation of abnormal T cells governed by an autosomal recessive gene, which is called a lymphoproliferative (lpr) gene. In this study, the author has studied the pathology of various organs in MRL/1 mice in relation to their ages. Investigated the pathogenesis of spontaneous submaxillaritis in MRL/1 mice and mechanism of its occurrence. Based on the immunological abnormalities in MRL/1 mice studied thus far, the mechanism of onset of submaxillaritis is believed to be as follows; (1) expression of the lpr gene leads to proliferation of T cells accompanied by focal lymphocyte infiltration in the submandibular gland; (2) the helper T function of these proliferating T cells induces polyclonal B cell activation (PBA); (2) PBA leads to the formation of numerous autoantibodies and anti-gp70 antibody whose antigen is the glycoprotein of endogenous retrovirus, resulting in the massive formation of immune complexes; (4) the immune complexes are deposited on the vascular wall, resulting in activation of the complement system; (5) infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages is induced; and (6) the lysosomal enzymes, released from these cells, effects as a cytotoxic mediator and damages the vascular wall. In brief, submaxillaritis accompanied by granulomatous vasculitis can be regarded as a Type III allergic response caused by immunological abnormalities which are genetically determined by the lpr gene; it is thought to be a subtype of immune complex disease.

  13. [An immunohistochemical study of the expression of transcription factor Oct3/4 in mouse spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A N; Kostyleva, E I; Drosdovskiĭ, M A; Seralini, J E; Vorob'ev, V I

    1996-01-01

    The expression of POU-domain transcription factor Oct3/4 in the testis of adult mice has been studied using indirect immunofluorescence with highly specific antibodies. The protein is shown to be expressed in germ cells of seminiferous epithelium in a stage specific manner. The protein synthesis is initiated in mid-pachytene spermatocytes, increases to reach its peak during meiotic division. The Oct3/4 level remains augmented in early spermatids, but gradually declines during their further developmental advancement. These findings imply that Oct3/4 may have a regulatory function providing for the control of meiosis and/or terminal differentiation of spermatogenic cells.

  14. Microglial Contribution to Glioma Progression: an Immunohistochemical Study in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Samarendranath; Chatterjee, Uttara; Chaudhuri, Swapna; Anirban, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Human glioma, arising from glial cells of the central nervous system, accounts for almost 30%of all brain tumours , neoplasms with a poor prognosis and high mortality rates worldwide. In the present study we assessed tissue architectural modifications associated with macrophage lineage cells, controversial major immune effector cells within the brain, in human glioma tissue samples from eastern India. Ethically cleared post-operative human glioma samples from our collaborative neurosurgery unit with respective CT/MRI and patient history were collected from the Nodal Centre of Neurosciences in Kolkata, over 9 months. Along with conventional histopathology, samples were subjected to silver-gold staining and fluorescence tagged immunophenotyping for the detection of electron dense brain macrophage/microglia cells in glioma tissue, followed by immune-phenotyping of cells. With higher grades, CD11b+/Iba-1+ macrophage/microglia architecture with de-structured boundaries of glioma lesions indicated malfunction and invasive effector state. Present study documented a contribution of microglia to glioma progression in Eastern India.

  15. Human dental pulp cell apoptosis: immunohistochemical study after applying orthodontic traction.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Angelova Volponi, A; Campanella, C; Guarnotta, C; Abdallah Hajj Hussein, I; Cappello, F; Gerbino, A; Jurjus, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare human dental pulp stress and programmed cell death after 3 and 6 months of orthodontic treatments by assessing the degree of apoptosis and related proteins. Human dental pulps were collected from twenty young patients orthodontically treated by Straight Wire technique. Samples were fixed, paraffin-embedded and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry using anti-heat shock protein 60 kDa (Hsp60), -caspase 3, -caspase 9, and -PCNA antibodies, as well as TUNEL reactions. Moreover, we performed immunoprecipitation for Hsp60 and caspase 3, and for Hsp60 and caspase 9, from paraffin extracted tissues. Increased levels of both caspases and Hsp60 occurred in 6-months treated samples; at the same time, we found increased levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive cells. Immunoprecipitation showed that Hsp60 forms a complex with both Pro-caspase 3 and Caspase 3, and this may accelerate Pro-caspase 3 activation, especially in the 6-months treated group. On the contrary, no complex between Hsp60 and Pro-caspase 9 was detected. The orthodontic tractions may be a cause of stress, apoptosis and proliferation in pulp tissue. These results suggest the need of further studies about the effects of long term orthodontic treatments on the dental pulp.

  16. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of air sac lesions induced by two strains of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, A; Mondal, S P; Buckles, E L

    2011-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory coronavirus of domestic chickens. Although mortality is low, infection with IBV results in substantial losses for the egg and meat chicken industries. Despite the economic importance of IBV and decades of research into the pathogenesis of infection, significant gaps in our knowledge exist. The aim of this study was to compare the early progression of air sac lesions in birds receiving a vaccine strain of the virus or a more virulent field strain. The air sacs are lined by different types of epithelia and are relatively isolated from the environment, so they represent a unique tissue in which to study virus-induced lesions. Both the pathogenic and vaccine strains of the virus produced significant lesions; however, the lesions progressed more rapidly in the birds receiving the pathogenic strain. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that in birds infected with the pathogenic strain of virus, IBV spike protein is detected first in the ciliated cells lining the air sac. These preliminary data provide important clues regarding potential mechanisms for IBV tissue tropism and spread and show that the nature of the virus isolate influences the early progression of IBV infection.

  17. Immunohistochemical study of the lymphatic vessels in major salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Aiyama, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Kenichiro; Takada, Kiyomi; Ikeda, Rie; Sato, Sumie; Kuroki, Jyunya

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to examine whether lymphatic vessels are present in the lobules of major salivary glands in the rat. Immunostaining with an antibody against podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial cell marker, was performed on sections of the submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands. Light microscopy demonstrated podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels around the interlobular ducts and the interlobular arteries and veins in the interlobular connective tissue in all of the major salivary glands. No podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were found in the lobules. Electron microscopy also demonstrated lymphatic endothelial cells showing podoplanin expression only in the interlobular connective tissue. These findings suggest that the lymphatic system of the rat major salivary glands originates in the interlobular connective tissue, and not in the lobules.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of neurons in the rat abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L; Rezzani, R; Bianchi, R

    1996-01-01

    The neurons of the rat abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus of the cerebellum were studied by double labelling using the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. Double-labelled cells were present bilaterally in the dorsal and dorsomedial zones of the cranial pole of the nucleus. They represented about half of the total number of HRP-positive neurons. These findings show the existence of a bilateral projection from the abducens nucleus to the flocculus which uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. This projection could be part of the system of the nerve circuits through which the cerebellum modulates visual activities. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8763489

  19. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu protein expression in meningiomas: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Phaneendra, Bobbidi Venkata; Prasad, Bodapati Chandra Mowliswara; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meningiomas are common slow-growing primary central nervous system tumors that arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid and spinal cord. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or HER2/neu (also known as c-erbB2) is a 185-kD transmembrane glycoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity expressed in meningiomas and various other tumors. It can be used in targeted therapy for HER2/neu positive meningiomas. Aim: To correlate the expression of HER2/neu protein in meningiomas with gender, location, histological subtypes, and grade. Materials and Methods: It was 3½ years prospective (March 2010–October 2011) and retrospective (May 2008–February 2010) study of histopathologically diagnosed intracranial and intraspinal meningiomas. Clinical details of all the cases were noted from the computerized hospital information system. Immunohistochemistry for HER2/neu protein was performed along with scoring. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test to look for any association of HER2/neu with gender, location, grade, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas at 5% level of significance. Results: A total of 100 cases of meningiomas were found during the study period. Of which, 80 were Grade I, 18 were Grade II, and 2 were Grade III meningiomas as per the World Health Organization 2007 criteria. The female-male ratio was 1.9:1 and the mean age was 47.8 years. HER2/neu protein was expressed in 75% of Grade I and 72.2% of Grade II and none of Grade III meningiomas. About 72.7% brain invasive meningiomas showed HER2/neu immunopositivity. Conclusion: HER2/neu protein was expressed in 73% of meningiomas. Statistically significant difference of HER2/neu expression was not seen between females and males of Grade I and Grade II/III meningiomas, intracranial and spinal tumors, Grade I and Grade II/III cases, and various histological subtypes of meningiomas. PMID:27695231

  20. Hippocampal phospho-tau/MAPT neuropathology in the fornix in Alzheimer disease: an immunohistochemical autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Plowey, Edward D; Ziskin, Jennifer L

    2016-10-28

    Whereas early Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology and mild cognitive impairment are relatively common in aging, accurate prediction of patients that will progress to dementia requires new biomarkers. Recently, substantial work has focused on phospho-tau/MAPT (p-MAPT) neuropathology since its regional propagation correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Recent diffusion tensor imaging studies in AD suggest that increased diffusion in the fornix secondary to p-MAPT-related axonal injury could serve as a predictive biomarker of the risk of disease progression. However, our knowledge of p-MAPT neuropathology in the fornix is limited. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined p-MAPT neuropathology in the fornix and basal forebrain nuclei via AT8 immunohistochemistry in 39 brain autopsies spanning the spectrum of AD neuropathologic changes. We found that the fornix and its precommissural efferent target nuclei (septum and nucleus accumbens) demonstrated neuronal and thread-like p-MAPT neuropathology only in National Institute on Aging/Alzheimer Association (NIA/AA) stages B2 and B3 of neurofibrillary degeneration, consistent with involvement after (and propagation from) the hippocampal formation. Interestingly, although tau astrogliopathy was frequently observed in the mammillary bodies in stage B2, neuronal tauopathy was not observed in the postcommissural targets (mammillary bodies and anterior thalamic nucleus) until stage B3. Tauopathy in the nucleus basalis of Meynert was strongly correlated with p-MAPT-positive axons in the fornix, suggesting that projections to the hippocampus also likely contribute to fornix tauopathy. Our cross-sectional autopsy findings indicate that the fornix is involved by p-MAPT neuropathology secondary to hippocampal involvement by AD neuropathology. Furthermore, our findings are compatible with the goal of in vivo detection of p-MAPT-related axonal pathology in the fornix in AD as a possible biomarker of p

  1. Prenatal development of the bovine epididymis: light microscopical, glycohistochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Sinowatz, Fred

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal development of the epididymis was studied in bovine fetuses ranging from 10 to 90cm crown-rump length (CRL) (75-285 pcd). The studies aimed to apply both glycohistochemistry and immunohistochemistry for the detection of the differentiation of the developing prenatal epididymis. Both conventional histological and histochemical techniques were applied on paraffin sections of the epididymis from different fetal stages. Establishment of the urogenital junction between the extra-testicular rete testis and the mesonephric duct, via the growing efferent ductules (ductuli efferentes) was first evident in fetuses with 10cm CRL. At the fetal age of 110 pcd (24cm CRL), the mesonephric duct began to lengthen and coil forming three distinct regions (caput, corpus and cauda). In addition to the macroscopical modifications in the extra-testicular excurrent duct system, histological differentiation involved both the tubular epithelial and the peritubular mesenchymal cells. The epithelium lining the efferent ductules was differentiated into ciliated and non-ciliated columnar cells. The simple epithelium of the epididymal duct increased in height and developed stereocilia on the apical surface. Additionally, some basal cells first appeared at 185 pcd (56cm CRL), within the epithelium lining the cauda only. Lectin histochemistry (WGA, PNA, GSA-I) showed early immunostaining in epithelium of the efferent ductules and in peritubular mesenchymal structures. Immunoreactivity for different proteins (S-100, fibroblast growth factor-1 and factor-2, angiotensin converting enzyme, laminin, alpha-smooth muscle actin) was evident, both in the epithelial and in the peritubular mesenchymal cells as early as at 75 pcd. On the basis of our histochemical observations, we conclude that both glycohistochemistry and immunohistochemistry are useful tools to demonstrate that the differentiation in the peritubular structures and efferent ductular epithelium begins earlier than other components.

  2. Immunohistochemical studies on the poll gland of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the rutting season.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Safwat; Helal, Amr; Alkafafy, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    The poll glands are subcutaneous exocrine glands located on the back of the neck behind the ears in male camels. The function of poll glands is not well known, though they are thought to play a role during the rutting season. The presence, location and degree of immunolocalization of microfilaments and intermediate filament systems: actin and cytokeratins (Cks) and also S100 protein were studied in the poll glands in sexually mature one-humped camels during the rutting season. These proteins were variably expressed between the epithelia, perialveolar, interalveolar tissue and the periductal tissue. Strong α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunoreactivity (IR) was displayed by the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, periductal and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but not in the epithelial cells. Cytokeratin (Ck)-IR was strong in the epithelial lining of the secretory alveoli and excretory ducts, however, the apical blebs of the secretory cells were almost negative. Weak to moderate Ck-IR was observed in the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, but not in the interalveolar tissue or endothelial cells. S100 protein was expressed variably in the epithelial lining of the secretory alveoli. S100-IR was more obvious in the supranuclear region and the apical blebs. Variable reaction was observed in the perialveolar myoepithelial cells, periductal and interductal tissue and endothelial cells.

  3. ADAM10 localization in temporomandibular joint disk with internal derangement: an ex vivo immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Carla; Chiarenza, Giovanni Paolo Salvatore; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Imbesi, Rosa; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Almeida, Luis Edoardo; Leonardi, Rosalia

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of ADAM10 in temporomandibular joint disk with internal derangement. Twenty-five paraffin blocks of displaced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk specimens from earlier investigations were retrieved from the archives of the University of Catania. Of these 16 had been removed from females and 9 from males; 11 with anterior disk displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and 14 with anterior disk displacement without reduction (ADDwoR). The sections were dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and cut. Then they were incubated in 0.3% H2O2/methanol and half of sections from each sample were incubated in diluted rabbit polyclonal anti-ADAM10 antibody. Then biotinylated anti-mouse/anti-rabbit IgG was applied to the sections, followed by avidin-biotin-perioxidase complex. The results were analyzed and the results were that ADAM10 was overexpressed in the posterior band of sections from patients with ADDwR compared to the other bands of both ADDwR and ADDwoR sections. Overexpression correlated with severe histopathological degeneration. We believe these results have the potential to provide insights into the pathogenesis of TMJ disk degeneration and to help design new therapeutic approaches targeting the proteolytic events that lead to tissue degeneration. Early therapeutic block of ADAM10 activity could succeed in limiting aggrecan-rich matrix breakdown without affecting normal physiology.

  4. Aberrant DKK3 Expression in the Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-dhohrah, T.; Mashrah, M.; Yao, Z.; Huang, J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess and compare the expression of Dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3), a possible tumor suppressor gene (TSG), in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) using immunohistochemistry. Seventy-five cases of normal oral mucosa (NOM), OLK, OSF, and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied. DKK3 was expressed in all cases of NOM, OLK and OSCC. There was steady increases in the percentage of the positive cells progressing toward OSCC. The expression was localized in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cell affected by OLK with mild dysplasia and OLK with severe dysplasia. No significant association was observed between DKK3 expression and dysplastic status of OLK. Loss of DKK3 expression was observed in 15 of 30 cases in the OSF group, which was significantly associated with histological grade of OSF (P<0.0001). The percentage of positive cells gradually declined with the increasing severity of epithelial atrophy. A significant difference (P<0.01) was observed when comparing DKK3 expression among different groups of OLK and OSF cases. DKK3 may have diverse expressions in oral premalignant lesions. Loss of DKK3 expression in dysplastic/advanced stage of OSF may imply a high risk of progression to oral cancer. PMID:27349317

  5. Vanadium (V)-induced neurotoxicity in the rat central nervous system: a histo-immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Graciela Beatriz; Biancardi, Maria Eugenia; Quiroga, Ariel Dario

    2005-01-01

    As vanadium was found to induce oxidative stress in the central nervous system, the morphological alterations of neurons and astroglial cells in adult rat central nervous system after vanadium exposure was studied, using histological markers of cellular injury. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with 3 mg/kg body weight of sodium metavanadate for 5 consecutive days. NADPH diaphorase histochemistry and heat shock protein (hsp) 70, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and S-100 immunohistochemistry were performed in floating sections of several brain areas. NADPHd staining was higher in the molecular and granular layers of the cerebellar cortex, and small NADPHd-stained interneurons were observed in hippocampal sections in V(+5)-exposed animals. hsp 70 immunostaining showed the presence of reactive neurons in cerebellum of treated animals. GFAP and S-100 immunohistochemistry showed enlarged astrocytes in cerebellum and hippocampus in the V(+5)-exposed animals. The histological markers used showed that the main areas affected by vanadium-mediated free-radical generation were the hippocampus and the cerebellum.

  6. Human kallikrein 10 expression in surgically removed human pituitary corticotroph adenomas: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Di Meo, Ashley; Rotondo, Fabio; Kovacs, Kalman; Cusimano, Michael D; Syro, Luis V; Di Ieva, Antonio; Diamandis, Eleftheros P; Yousef, George M

    2015-07-01

    Human kallikrein 10 (hk10), a secreted serine protease, was reported to function as a tumor suppressor. hK10 immunoexpression has been demonstrated in lactrotrophs and corticotrophs of the nontumorous human adenohypophysis. In the present study, for the first time we report hK10 immunoexpression in various surgically removed corticotroph adenoma subtypes. Specimens were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. Immunostaining was performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with an hK10-specific rabbit polyclonal antibody. Results showed that the endocrinologically active adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary tumors and the silent subtypes were immunopositve for hK10. Intensity of staining varied between the different subtypes. Intensity was lowest in the silent subtypes (silent corticotroph subtypes 1 and 2) compared with nontumorous human adenohypophysial corticotrophs, whereas the endocrinologically active subtypes (ACTH-secreting adenomas, corticotroph carcinomas, Crooke cell adenomas, Crooke cell carcinomas), showed the highest hK10 immunoexpression. Immunopositivity in the nuclei of the ACTH-secreting adenomas and carcinomas, as well as dual cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of hK10 in some of the secreting tumor types was an intriguing finding. Immunoexpression of hK10 in the ACTH-secreting tumors as well as in the Crooke cell tumors was significantly increased when compared with the nonfunctioning tumors and in the corticotrophs of nontumorous pituitaries.

  7. The contrast of immunohistochemical studies of myocardial fibrinogen and myoglobin in early myocardial ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiaohong, Zhao; Xiaorui, Chen; Jun, Hu; Qisheng, Qin

    2002-03-01

    In this study, an animal model of early myocardial ischemia (EMI) was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery of rats. The experimental animals were divided into five groups according to different intervals of MI (15, 30min, 1, 2, and 3h) and one control group. Tissues from the apex of the myocardium and the adjacent myocardium were taken for paraffin sections, followed by hematoxylin-eosin and streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) staining. Results showed that the myoglobin (Mb) depletion and the fibrinogen (Fg) staining increase were detected in the 30min MI group. The wavy-like increasing extension of the size and the intensity of the Mb depletion and the Fg staining intensification from the subendocardial to the subepicardial cells were observed along with the prolongation of the ischemic period. Both changes had similar patterns and sensitivity, except Fg was less reliable than Mb as it is more easily contaminated by blood. After overcoming blood contamination, the SABC-Fg technique will provide a new method for the diagnosis of EMI.

  8. Cortactin gene amplification and expression in breast cancer: a chromogenic in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Dedes, Konstantin J; Lopez-Garcia, Maria-Angeles; Geyer, Felipe C; Lambros, Maryou B K; Savage, Kay; Vatcheva, Radost; Wilkerson, Paul; Wetterskog, Daniel; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Natrajan, Rachael; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-12-01

    Amplification of 11q13 is found in approximately 15% of breast cancers. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) has been reported to be the 'driver' of this amplicon, however, multiple genes map to the smallest region of amplification of 11q13. Out of these genes, cortactin (CTTN) has been shown to be consistently overexpressed at the mRNA level in tumours harbouring 11q13 amplification. The aims of this study are to define whether CTTN is consistently co-amplified with the main core of the 11q13 amplicon, whether it is consistently overexpressed when amplified and to determine correlations between CTTN amplification and overexpression with clinicopathological features of breast cancers and survival of breast cancer patients. CTTN and CCND1 chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) probes and a validated monoclonal antibody against CTTN were applied to a tissue microarray of a cohort of breast cancers from patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CTTN and CCND1 amplifications were found in 12.3 and 12.4% of cases, respectively. All cases harbouring CTTN amplification also displayed CCND1 amplification. High expression of CTTN was found in 10.8% of cases and was associated with CTTN amplification, expression of 'basal' markers and topoisomerase IIα. Exploratory subgroup analysis of tumours devoid of 11q13 amplification revealed that high expression of CTTN in the absence of CTTN gene amplification was associated with lymph node negative disease, lack of hormone receptors and FOXA1, expression of 'basal' markers, high Ki-67 indices, p53 nuclear expression, and basal-like and triple negative phenotypes. CTTN expression and CTTN gene amplification were not associated with disease-, metastasis-free and overall survival. In conclusion, CTTN is consistently co-amplified with CCND1 and expressed at higher levels in breast cancers harbouring 11q13 amplification, suggesting that CTTN may also constitute one of the drivers of this amplicon. CTTN expression is not associated with the

  9. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3. PMID:26379312

  10. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Study of Clinical, Histomorphological, and Immunohistochemical Features in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Sable, Mukund; Pai, Trupti D; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Dhanavade, Sandeep; Desai, Sangeeta B

    2016-09-09

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are characterized by negative expression for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors. Although the majority of basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) diagnosed based on gene expression profiling belong to the TNBC group, both entities are not synonymous. Core BLBCs are TNBCs, which are positive for basal cytokeratin (CK) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We aimed to study and correlate a TNBC cohort for various histomorphological features and immunohistochemical (IHC) profile in Indian patients. We studied 205 naïve TNBCs for histopathological features, which were further evaluated for basal CKs-namely, CK5/6, CK14, CK17-and EGFR expression to classify them as core BLBCs, using criteria of any basal CK and/or EGFR positivity and 7-negative phenotype (7NP). Among 205 TNBCs, 91% of cases were core BLBCs, and absence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was significantly associated (P = .014) with core BLBC. Geographic necrosis was correlated with expression of CK17 (P = .002) and EGFR (P = .038). A ribbon-like trabecular pattern and absence of DCIS were associated with CK17 (P = .0002 and P = .043, respectively) and CK14 (P = .04 and P = .0008, respectively). TNBC is a heterogeneous subgroup with adverse clinicopathological features, and many of them show significant correlation with basal CKs. TNBCs cannot be classified as core BLBC or 7NP based on morphological features, except absence of DCIS. However, this study illustrates the heterogeneity in TNBCs on the basis of IHC markers.

  11. Immunohistochemical study of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1 in invasive breast carcinoma of no special type.

    PubMed

    Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Woźniak, Marta; Murawski, Marek; Kołodziej, Paweł; Osiecka, Beata; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate 1 (NUCKS1) in invasive breast carcinoma of no special type, in association with clinicopathological characteristics, including the tumor grade, frequency of lymph node involvement and distant metastasis. In addition, associations between NUCKS1 and other tumor subtype markers, including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6), were investigated. NUCKS1 expression was shown to be associated with the formation of distant metastases and lymph node involvement. Furthermore, an association between the presence of NUCKS1 and histological grading was observed. The results confirmed that the expression of NUCKS1 in low grade invasive breast carcinoma of no special type was significantly less common compared with cases of high grade carcinoma. With regard to the additional tumor subtype markers, NUCKS1 expression was demonstrated to be significantly associated with Ki-67 and CK 5/6; however, no association was identified with ER, PR and HER2. Therefore, NUCKS1 may be a novel prognostic marker in the histopathological evaluation of invasive breast carcinoma of no special type.

  12. Comparative morphologic and immunohistochemical studies of estrogen plus alpha-naphthoflavone-induced liver tumors in Syrian hamsters and rats.

    PubMed Central

    Oberley, T. D.; Slattery, A. F.; Gonzalez, A.; Li, S. A.; Li, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were treated with ethinylestradiol and maintained on a diet containing alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha NF), a regimen that produces a high incidence of liver tumors. Morphologic analyses (light microscopy, immunoperoxidase studies, and electron microscopy) were performed on livers of these animals. After 4 months of hormone plus alpha NF treatment, marked hepatocyte cell changes were already present, as demonstrated by loss of eosinophilic staining of hepatocyte cytoplasm. Large multinucleated hepatocytes exhibiting frequent mitoses were observed around central veins. After 5 months of treatment, there was proliferation of bile ducts, and small cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm resembling hepatocytes appeared surrounding these bile ducts. At 7 to 8 months, the first tumor nodules (foci) were seen. Tumor foci in the portal area consisted of small clusters of large cells resembling hepatocytes with irregular nuclei. At the same time, dysplastic glands were identified among proliferating bile ducts. By 8 to 10 months, large tumors were present. These were trabecular hepatocellular carcinomas with widely varying individual cell morphology. Compared with adjacent liver, dysplastic glands in the portal areas, microcarcinomas, and large tumors all showed intense immunostaining for cytokeratin. Rats treated with the same regimen also developed hepatic tumors, but the light and electron microscopy results and immunohistochemical profiles were very different. Altered hepatic foci composed of small hepatocytes were typically prominent; however, malignant tumors did not arise from the portal area. Neither altered foci nor tumors stained significantly for cytokeratin. These data suggest that the biochemical events giving rise to these liver tumors differ between the species studied, despite the animals being exposed to the same treatment regimens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1887866

  13. Immunohistochemical study and mRNA cytokine profile of the local immune response in cattle naturally infected with Calicophoron daubneyi.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel; Manga-González, Yolanda; Benavides, Julio; González-Lanza, M Camino; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Fernández, Miguel; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Castaño, Pablo; Royo, Marcos; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Pérez, Valentín; Ferreras, M Carmen

    2015-11-30

    In order to recognize the local immune response of the definitive host to Calicophoron daubneyi natural infection, an immunohistochemical study was carried out in the reticulum and rumen in 49 naturally infected cattle. The role of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10 interleukins and IFN-γ) in the activation of specific defence mechanisms was evaluated by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays to study cytokine mRNA expression. In all infected animals, CD3+ T lymphocytes seemed to be the main element of the inflammatory infiltrate in the reticular and ruminal lamina propria at the point of the parasite adhesion. Intraepithelial globule leukocytes also showed immunolabelling for CD3. Most CD3+ cells also expressed CD4 (T cell helper) antigen although sporadic CD8+-cytotoxic lymphocytes were observed. Local expression of IFN-γ was observed in damaged papillae at the site of parasite attachment and in scattered cells in the lamina propria. B cells (CD79αcy+, CD45+ and IgG+) were found constantly in relation to lymphoid aggregates. MAC387 was expressed in squamous epithelium and in macrophages of the lamina propria of affected papillae. Macrophages in this location also stained positively for CD163 and CD68. Intraepithelial Langerhans cells and macrophages located in the lamina propria showed immunopositivity for MHCII in the affected areas. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed a statistical significant increase of IFN-γ, and IL-10 expression (p<0.01) in the rumen associated with the presence of flukes. These findings suggest a predominant Th1 polarized local immune response with the probable involvement of Th regulatory cells in cattle C. daubneyi natural infection.

  14. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis plays a major role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. I. Immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary S; Karoui, Khalil El; Karras, Alexandre; Mandet, Chantal; Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Nochy, Dominique; Bruneval, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) often shows lesions morphologically identical with those of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In order to determine the possible role of FSGS in IgAN lesions, we measured glomerular capsular adhesions, often the first step toward FSGS, in biopsies from 127 patients with IgAN, 100 with lupus nephritis, and 26 with primary FSGS. Capsular adhesions with no lesions in the underlying tuft, consistent with podocyte abnormality or loss, were found regularly in FSGS and IgAN, but infrequently in lupus. Fifteen biopsies of patients with IgAN were studied immunohistochemically using markers for podocytes, Bowman's parietal epithelial cells, proliferating cells, and macrophages. Cytokeratins CK-8 and C2562 differentiated normal podocytes (negative) from parietal epithelial cells (variably positive). There was focal loss of the podocyte markers synaptopodin, glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP-1), nephrin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), particularly at sites of capsular adhesions in otherwise histologically normal glomeruli. Cells displaying the parietal epithelial cell markers PAX2 (paired box gene 2) and the cytokeratins were also positive for the proliferating cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These cells gathered at sites of adhesion, and in response to active lesions in the tuft, grew inward along the adhesion onto the tuft, forming a monolayer positive for parietal markers and the podocyte marker Wilms tumor protein-1 (WT-1). These cells deposited a layer of collagen over the sclerosing tuft. Thus, all biopsies of patients with IgAN had changes basically identical to those classically described in FSGS. Hence, our study strongly suggests that podocytopathy of a type similar to that in primary FSGS occurs frequently in IgAN.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinomas: a tissue microarray study of 112 cases.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Cubilla, Antonio L; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J

    2015-05-01

    ARID1A, a member of the chromatin remodeling genes family, has been suggested as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gynecologic malignancies. However, its role in penile cancer has yet to be determined. This study assesses the immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its association with pathologic features, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and previously reported mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers in the same cohort. Four tissue microarrays were constructed from 112 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded penile SCC from Paraguay. Each tumor was sampled 3 to 12 times. ARID1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal rabbit anti-ARID1A (BAF250A) antibody. An H score was calculated in each spot as the sum of expression intensity (0-3+) by extent (0%-100%). Median H score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was observed in all cases, ranging from 3% to 100% of tumor cells (median, 95%). In 96 cases (86%), ARID1A expression was observed in 90% or more tumor cells. HPV DNA was detected in 20 (38%) of 52 analyzed samples. There was a significant trend of association between ARID1A and histologic grade. ARID1A expression was not associated with histologic subtype (P = .61) or HPV status (P = .18). ARID1A expression decreased with decreasing levels of PTEN expression (P = .01). ARID1A was expressed in penile SCC, in most cases at high levels. A significant trend of association was found between histologic grade and ARID1A expression, with lower ARID1A expression, lower histologic grades, and decreased PTEN expression.

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinomas: a tissue microarray study of 112 cases☆

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Sheila F.; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Cubilla, Antonio L.; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ARID1A, a member of the chromatin remodeling genes family, has been suggested as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gynecologic malignancies. However, its role in penile cancer has yet to be determined. This study assesses the immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its association with pathologic features, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and previously reported mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers in the same cohort. Four tissue microarrays were constructed from 112 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded penile SCC from Paraguay. Each tumor was sampled 3 to 12 times. ARID1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal rabbit anti-ARID1A (BAF250A) antibody. An H score was calculated in each spot as the sum of expression intensity (0-3+) by extent (0%-100%). Median H score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was observed in all cases, ranging from 3% to 100% of tumor cells (median, 95%). In 96 cases (86%), ARID1A expression was observed in 90% or more tumor cells. HPV DNA was detected in 20 (38%) of 52 analyzed samples. There was a significant trend of association between ARID1A and histologic grade. ARID1A expression was not associated with histologic subtype (P = .61) or HPV status (P = .18). ARID1A expression decreased with decreasing levels of PTEN expression (P = .01). ARID1A was expressed in penile SCC, in most cases at high levels. A significant trend of association was found between histologic grade and ARID1A expression, with lower ARID1A expression, lower histologic grades, and decreased PTEN expression. PMID:25776029

  17. Localization of regulatory peptides in the male urogenital apparatus of domestic equidae: a comparative immunohistochemical study in Equus caballus and Equus asinus.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, S; Domeneghini, C

    1997-04-01

    An immunohistochemical study was carried out on specimens of testis, excurrent duct including the male accessory glands and urethra in its various tracts in the horse and the donkey, in order to localize nine regulatory peptides. Immunoreactivities were tested by means of Labelled Strept Avidin-Biotin (LSAB) method. The study has shown that Equine male genitalia are supplied by many peptide immunoreactive nerves containing NPY-, VIP-, leu- and met-Enkephalin-, Substance P-, CGRP- and Bombesin/GRP-like peptides, each of them having a characteristic distribution pattern. These neurotransmitters were localized in nerve fibers running in the connective tissue or in contact with the smooth muscle cells, as well as in sub- and intraepithelial nerve terminals, and in perivascular nerve fibers. In addition, leu- and met-Enkephalin-like-immunoreactive endocrine cells were shown in the bulbourethral gland of the horse. In both species it was evident that an extensive utilization of NPY and VIP exists. A contingent of NPY- and VIP-ir nerve fibers may have an intrinsic origin. The other regulatory peptides tested show a characteristic distribution pattern, limited to some organs and peculiar to each of the two species of Equidae. Differences observed comparing E. caballus and E. asinus might be related to the species-specific balance of the accessory neurotransmitters which in turn accompany adrenergic innervation. In both species it is noteworthy the complete absence of any regulatory peptide in the testis, with the exception of the perivascular localization of NPY-ir nerve fibers.

  18. SMARCB1/INI1-deficient sinonasal carcinoma shows methylation of RASSF1 gene: A clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study of a recently described entity.

    PubMed

    Laco, Jan; Chmelařová, Marcela; Vošmiková, Hana; Sieglová, Kateřina; Bubancová, Ivana; Dundr, Pavel; Němejcová, Kristýna; Michálek, Jaroslav; Čelakovský, Petr; Mottl, Radovan; Sirák, Igor; Vošmik, Milan; Ryška, Aleš

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was detailed clinicopathological investigation of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient sinonasal carcinomas, including molecular genetic analysis of mutational status and DNA methylation of selected protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes by means of next generation sequencing (NGS) and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). A total of 4/56 (7%) cases of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient carcinomas were detected among 56 sinonasal carcinomas diagnosed over a 19year period using immunohistochemical screening. The series comprised 3 males and 1 female, aged 27-76 years (median 64 years). All tumors arose in the nasal cavity. Three neoplasms were diagnosed in advanced stage pT4. During the follow-up period (range 14-111 months (median 72 months)), three tumors recurred locally, but none of the patients developed regional or distant metastases. Ultimately, two patients died due to the tumor. Microscopically, all tumors consisted of infiltrating nests of polygonal basaloid cells with a variable component of rhabdoid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, there was almost diffuse expression of cytokeratins (CK), p16, p40 and p63 in all cases, while expression of CK5/6, CK7 and vimentin was only focal or absent. The detection of NUT gave negative results. In three cases, the absence of SMARCB1/INI1 expression was due to deletion of SMARCB1/INI1 gene. Methylation of SMARCB1/INI1 gene was not found. One tumor harbored HPV18 E6/E7 mRNA. All 12 genes (BRAF, BRCA1, BRCA2, KIT, EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, RET, and ROS1) tested for mutations using NGS were wild-type. Regarding DNA methylation, all four SMARCB1/INI1-deficient tumors showed methylation of RASSF1 gene by means of MS-MLPA. There was a statistically significant difference in RASSF1 gene methylation between SMARCB1/INI1-deficient and SMARCB1/INI1-positive tumors (p=0.0095). All other examined genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CADM1, CASP8, CD44, CDKN1B

  19. Expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in leukoplakia and oral cancer: an immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandra Dutra da; Maraschin, Bruna Jalfim; Laureano, Natalia Koerich; Daroit, Natália; Brochier, Fernanda; Bündrich, Leonardo; Visioli, Fernanda; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2017-03-06

    To assess the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical correlation of adhesion (E-cadherin) and cell differentiation (involucrin) molecules in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytological samples and biopsies were obtained from male and female patients aged over 30 years with oral leukoplakia (n = 30) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 22). Cell scrapings and the biopsy were performed at the site of the lesion and histological slides were prepared for the immunocytochemical analysis of exfoliated oral mucosal cells and for the immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy tissues using E-cadherin and involucrin. Spearman's correlation and kappa coefficients were used to assess the correlation and level of agreement between the techniques. Immunostaining for E-cadherin and involucrin by both techniques was similar in the superficial layers of the histological sections compared with cell scrapings. However, there was no statistical correlation and agreement regarding the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in oral leukoplakia (R = 0.01, p = 0.958) (Kappa = 0.017, p = 0.92) or in oral squamous cell carcinoma (R = 0.26, p = 0.206) (Kappa = 0.36, p = 0.07). The immunoexpression of E-cadherin and involucrin in tissues is consistent with the expression patterns observed in exfoliated oral mucosal cells, despite the lack of a statistically significant correlation. There is an association of the histopathological characteristics of leukoplakia with the expression E-cadherin and of the microscopic aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma with immunohistochemical expression of involucrin.

