Science.gov

Sample records for impact assessment case

  1. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie; Nawaz, Kathleen; Sandor, Debra

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  2. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-02-01

    This contract reviewed the available literature on mechanisms of low velocity impact damage in filament wound rocket motor cases, MDE methods to quantify damage, critical coupon level test methods, manufacturing and material process variables and empirical and analytical modeling off impact damage. The critical design properties for rocket motor cases are biaxial hoop and axial tensile strength. Low velocity impact damage is insidious because it can create serious nonvisible damage at very low impact velocities. In thick rocket motor cases the prevalent low velocity impact damage is fiber fracture and matrix cracking adjacent to the front face. In contrast, low velocity loading of thin wall cylinders induces flexure, depending on span length and the flexure induces delamination and tensile cracking on the back face wall opposed to impact occurs due to flexural stresses imposed by impact loading. Important NDE methods for rocket motor cases are non-contacting methods that allow inspection from one side. Among these are vibrothermography, and pulse-echo methods based on acoustic-ultrasonic methods. High resolution techniques such as x-ray computed tomography appear to have merit for accurate geometrical characterization of local damage to support development of analytical models of micromechanics. The challenge of coupon level testing is to reproduce the biaxial stress state that the full scale article experiences, and to determine how to scale the composite structure to model full sized behavior. Biaxial tensile testing has been performed by uniaxially tensile loading internally pressurized cylinders. This is experimentally difficult due to gripping problems and pressure containment. Much prior work focused on uniaxial tensile testing of model filament wound cylinders. Interpretation of the results of some studies is complicated by the fact that the fabrication process did not duplicate full scale manufacturing. It is difficult to scale results from testing subscale

  3. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    This contract reviewed the available literature on mechanisms of low velocity impact damage in filament wound rocket motor cases, MDE methods to quantify damage, critical coupon level test methods, manufacturing and material process variables and empirical and analytical modeling off impact damage. The critical design properties for rocket motor cases are biaxial hoop and axial tensile strength. Low velocity impact damage is insidious because it can create serious nonvisible damage at very low impact velocities. In thick rocket motor cases the prevalent low velocity impact damage is fiber fracture and matrix cracking adjacent to the front face. In contrast, low velocity loading of thin wall cylinders induces flexure, depending on span length and the flexure induces delamination and tensile cracking on the back face wall opposed to impact occurs due to flexural stresses imposed by impact loading. Important NDE methods for rocket motor cases are non-contacting methods that allow inspection from one side. Among these are vibrothermography, and pulse-echo methods based on acoustic-ultrasonic methods. High resolution techniques such as x-ray computed tomography appear to have merit for accurate geometrical characterization of local damage to support development of analytical models of micromechanics. The challenge of coupon level testing is to reproduce the biaxial stress state that the full scale article experiences, and to determine how to scale the composite structure to model full sized behavior. Biaxial tensile testing has been performed by uniaxially tensile loading internally pressurized cylinders. This is experimentally difficult due to gripping problems and pressure containment. Much prior work focused on uniaxial tensile testing of model filament wound cylinders. Interpretation of the results of some studies is complicated by the fact that the fabrication process did not duplicate full scale manufacturing. It is difficult to scale results from testing subscale

  4. Assessing impacts of invasive phytoplankton: the Baltic Sea case.

    PubMed

    Olenina, Irina; Wasmund, Norbert; Hajdu, Susanna; Jurgensone, Iveta; Gromisz, Sławomira; Kownacka, Janina; Toming, Kaire; Vaiciūte, Diana; Olenin, Sergej

    2010-10-01

    There is an increasing understanding and requirement to take into account the effects of invasive alien species (IAS) in environmental quality assessments. While IAS are listed amongst the most important factors threatening marine biodiversity, information on their impacts remains unquantified, especially for phytoplankton species. This study attempts to assess the impacts of invasive alien phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea during 1980-2008. A bioinvasion impact assessment method (BPL - biopollution level index) was applied to phytoplankton monitoring data collected from eleven sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. BPL takes into account abundance and distribution range of an alien species and the magnitude of the impact on native communities, habitats and ecosystem functioning. Of the 12 alien/cryptogenic phytoplankton species recorded in the Baltic Sea only one (the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum) was categorized as an IAS, causing a recognizable environmental effect.

  5. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA.

  6. Elements of impact assessment: a case study with cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shanchieh Jay; Holsopple, Jared; Liu, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Extensive discussions have taken place in recent year regarding impact assessment - what is it and how can we do it? It is especially intriguing in this modern era where non-traditional warfare has caused either information overload or limited understanding of adversary doctrines. This work provides a methodical discussion of key elements for the broad definition of impact assessment (IA). The discussion will start with a process flow involving components related to IA. Two key functional components, impact estimation and threat projection, are compared and illustrated in detail. These details include a discussion of when to model red and blue knowledge. Algorithmic approaches will be discussed, augmented with lessons learned from our IA development for cyber situation awareness. This paper aims at providing the community with a systematic understanding of IA and its open issues with specific examples.

  7. Recent Extremes in European Climate: Assessment, Case Studies and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.; D'Andrea, F.; Cattiaux, J.; Naveau, P.; Ciais, P.; Garnier, E.

    2008-12-01

    During the last centuries and up to the present decade, extreme climate events have certainly had larger economic impacts than any trend of temperature in Europe. In addition to an intrinsic scientific interest, their study is thus essential for society. One of the challenges of their investigation is that, depending on their definition, extreme climate events potentially have a behavior that is not connected to the secular temperature trend in a simple fashion. This presentation will review the statistical assessments of extremes in Europe, focusing on surface temperature, precipitation, and their connections with large-scale features of the atmospheric circulation. In particular, the questions of modeling their severity and frequency will be discussed in the first part of the presentation. I will then give two kinds of examples of European climate extremes: summer heatwaves and droughts, and winter warm waves. The mechanisms leading to such phenomena will be explored, and I will examine some of the impacts on the biosphere that were recently observed. In order to provide a long term perspective of those events, examples of historical droughts in France will be presented and connected with proxy records of temperature. It appears that the mechanisms that are favored for present-day climate might still have been valid during the past centuries. To conclude, new challenges for dynamical and statistical modeling will be explored.

  8. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja . E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  9. Protecting Health Using an Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of San Francisco Land Use Decisionmaking

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Laws and regulations for an environmental impact assessment enable a health impact assessment whenever physical changes in the environment may significantly affect health. In this case study, I describe 2 instances in which a local public health agency used the procedural requirements for an environmental impact assessment to account for societal-level health determinants that are not traditionally evaluated in land-use decisions. These examples show that a public health critique can contribute both to the scope of analysis in an environmental impact assessment and to substantive changes in land-use decisions. I have evaluated this health appraisal approach as a form of a health impact assessment and will make recommendations for law, research, and practice that support its technical, cultural, and political feasibility. PMID:17267726

  10. Health impact assessment in multinationals: A case study of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group

    SciTech Connect

    Birley, Martin . E-mail: martin@birleyhia.co.uk

    2005-10-15

    Health impact assessment is part of the risk management process of multinational corporations/companies. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, and the 'paradox of plenty' are used as examples of the challenges they face. The 'business case' for impact assessment is explained. The policies, procedures, standards, and activities used by Shell to manage such risks are described. An approach to capacity building and competency development is presented that applies to both company staff and external contractors.

  11. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  12. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  13. Comparative Case Study as Social Impact Assessment: Possibilities and Limitations for Anticipating Social Change in the Far North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Jodie; Parkins, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is increasingly an accepted component of environmental impact assessment and project evaluation throughout North America. Tools and methodologies utilized to conduct such assessments vary greatly and continue to evolve with time and experience. This paper follows the evolution of case study methods in social impact…

  14. Social impact assessment and public participation in China: A case study of land requisition in Guangzhou

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Bosin Wong Siuwai Lau, Milton Chi-hong

    2008-01-15

    This study examines the current prospects for and obstacles facing the implementation of social impact assessment (SIA) and participatory planning in the People's Republic of China. During the past two decades, rapid urbanisation and the conversion of rural land for urban development have led to numerous social conflicts and tensions between the Chinese government and its people. SIA and public participation in development decisions have received increasing attention from the Chinese authorities as possible ways to tackle the problem. Based on a Guangzhou case study, this paper argues that the assessment and mitigation of adverse impacts on the community from urban development have been carried out with different objectives, core values and principles when compared with those in Western societies. It concludes that the poor prospects of SIA and collaborative planning in China lie not only in the weak framework for environmental legislation, but also in all institutions concerning state-society relations, the socialist governing ideology and traditional Chinese culture.

  15. When product diversification influences life cycle impact assessment: A case study of canned anchovy.

    PubMed

    Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Fullana, Pére; Bala, Alba; Gazulla, Cristina; Irabien, Ángel; Aldaco, Rubén

    2017-03-01

    The anchovy canning industry is one of the most important economic resources of the Cantabria region in Spain. However, environmental, economic and social problems over the past years have forced companies to apply marketing strategies, develop product diversification, create new products and introduce them in new "green markets". Launching Cantabrian canned anchovies into more sustainable markets requires measuring the environmental performance using Product Category Rules (PCRs) and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). EPDs and PCRS include the environmental profile of a range of similar products, such as all of the available canned anchovy products. The great variety of anchovy canned products depends on three process variables: the origin of the anchovy (Cantabria, Argentina and Chile or Peru), the type of oil (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) and the packaging (aluminum, tinplate, glass and plastic). This work aims to assess the environmental impact from cradle to grave of canned anchovies in oil using the life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). Moreover, the paper evaluates the influence of the above-mentioned three product variables in the LCA results. The results show that out of all of the alternatives, Chilean and Peruvian anchovies have the highest environmental burdens due to the transportation by ship. The production of anchovies in sunflower oil is a less environmentally friendly oil process due to the low yield per hectare of sunflower cultivation. Finally, the use of aluminum as the packaging material has the largest environmental impact out of almost all of the impact categories. Moreover, because the LCA results can be significantly affected by the allocation procedure, a sensitivity analysis comparing system expansion, mass and economic allocation is performed. In this case, the system expansion approach presents the highest environmental impacts followed by the mass allocation.

  16. Vulnerability and impact assessment of extreme climatic event: A case study of southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Abdul Qayyum; Ahmad, Sajid R; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hussain, Yawar; Hussain, Muhammad Sameem

    2017-02-15

    Understanding of frequency, severity, damages and adaptation costs of climate extremes is crucial to manage their aftermath. Evaluation of PRECIS RCM modelled data under IPCC scenarios in Southern Punjab reveals that monthly mean temperature is 30°C under A2 scenario, 2.4°C higher than A1B which is 27.6°C in defined time lapses. Monthly mean precipitation under A2 scenario ranges from 12 to 15mm and for A1B scenario it ranges from 15 to 19mm. Frequency modelling of floods and droughts via poisson distribution shows increasing trend in upcoming decades posing serious impacts on agriculture and livestock, food security, water resources, public health and economic status. Cumulative loss projected for frequent floods without adaptation will be in the range of USD 66.8-79.3 billion in time lapse of 40years from 2010 base case. Drought damage function @ 18% for A2 scenario and @ 13.5% for A1B scenario was calculated; drought losses on agriculture and livestock sectors were modelled. Cumulative loss projected for frequent droughts without adaptation under A2 scenario will be in the range of USD 7.5-8.5 billion while under A1B scenario it will be in the range of USD 3.5-4.2 billion for time lapse of 60years from base case 1998-2002. Severity analysis of extreme events shows that situation get worse if adaptations are not only included in the policy but also in the integrated development framework with required allocation of funds. This evaluation also highlights the result of cost benefit analysis, benefits of the adaptation options (mean & worst case) for floods and droughts in Southern Punjab. Additionally the research highlights the role of integrated extreme events impact assessment methodology in performing the vulnerability assessments and to support the adaptation decisions. This paper is an effort to highlight importance of bottom up approaches to deal with climate change.

  17. Environmental impact assessment in higher education institutions in East Africa: the case of Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Kabera, Telesphore

    2017-03-01

    Due to the pressure on limited resources produced by a growing population and due to a decade of war, Rwanda is facing a major problem in environmental protection. Because of such problems, it seems only reasonable that environment-related courses should play an important role in the curricula of institutions of higher learning. The main aim of this research is to present a comprehensive picture of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) integration in graduate and undergraduate programs in Rwandese higher education institutions and to make recommendations for its improvement. During this study, two surveys were conducted: the first survey targeted Environmental Impact Assessment lecturers and the second survey was for Environmental Impact Assessment practitioners (including EIA certified experts and competent authorities). The study found that Environmental Impact Assessment is not well established in these institutions and it is not taught in some programs; civil engineering, for example, has no Environmental Impact Assessment courses. Recommendations to improve EIA education are proposed, such as requiring that a common core course in Environmental Impact Assessment be made available in Rwandese higher learning institutions.