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and radicular cyst: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Metgud, Rashmi; Naik, Smitha; Lerra, Sahul; Tiwari, Priya; Mamta; Katakwar, Payal; Tak, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyst and tumors arise from tissue remains of odontogenesis, these interactions have been considered to play an important role in the tumorigenesis of odontogenic lesions. The connective tissue stroma has an essential role in the preservation of epithelial tissues and minor alterations in the epithelium are followed by corresponding changes in the stroma, such as angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered the first factor which maintains its position as the most critical driver of vascular formation and is required to initiate the formation of immature vessels, with this aim, present study was executed to evaluate VEGF expression in kertocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst and radicular cyst (RC). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out comprising a total of 31 cases; 13 cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), nine cases of dentigerous cyst (DC) and nine cases of RC. The sections were stained immunohistochemically with VEGF antibody and were evaluated for the presence and intensity of the immuno reactive cells. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test to inter-compare the VEGF expression between KCOT, DC, and RC. Results: VEGF expression in the epithelium and connective tissue was significantly higher in KCOT compared to dentigerous and RC. One case of KCOT with carcinomatous change also revealed positive results for the VEGF expression in the dysplastic epithelium, tumor islands, and connective tissue. The significant difference was observed on inter-comparison of the VEGF expression in the connective tissue of KCOT and DC, whereas no significant difference was observed in the VEGF expression in the connective tissue of KCOT and DC. Conclusion: The present study data supports the literature finding that angiogenesis can be important in the progression and enlargement of odontogenic cysts similarly to what occurs in neoplastic conditions and further it can be concluded that

  1. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies of granular cell tumors in seven dogs, three cats, one horse, and one bird.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, A K

    1993-03-01

    In a retrospective study, granular cell tumors in six dogs (Nos. 1-6), three cats (Nos. 1-3), one horse (No. 1), and one cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) (No. 1) and a meningioma with a granular cell component in one dog (No. 7) were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. These tumors were identified by histologic examination of surgical biopsy specimens, except in the horse, in which the tumor was an incidental finding at necropsy. These diagnoses were initially made by more than one pathologist. Five of the six granular cell tumors in the dogs were in the oral cavity; one of these was in the maxillary gingiva of a 6-month-old puppy. The tumors in the cats were located in the tongue, vulva, and digit. The tumor in the horse was in the lung, and the tumor in the cockatiel was in the periocular tissue. Histologically, all granular cell tumors were characterized by oval to polygonal cells of various sizes. The cells had abundant, pale, eosinophilic cytoplasm with distinct intracytoplasmic granules, distinct cell margins, and mostly central nuclei. In the dogs, the gingival tumor had a large amount of collagen tissue, the tumor in the tongue had dilated blood vessels, and the maxillary tumor in the puppy was more cellular than the other tumors. The tumors in the cats were more anaplastic than the other tumors; one, located in the digit, was considered malignant. The granules in all of the tumors stained with periodic acid-Schiff and were diastase resistant. On staining with Luxol fast blue, the granules of all tumors stained different shades of pink, with the exception of the tumor in the tongue of a cat, which stained bluish green. Immunocytochemically, all tumors except the tumor in the cockatiel reacted against antibodies to vimentin. The granular cell tumor in the lung of the horse and the intracranial meningioma in a dog reacted to the antibody S-100 protein; the tumor in the horse reacted to neuron-specific enolase; tumors in two dogs (gingiva and

  2. Immunohistochemical study of motoneurons in lumbar spinal cord of c57black/6 mice after 30-days space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkina, Oksana; Islamov, Rustem; Nurullin, Leniz; Petrov, Konstantin.; Rezvyakov, Pavel; Nikolsky, Evgeny

    To investigate mechanisms of hypogravity motor syndrome development the immunoexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsp27 and Hsp70), proteins of synaptic transmission (Synaptophysin and PSD95) and neuroprotective proteins (VEGF and Flt-1) in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in c57black/6 control mice (n=2) and after 30-days space flight (n=2) was studied. For a quantitative assessment of target proteins level in motoneurons frozen cross sections of lumbar spinal cord were underwent to immunohistochemical staining. Primary antibodies against VEGF, Flt-1, Hsp27 and Hsp70 (SantaCruz Biotechnology, inc. USA), against Synaptophysin and PSD95 (Abcam plc, UK) were visualized by streptavidin-biotin method. Images of spinal cords were received using OlympusBX51WI microscope with AxioCamMRm camera (CarlZeiss, Germany) and the AxioVisionRel. 4.6.3 software (CarlZeiss, Germany). The digitized data were analyzed using ImageJ 1.43 software (NIH, the USA). Quantitively, protein level in motoneurons was estimated by the density of immunoprecipitation. Results of research have not revealed any reliable changes in the immunnoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its Flt-1 receptor in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in control and in mice after 30-day space flight. Studying of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp27 and Hsp70, revealed the decrease in level of these proteins immunoexpression in motoneurons of mice from flight group by 15% and 10%, respectively. Some decrease in level of immunnoexpression of presynaptic membrane proteins (synaptophysin, by 21%) and proteins of postsynaptic area (PSD95, by 55%) was observed after space flight. The data obtained testify to possible changes in a functional state (synaptic activity and stress resistance) of motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in mice after space flight. Thus, we obtained new data on involvement of motoneurons innervating skeletal muscles in development of hypogravity motor syndrome. Research was supported

  3. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Bellezza, Guido; Colella, Renato; Mameli, Maria Grazia; Sidoni, Angelo; Cavaliere, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare histologic variant of adenocarcinoma. Generally, this neoplasm occurs in middle age and the clinical presentation does not differ from the most frequent transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is frequently poor as at diagnosis it is often in an advanced phase. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from metastases, as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary. We present 5 cases of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and we used a panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical markers for differential diagnosis from secondary carcinoma in an attempt to elucidate the histogenetic derivation of this neoplasia.

  4. Including History in the Study of Psychological and Political Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Pinkard, Tracy; Davidson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky's (2003) concept of psychopolitical validity stresses the need to consider both the political and the psychological nature of power in the study of wellness, oppression, and liberation. The authors advocate that psychopolitical validity would be strengthened if it included an explicit appreciation of historical context. The…

  5. Adaptation of rat jaw muscle fibers in postnatal development with a different food consistency: an immunohistochemical and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuhiko; Sano, Ryota; Korfage, Joannes A M; Nakamura, Saika; Kinouchi, Nao; Kawakami, Emi; Tanne, Kazuo; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-06-01

    The development of the craniofacial system occurs, among other reasons, as a response to functional needs. In particular, the deficiency of the proper masticatory stimulus affects the growth. The purpose of this study was to relate alterations of muscle activity during postnatal development to adaptational changes in the muscle fibers. Fourteen 21-day-old Wistar strain male rats were randomly divided into two groups and fed on either a solid (hard-diet group) or a powder (soft-diet group) diet for 63 days. A radio-telemetric device was implanted to record muscle activity continuously from the superficial masseter, anterior belly of digastric and anterior temporalis muscles. The degree of daily muscle use was quantified by the total duration of muscle activity per day (duty time), the total burst number and their average length exceeding specified levels of the peak activity (5, 20 and 50%). The fiber type composition of the muscles was examined by the myosin heavy chain content of fibers by means of immunohistochemical staining and their cross-sectional area was measured. All muscle fibers were identified as slow type I and fast type IIA, IIX or IIB (respectively, with increasing twitch contraction speed and fatigability). At lower activity levels (exceeding 5% of the peak activity), the duty time of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle was significantly higher in the soft-diet group than in the hard-diet group (P < 0.05). At higher activity levels (exceeding 20 and 50% of the peak activity), the duty time of the superficial masseter muscle in the soft-diet group was significantly lower than that in the hard-diet group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the duty time of the anterior temporalis muscle at any muscle activity level. The percentage of type IIA fibers of the superficial masseter muscle in the soft-diet group was significantly lower than that in the hard-diet group (P < 0.01) and the opposite was true with regard to type IIB fibers (P < 0

  6. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    PubMed

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development.

  7. [Importance of immunohistochemical studies in the diagnosis and the prognostic evaluation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Review].

    PubMed

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma are evaluated in this review. A variety of proteins like p53, bcl2, C-Myc, Ki 67, Cyclines, P16 INK4a, p21, p27, beta-catenin, Wnt and MCM, have been related to the development of cervical neoplasia and human papilloma virus infection. It is described how transcriptional factors of genes induce loss of heterozygosity, numerical chromosome abnormality and inactivation of gene products or the partial loss of some membrane glycoproteins induced by oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV).

  8. Periostin in the Cancer Stroma of Mycosis Fungoides Palmaris et Plantaris: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanita, Kayo; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Mizuashi, Masato; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris (MFPP) is a rare variant of mycosis fungoides limited to the palms and soles. Although little is known about the pathogenesis of MFPP, this variant of mycosis fungoides presents a relatively good prognosis. In this report, we describe an 85-year-old Japanese man with MFPP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the dense deposition of periostin in the cancer stroma, as well as infiltration of CD163+CD206− tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which suggested the phenotypes of TAMs were not polarized to the M2 phenotype in the lesional skin of MFPP. Our present case might suggest one of the possible reasons for the good prognosis of MFPP. PMID:27293391

  9. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma, a rare entity among GEP-NET: a case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are the most incident neuroendocrine tumors. In the new WHO classification (2010) the embryological derivation of each neoplastic entity is one of the most important parameters. Gangliocytic Paraganglioma is a tumor originating in the hindgut, a rare neoplasm, generally affecting the second portion of the duodenum, the majority of which are benign. Cases of gangliocytic paraganglioma with local metastasis or local recurrence have also been reported. We describe a GP in a 48-year-old caucasian male with an unusual site (4th portion of duodenum) and an interesting immunohistochemical and molecular pattern. In particular, we examined the expression of some neuroendocrine markers and a marker of neuronal differentiation, NeuroD1, whose expression can help to better understand the nature of this neoplasia. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3720959161096807 PMID:24621010

  10. Immunohistochemical study of melanocyte-melanocyte stem cell lineage in vitiligo; a clue to interfollicular melanocyte stem cell reservoir.

    PubMed

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Dawoud, Noha Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long lasting controversy over whether melanocytes (MCs) in vitiligo are actually lost or still present but functionally inactive. We aimed to evaluate the MC cell lineage in follicular and interfollicular vitiliginous epidermis through immunohistochemical localization of Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45) and Tyrosinase Related Protein 2 (TRP2) and to correlate it with clinicopathologic parameters. Using immunohistochemical techniques, skin biopsies from 50 vitiligo patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were examined. Differentiated active MCs were detected in 44% of interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and 46.7% of follicular epidermis (FE) in lesional skin. Melanocyte precursors/stem cells were detected in 54% of IFE and 63.3% of FE in lesional skin. Melanocyte precursors/stem cells of IFE were significantly associated with residual melanin pigment (p = 0.007) and with absence of angiogenesis (p = 0.05). HMB-45 percentage of expression in IFE was positively correlated with MC precursors/stem cells percentage in FE (r = +0.65, p < 0.001) and IFE (r = +0.33, p = 0.01). Melanocyte precursors/stem cells positivity (p < 0.001) was progressively decreasing with advanced histopathologic grading. There was no significant association between interfollicular or follicular expression of HMB-45, TRP2 or MC precursors/stem cells and the clinical type of vitiligo or its duration. In conclusion, functioning MCs may exist in vitiligo. The presence of MC precursors/stem cells in IFE may provide an additional reservoir needed for repigmentation.

  11. United States/Mexico electricity trade study. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    During energy discussions between the United States and Mexico, it was suggested that the two countries revisit the issue of enhanced electricity trade because 10 years had elapsed since this issue was first studied. Responsibility to organize the updated study was jointly assigned to the US and to the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The study highlights the opportunities for increased cooperation among the electric utilities in the U.S. and Mexico. Direct benefits could include increased reliability of electric power service and cost savings through diversity of peak demand patterns and locational benefits associated with the siting of new generation sources. Indirect benefits could include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. While the study indicates that increased electricity trade is possible, there are significant technical and economic issues to consider. Any major increase in electricity trade would require a higher level of cooperation and coordination among utilities in both countries and would need to be preceded by a detailed analysis of associated benefits and costs (including environmental impacts) on both a short-term and a long-term basis. Whether US utilities and CFE decide to pursue specific projects will depend upon the need for and economics of those projects. The study recommends that the work begun by the two utility groups be continued. The study also recommends that regulators at all levels consider policies to increase coordination and review among all relevant parties so that unnecessary delays in planning and constructing needed facilities are avoided. 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Protective effect of hesperidin against lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in adult albino rats: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Elshafhey, Saad H; ElBakary, Reda H; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2014-10-01

    Hesperidin is a naturally common flavonoid. It is an abundant and cheap by-product of citrus cultivation. It is reported to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. This work was performed to investigate the possible protective role of hesperidin in ameliorating the effect of experimentally induced intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) on lung tissue, histologically, immunohistochemically and biochemically. Thirty male Wistar adult albino rats were randomized into three groups named: group I (control group); group II (I/R); and group III (I/R with hesperidin). Intestinal I/R was induced by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 60 min, followed by 120 min of reperfusion period. Animals were given hesperidin orally 1h before the onset of ischemia. At the end of the reperfusion period the lung tissues were extracted for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of the distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pulmonary edema was evaluated by lung tissue wet/dry weight ratios. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, a biomarker of oxidative damage), myeloperoxidase (MPO, an index of the degree of neutrophil accumulation) and glutathione (GSH, a biomarker of protective oxidative injury) were also determined in all dissected tissues. Pretreatment with hesperidin (in group III) alleviated lung morphological changes noticed in I/R group and the levels of MDA and MPO were significantly decreased whereas those of GSH were significantly increased. Immunohistochemical study revealed a significant decrease in the iNOS. Hesperidin also significantly alleviated the formation of pulmonary edema as evidenced by the decreased organ wet/dry weight ratios. Hesperidin exerts a protective effect against lung damage induced by intestinal I/R injury in rats by reducing oxidative stress.

  13. Correlation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to histopathological features and molecular phenotypes in canine mammary carcinoma: A morphologic and immunohistochemical morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Chon, Seung-Ki; Im, Keum-Soon; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2013-04-01

    Abundant lymphocyte infiltration is frequently found in canine malignant mammary tumors, but the pathological features and immunophenotypes associated with the infiltration remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between lymphocyte infiltration, histopathological features, and molecular phenotype in canine mammary carcinoma (MC). The study was done with archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (n = 47) by histologic and immunohistochemical methods. The degree of lymphocyte infiltration was evaluated by morphologic analysis, and the T- and B-cell populations as well as the T/B-cell ratio were evaluated by morphometric analysis; results were compared with the histologic features and molecular phenotypes. The degree of lymphocyte infiltration was significantly higher in MCs with lymphatic invasion than in those without lymphatic invasion (P < 0.0001) and in tumors of high histologic grade compared with those of lower histologic grade (P = 0.045). Morphometric analysis showed a larger amount of T-cells and B-cells in MCs with a higher histologic grade and lymphatic invasion, but the T/B ratio did not change. Lymphocyte infiltration was not associated with histologic type or molecular phenotype, as assessed from the immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, cytokeratin 14, and p63. Since intense lymphocyte infiltration was associated with aggressive histologic features, lymphocytes may be important for tumor aggressiveness and greater malignant behavior in the tumor microenvironment.

  14. Epithelial expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer/CD147 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in neoplasms and precursor lesions derived from cutaneous squamous cells: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ayva, Sebnem Kupana; Karabulut, Ayse Anil; Akatli, Ayşe Nur; Atasoy, Pinar; Bozdogan, Onder

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The study investigated CD147 and MMP-2 expression in epidermis of cutaneous squamous lesions. CD147 and MMP-2 expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically in 44 specimens: 18 actinic keratoses (AK), 6 squamous cell carcinomas in situ (SCCIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; peritumoral and invasive portions assessed), and 7 normal skins. Patterns of expression were assessed, with MMP-2 in nuclei (MMP-2n) and cytoplasm (MMP-2c) evaluated separately. The expression of each marker was quantified using a calculated immunohistochemical/histologic score (H-score). Correlations were analyzed for the marker H-scores in each study group. Associations between H-scores and histopathologic parameters were also evaluated. CD147 H-score was the highest in SCC (invasive islands), followed by AK, SCCIS, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2n and MMP-2c H-scores were the highest in AK, followed by SCCIS, SCC, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2c and MMP-2n H-scores were significantly higher in peritumoral epidermis than in invasive islands of SCC. MMP-2c and CD147 H-scores were positively correlated in the peritumoral SCCs. CD147 H-score was positively correlated with tumor differentiation in SCC. The findings suggest that overexpression of CD147 plays a role in the development of SCC.

  15. Histopathological and prognostic significance of the expression of sex hormone receptors in bladder cancer: A meta-analysis of immunohistochemical studies

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Hiroki; Inoue, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Emerging preclinical evidence suggests the involvement of sex hormones and their receptor signals in the development and progression of bladder cancer. Meanwhile, previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results on the relationship between the status of sex hormone receptors in urothelial tumors and histopathological characteristics of the tumors or patient outcomes. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to assess the clinicopathological impact of the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERs) in bladder cancer. Methods A comprehensive literature search in databases (i.e. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane) was performed for all immunohistochemical studies stained for AR, ERα, and/or ERβ in surgically resected bladder cancer specimens and analyzed for patient outcomes. We selected eligible studies in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and analyzed data using R software. Results A total of 2,049 patients from 13 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. The difference in ERα expression between non-tumors and tumors was significant [odds ratio (OR) = 0.412; P<0.001], while those of AR (OR = 3.256; P = 0.336) or ERβ (OR = 0.580; P = 0.674) were not statistically significant. AR positivity in tumors was strongly correlated with gender (male vs. female: OR = 0.658; P = 0.027) or tumor grade (low-grade vs. high-grade: OR = 0.575; P<0.001). ERβ positive rates were significantly higher in high-grade (OR = 2.169; P<0.001) and muscle-invasive (OR = 3.104; P<0.001) tumors than in low-grade and non-muscle-invasive tumors, respectively. Survival analysis in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer revealed associations between AR expression and better recurrence-free survival [hazard ration (HR) = 0.593; P = 0.006) as well as between ERβ expression and worse recurrence-free (HR = 1.573; P = 0.013) or progression-free (HR = 4.148; P = 0.089) survivals. Conclusions These data suggest down-regulation of ER

  16. Immunohistochemical characteristics of normal canine eyes.

    PubMed

    Labelle, P; Reilly, C M; Naydan, D K; Labelle, A L

    2012-09-01

    Immunohistochemistry is widely utilized in diagnostic laboratories to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases. Knowledge of the immunohistochemical characteristics of normal tissue is essential for interpretation of immunoreactivity in pathologic conditions. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed with a broad panel of diagnostically relevant antibodies on 4 normal canine globes--namely, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 8/18, cytokeratin 20, α-smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, desmin, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor, S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, triple neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, laminin and CD31. Results include cytokeratin immunoreactivity limited to the conjunctival epithelium, corneal epithelium, and retinal pigment epithelium; distinct patterns of immunopositivity of muscle markers; and widespread immunoreactivity for vimentin and most neural/neuroendocrine markers. These findings in normal eyes provide the basis for interpretation of ocular immunohistochemistry in dogs. Published immunophenotypes of primary ocular neoplasms are also reviewed.

  17. Multicentric fibromyxoid peripheral nerve sheath tumor (multicentric schwannoma) in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius): morphopathological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Khordadmehr, M

    2011-11-01

    During postslaughter inspection of a 4-year-old male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), numerous small nodules to large masses up to 4 cm in diameter were found on the serosal surfaces of forestomachs, large intestines, mesentery, liver, and spleen. Grossly, the masses were discrete, round, smooth, and white to gray that bulged from the serosal layer. Cut surfaces of the masses were discrete, round, white, and relatively homogeneous without any necrotic foci. Histopathologically, the masses were encapsulated and composed of a mixture of round and spindle-shaped cells in loose whorls of neoplastic cells with small elongated hyperchromatic wavy nuclei and a small amount of pale eosinophilic, poorly defined cytoplasm. Masson's trichrome staining showed mild amounts of collagen fibers forming an irregular, loose stroma. In immunohistochemistry, immunoreactivity for the Schwann cell marker (S100) was diffusely positive in the neoplastic cells. The immunoreactivity for CK, c-kit, and CD34 were negative. Ultrastructural examination confirmed the tumor was entirely formed of neoplastic Schwann cells. On the basis of the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings, the tumors were diagnosed as multicentric fibromyxoid peripheral nerve sheath tumor (multicentric schwannoma). This tumor has not been previously recorded in camel worldwide.

  18. Characterization of gonadotropic cells during continuous and seasonal spermatogenesis of two freshwater fish species: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Borella, Maria Inês

    2017-02-01

    This work describes gonadotropic (GtH) cells and their morphological and immunohistochemical changes during the spermatogenic cycle of Serrasalmus maculatus (continuous spermatogenesis) and Pimelodus maculatus (seasonal spermatogenesis). GtH cells, widely distributed in the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, were characterized as round-shaped cells with eccentric nucleus, and cytoplasm with basophilic secretory granules and a variable number of vacuoles for both species. Immunohistochemistry against β-follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and β-luteinizing hormone (Lh) in adjacent sections showed two separated GtH-producing cell populations, and a third population where both GtHs are expressed in the same cell for both species. In the seasonal spermatogenesis of P. maculatus, GtH cells seemed to be more abundant during developing and spawning capable phases. In contrast, no cyclic changes were detected in the continuous spermatogenesis of S. maculatus, except for the strong immunoreaction for Fsh and Lh in males with intense spermiogenesis. We conclude that changes reported here might reflect the type of spermatogenic cycle (seasonal or continuous) which are under different regulatory mechanisms (environmental and internal cues) controlling the reproduction in these species.

  19. An Immunohistochemical Study of Matrix Components in Early-Stage Vascular Canals Within Mandibular Condylar Cartilage in Midterm Human Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Shunichi; Morita, Tsuyoshi; Yokohama-Tamaki, Tamaki; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2015-09-01

    Matrix components of vascular canals (VCs) in human fetal mandibular condylar cartilage (15-16 weeks of gestation) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Prevascular canals (PVCs), consisting of spindle-shaped cells without capillary invasion, were observed within the cartilage. Intense immunoreactivity for collagen type I, weak immunoreactivity for aggrecan and tenascin-C, weak hyaluronan (HA) staining, and abundant argyrophilic fibers in PVCs indicated that they contain noncartilaginous fibrous connective tissues that was different from those in the perichondrium/periosteum. These structural and immunohistochemical features of PVCs are different from those of previously reported cartilage canals of the long bone. Capillaries entered the VCs from the periosteum and ascended through VCs. Following capillary invasion, loose connective tissue had formed in the lower part of VCs, and immunoreactivity for collagen types I and III, tenascin-C, and HA staining was evident in the matrix of loose connective tissue. No chondroclasts or osteogenic cells were seen at the front of capillary invasion, although small, mononuclear tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells were present. Meanwhile, TRAP-positive, multinucleated chondroclasts and flattened, osteoblast-like cells were observed in the loose connective tissue at the lower part of VCs. These results may indicate slow progress of endochondral ossification in human fetal mandibular condyle. Further, unique matrix components in PVCs/VCs, which were different from those in cartilage canals in long bone, may reflect the difference of speed of endochondral ossification in cartilage canals and human fetal mandibular condyles.

  20. Overall distribution of glucagon-like immunoreactivity in the chicken retina: an immunohistochemical study with flat-mounts.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Y; Ishimoto, I; Fukuda, M; Shimiza, Y; Shiosaka, S; Inagaki, S; Senba, E; Sakanaka, M; Takagi, H; Takatsuki, K; Hara, Y; Kawai, Y; Tohyama, M

    1982-05-01

    Pancreatic glucagon-like immunoreactivity (GLI) in the chicken retina was investigated by immunohistochemical methods with frozen sections and flat-mounts. Observations of the frozen sections showed that GLI is localized in the amacrine cells. Flat-mounts showed the GLI cells are evenly localized in the retina (n= or approximately 400/mm2) and composed to two types of cells--one is larger and the other is small. The former cell type occupies mainly the peripheral retinal region and the latter the central region. In addition, flat-mounts showed two types of GLI fiber plexuses in the inner plexiform layer; one is located in the area between laminae 2 and 3 and runs circularly and the other is located in lamina 1 and runs randomly. The relationship between GLI and cyclic AMP was also examined. an increase of the formation of cyclic AMP was caused by pancreatic glucagon in the chicken retina, suggesting that this peptide might have neurotransmitter or neuromodulator roles in the chicken retina.

  1. An Ex Vivo Study on Immunohistochemical Localization of MMP-7 and MMP-9 in Temporomandibular Joint Discs with Internal Derangement

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Leonardi, R.; Musumeci, G.; Pannone, G.; Castorina, S.

    2013-01-01

    Internal derangement (ID) is among the most common disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Previous research by our group highlighted a correlation between apoptosis and TMJ ID. Metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and -9 have been shown to play an important role in extracellular matrix ECM) homeostasis and, through it, in joint disc remodelling. The immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7 and -9 was investigated in discs from patients with TMJ ID and from healthy donors and compared with the degree of histological tissue degeneration. The collagen fibre arrangement in pathological discs exhibited varying degrees of disruption. New vessels were consistently detected; endothelial cells from these vessels were immunolabelled with both MMP-7 and MMP-9. More or less intense MMP-7 and MMP-9 immunolabelling was detected in the cytoplasm of disc cells from all patients. MMP-7 and MMP-9 immunostaining was significantly different between pathological and normal discs and correlated with the extent of histopathological degeneration. MMP-7 and MMP-9 upregulation in discs from patients with TMJ ID demonstrates their involvement in disc damage in this disorder. A greater understanding of these processes could help identify ways to curb MMP overproduction without affecting their tissue remodelling action. The design of specific inhibitors for these MMPs would not only help to gain insights into the biological roles of MMPs, but would also aid in developing therapeutic interventions for diseases associated with abnormal ECM degradation. PMID:23807291

  2. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  3. Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Studies on Uptake and Distribution of FITC-Conjugated PLGA Nanoparticles Administered Intratracheally in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kaori; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Huang, C. C.; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Ando, Rie; Kusuoka, Osamu; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Polylactide-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles have been developed as pulmonary drug delivery carriers. To investigate their behavior, small- (d50 = 74 nm) and large-sized (d50 = 250 nm) FITC-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles were intratracheally administered to rats and were traced for 5, 30 and 60 minutes and 24 hours after administration (HAT). Immunohistochemically, a, FITC-positive reaction was observed in type-I alveolar epithelial cells (type-I AEC), endothelial cells and alveolar macrophages in the lungs from 5 minutes after treatment (MAT) to 24 HAT in both nanoparticle groups. In the kidneys, a positive reaction was observed in proximal tubular epithelial cells at 30 MAT; the reaction peaked at 60 MAT and was reduced at 24 HAT, while no positive reaction was seen in other sites. Ultrascructurally, the number of membrane-bound vesicles, which were approximately 70 nm in size and hard to distinguish from pinocytic vesicles, apparently increased in type-I AEC and endothelial cells at 5 MAT in the small-sized group, in comparison with the control group receiving physiological saline. The number of vesicles in the large-sized group was almost same as that in the control group. On the other hand, in both nanoparticle groups, lysosomes filled with nanoparticles appeared in alveolar macrophages from 30 MAT to 24 HAT. These results indicate that PLGA nanoparticles might be quickly transferred from the alveolar space to the blood vessel via type-I alveolar epithelial cells and excreted into urine, and that there is a threshold for particle size, less than approximately 70 nm in diameter, with regard to absorption through the alveolar wall. PMID:22481855

  4. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Golmohammadi, Rahim; Sabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Mojadadi, Mohammad Shafi

    2016-01-01

    Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid) belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice.

  5. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Golmohammadi, Rahim; Sabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Mojadadi, Mohammad Shafi

    2016-01-01

    Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid) belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice. PMID:27499792

  6. Association of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CYCLIN D1 and Cathepsin D with Clinicopathological Parameters in Breast Carcinoma; an Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Külahcı, Özgür; Esen, H. Hasan; Asut, Elife; Güngör, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor detected in women. The hypothesis that increased levels of adhesion molecules and Cathepsin D affect cancerous cells moving away the primary tumor and contributes to migration of the cancerous cell and may cause remote organ metastases is defended. The aim of the present study was to search the association of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), Cyclin D1, cathepsin D immunohistochemically with clinicopathological parameters in the patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods The pathological slides of 153 patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma were evaluated retrospectively. Three groups were created. Group 1 consisted of patients with positive lymph node metastasis and extranodal tumor invasion; Group 2 consisted of patients with positive axillary lymph node metastasis and negative extranodal tumor invasion and Group 3 consisted of the patients with negative axillary lymph node metastasis. In all groups, 20 paraffin blocks belonging to the primary tumor in the breast were stained by ICAM-1, VCAM-1, Cyclin D1 and Cathepsin D. Findings were examined by comparing with clinicopathological parameters. Results The highest number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes and the highest rate of cathepsin D staining were statistically found in the cases with positive axillary lymph node metastasis and extranodal tumor invasion. CerbB2 was negative in the cases with negative ICAM-1 whereas estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor were positive in the cases with positive VCAM-1. Conclusion The present study reveals significant results for the patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma through breast biopsy especially before mastectomy in terms of increased number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes and extranodal tumor invasion by immunohistochemical Cathepsin D stain without any additional invasive intervention

  7. Peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma: histopathological and immunohistochemical profile of a case.

    PubMed

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; de Almeida-Oslei, Paes; Toral-Rizo, Victor; Martínez-Mata, Guillermo

    2010-11-01

    In this study we present a rare case of peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma and discuss its clinical features, histopathology, and immunohistochemical profile. This article reports a new case of this unusual neoplasm in a 66 year-old woman in which the main complaint was an asymptomatic swelling located in the right body of mandible. Histopathological findings were similar to the two previously reported cases of this tumor. Positive immunohistochemical stain for laminin V and type IV collagen suggests an inductive effect of the epithelium over the stroma while the low index of p53 protein and Ki-67 expression in epithelium and stromal cells, as well as CD138 uniform positive-stain in epithelial cells, support the benign biological behavior of this lesion. Including this new case, currently there are only three reports of this rare neoplasm. Reports of new cases of peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma are necessary for a better understanding of the origin and behavior of this particular subtype of ameloblastoma.

  8. An immunohistochemical study of the apocrine type of cutaneous mixed tumors with special reference to their follicular and sebaceous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, O; Yasuda, H

    1999-05-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis of 8 cases of the apocrine type of cutaneous mixed tumor is reported. Histologically, 7 cases of the tumor were suggested to have follicular and/or sebaceous differentiation. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 were present in the inner surface and/or in the luminal cell bodies of the tubular structures. CEA and non-specific cross-reacting antigen were also detected in the keratinous cysts. Positive reactions for S-100 protein and vimentin were observed in the solid nests, the outer layer of the tubular structures and some stromal cells. However, smooth muscle actin was only focally expressed in the outer cells of the tubular nests in one case. Involucrin was positive in the inner layers of the keratinous cysts. Various staining patterns were observed in the keratin immunohistochemistry. The solid nests showed heterogeneous expressions of CK1/5/10/14, CK7, CK10/11, CK14, CK8/18 and CK19. The inner cells of the tubular structures were constantly positive for CK7, CK8/18 and CK19, and heterogeneously for CK1/5/10/14, CK10/11 and CK14. The outer cells were heterogeneously positive for CK1/5/10/14 and CK14. The keratinous cysts showed positive reactions for CK1/5/10/14 throughout the whole cell layers, and for CK14 in the basal layer. The inner layers in some keratinous cysts expressed CK6, CK10/11 and CK17, but only CK10 in others. CK13 was positively stained in the transitional portion between the matricial structure and the column of shadow cells in the cyst wall in only one case. When compared with the immunohistochemistry of the normal skin, the apocrine type of cutaneous mixed tumor can show various immunophenotypical patterns similar to those of entire structures of hair follicles, sebaceous glands and all components of apocrine glands, that is to say, the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.

  9. Phenotypic analysis of splenic lymphocytes and immunohistochemical study of hepatic granulomas after a murine infection with Salmonella abortusovis.

    PubMed Central

    Guilloteau, L; Buzoni-Gatel, D; Blaise, F; Bernard, F; Pépin, M

    1991-01-01

    Infection in mice with an attenuated strain of Salmonella abortusovis (SAO), a specific pathogen for sheep, was used as a convenient model to understand further the induced immunity against SAO. The hypovirulent Rv6 strain, subcutaneously inoculated in salmonella-susceptible BALB/cby (Itys) mice, colonized the spleen and the liver in less than 6 days post-infection (PI) to be cleared after Day 28 PI. Simultaneously, an increase in spleen cell numbers, splenomegaly and hepatic granulomatous lesions developed to a maximum level on Day 9 PI. In spleen of uninfected mice, the number of Thy-1.2+ cells represents twice the number of surface immunoglobulin-positive cells (sIg+). Cytofluorometric analysis of the spleen lymphoid cell subsets showed a significant increase (10 times, P less than 0.05) in the number of sIg+ cells from Day 6 to Day 28 PI compared to control values. The number of Thy-1.2+ cells also significantly increased, to a lesser degree than the sIg+ cells, on Day 2 and on Day 16 PI (twice control values, P less than 0.05), but decreased on Day 6 PI compared to Day 2 PI. The highest L3T4+:Lyt-2+ ratio was observed on Day 2 PI and the lowest on Day 9 PI. On Day 28 PI, the number of sIg+ cells was still greater than the number of Thy-1.2+ cells. The granulomatous lesions were observed in the liver as early as Day 2 PI and their frequency was maximal on Day 9 PI. Immunohistochemical analysis of the granulomatous lesions showed that macrophages (F4/80+, Mac1+) were the basic cells and that L3T4+ cells were the predominant T cells. In well-developed granulomas observed on Day 9 PI, macrophages were in the centre whereas L3T4+ T cells were preferentially located at the periphery. T cells expressing Lyt-2 antigen were rarely detected. Variations in the proportion of lymphoid cells in the spleen and in hepatic granulomatous lesions suggest different and complementary effector mechanisms in induced immunity against SAO. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID

  10. Nuclear Localization of β-Catenin in Sertoli Cell Tumors and Other Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors of the Testis: An Immunohistochemical Study of 87 Cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis and subclassification of Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) of the testis are often challenging to general surgical pathologists because of the rarity of the tumors. Immunohistochemical study to date has limited diagnostic value. Nuclear localization of β-catenin, which correlated closely with CTNNB1 gene mutation, was recently reported in SCTs. We investigated the utility of β-catenin nuclear localization in diagnosing SCTs and differentiating them from other testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for β-catenin was evaluated in 87 cases of testicular sex cord-stromal tumor: 33 SCTs, not otherwise specified (SCT-NOS) (15 with benign and 18 with malignant features), 10 sclerosing SCTs (SSCT), 5 large cell calcifying SCTs (LCCSCT), 6 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 10 Leydig cell tumors, 7 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 4 adult granulosa cell tumors, and 12 sex cord-stromal tumors, unclassified. Twenty-one of 33 (64%) SCT-NOS, 6 of 10 (60%) SSCTs, and 4 of 6 (67%) Sertoli-stromal cell tumors showed strong, diffuse β-catenin nuclear staining. Nuclear β-catenin positivity was more frequent in SCTs-NOS with benign features than in those with malignant features (93% and 39%, respectively, P=0.13) and, in the Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, occurred only in the Sertoli component. All 5 LCCSCTs and all other types of sex cord-stromal tumor were negative for β-catenin nuclear staining. In conclusion, SCT-NOS and SSCT frequently show β-catenin nuclear localization. Positive nuclear staining of β-catenin is specific for SCT-NOS, SSCT, and Sertoli-stromal cell tumor among testicular sex cord-stromal tumors but has limited sensitivity (63%) in this group. The similar reactivity of SCT-NOS and SSCT provides additional support that these 2 variants are not distinct entities.

  11. Intrathymic T cell differentiation in radiation bone marrow chimeras and its role in T cell emigration to the spleen. An immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Hitomi, K.; Utsuyama, M.

    1985-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies were made on the regeneration of T cells of host- and donor-type in the thymus and spleen of radiation bone marrow chimeras by using B10- and B10.BR-Thy-1 congenic mice. In Thy-1 congenic chimeras, thymocytes of donor bone marrow origin, were first recognized at day 7, when the thymus involuted to the smallest size after the irradiation. The thymocytes of donor-type then proliferated exponentially, showing a slightly faster rate when higher doses of bone marrow cells were used for reconstitution, reaching a level of 100 million by day 17 and completely replacing the cortical thymocytes of host origin by day 21. The replacement of medullary thymocytes from host- to donor-type occurred gradually between days 21 and 35, after the replacement in the cortex was completed. In the spleen, about 1 million survived cells were recovered at day 3 after the irradiation, and approximately 60% of them were shown to be host-type T cells that were observed in the white pulp areas. The host-type T cells in the spleen increased gradually after day 10, due to the influx of host-type T cells from the regenerating thymus. Thus a pronounced increase of T cells of host-type was immunohistochemically observed in the splenic white pulp between days 21 and 28, when thymocytes of host-type were present mainly in the thymic medulla. These host-type T cells were shown to persist in the spleen for a long time, as long as 420 days after the treatment. Phenotypically, they were predominantly Lyt-1+2+ when examined at day 28, but 5 mo later, they were about 50% Lyt-1+2+ and 50% Lyt-1+2-.

  12. Transforming growth factors (TGF-alpha and TGF-beta1) in the determination of vitality and wound age: immunohistochemical study on human skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Grellner, W; Vieler, S; Madea, B

    2005-10-29

    In continuation of former investigations on proinflammatory cytokines, in the present study the relevance of the transforming growth factors TGF-alpha and TGF-beta1 was evaluated for the diagnosis of vitality and wound age. Paraffin sections from human skin wounds due to sharp force influence, which had been collected in operations and autopsies, were investigated using immunohistochemistry. The wound age varied from a few minutes to a maximum of 6 weeks with focus on the early post-traumatic interval up to 5h. Samples from uninjured skin were available as controls. TGF-alpha (n=74) was weakly expressed in normal skin and showed a marked increase in epidermal reactivity after a wound age of approximately 10 min. The maximum was between 30 and 60 min. TGF-beta1 (n=51) revealed constitutional expression only in connective tissue. An increase of immunohistochemical reaction was partially detected even in classical stab wounds (wound age of several minutes). The immunohistochemically detectable signal concerned--presumably due to an infiltration with TGF-beta-rich thrombocytes--large parts of the traumatized skin and also the epidermal layers (cellular and interstitial marking). TGF-beta1 peaked after a post-traumatic interval of 30-60 min. Both factors, especially TGF-beta1, remained detectable in elevated levels also in older wounds with an age of days to weeks (network in granulation tissue). TGF-alpha and TGF-beta1 can efficiently contribute to the estimation of vitality and wound age based on the evaluation of cytokine patterns. In particular, this applies to TGF-beta1 because of its easier evaluation and rapid up-regulation. Similar to other cytokines, the parallel investigation of control skin from the same individual must be recommended to eliminate variation in the basal expression.

  13. US Army Corps of Engineers program. [including hydrologic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarman, J.; Mcintyre, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The application of satellite remote sensing technology in hydrologic studies and regulatory programs of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is discussed. Site selection, location of construction material, environment impact assessment, analysis of hydrologic systems, reservoir system analysis, water quality, quantity and quality of runoff from urban areas, river hydraulics, and sediment movement are among the applications described. Emphasis is placed on introducing automatic classification of multispectral data into modeling techniques used in hydrologic studies.

  14. Lunar surface cosmic ray experiment. [including solar flare studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    The galactic cosmic ray and solar flare experiment on Apollo 16 is reported. The published papers presented describe the experiment, equipment, data processing techniques, and operational history. The principle findings include: (1) The composition of heavy ions in interplanetary space at energies between approximately 30 and 130 MeV/nucleon is the same, within experimental errors. (2) The ability of a Lexan stack to determine simultaneously the energy spectra of major elements from He up to Fe in the energy interval 0.2 to 30 MeV/nucleon revealed systematic changes in the composition of solar flare particles as a function of energy. (3) Heavy ions emitted in a solar flare appear to be completely stripped of electrons, and are not in charge equilibrium at the time of acceleration and releases from the sun.

  15. Morphological Patterns of Intracranial Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Karnataka: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, Ramdurg Shashank; Karnappa, Andola Sainath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An “Intra-cranial space occupying lesion” (ICSOL)is defined as a mass lesion in the cranial cavity with a diverse aetiology like benign or malignant neoplasm, inflammatory or parasitic lesion, haematoma, or arterio-venous malformation. Central nervous system neoplasms represent a unique, heterogenous population of neoplasms constituting 1.9% of all malignant tumours in India. A broad spectrum of non-neoplastic conditions can mimic a brain tumour, both clinically and radiologically and these patients undergo biopsy. In such cases, the pathologist can readily differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic imitators. Aim The present study attempts to provide preliminary data on morphological patterns of intracranial lesions in North Karnataka region and to study clinicopathological spectrum with correlation of radiological findings of ICSOL. Special emphasis is made on the utility of special stains and IHC markers in CNS tumours. Materials and Methods This retrospective and prospective descriptive study was performed on biopsy specimen of ICSOL received from Departmnet of Neurosurgery, Basaveshwar Teaching Hospital, Kalaburgi. The study period was from January 2012 to June 2013 retrospectively and July 2013 to June 2015 prospectively. All specimens were preserved in 10% formalin and allowed to fix for 24 hours. The haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the CNS lesions were obtained by routine processing and paraffin embedding. Special stains and IHC were done wherever appropriate. Results Sixty two cases of CNS lesions were studied, of which 12 (19.4%) cases were non neoplastic with six (50%) being cystic lesions and four (33.4%) were cerebral abscess. The neoplastic lesions comprised of 50 (80.6%) cases, which included 48 (96%) primary and two (4%) metastatic lesions. Among primary tumours, gliomas constituted the largest category of 24 (50%) cases with 16.7% being Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and pilocytic astrocytomas each, followed by

  16. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  17. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  18. Immunohistochemical study about the Flt-1/VEGFR1 expression in the gastrointestinal tract of mouse, rat, dog, swine and monkey.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, A; Germann, P-G; Junker-Walker, U; Tomovic, A; Seewald, W; Polkinghorne, A; Pospischil, A

    2005-11-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt-1) performs a subordinate effector role in mesenchymal angiogenesis and potentially serves an equally important functional role as a self-contained receptor in epithelial cells. In both endothelial cells and epithelial cells, Flt-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) downstream signalling is involved in regulating cellular processes such as cytoskeletal changes and cellular survival protection. Cellular renewal of the gastrointestinal mucosa is based on these processes and might involve Flt-1/VEGFR1 pathway activities; the molecular mechanisms regulating these cellular dynamics remain unclear. This study was performed to investigate the presence and distribution of Flt-1/VEGFR1 in epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Gastrointestinal tissues were taken from eight anatomical sites from mouse, rat, dog, swine and monkey. Present results revealed a cytosolic Flt-1/VEGFR1 staining pattern in mucosal epithelial cells for all investigated species. Non-epithelial structures also displayed a distinct Flt-1/VEGFR1 positivity and included vascular smooth muscle walls, enteric smooth muscle layers, the enteric nervous system and capillary endothelial cells. Diverse intensities of the Flt-1/VEGFR1 binding reaction within each species were observed in the intestinal mucosa with a strong immunoreaction in enterocytes and with a low protein expression in the ileum in most species. Crypt cells in the large intestine were mostly negative for Flt-1/VEGFR1. A peculiar and mainly intranuclear antibody binding reaction was found in Brunner's gland epithelial cells of mouse and rat whereas Brunner's glands of dog, swine and monkey remained completely negative. These results indicate a potential involvement of Flt-1/VEGFR1 in normal restitution of gastrointestinal structures in the species studied. Additionally, intranuclear Flt-1/VEGFR1 antibody binding in Brunner's glands of rodents may suggest

  19. Recent atomistic modelling studies of energy materials: batteries included.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Saiful

    2010-07-28

    Advances in functional materials for energy conversion and storage technologies are crucial in addressing the global challenge of green sustainable energy. This article aims to demonstrate the valuable role that modern modelling techniques now play in providing deeper fundamental insight into novel materials for rechargeable lithium batteries and solid oxide fuel cells. Recent work is illustrated by studies on important topical materials encompassing transition-metal phosphates and silicates for lithium battery electrodes, and apatite-type silicates for fuel cell electrolytes.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of pituitary cells in wild and captive Salminus hilarii (Characiformes: Characidae) females during the annual reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Pandolfi, Matias; Shimizu, Akio; Borella, Maria Inês; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater fish that live exclusively in rivers are at particular risk from fragmentation of the aquatic system, mainly the species that migrate upriver for reproduction. That is the case of Salminus hilarii, an important migratory species currently classified as "almost threatened" in the São Paulo State (Brazil), facing water pollution, dam construction, riparian habitat destruction and environmental changes that are even more serious in this State. Additionally, this species show ovulation dysfunction in captivity. Our studies focused on the identification and distribution of the pituitary cell types in the adenohypophysis of S. hilarii females, including a morphometric analysis that compares pituitary cells from wild and captive broodstocks during the reproductive annual cycle. The morphology of adenohypophysial cells showed differences following the reproductive cycle and the environment. In general, optical density suggested a higher cellular activity during the previtellogenic (growth hormone) and vitellogenic (somatolactin) stages in both environments. Additionally, the nucleus/cell ratio analysis suggested that growth hormone and somatolactin cells were larger in wild than in captive females in most reproductive stages of the annual cycle. In contrast, prolactin hormone showed no variation throughout the reproductive cycle (in both environments). Morphometrical analyses related to reproduction of S. hilarii in different environmental conditions, suggest that somatolactin and growth hormone play an important role in reproduction in teleost and can be responsible for the regulation of associated processes that indirectly affect reproductive status.

  1. Immunohistochemical Study of Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element as Indicator of Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Developing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Sergio; Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Sánchez-García, Aurora; Heras-Romero, Yesica; Rios, Camilo; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    In developing animals, Cadmium (Cd) induces toxicity to many organs including brain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often implicated in Cd-inducedtoxicity and it has been clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress interferes with the expression of genes as well as transcriptional factors such as Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response Element (Nrf2-ARE). Cd-generated oxidative stress and elevated Nrf2 activity have been reported in vitro and in situ cells. In this study we evaluated the morphological changes and the expression pattern of Nrf2 and correlated them with the Cd concentrations in different ages of developing rats in heart, lung, kidney, liver, and brain. The Cd content in different organs of rats treated with the metal was increased in all ages assayed. Comparatively, lower Cd brain levels were found in rats intoxicated at the age of 12 days, then pups treated at 5, 10, or 15 days old, at the same metal dose. No evident changes, as a consequence of cadmium exposure, were evident in the morphological analysis in any of the ages assayed. However, Nrf2-ARE immunoreactivity was observed in 15-day-old rats exposed to Cd. Our results support that fully developed blood-brain barrier is an important protector against Cd entrance to brain and that Nrf2 increased expression is a part of protective mechanism against cadmium-induced toxicity. PMID:26101558

  2. An immunohistochemical study of the expression of the hypoxia markers Glut-1 and Ca-IX in canine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Abbondati, E; Del-Pozo, J; Hoather, T M; Constantino-Casas, F; Dobson, J M

    2013-11-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been associated with increased malignancy, likelihood of metastasis, and increased resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in human medicine. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that is induced by tumor hypoxia and regulates the pathways involved in cellular response and adaptation to the hostile tumor microenvironment. HIF-1 induces transcription of different proteins, including Ca-IX and Glut-1, which are considered endogenous markers of chronic hypoxia in solid tumors in humans. In this study, sections from 40 canine sarcomas (20 histiocytic sarcomas and 20 low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas) were immunostained for these markers. Expression of Glut-1 was scored based on percentage of positive staining cells (0 = <1%; 1 = 1%-50%; 2 = >50%) and intensity of cellular staining (1 = weak; 2 = strong); Ca-IX was scored based on percentage of positive cells (0 = <1%; 1 = 1%-30%; 2 = >30%). Intratumoral microvessel density was measured using CD31 to assess intratumoral neoangiogenesis. Histiocytic sarcomas showed statistically significant higher Glut-1 immunoreactivity and angiogenesis than did low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas. Intratumoral microvessel density in histiocytic sarcomas was positively associated with Glut-1 immunoreactivity score. These findings suggest a potential role of hypoxia in the biology of these tumors and may provide a base for investigation of the potential prognostic use of these markers in naturally occurring canine tumors.

  3. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  4. Evaluation of sarcoglycans, vinculin-talin-integrin system and filamin2 in alpha- and gamma-sarcoglycanopathy: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Santoro, Giuseppe; Bruschetta, Daniele; Bramanti, Placido; Pisani, Antonina; Favaloro, Angelo

    2004-12-01

    The sarcoglycan subcomplex (SGC) is a well-known system of interaction between extracellular matrix and sarcolemma-associated cytoskeleton in skeletal and cardiac muscle. The SGC is included in the DGC made up of sarcoplasmic subcomplex and a dystroglycan subcomplex. Recent developments in molecular genetics have demonstrated that the mutation of each single sarcoglycan gene, causes a series of recessive autosomal muscular dystrophies, dystrophin-positive, called sarcoglycanopathies or limb girdle muscular dystrophies. Our recent studies have demonstrated that costameres are a proteic machinery made up of DGC and vinculin-talin-integrin system, also revealing the colocalization of sarcoglycans and integrins in adult human skeletal muscle. These results may support the hypothesis of the existence of a bidirectional signalling between sarcoglycans and integrins in cultured L6 myocytes. The hypothesis of bidirectional signalling between sarcoglycans and integrins could be supported by the identification of a skeletal and cardiac muscle filamin2 as a gamma-sarcoglycan, delta-sarcoglycan and, hypothetically, beta1 integrin interacting protein. Our results, acquired with an immunofluorescence study on adult human skeletal muscle affected by LGMD type 2D and 2C, showed that in LGMD2D: a) alpha-sarcoglycan staining is severely reduced; b) the beta-gamma-delta-sarcoglycan subunit and all tested integrins staining are clearly detectable; c) filamin2 is normal and shows a costameric distribution. In LGMD2C: a) alpha-sarcoglycan staining is preserved; b) the beta-gamma-delta-sarcoglycan subunit staining is severely reduced; c) the alpha7B-integrin is slightly reduced and beta1D-integrin is severely reduced; d) filamin2 is severely reduced. Other tested proteins of the two systems show a normal staining pattern in both sarcoglycanopathies. Our study seems to confirm, for the first time on adult human skeletal muscle of subjects affected by LGMDs, the hypo-theses of: a) the

  5. Immunohistochemical phenotype and molecular pathological characteristics of metanephric adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhulei; Kan, Shihai; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Yan; Jing, Hong; Huang, Gui; Yu, Qichun; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    To assess the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of metanephric adenoma (MA). Clinicopathologic data were obtained for 5 cases of MA with follow-up information. Specimens from these patients were stained by HE and immunohistochemistry for the detection of WT1, vimentin, S-100 protein, CK7, P504s, CD10 and renal cell carcinoma marker (RCC). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 4 tumors. The patients included 1 male and 4 females, aged from 30 to 49 (mean=39) years. Tumor diameters ranged from 3 to 5.5 cm. Histologically, the tumors had tubular, papillary, or glomeruloid architectures, and were composed of cells with uniform and round nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, and high ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm. Nuclear polymorphism and mitotic figures were not observed. Immunohistochemically, they expressed WT1 (5/5), vimentin (5/5), S-100 (4/5), CK7 (2/5), P504s (2/5), and CD10 (1/5) and not RCC. FISH study was carried out on 4 metanephric adenoma cases, and no abnormalities were observed in chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and P16 gene of chromosomes 9. MA is an uncommon renal tumor. Its diagnosis depends on morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features. PMID:26261480

  6. Developmental Injury to the Cerebellar Cortex Following Hydroxyurea Treatment in Early Postnatal Life: An Immunohistochemical and Electron Microscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Molina, Vanesa; Santa-Cruz, M C; Hervás, José P

    2017-02-01

    Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex was studied in rats administered with a single dose (2 mg/g) of the cytotoxic agent hydroxyurea (HU) on postnatal day (P) 9 and collected at appropriate times ranging from 6 h to 45 days. Quantification of several parameters such as the density of pyknotic, mitotic, BrdU-positive, and vimentin-stained cells revealed that HU compromises the survival of the external granular layer (EGL) cells. Moreover, vimentin immunocytochemistry revealed overexpression and thicker immunoreactive glial processes in HU-treated rats. On the other hand, we also show that HU leads to the activation of apoptotic cellular events, resulting in a substantial number of dying EGL cells, as revealed by TUNEL staining and at the electron microscope level. Additionally, we quantified several features of the cerebellar cortex of rats exposed to HU in early postnatal life and collected in adulthood. Data analysis indicated that the analyzed parameters were less pronounced in rats administered with this agent. Moreover, we observed several alterations in the cerebellar cortex cytoarchitecture of rats injected with HU. Anomalies included ectopic placement of Purkinje cells and abnormities in the dendritic arbor of these macroneurons. Ectopic granule cells were also found in the molecular layer. These findings provide a clue for investigating the mechanisms of HU-induced toxicity during the development of the central nervous system. Our results also suggest that it is essential to avoid underestimating the adverse effects of this hydroxylated analog of urea when administered during early postnatal life.

  7. Biliary epithelial expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis: an immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Y; Tsuneyama, K; Kono, N; Hoso, M; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    1995-01-01

    It has been reported recently that there is a unique distribution of the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2) on biliary epithelial cells in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) but not primary sclerosing cholangitis. This distribution has been demonstrated using a mouse monoclonal antibody, coined C355.1. The epitope recognized by C355.1 is near the lipoic acid binding site of PDC-E2. C355.1 inhibits PDC-E2 activity in vitro and, unlike a panel of other monoclonal antibodies against different regions of PDC-E2, appears to bind not only to mitochondria but also to a unique antigen expressed predominantly on the luminal side of biliary epithelial cells in PBC. We have extended these observations by studying the subcellular reactivity of C355.1 using postembedding immunoelectron microscopy on the intrahepatic small bile ducts of PBC livers, extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EBO) livers, and normal livers. We report that the reactivity of C355.1 can be classified into two categories. The first category is characterized by small foci of reaction products that were randomly dispersed in cytoplasm, particularly in supranuclear areas; the ultrastructural characterization of these foci was impossible to define but was similar in PBC and EBO. However, of particular interest was the second category of reactivity, which was characterized by deposition of reaction products around the biliary lumen, including microvilli and adjacent subluminal ectoplasm and secretory substances in the biliary lumen. This staining pattern was frequent in PBC livers, only occasionally evident in EBO livers, and not found in normal livers. These data further define and highlight the unique subcellular distribution of PDC-E2 around the biliary lumen in PBC livers and suggest that this abnormality is related to the pathogenesis of bile duct lesions.

  8. Expression of Proteinase-activated Receptor-2 in the Esophageal Mucosa of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patients: A Histomorphologic and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rehim, Dalia M; Fath El-Bab, Hanaa K; Kamal, Enas M

    2015-10-01

    Data are limited regarding the role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in the esophageal mucosa in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. Our aim was to study PAR-2 expression and its relationship with different GERD-related clinical and pathologic parameters. Histomorphologic alterations in eosophageal mucosa in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive reflux disease (ERD) were also, evaluated. Endoscopic biopsies of the esophageal mucosa were obtained from 94 GERD patients and 20 participants for histopathologic analysis and PAR-2 immunohistochemical staining. The present study demonstrated significantly higher PAR-2 expression in GERD patients compared with control, whereas no significant differences were seen between NERD and ERD groups. PAR-2 expression significantly correlated with histologic score (r=0.572, P<0.001) and severity of heartburn (r=0.541, P<0.001). PAR-2 expression was significantly associated with basal cell hyperplasia, and dilated intercellular spaces and inflammatory cell count (P<0.05). Histologic analysis revealed GERD-related histomorphologic alterations in the esophageal mucosa of GERD patients with significant differences (P<0.05) among groups. Total histologic score was significantly correlated with heartburn (r=0.299, P=0.025) and endoscopic severity (r=0.359, P=0.027) in NERD and ERD patients, respectively. Taken together, this study provides evidence for the major role of PAR-2 in the pathogenesis of GERD and GERD-associated mucosal alterations.

  9. Immunohistochemical study of DNA topoisomerase I, DNA topoisomerase II alpha, p53, and Ki-67 in oral preneoplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hafian, Hilal; Venteo, Lydie; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor; Lefevre, Benoît; Pluot, Michel

    2004-06-01

    Human DNA topoisomerase I (topo I) is the molecular target of the camptothecin group of anticancer drugs. Laboratory studies have shown that the cellular response to topo I-targeted drugs depends on the topo I expression and DNA replication rate and the apoptotic pathway activity. In this study, we tested potential indicators of the sensitivity of topo I-targeted drugs in 36 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67, p53, and topo I, and with polyclonal antibodies against DNA topoisomerase II-alpha (topo II-alpha). These markers were also tested in 18 epithelial hyperplastic lesions and 18 mild dysplasias. Immunostaining was quantified by the percentage of stained nuclei in each sample (the labeling index); 200 immunoreactive epithelial nuclei were counted per case for each antibody. The results support the possibility of using topo II-alpha staining for assessing the proliferative activity. High expression of topo II-alpha and topo I in OSCCs suggests that they may serve as potential indicators of sensitivity to topo I inhibitors. However, the apoptotic pathway assessed by p53 immunostaining was found to be uninformative. Analysis of the relationship between immunohistochemical results and clinical and pathologic parameters (the T and N stages and differentiation) showed that only the differentiation parameter correlated with the topo I expression rate. Thus, significant increase in the topo I expression in the poorly differentiated OSCCs suggests their higher sensitivity to drug treatment.

  10. Prophylactic role of coenzyme Q10 and Cynara scolymus L on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats: Biochemical and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Hesham N.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Hegazy, Gehan A.; Abdel Jaleel, Gehad A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aims to evaluate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and Cynara scolymus L (CS) on doxorubicin (dox)-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 as a control. Group 2 received dox (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group 3 received CoQ10 (200 mg/kg). Group 4 received CS (500 mg/kg). Group 5 received CoQ10 (200 mg/kg) and dox (10 mg/kg). Group 6 received CS (500 mg/kg) and dox (10 mg/kg). The rats were then evaluated biochemically and immunohistochemically. Results: Dox produced a significant deterioration of hepatic and renal functional parameters. Moreover, an upsurge of oxidative stress and nitrosative stress markers. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was increased and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was decreased. Administration of CoQ10 and CS resulted in a significant improvement of hepatic and renal functional parameters, and an improvement of both α-SMA and PCNA. Conclusion: It is concluded that pretreatment with CoQ10 and CS is associated with up-regulation of favorable protective enzymes and down-regulation of oxidative stress. That can be advised as a supplement to dox-treated patients. PMID:26729958

  11. Comparison of Predictive Immunohistochemical Marker Expression of Primary Breast Cancer and Paired Distant Metastasis using Surgical Material: A Practice-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kulka, Janina; Székely, Borbála; Lukács, Lilla V; Kiss, Orsolya; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Vincze, Eszter; Turányi, Eszter; Fillinger, János; Hanzély, Zoltán; Arató, Gabriella; Szendrői, Miklós; Győrffy, Balázs; Szász, A Marcell

    2016-04-01

    Parallel studies of primary breast carcinomas and corresponding distant metastases samples reveal considerable differences. Our aim was to highlight this issue from another perspective and provide further data based on 98 patient samples: 69 primary breast carcinoma and 85 distant metastases from bone, central nervous system (CNS) and lung (56 paired). Two independent series of immunohistochemical reactions with different antibodies for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2), along with HER2 fluroscence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed on tissue microarrays to classify breast carcinoma and distant metastases samples into Luminal A, Luminal B-proliferating, Luminal B-HER2+, HER2+ and triple negative (TNBC) surrogate breast cancer groups. Correlation and agreement between the two assessments of ER and PgR were fair-to-moderate, and almost perfect for HER2 and Ki67. There was 40% discordance concerning immunophenotype between breast carcinomas and distant metastases. Most common metastatic site of ER+ breast carcinoma was the skeletal system (59.2%), whereas that of TNBCs was the CNS (58.8%) and lungs (23.5%). Distant metastases in bones were mostly luminal (54.3%), in the CNS, Luminal B (53.2%), and in the lung, TNBC (37.5%). The change of drugable properties of primary breast cancers in the respective bone and CNS metastases suggests that characterization of the metastasis is necessary for appropriate treatment planning.

  12. Immunohistochemical and histoplanimetrical study on the endothelial receptor involved in transportation of minute chylomicrons into subepithelial portal blood in intestinal villi of the rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Ei-ichirou; Yuasa, Hideto; Nishida, Miho; Mantani, Youhei; Udayanga, Kankanam Gamage Sanath; Qi, Wang-Mei; Takeuchi, Takashi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    A portion of the minute chylomicrons less than 75 nm in diameter are transcytosed from the extravascular tissue into the subepithelial blood capillaries (sBC) in the villous apices of the rat jejunum. However, the details of the transportation mechanism have not been clarified. In this study, the endothelial receptor involved in the transportation of minute chylomicrons into the sBC's lumina was immunohistochemically and histoplanimetrically examined in intestinal villi of the rat jejunum. Immunopositivity for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor was detected on the luminal and basal surfaces of the endothelial cells of sBC in approximately 68% of those apices of jejunal villi that possessed numerous chylomicrons in the lamina propria, while VLDL receptor was detected on the endothelial cells of sBC in only approximately 8% of intestinal villi that possessed few or no chylomicrons in the lamina propria. No immunopositivity for LDL receptor was detected in the sBC of all intestinal villi. These findings suggest that VLDL receptor is expressed by the endothelial cells of the sBC in conjunction with the filling of the lamina propria of jejunal villi with many chylomicrons produced by the villous columnar epithelial cells and that the VLDL receptor mediates the transportation of minute chylomicrons, maybe VLDL, into the subepithelial portal blood from the extravascular tissue of the rat jejunal villi.

  13. Basal epithelial cells of human prostate gland are not myoepithelial cells. A comparative immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study with the human salivary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Srigley, J. R.; Dardick, I.; Hartwick, R. W.; Klotz, L.

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis that basal epithelial cells of the human prostate are of myoepithelial origin was investigated using immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methodologies. The immunohistologic analyses show significant phenotypic differences between prostatic basal cells and myoepithelial cells of the salivary gland. Although both cell types stain intensely with the 312C8-1 monoclonal antibody, only true myoepithelial cells demonstrated significant amounts of muscle-specific actin as decorated by the HHF35 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, using double-labeling experiments, the prostatic basal cells were strongly decorated with a fluorescein-tagged basal cell-specific keratin but were negative with the rhodamine-tagged phalloidin, a chemical that binds specifically to actin microfilaments. Ultrastructural studies also showed an absence of thin microfilament bundles, dense bodies, and micropinocytotic vesicles in the prostatic basal cells. The current investigations show that the prostatic acini do not have a basal myoepithelium. Although some authors have suggested a stem cell role for prostatic basal cells, the weight of experimental work argues against this hypothesis. The exact role of the basal epithelial cells of the prostate is not known, although they may serve endocrine, paracrine, or other regulatory functions and may be involved in modulating signals between prostatic stroma and epithelium. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1691595

  14. Mismatch Repair Proteins and Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Carcinoma (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2): Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ismael, Nour El Hoda S.; El Sheikh, Samar A.; Talaat, Suzan M.; Salem, Eman M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is detected in about 15% of all colorectal cancers. CRC with MSI has particular characteristics such as improved survival rates and better prognosis. They also have a distinct sensitivity to the action of chemotherapy. AIM: The aim of the study was to detect microsatellite instability in a cohort of colorectal cancer Egyptian patients using the immunohistochemical expression of mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were divided into Microsatellite stable (MSS), Microsatellite unstable low (MSI-L) and Microsatellite unstable high (MSI-H). This Microsatellite stability status was correlated with different clinicopathological parameters. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant correlation between the age of cases, tumor site & grade and the microsatellite stability status. There was no statistically significant correlation between the gender of patients, tumor subtype, stage, mucoid change, necrosis, tumor borders, lymphocytic response, lymphovascular emboli and the microsatellite stability status. CONCLUSION: Testing for MSI should be done for all colorectal cancer patients, especially those younger than 50 years old, right sided and high-grade CRCs. PMID:28293308

  15. Vascular-endothelial growth factor and its high affinity receptor VEGFR-2 in the normal versus destructive lesions human forebrain during development: an immuno-histochemical comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sentilhes, Loïc; Marret, Stéphane; Leroux, Philippe; Gonzalez, Bruno José; Laquerrière, Annie

    2011-04-18

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic inducer and neurotrophic factor both in adult and neonatal animal models. In the destructive lesions of the developing human brain, the role and expression of VEGF and of its mitogenic receptor VEGFR-2 have been hardly studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the immunohistochemical distribution of VEGF and VEGFR-2 in premature and full-term infants presenting with hypoxic/ischemic lesions, and to compare results with normal infant brains at similar developmental stages. Paraffin embedded brain tissue samples were assessed using anti-human VEGF and VEGFR-2 antibodies. In all undamaged forebrain areas, VEGF and VEGFR-2 displayed same expression patterns in control and pathologic brains, whatever the destructive lesion occurrence's time (before 25 weeks of gestation (WG), between 25 and 34WG, perinatal period and infancy). In the destructive lesions, VEGF was always expressed in neurons, astrocytes and in neovessel walls, contrary to VEGFR-2 which was only expressed in dispersed astrocytes. VEGF was expressed in oligodendrocytes of prenatally damaged brains, whereas VEGF was expressed in these cells in undamaged areas from birth only, similarly to control brains. These data suggest that VEGF plays specific roles and may not be mediated by VEGFR-2 in human forebrain structures exposed to ischemia.

  16. An immunohistochemical study on the gastrointestinal endocrine cells of three honeyeaters: singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, N; Yamada, J; Richardson, K C; Kitamura, N; Yamashita, T

    1993-01-01

    The gastrointestinal endocrine cells of the singing honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthogenys rufogularis) and brown honeyeater (Lichmera indistincta) were studied immunohistochemically with special reference to their degree of dependency upon nectar. The nine types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were detected in their gastrointestinal mucosa. Coexistence of motilin and serotonin in the same cells was confirmed in the pyloric region. In the duodenum and jejunum, a few peptide tyrosin tyrosin (PYY)-immunoreactive cells were detected. The clear difference in the distribution and frequency of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells among three types of honeyeaters, which differ in the degree of dependency upon the nectar, could not be confirmed. However, some differences were found that serotonin-, somatostatin- and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-immunoreactive cells in the gizzard, gastrin-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum and jejunum, enteroglucagon-immunoreactive cells in the caeca and in the colon, and pancreatic glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the ileum of brown honeyeaters were more numerous (p < 0.05) than other two species.

  17. Immunohistochemical study of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor, TrkB, in the hippocampal formation of schizophrenic brains.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Shuji; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Kenji; Emson, Piers C

    2003-08-01

    Recently, the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been investigated from the perspective of neurodevelopmental dysfunction theory. On the other hand, it has been indicated that neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3, are significantly involved in the development and functional differences of central nervous system (CNS). Some reports proposed that the dysfunction of these factors could explain the pathogenesis of schizophrenia possibly. In this study, the authors investigated immunohistochemically the distribution and/or morphology of BDNF and TrkB, its peculiar receptor, in the hippocampal formation of schizophrenic brain. As a result, BDNF-positive pyramidal cells in the CA2 and neurons in the CA3 and the field of the CA4 were intensely stained compared to those of normal control. Staining of TrkB-positive neurons showed a signet-ring like shape in the hippocampus of normal control brains. Such figures were not observed on staining of those neurons from schizophrenic brains. In the control cases, TrkB-immunopositive varicose fibers were frequently seen. Those observed differences between schizophrenic and normal cases may indicate the existence of dysfunction of BDNF and TrkB in schizophrenic brain, and this dysfunction may be one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  18. [NEURONS IN VISUAL THALAMIC CENTERS OF TURTLES, PROJECTING UPON THE TELENCEPHALON, EXPRESS DIFFERENT TYPES OF CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS: COMBINED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL AND TRACER STUDY].

    PubMed

    Kenigfest, N B; Belekhova, M G

    2015-01-01

    In turtles (Testudo horsfieldi, Emys orbicularis) the immunoreactivity for calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), and colocalization of PV and CB in neurons of visual thalamic nuclei (Rot, GLD) projecting to the telencephalon were studied using combined immunohistochemical and tracer method. The predominance of CB-ir neurons in Rot, CB-ir and CR-ir neurons in GLD and a lower amount of PV-ir neurons in both nuclei were shown. With double labeling fluoroimmunohistochemistry technique the colocalization of PV with CB was revealed in the majority of PV-ir neurons and in a fewer number of CB-ir neurons within both nuclei. After delivery of horseradish peroxidase into the telencephalic projection fields of Rot and GLD, retrograde labeling was found in the corresponding thalamic projection neurons immunoreactive for every protein investigated. After fluorescent tracer (Fluoro Gold) injection into the same telencephalic regions retrograde labeling was observed in Rot and GLD neurons, immunoreactive only for PV or CB, as well in neurons with colocalization of the both proteins. These data support predominance of CB-ir component in the rotundo-telencephalic pathway and CB/CR components in the geniculo-telencephalic pathway in turtles. The role of functional specialization in segregation of neurons expressing different types of calcium-binding proteins is postulated.

  19. Molecular and immunohistochemical studies do not support a role for papillomaviruses in canine oral squamous cell carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; French, Adrienne; Harvey, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are common neoplasms of dogs and are of unknown cause. Whereas papillomaviruses (PVs) are an established cause of human OSCCs, few studies have investigated canine OSCCs for a PV aetiology. In humans, a PV aetiology can be determined by detecting PV DNA and PV-induced increased p16(CDKN2A) protein (p16) within the OSCC. In this study, PCR, using four different primer sets and p16 immunohistochemistry, was used to evaluate 28 canine OSCCs for a possible PV aetiology. None of the primers amplified PV DNA from any of the OSCCs although four neoplasms contained intense p16 immunostaining. Intense p16 immunostaining would indicate a PV aetiology in a human OSCC but the absence of PV DNA suggests that the increase in p16 was not due to PV infection. Overall the results indicated that PVs are not a significant cause of canine OSCCs.

  20. [A study on sex chromosome mosaicism--endocrinological and immunohistochemical findings with glutathion S-transferase in the gonads].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, K; Koyama, T; Toyota, K; Asano, Y; Gotoh, T; Togashi, M; Koyanagi, T; Adachi, Y; Fujieda, K

    1990-03-01

    In order to clarify the clinical aspects of sex chromosomal mosaicism, we evaluated the karyotypes, the anatomy of external genitalia and internal ductal system, the pituitary-gonadal function, and the histopathology of the gonads by immuno-staining for glutathion S-transferase (GST) in 5 patients who had been all raised as female. Three patients have the 45, X/46, XYq- karyotype in the initial lymphocyte culture or the subsequent culture of skin fibroblasts. Another two karyotypes were 45, X/46, XYq-/47, XYq-, Yq- and 45, X/46, XdicY. Thus, Y chromosome of all patients retained short arms in which the testis determining factor is encoded. Three prepubertal patients were referred to us for their ambigious external genitalia and two postpubertal patients were for the short statures. Although the vaginal orifice was separated from the urethral meatus in all of them, the phallic enlargement was noted in 4 patients and the posterior labial fusion in 2 patients. The oldest patient had a normal female appearance of external genitalia except the vaginal septum. Serum gonadotrophin (GnH) levels were basically high in the postopubertal patients and the responses of GnH to LH-RH were significantly increased in the prepubertal patients. Serum testosterone levels to hCG stimulation ranged from no response to low normal response. All patients underwent the exploratory laparotomy together with the feminizing genitoplasty. The gonads in 3 patients, diagnosed as mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD), consisted of a unilateral testis and a contralateral streak gonad. Two patients had variants, including one with bilateral dysgenetic testis and another with bilateral streak gonads.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Uncertainty in the assessment of immunohistochemical staining with optical and digital microscopy: lessons from a reader study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Gallas, Brandon D.; Hewitt, Stephen M.

    2015-03-01

    We recently completed a reader study to compare optical and digital pathology (DP) for the assessment of two tissue-based biomarkers with immunohistochemistry. Eight pathologists reviewed 50 breast cancer whole slides (25 stained with HER2 and 25 with Ki-67) and 2 TMAs (1 stained with HER2, 1 with Ki-67, 97 cores each), using digital and optical microscopy. All reviews took place in a single office, using the same microscope, same computer/color calibrated monitor combination, and the same ambient light, in order to eliminate sources of variability due to these parameters. Agreement analysis was performed using the Kendall's tau-b metric and percent correct agreement. Results showed relatively high overall inter-observer and inter-modality agreement. However, significant uncertainty was observed for the whole slide evaluation with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in the order of 0.30 for the Kendall's tau-b metric, despite taking care to reduce sources of uncertainty. For the better-sampled TMAs, CIs were in the order of 0.15. It can be deduced that the sample size of 25 slides for each biomarker was not adequate even though it is in line with recent guidelines for the validation of DP from the College of American Pathologists (20 slides for immunohistochemistry without specifying task). Significant uncertainty was observed in our study, despite controlling for several variables. Further work is needed to identify sources of uncertainty for observer tasks in DP, and to account for it in study designs to assess DP.

  2. A comparative immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression in solid ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Tabatabaie, Sayed Hosein; Hoseini, Ali Tavakoli; Hoseini, Ehsan Tavakoli; Khabazian, Arezu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Solid ameloblastoma (SAB) is an invasive tumor which infiltrates adjacent normal tissues. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a noninvasive tumor and never infiltrates surrounding normal tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the biological behavior of these two epithelial odontogenic neoplasm by detecting Ki-67 and Bcl-2, which are mitotic and anti apoptotic markers respectively. Materials and Methods: In this analytical retrospective study, 16 samples of SAB and 16 samples of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor were selected. The samples were deparafinized and antigens were retrieved. Immunohistochemistry technique was applied for evaluation of these two markers. Monoclonal antibodies MIB1 and Bcl-2 were used to detect Ki-67 and Bcl-2 protein respectively, then the labeling index (LI) was calculated for both markers according to cellular staining. Data were analyzed by “t” test, (P<0.05). Results: The mean values of LI for Ki-67 in SAB and Adenomatiod odontogenic tumor (AOT) were 4 and 1% respectively and for Bcl-2 in SAB and AOT were 63 and 26% respectively. The indices of both markers were higher in SAB compared to AOT (P <0.05). Conclusions: Higher percentage of these two markers in SAB compared to AOT confirms the aggressive behavior of SAB and the hamartomatosis behavior of AOT. PMID:22623937

  3. The distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the gastrointestinal tract of reptiles, birds and a prototherian mammal. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Adamson, S; Campbell, G

    1988-03-01

    The distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the gut of several species of birds and reptiles, and of a prototherian mammal, the platypus, was studied using a monoclonal antibody. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-like immunoreactivity was found in enterochromaffin cells and, in birds, in thrombocytes. Immunoreactivity was not found in enteric neurons fixed immediately after dissection. A detailed study was made on one avian species, the budgerigar. Following incubation of intestine in physiological solution, immunoreactivity was found in nerve fibres in the gut wall that was more marked after incubation with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline. These fibres took up exogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine. Similar fibres were found in the intestinal nerves and in perivascular plexuses on mesenteric arteries. Both the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine and the appearance of neuronal immunoreactivity after incubation were inhibited by the amine uptake inhibitors desmethylimipramine or fluoxetine. Fibres taking up 5-hydroxytryptamine were damaged by pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. It was concluded that the fibres showing immunoreactivity after incubation were adrenergic fibres that had taken up 5-hydroxytryptamine released in vitro from enterochromaffin cells or thrombocytes. These, and more limited observations made on the other species, suggest that birds, reptiles and prototherian mammals lack enteric neurons that use 5-hydroxytryptamine as a transmitter substance.

  4. Bizarre (pseudomalignant) granulation-tissue reactions following ionizing-radiation exposure. A microscopic, immunohistochemical, and flow-cytometric study

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, N.; Askin, F.B.; Berthrong, M.; Hopkins, M.B.; Kute, T.E.; McGuirt, F.W.

    1987-04-15

    Two patients developed extremely bizarre (pseudomalignant) granulation-tissue reactions in the larynx and facial sinuses, following radiation therapy for carcinoma. Containing pleomorphic spindle cells and numerous (sometimes atypical) mitotic figures, both tumefactive lesions simulated high grade malignancies. While the pleomorphic cells contained vimentin immunoreactivity, they were nonreactive for low or high molecular weight keratin. Flowcytometric study of paraffin-embedded tissues revealed DNA indexes of 0.75 and 1.0. Neither recurred locally nor spread distantly after therapy. Their granulation-tissue growth pattern, and the presence of stromal and endothelial cells showing similar degrees of cytologic atypia were central to their recognition as benign. These findings show that severely atypical, sometimes aneuploid, granulation-tissue reactions can occur following radiation exposure. Care should be taken not to misinterpret these lesions as malignant.

  5. Podoplanin expression in tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas: an immunohistochemical and fractal analysis study.

    PubMed

    Margaritescu, C; Raica, M; Pirici, D; Simionescu, C; Mogoanta, L; Stinga, A C; Stinga, A S; Ribatti, D

    2010-06-01

    Podoplanin is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in head and neck malignancies and its expression is not restricted to lymphatic vessel endothelium. The aim of this study was to establish podoplanin expression in the tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and to evaluate the geometric complexity of the lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa by utilizing fractal analysis. As concerns the podoplanin expression in noncancerous tissue, forty tumor-free resection margins from OSCCs were investigated utilizing immunohistochemistry for D2-40 antibody and image densitometry analysis. Podoplanin expression was extremely low in basal cells, especially in resection margins of OSCCs developed in the lower lip regions. However, a highly variable D2-40 expression in tumor-free resection margins associated with hyperplastic or dysplastic lesions was identified. Moreover, podoplanin expression also extended to the basal layer of the lower lip skin appendages, the myoepithelial cells of acini and ducts of minor salivary glands, and other structures from the oral cavity. As concerns the study of the density and complexity of oral lymphatic vessels architecture by means of immunohistochemistry (D2-40, CD31 and Ki-67 antibodies) and fractal analysis, we demonstrated that in normal oral mucosa the geometry of the lymphatic vessels was less complex at the level of the lower lip compared to the anterior part of the oral floor mucosa or the tongue. A comparative analysis between the normal and pathological aspects revealed statistically significant differences between the fractal dimension (FD) of the vessels' outline, especially in the tongue. Fractal analysis proved an increasing lymphatic network complexity from normal to premalignant oral mucosal lesions, providing additional prognostic information in oral malignant tumors.