  18. Science case for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): A component of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Küppers, M.; Pravec, P.; Blum, J.; Delbo, M.; Green, S. F.; Rosenblatt, P.; Tsiganis, K.; Vincent, J. B.; Biele, J.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Ulamec, S.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Benner, L.; Naidu, S. P.; Barnouin, O. S.; Richardson, D. C.; Rivkin, A.; Scheirich, P.; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Schwartz, S. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to test the kinetic impactor technique to deflect an asteroid. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is set to rendezvous with the asteroid system to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near-Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Having direct information on the surface and internal properties of small asteroids will allow us to understand how the various processes they undergo work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. Making these measurements from up close and comparing them with ground-based data from telescopes will also allow us to calibrate remote observations and improve our data interpretation of other systems. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the target by AIM, the mission will be the first fully documented impact experiment at asteroid scale, which will include the characterization of the target's properties and the outcome of the impact. AIDA will thus offer a great opportunity to test and refine our understanding and models at the actual scale of an asteroid, and to check whether the current extrapolations of material strength from laboratory-scale targets to the scale of AIDA's target are valid. Moreover, it will offer a first check of the

  19. The Impact of the Technology Used in Formative Assessment: The Case of Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vásquez, Andrea; Nussbaum, Miguel; Sciarresi, Enzo; Martínez, Tomás; Barahona, Camila; Strasser, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the technology used to assist formative assessment in spelling can have an impact on learning. Formative assessment represents a set of student-centered practices, the results of which are not always optimal. Furthermore, different technologies are better suited to certain tasks than to others. The study follows a…

  20. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Wolf, Joost; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Schaap, Ben F.; Mandryk, Maryia; Verhagen, Jan; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2015-04-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semi-quantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.

  1. Erosion risk analysis by GIS in environmental impact assessments: a case study--Seyhan Köprü Dam construction.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Kurum, E

    2002-11-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a systematically constructed procedure whereby environmental impacts caused by proposed projects are examined. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are crucially efficient tools for impact assessment and their use is likely to dramatically increase in the near future. GIS have been applied to a wide range of different impact assessment projects and dams among them have been taken as the case work in this article. EIA Regulation in force in Turkey requires the analysis of steering natural processes that can be adversely affected by the proposed project, particularly in the section of the analysis of the areas with higher landscape value. At this point, the true potential value of GIS lies in its ability to analyze spatial data with accuracy. This study is an attempt to analyze by GIS the areas with higher landscape value in the impact assessment of dam constructions in the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal. A method needs to be defined before the overlapping step by GIS to analyze the areas with higher landscape value. In the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal of the present work, considering the geological conditions and the steep slopes of the area and the type of the project, the most important natural process is erosion. Therefore, the areas of higher erosion risk were considered as the Areas with Higher Landscape Value from the conservation demands points of view.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment: Teaching the Principles and Practices by Means of a Role-Playing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.; England, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The principles and practices of environmental impact assessment are best taught to chemical engineering undergraduate students by means of a role­-playing case study. Many suitable examples are available from public sources. The planning appeal process has been selected so as to introduce an adversarial style involving cross-­examination on…

  3. The Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Backus, George A.; Ivey, Mark D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2008-11-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing in a way that will affect the rest of the world. Parts of Alaska, western Canada, and Siberia are currently warming at twice the global rate. This warming trend is accelerating permafrost deterioration, coastal erosion, snow and ice loss, and other changes that are a direct consequence of climate change. Climatologists have long understood that changes in the Arctic would be faster and more intense than elsewhere on the planet, but the degree and speed of the changes were underestimated compared to recent observations. Policy makers have not yet had time to examine the latest evidence or appreciate the nature of the consequences. Thus, the abruptness and severity of an unfolding Arctic climate crisis has not been incorporated into long-range planning. The purpose of this report is to briefly review the physical basis for global climate change and Arctic amplification, summarize the ongoing observations, discuss the potential consequences, explain the need for an objective risk assessment, develop scenarios for future change, review existing modeling capabilities and the need for better regional models, and finally to make recommendations for Sandia's future role in preparing our leaders to deal with impacts of Arctic climate change on national security. Accurate and credible regional-scale climate models are still several years in the future, and those models are essential for estimating climate impacts around the globe. This study demonstrates how a scenario-based method may be used to give insights into climate impacts on a regional scale and possible mitigation. Because of our experience in the Arctic and widespread recognition of the Arctic's importance in the Earth climate system we chose the Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security. Sandia can make a swift and significant contribution by applying modeling and simulation tools with internal collaborations as well as with outside

  4. Health impact assessment in CEE region: case of the former Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Gulis, Gabriel

    2004-02-01

    This paper is based on the author's personnel experience in the Slovak Republic and on information gathered during a health impact assessment (HIA) workshop with participants from Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia. There is a long tradition of health impact assessment in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the former Czechoslovakia, legislation made in 1966, although it did not explicitly mention HIA, provided a legal basis and made the public hygiene service responsible for assessment of health impacts. However, political structures, prevalent values, reliance on limit-based comparisons, and lack of adequate training meant that HIA had little influence on decision making. Political changes since 1990 are allowing development of HIA. This experience highlights the importance of values and methods in undertaking HIA.

  5. Technological and Social Impact Assessment of Resource Extraction: The Case of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Girard

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report of work in progress on the assessment of the social impact of coal extraction. The research is directed at examining the implications for the human community of the underground and surface mining methods of coal extraction. (BT)

  6. Assessing Extension Program Impact: Case Study of a Water Quality Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauder, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Montana State University conducted a voluntary, private well water test program (n=3400) to direct public attention to water quality education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents to an impact assessment questionnaire indicated that the program was moderately to very effective. Other results involved user awareness and understanding, and…

  7. Generic performance assessment for a deep repository for low and intermediate level waste in the UK--a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Patton, D; Copplestone, D; Norris, S; O'Sullivan, P

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of radionuclides in soil and surface water, taken from a generic performance assessment of a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, assumed to be located in the UK, have been used as the basis for a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment. Simplified descriptions of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types likely to be impacted have been developed. A scoping assessment has identified (226)Ra, (210)Po, (234)U, (230)Th and (238)U as having the highest potential for impact, with doses from internally incorporated alpha emitters as being potentially of particular importance. These nuclides, together with (36)Cl and (129)I (which have proved to be of importance in radiological risk assessments for humans) were included in a more detailed dose assessment. A basic methodology for dose assessment of ecosystems is described, and has been applied for the defined impacted ecosystems. Paucity of published data on concentration factors prevented a more detailed assessment for terrestrial ecosystems. For the aquatic ecosystem, a more detailed assessment was possible and highest calculated absorbed dose rates (weighted for the likely higher biological effectiveness of alpha radiation) were about 6.5 microGy h(-1). We conclude that harm to the impacted ecosystems is unlikely and make the observation that the lack of concentration factor or transfer factor data for a sufficiently wide range of species, ecosystems and nuclides appears to be the principal obstacle to establishing a comprehensive framework for the application of radiological protection to ecosystems.

  8. Assessment of drought impacts on vegetation health: a case study in Kedah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M.; Ash'aari, Z. H.; Muharam, F. M.; Sulaiman, W. N. A.; Hamisan, H.; Mohamad, N. D.; Othman, N. H.

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged drought in the early of 2014 has caused Malaysia to experience water supply shortage which directly affects both health and growth of vegetation. Thus this study aims to assess the risk vegetation areas that were impacted during 2014’s drought by integrating the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Normalized Differentiation Vegetation Index (NDVI) methods. These two methods were able to assess the risk areas for the vegetation by measuring its health and classifying them according to its severity while considering the rainfall reduction at the specific time and location. The results obtained from this study shows that the central and north west of Kedah was vulnerable to the occurrence of drought. Kedah was more impacted by the dry event during the northeast monsoon. This study is significant as a fundamental input for further research and as an alternative approach by the application of space technology.

  9. A multiattribute index for assessing environmental impacts of regional development projects: a case study of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Seung-Jun; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Shin, Chol-Oh

    2002-02-01

    Evaluating environmental impacts has become an increasingly vital part of environmental management. In the present study, a methodological procedure based on multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) has been applied to obtain a decision-maker's value index on assessment of the environmental impacts. The paper begins with an overview of MAUT. Next, we elicited strategic objectives and several important attributes, and then structured them into a hierarchy, with the aim of structuring and quantifying the basic values for the assessment. An environmental multiattribute index is constructed as a multiattribute utility function, based on value judgements provided by a decision-maker at the Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE). The implications of the results are useful for many aspects of MOE's environmental policies; identifying the strategic objectives and basic values; facilitating communication about the organization's priorities; and recognizing decision opportunities that face decision-makers of Korea.

  10. Overview of EPA's Approach to Developing Prospective Case Studies Technical Workshop: Case Studies to Assess Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One component of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources is prospective case studies, which are being conducted to more fully understand and assess if and how site specific hydrau...

  11. Improvement of agricultural life cycle assessment studies through spatial differentiation and new impact categories: case study on greenhouse tomato production.

    PubMed

    Antón, Assumpció; Torrellas, Marta; Núñez, Montserrat; Sevigné, Eva; Amores, Maria José; Muñoz, Pere; Montero, Juan I

    2014-08-19

    This paper presents the inclusion of new, relevant impact categories for agriculture life cycle assessments. We performed a specific case study with a focus on the applicability of spatially explicit characterization factors. The main goals were to provide a detailed evaluation of these new impact category methods, compare the results with commonly used methods (ReCiPe and USEtox) and demonstrate how these new methods can help improve environmental assessment in agriculture. As an overall conclusion, the newly developed impact categories helped fill the most important gaps related to land use, water consumption, pesticide toxicity, and nontoxic emissions linked to fertilizer use. We also found that including biodiversity damage due to land use and the effect of water consumption on wetlands represented a scientific advance toward more realistic environmental assessment of agricultural practices. Likewise, the dynamic crop model for assessing human toxicity from pesticide residue in food can lead to better practice in pesticide application. In further life cycle assessment (LCA) method developments, common end point units and normalization units should be agreed upon to make it possible to compare different impacts and methods. In addition, the application of site-specific characterization factors allowed us to be more accurate regarding inventory data and to identify precisely where background flows acquire high relevance.

  12. Environmental impact of biomass based polygeneration - A case study through life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Multi-generation or polygeneration is considered to be a potential sustainable energy solution. To assess environmental sustainability of multi-generation, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool. In this paper, environmental impact of polygeneration using an agro waste (rice straw) is assessed by LCA. Then it is compared with stand alone conventional plants with same utility outputs. Power, ethanol, heating and cooling are utility outputs of the polygeneration plant. System boundary for this polygeneration is defined for surplus biomass only. Exergy based allocation method is used for this analysis. Results of LCA are shown through both mid-point and end-point indicators. Results indicate that polygeneration with surplus rice straw is more environment-friendly than conventional stand-alone generation of same utilities.

  13. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Polimeni, John M.; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M.; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A. PMID:27898017

  14. Health impact assessment: a case study on renovation of a slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Sithisarankul, Pornchai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a health impact assessment (HIA) in a community where an old slaughterhouse was to be renovated. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study in March, 2011. Questionnaires were used to collect data and focus group discussions were conducted to solicit the community concerns and recommendations regarding the project. The results reveal positive impacts in 4 aspects of health: physical, mental, social, and spiritual. The current substandard slaughterhouse was perceived negatively by the surrounding community. They were happy the slaughterhouse would be renovated, and some preferred it moved elsewhere. This HIA had 2 positive results: first, we tested our HIA tool in a real situation and found it practical on a small scale; second, the municipality obtained the community's opinions and concerns and the community knew their opinions reached the municipality, so they were more positive about the municipality.

  15. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  16. Assessing dam implementation impact on threatened carnivores: the case of Alqueva in SE Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria J; Pedroso, Nuno M; Ferreira, Joaquim P; Matos, Hugo M; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Pereira, Iris; Baltazar, Carla; Grilo, Clara; Cândido, Ana T; Sousa, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2008-07-01

    Large dam construction in water deficient areas is a management decision often controversial. Besides providing water storage, economical benefits, and a source of renewable energy, the construction and flooding caused by large dams cause disruptions in natural systems. We monitored the pre- and post-Alqueva dam impacts on the threatened carnivore species (polecat, otter, wildcat and Iberian lynx) populations in SE Portugal, and assessed which factors mostly contribute to post-dam distribution. Major short term impacts of large dams are: (1) increase in accessibility and human presence; (2) movement of heavy machinery and dam-workers; (3) deforestation with habitat loss and fragmentation; (4) change from lotic to lentic system; (5) lower prey availability and harsher capture; and (6) changes in land use adjacent to the reservoir. Thus, the response to those impacts can be predicted as a decline of polecat, wildcat and lynx distribution ranges, and a recovery of the otter from the severe short term impacts. Our results corroborate this hypothesis for all the species, especially during deforestation/early flooding. Otter's distribution range increased in the phase of greater impact, with a subsequent decrease with flooding. Our results suggest carnivores used "escape" areas with favourable habitat and prey conditions, however, the areas with higher probability of species presence decreased by two fold showing a drastic range reduction. To ensure populations' survival of these charismatic threatened carnivore populations of Mediterranean landscapes of south-east Portugal, we propose continuing the monitoring program and the development of a conservation program for the subsisting areas of optimal and suboptimal habitats.