  6. The Glutamatergic Neurons in the Spinal Cord of the Sea Lamprey: An In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-López, Blanca; Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Valle-Maroto, Silvia M.; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter involved in spinal cord circuits in vertebrates, but in most groups the distribution of glutamatergic spinal neurons is still unknown. Lampreys have been extensively used as a model to investigate the neuronal circuits underlying locomotion. Glutamatergic circuits have been characterized on the basis of the excitatory responses elicited in postsynaptic neurons. However, the presence of glutamatergic neurochemical markers in spinal neurons has not been investigated. In this study, we report for the first time the expression of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey. We also study the distribution of glutamate in perikarya and fibers. The largest glutamatergic neurons found were the dorsal cells and caudal giant cells. Two additional VGLUT-positive gray matter populations, one dorsomedial consisting of small cells and another one lateral consisting of small and large cells were observed. Some cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells also expressed VGLUT. In the white matter, some edge cells and some cells associated with giant axons (Müller and Mauthner axons) and the dorsolateral funiculus expressed VGLUT. Large lateral cells and the cells associated with reticulospinal axons are in a key position to receive descending inputs involved in the control of locomotion. We also compared the distribution of glutamate immunoreactivity with that of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. Colocalization of glutamate and GABA or glycine was observed in some small spinal cells. These results confirm the glutamatergic nature of various neuronal populations, and reveal new small-celled glutamatergic populations, predicting that some glutamatergic neurons would exert complex actions on postsynaptic neurons. PMID:23110124

  7. Immunohistochemical study of collagen types I and II and procollagen IIA in human cartilage repair tissue following autologous chondrocyte implantation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S; Menage, J; Sandell, L J; Evans, E H; Richardson, J B

    2009-10-01

    This study has assessed the relative proportions of type I and II collagens and IIA procollagen in full depth biopsies of repair tissue in a large sample of patients treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Sixty five full depth biopsies were obtained from knees of 58 patients 8-60 months after treatment by ACI alone (n=55) or in combination with mosaicplasty (n=10). In addition articular cartilage was examined from eight individuals (aged 10-50) as controls. Morphology and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry for collagen types I and II and procollagen IIA in the repair tissue were studied. Repair cartilage thickness was 2.89+/-1.5 mm and there was good basal integration between the repair cartilage, calcified cartilage and subchondral bone. Sixty five percent of the biopsies were predominantly fibrocartilage (mostly type I collagen and IIA procollagen), 15% were hyaline cartilage (mostly type II collagen), 17% were of mixed morphology and 3% were fibrous tissue (mostly type I collagen). Type II collagen and IIA procollagen were usually found in the lower regions near the bone and most type II collagen was present 30-60 months after treatment. The presence of type IIA procollagen in the repair tissue supports our hypothesis that this is indicative of a developing cartilage, with the ratio of type II collagen:procollagen IIA increasing from <2% in the first two years post-treatment to 30% three to five years after treatment. This suggests that cartilage repair tissue produced following ACI treatment, is likely to take some years to mature.

  8. Immunohistochemical study of the membrane skeletal protein, membrane protein palmitoylated 6 (MPP6), in the mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Akio; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Ohno, Shinichi; Terada, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    The membrane protein palmitoylated (MPP) family belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. MPP1 interacts with the protein 4.1 family member, 4.1R, as a membrane skeletal protein complex in erythrocytes. We previously described the interaction of another MPP family, MPP6, with 4.1G in the mouse peripheral nervous system. In the present study, the immunolocalization of MPP6 in the mouse small intestine was examined and compared with that of E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and 4.1B, which we previously investigated in intestinal epithelial cells. The immunolocalization of MPP6 was also assessed in the small intestines of 4.1B-deficient (-/-) mice. In the small intestine, Western blotting revealed that the molecular weight of MPP6 was approximately 55-kDa, and MPP6 was immunostained under the cell membranes in the basolateral portions of almost all epithelial cells from the crypts to the villi. The immunostaining pattern of MPP6 in epithelial cells was similar to that of E-cadherin, but differed from that of ZO-1. In intestinal epithelial cells, the immunostained area of MPP6 was slightly different from that of 4.1B, which was restricted to the intestinal villi. The immunolocalization of MPP6 in small intestinal epithelial cells was similar between 4.1B(-/-) mice and 4.1B(+/+) mice. In the immunoprecipitation study, another MAGUK family protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK), was shown to molecularly interact with MPP6. Thus, we herein showed the immunolocalization and interaction proteins of MPP6 in the mouse small intestine, and also that 4.1B in epithelial cells was not essential for the sorting of MPP6.

  9. MYC amplification and overexpression in primary cutaneous angiosarcoma: a fluorescence in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shon, Wonwoo; Sukov, William R; Jenkins, Sarah M; Folpe, Andrew L

    2014-04-01

    MYC, a proto-oncogene located on chromosome 8q24, is involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies have documented high-level MYC gene amplification and MYC overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-irradiation angiosarcomas, but not in primary cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS-C) or in other radiation-associated vascular proliferations, such as atypical vascular lesions. Prompted by our recent finding of MYC amplification in a primary hepatic AS, we analyzed a large number of well-characterized AS-C for MYC amplification and protein overexpression. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 38 AS-C were retrieved from our archives and were examined by IHC analysis and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), using a commercially available antibody and probe. For FISH analysis, the number of copies of MYC was compared with the control gene, CEN8 (MYC/CEN8 ratio). All cases occurred on sun-exposed skin; no patient was known to have a history of therapeutic irradiation. Possible associations between survival and a wide variety of clinicopathological variables were evaluated using the log-rank test. By IHC analysis, MYC overexpression was present in 9/38 (24%) AS-C (2-3+: 6 cases, 16%; 1+: 3 cases, 8%). By FISH analysis, 2/5 (40%) informative cases with 2-3+ immunostaining showed high-level gene amplification. One additional case with 3+ immunostaining showed higher level aneusomy of chromosome 8 (5-8 MYC and CEN8). Two out of fourteen (14%) IHC-negative cases also carried MYC amplification (one high level and one lower level). Low copy number gain of chromosome 8 (3-5 MYC and CEN8) was observed in AS-C with or without MYC expression. MYC amplification and MYC protein overexpression were not correlated with clinical outcome. We have shown, for the first time, MYC gene amplification and protein overexpression in primary (non-radiation-associated) AS of the skin. MYC protein overexpression in cases lacking gene

  10. Substance P and opioid peptidergic innervation of the anterior eye segment of the rat: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Selbach, J Michael; Buschnack, Samia H; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Kremmer, Stephan; Muth-Selbach, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Recently discovered endogenous opioid peptides such as nociceptin are known to modulate neurotransmitter release of primary afferent neurons (especially substance P, SP) and they have also been demonstrated in peripheral nerve fibres. The aim of this study was to investigate the opioid peptidergic innervation of the anterior eye segment and to compare it with the innervation pattern of SP in order to shed light on the functional relationship between these peptides. Anterior eye segments of 20 rat eyes were cut in a tangential plane and the sections stained with antibodies against SP, nociceptin, nocistatin, endomorphin 1 and 2, leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin. Sections of the spinal cord or brain were used as positive controls. Numerous SP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the conjunctiva, cornea, episclera, trabecular meshwork, iris and ciliary body. A weak staining for met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin could only be found in the iris and anteriormost ciliary body. Nerve fibres immunoreactive for nociceptin, nocistatin, and endomorphin 1 or 2 could not be detected in any part of the anterior eye segment. It is tempting to speculate that the opioid peptidergic innervation of the anterior ciliary body may play a role in the modulation of intraocular inflammation. PMID:15733295

  11. In situ immunohistochemical study of Bcl-2 and heat shock proteins in human corneal endothelial cells during corneal storage

    PubMed Central

    Gain, P.; Thuret, G.; Chiquet, C.; Dumollard, J. M.; Mosnier, J. F.; Campos, L.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the expression of Bcl-2 and heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are known to increase cell survival, in human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) of corneas stored in organ culture.
METHODS—32 paired corneas were randomly assigned to either a short or a long storage time. The flat mounts of endothelium were examined after immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies to Bcl-2 and HSP 27, 60, 70, and 90.
RESULTS—HCECs expressed generally all the proteins studied. Bcl-2 expression was weaker in the long stored corneas (p=0.035). There was no relation between immunostaining, age, sex, or death to culture time. Frequently some Descemet membranes carried negative cells preferentially located in folds and exhibiting morphological changes consistent with swelling cells corresponding to early stages of apoptosis.
CONCLUSION—Expression of these cytoprotective proteins reflects the high level of HCEC resistance to stresses induced by organ culture. The decreased immunostaining of Bcl-2 in the long storage group could act in cellular loss currently observed with storage time. The negativity of Bcl-2 and HSP labelling in corneal folding may be related to apoptosis.

 PMID:11466261

  12. The potential role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell-mediated canine mammary tumor initiation: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Di; Xie, Fuqiang; Lin, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Additionally, it is becoming apparent that cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling is associated with canine mammary tumor development. The goals of the present study were to investigate COX-2 expression patterns and their effect on CSC-mediated tumor initiation in primary canine mammary tissues and tumorsphere models using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of COX-2, CD44, octamer-binding transcription factor (Oct)-3/4, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were examined in malignant mammary tumor (MMT) samples and analyzed in terms of clinicopathological characteristics. COX-2 and Oct-3/4 expression was higher in MMTs compared to other histological samples with heterogeneous patterns. In MMTs, COX-2 expression correlated with tumor malignancy features. Significant associations between COX-2, CD44, and EGFR were observed in low-differentiated MMTs. Comparative analysis showed that the levels of COX-2, CD44, and Oct-3/4 expression varied significantly among TSs of three histological grades. Enhanced COX-2 staining was consistently observed in TSs. Similar levels of staining intensity were found for CD44 and Oct-3/4, but EGFR expression was weak. Our findings indicate the potential role of COX-2 in CSC-mediated tumor initiation, and suggest that COX-2 inhibition may help treat canine mammary tumors by targeting CSCs.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  14. [Use in immunohistochemical studies of a method of restoration of antigenic specificity as affected by microwaves in tissue fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin].

    PubMed

    Gurevich, L E; Isakov, V A

    1999-01-01

    Recovery of specific antigenic characteristics using microwave treatment of paraffin sections of tissues fixed by formalin allows to extend spectrum of antibodies for immunohistochemical diagnosis. Microwaves enable the reaction on the material prepared according to the standard technique, and macropreparations long stored in formalin and archive blocks.

  15. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the peri-implant soft tissues around machined and acid-etched titanium healing abutments: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Artese, Luciano; Piattelli, Adriano; Scarano, Antonio; Shibli, Jamil A; Piccirilli, Marcello; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    A close spatial correlation has been described between the roughness of intraoral materials and the rate of bacterial colonisation. The aim of the present study in man was to conduct a comparative immunohistochemical evaluation of the inflammatory infiltrate, microvessel density, the nitric oxide synthases 1 and 3 and the vascular endothelial growth factor expression, the proliferative activity, and the B and T lymphocyte and histiocyte positivity in the peri-implant soft tissues around machined and acid-etched titanium healing caps. Ten patients participated in this study. The patients were enrolled consecutively. All patients received dental implants left to heal in a non-submerged mode. Healing caps were inserted in all implants. Half of the implants were supplied randomly with machined caps of titanium (control), while the other half were provided randomly with acid-etched titanium caps (test). After a 6-month healing period, a gingival biopsy was performed with a circular scalpel around the healing caps of both groups. The inflammatory infiltrate was mostly present in test specimens. Their extension was much larger than that of the control samples. A higher number of T and B lymphocytes were observed in test specimens. Higher values of microvessel density and a higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor intensity were observed in the test samples. Furthermore, the Ki-67, NOS1 and NOS3 expression was significantly higher in the test specimens. All these results showed that the tissues around test healing caps underwent a higher rate of restorative processes, most probably correlated to the higher inflammation processes observed in these tissues.

  16. Insight from Molecular, Pathological, and Immunohistochemical Studies on Cellular and Humoral Mechanisms Responsible for Vaccine-Induced Protection of Rainbow Trout against Yersinia ruckeri

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Per W.; Chettri, Jiwan K.; Skov, Jakob; Bojesen, Anders M.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The immunological mechanisms associated with protection of vaccinated rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, against enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, were previously elucidated by the use of gene expression methodology and immunochemical methods. That approach pointed indirectly to both humoral and cellular elements being involved in protection. The present study correlates the level of protection in rainbow trout to cellular reactions in spleen and head kidney and visualizes the processes by applying histopathological, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization techniques. It was shown that these cellular reactions, which were more prominent in spleen than in head kidney, were associated with the expression of immune-related genes, suggesting a Th2-like response. Y. ruckeri, as shown by in situ hybridization (ISH), was eliminated within a few days in vaccinated fish, whereas nonprotected fish still harbored bacteria for a week after infection. Vaccinated fish reestablished normal organ structure within a few days, whereas nonprotected fish showed abnormalities up to 1 month postinfection. Protection in the early phase of infection was mainly associated with the expression of genes encoding innate factors (complement factors, lysozyme, and acute phase proteins), but in the later phase of infection, increased expression of adaptive immune genes dominated. The histological approach used has shown that the cellular changes correlated with protection of vaccinated fish. They comprised transformation of resident cells into macrophage-like cells and increased occurrence of CD8α and IgM cells, suggesting these cells as main players in protection. Future studies should investigate the causality between these factors and protection. PMID:23966555

  17. The Y-organ secretory activity fluctuates in relation to seasons of molt and reproduction in the brachyuran crab, Metopograpsus messor (Grapsidae): Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shyamal, Sharmishtha; Sudha, K; Gayathri, N; Anilkumar, G

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a first-time report on the localization, structure and seasonal secretory activity of the Y-organ of a grapsid brachyuran crab (Metopograpsus messor). Having exhibited discrete seasonality with reference to the programming of molt and reproduction, this brachyuran crab has offered us an excellent model to obtain a clear picture of the fluctuating secretory nature of the Yorgan, all the way through the reproductive (August-December) as well as the molt-reproduction active (January-May) and inactive (June-July) seasons. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the secretion of the Y-organ was at its peak in premolt crabs during molt-reproduction season (January-May). Interestingly, the Y-organs of the intermolt females that engaged in breeding activity showed higher levels of secretion than those of the molt-reproduction inactive season (June-July), implicating the gland's involvement in reproduction. Immunohistochemical studies using the antiserum raised against 2-succinyl conjugate of ecdysone have demonstrated the ecdysteroid nature of the secretion from the Y-organ, and results of the quantitative assay of ecdysteroids (through radioimmunoassay) revealed that the hormone titer fluctuates in consonance with the Y-organ's secretory activity during seasons of molt and reproduction. Pertinently, not only that the paper gives us a comprehensive understanding on the secretory activity of the Y-organ in a season-dependent fashion, it also allows us to have a better insight into the gland's function related to molting and reproduction (for the first time) in a grapsid brachyuran crab.

  18. Development of automated quantification methodologies of immunohistochemical markers to determine patterns of immune response in breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    López, Carlos; Callau, Cristina; Bosch, Ramon; Korzynska, Anna; Jaén, Joaquín; García-Rojo, Marcial; Bueno, Gloria; Salvadó, Mª Teresa; Álvaro, Tomás; Oños, Montse; Fernández-Carrobles, María del Milagro; Llobera, Montserrat; Baucells, Jordi; Orero, Guifré; Lejeune, Marylène

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lymph nodes are one of the main sites where an effective immune response develops. Normally, axillary nodes are the first place where breast cancer produces metastases. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of immune cells, especially dendritic cells, in the evolution of breast cancer. The goal of the project is to identify differences in the patterns of immune infiltrates, with particular emphasis on dendritic cells, in tumour and axillary node biopsies between patients with and without metastases in the axillary nodes at the time of diagnosis. It is expected that these differences will be able to explain differences in survival, relapse and clinicopathological variables between the two groups. Methods and analysis The study will involve 100 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2007, 50% of whom have metastases in the axillary lymph node at diagnosis. In selected patients, two cylinders from biopsies of representative areas of tumour and axillary nodes (with and without metastasis) will be selected and organised in tissue microarrays. Samples will be stained using immunohistochemical techniques for different markers of immune response and dendritic cells. Two images of each cylinder will be captured under standardised conditions for each marker. Each marker will be quantified automatically by digital image procedures using Image-Pro Plus and Image-J software. Associations of survival, relapse and other clinicopathological variables with the automatically quantified levels of immune infiltrates in patients with and without axillary node metastasis will be sought. Ethics and dissemination The present project has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII (Ref: 22p/2011). Those patients whose biopsies and clinical data are to be used will give their signed informed consent. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:25091015

  19. Immunohistochemical expression of minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 predicts biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer: a tissue microarray and digital imaging analysis-based study of 428 cases.

    PubMed

    Toubaji, Antoun; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Chaux, Alcides; Lecksell, Kristen; Hicks, Jessica; De Marzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Netto, George J

    2012-11-01

    Prostate cancer remains a major health problem in the United States. Established clinicopathologic parameters such as Gleason score, T stage, and prostate-specific antigen levels are currently the guiding tools for prognostication and disease management. The addition of biomarkers could increase the accuracy of these parameters for predicting disease progression, response to therapy, and survival. In this regard, the goal of this study was to evaluate minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical expression as predictors of outcome in prostate cancer. For this purpose, 11 tissue microarrays were constructed using tumor and nontumor samples from 428 patients. Patients were divided into short-term (mean, 2.9 years) and long-term (mean, 14.1 years) follow-up groups. End points were biochemical recurrence for the short-term follow-up group and prostate cancer-related death for the long-term follow-up group. All men in the long-term follow-up group had biochemical recurrence at the time of recruitment. Expression of both markers was higher in tumor than in nontumor glands. Percentage of minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 was associated with Gleason score in both groups. Percentage of Ki-67 was associated with Gleason score and pathologic stage only in the short-term follow-up group. Higher minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 percentages were associated with biochemical recurrence in the short-term follow-up group. In the long-term follow-up group, neither minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 nor Ki-67 levels predicted prostate cancer death. In conclusion, our results suggest that in patients treated by radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer, immunohistochemistry for minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 expression could be used to predict biochemical recurrence, independent of other known clinicopathologic factors.

  20. Role of IAPs in prostate cancer progression: immunohistochemical study in normal and pathological (benign hyperplastic, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer) human prostate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In this study was investigate IAPs in normal human prostate (NP), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic carcinoma (PC), and their involvement in apoptosis/proliferation via NF-kB (TNF-α, IL-1) stimulation. Methods Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed in 10 samples of normal prostates, 35 samples of BPH, 27 samples diagnosis of PIN (with low-grade PIN or high-grade PIN) and 95 samples of PC (with low, medium or high Gleason grades). Results In NP, cytoplasm of epithelial cells were positive to c-IAP1/2 (80% of samples), c-IAP-2 (60%), ILP (20%), XIAP (20%); negative to NAIP and survivin. In BPH, epithelial cells were immunostained to c-IAP1/2 (57.57%), c-IAP-2 (57.57%), ILP (66.6%), NAIP (60.6%), XIAP (27.27%), survivin (9.1%). Whereas low-grade PIN showed intermediate results between NP and BPH; results in high-grade PIN were similar to those found in PC. In PC, epithelial cells were immunostained to c-IAP1/2, c-IAP-2, ILP, NAIP, XIAP (no Gleason variation) and survivin (increasing with Gleason). Conclusions IAPs could be involved in prostate disorder (BPH, PIN and PC) development since might be provoke inhibition of apoptosis and subsequently cell proliferation. At the same time, different transduction pathway such as IL-1/NIK/NF-kB or TNF/NF-kB (NIK or p38) also promotes proliferation. Inhibitions of IAPs, IL-1α and TNFα might be a possible target for PC treatment since IAPs are the proteins that inhibited apoptosis (favour proliferation) and IL-1α and TNFα would affect all the transduction pathway involucrate in the activation of transcription factors related to survival or proliferation (NF-kB, Elk-1 or ATF-2). PMID:20078866

  1. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat forebrain and upper brain stem during postnatal development: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Jeon, S M; Lee, K M; Park, E S; Cho, H J

    2007-05-25

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the regional and temporal patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat forebrain and upper brain stem during postnatal development using an immunohistochemical approach. Results indicated that BDNF-immunoreactive (IR) cells could be divided into three groups based on their postnatal developmental patterns: (group 1) BDNF-IR cells were first detected between postnatal days (PND) 1 and 7, and thereafter they increased in number and remained stable during later stages of ontogeny; (group 2) BDNF-IR cells progressively increased in number with age, and then decreased in adults; (group 3) numerous BDNF-IR cells detected between PND 1 and 7 showed a dramatic reductions in number with few IR cells in adults. In contrast, the developmental pattern of most BDNF-IR fibers differed from that of IR neurons, i.e. they appeared between PND 1-28 and thereafter continued to increase in number showing a maximum level in adults. Additionally, BDNF-IR cells in the superficial layer of the neocortex and IR fibers in the stratum oriens of CA2 first appeared as late as PND 28 and in adults, respectively. After colchicine treatment, reexpression or a marked increase in the number of BDNF-IR neurons was observed in many areas of the adult brain where a progressive decrease in BDNF-IR cell numbers during development and scant or some IR neurons in adults were shown. These results showed both transient and persistent expression of BDNF in various regions of the developing rat brain.

  2. Comparison of immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization assessment of HER-2 status in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Michelle; Snover, Dale

    2005-05-01

    Because HER-2 expression in invasive carcinoma of the breast has well-documented ramifications for treatment and prognosis, accurate assessment of HER-2 status is critical. Comparative studies have shown high concordance rates between immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in cases with immunohistochemical scores of 0 or 1+ (negative) and 3+ (strongly positive) and low concordance rates among cases with immunohistochemical scores of 2+. The present study was performed to determine concordance rates in a setting more representative of routine clinical practice, in which multiple pathologists submit specimens to a single cytogenetics referral laboratory. We found a higher rate of discordance between immunohistochemical analysis and FISH (approximately 92%) in the groups with immunohistochemical scores of 2+ than reported in other studies. These results strongly support the practice of performing FISH in all cases with immunohistochemical scores of 2+, particularly in routine practice, in which interobserver variability in immunohistochemical scoring among multiple pathologists is likely to be high.

  3. Including the Study about Religions in the Social Studies Curriculum: A Position Statement and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilzer, Robert J., Jr.

    Based on a National Council for the Social Studies position statement on the essentials of social studies, a rationale for teaching about religions in the social studies is presented. The author's rationale includes the following points: (1) that knowledge about religion is not only characteristic of an educated person but also necessary for…

  4. Clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical effects of arsenical-ferruginous spa waters on mild-to-moderate psoriatic lesions: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Borroni, G; Brazzelli, V; Fornara, L; Rosso, R; Paulli, M; Tinelli, C; Ciocca, O

    2013-01-01

    Thermalism and spa treatments are traditionally considered effective in a number of dermatologic inflammatory conditions, yet there is scarce evidence about spring water effectiveness on psoriasis in a daily setting. We enrolled 34 patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-contralaterally-controlled trial, to evaluate Levico and Vetriolo arsenical-ferruginous water effectiveness on psoriatic lesions by daily 20-minute wet packing for 12 consecutive days. Clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical parameters were considered. A statistically significant difference between spa water-treated lesions and placebo-treated lesions in the same patients was demonstrated for histopathologic and immunohistochemical parameters. Since iron ions have an antiproliferative effect on epithelia, and magnesium ions have an anti-inflammatory effect, Levico and Vetriolo water effectiveness on psoriasis could be addressed to their content of these ions.

  5. A Tumor Hidden Beneath the Nail Plate: Report of A Rare Case of Onychomatricoma with Three-Dimensional Histopathological Analysis and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Poojary, Shital Amin; Halwai, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a tumor of the nail matrix which often presents with alterations in the nail plate while the tumor itself is concealed beneath the nail plate. It is a benign, biphasic fibroepithelial tumor which has to be differentiated from other subungual and periungual tumors. We report a rare case of onychomatricoma and describe a three-dimensional histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical patterns of onychomatricoma. PMID:25814731

  6. Intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma showing mixed classic and proximal-type features: report of 2 cases, with immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic INI-1 study.

    PubMed

    Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Kaygusuz, Gulsah; Bahrami, Armita; Raimondi, Susana C; Kilicarslan, Kasim; Yildiz, Yusuf; Folpe, Andrew L

    2011-06-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma, a rare sarcoma with epithelial differentiation, most often occurs in the distal extremities; however, it may occur in essentially any location. With the recent recognition that the loss of expression of the tumor-suppressor gene INI-1 may be associated with epithelioid sarcoma, it has become clear that epithelioid sarcoma may occur in previously unsuspected locations such as bone. Only 2 cases of intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma have been previously reported. We retrieved 2 intra-articular cases coded as epithelioid sarcoma from our archives. Both expressed cytokeratins (AE1/AE3 and OSCAR), CD34, vimentin, and epithelial membrane antigen, and showed complete loss of expression of INI-1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections by using a laboratory-developed dual-color probe containing INI1 (CTD-2511E13 and CTD-2034E7) (22q11.2) (OR) and PANX2 (RPCI3-402G11) (22q13.33) (GR) probes as control. Both cases occurred in a clearly intra-articular location in the knee. Case 1 was that of a 19-year-old man with a long-standing history of pain and limited joint function. This patient was disease free after amputation. Case 2 was that of a 60-year-old woman. Follow-up information available for this patient showed bilateral subpleural metastases. Morphologically, case 1 showed features of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, whereas case 2 showed mixed features of classic and proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry showed complete loss of INI-1 protein in both cases; fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses were negative for INI-1 gene deletion. Herein, we have reported 2 cases of intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma, showing morphologic and immunohistochemical features identical to those of epithelioid sarcoma in conventional locations, including loss of INI-1 expression. Intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma should be distinguished from malignant pigmented villonodular synovitis and

  7. High epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemical expression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is not associated with EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21: a study using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Cohen, Julie S; Schultz, Luciana; Albadine, Roula; Jadallah, Sana; Murphy, Kathleen M; Sharma, Rajni; Schoenberg, Mark P; Netto, George J

    2012-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the erbB tyrosine kinase family reported to be overexpressed in a variety of solid malignancies. Mutations in exons 19 to 21 of the tyrosine kinase domain have been detected in a subset of these tumors and its presence associated with a better response to EGFR inhibitors. Several clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the performance of such drugs in patients with bladder cancer, but data on EGFR mutation status are limited. The current study assesses EGFR immunohistochemical expression and the presence of mutations in exons 19 and 21 by polymerase chain reaction in 19 bladder urothelial carcinomas from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Representative paraffin sections were microdissected for DNA extraction using a pinpoint isolation system. Parallel sections were immunostained using a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. No mutations in exons 19 and 21 of EGFR were identified in any of the cases. Immunohistochemical EGFR positivity was observed in 14 of 19 cases. In summary, we found EGFR protein expression in 74% of urothelial carcinomas, but we failed to detect EGFR mutations at exons 19 to 21, suggesting that EGFR overexpression is not related to the presence of mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the gene. Mutation analysis of EGFR exons 19 and 21 is feasible in microdissected paraffin sections from archival tissues. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR may not be useful to predict therapeutic response to EGFR inhibitors in patients with urothelial carcinomas. To explain EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression, other mechanisms besides mutations in the EGFR kinase domain should be investigated in future studies.

  8. Study of Immunohistochemical Markers (CK-19, CD-56, Ki-67, p53) in Differentiating Benign and Malignant Solitary Thyroid Nodules with special Reference to Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Smriti Sudhanshu; Joshi, Avinash R; Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Bhayekar, Pallavi; Jadhav, Amruta; Nayar, Musphera; Kambale, Neelam S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Solitary Thyroid Nodule (STN) has provoked increased concern owing to higher incidence of malignancy. The inter and intra observer variation in the histomorphological diagnosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas (PTC) may sometimes pose a diagnostic difficulty. Aim This study was undertaken to analyse immunohistochemical (IHC) markers (CK-19, CD-56, p53, Ki-67) to differentiate between benign and malignant surgically resected STN along with their utility in the identification of PTC. Materials and Methods The present cross sectional study was conducted over a period of 4 years. A technique of manual tissue array was employed for cases subjected to IHC. The primary antibodies used were CK-19, CD-56, p53 and Ki-67. Analysis of the expression of IHC markers (p53, Ki-67) to distinguish between benign and malignant STN was done. Evaluation and correlation of expression of IHC markers (CK-19, CD-56) to determine its utility in reaching definitive diagnosis and assessing prognosis of PTC was tried. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. The results were considered to be significant when the p-value <0.05. Results Out of the 160 cases of surgically resected STN specimens, 68 cases were non-neoplastic, 24 cases were benign and 68 cases were of malignant tumours (7 cases of follicular carcinoma (FCa), 61 cases of PTC). CK-19 was found to be a sensitive (83.61%) and a highly specific positive marker (100%) for the diagnosis of PTC. The difference in CD-56 expression between PTC and non-PTC group was found to be highly statistically significant. CD-56 was found to be a sensitive (85.86%) and specific (82.25%) negative marker in differentiating PTC from follicular lesions/neoplasms. The difference in p53 expression between the malignant and non-malignant STN cases was found to be highly statistically significant with a sensitivity and specificity 85.29% and 70.65% respectively. The statistical difference in mean Ki-67 Labeling Index (LI) was found to be

  9. Meningoencephalitis in cats in Austria: a study of infectious causes, including Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Kassl, Christine; Leschnik, Michael; Url, Angelika

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Despite comprehensive diagnostics, the aetiology of meningoencephalitis (ME) in cats often remains undetermined. As a result of recently published surveys, Encephalitozoon cuniculi has gained growing importance in cats not only with ocular disorders, but also with central nervous system disease. Therefore, it was hypothesised that E cuniculi may be an underestimated pathogen in the development of feline non-suppurative and/or granulomatous ME. Methods As a first step, histopathological sections of the brain of cats with encephalopathy were retrospectively reviewed to identify cases of granulomatous ME. In a second step, an immunohistochemical screening for detection of E cuniculi was performed in cases with ME of unknown origin. Results In 59/89 (66.3%) cats with ME, an aetiologically relevant pathogen was detected. Forty-three of 89 (48.3%) cats had a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. In 14/89 (15.7%) cats, protozoan cysts were identified and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in all cases. In 2/89 (2.3%) cats with granulomatous ME, fungal organisms were identified. Thirty of 89 (33.7%) cats with ME of unknown origin that underwent IHC for the detection of E cuniculi remained negative. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that E cuniculi is unlikely to be directly associated with (non-suppurative and/or granulomatous) ME in cats in Austria.

  10. Ventricular expression of atrial natriuretic polypeptide and its relations with hemodynamics and histology in dilated human hearts. Immunohistochemical study of the endomyocardial biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Takemura, G; Fujiwara, H; Horike, K; Mukoyama, M; Saito, Y; Nakao, K; Matsuda, M; Kawamura, A; Ishida, M; Kida, M

    1989-11-01

    To investigate the mechanism of expression of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in human ventricles, we conducted an immunohistochemical study of ANP in biventricular endomyocardial biopsy specimens obtained from a total of 49 patients with cardiac dilatation due to dilated cardiomyopathy (21 patients), postmyocarditis (18 patients), or volume overload (five patients) and subjects with no dilatation as controls (five patients). Four-micron thick sections were stained by an indirect immunoperoxidase method using monoclonal antibody to alpha-human ANP as the primary antibody. The frequency of ANP-present myocytes was calculated in each specimen and compared with clinical, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, angiographic, and histologic parameters. ANP-present myocytes were noted in all of the 21 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, in 11 of the 18 patients with postmyocarditis, in four of the five patients with volume overload, and in zero of the five controls. The mean percentage of ANP-present myocytes was significantly greater in the left-side specimens (35 +/- 37%) than in the right-side ones (2 +/- 4%). The percentage of ANP-present myocytes in the left-side specimens significantly correlated with peak systolic or end-diastolic wall stress (r = 0.67 and 0.58), left ventricular end-systolic or end-diastolic volume index (r = 0.75 and 0.69), or left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (r = 0.42) and inversely correlated with ejection fraction (r = -0.73), systolic left ventricular wall thickness (r = -0.58), or cardiac index (r = -0.30). Expression of ANP was rarely seen in the cases with normal wall stresses, normal ejection fraction, normal volume, or normal myocyte size. However, it was seen frequently even in hearts with normal levels of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and cardiac index (compensated hearts). The percent of ANP-present myocytes in both sides significantly correlated with size of myocytes (r = 0.48 at right and r = 0.57 at left side) or

  11. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on the preparation of leukocyte-poor red cell concentrates by filtration: the filtration process on cellulose acetate fibers.

    PubMed

    Steneker, I; Biewenga, J

    1990-01-01

    A histological and immunohistochemical investigation of slices from the Cellselect leukocyte filter showed that the capture of lymphocytes within these filters depended on trapping of the cells in the cellulose acetate fiber network more than on adherence. Probably, additional mechanisms played a role in granulocyte removal. Microaggregates of granulocytes and platelets were found at the top of the Cellselect leukocyte filter. Therefore, it is likely that granulocyte and platelet removal, at least in part, is due to the formation of cell clusters on the surface of the fibers. Although a part of the original, nonfiltered, leukocytes already showed morphologic characteristics of cell necrosis, more necrotic leukocytes were detected within the filter.

  12. Immunohistochemical Profiling of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqian; Husain, Arjumand; Nelson, Gregg S; Rambau, Peter F; Liu, Shuhong; Lee, Cheng-Han; Lee, Sandra; Duggan, Máire A; Köbel, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) is an aggressive neoplasm mainly seen in older women. The objective of this study was to refine immunohistochemical (IHC) panels for the differential diagnoses against endometrial endometrioid grade 3 (EC3), endometrial clear cell, and ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma as well as exploring the prognostic role of selected IHC markers. Fifty-two ESC from a single institution were assessed for 20 IHC markers, including ARID1A, CCNE1, CDKN2A, ERBB2, ESR1, HNF1B, FBXW7, IGF2BP3, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NAPSA, PAX8, PGR, PMS2, PTEN, TFF3, TP53, VIM, and WT1. ERBB2 chromogenic in situ hybridization was evaluated on tissue microarrays. Statistical analysis was performed. All ESC showed aberrant TP53, normal mismatch repair protein, and retained ARID1A and PTEN expression. ESR1 expression was present in 80% of ESC. A combination of TP53, PTEN, and CDKN2A had a sensitivity of 93.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84%-98%] and specificity of 87.8% (95% CI, 75%-95%) for ESC versus EC3. A combination of NAPSA and ESR1 had a sensitivity of 97.9% (95% CI, 89%-99%) and specificity of 72.2% (95% CI, 46%-90%) for ESC versus clear cell carcinoma. Absence of WT1 alone had a sensitivity of 66.0% (95% CI, 51%-79%) and specificity of 98.0% (95% CI, 94%-99%) for ESC versus ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Among all 52 ESCs, ERBB2 amplification was present in 23%, FBXW7 expression was absent in 10%, and CCNE1 was overexpressed in 59%, however, none were associated with prognosis. Our data support the value of IHC marker panels for histotyping of high-grade endometrial carcinomas.

  13. An immunohistochemical study of the middle ear muscles of some carnivores and primates, with special reference to the IIM and slow-tonic fibre types.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A; Cerpenè, E; Rowlerson, A

    1983-01-01

    The middle ear muscles of several species of carnivores (cat, dog, fox, ferret and stone-marten) and some New World monkeys (Callithrix, Saimiri) and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecus, Macaca) were examined. The fibre type compositions of these muscles were determined by a combination of the standard histochemical myofibrillar ATPase method, and immunohistochemical techniques using myosintype-specific antisera. Immunohistochemically slow-tonic fibres were found in the stapedius muscles of only two carnivores, the ferret and stone-marten. In all the carnivores and the New World monkeys, tensor tympani muscle contained IIM, slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibres, but in the Old World monkeys it resembled stapedius muscle, and contained only Type I (slow-twitch) and IIA fibres. Thus, because all the species examined had IIM fibres in the jaw-closer muscles, this means that the common embryological origin of tensor tympani muscle and the jaw-closers does not necessarily result in tensor tympani muscle containing this fibre type even though IIM fibres occur only in first branchial arch muscles. This fact, together with other species differences in the fibre type composition of these muscles, shows that there is no typical composition of middle ear muscles in general, and suggests that the differences are related to very different functional requirements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6415024

  14. Influence of Exposure to Chronic Persistent Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Tumor Biology of Clear-Cell Renal-Cell Carcinoma. An Immunohistochemical and Morphometric Study of Angiogenesis and Vascular Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; Valencia-Villa, Gerardo; Romanenko, Alina; Pérez, Jesús; García, Raúl; García, Heydi; Benavent, José; Sancho-Tello, María; Carda, Carmen; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Increased angiogenesis is related to boosted growth and malignancy in carcinomas. "Chronic Persistent Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation" (CPLDIR) exposure increases incidence and aggressive behavior of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The aim was to study the biology of angiogenesis, including microvessel density (MVD), in human clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas (CCRCC) originating from a radio-contaminated geographical area (Ukraine) and to compare with similar tumors diagnosed in non-contaminated regions of Europe (Spain, Valencia) and Latin America (Colombia, Barranquilla). MVD was comparatively examined in 124 patients diagnosed with CCRCC from three geographical areas by means of digital micro-imaging and computerized analysis. Additionally, 50 adult normal kidneys were used for controls (autopsy kidneys from Valencia and Barranquilla). Furthermore, an immunohistochemical study of several vascular related growth factors was undertaken using a similar methodology. MVD as well as VEFG are the most discriminating factors associated with an aggressive behavior of CCRCC. Their expression increased in proportion to the level of exposure to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation in Ukrainian patients in the 25 years since the Chernobyl accident substantiated by comparison with the two control groups of renal carcinomas present in non-irradiated areas (Spain and Colombia). No major biological differences relating to angiogenesis appear to exist between the CCRCC diagnosed in two distant geographical areas of the world. HIF-1α expression was similar in all groups, with no statistical significance. Present findings demonstrate the existence of a significant relationship between MVD and VEGF in CCRCC: an increased expression of VEGF is associated with a high level of angiogenesis.

  15. Expression of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (CD171) in neuroectodermal and other tumors. An immunohistochemical study of 5155 tumors and critical evaluation of CD171 prognostic value in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Inaguma, Shingo; Wang, Zengfeng; Lasota, Jerzy P.; Miettinen, Markku M.