  17. Uncertainty and Evaluation of Impacts Modeling at Regional Scales in Integrated Assessment: the Case of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, L.; Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Kyle, P.; Daly, D.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) models have traditionally focused on the evaluation of climate mitigation strategies. However, in recent years, efforts to consider both impacts and mitigation simultaneously have expanded dramatically. Because climate impacts are inherently regional in scale, the incorporation of impacts into IA modeling - which is inherently global in character - raises a range of challenges beyond the already substantial challenges associated with modeling impacts. In particular, it raises questions about how to best evaluate and diagnose the resulting representations of impacts, and how to characterize the uncertainty surrounding associated projections. This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges and uncertainties surrounding modeling climate impacts on building heating and cooling demands in an integrated assessment modeling framework - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The presentation will first discuss the issues associated with modeling building heating and cooling degree days in IA models. It will review research using spatially explicit climate and population information to inform a standard version of GCAM with fourteen geopolitical regions. It will discuss a new subregional version of GCAM in which building energy consumption is resolved at a fifty-state level. The presentation will also characterize efforts to link GCAM to more technologically resolved buildings models to gain insights about demands at higher temporal resolution. The second portion of the presentation will discuss the uncertainties associated with projections of building heating and cooling demands at various scales. A range of key uncertainties are important. This includes a range of uncertainties surrounding the nature of changes to global and regional climates, with particular emphasis on the uncertainty surrounding temperature projections. In addition, the linkage in this research between human and Earth systems means that the projections are

  18. Assessing the Impact of Case Sensitivity and Term Information Gain on Biomedical Concept Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Verspoor, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Concept recognition (CR) is a foundational task in the biomedical domain. It supports the important process of transforming unstructured resources into structured knowledge. To date, several CR approaches have been proposed, most of which focus on a particular set of biomedical ontologies. Their underlying mechanisms vary from shallow natural language processing and dictionary lookup to specialized machine learning modules. However, no prior approach considers the case sensitivity characteristics and the term distribution of the underlying ontology on the CR process. This article proposes a framework that models the CR process as an information retrieval task in which both case sensitivity and the information gain associated with tokens in lexical representations (e.g., term labels, synonyms) are central components of a strategy for generating term variants. The case sensitivity of a given ontology is assessed based on the distribution of so-called case sensitive tokens in its terms, while information gain is modelled using a combination of divergence from randomness and mutual information. An extensive evaluation has been carried out using the CRAFT corpus. Experimental results show that case sensitivity awareness leads to an increase of up to 0.07 F1 against a non-case sensitive baseline on the Protein Ontology and GO Cellular Component. Similarly, the use of information gain leads to an increase of up to 0.06 F1 against a standard baseline in the case of GO Biological Process and Molecular Function and GO Cellular Component. Overall, subject to the underlying token distribution, these methods lead to valid complementary strategies for augmenting term label sets to improve concept recognition. PMID:25790125

  19. Including the introduction of exotic species in life cycle impact assessment: the case of inland shipping.

    PubMed

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Leuven, Rob S E W; Sommerwerk, Nike; Tockner, Klement; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-12-17

    While the ecological impact of anthropogenically introduced exotic species is considered a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystems functioning, it is generally not accounted for in the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of products. In this article, we propose a framework that includes exotic species introduction in an LCA context. We derived characterization factors for exotic fish species introduction related to the transport of goods across the Rhine-Main-Danube canal. These characterization factors are expressed as the potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of native freshwater fish species in the rivers Rhine and Danube integrated over space and time per amount of goods transported (PDF·m(3)·yr·kg(-1)). Furthermore, we quantified the relative importance of exotic fish species introduction compared to other anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater environment (i.e., eutrophication, ecotoxicity, greenhouse gases, and water consumption) for transport of goods through the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway. We found that the introduction of exotic fish species contributed to 70-85% of the total freshwater ecosystem impact, depending on the distance that goods were transported. Our analysis showed that it is relevant and feasible to include the introduction of exotic species in an LCA framework. The proposed framework can be further extended by including the impacts of other exotic species groups, types of water bodies and pathways for introduction.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines.

  1. Assessment of temporal hydrologic anomalies coupled with drought impact for a transboundary river flow regime: The Diyala watershed case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Faraj, Furat A. M.; Scholz, Miklas

    2014-09-01

    Recent increases in human activities in shared river basins have unquestionably raised concerns about potential hydrological impacts, especially impacts of dams and large-scale water withdrawal schemes in the highlands. Anthropogenic pressures twinned with drought impacts have exacerbated water management challenges. This article assesses the cumulative consequences of upstream anthropogenic pressures and drought spells on temporal river flow regimes for the downstream country. The size and complexity of problems confronting transboundary river watersheds makes it necessary to use a representative example basin to study the problems and potential solutions. The Diyala (Sīrvān) river basin, which shares dozens of transboundary watersheds between Iraq and Iran, has been selected as a representative case study. A subset of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) was utilised and climate variability was considered in assessing the combined effect of various forms of upstream human-river regulations and climatic conditions on natural flow regimes in the downstream state. Findings indicated that the anthropogenic river-regulation coupled with the impact of drought periods have noticeably modified the natural flow paradigm. The yearly average runoffs, which are no longer available for the downstream country, have soared to very high levels, particularly over the last fifteen years. More adverse impacts were detected in the non-rainy season. Findings reveal also that damming and considerable water diversion to large-scale irrigation projects in the upstream state are the main regulations affecting the management of shared water resources in the downstream country.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Free Primary Education Using Retrospective and Prospective Data: Lessons from the Nairobi Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Oketch, Moses; Ezeh, Alex Chika; Mutisya, Maurice; Ejakait, Charles Epari

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and methodology used to assess the impact of free primary education (FPE) policy in Nairobi, Kenya. The key outcome of the study was to assess the impact of FPE on schooling outcomes among the urban poor. The study assesses the impact of FPE by examining how two non-comparable groups responded to the introduction of…

  3. Use of satellite imagery as environmental impact assessment tool: a case study from the NW Egyptian Red Sea coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Moufaddal, Wahid M

    2005-08-01

    Knowledge and detecting impacts of human activities on the coastal ecosystem is an essential management requirement and also very important for future and proper planning of coastal areas. Moreover, documentation of these impacts can help in increasing public awareness about side effects of unsustainable practices. Analysis of multidate remote sensing data can be used as an effective tool in environmental impact assessment (EIA). Being synoptic and frequent in coverage, multidate data from Landsat and other satellites provide a reference record and bird's eye viewing to the environmental situation of the coastal ecosystem and the associated habitats. Furthermore, integration of satellite data with field observations and background information can help in decision if a certain activity has caused deterioration to a specific habitat or not. The present paper is an attempt to utilize remote sensing data for assessment impacts of some human activities on the major sensitive habitats of the NW Egyptian Red Sea coastal zone, definitely between Ras Gemsha and Safaga. Through multidate change analysis of Landsat data (TM & ETM+ sensors), it was possible to depict some of the human infringements in the area and to provide, in some cases, exclusive evidences for the damaging effect of some developmental activities.

  4. Compositional analysis and pollution impact assessment: A case study in the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghan, Wang; Stefano, Albanese; Annamaria, Lima; Claudia, Cannatelli; Antonio, Cosenza; Wanjun, Lu; Marco, Sacchi; Angela, Doherty; Benedetto, De Vivo

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an environmental geochemical investigation of the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno, near the Campania plain (Southern Italy). Surface marine sediment samples were collected during three field campaigns: 96 from the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno (NaSa); 123 from the Bagnoli site coastal area (BaSi); and 11 from the ports around the Gulf of Naples (PoNa). Elemental concentrations were determined and their interpolated distribution maps were compiled. Three geochemical sources (or processes) were determined associating elemental distribution with the results obtained from a R-mode factor analysis: 1) geogenic, 2) water kinetics and 3) anthropogenic. The results are presented as raw data single element distributions of eight potential toxic elements (PTEs) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni and Zn) in the forms of raw data and additive log-ratio transformed data. The latter showed advantages in revealing the actual distribution patterns. Geochemical background reference values of PTEs were determined from the median value of local background reference values. Based on these values, pollution impact analysis was carried out to both BaSi and PoNa samples, indicating most of BaSi and PoNa sediments were affected by moderate to strong Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg pollution. An ecological risk assessment was subsequently carried out on the entire database, pointing a toxic risk ranking in the order Pb > As > Ni > Cd > Hg > Cr.

  5. Assessment of climate change impacts on groundwater resources: the case study of Veneto and Friuli plain in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, Andrea; Pasini, Sara; Torresan, Silvia; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will have different impacts on water resources and water-dependent services worldwide. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. Research is needed to better understand how climate change will impact groundwater resources in specific regions and places and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with the envisaged effects of global climate change and the key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution models simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according with IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant outcomes from the described RRA application highlighted that potential climate change impacts will occur

  6. Physiological impact of CTO recanalization assessed by coronary pressure measurement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kawase, Yoshiaki

    2013-10-01

    In this case report, physiological changes of myocardial perfusion in the collateral recipient right coronary artery (RCA) and the collateral donor left anterior descending artery (LAD) with an intermediate lesion were assessed using intracoronary pressure measurement, before and after revascularization of chronic total occlusion (CTO). A 44-year-old male was referred for a catheter examination due to silent myocardial ischemia. An invasive coronary angiogram revealed diffuse narrowing of the RCA with focal occlusive segments in addition to intermediate stenosis in the LAD. A well developed collateral channel from the LAD to the RCA was also confirmed. Fractional flow reserve (FFRmyo) of the LAD before opening the RCA was 0.81. After successful revascularization of the RCA, FFRmyo of the LAD and the RCA were measured with and without an RCA balloon occlusion. Because collateral fractional flow reserve (FFRcoll) of the RCA could be regarded as FFRmyo before revascularization, FFRmyo of the RCA increased from 0.67 to 0.90, meaning a 23% increase of maximum flow by intervention. Interestingly, improvement of FFRmyo of the LAD from 0.81 to 0.93 was also observed, which means a 12% increase of maximum flow. Coronary steal in the LAD was reconfirmed by dramatic worsening of FFRmyo from 0.93 to 0.77 by an RCA balloon occlusion. This phenomenon may be explained by an immediate recruitment of collateral channels. This case clearly demonstrated that CTO opening improves perfusion in not only myocardium supplied by the CTO vessel, but also in that which is supplied by a contralateral collateral donor artery.

  7. Impacts of inorganic fluorides on terrestrial ecosystems: An ecological risk assessment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.A.; Schneider, U.A.; Pawlisz, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, the national environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act concluded that concentrations of inorganic fluorides near industrial sources in Canada may cause long-term adverse effects in sensitive terrestrial plant and wildlife species. This case study examines the accumulation of inorganic fluorides in vegetation and subsequent effects on a sensitive herbivore species, the white tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Cornwall Island, Ontario, near an aluminum smelting facility, Using environmental concentration data for air, water and food (vegetation), a Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the probability that multimedia exposure of inorganic fluorides exceeded known effects thresholds of skeletal and dental fluorosis in deer, and in turn quantify the magnitude of that risk. With daily intakes ranging from 2--324 {micro}g/deer/day, it was estimated that exposure to fluorides exceeds the daily intake threshold for fluorosis (55 {micro}g/deer/day) in 12% of the deer population. Seasonal differences in exposure and subsequent risk were noted. These results are also supported by additional field data on domestic cattle from the Cornwall Island area where effects (e.g., excessive teeth wear, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis) have been reported and linked to high levels of fluorides in air, water, and forage. It is estimated that at least 10% of the deer from the Cornwall Island area may be subject to debilitating skeletal and dental fluorosis as a result of fluoride emissions from the adjacent aluminum smelter.

  8. Environmental impact assessment using a GSR tool for a landfarming case in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyeongseok; Kwon, Ip-Sae; Lee, Hanuk; Park, Jae-Woo

    2016-04-01

    An environmental impact assessment of a landfarming process, which was performed at an actual petroleum-contaminated site, was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool in this study. The landfarming process was divided into four stages: site preparation, installation, system operation, and system dismantling/waste disposal. The environmental footprints of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, total energy usage, and air pollutants (SOx, NOx, and PM10) were analyzed. GHG emissions and water consumption were approximately 276 metric tons and 7.90E + 05 gal, respectively, in stage III, where they were the highest due to the consumables and equipment use in the system operation. Total energy usage had the highest value of 1.54E + 03 MMBTU in stage II due to material production. The SOx and NOx emissions primarily occurred in stages I and II due to energy usage. The PM10 was mostly emitted in stages I and III and was associated with heavy use of equipment. To reduce the environmental footprints, biodiesel and sunlight were suggested as alternatives in this study. The GHG and SOx emissions decreased to 1.7 and 4.4E-04 metric tons, respectively, on the basis of total emissions with a 1 % increase in biodiesel content, but the NOx emissions increased to 5.6E-03 metric tons. If sunlight was used instead of electricity, the GHG and NOx emissions could be reduced by as much as 79 and 84 %, respectively, and the SOx emissions could also be reduced.