    2016-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (CD171) is a multidomain type 1 membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily important in the nervous system development, kidney morphogenesis, and maintenance of the immune system. Recent studies reported CD171 expression being associated with adverse clinical outcome in different types of cancer and there has been a growing interest in targeting this cell membrane molecule on neoplastic cells by chimeric antigen receptor redirected T lymphocytes or specific antibodies. Nevertheless, conflicting results regarding the prognostic value of CD171 expression in renal cell carcinomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors were published. In this study, CD171 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed in 5155 epithelial, mesenchymal, melanocytic, and lymphohematopoietic tumors to assess its utility in diagnostic pathology and to pinpoint potential targets for CD171-targeting therapy. A newly developed anti-CD171 rabbit monoclonal antibody, clone 014, was selected from the panel of commercially available CD171 antibodies. Immunohistochemistry was performed using Leica Bond Max automation and multitumor blocks containing up to 60 tumor samples. CD171 was constitutively and strongly expressed in neuroectodermal tumors such as schwannoma, neuroblastoma, and paraganglioma, whereas other mesenchymal tumors including schwannoma mimics showed only rarely CD171 positivity. Frequent CD171-expression was also detected in ovarian serous carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma, and testicular embryonal carcinoma. CD171 immunohistochemistry may have some role in immunophenotypic differential diagnosis of neurogenic tumors and pinpointing potential candidates for anti-CD171 therapy. Though, because of its rare expression and lack of predictive value, CD171 is neither a diagnostic nor prognostic marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors. PMID:27419370

  16. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclooxygenases with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saed, Ghassan M

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry is an important tool that is often used for the diagnosis of several diseases in the pathology laboratory. The quality and sensitivity of immunohistochemical staining is affected by formalin fixation, which results in variable loss of antigenicity, known as a masking effect. While the sensitivity of immunohistochemistry is excellent for certain antigens, other antigens such as COX-1 and COX-2 are difficult to identify, especially in formalin-fixed, paraffin sections. Antigen retrieval is a technique that re-exposes epitopes and allows detection of masked antigens with standard immunohistochemical procedures. One common method involves partial, enzymatic pre-digestion with trypsin or pepsin while other, nonenzymatic procedures or heat-mediated antigen retrieval methods include pressure-cookers, hot plates, or microwave (MW) irradiation of tissue sections in water or a variety of antigen-retrieval solutions. In this chapter, we will describe a technique that provides a more reliable, much simpler approach for the demonstration of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in frozen, vibratome or paraffin sections, and/or cells in cultures.

  17. Acroangiodermatitis in a leg amputee using a suction-socket prosthesis: clinical, histological as well as HHV-8 and CD34 immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pietkiewicz, P; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, M; Gornowicz-Porowska, J; Majewski, P; Marszałek, A; Dmochowski, M

    2013-06-01

    Acroangiodermatitis (AAD) is a rare, vascular phenomenon of unclear pathogenesis. Itchy, lichenoid, purple/violaceous/yellowish/brownish papules/nodules, plaques/patches mainly on lower limbs occasionally evolve into verrucous lesions and recurrent painful ulcerations. Elevated vein and capillary pressure due to the sub-atmospheric suspension system seems to be the triggering factor for angioproliferation in the amputation stump. A middle-aged male amputee, a suction-socket prosthesis user, showing combined clinical, histological and immunohistochemical (HHV-8 negative; CD34 and CD31 expressed in endothelial, but not perivascular, cells) features of AAD is presented. Dermatologists, orthopedic surgeons, pathomorphologists, but also prosthesis makers and amputees themselves, should be aware of AAD as suction-socket prostheses become increasingly popular.

  18. An electron microscope and immunohistochemical study of the intracellular location of Toxoplasma tissue cysts within the brains of mice with congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, T. A.; Hay, J.; Talbot, I. C.

    1989-01-01

    The wall of intact Toxoplasma tissue cysts within the brains of mice with congenital toxoplasmosis was investigated. Smaller cysts were identified within the soma of neurones. With larger cysts, the contained cystozoites were shown by ultrastructural examination to be surrounded by a layer of microtubules; immunohistochemical staining revealed that this layer contained neurofilament protein. Interior to this layer was a much convoluted parasitophorus vacuole membrane; exterior was the host cell membrane. In most cases, synaptic plates were noted on the outer plasma membrane. In no instance were tissue cysts observed either within neuroglial cells or in the absence of host cells. These observations are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis in the brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2504268

  19. Immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in oral nevi and melanoma

    PubMed Central

    León, Jorge E.; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Paes-de-Almeida, Oslei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in 38 oral nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. Study Design: Expression of this ubiquitin protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 49 oral melanocytic lesions, including 38 intramucosal nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. The labeling index (LI) was assessed considering the percentage of cells expressing nuclear positivity out of the total number of cells, counting 1000 cells per slide. Results: Skp2 protein was rarely expressed in intramucosal nevi, in contrast to oral melanomas, which showed high levels of this protein. Conclusion: These results indicate that Skp2 protein may play a role in the development and progression of oral melanomas, and it also could be useful as an immunohistochemical marker for differential diagnosis of oral benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Key words:Oral melanoma, oral nevi, Skp2, cell cycle, immunohistochemistry. PMID:23385514

  20. Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

  1. Classification of feline intraocular neoplasms based on morphology, histochemical staining, and immunohistochemical labeling.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Bruce H; Peiffer, Robert L; Cullen, Cheryl L; Haines, Deborah M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of well-differentiated and anaplastic intraocular neoplasms of cats, and to develop a diagnostic algorithm for, and investigate the association of ruptured lenses with these neoplasms. Seventy-five feline globes with intraocular neoplasms were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Morphologic diagnoses included 33 intraocular sarcomas, 17 diffuse iris melanomas, 15 lymphosarcomas, three ciliary adenomas, one metastatic carcinoma, and six undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. Sections of these globes were then stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and immunohistochemical (IHC) labels for various cellular markers. Histochemical staining and IHC labeling confirmed cellular differentiation in 73/75 neoplasms but was discordant with morphologic diagnoses in 8/75. These included four neoplasms morphologically diagnosed as lymphosarcomas but which expressed differentiation antigens consistent with melanoma (n = 3) or ciliary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), and four tumors morphologically diagnosed as intraocular sarcomas that expressed differentiation antigens for melanoma (n = 2), metastatic carcinoma (n = 1), or remained undifferentiated (n = 1). Immunohistochemical labeling suggested a diagnosis in 5/6 morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms including one intraocular sarcoma, two diffuse iridal melanomas, and two ciliary adenocarcinomas. Based upon morphologic, histochemical, and IHC characterization, ruptured lens capsules were detected in 28/30 intraocular sarcomas, 3/24 diffuse iris melanomas and 1/11 lymphosarcomas, but not in ciliary epithelial neoplasms, metastatic carcinomas, or undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. An algorithm is provided that facilitates stain and IHC label selection for differentiating anaplastic intraocular feline neoplasms.

  2. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 85 cases.

    PubMed

    Mahta, Ali; Haghpanah, Vahid; Lashkari, Anahita; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas without clinically active hypersecretion are summarized under the term non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Since there are no specific serum markers, the differential diagnosis and treatment imply special difficulties. By using immunohistochemical methods we will have new insight into the nature and pathogenesis of these tumours. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its labelling index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of immunohistochemistry and MIB1-LI determination in NFPAs to predict tumoural behaviour and better management. In this clinicopathological study, 85 cases of NFPAs were analysed immunohistochemically. MIB1-LI was also determined in studied cases. Clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up data were also reviewed and the correlation between clinical and pathologic findings was established. Eighteen adenomas (21.2%) were immunoreactive to one or two adenohypophysial hormones of which 4 GH positive adenomas had aggressive behaviour (2 significant juxtasellar extensions and 2 recurrences). MIB-1 LI was more than 5% in only 5 cases including 2 invasive adenomas but with no evidence of recurrence. No significant statistical difference between clinical presentations in immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive NFPAs was observed except for unilateral temporal hemianopia which was more common in immunoreactive adenomas (P=0.022). NFPAs comprise several pathologically different types of tumours, some of which are potentially hormone producing, but some defects in hormone secretion or production of biologically inactive or insufficient amount of hormone may be the culprit in the lack of evidence of rising serum hormone levels. MIB-1 LI may be indicative of invasiveness but not a predictor of recurrence. Silent somatotropinomas may have more aggressive behaviour in comparison with other NFPAs.

  3. Usefulness of immunohistochemical studies in diagnosing metachronous gallbladder and small intestinal metastases from lung cancer with gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Kitago, Minoru; Akiyama, Nobuyoshi; Iwamaru, Arifumi; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Fumio; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Yagi, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Masahiro; Itano, Osamu; Ogata, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-02-18

    Isolated metachronous gastrointestinal metastases from advanced-stage lung cancer are rarely diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and resected. In this report, we present a case of resectable metachronous gallbladder and small intestinal metastases of lung cancer. An 86-year-old woman was treated for lung cancer with resection of the right inferior lobe. Five months after the surgery, she was re-admitted because of melena and anemia. Ultrasonography showed a gallbladder tumor with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and laparoscopic-assisted cholecystectomy was subsequently performed. However, 2 months after this event, the patient presented again with melena and anemia and was diagnosed with a small intestinal tumor. Therefore, laparoscopic-assisted partial resection of the small intestine was performed. Immunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcription factor-1 and cytokeratin 7 confirmed that the two resected tumors were metachronous metastases of the primary lung cancer. The patient died of liver metastases 5 months after the last surgery. Our experience with this case suggests that surgical resection might not be curative but palliative for patients with isolated gallbladder and small intestinal metastases diagnosed on the basis of melena that is resistant to conservative treatment.

  4. Lymphocyte subpopulations in the liver, spleen, intestines, and mesenteric nodes: an immunohistochemical study using human fetuses at 15-16 weeks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Si Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2014-08-01

    The roles of the liver and intestines in lymphocyte differentiation in human fetuses were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, liver, spleen, intestines, and lymph nodes of 15-16 week human fetuses using primary antibodies against IgM, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD20, CD45RO, HLA-DR, and CD68. The density of immunoreactive lymphocytes was high in the thymus and lymph nodes, but much lower in the bones, liver, spleen, and intestines. The medulla of the thymus contained IgM-positive mature B lymphocytes as well as CD20-positve B lymphocytes. In contrast, CD10-positive immature B lymphocytes were restricted in the cortex. There were no site-dependent differences among axillary, mediastinal, mesenteric, and pelvic lymph nodes. CD68-positive cells were observed at all sites examined. Many HLA-DR-positive round cells were present in the thymus, with fewer in the liver and spleen. The absolute number of lymphocytes was estimated to be ≥10-fold higher in lymph nodes than in liver. Although limited by analysis of only one fetal stage, these findings suggest that mesenteric nodes are likely to be more important than the liver, spleen, and intestines for lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation in human mid-term fetuses.

  5. Long live the liver: immunohistochemical and stereological study of hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells of male and female rats throughout ageing.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ricardo; Correia-Gomes, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Male/female differences in enzyme activity and gene expression in the liver are known to be attenuated with ageing. Nevertheless, the effect of ageing on liver structure and quantitative cell morphology remains unknown. Male and female Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12 and 18 months were examined by means of stereological techniques and immunohistochemical tagging of hepatocytes (HEP), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in order to assess the total number and number per gram of these cells throughout life. The mean cell volume of HEP and HSC, the lobular position and the collagen content of the liver were also evaluated with stereological techniques. The number per gram of HSC was similar for both genders and was maintained throughout ageing. The mean volume of HSC was also conserved but differences in the cell body and lobular location were observed. Statistically significant gender differences in HEP were noted in young rats (females had smaller and more binucleated HEP) but were attenuated with ageing. The same occurred for KC and LSEC, since the higher number per gram in young females disappeared in older animals. Liver collagen increased with ageing but only in males. Thus, the numbers of these four cell types are related throughout ageing, with well-defined cell ratios. The shape and lobular position of HSC change with ageing in both males and females. Gender dimorphism in HEP, KC and LSEC of young rat liver disappears with ageing.

  6. An immunohistochemical study on the distribution of vasotocin neurons in the brain of two weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum and Brachyhypopomus gauderio.

    PubMed

    Pouso, Paula; Radmilovich, Milka; Silva, Ana

    2017-02-16

    Hypothalamic nonapeptides (arginin vasotocin-vasopressin, oxytocin-isotocin) are known to modulate social behaviors across vertebrates. The neuroanatomical conservation of nonapeptide systems enables the use of novel vertebrate model species to identify general strategies of their functional mechanisms. We present a detailed immunohistochemical description of vasotocin (AVT) cell populations and their projections in two species of weakly electric fish with different social structure, Gymnotus omarorum and Brachyhypopomus gauderio. Strong behavioral, pharmacological, and electrophysiological evidence support that AVT modulation of electric behavior differs between the gregarious B. gauderio and the solitary G. omarorum. This functional diversity does not necessarily depend on anatomical differences of AVT neurons. To test this, we focus on interspecific comparisons of the AVT system in basal non-breeding males along the brain. G. omarorum and B. gauderio showed similar AVT somata sizes and comparable distributions of AVT somata and fibers. Interestingly, AVT fibers project to areas related to the control of social behavior and electromotor displays in both species. We found that no gross anatomical differences in the organization of the AVT system account for functional differences between species, which rather shall depend on the pattern of activation of neurons embedded in the same basic anatomical organization of the AVT system.

  7. Disseminated vasculomyelinopathy in the peripheral nervous system mediated by immune complexes (ICs). Immunohistochemical studies of sciatic nerves in chronic serum sickness (CHSS) in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, S; Szablowska-Krajewska, M

    1986-02-01

    Histological examination of 20 sciatic nerves from rabbits with experimental chronic serum sickness (CHSS) revealed patchy vasculitis of the vasa nervorum of various intensity. The vessel lesions ranged from endothelial proliferation to vessel wall necrosis with fibrinoid degeneration and infiltration by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and, sporadically, by neutrophils. Perivascularly, there were oedema, chronic infiltrates or small haemorrhages. The myelinated fibres in close relation to the vascular system were focally depleted and features of perivascular demyelination were found. Teased fibres showed paranodal and segmental demyelination, axonal degeneration and, sporadically, remyelination. In all cases, immunofluorescent deposits of bovine serum albumin (BSA), IgG and C3 complement were found in and around some vasa nervorum. Other indirect evidence for immune complex (IC) deposition was provided by ultrastructural examination where vascular and endoneurial osmophilic deposits were found; in 4 cases with paracrystalline organization resembling cryoglobulin component. IC-mediated vasculitis led to blood-nerve barrier impairment and leakage of serum proteins into the endoneurial space. The morphological and immunohistochemical changes in this model which develop after a latency period of 2 or more weeks, strongly resemble those observed in human acquired inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies or in connective tissue diseases.

  8. Proto-oncogene HER-2 in normal, dysplastic and tumorous feline mammary glands: an immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridization study

    PubMed Central

    Ordás, Javier; Millán, Yolanda; Dios, Rafaela; Reymundo, Carlos; Martín de las Mulas, Juana

    2007-01-01

    Background Feline mammary carcinoma has been proposed as a natural model of highly aggressive, hormone-independent human breast cancer. To further explore the utility of the model by adding new similarities between the two diseases, we have analyzed the oncogene HER-2 status at both the protein and the gene levels. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 30 invasive carcinomas, 7 benign lesions and two normal mammary glands were analyzed. Tumour features with prognostic value were recorded. The expression of protein HER-2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the number of gene copies by means of DNA chromogenic in situ hybridization. Results Immunohistochemical HER-2 protein overexpression was found in 40% of feline mammary carcinomas, a percentage higher to that observed in human breast carcinoma. As in women, feline tumours with HER-2 protein overexpression had pathological features of high malignancy. However, amplification of HER-2 was detected in 16% of carcinomas with protein overexpression, a percentage much lower than that observed in their human counterpart. Conclusion Feline mammary carcinoma would be a suitable natural model of that subset of human breast carcinomas with HER-2 protein overexpression without gene amplification. PMID:17880730

  9. Novel Immunohistochemical Techniques Using Discrete Signal Amplification Systems for Human Cutaneous Peripheral Nerve Fiber Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningshan; Gibbons, Christopher H.; Freeman, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Confocal imaging uses immunohistochemical binding of specific antibodies to visualize tissues, but technical obstacles limit more widespread use of this technique in the imaging of peripheral nerve tissue. These obstacles include same-species antibody cross-reactivity and weak fluorescent signals of individual and co-localized antigens. The aims of this study were to develop new immunohistochemical techniques for imaging of peripheral nerve fibers. Three-millimeter punch skin biopsies of healthy individuals were fixed, frozen, and cut into 50-µm sections. Tissues were stained with a variety of antibody combinations with two signal amplification systems, streptavidin-biotin-fluorochrome (sABC) and tyramide-horseradish peroxidase-fluorochrome (TSA), used simultaneously to augment immunohistochemical signals. The combination of the TSA and sABC amplification systems provided the first successful co-localization of sympathetic adrenergic and sympathetic cholinergic nerve fibers in cutaneous human sweat glands and vasomotor and pilomotor systems. Primary antibodies from the same species were amplified individually without cross-reactivity or elevated background interference. The confocal fluorescent signal-to-noise ratio increased, and image clarity improved. These modifications to signal amplification systems have the potential for widespread use in the study of human neural tissues. PMID:21411809

  10. Immunohistochemical studies using immunized Guinea pig sera with features of anti-human thyroid, eye and skeletal antibody and Graves' sera.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Ildikó; Szombathy, Zita; Kovács, Ilona; Szentmiklósi, A József

    2007-03-01

    Type 2 5' deiodinase enzyme was observed in both thyroid and eye muscle tissues, highlighting its possible role as a common antigen in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Sera of 105 Graves' patients and 40 controls, and immunized guinea pig sera against TCSS peptide, showing homology to the amino acid sequence from 132 to 152 of type 2 5' deiodinase, were investigated to demonstrate the binding effects to human thyroid, eye and skeletal muscle tissues. Twenty-two Graves' patients were positive for anti-TCSS peptide antibodies, of whom 18 cases had ophthalmopathy. The levels of anti-TCSS peptide antibodies were higher not only in Graves' patients with (P<0.0001) and without (P<0.036) eye symptoms compared to controls but also the difference was significant between patients with and without ophthalmopathy (P<0.049). In Western blot, immunized sera showed binding reactions to the supernatant fractions of human thyroid, eye and skeletal muscle tissues at the range of 29 kDa. Patient sera with Graves' ophthalmopathy resulted in positive reactions directed to membrane areas in thyroid follicular cells, and to fibers in eye and skeletal muscles using immunohistochemical method, while no positive staining was present after adding control sera. The binding features of immunized guinea pig sera exhibited similar staining in all human tissues but could be blocked with Graves' sera. Our results suggest that type 2 5' deiodinase enzyme protein could play a role as an antigen in Graves' disease. Immunized guinea pig sera against TCSS peptide exhibited similar binding reactions and stainings to human thyroid, eye and skeletal muscle tissues as patient sera with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  11. IDH mutation status impact on in vivo hypoxia biomarkers expression: new insights from a clinical, nuclear imaging and immunohistochemical study in 33 glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Metellus, Philippe; Colin, Carole; Taieb, David; Guedj, Eric; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; de Paula, Andre Maues; Colavolpe, Cécile; Fuentes, Stephane; Dufour, Henry; Barrie, Marylin; Chinot, Olivier; Ouafik, L'houcine; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme isoforms 1 (IDH1) and 2 (IDH2) have recently been identified in a large proportion of glial tumors of the CNS, but their mechanistic role in tumor development remains unclear. Here, we assessed the actual impact of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in patients harboring WHO grade II and III gliomas. We sequenced IDH1 at codon 132 and IDH2 at codon 172 in 33 patients with WHO grade II and III gliomas who benefited from a preoperative (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). Immunohistochemical expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CAIX), Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT1) and Caspase 3 active form (CASP3) along with the R132HIDH1 mutation was assessed in all cases as well as 1p/19q deletion status and p53 expression. HIF-1α expression was found in 15% of IDH-mutated compared to 7.7% of IDH-nonmutated tumors (P = 0.954). Also, GLUT-1 positive staining was found in 5% of IDH-mutated and in 7.1% of IDH-nonmutated tumors (P = 0.794). Finally, CA-IX expression was found in 15% of IDH-mutated and in 7.7% of IDH-nonmutated tumors (P = 0.484). The combined expression of these three hypoxic markers was found in two WHO grade III tumors, one of which was IDH-mutated whereas the other was IDH-nonmutated (P = 0.794). In IDH-mutated tumors, the median SUVmax ratio was 2.24 versus 2.15 in IDH-nonmutated tumors (P = 0.775). Together, these data question the actual relationship between IDH mutation status and in vivo hypoxic biomarkers expression in WHO grade II and III gliomas.

  12. Comparative analysis of Napsin A, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, P504S), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 beta as diagnostic markers of ovarian clear cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of 279 ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Zhao, Chengquan; Khabele, Dineo; Parkash, Vinita; Quick, Charles M; Gwin, Katja; Desouki, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Napsin A and α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR, P504S) have recently been described as being frequently expressed in clear cell carcinomas (CCC) of the gynecological tract. The present study was conducted to assess the test performance of these newer markers relative to the more traditional marker, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β), in a large and histotypically diverse dataset. A total of 279 ovarian tumours in tissue microarrays were immunohistochemically assessed for the expression of Napsin A, AMACR and HNF1β. HNF1β, Napsin A and AMACR were expressed in 92%, 82% and 63% of 65 CCC, 7%, 1% and 1% of 101 serous carcinomas, 37%, 5.3% and 0% of 19 endometrioid carcinomas, 60%, 0% and 0% of 45 mucinous tumours, 100%, 0% and 0% of seven yolk sac tumours, and 0%, 16.7% and 16.7% of six steroid cell tumours NOS, respectively. All other tumours, including 18 adult-type granulosa cell tumours, eight dysgerminomas and nine other miscellaneous tumour types were negative for all three markers. Using a benchmark of ≥1% of tumour cells for positivity and CCC as the diagnostic end-point, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of Napsin A expression were 0.82, 0.99, 0.94, and 0.98, respectively (odds ratio 439, p < 0.0001). Respective parameters were 0.92, 0.79, 0.97, and 0.58 (odds ratio 44, p < 0.0001) for HNF1β and 0.63, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.5 (odds ratio 112, p < 0.0001) for AMACR. The combination of any two positive markers, irrespective of the staining pattern of the third, significantly predicted the CCC histotype in every analytic scenario. In summary, HNF1β is highly sensitive but is suboptimally specific in isolation, whereas AMACR is highly specific but is suboptimally sensitive. Napsin A is specific but of intermediate sensitivity. Napsin A, AMACR and HNF1β are all viable markers of CCC that can be deployed as components of larger panels when CCC is a diagnostic consideration.

  13. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of p53 can serve as a surrogate marker for TP53 mutations in ovarian carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and nucleotide sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Yemelyanova, Anna; Vang, Russell; Kshirsagar, Malti; Lu, Dan; Marks, Morgan A; Shih, Ie Ming; Kurman, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Immunohistochemical staining for p53 is used as a surrogate for mutational analysis in the diagnostic workup of carcinomas of multiple sites including ovarian cancers. Strong and diffuse immunoexpression of p53 is generally interpreted as likely indicating a TP53 gene mutation. The immunoprofile that correlates with wild-type TP53, however, is not as clear. In particular, the significance of completely negative immunostaining is controversial. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship of the immunohistochemical expression of p53 with the mutational status of the TP53 gene in ovarian cancer. A total of 57 ovarian carcinomas (43 high-grade serous ovarian/peritoneal carcinomas, 2 malignant mesodermal mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas), 2 low-grade serous carcinomas, 4 clear cell carcinomas, 1 well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma, and 5 carcinomas with mixed epithelial differentiation) were analyzed for TP53 mutations by nucleotide sequencing (exons 4-9), and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of p53 expression. Thirty six tumors contained functional mutations and 13 had wild type TP53. Five tumors were found to harbor known TP53 polymorphism and changes in the intron region were detected in three. Tumors with wild-type TP53 displayed a wide range of immunolabeling patterns, with the most common pattern showing ≤10% of positive cells in 6 cases (46%). Mutant TP53 was associated with 60-100% positive cells in 23 cases (64% of cases). This pattern of staining was also seen in three cases with wild-type TP53. Tumors that were completely negative (0% cells staining) had a mutation of TP53 in 65% of cases and wild-type TP53 in 11%. Combining two immunohistochemical labeling patterns associated with TP53 mutations (0% and 60-100% positive cells), correctly identified a mutation in 94% of cases (P<0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis can be used as a robust method for inferring the presence of a TP53 mutation in ovarian carcinomas. In addition to a

  14. Immunohistochemical detection of human intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Oda, Tomohiro; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2016-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal infection by Brachyspira species of spiral bacteria. Immunohistochemical cross-reaction to an antibody for Treponema pallidum aids its histologic diagnosis. This study's aim was to analyze the immunohistochemical characteristics of HIS. In this analysis, on 223 specimens from 83 HIS cases, we focused on so-called fringe formation (a histologic hallmark of HIS), spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts, and strong immunopositive materials in the mucosa, together with their location and the types of lesions. Fringe formation was found in 81.6% of all specimens and spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts in 97.3% and 57.0%, respectively. Strong immunopositive materials were observed in the surface epithelial layer in 87.9%, in the subepithelial layer in 94.6%, and in deeper mucosa in 2.2% of all specimens. The positive rates in conventional adenomas (24.0%, n = 146) and hyperplastic nodules (100%, n = 17) were each different from that found in inflammation (70.8%, n = 24), and spiral organisms were seen more frequently in the right-side large intestine than in the left (within mucus, 100%, n = 104 versus 95.0%, n = 119; within crypts, 65.4%, n = 104 versus 49.6%, n = 119). Thus, immunohistochemistry was effective not only in supporting the diagnosis of HIS but also in highlighting spiral organisms within mucus or crypts that were invisible in routine histology. Possibly, these spiral organisms may spread throughout the entire large intestine, although there is a potential problem with antibody specificity.

  15. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-07-09

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae.

  16. The diagnostic utility of p16 FISH and GLUT-1 immunohistochemical analysis in mesothelial proliferations.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Sara E; Shuai, Yongli; Bansal, Mona; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Dacic, Sanja

    2011-04-01

    Two promising ancillary tests used in the diagnosis of mesothelioma include GLUT-1 immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing for the p16 deletion. This study compared the diagnostic usefulness of p16 FISH and GLUT-1 immunohistochemical analysis in the diagnosis of mesothelial proliferations in 158 cases with a diagnosis of benign (45.4%), atypical (10.4%), or malignant/mesothelioma (44.2%). Of the 70 benign cases, none had a deletion of p16 and 5 cases (7%) were positive for GLUT-1. Of the 68 mesotheliomas, 40 (59%) had a deletion of p16 (sensitivity, 59%; specificity, 100%) and 27 (40%) were positive for GLUT-1 (sensitivity, 40%; specificity, 93%). GLUT-1 showed lower sensitivity in pleural (56% vs 70%) and peritoneal (29% vs 51%) mesotheliomas (P = .004). Our results demonstrate that p16 FISH is a more sensitive and specific test than GLUT-1 immunohistochemical analysis and can be a more reliable ancillary tool to support the diagnosis of mesothelioma.

  17. Immunohistochemical evaluation of O6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression in 117 cases of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Ito, Tamio; Kamoshima, Yuuta; Fujimoto, Shin; Kaneko, Sadao; Katoh, Masahito; Ishii, Nobuaki; Mohri, Hiromi; Tanino, Mishie; Kimura, Taichi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2014-06-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent which is widely used in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) and is composed of astrocytic and/or oligodendroglial tumors, and the evaluation of O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression is important to predict the response to TMZ therapy. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemical analysis of 117 cases of Japanese GBM including 19 cases of GBM with oligodendroglioma component (GBMO), using a scoring system for quantitative evaluation of staining intensity and proportion of MGMT, and performed survival analysis of these patients. Immunohistochemically, 55 cases (47%) were positive for MGMT with various intensities and proportions (total score (TS) ≥ 2), while 62 cases (53%) were negative (TS = 0). The distribution of MGMT expression pattern was not affected by any clinicopathological parameters such as the histological subtype (GBM vs. GBMO), age and gender. The survival analysis of these patients revealed that the minimal expression of MGMT (TS ≥ 2) was a significant unfavorable prognostic factor (P < 0.001) as well as resectability (P = 0.004). Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that minimal MGMT expression in GBM was the most potent independent predictor for progression free survival (P < 0.001) and also overall patient survival (P < 0.001). This is the first report employing the scoring system for both staining intensity and proportion to evaluate immunohistochemical MGMT expression in GBM. In addition, our results emphases the clinicopathological values of the immunohistochemical approach for MGMT expression in glioma patients as a routine laboratory examination.

  18. Blinded comparator study of immunohistochemical analysis versus a 92-gene cancer classifier in the diagnosis of the primary site in metastatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Lawrence M; Chu, Peiguo; Schroeder, Brock E; Singh, Veena; Zhang, Yi; Erlander, Mark G; Schnabel, Catherine A

    2013-03-01

    Accurate tumor classification is fundamental to inform predictive biomarker testing and optimize therapy. Gene expression-based tests are proposed as diagnostic aids in cases with uncertain diagnoses. This study directly compared the diagnostic accuracy of IHC analysis versus molecular classification using a 92-gene RT-PCR assay for determination of the primary tumor site. This prospectively defined blinded study of diagnostically challenging cases included 131 high-grade, primarily metastatic tumors. Cases were reviewed and reference diagnoses established through clinical correlation. Blinded FFPE sections were evaluated by either IHC/morphology analysis or the 92-gene assay. The final analysis included 122 cases. The 92-gene assay demonstrated overall accuracy of 79% (95% CI, 71% to 85%) for tumor classification versus 69% (95% CI, 60% to 76%) for IHC/morphology analysis (P = 0.019). Mean IHC use was 7.9 stains per case (median, 8; range, 2 to 15). IHC/morphology analysis accuracy was 79%, 80%, and 46% when 1 to 6 (n = 42), 7 to 9 (n = 41), and >9 (n = 39) IHC stains were used, respectively, versus 81%, 85%, and 69%, respectively, with the 92-gene assay. Results from this blinded series of high-grade metastatic cases demonstrate superior accuracy with the 92-gene assay versus standard-of-care IHC analysis and strongly support the diagnostic utility of molecular classification in difficult-to-diagnose metastatic cancer.

  19. Trouble in Paradise: A Study of Who Is Included in an Inclusion Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zindler, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: This study is based on prior research regarding the need for explicit social instruction for children with special needs, cooperative educational models, and the goals and relative successes of inclusive educational practices. The author refers to several studies on these subjects, including those by Kavale and Forness; Salend;…

  20. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of the gonads and paramesonephric ducts of male and female hatchlings of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Sarı, F; Kaska, Y

    2016-08-01

    The sex of neonatal sea turtles is difficult to determine, because neonates lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dimorphic external characteristics; internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We used histochemical staining and made measurements in the gonads and paramesonephric ducts (PD) of both sexes to determine structural differences in female and male loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) hatchlings. We detected differences in the gonads and PD between the sexes including the amounts of mucopolysaccharides, collagen and elastic fibers. We determined that the thickness of the gonadal cortex and the diameter of the PD lumen are reliable sex-specific characteristics. We also assessed immunolocalization of aromatase, an enzyme complex that converts androgens to estrogens, and found differences in the localization and intensity of aromatase immunostaining in the gonads and PD of female and male hatchlings. Comprehensive studies of the sexual differences of sea turtles are important for conservation programs.

  1. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base.

  2. Shear-wave elastography of invasive breast cancer: correlation between quantitative mean elasticity value and immunohistochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Gweon, Hye Mi; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Jeong, Joon

    2013-02-01

    To compare the mean elasticity value, as measured by shear-wave elastography (SWE), with immunohistochemical profile of invasive breast cancer. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study, with a waiver of informed consent. A total of 166 invasive breast cancers in 152 women undergoing preoperative SWE and surgery were included. Quantitative mean elasticity values in kPa were measured for each lesion by using SWE. Medical records were reviewed to determine palpability, invasive size, lymphovascular invasion, histologic grade, and axillary lymph node status. Based on the immunohistochemical profiles, tumor subtypes were categorized as triple-negative (TN), luminal A and B, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched cancer. The mean elasticity value was correlated with clinicopathological features using univariate regression models and multivariate linear regression analysis. Palpability (P < 0.0001), larger size (P = 0.013), lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.0001), higher histologic grade (P < 0.0001), and lymph node involvement (P = 0.018) were significantly associated with the mean elasticity value. For the immunohistochemical profiles and tumor subtypes, the estrogen receptor (P = 0.015), progesterone receptor (P = 0.002), Ki-67 (P = 0.009), and the TN (P = 0.009) tumor subtype were correlated with the mean elasticity value. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the following variables were significantly associated with the mean elasticity value: palpable abnormality, histologic grade, and lymphovascular invasion. No immunohistochemical profile of the cancers was independently correlated with the mean elasticity value. For invasive breast cancers, clinicopathological features of poor prognosis showed higher mean elasticity values than those of good prognosis. However, the immunohistochemical profile showed no independent association with the mean elasticity value.

  3. Importance of Including Language Arts Instruction as Part of the Vocational Agriculture Program of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Richard M.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of including language arts instruction as part of the vocational agriculture program. Perceptions of students, parents, teachers, principals, and counselors were examined to identify specific skills to be integrated into vocational agriculture instruction. (SK)

  4. Updating RIGs: Including the Systematic Influence of Online Study on Student Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart; Smith, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Based on student evaluation of teaching (SET) ratings from 1,432 units of study over a period of a year, representing 74,490 individual sets of ratings, and including a significant number of units offered in wholly online mode, we confirm the significant influence of class size, year level, and discipline area on at least some SET ratings. We also…

  5. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    PubMed

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind.

  6. How should clinical data be included in experimental studies of cancer immunology?

    PubMed

    Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Bruserud, Øystein

    2004-08-01

    Patients diagnosed with the same malignant disease are often heterogeneous with regard to age, complications, malignant cell morphology and tumor histology, disease stage, prognostic parameters, and previous therapy. Many of these factors can affect immunocompetent cells or influence the malignant cell susceptibility to immunotherapy. Summaries of relevant clinical information should therefore be included in cancer immunology studies to increase the present as well as the future scientific impact. Guidelines for selection of relevant information are suggested in the article.

  7. Evaluation of prescriptions of medicines not included in Iran medicine list: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA) has the mission to regulate all aspects of pharmaceutical market including registration of the new medicines. Iran Drug Selection Committee has the responsibility to maintain and revise Iran Medicine List (IML). The National law has banned production, importation, distribution, and prescription of medicines not included in IML. Although, IFDA policy makers have created a mechanism to provide medicines not included in the list but might be essential for the treatment of specific patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on prescription of out of IML medicines during the year 2015. This study was conducted on a total of 1375 application forms received by Secretariat of Iran Drug Selection Committee for prescription of out of IML medicines. Findings: It has been shown that among 402 specialist physicians, the most out of IML medicine were prescribed by oncologist/hematologist. Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents were the most frequently prescribed medicines both in terms of number and diversity. According to the collected data, more than 76% of all medicines were supplied by only 4 out of 25 pharmaceutical companies in 1 year. Conclusion: Results of this study show that despite its early intention this mechanism is easily abused by some pharmaceutical companies as an unethical way of induced demand and marketing of their products. Therefore, IFDA decision makers should revise this mechanism and decide based on its real benefits and harms both to the patients and Iran national health system. PMID:27843958

  8. Histologic and immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Grossi, A B; Leifsson, P S; Jensen, H E; Vainer, B; Iburg, T

    2013-05-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for melan A, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase), and Ki-67. The tumors were classified as 23 adrenocortical adenomas, 12 adrenocortical carcinomas, 2 schwannomas, 2 pheochromocytomas (1 malignant), and 1 ganglioneuroma. Five histologic features were characteristic of metastasizing adrenocortical tumors: invasion of the capsule, vascular invasion, diffuse growth pattern, spindle-cell morphology, and nuclear pleomorphism. Adrenocortical tumors with at least 3 of these features were classified as malignant. Immunohistochemically, adrenocortical tumors expressed melan A (16/19), vimentin (14/26), cytokeratin (11/26), and chromogranin A (9/27), whereas pheochromocytomas expressed chromogranin A (2/2), synaptophysin (2/2), and vimentin (1/2). Both schwannomas expressed CNPase. An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of p16 in lipoblastomas.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, Rocco; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Dall'Igna, Patrizia; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Vassarotto, Elisa; Rugge, Massimo; Alaggio, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Lipoblastoma (LB) is a rare benign adipocytic tumor of childhood occasionally showing histological similarities to myxoid liposarcoma (ML) or well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDL). p16 immunohistochemistry has proved to be useful in distinguishing various types of liposarcomas, in particular WDL from lipoma, with higher sensitivity and specificity than MDM2 and CDK4 immunohistochemistry. In this study, we reported the histologic features of a series of 30 LB with emphasis on the potential diagnostic pitfalls and investigated the immunohistochemical expression of p16. Moreover, p16 immunostaining was performed in 16 liposarcomas (11 WDL and 5 ML), 16 lipomas, and 16 cases of liponecrosis in order to evaluate its usefulness in the differential diagnosis of challenging lesions occurring in older children. Overall, p16 immunostaining was positive in 3 LBs and in 12 out of 16 liposarcomas (10 WDL and 2 ML), with a sensitivity of 75%, a specificity of 90%, a positive predictive value of 80%, and a negative predictive value of 87%. All lipomas were p16 negative, whereas 5 liponecroses were positive. Accounting altogether the benign lesions versus liposarcomas, p16 showed a sensitivity of 75%, a specificity of 87%, a positive predictive value of 60%, and a negative predictive value of 93%. Our data suggest that a negative p16 immunostaining may be helpful in excluding a liposarcoma when occurring in unusual clinical contexts, such as in adolescence or late recurrence. However, such finding should be interpreted with caution since also some liposarcomas lack p16 and occasional LBs are positive.

  10. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  11. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides.