  9. Including exposure variability in the life cycle impact assessment of indoor chemical emissions: the case of metal degreasing.

    PubMed

    Golsteijn, Laura; Huizer, Daan; Hauck, Mara; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-10-01

    The present paper describes a method that accounts for variation in indoor chemical exposure settings and accompanying human toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA). Metal degreasing with dichloromethane was used as a case study to show method in practice. We compared the human toxicity related to the degreasing of 1m(2) of metal surface in different exposure scenarios for industrial workers, professional users outside industrial settings, and home consumers. The fraction of the chemical emission that is taken in by exposed individuals (i.e. the intake fraction) was estimated on the basis of operational conditions (e.g. exposure duration), and protective measures (e.g. local exhaust ventilation). The introduction of a time-dependency and a correction for protective measures resulted in reductions in the intake fraction of up to 1.5 orders of magnitude, compared to application of existing, less advanced models. In every exposure scenario, the life cycle impacts for human toxicity were mainly caused by indoor exposure to metal degreaser (>60%). Emissions released outdoors contributed up to 22% of the life cycle impacts for human toxicity, and the production of metal degreaser contributed up to 19%. These findings illustrate that human toxicity from indoor chemical exposure should not be disregarded in LCA case studies. Particularly when protective measures are taken or in the case of a short duration (1h or less), we recommend the use of our exposure scenario-specific approach.

  10. Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region

    SciTech Connect

    Gontier, Mikael . E-mail: gontier@kth.se

    2007-07-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

  11. Impact of Assessment Criteria on Publication Behaviour: The Case of Communication Research in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masip, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper outlines the evolution of Spanish production in the area of communication research over the last seventeen years. It analyses whether the consolidation of the existing systems of assessment of scientific activity have been mirrored by an increase in the output of Spanish authors in journals indexed by the Social Sciences…

  12. Integration of health and environment through health impact assessment: cases from three continents.

    PubMed

    Negev, Maya; Levine, Hagai; Davidovitch, Nadav; Bhatia, Rajiv; Mindell, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    Despite the strong linkage between environment and health, institutions responsible for these fields operate in largely fragmented ways with limited interaction. As illustrated in the recent engagement between health and urban planning institutions, inter-institutional cooperation could support more effective and politically acceptable solutions for both local and global problems. Analysis of three case-studies, from three different continents, shows that HIA might serve to promote synergies among health and environmental disciplines in different local contexts, and could lead to institutional and procedural changes that promote health. Case examples provided supportive evidence for these effects, despite differences in approaches to HIA and governance levels. Obstacles to the use of HIA for inter-institutional integration also differed between countries. Lessons learned could support cooperation in other common interests of health and environment disciplines such as research, training and preparedness, and mitigation of public health emergencies related to the environment.

  13. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized

  14. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from in-stream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the in-stream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty(-1) of sand (8.764 million ty(-1) of in-stream sand and 2.763 million ty(-1) of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  15. Assessing opinions in community leadership networks to address health inequalities: a case study from Project IMPACT

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, M. P.; Ramanadhan, S.; Viswanath, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in ‘Milltown’, the New England city where the study was conducted. We used UCINET network analysis software to assess the structure of local leadership and NVivo qualitative software to analyze leaders’ views on public health and health inequalities. Our main analyses showed that community power is distributed unequally in Milltown, with our network of 33 divided into an older, largely male and more powerful group, and a younger, largely female group with many ‘grassroots’ sector leaders who focus on reducing health inequalities. Ancillary network analyses showed that grassroots leaders comprise a self-referential cluster that could benefit from greater affiliation with leaders from other sectors and identified leaders who may serve as leverage points in our overall program of public agenda change to address health inequalities. Our innovative approach provides public health practitioners with a method for assessing community leaders’ views, understanding subgroup divides and mobilizing leaders who may be helpful in reducing health inequalities. PMID:26471919

  16. Mine dewatering and impact assessment in an arid area: Case of Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Drury, Len

    2016-11-01

    Analytical and empirical solution coupled with water balance method were used to predict the ground water inflow to a mine pit excavated below the water table, final pit lake level/recovery and radius of influence, through long-term and time variant simulations. The solution considers the effect of decreased saturated thickness near the pit walls, distributed recharge to the water table and upward flow through the pit bottom. The approach is flexible to accommodate the anisotropy/heterogeneity of the real world. Final pit void water level was assessed through scenarios to know whether it will be consumed by evaporation and a shallow lake will form or not. The optimised radius of influence was estimated which is considered as crucial information in relation to the engineering aspects of mine planning and sustainable development of the mine area. Time-transient inflow over a period of time was estimated using solutions, including analytical element method (AEM). Their primary value is in providing estimates of pit inflow rates to be used in the mine dewatering. Inflow estimation and recovery helps whether there is water to supplement the demand and if there is any recovery issue to be dealt with in relation to surface and groundwater quality/eco-system, environmental evaluations and mitigation. Therefore, this method is good at informing decision makers in assessing the effects of mining operations and developing an appropriate water management strategy.

  17. Community Impact Assessment Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Alberta Development Council, Peace River.

    This handbook is intended for communities that wish to undertake their own community impact assessment (CIA). The goal is to enable communities to plan for changes before they occur, so they can cope with changes when they do occur. CIA involves forecasting and evaluating the full range of unintended consequences for the community of development…

  18. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  19. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  20. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  1. Environmental impact assessment of a mixed tropical hardwood integrated pulp and paper mill--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. ); Landner, L. )

    1993-11-01

    An overview of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) for a mixed tropical hardwood integrated pulp and paper mill in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented. The EIA before the mill construction included, among other things, a detailed baseline study and also environmental impact predictions based on certain mill design and pollution abatement measures. Subsequent to mill construction (during the operational stage), data were gathered to determine the quality of the ambient air as well as the effluent and the receiving bay water quality. These post-construction monitoring results were then compared with the earlier impact predictions, and showed, in general, a good correspondence.

  2. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Katherine; Haigh, Fiona; Gleeson, Deborah; Harris, Patrick; Thow, Anne Marie; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a recently concluded free trade agreement involving Australia and 11 other Pacific-rim nations, which has the potential for far-reaching impacts on public health. A health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out during the negotiations to determine the potential future public health impact in Australia and to provide recommendations to mitigate potential harms. This paper explores the findings and outcomes of the HIA, and how this approach can be used to provide evidence for public health advocacy. Design A modified version of the standard HIA process was followed. The HIA was led by technical experts in HIA, trade policy, and health policy, in collaboration with advocacy organisations concerned with the TPP and health. The HIA reviewed the provisions in leaked TPP text in order to determine their potential impact on future health policy. As part of this process, researchers developed policy scenarios in order to examine how TPP provisions may affect health policies and their subsequent impact to health for both the general and vulnerable populations. The four policy areas assessed were the cost of medicines, tobacco control, alcohol control and food labelling. Results In all areas assessed, the HIA found that proposed TPP provisions were likely to adversely affect health. These provisions are also likely to more adversely affect the health of vulnerable populations. Conclusions The HIA produced relevant evidence that was useful in advocacy efforts by stakeholders, and engaging the public through various media platforms. PMID:27044579

  3. Impact assessment and remediation strategies for roadway construction in acid-bearing media: case study from Mid-Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Viadero, R.C.; Fortney, R.H.; Creel, A.T.

    2008-09-15

    The likelihood of encountering land impacted by current and/or historic coal mining activities is high when constructing roadways in the Mid-Appalachian region. Through additional disturbance of these lands, environmental impacts such as acid and dissolved metals loading and subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna will ensue. Consequently, it is necessary to affect a paradigm shift in roadway design and construction to account for the presence of factors that compound the already difficult task of working in a region characterized by steep topography and aggressive geochemistry. In this study, assessments of the water chemistry and biological impacts of a waste pile containing spoils from previous mining and the presence of an exposed coal mine bench were made as representative microcosmic examples of typical conditions found in the region. Based on quantitative measurements of water quality and biological conditions, recommendations are presented for the assessment and avoidance of impacts prior to construction through acid-bearing materials and suggestions are offered for postconstruction remediation at previously impacted sites.

  4. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  5. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  6. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  7. Life cycle assessment of TV sets in China: A case study of the impacts of CRT monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Song Qingbin; Wang Zhishi; Li Jinhui; Zeng Xianlai

    2012-10-15

    Along with the rapid increase in both production and use of TV sets in China, there is an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of these sets. This paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese TV sets. An assessment of the TV set device (focusing on the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor) was carried out using a detailed modular LCA based on the international standards of the ISO 14040 series. The LCA was constructed using SimaPro software version 7.2 and expressed with the Eco-indicator' 99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the CML method was used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the results. Life cycle inventory information was compiled by Ecoinvent 2.2 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the current Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that the use stage of such devices has the highest environmental impact, followed by the manufacturing stage. In the manufacturing stage, the CRT and the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) are those components contributing the most environmental impacts. During the use phase, the environmental impacts are due entirely to the methods of electricity generation used to run them, since no other aspects were taken into account for this phase. The final processing step-the end-of-life stage-can lead to a clear environmental benefit when the TV sets are processed through the formal dismantling enterprises in China.

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction: new perspectives for restoration economy, and development: the Belo Monte Power Plant case study.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M

    2015-08-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction can be viewed as a new strategic perspective for the economic development of a region. Based on the principles of a watershed approach a interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary systemic view including biogeophysiographical, economic and socio environmental studies the new vision of a EIA provides a basic substratum for the restoration economy and an advanced model for the true development much well ahead of the modernization aspects of the project of a reservoir construction.

  9. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Nachman, Keeve E.; Babik, Kelsey; Jenkins, Christian C.; Trowell, Joshua; Milton, Donald K.; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP) has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1) presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners), 2) duration of exposure, 3) frequency of exposure, 4) likelihood of health effects, 5) magnitude/severity of health effects, 6) geographic extent, and 7) effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high) that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards. PMID:26726918

  10. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Meleah D; Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Nachman, Keeve E; Babik, Kelsey; Jenkins, Christian C; Trowell, Joshua; Milton, Donald K; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP) has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1) presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners), 2) duration of exposure, 3) frequency of exposure, 4) likelihood of health effects, 5) magnitude/severity of health effects, 6) geographic extent, and 7) effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high) that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards.

  11. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  12. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-02-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature of economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of economic impact from drought by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact with a model based on cost-and-benefit analysis. By using analysis of "with-and-without", profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis on a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified, and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained using an autoregressive error model to separate impact by disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free condition and disaster-hit condition, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote the reflections on economic equality among various economic bodies at the occurrence of natural disasters.

  13. Assessment of impacts of land use changes on surface water using L-THIA model (case study: Zayandehrud river basin).

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Solgi, E; Salmanmahiny, A

    2016-12-01

    Land use changes in a basin are the most important factors affecting its hydrology and water quality. A hydrological model is an effective tool in assessing the effects of land use change on surface water. In this study, the effects of land use changes in the Zayandehrud basin are estimated using long-term hydrologic impact assessment model. This model is applicable using long-term data on climate, soil hydrological groups, and land use maps. The study covered three land uses across 18 years (from 1997 to 2015), and we used data on 30 years of precipitation (from 1985 to 2015) in the model. The results of modeling revealed that the average runoff volume increased from around 5,765,034 m(3) in 1997 to 8,894,525 m(3) in 2015. The results also showed an increase in runoff depth. Land use changes over the study period showed an increase of residential areas, bare land, and agricultural lands and a decrease of pasture and forests. The results can be used to make decisions and monitor changes in land use to control the depth and volume of runoff. Using output maps helps in delimitation of the areas that have high runoff average and in implementation of the management plans for controlling the amount of runoff in these areas. Appropriate land use design can decrease impacts of land use changes including hydrologic effects.

  14. Scoping for Social Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Ross, Helen

    2000-12-01

    Social assessment combines research, analytic, and participatory processes to identify, describe, and interpret changes in the ?human environment? that result from any of a wide variety of change agents -- projects, policies, or planning activities. Scoping for social impact assessment draws upon these same three processes - research, analysis, and participation - to: - Disclose information about the proposed action, preliminary estimates of impacts, and plans for the decision making and assessment effort - Initiate dialogue with the interested and potentially affected publics and decision makers - Establish the focus and level of detail of the assessment, identify particular issues that need to be addressed, and clarify how potentially affected publics will be consulted and involved. This chapter describes the function and key objectives of the scoping process, explains the assessment framework and the conventions and issues that set the context for the scoping process, provides some suggestions about how to plan and conduct scoping for a social assessment, and discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in designing an effective scoping process for social impact assessment. Our approach recognises that social scientists may be involved in assessment tasks that involve other disciplinary areas. This may be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA, the analysis of the impacts of policies or plans, or the combination of impact assessment with planning), or a planning process.

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  16. Influence of the impact assessment method on the conclusions of a LCA study. Application to the case of a part made with virgin and recycled HDPE.

    PubMed

    Simões, Carla L; Xará, Susana M; Bernardo, C A

    2011-10-01

    Recent legislation has stressed the need to decide the best end-of-life (EoL) option for post-consumer products considering their full life-cycle and the corresponding overall environmental impacts. The life cycle assessment (LCA) technique has become a common tool to evaluate those impacts. The present study aimed to contribute to the better understanding of the application of this technique, by evaluating the influence of the selection of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method in its results and conclusions. A specific case study was chosen, using previous information related to an anti-glare lamellae (AGL) for highway use, made with virgin and recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Five distinct LCIA methods were used: Eco-indicator 99, CML 2 (2000), EPS 2000, Eco-indicator 95 and EDIP 97. Consistent results between these methods were obtained for the Climate change, Ozone layer depletion, Acidification and Eutrophication environmental indicators. Conversely, the Summer smog indicator showed large discrepancies between impact assessment methods. The work sheds light on the advantages inherent in using various LCIA methods when doing the LCA study of a specific product, thus evidencing complementary analysis perspectives.

  17. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  18. Health impact assessment as an accountability mechanism for the International Monetary Fund: the case of sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Eileen; Scott-Samuel, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is both an effective tool for promoting healthy public policies and one that has the potential to help hold accountable for their actions those who create unhealthy public policies. This article identifies some of the issues that arise in considering the application of HIA to the operation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), especially in the context of sub-Saharan Africa. The authors do this in the belief that the IMF's lending conditionalities and macroeconomic policies constitute an important social determinant of health. The recent report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health has created helpful and timely policy space for the development of a health equity- and human rights-oriented accountability framework for the IMF.

  19. Assessing climate change impacts on wetlands in a flow regulated catchment: A case study in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Baihua; Pollino, Carmel A; Cuddy, Susan M; Andrews, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Globally wetlands are increasingly under threat due to changes in water regimes as a result of river regulation and climate change. We developed the Exploring CLimAte Impacts on Management (EXCLAIM) decision support system (DSS), which simulates flow-driven habitat condition for 16 vegetation species, 13 waterbird species and 4 fish groups in the Macquarie catchment, Australia. The EXCLAIM DSS estimates impacts to habitat condition, considering scenarios of climate change and water management. The model framework underlying the DSS is a probabilistic Bayesian network, and this approach was chosen to explicitly represent uncertainties in climate change scenarios and predicted ecological outcomes. The results suggest that the scenario with no climate change and no water resource development (i.e. flow condition without dams, weirs or water license entitlements, often regarded as a surrogate for 'natural' flow) consistently has the most beneficial outcomes for vegetation, waterbird and native fish. The 2030 dry climate change scenario delivers the poorest ecological outcomes overall, whereas the 2030 wet climate change scenario has beneficial outcomes for waterbird breeding, but delivers poor outcomes for river red gum and black box woodlands, and fish that prefer river channels as habitats. A formal evaluation of the waterbird breeding model showed that higher numbers of observed nest counts are typically associated with higher modelled average breeding habitat conditions. The EXCLAIM DSS provides a generic framework to link hydrology and ecological habitats for a large number of species, based on best available knowledge of their flood requirements. It is a starting point towards developing an integrated tool for assessing climate change impacts on wetland ecosystems.

  20. Assessment of wildland fire impacts on watershed annual water yield: Analytical framework and case studies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V.; Norman, Steven P.; Cohen, Erika C.; Liu, Yongqiang; Ward, Eric J.; McNulty, Steven G.

    2016-11-29

    More than 50% of water supplies in the conterminous United States originate on forestland or rangeland and are potentially under increasing stress as a result of larger and more severe wildfires. Little is known, however, about the long-term impacts of fire on annual water yield and the role of climate variability within this context. We here propose a framework for evaluating wildland fire impacts on streamflow that combines double-mass analysis with new methods (change point analysis, climate elasticity modeling, and process-based modeling) to distinguish between multiyear fire and climate impacts. The framework captures a wide range of fire types, watersheds characteristics, and climate conditions using streamflow data, as opposed to other approaches requiring paired watersheds. The process is illustrated with three case studies. A watershed in Arizona experienced a +266% increase in annual water yield in the 5 years after a wildfire, where +219% was attributed to wildfire and +24% to precipitation trends. In contrast, a California watershed had a lower (–64%) post-fire net water yield, comprised of enhanced flow (+38%) attributed to wildfire offset (–102%) by lower precipitation in the post-fire period. Changes in streamflow within a watershed in South Carolina had no apparent link to periods of prescribed burning but matched a very wet winter and reports of storm damage. As a result, the presented framework is unique in its ability to detect and quantify fire or other disturbances, even if the date or nature of the disturbance event is uncertain, and regardless of precipitation trends.

  1. Assessment of wildland fire impacts on watershed annual water yield: Analytical framework and case studies in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V.; ...

    2016-11-29

    More than 50% of water supplies in the conterminous United States originate on forestland or rangeland and are potentially under increasing stress as a result of larger and more severe wildfires. Little is known, however, about the long-term impacts of fire on annual water yield and the role of climate variability within this context. We here propose a framework for evaluating wildland fire impacts on streamflow that combines double-mass analysis with new methods (change point analysis, climate elasticity modeling, and process-based modeling) to distinguish between multiyear fire and climate impacts. The framework captures a wide range of fire types, watershedsmore » characteristics, and climate conditions using streamflow data, as opposed to other approaches requiring paired watersheds. The process is illustrated with three case studies. A watershed in Arizona experienced a +266% increase in annual water yield in the 5 years after a wildfire, where +219% was attributed to wildfire and +24% to precipitation trends. In contrast, a California watershed had a lower (–64%) post-fire net water yield, comprised of enhanced flow (+38%) attributed to wildfire offset (–102%) by lower precipitation in the post-fire period. Changes in streamflow within a watershed in South Carolina had no apparent link to periods of prescribed burning but matched a very wet winter and reports of storm damage. As a result, the presented framework is unique in its ability to detect and quantify fire or other disturbances, even if the date or nature of the disturbance event is uncertain, and regardless of precipitation trends.« less

  2. Impact Assessment of the Renewable Energies in the Cultural Heritage: the Case of the Way of St. James in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chias, P.; Abad, T.

    2014-06-01

    Medieval town centres and landscapes along the Way of St. James are being affected by renewable energy sources at the architectural, urban and territorial scales. The impact is not only visual, but thermal, accoustic and electromagnetic. Visual impact of solar photovoltaic power plants - which are placed over traditional crops close to the urban borders -, and also wind farms located at the hilltops, are sometimes remarkable. Solar photovoltaic modules are integrated into ancient roofs, and small scale wind turbines are taking up the ancient urban spaces. Among other effects on animal life and vegetation, the rise in temperature, radioelectric interferences, as well as changes in the traditional land uses are noticeable, and a deep analysis is needed. Our main target is to define an integrated methodology which considers all these effects. As a part of our project premises, we work with Open Source programs. We obtained a digital terrain model - 25 m spatial resolution -, and from Corine Land Cover images we got different raster files according to our research targets. Databases where implemented from both remote sensing and measures obtained directly in the field work. We applied GIS based multicriteria decision analysis and weighted linear combination, and then we adapted GRASS tools for a better usability. Our case studies are particularly interesting due to their situation along the Spanish Way of St. James, which is an itinerary named one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

  3. Environmental decision-making using life cycle impact assessment and stochastic multiattribute decision analysis: a case study on alternative transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kristin; Seager, Thomas P

    2009-03-15

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) involves weighing trade-offs between multiple and incommensurate criteria. Current state-of-the-art LCIA tools typically compute an overall environmental score using a linear-weighted aggregation of characterized inventory data that has been normalized relative to total industry, regional, or national emissions. However, current normalization practices risk masking impacts that may be significant within the context of the decision, albeit small relative to the reference data (e.g., total U.S. emissions). Additionally, uncertainty associated with quantification of weights is generally very high. Partly for these reasons, many LCA studies truncate impact assessment at the inventory characterization step, rather than completing normalization and weighting steps. This paper describes a novel approach called stochastic multiattribute life cycle impact assessment (SMA-LCIA) that combines an outranking approach to normalization with stochastic exploration of weight spaces-avoiding some of the drawbacks of current LCIA methods. To illustrate the new approach, SMA-LCIA is compared with a typical LCIA method for crop-based, fossil-based, and electric fuels using the Greenhouse gas Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for inventory data and the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) model for data characterization. In contrast to the typical LCIA case, in which results are dominated by fossil fuel depletion and global warming considerations regardless of criteria weights, the SMA-LCIA approach results in a rank ordering that is more sensitive to decisionmaker preferences. The principal advantage of the SMA-LCIA method is the ability to facilitate exploration and construction of context-specific criteria preferences by simultaneously representing multiple weights spaces and the sensitivity of the rank ordering to uncertain stakeholder values.

  4. Quantitative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in selected categories of deli meats: impact of lactate and diacetate on listeriosis cases and deaths.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Foodborne disease associated with consumption of ready-to-eat foods contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes represents a considerable pubic health concern. In a risk assessment published in 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service estimated that about 90% of human listeriosis cases in the United States are caused by consumption of contaminated deli meats. In this risk assessment, all deli meats were grouped into one of 23 categories of ready-to-eat foods, and only the postretail growth of L. monocytogenes was considered. To provide an improved risk assessment for L. monocytogenes in deli meats, we developed a revised risk assessment that (i) models risk for three subcategories of deli meats (i.e., ham, turkey, and roast beef) and (ii) models L. monocytogenes contamination and growth from production to consumption while considering subcategory-specific growth kinetics parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate). This model also was used to assess how reformulation of the chosen deli meat subcategories with L. monocytogenes growth inhibitors (i.e., lactate and diacetate) would impact the number of human listeriosis cases. Use of product-specific growth parameters demonstrated how certain deli meat categories differ in the relative risk of causing listeriosis; products that support more rapid growth and have reduced lag phases (e.g., turkey) represent a higher risk. Although reformulation of deli meats with growth inhibitors was estimated to reduce by about 2.5- to 7.8-fold the number of human listeriosis cases linked to a given deli meat subcategory and thus would reduce the overall risk of human listeriosis, even with reformulation deli meats would still cause a considerable number of human listeriosis cases. A combination of strategies is thus needed to provide continued reduction of these cases. Risk assessment models such as that described here will be critical for evaluation of different control

  5. Assessing the impact of bycatch on dolphin populations: the case of the common dolphin in the eastern North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of -5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  6. Assessing the Impact of Bycatch on Dolphin Populations: The Case of the Common Dolphin in the Eastern North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of −5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  7. Assessing Cross-Media Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiquam, Howard; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Using 1000 MW coal-fired central power stations as an example, the impacts upon other media (land, air, water) are analyzed when controls are imposed on one medium. The development of a methodology for assessing the cross-media impact of specific control technologies or strategies is illustrated. (Author/BT)

  8. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzwairo, Bloodless; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Love, David; Guzha, Edward

    In resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses. Groundwater pollution potential from on-site sanitation in such areas conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles that advocate for sustainable use of water resources. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. This study assessed impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Kamangira village, Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Groundwater samples from 14 monitoring boreholes and 3 shallow wells were analysed during 6 sampling campaigns, from February 2005 to May 2005. Parameters analysed were total and faecal coliforms, NH4+-N, NO3--N, conductivity, turbidity and pH, both for boreholes and shallow wells. Total and faecal coliforms both ranged 0-TNTC (too-numerous-to-count), 78% of results meeting the 0 CFU/100 ml WHO guidelines value. NH4+-N range was 0-2.0 mg/l, with 99% of results falling below the 1.5 mg/l WHO recommended value. NO3--N range was 0.0-6.7 mg/l, within 10 mg/l WHO guidelines value. The range for conductivity values was 46-370 μS/cm while the pH range was 6.8-7.9. There are no WHO guideline values for these two parameters. Turbidity ranged from 1 NTU to 45 NTU, 59% of results meeting the 5 NTU WHO guidelines limit. Depth from the ground surface to the water table for the period February 2005 to May 2005 was determined for all sampling points using a tape measure. The drop in water table averaged from 1.1 m to 1.9 m and these values were obtained by subtracting water table elevations from absolute ground surface elevation. Soil from the monitoring boreholes was classified as sandy. The soil infiltration layer was taken as the layer between the pit latrine bottom and the water table. It averaged from 1.3 m to 1.7 m above the water table for two latrines

  9. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  10. Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions in river flood defences to uncertainty in climate impact analysis: A case study on the River Suir, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Murphy, C.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenging environment for policy makers and planners as future climate projections are fraught with uncertainty. From the formulation of emissions scenarios, through to the output from Global Climate Models to the regional and then the local scale, uncertainty propagates and increases leading to a cascade of uncertainty (Jones, 2001). The level of flood defences for rivers in Ireland has been built to withstand the 1 in 100 year event based on the historic record. However, stream flow due to climate change is likely to increase by 20% in winter by mid century. The Office of Public Works has therefore revised their projections by adding 20% to the 1 in 100 year event as a design feature of their new flood defences. This poster presents a sensitivity analysis of how various aspects of the climate impact assessment affect the revised level of the 1 in 100 year flood. The River Suir is used as a case study. This poster aims to quantify how different aspects of climate impact assessment uncertainty (GCM, Emissions scenario, impact model) affect the revised level of the 1 in 100 year flood and evaluates if the design of flood defences remains robust to the this uncertainty. Authors. Nuala Murphy Conor Murphy

  11. Impacts of river water consumption on aquatic biodiversity in life cycle assessment--a proposed method, and a case study for Europe.