  12. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the esophagus: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of 14 cases

    PubMed Central

    Egashira, Akinori; Morita, Masaru; Kumagai, Reiko; Taguchi, Ken-ichi; Ueda, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Yamamoto, Manabu; Minami, Kazuhito; Ikeda, Yasuharu; Toh, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Background Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the esophagus is a rare and highly aggressive disease but the biological features are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of NEC of the esophagus. Methods Fourteen patients diagnosed with NEC of the esophagus from 1998 to 2013 were included in this study. Clinicopathologic features, therapeutic outcomes and immunohistochemical results were analyzed. Results Eleven out of 14 cases showed protruding or localized type with or without ulceration. Only three patients were negative for both lymph node and organ metastasis and seven cases were positive for metastases to distant organs and/or distant lymph nodes. Of the six patients with limited disease (LD), three patients were treated by surgery. Three patients with LD and seven patients with extensive disease (ED) were initially treated with chemotherapy, except for one who underwent concurrent chemo-radiotherapy due to passage disturbance. The median survival of patients with LD was 8.5 months, whereas that of patients with LD was 17 months. Among the 14 cases, 12 cases (83.3%), 13 cases (91.7%) and 12 cases (83.3%) showed positive immunostaining for choromogranin A, synaptophysin and CD56, respectively. Nine of 14 cases (64.2%) presented positive staining for c-kit and most (8/9, 88%) simultaneously showed p53 protein abnormality. Two cases were negative for c-kit and p53, and positive for CK20. Conclusion Consistent with previous reports, the prognosis of NEC of esophagus is dismal. From the results of immunohistochemical study, NEC of esophagus might be divided into two categories due to the staining positivity of c-kit and p53. This study provides new insight into the biology of NEC of the esophagus. PMID:28288180

  13. Immunohistochemical prognostic index for breast cancer in young women

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, I; Algorta, J; Díaz de Otazu, R; Pelayo, A; Fariña, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Women under 35 years of age comprise a small proportion of patients with breast cancer, but determining their prognosis can be difficult. This prospective, multivariate study looked at several factors with the aim of obtaining a useful index to evaluate the prognosis of these women. Methods: In total, 108 patients below 35 years of age affected by invasive ductal carcinoma without distant metastasis were studied. The mean duration of the follow up period was six years. Histopathological (tumour size, histological grade, and lymph node stage) and immunohistochemical (c-erbB-2, p53, oestrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor) factors were measured in all patients, and the Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) was then calculated. An immunohistochemical prognostic index (IHPI) was created using the arithmetic sum of the four individual immunohistochemical factors. Results: In univariate assessment of survival, all the studied factors yielded a significant association with either overall survival or disease free survival, except for c-erbB-2 and p53 with disease free survival. In univariate calculation of risk, all the factors gave significant results; however, in multivariate analysis only tumour size, histological grade, and progesterone receptor were significant. Both NPI and IHPI correlated significantly with prognosis. In multivariate regression analysis, IHPI correlated with tumour size and there was a significant interaction between both variables. Conclusion: IHPI is very useful in determining the prognosis of tumours ⩽ 2 cm and of moderate use for tumours > 2, although it has no use in tumours > 5 cm. PMID:14645694

  14. Ameloblastoma vs basal cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical comparison.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Salam N; Abdullah, Bashar H

    2016-12-01

    Despite behavioral mimicry of ameloblastoma (AB) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), they are classified at 2 extremes within pertinent WHO classifications with respect to benign and malignant designation. This study aims to appraise the current allocation of AB in the classification through an immunohistochemical comparison of some aspects of behavior with BCC. Sections from retrospectively retrieved formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of AB (n = 37) and BCC (n = 34) were comparatively examined for the immunohistochemical expression for Ki-67, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, CD31, and D2-40 monoclonal antibodies. No statistically significant differences between the tumors were found regarding the immunoexpressions of Bcl-2 (P = .252), CD31 microvessel density (P = .895), lymphatic vessel density (P = .642), and MMP-9 stromal expression (P = .083). MMP-2 expression was significantly higher in epithelial and stromal regions of AB (P = .009 and P = .001, respectively), whereas Ki-67 and MMP-9 epithelial expressions were significantly higher in BCC (P < .000 and P = .026, respectively). Within the studied immunohistochemical attributes for tumor behavior, the study accentuated the overall behavioral mimicry of the tumors and indicated that BCCs surmount ABs by the proliferative rate only.

  15. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  16. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  17. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  18. Myocardial damage in dogs affected by heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis): immunohistochemical study of cardiac myoglobin and troponin I in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Carretón, E; Grandi, G; Morchón, R; Simón, F; Passeri, B; Cantoni, A M; Kramer, L; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2012-10-26

    It has recently been reported that dogs affected by canine heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) can show an increase in plasma levels of myoglobin and cardiac troponin I, two markers of muscle/myocardial injury. In order to determine if this increase is due to myocardial damage, the right ventricle of 24 naturally infected dogs was examined by routine histology and immunohistochemistry with anti-myoglobin and anti-cardiac troponin I antibodies. Microscopic lesions included necrosis and myocyte vacuolization, and were associated with loss of staining for one or both proteins. Results confirm that increased levels of myoglobin and cardiac troponin I are indicative of myocardial damage in dogs affected by heartworm disease.

  19. Osteonic organization of limb bones in mammals, including humans, and birds: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Castrogiovanni, Paola; Imbesi, Rosa; Fisichella, Marco; Mazzone, Venera

    2011-01-01

    As it is well known, bone tissue is characterized by a calcified extracellular matrix which makes this tissue suitable to support the body and protect the inner organs. Lamellar bone tissue is organized in lamellae, 3-7 microm in thickness, and arranged concentrically around vascular channels: the basic structure in this type of organization is called Haversian system or osteon and the diameter of osteons depends on the number of lamellae. Shape and regional density of osteons are related to the bone segment and the specific functional requirements to meet. Aim of this study is to correlate the compact bone tissue microstructure in various classes of mammals, including humans, and birds in order to find an adequate identification key. The results of our study show that in bone tissue samples from various classes of mammals, including humans, and birds the osteonic structure shows peculiar features, often depending on the rate of bone remodelling, different in different animal species. We conclude that a careful microscopic analysis of bone tissue and the characterization of distinctive osteonic features could give a major contribution to forensic medicine to obtain a more reliable recognition of bone findings.

  20. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of the liver and hepatic lymph nodes in goats infected with one or more doses of Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J; Martín de las Mulas, J; Carrasco, L; Gutierrez, P N; Martínez-Cruz, M S; Martínez-Moreno, A

    1999-02-01

    Lesions produced by Fasciola hepatica in the liver, gall-bladder and hepatic lymph nodes (HLNs) of four groups of five goats are described; in addition, the distribution of CD3+ T lymphocytes and IgG-lambda light chain-bearing cells was analysed in the hepatic lesions and HLNs. One group of goats received a single oral dose of metacercariae, but the other four groups received four or five doses at different intervals over a period of 11 weeks. Animals that survived were killed 53-55 weeks after the first infective dose. Goats were more susceptible to multiple doses than to a single dose, even when the total number of metacercariae was the same. This greater susceptibility was manifested by the occurrence of deaths and the severity of hepatic lesions. CD3+ lymphocytes were sparse in the infiltrate surrounding the acute migratory tracts, suggesting inhibition of the local cell-mediated immune response. Goats with numerous hepatic calcareous granulomas showed the most severe hepatic damage, including marked cirrhosis, with a striking infiltrate of CD3+ T lymphocytes and lambda IgG- plasma cells, replacing extensive areas of hepatic parenchyma, in which hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes was evident. These findings were observed mainly in the goats given more than one infective dose.

  1. Regular consumption of a silicic acid-rich water prevents aluminium-induced alterations of nitrergic neurons in mouse brain: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Foglio, E; Buffoli, B; Exley, C; Rezzani, R; Rodella, L F

    2012-08-01

    Silicon is not generally considered an essential nutrient for mammals and, to date, whether it has a biological role or beneficial effects in humans is not known. The results of a number of studies suggest that dietary silicon supplementation might have a protective effect both for limiting aluminium absorption across the gut and for the removal of systemic aluminium via the urine, hence, preventing potential accumulation of aluminium in the brain. Since our previous studies demonstrated that aluminium exposure reduces the number of nitrergic neurons, the aim of the present study was to compare the distribution and the morphology of NO-containing neurons in brain cortex of mice exposed to aluminium sulphate dissolved in silicic acid-rich or poor drinking water to assess the potential protective role of silicon against aluminium toxicity in the brain. NADPH-d histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry showed that high concentrations of silicon in drinking water were able to minimize the impairment of the function of nitrergic neurons induced by aluminium administration. We found that silicon protected against aluminium-induced damage to the nitrergic system: in particular, we demonstrated that silicon maintains the number of nitrergic neurons and their expression of nitrergic enzymes at physiological levels, even after a 12 and 15 month exposure to aluminium.

  2. [Changes in the endocrine pancreas of laboratory white rats with diabetes mellitus, adaptation to hypoxia and their combination (an immunohistochemical study)].

    PubMed

    Kolesnik, Iu M; Abramov, A V; Vasilenko, G V

    1996-01-01

    The study was performed in 80 albino Wistar rats of both sexes. Pancreatic A-, B- and D-cells state were studied by means of indirect immunofluorescence, using monoclonal antibodies to insulin and anti-serine to glucagon and somatostatin. This method reflects state of endocrine cells secretory activity most adequately and is an optimal one for studying the structure, function and qualitative determination of hormones. Peculiarities of A-, B- and D-cells relationship in diabetes, adaptation to hypoxia and their combinations taking animals sex into account were demonstrated. This is, first of all, an inverse dependence between insulin content on one hand and between glucagon and somatostatin on the other. It is also a greater vulnerability of big islets in diabetes. Besides, positive effect of adaptation to hypoxic hypoxia on the course of the experimental diabetes was demonstrated, which may be expressed in several ways: by insulin biosynthesis stimulation and new B-cells appearance, by normalization of glucagon secretion by A-cells and their reaction to hyperglycemia, depending on insulin and somatostatin content in D-cells and by inhibition of destructive process in B-cells.

  3. Validation of a one-stop carpal tunnel clinic including nerve conduction studies and hand therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ball, C; Pearse, M; Kennedy, D; Hall, A; Nanchahal, J

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common hand disorder. We describe a pathway that includes clinical assessment, neurophysiological testing, surgery and physical therapy all at the same visit. METHODS All referrals for carpal tunnel syndrome were screened for inclusion in a ‘one-stop’ surgeon-led clinic. Prospective clinical data collected included patient reported outcome measures and satisfaction scores, touch threshold, pinch and grip strength. Patients were assessed clinically, underwent nerve conduction studies and surgery as indicated, all on the same day. Baseline and one-year follow-up data were analysed for 57 patients (62 hands). RESULTS There was significant improvement in all domains of the Boston Carpal Tunnel and Michigan Hand Outcomes questionnaires, grip strength and touch threshold. There were no adverse events. The total mean operating time was 12.8 minutes (range: 5–15 minutes) and the mean tourniquet time was 2.5 minutes (range: 1–11 minutes). Using a dual theatre model produced a short mean turnaround time of 14.8 minutes (range: 2–37 minutes). Patient satisfaction as judged using a Picker questionnaire was very high. CONCLUSIONS A highly efficient clinical service involving both diagnostics and treatment can be delivered at a single hospital visit while maintaining optimal outcomes and high patient satisfaction. PMID:22041242

  4. Precision study of ZZγ production including Z-boson leptonic decays at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Peng-Fei; Ma, Wen-Gan; Zhang, Ren-You; Chen, Chong

    2016-02-01

    We report on the precision predictions for the e^+e^- → Z Zγ ~process including Z-boson leptonic decays at the ILC in the standard model (SM). The calculation includes the full next-to-leading (NLO) electroweak (EW) corrections and high order initial state radiation (h.o. ISR) contributions. We find that the NLO EW corrections heavily suppress the LO cross section, and the h.o. ISR effects are notable near the threshold while become small in high energy region. We present the LO and the NLO EW+h.o. ISR corrected distributions of the transverse momenta of final Z-boson and photon as well as the Z-pair invariant mass, and we investigate the corresponding NLO EW and h.o. ISR relative corrections. We also study the leptonic decays of the final Z-boson pair by adopting the MadSpin method where the spin correlation effect is involved. We conclude that both the h.o. ISR effects and the NLO EW corrections are important in exploring the ZZγ production at the ILC.

  5. Analysis of Olig2 and YKL-40 expression: a clinicopathological/immunohistochemical study for the distinction between subventricular zone II and III glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Batista, Kmp; Costa, Bal; Pablo, Ica; Vega, I F; Morales, Jcg; Alvarez, A V; Meilán, A; Astudillo, A; Alvarez, K Y

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBs) are the most common and lethal primary brain tumors in the adults. Glioblastomas originates either from astrocytes that have accumulated mutations and de-differentiated or from neural stem cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) in close contact with the vasculature. Recently, several studies have hypothesized that gliomagenesis occurs in perivascular niches with highly invasive peripheral proliferating zones. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pathological and clinical significance of Olig2 and YKL40 immunoexpression in 152 GBs in relationship to the SVZ II and III. Olig2 expressions were successfully detected in 12 (15.58%) of 77 SVZ type II GBs and 16 (21.3%) of 75 SVZ type III GBs, respectively. YKL-40 expression was observed in 45 (58.4%) of 77 SVZ type II GBs and in 17 (22.6%) of 75 SVZ type III GBs, respectively. Stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used, and the prognostic factors to significantly impact OS were: PFS < 54 weeks (HR: 5.86; CI: 3.02-11.33; p = 0.00); radiotherapy (HR: 0.34; CI: 0.18-0.60; p = 0.00); radio- and chemotherapy (HR: 0.05; CI: 0.03-0.10; p = 0.0), and YKL-40+ GBs (HR: 1.61; CI: 1.28-2.31; p = 0.01).

  6. Macrophage polarisation changes within the time between diagnostic biopsy and tumour resection in oral squamous cell carcinomas—an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, M; Moebius, P; Büttner-Herold, M; Amann, K; Preidl, R; Neukam, F W; Wehrhan, F

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of solid malignancies has been shown to depend on immunological parameters, such as macrophage polarisation (M1/M2). Recently, it was reported that preoperative oral surgery leads to a worsening of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) prognosis. Diagnostic incision biopsies are oral surgery procedures that might lead to healing-associated M2 macrophage polarisation with a potential negative influence on tumour biology. No studies have compared macrophage polarisation in OSCC biopsies and tumour specimens. Methods: Preoperative diagnostic incision biopsies (n=25) and tumour resection specimens (n=34) of T1/T2 OSCC were processed for immunohistochemistry to detect CD68-, CD11c-, CD163- and MRC1-positive cells. Samples were digitised using whole-slide imaging, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively analysed. Results: Carcinoma tissues obtained during OSCC tumour resections showed a significantly (P<0.05) increased CD163 cell count (M2 macrophages) compared with tissues obtained during preoperative incision biopsies. Additionally, the CD163/CD68 ratio (an indicator of M2 polarisation) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumour resection specimens than in biopsies. Conclusions: This study revealed for the first time an increase in M2 polarisation in samples obtained during OSCC tumour resection surgery compared with preoperative incision biopsies. The biopsy-induced tissue trauma might explain the observed shift in macrophage polarisation towards the tumour-promoting M2 type and could lead to accelerated tumour progression. PMID:26110975

  7. Immunohistochemical studies on the progesterone receptor (PR) in the sow uterus during the oestrous cycle and in inseminated sows at oestrus and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sukjumlong, S; Dalin, A-M; Sahlin, L; Persson, E

    2005-03-01

    Physiological changes in the sow uterus involve the regulation by progesterone and its receptor proteins (PR). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the localization of PR during different stages of the oestrous cycle and in inseminated sows during early pregnancy by use of immunohistochemistry. Uterine samples were collected from cyclic and inseminated sows at different stages of the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy. The samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was done by use of a mouse monoclonal antibody to PR. The highest PR immunostaining in the surface epithelium was observed at oestrus/5-6 h after artificial insemination (AI) and early dioestrus/70 h after AI. In the glandular epithelium, the highest level of PR was found at oestrus with the lowest at late dioestrus/d 19. Higher levels of PR were observed in inseminated groups compared with cyclic sows. In the myometrium, a high level of PR was found at oestrus, while stromal PR cells were constantly present throughout the oestrous cycle and at different stages of early pregnancy. In conclusion, this study shows that the immunopresence of PR in the sow uterus differed between uterine compartments at the same reproductive stage. Differences were also found for some uterine compartments between cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sows. The relatively consistent immunostaining of PR in the stroma strengthens a stromal role in the regulation of physiological activities in the sow uterus during the oestrous cycle as well as early pregnancy.

  8. Therapeutic effect of taxanes on metastatic breast cancer of various immunohistochemical subtypes

    PubMed Central

    FUKADA, IPPEI; ARAKI, KAZUHIRO; KOBAYASHI, KOKORO; KOBAYASHI, TAKAYUKI; HORII, RIE; AKIYAMA, FUTOSHI; TAKAHASHI, SHUNJI; IWASE, TAKUJI; ITO, YOSHINORI

    2016-01-01

    Taxane drugs play a central role in chemotherapy for breast cancer. However, previous studies have reported that taxanes are relatively ineffective in patients with operable luminal breast cancer compared with other subtypes. Between January 2000 and August 2008, 293 patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated with taxanes in The Cancer Institute Hospital of The Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research and were included in the present study. The patients were divided into 4 subtypes based on the immunohistochemically evaluated estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. The clinicopathological features, response rate (RR) and time to progression (TTP) were analyzed retrospectively. In total, 159 patient tissues were classified as luminal type (ER+ and/or PgR+ and HER2−), 28 patient tissues were classified as luminal-HER2 type (ER+ and/or PgR+ and HER2+), 57 patient tissues were classified as HER2 type (ER−, PgR− and HER2+), and 49 patient tissues were classified as triple-negative type (ER−, PgR− and HER2−). Among the 4 subtypes, the clinical benefit rate was 51.6, 78.6, 71.9 and 40.8%, respectively. There were significant differences in TTP between subtypes (median TTP, 8.3 months in luminal, 14.1 months in luminal-HER2, 10.6 months in HER2, and 4.2 months in triple-negative; P<0.001). Patients with luminal type tumors had a significantly longer TTP than patients with triple-negative type tumors. The present data suggested that the immunohistochemical subtypes were associated with the therapeutic effect of taxanes for metastatic breast cancer and that taxanes yielded an acceptable RR and TTP in luminal metastatic breast cancer. Additional investigations are required to elucidate the predictive markers of taxane therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer in each immunohistochemical subtype. PMID:27347197

  9. Increased malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc) is associated with macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is largely accepted that specific immunological parameters in solid malignancies are associated with patient’s prognosis. Recently a correlation of macrophage polarization with histomorphological parameters could also be shown in oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc). The observed tumor derived peripheral immune tolerance could be associated with the macrophage polarization in regional tumor draining lymph nodes. So far there are no studies analyzing the macrophage polarization in cervical lymph nodes of oscc patients. In the present study we aimed to correlate macrophage polarization in different anatomical lymph node compartments of patients diagnosed with oscc with histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor (T-, N-, L-, V-, Pn-status, grading). Methods Tumor free (n = 37) and metastatic (n = 17) lymph nodes of T1 and T2 oscc patients were processed for immunohistochemistry to detect CD68, CD11c, CD163 and MRC1 positive cells. Samples were digitized using whole slide imaging and the number of cells expressing the aforementioned markers in the region of interest quantitatively analyzed. Results The malignancy of the primary tumor (defined by T-, L-, Pn-status, grading) correlated with the lymph node macrophage polarization. L1 and Pn1 tumor cases displayed a significantly (p < 0.05) decreased M1 and increased M2 polarization in the sinus of the lymph nodes. G3 cases presented a significantly (p < 0.05) increased M2 polarization in the sinus compared to G2 cases. T2 tumors had significantly (p < 0.05) increased M2 polarization in the interfollicular zone of regional lymph nodes compared to T1 tumors. Metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes did not differ regarding their macrophage polarization. Conclusions The current study revealed for the first time an influence of oscc on the macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes. Markers of malignant behavior in the primary tumor were associated with a shift of macrophage

  10. The relationship of a serum protein, C1t, to a common nonfibrillar constituent of amyloid (P component) as revealed by immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.; Weicker-Thorne, J.; Painter, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    C1t, a serum protein isolated by affinity chromatography on Sepharose bears a remarkable ultrastructural and physiocochemical resemblance to P component, a common constituent of amyloid. This study provides further evidence for their similarity by the demonstration of immunologic identity and by the presence of C1t in amyloid deposits of various types using immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent techniques. In addition, subcomponents of C1, as well as C3, C4, C5, and properdin, were demonstrated to a limited extent. The possible role of C1t/P component in amyloidogenesis is discussed in the light of recent advances in our knowledge of the nature of amyloid substance. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 PMID:329683

  11. Possible protective effect of royal jelly against cyclophosphamide induced prostatic damage in male albino rats; a biochemical, histological and immuno-histo-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Sara Mohammed Naguib; Rifaai, Rehab Ahmed; Abdelzaher, Walaa Yehia

    2017-03-21

    Almost all the chemotherapy treat many cancer types effectively, but it leads to severe side effects. Chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide (CP) not works only on the active cells, such as cancer cells, but also acts on the healthy cells. Royal jelly (RJ) was reported to have a lot of therapeutic effects besides being an anti-oxidant and anti-cancer agent. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of RJ in ameliorating the toxic effects of CP overdose in the rat prostatic tissue. The rats were separated into 4 groups; control group, RJ group, CP group and RJ with CP group. Prostatic specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immune-histo-chemical studies. The mean area fractions of eNOS and Bax expression were measured in all groups, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that in CP treated group, there were marked biological changes in the form of significant increase in prostatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and C - reactive protein (CRP). Additionally there was a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in prostatic tissue if compared with the control group. Furthermore, the histological changes showed marked acinar and stromal prostatic degeneration. Most prostatic acini showed less PAS reaction and more (eNOS and Bax) expression if compared with the control group. Concomitant administration of RJ with CP revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. In conclusion, RJ provided biochemical and histo-pathological improvement in CP induced prostatic tissue toxicity. These findings revealed that this improvement was associated with a decrease in the tissue oxidative damage and apoptosis.

  12. The Protective Effect of Human Umbilical Cord Blood CD34+ Cells and Estradiol against Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Female Ovariectomized Rat: Cerebral MR Imaging and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Liu, Ho-Ling; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood derived CD34+ stem cells are reported to mediate therapeutic effects in stroke animal models. Estrogen was known to protect against ischemic injury. The present study wished to investigate whether the protective effect of CD34+ cells against ischemic injury can be reinforced with complemental estradiol treatment in female ovariectomized rat and its possible mechanism. Experiment 1 was to determine the best optimal timing of CD34+ cell treatment for the neuroprotective effect after 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Experiment 2 was to evaluate the adjuvant effect of 17β-estradiol on CD34+ cell neuroprotection after MCAO. Experiment 1 showed intravenous infusion with CD34+ cells before MCAO (pre-treatment) caused less infarction size than those infused after MCAO (post-treatment) on 7T magnetic resonance T2-weighted images. Experiment 2 revealed infarction size was most significantly reduced after CD34+ + estradiol pre-treatment. When compared with no treatment group, CD34+ + estradiol pre-treatment showed significantly less ADC reduction at 2 h and 2 d, less CBF reduction at 2 h and less hyperperfusion at 2 d. The immunoreactivity of c-Fos, c-Jun and GFAP was attenuated, and BDNF showed significant recovery from 2 h to 2 d after MCAO, especially after CD34+ + estradiol pre-treatment. The present study suggests pre-treatment with CD34+ cells with complemental estradiol can be most protective against ischemic injury, which may act through stabilization of cerebral hemodynamics and normalization of the expressions of immediate early genes and BDNF. PMID:26760774

  13. Immunohistochemical study of Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) binding of megakaryocytes in bone marrow biopsy specimens: demonstration of heterogeneity in staining pattern reflecting the stages of differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, S M; Li, C Y

    1996-01-01

    During differentiation, megakaryocytes undergo nuclear endoreplication, an increase in cell size, cytoplasmic granulation, and release of platelets. The changes in highly lobulated nuclei with varying degree of polyploidy and increasing cell size are easily recognized morphologically. However, the actual cytoplasmic changes are more difficult to perceive morphologically. With the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method using UEA-1 as the binding protein to the alpha-L-fucose of glycoprotein synthesized by megakaryocytes, we observed significant variation in cytoplasmic staining of megakaryocytes in routinely processed bone marrow biopsy sections. A total of 3344 megakaryocytes in bone marrow sections from 10 patients with nonhematologic diseases and from 10 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was studied. According to the intensity and pattern of cytoplasmic staining, we divided megakaryocytes into at least six groups: (1) low granular (LG), (2) diffuse granular (DG), (3) diffuse dense granular (DDG), (4) marginal granular (MG), (5) denuded (DMK), and (6) endomitotic (EndoM). Most of the megakaryocytes were DG (mean, 42.75% +/- 19.21%) and DDG (mean, 50.25% +/- 21.23%). In correlation with nuclear morphology and cell size, it appears that substances binding to UEA-1 are located in the paranuclear region in early megakaryocytes and produce a low granular focal staining pattern (LG cells). Next, the granules spread throughout the cytoplasm (DG cells) and increase in quantity (DDG). This is followed by migration of granules to the periphery of the cytoplasm (MG cells) and is associated with the liberation of platelets and eventual formation of DMK megakaryocytes. Endomitosis, regulated by unknown factors, occurred in the MG stage. In comparing the group with nonhematologic disease (mean DG, 35.4% +/- 18.48%; DDG, 58.4% +/- 21.8%) and the group with ITP (mean DG, 50.1% +/- 17.82%; DDG, 42.1% +/- 18.12%), we found an increasing proportion of DG

  14. Immunohistochemical studies on oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and the proliferative marker Ki-67 in the sow uterus at oestrus and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sukjumlong, S; Persson, E; Kaeoket, K; Dalin, A-M

    2004-10-01

    Oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), the main subtype in the uterus, is involved in the regulation of uterine growth/proliferation. A relationship between ERalpha and proliferative activity has been shown in the cyclic sow uterus, but to our knowledge, no study has been carried out on early pregnant sows. Therefore, by means of immunohistochemistry and use of mouse monoclonal antibodies to ERalpha and a proliferative marker, Ki-67, the localization of these proteins was investigated in the sow uterus during early pregnancy. Eighteen crossbred multiparous sows were artificially inseminated once at 20-15 h before expected ovulation. After artificial insemination (AI), they were slaughtered at five different times: at oestrus, 5-6 h after AI (n = 4), 20-25 h after ovulation (n =4), 70 h after ovulation (n = 4), on day 11 (the first day of standing oestrus = day 1, n = 3) and on day 19 (n = 3). Immediately after slaughter, uterine samples were collected at the mesometrial side of the uteri, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed by using mouse monoclonal antibodies to ERalpha (C-311) and Ki-67 (MM1). All sows slaughtered after ovulation were pregnant. In general, positive immunostaining for ERalpha and Ki-67 was found in the nuclei. Variations in staining intensity and proportion of positive nuclei were observed in different uterine compartments and stages of early pregnancy. The highest level of ERalpha presence in the surface epithelium and myometrium was found at oestrus (5-6 h after AI), and low levels of ERalpha in these compartments were observed as early as 20-25 h after ovulation. In the glandular epithelia, presence of ERalpha was highest at 70 h after ovulation. The largest number of ERalpha-positive cells in the stroma was observed at oestrus and early after ovulation. Low proliferation was observed, and with no significant difference in tissue compartments except in the glandular epithelium. High proliferative

  15. Early AD pathology in a [C-11]PiB-negative case: a PiB-amyloid imaging, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ikonomovic, Milos D; Abrahamson, Eric E; Price, Julie C; Hamilton, Ronald L; Mathis, Chester A; Paljug, William R; Debnath, Manik L; Cohen, Anne D; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; DeKosky, Steven T; Lopez, Oscar L; Klunk, William E

    2012-03-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer's disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(-)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(-) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(-) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (< 100 pmol/g) and Aβ1-42 (< 500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1-42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800-1, 700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(-) case, Aβ1-40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1-40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1-42 only in the [C-11]PiB(-) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(-) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11]PiB PET signal.

  16. Drug Eruptions: An 8-year Study Including 106 Inpatients at a Dermatology Clinic in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Fatma; Dervis, Emine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few clinical studies are found in the literature about patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug eruption. Aims: To determine the clinical types of drug eruptions and their causative agents in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in the Dermatology Department of Haseki General Hospital. Through 1751 patients hospitalized in this department between 2002 and 2009, inpatients diagnosed as drug eruption were evaluated according to WHO causality definitions. 106 patients composed of probable and possible cases of cutaneous drug eruptions were included in this study. Results: Seventy one females and 35 males were evolved. Mean age was 44.03±15.14. Duration between drug intake and onset of reaction varied from 5 minutes to 3 months. The most common clinical type was urticaria and/or angioedema in 48.1% of the patients, followed by maculopapular rash in 13.2%, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in 8.5%. Drugs most frequently associated with cutaneous drug eruptions were antimicrobial agents in 40.5% of the patients, followed by antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics in 31.1%, and antiepileptics in 11.3%. Conclusion: Urticaria and/or angioedema and maculopapular rash comprised majority of the drug eruptions. Rare reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, sweet syndrome, oral ulceration were also found. Antimicrobial agents and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory analgesics were the most commonly implicated drugs. Infrequently reported adverse reactions to myorelaxant agents, newer cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were also detected. We suppose that studies on drug eruptions should continue, because the pattern of consumption of drugs is changing in every country at different periods and many new drugs are introduced on the market continuously. PMID:22707770

  17. Macrophage density in pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles greatly exceeds that in other striated muscles: an immunohistochemical study using elderly human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sunki; Kitamura, Kei; Masaaki, Kasahara; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in aging-related muscle atrophy (i.e., sarcopenia). We examined macrophage density in six striated muscles (cricopharyngeus muscle, posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle, genioglossus muscle, masseter muscle, infraspinatus muscle, and external anal sphincter). We examined 14 donated male cadavers and utilized CD68 immunohistochemistry to clarify macrophage density in muscles. The numbers of macrophages per striated muscle fiber in the larynx and pharynx (0.34 and 0.31) were 5–6 times greater than those in the tongue, shoulder, and anus (0.05–0.07) with high statistical significance. Thick muscle fibers over 80 µm in diameter were seen in the pharynx, larynx, and anal sphincter of two limited specimens. Conversely, in the other sites or specimens, muscle fibers were thinner than 50 µm. We did not find any multinuclear muscle cells suggestive of regeneration. At the beginning of the study, we suspected that mucosal macrophages might have invaded into the muscle layer of the larynx and pharynx, but we found no evidence of inflammation in the mucosa. Likewise, the internal anal sphincter (a smooth muscle layer near the mucosa) usually contained fewer macrophages than the external sphincter. The present result suggest that, in elderly men, thinning and death of striated muscle fibers occur more frequently in the larynx and pharynx than in other parts of the body. PMID:27722010

  18. The role of rosiglitazone treatment in the modulation of islet hormones and hormone-like peptides: a combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Sukriye; Bolkent, Sema; Sundler, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Rosiglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, is an insulin sensitizing agent in peripheral tissues. This study investigated islet hormones and hormone-like peptides expression patterns in rosiglitazone treated streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods. Animals were divided into four groups. I. Group: Intact control rats. II. Group: Rosiglitazone-treated controls. III. Group: STZ-diabetic rats. IV. Group: Rosiglitazone-treated diabetic animals. Rosiglitazone was given for 7 days at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. In the STZ-diabetic group, there were significant differences in islet hormones and hormone like peptides cell numbers compared to rosiglitazone control group and intact control group. There were significant differences in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cell numbers between rosiglitazone control group and rosiglitazone + STZ-diabetic group. We detected a significant decrease in glucagon mRNA signals in rosiglitazone-treated control group compared to intact controls. We found a statistically significant difference in islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) mRNA signals between the STZ-diabetic group and the rosiglitazone + STZ-diabetic group. Besides, we also demonstrated co-localization of peptides by using double and triple histochemistry. In conclusion, our results show that short-term rosiglitazone treatment had a preservative effect to some extent on the expression of islet hormones and hormone-like peptides to maintain the islet function.

  19. The differential expression of TGF-β1, ILK and wnt signaling inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human renal fibrogenesis: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyung; Maeng, Young-In; Sung, Woo Jung; Oh, Hoon-Kyu; Park, Jae-Bok; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Cho, Chang-Ho; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process for fully differentiated epithelial cells to undergo a phenotypic change to fibroblasts via diverse intracellular signaling pathways. While the pivotal role of fibroblasts in renal fibrosis is widely accepted, their origin remains undefined. In addition, although a large number of studies have provided evidence of EMT in human kidney diseases, specific signaling pathways leading to EMT have not yet been discovered in humans. To evaluate the origin of interstitial fibroblasts and signaling pathways involved in the EMT process, we analyzed the differential expression of EMT-related molecules in paraffin-fixed sections from 19 human fibrotic kidneys and 4 control kidneys. In human fibrotic kidneys, tubular epithelial cells (TECs) with intact tubular basement membrane (TBM) showed loss or down-regulation of an epithelial marker (E-cadherin), de novo expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), and significant up-regulation of inducers and mediators controlling the EMT process (transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), p-Smad2/3, β1-integrin, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), WNT5B and β-catenin) in the areas of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, compared with their expression in control kidneys. In conclusion, the type II EMT process in humans is thought to be an adaptive response of TECs to chronic injury and is regulated by interconnections of TGF-β/Smad, integrin/integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

  20. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of myocarditis on (infantile) autopsy material: Does it improve the diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Grasmeyer, Sarah; Madea, Burkhard

    2015-06-01

    The standard for the histopathologic diagnosis of myocarditis has been the Dallas criteria. Recently, immunohistochemical studies that include the specification and quantification of interstitial inflammatory cells have been proposed as the diagnostic approach for myocarditis. Cut-off limits regarding inflammatory cell numbers for the positive diagnosis of myocarditis have been recommended. However, it is unclear whether these can be applied to postmortem tissues or to infants, as they were established from endomyocardial biopsies and for adults. Nevertheless, cut-off limits for the postmortem diagnosis of myocarditis in the first year of life have been proposed. Studies using these cut-off limits identified myocarditis in a high percentage of presumed sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases. These results were re-evaluated by the present study, which examined heart specimens from infants less than 1 year of age. The study had a test group of 92 SIDS cases and a control group of 15. Myocardial tissue was examined from eight standardized locations, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and for three different immunohistochemical reagents (LCA for leukocytes, CD68 for macrophages, CD45-RO for T-lymphocytes). Histopathological assessment of the number of inflammatory cells was carried out on an aggregate of 80 mm(2) of myocardial tissue per case. Myocarditis, based on the Dallas criteria, was histologically diagnosed in only two cases. Immunohistochemical quantification revealed elevated cell counts in the SIDS group for LCA and CD45-RO. However, those differences were neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant as the mean cell counts per mm(2) were low. The density of inflammatory cells differed considerably from section to section and even within single sections. Therefore the commonly used arithmetic mean value was not diagnostically relevant, suggesting cut-off values based on the arithmetic mean value as recommended in the literature, cannot be regarded

  1. Healing of onlay mandibular bone grafts covered with collagen membrane or bovine bone substitutes: a microscopical and immunohistochemical study in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, W L; Reuther, T; Bloch, W; Korkmaz, Y; Fischer, J H; Zöller, J E; Kuebler, A C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of collagen membrane and Bio-Oss coverage in healing of an onlay graft to the mandible. Twelve adult sheep each received an onlay bone graft (experiment 1), bone graft+Bio-Gide (experiment 2), and bone graft+Bio-Oss/Bio-Gide (experiment 3) on the lateral surface of the mandible. The animals were euthanized at 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks after surgery, and findings were analysed by routine microscopy and immunohistochemistry for proliferation (Ki67) and apoptotic (Caspase-3) markers. Grafts were fully incorporated in all specimens. Pronounced resorption was observed in experiment 1. Minimal loss of graft volume was seen in experiment 2 specimens without membrane displacement. A remarkable increase in the augmented region of the mandible was observed in experiment 3. A high number of osteoclasts were expressed within the grafts during the early healing period, and thereafter declined markedly. Osteoblasts within the grafts expressed a moderate level of Ki67 at 8 weeks, which thereafter declined markedly. The strongest expression of Caspase-3 on the bone surface was observed after 16 weeks. In conclusion, the effect of collagen membrane coverage on bone graft volume maintenance was dependent on membrane stability during healing. An autogenous bone graft covered with Bio-Oss particles resulted in a remarkable increase in augmented lateral surface of the mandible. The late stage of bone graft healing was associated with a high apoptotic induction pathway of osteoblasts lining the surfaces of the new bone, demonstrated by strong positive Caspase-3 immunoreactivity.

  2. Involvement of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in development of human tooth germ - an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kero, Darko; Cigic, Livia; Medvedec Mikic, Ivana; Galic, Tea; Cubela, Mladen; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2016-07-02

    Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) is a peptide hormone essential for prenatal growth and development. IGF-2 exerts its mitogenic effects via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R), and is eliminated by binding to Insulin-Like Growth Receptor 2 (IGF-2R). IGF-2 is also negatively regulated by Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN), a phosphatase mutated in various tumors. Not much is known about the interplay between these factors during human odontogenesis. In this study, expression patterns of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN were analyzed by double immunofluorescence in incisor human tooth germs during the foetal period of development between the 7(th) and 20(th) gestational week. Throughout the investigated period, IGF-2 was mostly expressed in enamel organ, whereas mild to moderate expression of PTEN could be seen in dental papilla and parts of enamel organ. Expression of IGF-1R was ubiquitous and displayed strong intensity throughout the entire enamel organ. In contrast, expression of IGF-2R had rather erratic pattern in enamel organ and dental papilla alike. Expression patterns of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in highly proliferative cervical loops, as well as in differentiating pre-ameloblasts and pre-odontoblasts of cusp tip region during the early and late bell stages when enamel organ acquires definitive shape, indicate importance of these factors in crown morphogenesis of human incisor. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in temporo-spatial patterning of basic cellular processes (proliferation, differentiation) during normal tooth development. They are also relevant for improving knowledge of molecular basis of human odontogenesis.