    PubMed

    Tendall, Danielle M; Hellweg, Stefanie; Pfister, Stephan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Gaillard, Gérard

    2014-03-18

    In the context of climate change and food provisioning for a growing global population, the impacts of water consumption on aquatic biodiversity (e.g., river water consumption for irrigation) should be considered in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). A previous LCIA method quantifying the potential impacts of river water consumption on fish biodiversity, using a species-discharge relationship (SDR), constituted an essential first step. This method is however limited in terms of regionalization and taxa considered, and predicts the potential risk of local species loss only. Here, we address these shortcomings by developing region-specific SDRs for Europe at various scales (continent, country, and eco-region), and including macro-invertebrate biodiversity. SDR exponents vary from 0.06 to 0.45 between regions, underlining the importance of such regionalization. Furthermore, we provide a new regionalized method which considers the location of water consumption within a river basin, by integrating the concept of longitudinal river zonation. This involves the use of a novel measure of potential loss of species richness, standardizing local species loss to an equivalent of global extinction and reflecting species vulnerability. The new method is applied in a Swiss case-study. The consideration of the location of water consumption within a basin was found to be of high importance in the assessment: potential species loss varied between 4.22 × 10(-3) and 3.95 × 10(-1) species (2 orders of magnitude) depending on location. This work thus provides enhancements in the assessment of potential impacts of river water consumption on aquatic biodiversity and contributes to the ecological relevance of the method.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  13. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  14. Environmental quality assessment of reservoirs impacted by Hg from chlor-alkali technologies: case study of a recovery.

    PubMed

    Le Faucheur, Séverine; Vasiliu, Dan; Catianis, Irina; Zazu, Mariana; Dranguet, Perrine; Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Cosio, Claudia; Ungureanu, Costin; Ungureanu, Viorel Gheorghe; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2016-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) pollution legacy of chlor-alkali plants will be an important issue in the next decades with the planned phase out of Hg-based electrodes by 2025 within the Minamata convention. In such a context, the present study aimed to examine the extent of Hg contamination in the reservoirs surrounding the Oltchim plant and to evaluate the possible improvement of the environmental quality since the closure of its chlor-alkali unit. This plant is the largest chlor-alkali plant in Romania, which partly switched to Hg-free technology in 1999 and definitely stopped the use of Hg electrolysis in May 2012. Total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (CH3Hg) concentrations were found to decrease in the surface waters and sediments of the reservoirs receiving the effluents of the chlor-alkali platform since the closure of Hg units. Hence, calculated risk quotients (RQ) indicated no adverse effect of Hg for aquatic organisms from the ambient water exposure. RQ of Hg in sediments were mostly all higher than 1, showing important risks for benthic organisms. However, ecotoxicity testing of water and sediments suggest possible impact of other contaminants and their mixtures. Hg hotspots were found in soils around the platform with RQ values much higher than 1. Finally, THg and CH3Hg concentrations in fish were below the food safety limit set by the WHO, which contrasts with previous measurements made in 2007 revealing that 92 % of the studied fish were of high risk of consumption. Discontinuing the use of Hg electrodes greatly improved the surrounding environment of chlor-alkali plants within the following years and led to the decrease environmental exposure to Hg through fish consumption. However, sediment and soil still remained highly contaminated and problematic for the river reservoir management. The results of this ecological risk assessment study have important implications for the evaluation of the benefits as well as limits of the Minamata Convention implementation.

  15. Beyond citation analysis: a model for assessment of research impact

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, Ellen K.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Is there a means of assessing research impact beyond citation analysis? Setting: The case study took place at the Washington University School of Medicine Becker Medical Library. Method: This case study analyzed the research study process to identify indicators beyond citation count that demonstrate research impact. Main Results: The authors discovered a number of indicators that can be documented for assessment of research impact, as well as resources to locate evidence of impact. As a result of the project, the authors developed a model for assessment of research impact, the Becker Medical Library Model for Assessment of Research. Conclusion: Assessment of research impact using traditional citation analysis alone is not a sufficient tool for assessing the impact of research findings, and it is not predictive of subsequent clinical applications resulting in meaningful health outcomes. The Becker Model can be used by both researchers and librarians to document research impact to supplement citation analysis. PMID:20098647

  16. Assessment of biomass burning emissions and their impacts on urban and regional PM2.5: a Georgia case study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Wang, Yuhang; Boylan, James W; Zheng, Mei; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-01-15

    Biomass burning is a major and growing contributor to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Such impacts (especially individual impacts from each burning source) are quantified using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, a chemical transport model (CTM). Given the sensitivity of CTM results to uncertain emission inputs, simulations were conducted using three biomass burning inventories. Shortcomings in the burning emissions were also evaluated by comparing simulations with observations and results from a receptor model. Model performance improved significantly with the updated emissions and speciation profiles based on recent measurements for biomass burning: mean fractional bias is reduced from 22% to 4% for elemental carbon and from 18% to 12% for organic matter; mean fractional error is reduced from 59% to 50% for elemental carbon and from 55% to 49% for organic matter. Quantified impacts of biomass burning on PM2.5 during January, March, May, and July 2002 are 3.0, 5.1, 0.8, and 0.3 microg m(-3) domainwide on average, with more than 80% of such impacts being from primary emissions. Impacts of prescribed burning dominate biomass burning impacts, contributing about 55% and 80% of PM2.5 in January and March, respectively, followed by land clearing and agriculture field burning. Significant impacts of wildfires in May and residential wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves in January are also found.

  17. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  18. The Self-Assessment Process and Impacts on the Health Information Management Program Performance: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Spohn, Renae

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how health information management (HIM) educational programs can use the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Model (MBNQAM) educational criteria to meet the self-assessment requirement for Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) accreditation. An existing instrument, Quantum Performance Group's Organizational Assessment Survey authored by Dr. Mark Blazey, was used in this study. The instrument was designed to self-assess the entire organization. Results of the study demonstrate how the MBNQAM can be used to successfully self-assess HIM programs. This research adds to the body of literature surrounding the application of the MBNQAM for HIM programs and provides new information to deans, administrators, and educators that may be useful, as an added component, when self-assessing HIM programs. The results of this study will help to establish a foundation for HIM programs to strengthen the self-assessment process, providing a strong starting point for strategic planning prioritization for HIM program improvement initiatives. The improved process will help in maturing the HIM program while fulfilling accreditation requirements for self-assessment. As additional HIM programs formalize the self-assessment process, benchmarking opportunities with other HIM programs will be created. PMID:26755899

  19. The Self-Assessment Process and Impacts on the Health Information Management Program Performance: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Spohn, Renae

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how health information management (HIM) educational programs can use the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Model (MBNQAM) educational criteria to meet the self-assessment requirement for Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) accreditation. An existing instrument, Quantum Performance Group's Organizational Assessment Survey authored by Dr. Mark Blazey, was used in this study. The instrument was designed to self-assess the entire organization. Results of the study demonstrate how the MBNQAM can be used to successfully self-assess HIM programs. This research adds to the body of literature surrounding the application of the MBNQAM for HIM programs and provides new information to deans, administrators, and educators that may be useful, as an added component, when self-assessing HIM programs. The results of this study will help to establish a foundation for HIM programs to strengthen the self-assessment process, providing a strong starting point for strategic planning prioritization for HIM program improvement initiatives. The improved process will help in maturing the HIM program while fulfilling accreditation requirements for self-assessment. As additional HIM programs formalize the self-assessment process, benchmarking opportunities with other HIM programs will be created.

  20. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  1. Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoussi, Maria; Ouchani, Tachfine; Niazi, Saïda

    2008-04-01

    The eastern part of the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is physically and socio-economically vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise, due to its low topography and its high ecological and touristic value. Assessment of the potential land loss by inundation has been based on empirical approaches using a minimum inundation level of 2 m and a maximum inundation level of 7 m, where scenarios for future sea-level rise range from 200 to 860 mm, with a 'best estimate' of 490 mm. The socio-economic impacts have been based on two possible alternative futures: (1) a 'worst-case' scenario, obtained by combining the 'economic development first' scenario with the maximum inundation level; and (2) a 'best-case' scenario, by combining the 'sustainability first' scenario with the minimum inundation level. Inundation analysis, based on Geographical Information Systems and a modelling approach to erosion, has identified both locations and the socioeconomic sectors that are most at risk to accelerated sea-level rise. Results indicate that 24% and 59% of the area will be lost by flooding at minimum and maximum inundation levels, respectively. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the residential and recreational areas, agricultural land, and the natural ecosystem. Shoreline erosion will affect 50% and 70% of the total area in 2050 and 2100, respectively. Potential strategies to ameliorate the impact of seawater inundation include: wetland preservation; beach nourishment at tourist resorts; and the afforestation of dunes. As this coast is planned to become one of the most developed tourist resorts in Morocco by 2010, measures such as building regulation, urban growth planning and development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan, are recommended for the region.

  2. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  3. Assessing land take by urban development and its impact on carbon storage: Findings from two case studies in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sallustio, L.; Quatrini, V.; Geneletti, D.; Corona, P.; Marchetti, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We tested a new methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on C storage. • The ecological impact of urban growth derives from the previous land use. • C loss increases with the naturalness of the territory. • Different urban assets may imply different forms of land take containment. Land take due to urbanization triggers a series of negative environmental impacts with direct effects on quality of life for people living in cities. Changes in ecosystem services are associated with land take, among which is the immediate C loss due to land use conversion. Land use change monitoring represents the first step in quantifying land take and its drivers and impacts. To this end, we propose an innovative methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on ecosystem services (in particular, C loss) under multi-scale contexts. The devised approach was tested in two areas with similar sizes, but different land take levels during the time-span 1990–2008 in Central Italy (the Province of Rome and the Molise Region). The estimates of total coverage of built up areas were calculated using point sampling. The area of the urban patches including each sampling point classified as built up areas in the year 1990 and/or in the year 2008 is used to estimate total abundance and average area of built up areas. Biophysical and economic values for carbon loss associated with land take were calculated using InVEST. Although land take was 7–8 times higher in the Province of Rome (from 15.1% in 1990 to 20.4% in 2008) than in Molise region, our findings show that its relative impact on C storage is higher in the latter, where the urban growth consistently affects not only croplands but also semi-natural land uses such as grasslands and other wooded lands. The total C loss due to land take has been estimated in 1.6 million Mg C, corresponding to almost 355 million €. Finally, the paper discusses the main characteristics of urban growth and their

  4. Assessment of Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) Training: A Case Study of a Training Program and Its Impact on GTAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Stacy L.; Bippus, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Graduate teaching associates (GTAs) play a vital role as instructors at many universities but often are not confident in their ability to perform their job-related duties. Based on Bandura's (1997) theory of self-efficacy, this project examined a teacher-training program for GTAs and assessed its outcomes. Our results revealed that GTAs reported…

  5. Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

  6. C-17A Sustainment Performance Metrics Assessment: Repair Source Impact on Sustainment for Future Business Case Analysis Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    recommendation since it did not include analysis of benefits, cost, and risk. The 2009 BCA also did not assess changes in incentive structures . Consequently...not have fully listed assumptions. The 2009 BCA did not propose different contractual incentive structures the Government may use as options to...different potential alternative altogether – a set of different incentive structures for the contractor in contrast to the current incentive options

  7. Biomass burning influences on atmospheric composition: A case study to assess the impact of aerosol data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keslake, Tim; Chipperfield, Martyn; Mann, Graham; Flemming, Johannes; Remy, Sam; Dhomse, Sandip; Morgan, Will