  3. A comparative assessment of two kynurenic acid analogs in the formalin model of trigeminal activation: a behavioral, immunohistochemical and pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Veres, Gábor; Fejes-Szabó, Annamária; Zádori, Dénes; Nagy-Grócz, Gábor; László, Anna M; Bajtai, Attila; Mándity, István; Szentirmai, Márton; Bohár, Zsuzsanna; Laborc, Klaudia; Szatmári, István; Fülöp, Ferenc; Vécsei, László; Párdutz, Árpád

    2017-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) has well-established protective properties against glutamatergic neurotransmission, which plays an essential role in the activation and sensitization process during some primary headache disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two KYNA analogs, N-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (KA-1) and N-(2-N-pyrrolidinylethyl)-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (KA-2), in the orofacial formalin test of trigeminal pain. Following pretreatment with KA-1 or KA-2, rats were injected with subcutaneous formalin solution in the right whisker pad. Thereafter, the rubbing activity and c-Fos immunoreactivity changes in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis (TNC) were investigated. To obtain pharmacokinetic data, KA-1, KA-2 and KYNA concentrations were measured following KA-1 or KA-2 injection. Behavioral tests demonstrated that KA-2 induced larger amelioration of formalin-evoked alterations as compared with KA-1 and the assessment of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the TNC yielded similar results. Although KA-1 treatment resulted in approximately four times larger area under the curve values in the serum relative to KA-2, the latter resulted in a higher KYNA elevation than in the case of KA-1. With regard to TNC, the concentration of KA-1 was under the limit of detection, while that of KA-2 was quite small and there was no major difference in the approximately tenfold KYNA elevations. These findings indicate that the differences between the beneficial effects of KA-1 and KA-2 may be explained by the markedly higher peripheral KYNA levels following KA-2 pretreatment. Targeting the peripheral component of trigeminal pain processing would provide an option for drug design which might prove beneficial in headache conditions.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and epithelial HLA-DR expression in the rectal and colonic mucosae of children with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Arató, A; Savilahti, E; Tainio, V M; Klemola, T

    1989-02-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations, plasma cells in the lamina propria, and the expression of HLA-DR antigens on the epithelium of the rectal and colonic mucosae were studied in eight children with ulcerative colitis and 12 control subjects using a panel of monoclonal antisera and the peroxidase technique before any treatment and 3 months later (four patients). The numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes were similar in specimens from patients and controls. The majority of these cells (on average, 73% in the patients and 84% in the controls) were mature CD3+ T cells; among them, CD8+ suppressor-cytotoxic cells were preponderant. In both untreated and treated patients, the numbers of mature T cells in the rectal mucosae were supranormal (1,870 +/- 205 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01 and 1,537 +/- 214 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05, respectively; controls, 1,105 +/- 214 cells/mm2). In rectal specimens from untreated patients, the number of helper T (CD4+) cells was increased (1,094 +/- 74 versus 801 +/- 74 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05); the same specimens had more B-1-positive (CD20+) B cells and pre-B cells (122 +/- 21 versus 71 +/- 17 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05). The number of IgG-containing cells was significantly greater than in the controls (1,058 +/- 263 versus 359 +/- 64 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01), and the commonest isotype in the plasma cells of patients was IgG. The number of IgE-containing cells was also significantly elevated (230 +/- 40 versus 95 +/- 16 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01). The numbers of IgA- and IgM-containing cells were similar in patients and controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Immunohistochemical study of thrombospondin and its receptors alpha root of beta 3 and CD36 in normal thyroid and in thyroid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Patey, M; Delemer, B; Bellon, G; Martiny, L; Pluot, M; Haye, B

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To describe the pattern of distribution of thrombospondin (TSP1) and its receptors, alpha root of beta 3 integrin and CD36, in normal human thyroid tissue and to compare their expression in different benign and malignant thyroid conditions. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to study TSP1 and its receptors in 40 surgical thyroidectomy specimens (normal parenchyma, 7; follicular adenoma, 4; multinodular goitre, 13; papillary carcinoma, 6; follicular carcinoma, 8; anaplastic carcinoma, 2). RESULTS: In the normal thyroid parenchyma, there was weak expression of TSP1 limited to the vessels with no staining of the extracellular matrix. In goitres, the expression of TSP1 was more pronounced in areas of fibrosis, with staining of alpha root of beta 3 on thyrocytes located in the vicinity. In thyroid adenomas, expression of TSP1 was slightly enhanced compared with normal tissue, located in the basement membrane of vessels. In papillary carcinomas, TSP1 was abundant in the desmoplastic stroma with a cytoplasmic distribution of alpha root of beta 3 integrin in thyrocytes. In follicular carcinomas, TSP1 was less abundant in the extracellular matrix, limited to the vessels of the stroma with a weaker expression of alpha root of beta 3 on thyrocytes than in papillary carcinomas. In anaplastic carcinomas, TSP1 was only present in the numerous capillaries of the stroma, with a marked positivity for alpha root of beta 3 in one case. No immunostaining of thyrocytes is observed with CD36. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the importance of the interaction between alpha root of beta 3 integrin and TSP1 during remodelling of the matrix in fibrous goitres with areas of early sclerosis comparable with wound healing. In papillary carcinomas, the overexpression of TSP1 restricted to the stroma suggests protective effects against tumour progression. Images PMID:10711252

  6. Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency - and possibly also suicide risk - is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences. PMID:28294195

  7. [The OPTIMISE study (Optimal Type 2 Diabetes Management Including Benchmarking and Standard Treatment]. Results for Luxembourg].

    PubMed

    Michel, G

    2012-01-01

    The OPTIMISE study (NCT00681850) has been run in six European countries, including Luxembourg, to prospectively assess the effect of benchmarking on the quality of primary care in patients with type 2 diabetes, using major modifiable vascular risk factors as critical quality indicators. Primary care centers treating type 2 diabetic patients were randomized to give standard care (control group) or standard care with feedback benchmarked against other centers in each country (benchmarking group). Primary endpoint was percentage of patients in the benchmarking group achieving pre-set targets of the critical quality indicators: glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol after 12 months follow-up. In Luxembourg, in the benchmarking group, more patients achieved target for SBP (40.2% vs. 20%) and for LDL-cholesterol (50.4% vs. 44.2%). 12.9% of patients in the benchmarking group met all three targets compared with patients in the control group (8.3%). In this randomized, controlled study, benchmarking was shown to be an effective tool for improving critical quality indicator targets, which are the principal modifiable vascular risk factors in diabetes type 2.

  8. Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2017-03-15

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency - and possibly also suicide risk - is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences.

  9. Loss of aquaporin 3 protein expression constitutes an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival: an immunohistochemical study on stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) continues to be a challenge due to its unpredictable clinical course. Reliable molecular markers that help to determine appropriate individual treatment are still lacking. Loss of aquaporin (AQP) 3 protein expression has previously been shown in muscle-invasive UBC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of AQP3 protein expression with regard to the prognosis of stage pT1 UBC. Method AQP 3 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in specimens of 87 stage T1 UBC patients, who were diagnosed by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and subsequent second resection at a high-volume urological centre between 2002 and 2009. Patients underwent adjuvant instillation therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Loss of AQP3 protein expression was defined as complete absence of the protein within the whole tumour. Expression status was correlated retrospectively with clinicopathological and follow-up data (median: 31 months). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the value of AQP3 tumour expression with regard to recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RFS, PFS and CSS were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log rank test. Results 59% of patients were shown to exhibit AQP3-positive tumours, whereas 41% of tumours did not express the marker. Loss of AQP3 protein expression was associated with a statistically significantly worse PFS (20% vs. 72%, p=0.020). This finding was confirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 7.58, CI 1.29 – 44.68; p=0.025). Conclusions Loss of AQP3 protein expression in pT1 UBC appears to play a key role in disease progression and is associated with worse PFS. Considering its potential prognostic value, assessment of AQP3 protein expression could be used to help stratify the behavior of patients with pT1 UBC. PMID:23043286

  10. p16INK4A immunohistochemical staining and predictive value for progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1: a prospective study in China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Guang-Dong; Sellors, John W; Sun, Hai-Kui; Zhang, Xun; Bao, Yan-Ping; Jeronimo, Jose; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Song, Yan; Cao, Zhi; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Xi, Ming-Rong; Qiao, You-Lin

    2014-04-01

    p16(INK4A) is strongly expressed in tissues diagnosed as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer in women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), but few prospective studies have evaluated p16(INK4A) as a marker for the risk of low-grade CIN (CIN1) progression. We investigated the prevalence of p16(INK4A) immunostaining by CIN grade and whether overexpression of p16(INK4A) in CIN1 predicts future risk for high-grade CIN in Chinese women. 6,557 Chinese women aged 30-49 years were screened from 2003 to 2005 using cytology and carcinogenic HPV test. Colposcopy was performed on women with any abnormal result. p16(INK4A) Immunostaining was performed on biopsies from all women with CIN1, as well as randomly selected women with normal or CIN grade 2 and worse (CIN2+) biopsies. Women with CIN1 were followed up without treatment. Colposcopy was performed on all untreated women at a 2-year interval. The prevalence of p16(INK4A) staining was 2.7%, 42.7%, 75.5%, 79.6% and 100% among women with normal, CIN1, 2, 3 and cancer biopsies, respectively (p < 0.001). HPV positivity was strongly associated with p16(INK4A) staining [odds ratios (OR) = 12.8; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 5.2-31.6]. p16(INK4A) staining of CIN1 biopsies at baseline was associated with an increased risk of finding high-grade CIN over 2 years of follow-up (OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.52-3.91). The two-year cumulative incidence of CIN2+ for p16(INK4A) positive women was higher at 10.71% than for p16(INK4A) negative women at 1.30% (crude RR = 8.25, 95% CI: 1.02-66.62). p16(INK4A) overexpression is strongly associated with grade of CIN and risk of progression to high-grade CIN in women with low-grade lesions.

  11. An Immunohistochemical Algorithm for Ovarian Carcinoma Typing

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Kurosh; Rambau, Peter F.; Naugler, Christopher; Le Page, Cécile; Meunier, Liliane; de Ladurantaye, Manon; Lee, Sandra; Leung, Samuel; Goode, Ellen L.; Ramus, Susan J.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Li, Xiaodong; Ewanowich, Carol A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Provencher, Diane; Huntsman, David; Lee, Cheng-Han; Gilks, C. Blake; Mes Masson, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    There are 5 major histotypes of ovarian carcinomas. Diagnostic typing criteria have evolved over time, and past cohorts may be misclassified by current standards. Our objective was to reclassify the recently assembled Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type cohorts using immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers and to develop an IHC algorithm for ovarian carcinoma histotyping. A total of 1626 ovarian carcinoma samples from the Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type were subjected to a reclassification by comparing the original with the predicted histotype. Histotype prediction was derived from a nominal logistic regression modeling using a previously reclassified cohort (N=784) with the binary input of 8 IHC markers. Cases with discordant original or predicted histotypes were subjected to arbitration. After reclassification, 1762 cases from all cohorts were subjected to prediction models (χ2 Automatic Interaction Detection, recursive partitioning, and nominal logistic regression) with a variable IHC marker input. The histologic type was confirmed in 1521/1626 (93.5%) cases of the Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource and the Alberta Ovarian Tumor Type cohorts. The highest misclassification occurred in the endometrioid type, where most of the changes involved reclassification from endometrioid to high-grade serous carcinoma, which was additionally supported by mutational data and outcome. Using the reclassified histotype as the endpoint, a 4-marker prediction model correctly classified 88%, a 6-marker 91%, and an 8-marker 93% of the 1762 cases. This study provides statistically validated, inexpensive IHC algorithms, which have versatile applications in research, clinical practice, and clinical trials. PMID:26974996

  12. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  13. Fibrous hamartoma of infancy: a clinicopathologic study of 145 cases, including 2 with sarcomatous features.

    PubMed

    Al-Ibraheemi, Alyaa; Martinez, Anthony; Weiss, Sharon W; Kozakewich, Harry P; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R; Tran, Henry; Parham, David M; Sukov, William R; Fritchie, Karen J; Folpe, Andrew L

    2017-04-01

    clinicopathologic features, including the triphasic morphologic appearance of most cases. In contrast to earlier studies, our series illustrates a broader histologic spectrum than previously appreciated, including its close resemblance to giant cell fibroblastoma in one quarter of cases and the rare presence of 'sarcomatous' areas, the latter providing evidence that these are complex neoplasms rather than hamartomas.

  14. Molecular and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Historical Long-Term Preserved Fixed Tissues from Different Human Organs.

    PubMed

    Hühns, Maja; Röpenack, Paula; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    University and museum collections are very important sources of biological samples that can be used to asses the past and present genetic diversity of many species. Modern genetic and immunohistochemical techniques can be used on long-term preserved fixed tissues from museum specimens to answer epidemiological questions. A proof of principle was established to apply modern molecular genetics and immunohistochemical methods to these old specimens and to verify the original diagnosis. We analysed 19 specimens from our university collection including human organs that had been in fixative for more than 80 years. The tissues originated from lung, colon, brain, heart, adrenal gland, uterus and skin. We isolated amplifiable DNA from these wet preparations and performed mutational analysis of BRAF, KRAS and EGFR. The tissues were also embedded in paraffin and used for modern histology and immunohistochemistry. Our data show that amplifiable DNA is extractable and ranged from 0.25 to 22.77 μg of total DNA. In three specimens BRAFV600E or KRASG12D mutations were found. Additionally, expression of different proteins like vimentin and GFAP was detected immunohistochemical in six investigated specimens. On the basis of our results the original diagnosis was altered in three specimens. Our work showed that it is possible to extract amplifiable DNA suitable for sequence analysis from long-term fixed tissue. Furthermore, histology and immunohistochemistry is feasible in specimens fixed long time ago. We conclude that these old preparations are suitable for further epidemiological research and that our methods open up new opportunities for future studies.

  15. Molecular and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Historical Long-Term Preserved Fixed Tissues from Different Human Organs

    PubMed Central

    Hühns, Maja; Röpenack, Paula; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    University and museum collections are very important sources of biological samples that can be used to asses the past and present genetic diversity of many species. Modern genetic and immunohistochemical techniques can be used on long-term preserved fixed tissues from museum specimens to answer epidemiological questions. A proof of principle was established to apply modern molecular genetics and immunohistochemical methods to these old specimens and to verify the original diagnosis. We analysed 19 specimens from our university collection including human organs that had been in fixative for more than 80 years. The tissues originated from lung, colon, brain, heart, adrenal gland, uterus and skin. We isolated amplifiable DNA from these wet preparations and performed mutational analysis of BRAF, KRAS and EGFR. The tissues were also embedded in paraffin and used for modern histology and immunohistochemistry. Our data show that amplifiable DNA is extractable and ranged from 0.25 to 22.77 μg of total DNA. In three specimens BRAFV600E or KRASG12D mutations were found. Additionally, expression of different proteins like vimentin and GFAP was detected immunohistochemical in six investigated specimens. On the basis of our results the original diagnosis was altered in three specimens. Our work showed that it is possible to extract amplifiable DNA suitable for sequence analysis from long-term fixed tissue. Furthermore, histology and immunohistochemistry is feasible in specimens fixed long time ago. We conclude that these old preparations are suitable for further epidemiological research and that our methods open up new opportunities for future studies. PMID:26252375

  16. Immunohistochemical methods as an aid in estimating the time since death.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Jan; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

    2017-02-14

    For the estimation of time since death in the early postmortem interval, a large repertoire of valid methods is available. With increasing time since death the estimation of the postmortem interval becomes more imprecise and unreliable because validated methods are missing. Wehner et al. developed a method to estimate the time since death using immunohistochemical staining. Proteins undergo degradation after death and this reduces their stainability. Previous studies have explored the development of a method to estimate the time since death using immunohistochemical staining. A systematic analysis (Wehner et al., 1999-2002) demonstrated that calcitonin can still be stained 4 days, thyreoglobulin 5 days, glucagon 6 days, and insulin 12 days after death. After 12 days, calcitonin and thyroglobulin can no longer be stained, glucagon after 14 days, and insulin after 29 days. The aim of the present study was to test this original data on independent case material. Included in this control study were 105 cases with known time since death (between several hours and 22 days). Pancreatic tissue was stained for insulin and glucagon, and the thyroid gland for thyreoglobulin and calcitonin. The original findings could be generally confirmed, however for calcitonin and thyreoglobulin we observed earlier negative stainings. Altogether immunohistochemistry may still be useful as an additional method for estimating time since death in forensic cases.

  17. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  18. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (p<0.001). Forty-nine percent indicated having solely interictal headache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (p<0.001), and the occurrence of tension-type headaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy.

  19. Including sampling and phenotyping costs into the optimization of two stage designs for genomewide association studies.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Helge; Pahl, Roman; Schäfer, Helmut

    2007-12-01

    We propose optimized two-stage designs for genome-wide case-control association studies, using a hypothesis testing paradigm. To save genotyping costs, the complete marker set is genotyped in a sub-sample only (stage I). On stage II, the most promising markers are then genotyped in the remaining sub-sample. In recent publications, two-stage designs were proposed which minimize the overall genotyping costs. To achieve full design optimization, we additionally include sampling costs into both the cost function and the design optimization. The resulting optimal designs differ markedly from those optimized for genotyping costs only (partially optimized designs), and achieve considerable further cost reductions. Compared with partially optimized designs, fully optimized two-stage designs have higher first-stage sample proportion. Furthermore, the increment of the sample size over the one-stage design, which is necessary in two-stage designs in order to compensate for the loss of power due to partial genotyping, is less pronounced for fully optimized two-stage designs. In addition, we address the scenario where the investigator is interested to gain as much information as possible, however is restricted in terms of a budget. In that we develop two-stage designs that maximize the power under a certain cost constraint.

  20. Synthesis, optical and electrochemical study of bipolar heterocyclic systems, including 1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selivanova, D. G.; Mayorova, O. A.; Gorbunov, A. A.; Vasyanin, A. N.; Dmitriev, M. V.; Shklyaeva, E. V.; Abashev, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    Two new 3,5-dihetarylsubstituted 1,2,4- oxadiazoles 8 a,b, including N-alkyl substituted carbazole and thiophene moieties, were synthesized as potential components of materials for organic electronics devices. Optical and electrochemical properties of all new compounds were investigated. On the basis of the experimental UV absorption data, the values of bandgap energies equal to 3.44 eV (8a) and 3.05 eV (8b) were determined. The values of their ionization potentials, HOMO levels (-5.62 eV for 8a, -5.46 eV - for 8b), as well as their electron affinity levels, LUMO levels (-2.2 eV for 8a, -2.4 eV - for 8b), were calculated from the results of electrochemical studies. The energy of the triplet excited states of 8 a,b was defined with the help of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), comprising 2.68 eV (8a) and 2.32 eV (8b), where the greatest value of this parameter was for the compound with a shorter conjugation chain.

  1. Nuclear Brachyury Expression Is Consistent in Chordoma, Common in Germ Cell Tumors and Small Cell Carcinomas, and Rare in Other Carcinomas and Sarcomas: An Immunohistochemical Study of 5229 Cases.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Markku; Wang, Zengfeng; Lasota, Jerzy; Heery, Christopher; Schlom, Jeffrey; Palena, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Brachyury is a transcription factor of the T-box family typically expressed in notochord and chordoma. Some studies report brachyury as highly specific for chordoma, whereas others have concluded that brachyury is expressed in many types of common carcinomas by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry and could be involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic process. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated 5229 different tumors for nuclear brachyury expression using a new rabbit monoclonal antibody and automated immunostaining (Leica Bond Max). Only nuclear labeling was scored, and antibody dilution of 1:2000 was used. In normal tissues, only rare cells in seminiferous tubules were labeled; all other organs were negative. All chordomas (75/76), except a sarcomatous one, were positive, whereas chondrosarcomas were negative. Among epithelial tumors, positivity was often detected in embryonal carcinoma (74%) and seminoma (45%). Pulmonary small cell carcinoma was often positive (41%), whereas pulmonary and pancreatic adenocarcinomas only rarely showed nuclear brachyury positivity (3% to 4%). Common carcinomas such as ductal carcinomas of the breast or adenocarcinomas of the prostate only exceptionally showed nuclear positivity (<1%). No colorectal, hepatocellular, renal cell, squamous cell, thyroid or urothelial carcinoma, or mesothelioma showed nuclear brachyury positivity. Among mesenchymal and neuroectodermal tumors, only isolated cases of melanoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and follicular lymphoma showed nuclear expression. However, as shown previously with lung carcinoma, experiments with lower antibody dilutions (1:200 to 1:500) showed weak cytoplasmic and nuclear labeling in breast cancers. In addition to chordoma, we show here for the first time that nuclear brachyury expression is prevalent in embryonal carcinoma, seminoma, and small cell carcinoma

  2. Implementing School Policies That Include Sexual Orientation: A Case Study in School and Community Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    This paper highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in a Rocky Mountain state in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop…

  3. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P < 0.001). The intensity of MFs was significantly higher in odontogenic tumors compared to odontogenic cysts (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between odontogenic tumors, except between UAM and OM (P = 0.041). The difference between OKC and odontogenic tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors. PMID:27092213

  4. Clinicopathological Features and Immunohistochemical Alterations of Keratinocyte Proliferation, Melanocyte Density, Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia and Nerve Fiber Distribution in Becker's Nevus

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ping; Cheng, Yun-Long; Cai, Chuan-Chuan; Guo, Wei-Jin; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Background Although Becker's nevus (BN) is a relatively common disease, the systematic studies of clinicopathological and immunohistochemical results are poorly reported. Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical alterations of keratinocyte proliferation, melanocyte density, smooth muscle hyperplasia and nerve fiber distribution in BN. Methods Clinical and pathological data were collected in 60 newly-diagnosed BN cases. Immunohistochemical stain of Ki-67, Melan-A, keratin 15, smooth muscle actin and protein gene product 9.5 was performed in 21 cases. Results The median diagnostic and onset age was 17 and 12 years, respectively. Skin lesions usually appeared on the upper trunk and upper limbs. The pathological features included the rete ridge elongation and fusion and basal hyperpigmentation. Epidermal Ki-67, Melan-A and keratin 15 expression and dermal nerve fiber length were significantly higher in lesional and perilesional skin than in normal skin (p<0.05~0.01), while smooth muscle actin expression was upregulated only in skin lesion (p<0.05). Conclusion Although the clinical diagnosis of BN is often straightforward, histopathology is helpful to differentiate from other pigmentary disorders. The hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, melanocytes, arrector pili muscle and dermal nerve fibers could be involved in the pathogenesis of BN. PMID:27904268

  5. Immunohistochemical examination of intracerebral aquaporin-4 expression and its application for differential diagnosis between freshwater and saltwater drowning.

    PubMed

    An, Jun-Ling; Ishida, Yuko; Kimura, Akihiko; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Human brain samples were collected from 70 autopsy cases including 22 freshwater drowning (FWD), 26 saltwater drowning (SWD), and 22 non-drowning cases as controls. Then, immunohistochemical study combined with morphometry was carried out in order to examine the differential expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in the brain samples. Immunohistochemically, star-shaped cells bearing highly branched processes, often surrounding blood vessels, showed positive reactions for AQP1 and AQP4 in FWD, SWD, as well as control groups. Additionally, with double-color immunofluorescence analysis, AQP1- or AQP4-positive cells could be identified as GFAP-positive astrocytes. Moreover, AQP1-positive reaction was also observed in blood vessels. Morphometrically, there were no significant differences in AQP1 expression in astrocytes or in blood vessels among the three groups. In contrast, the average value of AQP4-positive astrocytes was significantly higher in FWD cases than in SWD and control groups. Moreover, AQP4 expression was significantly lower in SWD than in the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was no significant correlation between post-submerged interval and AQP expression in drowning cases. Therefore, immunohistochemical analysis of intracerebral AQP4 expression would be forensically useful for differentiation between FWD and SWD.

  6. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin-orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm-1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ-, and their spin-orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  8. Immunohistochemical Expression of Cathepsin L in Atopic Dermatitis and Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Zeinab A; El Ashmawy, Amal A; Abd El-Naby, Naeim M; Ghoraba, Hussein M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cathepsin L is a member of papain superfamily. It seems to promote T-cell survival, selection maturation in the thymus and enhance the antigen presentation. Cathepsin L plays an important role in tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α) induced cell death. Also it degrades the tight junction between cornedesomses in the epidermis. Elevated expression of cathepsin L has been found in many inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine immunohistochemical expression of cathepsin L in atopic dermatitis (AD) and lichen planus (LP) patients in order to evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 15 patients with AD (Group I), 15 patients with LP (Group II), in addition to 10 healthy skin specimens served as controls (Group III). Punch biopsies were taken from lesional skin of the patients and controls for immunohistochemical detection of cathepsin L expression. Results: Highly significant increase was found in cathepsin L expression in AD and LP patients compared to controls [P = 0.001]. Conclusion: Cathepsin L could be implicated as an important protease in the pathogenesis of AD and LP. It could be a useful marker for assessing AD severity. PMID:25657391

  9. Expression of P53 and HSP70 in Chronic Hepatitis, Liver Cirrhosis, and Early and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tissues and Their Diagnostic Value in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Gou, Wenbin; Liu, Ming; Sang, Wei; Chu, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Tumor protein (P53) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) play key roles in chronic liver diseases. This study aimed to characterize P53 and HSP70 expression in chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC), early and advanced HCC, and to analyze their diagnostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Material/Methods Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to evaluate the expression of P53 and HSP70 in 200 human liver tissue specimens, with advanced HCC (n=80), early HCC (n=30), CH (n=30), LC (n=30), and Controls (n=30). Results P53 expression levels were lower in LC than those of HCC, but remained on par with those of CH and Controls. HSP70 expression levels were higher in HCC than those of LC, CH, and Controls. The sensitivity and specificity for HCC diagnosis were: 50.9% and 98.9% for P53, and 78.2 and 77.8% for HSP70, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of different combinations were: 95.5% and 85.5% with either P53 or HSP70 being positive, and 33.6% and 98.9% if both were positive. Among the differentiation stages marked low, intermediate, and high in HCC, the P53 positive rate was higher in the low than in the intermediate, which was higher than that in the high. HSP70 positive rate was higher in the low and the intermediate than in the high, but no obvious changes were found between the low and the intermediate. Conclusions P53 and HSP70 could be potential biomarkers for HCC diagnosis, and proper combinations of these 2 markers could improve diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26494212

  10. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XVI: postnatal changes of distribution of S-100 protein positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH positive sites in the pars tuberalis of the rat pituitary gland. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Ikuo; Sakuma, Eisuke; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Wakabayashi, Kenjiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Hattori, Kazuki; Yashiro, Takashi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    The architecture of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) nerve ends and the S-100 protein containing folliculo-stellate cells forming gap junctions in the pars tuberalis is basically important in understanding the regulation of the hormone producing mechanism of anterior pituitary glands. In this study, intact male rats 5-60 days old were prepared for immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. From immunostained sections, the S-100 containing cells in pars tuberalis were first detected on day 30 and increased in number to day 60; this was parallel to the immunohistochemical staining of gap junction protein, connexin 43. LH-RH positive sites were clearly observed on just behind the optic chiasm and on the root of pituitary stalk on day 30. On day 60, the width of layer increased, while follicles and gap junctions were frequently observed between agranular cells in 10 or more layers of pars tuberalis. In the present study, we investigated the sexual maturation of the anterior pituitary glands through the postnatal development of S-100 positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH nerves. It is suggested that the folliculo-stellate cell system including the LH-RH neurons in the pars tuberalis participates in the control of LH secretion along with the portal vein system.

  11. Diagnosis of scrub typhus by immunohistochemical staining of Orientia tsutsugamushi in cutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Park, Chol-Jin; Lim, Sung-Chul; Park, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Won-Jong; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2008-10-01

    We assessed the clinical usefulness of immunohistochemical staining on skin biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of scrub typhus compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA), the definitive diagnostic method for scrub typhus, in a prospective study of 125 patients with possible scrub typhus in 2005 and 2006. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from 63 patients. To minimize the effects caused by antibiotics on immunohistochemical results, 46 patients were assessed before antibiotic administration (4 patients received antibiotic therapy before admission; 13 underwent skin biopsy after antibiotic administration at our hospital). Compared with IFA results, immunohistochemical results on maculopapular skin lesions demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.65 and a specificity of 1. Immunohistochemical results on eschars demonstrated a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 1. For immunohistochemical staining performed on skin lesions within 3 or 4 days of administration of antibiotics that are effective for Rickettsia, the antibiotics did not greatly influence diagnostic sensitivity. Immunohistochemical staining of skin biopsy specimens, particularly that of eschars, is sensitive and specific, and this technique can be reliable for confirming the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  12. Immunohistochemical evidence of disease recurrence after liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Van de Water, J; Gerson, L B; Ferrell, L D; Lake, J R; Coppel, R L; Batts, K P; Wiesner, R H; Gershwin, M E

    1996-11-01

    Whether primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) recurs after liver transplantation has remained an interesting and controversial issue; rejection, viral hepatitis, and drug effects all may mimic recurrent PBC histologically and biochemically. Furthermore, reliable clinical criteria for PBC recurrence are lacking. In this study, the issue of disease recurrence using a well-characterized monoclonal antibody (MAb), C355.1, that reacts with the immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen of PBC (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex [PDC-E2]) was addressed. When used in an immunohistochemical assay, C355.1 produces intense apical staining of bile duct epithelium specifically in liver sections of patients with PBC and may be the earliest known marker of PBC. Immunohistochemical and histological analysis of serial liver biopsy specimens of 67 patients pre- and post-orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), including 38 patients with PBC and 29 non-PBC liver disease controls, was performed. Sections were stained with MAb C355.1 or the control MAb C315 and analyzed to determine whether there was a recurrence of apical reactivity in the bile ducts of the posttransplantation biopsy specimens. The immunohistochemical staining was correlated with the histological findings and serum biochemistries at the time of the biopsy. Our data indicate that a significant number of patients who underwent transplantation for PBC (28 of 38) but not controls (0 of 29) develop a staining pattern of liver bile duct epithelium with MAb C355.1 that is indistinguishable from the pretransplantation pattern. Of the 28 patients with this apical staining pattern, 8 were characterized histologically as possible recurrent PBC, 2 as chronic rejection, 2 as acute rejection, 9 as nonspecific changes, 4 as normal or near normal, and 3 had other histological changes. Only 50% of the patients with apical C355.1 staining had liver enzyme levels suggestive of cholestasis. Thus, there appears to be immunohistochemical evidence that

  13. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  14. Importance of Including Values Instruction As a Part of Vocational Agriculture Programs of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1982-01-01

    Vocational agriculture program participants were interviewed to determine the importance of including instruction in values development for students. Data analysis revealed that enhancing values is an important part of vocational agriculture programs. Students generally rated the importance of each value category lower than teachers,…

  15. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  16. Predictors of aggressive clinical phenotype among immunohistochemically confirmed atypical adenomas.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Cote, David J; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2016-12-01

    Despite formal pathological criteria, not all atypical pituitary adenomas display clinically aggressive behavior. We set out to determine which factors predict a clinically aggressive phenotype among a cohort of atypical pituitary adenomas. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from April 2008 to July 2015. Of 569 pituitary adenomas, 47 (8.3%) patients were surgically treated for atypical adenomas as defined by the WHO criteria. Clinically aggressive adenomas were defined as occurring in those patients who necessitated additional therapeutic intervention after the index (first) surgery, including additional surgery, medical therapy, or radiosurgery. Forty-seven patients with histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation of atypical adenomas were identified and of these, 23 were noted to have a clinically aggressive course. Among the remaining 24 patients, the disease remained quiescent after the index surgery. On univariate analysis, clinically aggressive lesions were more likely to have a larger axial diameter on MRI (2.9±1.9cm vs. 1.9±0.7cm, p=0.02), greater incidence of cavernous sinus invasion (65.2% vs. 20.8%, p<0.01), and greater incidence of clival extension (60.9% vs. 0, p<0.01) on preoperative imaging. The two groups were equivalent with regard to immunohistochemical staining for ACTH, HGH, LH, FSH, PRL, and TSH. Clinically aggressive lesions, however, trended towards a greater average MIB-1 proliferative index (7.5%±4.9 vs. 6.0%±3.6, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, the MIB-1 proliferative index trended towards statistical significance (p=0.06) as an independent predictor of clinical aggressiveness. Atypical pituitary adenomas are defined by a rigid set of immunohistochemical markers, but not all necessarily demonstrate an aggressive clinical phenotype.

  17. How Do Psychology Researchers Find Studies to Include in Meta-Analyses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a technique used in a variety of disciplines to combine and summarize the findings of previous research. One step in the production of a meta-analysis is a thorough literature search for relevant studies. A variety of methods can be used to increase the number of studies that are found. This study examines the extent to which some…

  18. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  19. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Role of Serotonin in Pathogenesis of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a common skin disorder characterized by erythaematosquamous papules and plaques. It is known to be associated with stressful and depressive disorders. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorders. Aim To evaluate the role of serotonin in pathogenesis of psoriasis. Materials and Methods Using standard immunohistochemical techniques, 24 biopsies from patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were examined together with 12 biopsies from age and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control group. Results Both the percentage of positive cells (p=0.018) and H-score values (p=0.015) of serotonin expression were significantly higher in psoriasis compared to normal skin. H score of serotonin expression was significantly higher in cases with totally absent Granular Cell Layer (GCL) as opposed to those with thin/focally absent GCL (p=0.011), and in cases with moderate/strong epidermal inflammation compared to cases with mild inflammation (p=0.035). No significant correlation was detected between H score of cases and age, disease duration or Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Conclusion Serotonin might play a role in development of psoriasis through its role as a growth factor promoting keratinocyte proliferation, and as mediator of inflammation and stimulant of T cell activation. It recruits T cells to sites of cutaneous inflammation and potentiate macrophage accessory function for T cell activation. Its expression is not related to the disease severity. Future large-scaled research on population of different ethnicities including other disease variants is needed. The use of serotonin receptor antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be evaluated on wide-based studies to put the current observation into action. PMID:27891342

  20. A Classification of Evaluation Studies of Instructional Technology Included in the ERIC System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D.

    Three introductory chapters discuss evaluation and identify relevant studies on three different perspectives: purposes for evaluation, focus of the evaluation, and methods of evaluation. Studies are divided into a number of categories under each of the broad topics, and listed alphabetically by author if one is given; if there is no personal…

  1. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  2. THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on the thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.

  3. A theoretical and experimental study of planing surfaces including effects of cross section and plan form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuford, Charles L , Jr

    1957-01-01

    A summary is given of the background and present status of pure-planing theory. Data for models having sharp chines have been obtained for a rectangular flat plate and two V-bottom surfaces having constant angles of dead rise of 20 degrees and 40 degrees and also for rectangular-flat-plate surfaces having very slightly rounded chines. The theory presented in NACA Technical Note 3233 for a rectangular flat plate is revised and extended to include triangular flat plates planing with base forward and V-shaped prismatic surfaces having a constant angle of dead rise, horizontal chine flare, or vertical chine strips. The agreement between the results calculated by the proposed theory and the experimental data is satisfactory for engineering calculations of lift and center-of-pressure location.

  4. Reduced immunohistochemical expression of adhesion molecules in vitiligo skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Reichert Faria, Adriane; Jung, Juliana Elizabeth; Silva de Castro, Caio César; de Noronha, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Because defects in adhesion impairment seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo, this study aimed to compare the immunohistochemical expression of several adhesion molecules in the epidermis of vitiligo and non lesional vitiligo skin. Sixty-six specimens of lesional and non lesional skin from 33 volunteers with vitiligo were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-beta-catenin, anti-E-cadherin, anti-laminin, anti-beta1 integrin, anti-collagen IV, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Biopsies of vitiligo skin demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of laminin and integrin. The average value of the immunohistochemically positive reaction area of the vitiligo specimens was 3053.2μm(2), compared with the observed value of 3431.8μm(2) in non vitiligo skin (p=0.003) for laminin. The immuno-positive area was 7174.6μm(2) (vitiligo) and 8966.7μm(2) (non lesional skin) for integrin (p=0.042). A reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the basal layer of the epidermis in vitiligo samples was also observed (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). However, no significant differences were observed with respect to the expression of beta-catenin, E-cadherin, and collagen IV between vitiligo and non lesional skin. Our results suggest that an impairment in adhesion exists in vitiligo skin, which is supported by the diminished immunohistochemical expression of laminin, beta1 integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1.

  5. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  6. Evidence Clearinghouses and Registries: Methods for Locating and Including Studies in Evidence Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lisa; LaSota, Robin; Yeide, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to report about study identification practices across evidence-based registries and clearinghouses in social policy fields, which serve as a resource for scientific, evidence-based decision-making about practices about desired outcomes in these social policy fields. The information retrieval procedures of the…

  7. Feline cutaneous nerve sheath tumours: histological features and immunohistochemical evaluations.

    PubMed

    Mandara, M T; Fabriani, E; Pavone, S; Pumarola, M

    2013-10-01

    Feline cutaneous nerve sheath tumours (CNSTs) are uncommonly reported in the skin, since they are underestimated relative to the more common spindle cell tumours of soft tissue. In this study, 26 nerve sheath tumours selected from 337 skin neoplasms of cats were examined. Histologically, they were classified into malignant (MPNSTs) and benign tumours (BPNSTs) based on degree of cellular atypia and polymorphism as well as mitotic rate and diffuse necrosis. CPNSTs were tipically characterised by Antoni A pattern, in some cases associated with Antoni B pattern. In the malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) the polymorphism was marked, while it was mild to moderate in the benign forms (BPNSTs). In the MPNSTs the mitotic activity was generally higher than in the BPNSTs. In five cases, including three MPNSTs and two BPNSTs, there were multinucleated giant cells. Necrotic foci occurred in a BPNST and in two MPNSTs, while osseous/chondroid metaplasia was found in two cases. Immunohistochemically, all the tumours showed a marked diffuse vimentin expression. S-100 protein was expressed in 17 cases, including 81.8% of BPNSTs and 57.14% of MPNSTs. Twenty-five tumours expressed NSE and twenty-four cases showed immunoreaction for laminin. Thirteen tumours were positive for GFAP, while five tumours were positive for SMA. PGP 9.5 expression was detected in all cases, except for two MPNSTs. NGFR was expressed in eleven cases, including four MPNSTs and seven BPNSTs. Ki67 was expressed in twenty tumours without any relationship with morphologic malignancy of the neoplasm. In this case series we confirmed neoplastic spindloid cells with wavy cytoplasm arranged in compact areas, with occasional nuclear palisading or whirls, and interchanged with loosely arranged areas, as the morphological features supporting a diagnosis of CPNST. A constant concurrent expression of vimentin, NSE, and laminin might confirm the diagnosis of PNST in the absence of clear S-100 protein

  8. Comprehensive gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical studies support application of immunophenotypic algorithm for molecular subtype classification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study.

    PubMed

    Visco, C; Li, Y; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Miranda, R N; Green, T M; Li, Y; Tzankov, A; Wen, W; Liu, W-m; Kahl, B S; d'Amore, E S G; Montes-Moreno, S; Dybkær, K; Chiu, A; Tam, W; Orazi, A; Zu, Y; Bhagat, G; Winter, J N; Wang, H-Y; O'Neill, S; Dunphy, C H; Hsi, E D; Zhao, X F; Go, R S; Choi, W W L; Zhou, F; Czader, M; Tong, J; Zhao, X; van Krieken, J H; Huang, Q; Ai, W; Etzell, J; Ponzoni, M; Ferreri, A J M; Piris, M A; Møller, M B; Bueso-Ramos, C E; Medeiros, L J; Wu, L; Young, K H

    2012-09-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) has stratified diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into molecular subgroups that correspond to different stages of lymphocyte development-namely germinal center B-cell like and activated B-cell like. This classification has prognostic significance, but GEP is expensive and not readily applicable into daily practice, which has lead to immunohistochemical algorithms proposed as a surrogate for GEP analysis. We assembled tissue microarrays from 475 de novo DLBCL patients who were treated with rituximab-CHOP chemotherapy. All cases were successfully profiled by GEP on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Sections were stained with antibodies reactive with CD10, GCET1, FOXP1, MUM1 and BCL6 and cases were classified following a rationale of sequential steps of differentiation of B cells. Cutoffs for each marker were obtained using receiver-operating characteristic curves, obviating the need for any arbitrary method. An algorithm based on the expression of CD10, FOXP1 and BCL6 was developed that had a simpler structure than other recently proposed algorithms and 92.6% concordance with GEP. In multivariate analysis, both the International Prognostic Index and our proposed algorithm were significant independent predictors of progression-free and overall survival. In conclusion, this algorithm effectively predicts prognosis of DLBCL patients matching GEP subgroups in the era of rituximab therapy.

  9. Capture-recapture studies for multiple strata including non-markovian transitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hestbeck, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    We consider capture-recapture studies where release and recapture data are available from each of a number of strata on every capture occasion. Strata may, for example, be geographic locations or physiological states. Movement of animals among strata occurs with unknown probabilities, and estimation of these unknown transition probabilities is the objective. We describe a computer routine for carrying out the analysis under a model that assumes Markovian transitions and under reduced parameter versions of this model. We also introduce models that relax the Markovian assumption and allow 'memory' to operate (i.e., allow dependence of the transition probabilities on the previous state). For these models, we sugg st an analysis based on a conditional likelihood approach. Methods are illustrated with data from a large study on Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in three geographic regions. The assumption of Markovian transitions is rejected convincingly for these data, emphasizing the importance of the more general models that allow memory.

  10. An Analytical and Experimental Study of Aircraft Hydraulic Lines Including the Effect of Mean Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    on the Control Data Corporation (CDC) Cyber 74 computer that was used for the computing. Neither method gave satisfactory results and Ward’s...pump (model AP10V-2) made by the Aerospace Division of the Abex Corporation was used. It was a constant pressure, variable displacement pump with a...the F-4, and because it was the pump used by McDonnell Douglas Corporation in their tests (3). Thus the results of this study can be compared with

  11. Studies on the Biology, Venom and Ultrastructure of Selected Venomous Fishes, Including the Scorpionfishes and Stingrays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-25

    and venous pressures; respirations ; and blood pH, P02 , PC0 2 and hematocrit; and total serum protein. The results indicated a fairly consistent...by the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca in the Adriatic. -------. ... . Abstract of the 6th International Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins...designed to study hypotension was employed to measure arterial and venous pressures/’ respirations ; and blood pH, P02, PC02 and hematocrit; and total

  12. Exclusion criteria used in antidepressant efficacy trials: consistency across studies and representativeness of samples included.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Posternak, Michael A

    2004-02-01

    The inclusion and exclusion criteria used to select subjects for participation in antidepressant efficacy trials (AETs) vary from study to study. It is unknown how much impact different sets of exclusion criteria have on the representativeness of subjects treated in AETs. In the present study, we applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in 39 recently published AETs to patients evaluated in routine clinical practice to evaluate the range and extent of the representativeness of samples treated in AETs. Nearly 600 patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar depression underwent a thorough diagnostic evaluation. Inclusion and exclusion criteria used in AETs were applied to determine how many patients from our sample would have qualified for each AET had they applied. Approximately one sixth of the 596 depressed patients would have been excluded from an efficacy trial because they had a bipolar or psychotic subtype of depression. In the remaining 503 outpatients with nonpsychotic, unipolar MDD, the rates of exclusion ranged from 0% to 95.0% (mean=65.8%). Thus, the findings suggest that there is much variability in the generalizability of AETs, although, in general, subjects treated in AETs represent only a minority of patients treated for MDD in a community-based psychiatry outpatient practice.

  13. Pleomorphic Carcinoma of the Colon: Morphological and Immunohistochemical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Giovanni; Barresi, Valeria; Ieni, Antonio; Irato, Eleonora; Caruso, Rosario Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a poorly differentiated (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) or undifferentiated carcinoma in which at least 10% spindle and/or giant cells are identified, or as a carcinoma constituted purely of spindle and giant cells. Although this entity has initially been shown in the lung, it has been described also in extrapulmonary locations, with only one report for a colonic site. A 65-year-old woman developed a caecal tumour. Gross examination revealed an endophytic/ulcerative mass 7 cm in length. Microscopically, the tumour was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a pleomorphic component that occupied more than 10% of the specimen. The tumour shared these histopathological findings with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma but differed in other clinicopathological features such as a pushing growth pattern, stage pT3N1, and an uneventful outcome 24 months after operation. The pleomorphic component showed morphological and immunohistochemical features compatible with mitotic catastrophe, a non-apoptotic cell death occurring in cycling cells after aberrant mitosis. These features included multinucleation, micronucleation, atypical mitoses, foci of geographic necrosis, as well as immunohistochemical overexpression of p53 and Ki-67. The interpretation of the pleomorphic component as morphological expression of mitotic catastrophe may be useful in comprehending the pathogenesis of this rare neoplasm, and it may have practical implications as a potential cancer therapeutic target. PMID:27462191

  14. A Variational Inverse Model Study of Amazonian Methane Emissions including Observations from the AMAZONICA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. J.; Gloor, M.; Chipperfield, M.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L.

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas which is emitted from a range of anthropogenic and natural sources, and since the industrial revolution its mean atmospheric concentration has climbed dramatically, reaching values unprecedented in at least the past 650,000 years. CH4 produces a relatively high radiative forcing effect upon the Earth's climate, and its atmospheric lifetime of approximately 10 years makes it a more appealing target for the mitigation of climate change over short timescales than long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. However, the spatial and temporal variation of CH4 emissions are still not well understood, though in recent years a number of top-down and bottom-up studies have attempted to construct improved emission budgets. Some top-down studies may suffer from poor observational coverage in tropical regions, however, especially in the planetary boundary layer, where the atmosphere is highly sensitive to emissions. For example, although satellite observations often take a large volume of measurements in tropical regions, these retrievals are not usually sensitive to concentrations at the planet's surface. Methane emissions from Amazon region, in particular, are often poorly constrained. Since emissions form this region, coming mainly from wetland and biomass burning sources, are thought to be relatively high, additional observations in this region would greatly help to constrain the geographical distribution of the global CH4 emission budget. In order to provide such measurements, the AMAZONICA project began to take regular flask measurements of CH4 and other trace gases from aircraft over four Amazonian sites from the year 2010 onwards. We first present a forward modelling study of these observations of Amazonian methane for the year 2010 using the TOMCAT Chemical Transport Model. The model is used to attribute variations at each site to a source type and region, and also to assess the ability of our current CH4 flux estimates to

  15. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  16. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Wedge Airfoil Sections Including Unsteady Flow Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick J.

    1959-01-01

    A two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted on a 20-percent-thick single-wedge airfoil section. Steady-state forces and moments were determined from pressure measurements at Mach numbers from 0.70 to about 1.25. Additional information on the flows about the single wedge is provided by means of instantaneous pressure measurements at Mach numbers up to unity. Pressure distributions were also obtained on a symmetrical double-wedge or diamond-shaped profile which had the same leading-edge included angle as the single-wedge airfoil. A comparison of the data on the two profiles to provide information on the effects of the afterbody showed that with the exception of drag, the single-wedge profile proved to be aerodynamically superior to the diamond profile in all respects. The lift effectiveness of the single-wedge airfoil section far exceeded that of conventional thin airfoil sections over the speed range of the investigation. Pitching-moment irregularities, caused by negative loadings near the trailing edge, generally associated with conventional airfoils of equivalent thicknesses were not exhibited by the single-wedge profile. Moderately high pulsating pressures existing over the base of the single-wedge airfoil section were significantly reduced as the Mach number was increased beyond 0.92 and the boundaries of the dead airspace at the base of the model converged to eliminate the vortex street in the wake. Increasing the leading-edge radius from 0 to 1 percent of the chord had a minor effect on the steady-state forces and generally raised the level of pressure pulsations over the forward part of the single-wedge profile.

  17. Extensive ab initio study of the electronic states of BSe radical including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siyuan; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Yufang

    2016-06-01

    The internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction method (MRCI) with Davidson modification and the Douglas-Kroll scalar relativistic correction has been used to calculate the BSe molecule at the level of aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. The calculated electronic states, including 9 doublet and 6 quartet Λ-S states, are correlated to the dissociation limit of B(2Pu) + Se(3Pg) and B(2Pu) + Se(1Dg). The Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction is taken into account via the state interaction approach with the full Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian operator, which causes the entire 15 Λ-S states to split into 32 Ω states. This is the first time that the spin-orbit coupling calculation has been carried out on BSe. The potential energy curves of the Λ-S and Ω electronic states are depicted with the aid of the avoided crossing rule between electronic states of the same symmetry. The spectroscopic constants of the bound Λ-S and Ω states were determined, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The transition dipole moments (TDMs) and the Franck-Condon factors (FCs) of the transitions from the low-lying bound Ω states A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 to the ground state X2Σ+1/2 have also been presented. Based on the previous calculations, the radiative lifetimes of the A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 were evaluated.

  18. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties.

  19. Ab initio study of the optical properties of crystalline phenanthrene, including the excitonic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadsetani, Mehrdad; Nejatipour, Hajar; Ebrahimian, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Using the ab initio methods for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation on the basis of the FPLAPW method, optical properties of crystalline phenanthrene were calculated, in a comparison to its isomer, anthracene. It was found that despite the similarity of the structural, electronic, and the overall optical properties in a 40 eV energy range, phenanthrene and anthracene show significant differences in their optical spectra in the energy range below band gaps. Phenanthrene has two spin singlet excitonic features whereas anthracene shows one. The singlet and the lowest triplet binding energies of phenanthrene were found to be larger than anthracene. In this study, in addition, a comparison has been made between the optical spectra in RPA and the existing experimental data.

  20. [Study of simultaneous determination of residual veterinary drugs including tetracycline antibiotics in milk and dairy products].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Emiko; Shibuya, Takahiro; Kurokawa, Chieko; Inoue, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Miyazaki, Motonobu

    2009-10-01

    It is considered to be difficult to detect tetracycline antibiotics in all-at-once simultaneous analysis with other drugs by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, because tetracycline antibiotics chelate with bivalent metal ions such as calcium in samples. Therefore, we studied simultaneous determination of tetracycline antibiotics after removal of calcium with disodium ethylenediaminotetraacetate (EDTA-2Na). Tetracycline antibiotics could be assayed in all-at-once analysis by adding EDTA-2Na during the extraction procedure. It was possible to determine 65 veterinary drugs in milk, 70 in yogurt, 59 in whipped cream, 67 in cheese and 60 in ice cream. Recovery ranged from 70 to 120%, with a coefficient of variation of less than 25% and with a quantification limit of 0.01 microg/g (S/N>or=10).

  1. Mass spectrometry of humic substances of different origin including those from Antarctica A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Peña-Méndez, E M; Gajdosová, D; Novotná, K; Prosek, P; Havel, J

    2005-10-31

    Mass spectra of humic acids (HA) from different sampling sites (Antarctica, Brazil, Czech Republic, Mexico and USA) and origin (plant, soil, peat, and coal derived) were obtained by laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS). Optimisation of the experimental conditions are given as the optimal value of the laser energy at approximately 20-30% higher than the threshold. Under these conditions, reproducible mass spectra of HA samples were obtained. In the mass spectra the majority of the peaks are observed in the m/z region 100-1000Da. Mass spectra fingerprints of HA were analyzed and, in spite of the differences in their origin, a number of common features and profiles (patterns of peaks) were observed in most of the samples. Very similar structural groups (patterns) of the peaks are present in the m/z range 717-918Da for HA samples of quite different origins, countries or continents. The tandem LDI-TOF MS and multivariate statistical tools allowed us to extract and elucidate underlying information contained in the mass spectra of the HA samples under study. Applying principal components and cluster analysis, it was, e.g. demonstrated that most of the Antarctica HA samples show distinguishable differences when compared with humic acids from other continents and of different origin.

  2. Connecting evolutionary morphology to genomics using ontologies: a case study from Cypriniformes including zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mabee, Paula M; Arratia, Gloria; Coburn, Miles; Haendel, Melissa; Hilton, Eric J; Lundberg, John G; Mayden, Richard L; Rios, Nelson; Westerfield, Monte

    2007-09-15

    One focus of developmental biology is to understand how genes regulate development, and therefore examining the phenotypic effects of gene mutation is a major emphasis in studies of zebrafish and other model organisms. Genetic change underlies alterations in evolutionary characters, or phenotype, and morphological phylogenies inferred by comparison of these characters. We will utilize both existing and new ontologies to connect the evolutionary anatomy and image database that is being developed in the Cypriniformes Tree of Life project to the Zebrafish Information Network (HYPERLINK "file://localhost/Library/Local%20Settings/Temp/zfin.org" zfin.org) database. Ontologies are controlled vocabularies that formally represent hierarchical relationships among defined biological concepts. If used to recode the free-form text descriptors of anatomical characters, evolutionary character data can become more easily computed, explored, and mined. A shared ontology for homologous modules of the phenotype must be referenced to connect the growing databases in each area in a way that evolutionary questions can be addressed. We present examples that demonstrate the broad utility of this approach.

  3. [Histopathological and immunohistochemical features of cardiac myxomas].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bringas, Omar; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Mixomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors with an estimate incidence of 0,5-1 per 10(6) individuals per year. These tumors have generated interest due to their unique location (left side of the atrial septum near the fossa ovalis), variable clinical presentation and undefined histogenesis. Most cardiac myxomas occur sporadically while approximately 10% of diagnosed cases develop as part of Carney complex. This neoplasm is of uncertain histogenesis, however, endothelial, neurogenic, fibroblastic, and cardiac and smooth muscle cells differentiation has been proposed, and rarely glandular differentiation has been observed. Recently, due to the expression of certain cardiomyocyte-specific factors, an origin of mesenchymal cardiomyocytes progenitor cells has been suggested. Histologically cardiac myxomas are mainly composed of stellated, fusiform and polygonal cells, immersed in an amorphous myxoid matrix. Immunohistochemically some endothelial markers, such as CD31, CD34, FVIIIAg, are present. Positive staining has also been reported for S-100 protein, calretinin, vimentin, desmin, smooth muscle myosin, CD56, α1 antitrypsin and α 1antichymotrypsin. Surgical resection is currently the only treatment of choice. We present in this article a histopathological and immunohistochemical review of cardiac myxomas.

  4. Vasculogenic mimicry in malignant mesothelioma: an experimental and immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pulford, Emily; Hocking, Ashleigh; Griggs, Kim; McEvoy, James; Bonder, Claudine; Henderson, Douglas W; Klebe, Sonja

    2016-12-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry, the process in which cancer cells form angiomatoid structures independent of or in addition to host angiogenesis has been recorded in several otherwise non-endothelial malignant neoplasms. This study describes evidence of routine vascular mimicry by human mesothelioma cell lines in vitro, when the cell lines are cultured alone or co-cultured with human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, with the formation of angiomatoid tubular networks. Vasculogenic mimicry is also supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of human-specific anti-mitochondria antibody labelling of tumour-associated vasculature of human mesothelioma cells xenotransplanted into nude mice, and by evidence of vascular mimicry in some biopsy samples of human malignant mesotheliomas. These studies show mosaic interlacing of cells that co-label or label individually for immunohistochemical markers of endothelial and mesothelial differentiation. If vascular mimicry in mesothelioma can be characterised more fully, this may facilitate identification of more specific and targeted therapeutic approaches such as anti-angiogenesis in combination with chemotherapy and immunotherapy or other therapeutic approaches.

  5. Vasculogenic mimicry in malignant mesothelioma: an experimental and immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pulford, Emily; Hocking, Ashleigh; Griggs, Kim; McEvoy, James; Bonder, Claudine; Henderson, Douglas W; Klebe, Sonja

    2016-10-28

    Vasculogenic mimicry, the process in which cancer cells form angiomatoid structures independent of or in addition to host angiogenesis has been recorded in several otherwise non-endothelial malignant neoplasms. This study describes evidence of routine vascular mimicry by human mesothelioma cell lines in vitro, when the cell lines are cultured alone or co-cultured with human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, with the formation of angiomatoid tubular networks. Vasculogenic mimicry is also supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of human-specific anti-mitochondria antibody labelling of tumour-associated vasculature of human mesothelioma cells xenotransplanted into nude mice, and by evidence of vascular mimicry in some biopsy samples of human malignant mesotheliomas. These studies show mosaic interlacing of cells that co-label or label individually for immunohistochemical markers of endothelial and mesothelial differentiation. If vascular mimicry in mesothelioma can be characterised more fully, this may facilitate identification of more specific and targeted therapeutic approaches such as anti-angiogenesis in combination with chemotherapy and immunotherapy or other therapeutic approaches.

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of KI polyomavirus in lung and spleen.

    PubMed

    Siebrasse, Erica A; Nguyen, Nang L; Smith, Colin; Simmonds, Peter; Wang, David

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the tissue tropism of KI polyomavirus (KIPyV), and there are no studies to date describing any specific cell types it infects. The limited knowledge of KIPyV tropism has hindered study of this virus and understanding of its potential pathogenesis in humans. We describe tissues from two immunocompromised patients that stained positive for KIPyV antigen using a newly developed immunohistochemical assay targeting the KIPyV VP1 (KVP1) capsid protein. In the first patient, a pediatric bone marrow transplant recipient, KVP1 was detected in lung tissue. Double immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that approximately 50% of the KVP1-positive cells were CD68-positive cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage. In the second case, an HIV-positive patient, KVP1 was detected in spleen and lung tissues. These results provide the first identification of a specific cell type in which KVP1 can be detected and expand our understanding of basic properties and in vivo tropism of KIPyV.

  7. Tight junctions in the choroid plexus epithelium. A freeze-fracture study including complementary replicas

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The tight junctions of the choroid plexus epithelium of rats were studied by freeze-fracture. In glutaraldehyde-fixed material, the junctions exhibited rows of aligned particles and short bars on P- faces, the E-faces showing grooves bearing relatively many particles. A particulate nature of the junctional strands could be established by using unfixed material. The mean values of junctional strands from the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles of Lewis rats were 7.5 +/- 2.6, 7.4 +/- 2.2, and 7.5 +/- 2.4; and of Sprague-Dawley rats 7.7 +/- 3.4, 7.4 +/- 2.3, and 7.3 +/- 1.6. Examination of complementary replicas (of fixed tissue) showed that discomtinuities are present in the junctional strands: 42.2 +/- 4.6% of the length of measured P-face ridges were discontinuities, and the total amount of complementary particles in E- face grooves constituted 17.8 +/- 4.4% of the total length of the grooves, thus approximately 25% of the junctional strands can be considered to be discontinuous. The average width of the discontinuities, when corrected for complementary particles in E-face grooves, was 7.7 +/- 4.5 nm. In control experiments with a "tighter" tight junction (small intestine), complementary replicas revealed that the junctional fibrils are rather continuous and that the very few particles in E-face grooves mostly filled out discontinuities in the P- face ridges. Approximately 5% of the strands were found to be discontinuous. These data support the notion that the presence of pores in the junctional strands of the choroid plexus epithelium may explain the high transepithelial conductance in a "leaky" epithelium having a high number of junctional strands. However, loss of junctional material during fracturing is also considered as an alternative explanation of the present results. PMID:457764

  8. Glucagon of caviomorphs and other tetrapods immunohistochemically investigated with two antisera against the N- and C-terminal portions of the molecule.

    PubMed

    Iturriza, F C; Verzi, D H; Di Maggio, L A

    1995-08-01

    Pancreatic sections from diverse tetrapods, including various species of caviomorph rodents, were immunohistochemically investigated using two antisera which reacted with the N- and C-terminal portions of the glucagon molecule. While the antiserum against the N-terminal portion stained alpha cells in all the species studied, the antiserum against the C-portion failed to stain alpha cells in two caviomorphs of the Caviidae family (guinea pig and cuis) and in one of the Octodontidae family (degu). The observations in guinea pig and degu were expected, since their glucagons differ from those of many other tetrapods in the C-terminal portion of the molecule. In this paper, the cuis was added to these two species. It is noteworthy that among the caviomorphs studied herein (nine species), immunohistochemical differences were detected only in the three above-mentioned species and did not involve higher taxa, thus suggesting that these modifications are relatively recent in the evolution of this group of rodents.

  9. Molecular and immunohistochemical detection of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8.

    PubMed

    Chadburn, Amy; Wilson, Janet; Wang, Y Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) is etiologically related to the development of several human diseases, including Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL)/extra-cavitary (EC) PEL, multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), and large B-cell lymphoma arising in KSHV/HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Although serologic studies can identify persons infected with this virus, molecular genetics, specifically PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and immunohistochemical techniques, are rapid, sensitive, and specific, and are able to more closely link KSHV/HHV-8 to a given disease process. As these KSHV/HHV-8-related diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality in affected individuals, the identification of the virus within lesional tissue will allow for more targeted therapy.

  10. Morphological and immunohistochemical features of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle.

    PubMed

    Masuno, K; Yanai, T; Hirata, A; Yonemaru, K; Sakai, H; Satoh, M; Masegi, T; Nakai, Y

    2006-03-01

    Light and electron microscopic features and immunohistochemical features of Cryptosporidium andersoni (C. andersoni) and host reaction in the mucosa were studied. Although the affected cattle demonstrated no apparent clinical signs, a severe infection of C. andersoni was observed in the abomasum. C. andersoni were round in shape, measured 6-8 microm in size and were mainly observed to be freely located in the gastric pits, being attached in occasional cases to the surface of the abomasum epithelium. Frequent inflammatory cells had infiltrated the lamina propria of the affected mucosa, and frequent mitotic figures were observed in epithelial cells at the dilated isthmus. To access the cell kinetics, the number of epithelial cells infected with C. andersoni were counted and compared with noninfected cattle. The number of gastric pit cells in infected cattle was significantly higher than that in the controls. The number of proliferative cells determined by the Ki-67 antigen in C. andersoni infected cattle was also significantly higher than that in the controls. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the morphology of the C. andersoni organism was common to those of other Cryptosporidium spp. Immunohistochemically, several commercial antibodies against Cryptosporidium spp. showed positive reactions at the wall of these oocysts or parasitophorous vacuoles. This report is possibly the first to discuss the prominent hyperplasia of the abomasum mucosa, as well as morphologic features of C. andersoni in cattle.

  11. Immunohistochemical patterns in the differential diagnosis of rhinopharyngeal granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Cantone, Elena; Cavaliere, Michele; Di Lullo, Antonella Miriam; Guadagno, Elia; Iengo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). GS may develop simultaneously to AML or as a relapse of leukemia, particularly following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Subperiosteal bone, lymph nodes and skin are commonly involved, whereas rhinopharyngeal involvement is less common, with only 14 cases reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, rhinopharyngeal GS may lead to diagnostic pitfalls, particularly when it is poorly differentiated or is without concomitant marrow involvement. Thus, immunohistochemical findings play a key role in diagnosis. The current report describes a case of a 53-year-old female suffering from rhinopharyngeal GS and with a history of AML treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, focusing on the importance of the immunohistochemical pattern to assess the right diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that the immunophenotype is of utmost importance for the diagnosis of GS. The high expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) is common in GS; however, ~30% of GSs do not contain MPO. Therefore, the presence of other markers is required to confirm the diagnosis of GS. PMID:27698857

  12. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jong-Hoon; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yun, Na-Ra; Shin, Sung-Heui; Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Dong-Min

    2012-09-28

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi). We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens, serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O. tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes. This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis. Thus, scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses, which causes severe lobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration, necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis, such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of S-nitrosylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Gow, Andrew J; Davis, Christiana W; Munson, David; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that S-nitrosothiols, formed by the addition of nitric oxide (NO) to a cysteine thiol, S-nitrosylation, are involved in basal cellular regulation. It has been proposed that SNO formation/removal may be disrupted in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Two types of methodology are presently available to identify specific S-nitrosylated proteins: (1) derivatization and (2) post-purification chemical detection. Neither of these techniques allows for in situ visualization of SNOs. Recently, we demonstrated that an antibody generated to the SNO moiety could be used to detect SNO formation from each of three isoforms of NOS by immunohistochemistry. This chapter details the immunohistochemical methodology used to detect SNOs in situ, offering a potentially powerful alternative for detection of SNO within tissue sections.

  14. Immunohistochemical markers of advanced basal cell carcinoma: CD56 is associated with a lack of response to vismodegib.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean-Marie; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Khammari, Amir; Saint-Jean, Mélanie; Dreno, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    Vismodegib is an effective treatment for advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC), but primary resistance to vismodegib remains to be elucidated. Alternative approaches are warranted to help selecting patients most likely to be responsive to treatment. The identification of immunohistochemical markers may support this perspective, as well as better understanding of resistance mechanisms. To determine the level of expression of CD56, PDGF-R, CD117, MMP9, TIMP3, and CXCR4 in advanced BCC, and explore whether expression levels are associated with non-response to vismodegib. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Immunohistochemical markers were selected based on their roles in tumour proliferation and/or migration in skin tumours. Tissue samples included pretreatment advanced BCC samples from patients treated with vismodegib, with an available response after six months of treatment. Regression optimised models were used to build hypotheses regarding a possible association between expression levels and non-response to vismodegib, which was then tested by logistic regression. Twenty-three patients were included. The percentage of samples expressing markers ranged from 43.5% (CD117) to 91.3% (CXCR4). CD56 expression was significantly associated with an increased risk of non-response to vismodegib (OR = 5.5; CI 95%: 3.4-29.8; p = 0.0488); a similar association was suggested for CXCR4 (p = 0.066), but not identified for other markers. These results provide a better understanding of the expression of immunohistochemical markers in advanced BCC. Further detailed analysis of CD56 expression may provide insights into guiding further investigation of the correlation between this marker and non-response to vismodegib.

  15. Immunohistochemical evaluation of tissue factor, fibrin/fibrinogen and D-dimers in canine gliomas.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Pumarola, Martí; Blasco, Ester; Fernández, Francisco; Viu, Judit; Añor, Sònia

    2014-06-01

    In human gliomas, tissue factor (TF) is overexpressed, associated with the grade of malignancy and influences tumour biology. Intra-tumoural fibrin/fibrinogen deposition and activation of the fibrinolytic system also play a role in tumour cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The first aim of the present study was to investigate TF expression and the presence of fibrin/fibrinogen and D-dimers in canine glioma biopsies, graded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system. The second aim was to investigate the occurrence of intravascular thrombosis (IVT) in canine gliomas, as a potential histological marker of glioma type or grade of malignancy. An immunohistochemical study using antibodies against TF, fibrin/fibrinogen and D-dimers was performed with 24 glioma samples, including 15 oligodendrogliomas, 6 astrocytomas and 3 mixed gliomas. Immunohistochemical data were statistically analysed to determine whether there was any relationship between glioma type and grade of malignancy. All gliomas were moderate to strongly positive for TF and the staining score was significantly higher (P = 0.04) in high-grade (III or IV) than in low-grade (II) gliomas. Intra-tumoural fibrin/fibrinogen deposition was detected in all tumour biopsies assessed, and D-dimers were detected in 17/24 gliomas. IVT was a frequent finding, but was not linked to a specific glioma type or malignancy grade. TF expression, fibrin/fibrinogen deposition, extravascular fibrinolytic system activation and IVT occur in canine gliomas. Canine glioma might be a suitable model for studying coagulation and fibrinolysis as potential therapeutic targets for human gliomas.

  16. Differentiating the undifferentiated: immunohistochemical profile of medullary carcinoma of the colon with an emphasis on intestinal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Winn, Brody; Tavares, Rosemarie; Fanion, Jacqueline; Noble, Lelia; Gao, John; Sabo, Edmond; Resnick, Murray B

    2009-03-01

    Undifferentiated or medullary carcinoma is characterized by its distinct histologic appearance and relatively better prognosis compared to poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma. These 2 entities may be difficult to differentiate by light microscopy alone. Only limited immunohistochemical studies investigating medullary carcinoma have been reported. These studies suggest a loss of intestinal differentiation, exemplified by a high percentage of CDX2 negativity. Our aim was to further characterize the immunohistochemical profile of medullary carcinoma, with particular emphasis on intestinal markers. Paraffin blocks from 16 cases of medullary carcinoma and 33 cases of poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma were retrieved, and tissue microarrays were constructed and stained with an immunohistochemical panel including CDX2, CK7, CK20, p53, intestinal trefoil factor 3, chromogranin, synaptophysin, MLH-1, MUC-1, MUC-2, and calretinin. A significantly higher proportion of medullary carcinomas, as opposed to poorly differentiated colonic carcinomas, showed loss of staining for MLH-1 and for the intestinal transcription factor CDX2, in accordance with previous studies. MLH-1 staining was present in only 21% of medullary carcinoma cases compared with 60% of the poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma cases (P = .02), whereas CDX2 was positive in 19% of medullary carcinomas and 55% of poorly differentiated colonic carcinomas (P = .03). Interestingly, calretinin staining was strongly positive in 73% of medullary carcinomas compared to only 12% of poorly differentiated colonic carcinomas (P < .0001). Evidence of intestinal differentiation by MUC-1, MUC-2, and TFF-3 staining was seen in 67%, 60%, and 53% of the medullary carcinomas, respectively. These 3 markers were frequently positive in many of the CDX2-negative medullary carcinoma cases. Medullary carcinoma of the colon retains a significant degree of intestinal differentiation as evidenced by its high percentage of

  17. [Prospects for using immunohistochemical methods in forensic medical thanatology].

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, D V; Bogomolova, I N; Karavaeva, I E

    2009-01-01

    This review of Russian and foreign literature is focused on the use of immunohistochemical methods in forensic medical practice. It shows that forensic medical specialists not infrequently underestimate the value of these techniques. Recommendations are proposed for a more extensive application of immunohistochemical methods in practical and fundamental medico-legal thanatology.

  18. Differential immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) in non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Kadeh, Hamideh; Saravani, Shirin; Heydari, Fatemeh; Shahraki, Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) are two common skin malignancies with different potentials for invasion and metastasis. The mechanism responsible for various growth patterns observed in SCC and BCC is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10 in non-melanoma skin cancers, including BCC and SCC of the head and neck. The study group consisted of 60 specimens, including 30 BCC and 30 cutaneous SCC of the head and neck. Sections of tumor biopsy samples were immunohistochemically examined for the expression of MMP-10. Data were analyzed by SPSS (V.21) using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests. We found higher immunohistochemical expression of MMP-10 in tumor epithelium and stroma of SCC as compared with BCC. However, this difference was significant only in tumor epithelium (P=0.000). Moreover, the level of MMP-10 expression in tumor epithelium of grades III and II of SCC was significantly greater compared to grade I tumors (P<0.05).Our results suggest that the level of the MMP-10 expression in tumor epithelium of cutaneous SCC and BCC may contribute to the different invasive patterns observed in these tumors. Also, the expression of MMP-10 is associated with tumor differentiation in cutaneous HNSCC.

  19. Adrenal lymphangioma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a rare lesion.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Carla L; Banerjee, Priya; Carney, Erin; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George J

    2011-07-01

    Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign vascular lesions that usually remain asymptomatic throughout life. Although previously adrenal lymphangioma lesions were primarily found at autopsy, they are currently detected during imaging work-up for unrelated causes and are likely to imitate other adrenocortical or adrenal medullary neoplasms. We aimed to retrospectively review all adrenal lymphangioma cases at our hospital and further document their lymphatic origin by immunohistochemical staining. A search of surgical pathology records (1984-2008) was conducted. All hematoxylin and eosin sections were retrieved from archives and reviewed by 2 pathologists in the study. Clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records. Representative paraffin-embedded sections from each case were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies D2-40 and AE1/AE3. A total of 9 adrenal lymphangioma cases were identified (6 women and 3 men). All 9 patients were adults at time of diagnosis with a mean age of 42 years (range, 28-56 years). There were 7 white patients, 1 African American patient, and 1 Asian patient. The average size of an adrenal lymphangioma lesion was 4.9 cm (range, 2.0-13.5 cm). Adrenal lymphangioma was twice more frequently located on the right side (6 right-sided and 3 left-sided). Clinically, 4 (44%) of the 9 lesions presented with abdominal, flank, or back pain. One lymphangioma was found during work-up for labile hypertension. The remaining 4 lesions (44%) were asymptomatic and incidentally found during imaging studies for unrelated causes. Surgical removal was achieved by total adrenalectomy in 8 of the 9 lesions and by partial adrenalectomy in the remaining case. No evidence of recurrence or development of a contralateral lesion was encountered in any of the patients. Histologically, our adrenal lymphangiomas showed a typical multicystic architecture with dilated spaces lined by

  20. Immunohistochemical Typing of Adenocarcinomas of the Pancreatobiliary System Improves Diagnosis and Prognostic Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Woodbridge, Alejandro; Alistair D'souza, Melroy; Zhang, Qianni; Bozoky, Benedek; Kandaswamy, Senthil Vasan; Catalano, Piera; Heuchel, Rainer; Shtembari, Sonia; Del Chiaro, Marco; Danielsson, Olof; Björnstedt, Mikael; Löhr, J. Matthias; Isaksson, Bengt; Verbeke, Caroline; Bozóky, Béla

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Adenocarcinomas of the pancreatobiliary system are currently classified by their primary anatomical location. In particular, the pathological diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is still considered as a diagnosis of exclusion of metastatic adenocarcinoma. Periampullary cancers have been previously classified according to the histological type of differentiation (pancreatobiliary, intestinal), but overlapping morphological features hinder their differential diagnosis. We performed an integrative immunohistochemical analysis of pancreato-biliary tumors to improve their diagnosis and prediction of outcome. Methods This was a retrospective observational cohort study on patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreatobiliary system who underwent diagnostic core needle biopsy or surgical resection at a tertiary referral center. 409 tumor samples were analyzed with up to 27 conventional antibodies used in diagnostic pathology. Immunohistochemical scoring system was the percentage of stained tumor cells. Bioinformatic analysis, internal validation, and survival analysis were performed. Results Hierarchical clustering and differential expression analysis identified three immunohistochemical tumor types (extrahepatic pancreatobiliary, intestinal, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma) and the discriminant markers between them. Among patients who underwent surgical resection of their primary tumor with curative intent, the intestinal type showed an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.19 for overall survival (95% confidence interval 0.05–0.72; p value = 0.014) compared to the extrahepatic pancreatobiliary type. Conclusions Integrative immunohistochemical classification of adenocarcinomas of the pancreatobiliary system results in a characteristic immunohistochemical profile for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and intestinal type adenocarcinoma, which helps in distinguishing them from metastatic and pancreatobiliary type adenocarcinoma, respectively. A diagnostic

  1. Differential responses to acute administration of a new 5-HT7-R agonist as a function of adolescent pre-treatment: phMRI and immuno-histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Altabella, Luisa; Sbriccoli, Marco; Zoratto, Francesca; Poleggi, Anna; Vinci, Ramona; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Laviola, Giovanni; Cardone, Franco; Canese, Rossella; Adriani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    LP-211 is a new, selective agonist of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor 7 (5-HT7-R), which is part of a neuro-transmission system with a proposed role in neural plasticity and in mood, cognitive and sleep regulation. Adolescent subchronic LP-211 treatment produces some persisting changes in rats' forebrain structural and functional parameters. Here, using pharmacological MRI (phMRI), we investigated the effect of acute administration with LP-211 (10 mg/kg i.p.), or vehicle, to adult rats previously exposed to the same drug (0.25 mg/kg/day for 5 days), or vehicle, during adolescence (44-48 post-natal days); histology and immuno-histochemistry were performed ex vivo to evaluate neuro-anatomical and physiological long-term adaptation to pharmacological pre-treatment. The phMRI signal reveals forebrain areas (i.e., hippocampus, orbital prefrontal cortex), activated in response to LP-211 challenge independently of adolescent pre-treatment. In septum and nucleus accumbens, sensitized activation was found in adolescent pre-treated rats but not in vehicle-exposed controls. Immuno-histochemical analyses showed marked differences in septum as long-term consequence of the adolescent pre-treatment: increased level of 5-HT7-R, increased number of 5-HT7-R positive cells, and enhanced astrocyte activation. For nucleus accumbens, immuno-histochemical analyses did not reveal any difference between adolescent pre-treated rats and vehicle-exposed controls. In conclusion, subchronic LP-211 administration during adolescence is able to induce persistent physiological changes in the septal 5-HT7-R expression and astrocyte response that can still be observed in adulthood. Data shed new insights into roles of 5-HT7-R for normal and pathologic behavioral regulations.

  2. Differential responses to acute administration of a new 5-HT7-R agonist as a function of adolescent pre-treatment: phMRI and immuno-histochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Altabella, Luisa; Sbriccoli, Marco; Zoratto, Francesca; Poleggi, Anna; Vinci, Ramona; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Laviola, Giovanni; Cardone, Franco; Canese, Rossella; Adriani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    LP-211 is a new, selective agonist of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor 7 (5-HT7-R), which is part of a neuro-transmission system with a proposed role in neural plasticity and in mood, cognitive and sleep regulation. Adolescent subchronic LP-211 treatment produces some persisting changes in rats' forebrain structural and functional parameters. Here, using pharmacological MRI (phMRI), we investigated the effect of acute administration with LP-211 (10 mg/kg i.p.), or vehicle, to adult rats previously exposed to the same drug (0.25 mg/kg/day for 5 days), or vehicle, during adolescence (44–48 post-natal days); histology and immuno-histochemistry were performed ex vivo to evaluate neuro-anatomical and physiological long-term adaptation to pharmacological pre-treatment. The phMRI signal reveals forebrain areas (i.e., hippocampus, orbital prefrontal cortex), activated in response to LP-211 challenge independently of adolescent pre-treatment. In septum and nucleus accumbens, sensitized activation was found in adolescent pre-treated rats but not in vehicle-exposed controls. Immuno-histochemical analyses showed marked differences in septum as long-term consequence of the adolescent pre-treatment: increased level of 5-HT7-R, increased number of 5-HT7-R positive cells, and enhanced astrocyte activation. For nucleus accumbens, immuno-histochemical analyses did not reveal any difference between adolescent pre-treated rats and vehicle-exposed controls. In conclusion, subchronic LP-211 administration during adolescence is able to induce persistent physiological changes in the septal 5-HT7-R expression and astrocyte response that can still be observed in adulthood. Data shed new insights into roles of 5-HT7-R for normal and pathologic behavioral regulations. PMID:25565998

  3. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about incl