    2016-04-01

    The C-IFS (Composition Integrated Forecast System) developed under the MACC series of projects and to be continued under the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring System, provides global operational forecasts and re-analyses of atmospheric composition at high spatial resolution (T255, ~80km). Currently there are 2 aerosol schemes implemented within C-IFS, a mass-based scheme with externally mixed particle types and an aerosol microphysics scheme (GLOMAP-mode). The simpler mass-based scheme is the current operational system, also used in the existing system to assimilate satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for improved forecast capability. The microphysical GLOMAP scheme has now been implemented and evaluated in the latest C-IFS cycle alongside the mass-based scheme. The upgrade to the microphysical scheme provides for higher fidelity aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, accounting for global variations in size distribution and mixing state, and additional aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. The new scheme will also provide increased aerosol information when used as lateral boundary conditions for regional air quality models. Here we present a series of experiments highlighting the influence and accuracy of the two different aerosol schemes and the impact of MODIS AOD assimilation. In particular, we focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on aerosol properties in the Amazon, comparing to ground-based and aircraft observations from the 2012 SAMBBA campaign. Biomass burning can affect regional air quality, human health, regional weather and the local energy budget. Tropical biomass burning generates particles primarily composed of particulate organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC), the local ratio of these two different constituents often determining the properties and subsequent impacts of the aerosol particles. Therefore, the model's ability to capture the concentrations of these two

  8. Integrating a process-based ecosystem model with Landsat imagery to assess impacts of forest disturbance on terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in Alabama and Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guangsheng; Tian, Hanqin; Huang, Chengquan; Prior, Stephen A.; Pan, Shufen

    2013-07-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are dramatically altered by three major disturbances: timber harvesting, hurricane, and permanent land conversion. Understanding and quantifying effects of disturbance on forest carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles is critical for sustainable forest management in this region. In this study, we introduced a process-based ecosystem model for simulating forest disturbance impacts on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles. Based on forest mortality data classified from Landsat TM/ETM + images, this model was then applied to estimate changes in carbon storage using Mississippi and Alabama as a case study. Mean annual forest mortality rate for these states was 2.37%. Due to frequent disturbance, over 50% of the forest land in the study region was less than 30 years old. Forest disturbance events caused a large carbon source (138.92 Tg C, 6.04 Tg C yr-1; 1 Tg = 1012 g) for both states during 1984–2007, accounting for 2.89% (4.81% if disregard carbon storage changes in wood products) of the total forest carbon storage in this region. Large decreases and slow recovery of forest biomass were the main causes for carbon release. Forest disturbance could result in a carbon sink in few areas if wood product carbon was considered as a local carbon pool, indicating the importance of accounting for wood product carbon when assessing forest disturbance effects. The legacy effects of forest disturbance on ecosystem carbon storage could last over 50 years. Lastly, this study implies that understanding forest disturbance impacts on carbon dynamics is of critical importance for assessing regional carbon budgets.

  9. Integrating a process-based ecosystem model with Landsat imagery to assess impacts of forest disturbance on terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in Alabama and Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangsheng; Tian, Hanqin; Huang, Chengquan; Prior, Stephen A.; Pan, Shufen

    2013-07-01

    ecosystems in the southern United States are dramatically altered by three major disturbances: timber harvesting, hurricane, and permanent land conversion. Understanding and quantifying effects of disturbance on forest carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles is critical for sustainable forest management in this region. In this study, we introduced a process-based ecosystem model for simulating forest disturbance impacts on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles. Based on forest mortality data classified from Landsat TM/ETM + images, this model was then applied to estimate changes in carbon storage using Mississippi and Alabama as a case study. Mean annual forest mortality rate for these states was 2.37%. Due to frequent disturbance, over 50% of the forest land in the study region was less than 30 years old. Forest disturbance events caused a large carbon source (138.92 Tg C, 6.04 Tg C yr-1; 1 Tg = 1012 g) for both states during 1984-2007, accounting for 2.89% (4.81% if disregard carbon storage changes in wood products) of the total forest carbon storage in this region. Large decreases and slow recovery of forest biomass were the main causes for carbon release. Forest disturbance could result in a carbon sink in few areas if wood product carbon was considered as a local carbon pool, indicating the importance of accounting for wood product carbon when assessing forest disturbance effects. The legacy effects of forest disturbance on ecosystem carbon storage could last over 50 years. This study implies that understanding forest disturbance impacts on carbon dynamics is of critical importance for assessing regional carbon budgets.

  10. Integrating a process-based ecosystem model with Landsat imagery to assess impacts of forest disturbance on terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in Alabama and Mississippi

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Guangsheng; Tian, Hanqin; Huang, Chengquan; ...

    2013-07-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are dramatically altered by three major disturbances: timber harvesting, hurricane, and permanent land conversion. Understanding and quantifying effects of disturbance on forest carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles is critical for sustainable forest management in this region. In this study, we introduced a process-based ecosystem model for simulating forest disturbance impacts on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles. Based on forest mortality data classified from Landsat TM/ETM + images, this model was then applied to estimate changes in carbon storage using Mississippi and Alabama as a case study. Mean annual forest mortality rate formore » these states was 2.37%. Due to frequent disturbance, over 50% of the forest land in the study region was less than 30 years old. Forest disturbance events caused a large carbon source (138.92 Tg C, 6.04 Tg C yr-1; 1 Tg = 1012 g) for both states during 1984–2007, accounting for 2.89% (4.81% if disregard carbon storage changes in wood products) of the total forest carbon storage in this region. Large decreases and slow recovery of forest biomass were the main causes for carbon release. Forest disturbance could result in a carbon sink in few areas if wood product carbon was considered as a local carbon pool, indicating the importance of accounting for wood product carbon when assessing forest disturbance effects. The legacy effects of forest disturbance on ecosystem carbon storage could last over 50 years. Lastly, this study implies that understanding forest disturbance impacts on carbon dynamics is of critical importance for assessing regional carbon budgets.« less

  11. An assessment of the impact of the pet trade on five CITES-Appendix II case studies - Boa constrictor imperator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, Chad E.; Boback, Scott M.; Reed, Robert N.; Frazier, Julius A.

    2015-01-01

    Boa constrictor is a wide ranging snake species that is common in the pet trade and is currently listed in CITES Appendix II. Hog Island boas, or Cayos Cochinos boas, are a dwarf, insular race of Boa constrictor imperator endemic to the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras. Cayos Cochinos boas are prized in the international pet trade for their light pink dorsal coloration, as well as for being much smaller and more docile than mainland boas (Porras, 1999; Russo, 2007). The boa population in the Cayos Cochinos was heavily exploited for the pet trade from 1979 to 1993, and researchers reported finding no boas on the islands during a five day herpetological survey trip in the early 1990s (Wilson and CruzDiaz, 1993), leading to the speculation that the population had been extirpated (e.g., Russo, 2007). The Cayos Cochinos Archipelago Natural Marine Monument has been managed by the Honduran Coral Reef Foundation since 1994 and prohibits removal of boas from the area. Poaching for the pet trade continues today, although at a lower level. Due to the endemic nature of this island morph of B. c. imperator it is imperative that we understand the dynamics of the populations and the ongoing threats that could negatively impact their long-term survival.

  12. The assessment of land use change impact on watersheds runoff using SWAT: case study of Urmia Lake in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, long counted among the world's largest saltwater lakes, contains only 5% of the amount of water it did just 20 years ago. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. It has been believed that land use changes in Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important factors in shrinkage of Urmia Lake in recent decades. Transforming the traditional agricultural practices (i.e., wheat) to the more water consuming practices (i.e., apple orchards) is one of the most important reasons increased agricultural water consumption in the watershed. In this study we assessed the effect of the land use changes of watershed in hydrological runoff processing in the Nazloo chai watershed, one of the most important river basins of the Urmia Lake basin. Actually the rapid and at the same time unreasonable transformations of land use in farm lands of Urmia lake sub basins, extremely has been raised the amount of blue water (surface or groundwater) consumption in watershed which leads to dramatic decrement of watershed runoff amounts. One of the most unfavorable consequences of land use change was changing the blue and green (rainwater insofar as it does not become runoff) water usage patterns in watershed, in addition to water use increment. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), one of the most important and reliable models which was used to model the rainfall runoff, has been used in current study. The land use maps were extracted from Landsat images archives for the most severe turning points in respect of land use change in the recent 30 years. After calibrating the model, several land use patterns of historical data were used in the model to produce the runoff. The results showed the strong relation between land use change and runoff reduction in the Lake Urmia basin.

  13. Environmental impact assessment in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.G.; De Aguiar, A.M.D. . Dept. de Ecologia e Programa de Pos- graduac ao em Analise Ambiental)

    1993-05-01

    Brazilian environmental impact assessment (EIA) had a relatively late birth and is still far from being operative by international standards. Currently, geological, economic, and social considerations are more highly valued. Nevertheless, EIA has become important in shaping governmental policy. The state of Sao Paulo is responsible for 40% of all EIAs produced in Brazil, and the number of EIAs produced is proportional to stat population density.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  16. [Multiple imputation and complete case analysis in logistic regression models: a practical assessment of the impact of incomplete covariate data].

    PubMed

    Camargos, Vitor Passos; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Xavier, Cesar Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2011-12-01

    Researchers in the health field often deal with the problem of incomplete databases. Complete Case Analysis (CCA), which restricts the analysis to subjects with complete data, reduces the sample size and may result in biased estimates. Based on statistical grounds, Multiple Imputation (MI) uses all collected data and is recommended as an alternative to CCA. Data from the study Saúde em Beagá, attended by 4,048 adults from two of nine health districts in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2008-2009, were used to evaluate CCA and different MI approaches in the context of logistic models with incomplete covariate data. Peculiarities in some variables in this study allowed analyzing a situation in which the missing covariate data are recovered and thus the results before and after recovery are compared. Based on the analysis, even the more simplistic MI approach performed better than CCA, since it was closer to the post-recovery results.

  17. Global Assessment of the Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Sleep through Specific Questionnaires. A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecube, Albert; Sánchez, Enric; Gómez-Peralta, Fernando; Abreu, Cristina; Valls, Joan; Mestre, Olga; Romero, Odile; Martínez, María Dolores; Sampol, Gabriel; Ciudin, Andreea; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent risk factor for sleep breathing disorders. However, it is unknown whether T2D affects daily somnolence and quality of sleep independently of the impairment of polysomnographic parameters. Material and Methods A case-control study including 413 patients with T2D and 413 non-diabetic subjects, matched by age, gender, BMI, and waist and neck circumferences. A polysomnography was performed and daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In addition, 135 subjects with T2D and 45 controls matched by the same previous parameters were also evaluated through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to calculate sleep quality. Results Daytime sleepiness was higher in T2D than in control subjects (p = 0.003), with 23.9% of subjects presenting an excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS>10). Patients with fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥13.1 mmol/l) were identified as the group with a higher risk associated with an ESS>10 (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.8–7.9, p = 0.0003). A stepwise regression analyses showed that the presence of T2D, baseline glucose levels and gender but not polysomnographic parameters (i.e apnea-hyoapnea index or sleeping time spent with oxigen saturation lower than 90%) independently predicted the ESS score. In addition, subjects with T2D showed higher sleep disturbances [PSQI: 7.0 (1.0–18.0) vs. 4 (0.0–12.0), p<0.001]. Conclusion The presence of T2D and high levels of FPG are independent risk factors for daytime sleepiness and adversely affect sleep quality. Prospective studies addressed to demonstrate whether glycemia optimization could improve the sleep quality in T2D patients seem warranted. PMID:27315083

  18. Assessing the impacts of climate change in Mediterranean catchments under conditions of data scarcity - The Gaza case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampe, David; Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    According to current climate projections, Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. While there is scientific consensus that climate induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean regions are presently occurring and are projected to amplify in the future, very little knowledge is available about the quantification of these changes, which is hampered by a lack of suitable and cost effective hydrological monitoring and modeling systems. The European FP7-project CLIMB is aiming to analyze climate induced changes on the hydrology of the Mediterranean Basins by investigating seven test sites located in the countries Italy, France, Turkey, Tunisia, Gaza and Egypt. CLIMB employs a combination of novel geophysical field monitoring concepts, remote sensing techniques and integrated hydrologic modeling to improve process descriptions and understanding and to quantify existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. One of those seven sites is the Gaza Strip, located in the Eastern Mediterranean and part of the Palestinian Autonomous Area, covers an area of 365km² with a length of 35km and 6 to 12km in width. Elevation ranges from sea level up to 104m in the East of the test site. Mean annual precipitation varies from 235mm in the South to 420mm in the North of the area. The inter annual variability of rainfall and the rapid population growth in an highly agricultural used area represent the major challenges in this area. The physically based Water Simulation Model WaSiM Vers. 2 (Schulla & Jasper (1999)) is setup to model current and projected future hydrological conditions. The availability of measured meteorological and hydrological data is poor as common to many Mediterranean catchments. The lack of available measured input data hampers the calibration of the model setup and the validation of model outputs. WaSiM was driven with meteorological forcing taken from 4

  19. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban climate by remote satellite perspective: a case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Khanh Linh, N.; Van Chuong, H.

    2015-04-01

    Urban climate, one of the challenges of human being in 21 century, is known as the results of land use/cover transformation. Its characteristics are distinguished by different varieties of climatic conditions in comparison with those of less built-up areas. The alterations lead to "Urban Heat Island", in which temperature in urban places is higher than surrounding environment. This happens not only in mega cities but also in less urbanized sites. The results determine the change of land use/cover and land surface temperature in Danang city by using multi-temporal Landsat and ASTER data for the period of 1990-2009. Based on the supervised classification method of maximum likelihood algorithm, satellite images in 1990, 2003, 2009 were classified into five classes: water, forest, shrub, agriculture, barren land and built-up area. For accuracy assessment, the error metric tabulations of mapped classes and reference classes were made. The Kappa statistics, derived from error matrices, were over 80% for all of land use maps. An comparison change detection algorithm was made in three intervals, 1990-2003, 2003-2009 and 1990-2009. The results showed that built-up area increased from 8.95% to 17.87% between 1990 and 2009, while agriculture, shrub and barren decreased from 12.98% to 7.53%, 15.72% to 9.89% and 3.88% to 1.77% due to urbanization that resulted from increasing of urban population and economic development, respectively. Land surface temperature (LST) maps were retrieved from thermal infrared bands of Landsat and ASTER data. The result indicated that the temperature in study area increased from 39oC to 41oC for the period of 1990-2009. Our analysis showed that built-up area had the highest LST values, whereas water bodies had the least LST. This study is expected to be useful for decision makers to make an appropriate land use planning which can mitigate the effect to urban climate.

  20. Assessing the impact of hydrodynamics on large-scale flood wave propagation - a case study for the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Jannis M.; Haag, Arjen V.; van Dam, Arthur; Winsemius, Hessel C.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale flood events often show spatial correlation in neighbouring basins, and thus can affect adjacent basins simultaneously, as well as result in superposition of different flood peaks. Such flood events therefore need to be addressed with large-scale modelling approaches to capture these processes. Many approaches currently in place are based on either a hydrologic or a hydrodynamic model. However, the resulting lack of interaction between hydrology and hydrodynamics, for instance, by implementing groundwater infiltration on inundated floodplains, can hamper modelled inundation and discharge results where such interactions are important. In this study, the global hydrologic model PCR-GLOBWB at 30 arcmin spatial resolution was one-directionally and spatially coupled with the hydrodynamic model Delft 3D Flexible Mesh (FM) for the Amazon River basin at a grid-by-grid basis and at a daily time step. The use of a flexible unstructured mesh allows for fine-scale representation of channels and floodplains, while preserving a coarser spatial resolution for less flood-prone areas, thus not unnecessarily increasing computational costs. In addition, we assessed the difference between a 1-D channel/2-D floodplain and a 2-D schematization in Delft 3D FM. Validating modelled discharge results shows that coupling PCR-GLOBWB to a hydrodynamic routing scheme generally increases model performance compared to using a hydrodynamic or hydrologic model only for all validation parameters applied. Closer examination shows that the 1-D/2-D schematization outperforms 2-D for r2 and root mean square error (RMSE) whilst having a lower Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE). We also found that spatial coupling has the significant advantage of a better representation of inundation at smaller streams throughout the model domain. A validation of simulated inundation extent revealed that only those set-ups incorporating 1-D channels are capable of representing inundations for reaches below the

  1. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-09-16

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.

  2. Impact assessment of on-site sanitation system on groundwater quality in alluvial settings: A case study from Lucknow city in North India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Chandrakant; Ramya Sanam, S; Chaturvedi, M K; Padmakar, C; Pujari, Paras R; Labhasetwar, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    The present case study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality in alluvial settings in Lucknow City in India. The groundwater samples have been collected in the areas of Lucknow City where the on-site sanitation systems have been implemented. The groundwater samples have been analyzed for the major physicochemical parameters and fecal coliform. The results of analysis reveal that none of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) limits for all the parameters. Fecal coliform was not found in majority of the samples including those samples which were very close to the septic tank. The study area has a thick alluvium cover as a top layer which acts as a natural barrier for groundwater contamination from the on-site sanitation system. The t test has been performed to assess the seasonal effect on groundwater quality. The statistical t test implies that there is a significant effect of season on groundwater quality in the study area.

  3. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  4. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  5. Practitioners, professional cultures, and perceptions of impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.; Hart, Andrew; Freeman, Claire; Coutts, Brian; Colwill, David; Hughes, Andrew

    2012-01-15

    The very nature of impact assessment (IA) means that it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, which open the possibility that how IA is perceived and practised may vary according to the professional background of the practitioner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a practitioner's professional background influences their perceptions of the adequacy of impact assessment in New Zealand under the Resource Management Act (RMA). Information gathered concerned professional affiliations, training, understanding of impact assessment practise, and perceptions of adequacy in relation to impact assessment. The results showed a dominance of a legalistic, operational perspective of impact assessment under the Resource Management Act, across all the main professions represented in the study. However, among preparers of impact assessments there was clear evidence of differences between the four main professional groups - surveyors, planners, engineers and natural scientists - in the way they see the nature and purpose of impact assessment, the practical steps involved, and what constitutes adequacy. Similarly, impact assessment reviewers - predominantly planners and lawyers - showed variations in their expectations of impact assessment depending on their respective professional affiliation. Although in many cases the differences seem to be more of a matter of emphasis, rather than major disputes on what constitutes a good process, even those differences can add up to rather distinct professional cultures of impact assessment. The following factors are seen as leading to the emergence of such professional cultures: different professions often contribute in different ways to an impact assessment, affecting their perception of the nature and purpose of the process; impact assessment training will usually be a secondary concern, compared with the core professional training, which will be

  6. Economic Impacts of Arts and Cultural Institutions: A Model for Assessment and a Case Study in Baltimore. Research Division Report #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David; Lyall, Katherine

    This research project attempts to determine the economic effects of arts activities and cultural institutions on a local community (Baltimore, Maryland). This document contains an economic impact model that uses 30 equations to determine direct and secondary effects on businesses, government, and individuals and a case study of the model involving…

  7. Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, A.

    1977-01-01

    Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Rooke, Sally E.

    2008-01-01

    University teaching can have a positive impact, a negative impact, or no impact. This article describes indicators of the impact of university teaching at the unit level. Teaching-impact indicators can be organized by the main beneficiary of the teaching: students; others, such as employers and clients, who interact with the students; the…

  9. Co-production of science for regional integrated assessment and management of climate change impacts: The case study of Aspen, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of global climate change to regional scales are complex and cut across sectorial and jurisdictional boundaries, and therefore, a unique enterprise of collaboration between scientists, resource managers, and other stakeholders for development of adequate response strategies is required. Such collaboration has been exhibited between stakeholders, researchers, and a boundary organization—the Aspen Global Change Institute—since 2005 in assessing impacts and crafting policies in response with regard to climate change impacts in the mountain watershed surrounding Aspen, CO. A series of structured stakeholder interviews and town hall sessions, impact assessment reports, and intensive collaboration between various information providers and user groups has set the stage for development of both mitigation of and adaptation to climate change impacts. The most recent example of this has included the use of global scale climate model output to inform the development of resiliency strategies in response to extreme precipitation projections. The use of this kind of resource has been considered in a variety of decision-making contexts and has included the development of region- and decision-relevant qualitative scenarios that make use of quantitative model-based information. Results from this line of work that include feedback from actual users', a boundary organization, and researchers' perspectives will be reported along with examples of policy and implementation results.

  10. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  11. Environmental impact assessment and environmental audit in large-scale public infrastructure construction: the case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.

    PubMed

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China's modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China's rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway's construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  12. Assessment by regional modelling of the impact of monopile foundations on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport: case of Courseulles-sur-Mer (France) wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Offshore monopile foundations of wind turbines modify hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local scale and also at regional scale. The aim of this work is to assess these changes and to parametrize them in a regional model. These modifications were previously evaluated using the regional circulation model MARS3D (Lazure and Dumas, 2008) in tests-cases (Rivier et al., 2014) using two approaches: in the first approach, monopiles are explicitly modelled in the mesh as dry cells and in the second approach a sub-grid parametrization which considers the drag force exerted by a monopile on the flow is used. The sub-grid parametrization is improved close to the bed in this paper by adding a drag force term in the momentum equations, source terms in the turbulence model and by increasing the bed shear stress at monopile location. Changes in hydrodynamics regime, especially near-bed, affect sediment transport regime and modifications due to monopiles on sediment dynamics is also investigated using the MARS3D sediment transport module (Le Hir et al., 2011) which solves the advection-diffusion equations. Test-cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France) where an offshore wind farm is planned to be built. Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and bed thickness changes due to the monopile simulated by both approaches are compared to each other and to experimental measurements made in a flume at the University of Caen or to published data (e.g. Roulund et al., 2005; Dargahi,1989). Then the model is applied in a real configuration on an area including the future offshore wind farm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed along a tidal cycle. Currents increase at the side edge of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream the monopile. Turbulent kinetic

  13. Health Impact Assessments for Environmental Restoration: The Case of Caño Martín Peña

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry; Agu, Damiris; Rodríguez, Lyvia; Avilés, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a methodology for predicting health impacts of a proposed policy or plan. A proposed environmental restoration and development plan presented an opportunity for an HIA in an environmental justice community surrounding the Martín Peña channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The HIA focused on the dredging of the channel, debris removal, road, sewer, and storm water infrastructure improvements, housing demolition, and resident relocation. Objective The HIA sought to determine the potential health impacts of the proposed plan on the community to inform the funding decision by the Puerto Rican legislature. As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, a secondary objective was to build HIA capacity in Puerto Rico. Methods This HIA used a community training, literature reviews, existing local studies, focus groups, interviews, and disease surveillance data to assess baseline health, determine expected impacts, and build capacity. Findings The Martín Peña community is experiencing deteriorating environmental conditions. Flooding and negative environmental exposures, such as mold, limits to physical activity, stress, chemical toxicants, pathogenic bacteria, and pests, are worsening. The higher rates of diseases, such as asthma and diarrhea, in the community compared to elsewhere in Puerto Rico appear to be largely attributable to these factors. Overall, the proposed plan is expected to improve many of these health disparities but the successful implementation depends on continued community acceptance and participation, particularly with the relocation process. Recommendations are for full financing and several mitigation efforts to avoid negative and preserve beneficial health consequences. Conclusions As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, this assessment provided specific recommendations to benefit the health of the community affected by an environmental restoration and development plan and also capacity building for a larger audience in Puerto

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways

  15. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-11-15

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  16. Air quality impact assessment of at-berth ship emissions: Case-study for the project of a new freight port.

    PubMed

    Lonati, Giovanni; Cernuschi, Stefano; Sidi, Shelina

    2010-12-01

    This work is intended to assess the impact on local air quality due to atmospheric emissions from port area activities for a new port in project in the Mediterranean Sea. The sources of air pollutants in the harbour area are auxiliary engines used by ships at berth during loading/offloading operations. A fleet activity-based methodology is first applied to evaluate annual pollutant emissions (NO(X), SO(X), PM, CO and VOC) based on vessel traffic data, ships tonnage and in-port hotelling time for loading/offloading operations. The 3-dimensional Calpuff transport and dispersion model is then applied for the subsequent assessment of the ground level spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants for both long-term and short-term averaging times. Compliance with current air quality standards in the port area is finally evaluated and indications for port operation are provided. Some methodological aspects of the impact assessment procedure, namely those concerning the steps of emission scenario definitions and model simulations set-up at the project stage, are specifically addressed, suggesting a pragmatic approach for similar evaluations for small new ports in project.

  17. Risk assessment methodologies for biotechnology impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, James W.

    1986-07-01

    By combining hazard assessment of effects of a potential biotechnology product with exposure assessments based on study of the genetically engineered organism's fate, conclusions may be reached about the risk involved in release of the product to the environment. In order to make this risk assessment, criteria (including regulatory endpoints) must be established and then developed further against a data base from well-accepted tests. Other aspects requiring research and development include test evaluation, quality assurance, statistical procedures, and methods of identifying and monitoring not only the nominal organism(s) in the products, but also any contaminating material or organisms to which the genetically engineered components may be transferred in the environment. Application of microcosm technology to testing of genetically engineered organisms is expected to be important, since these systems may be used safely to understand fate and effects prior to (or in place of) testing the product in the environment. Limitations in the use of microcosms may be offset by the cost-effectiveness and incisiveness of results, as has been shown for other pollutants. Risk management for biotechnology products currently lacks an adequate background, but components of the process exist or can be developed. New resources, in terms of personnel, training, facilities, and funding, will be needed in order to apply the risk assessment paradigm used for toxic chemicals and pesticides. We will need to know:

  18. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  19. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Waterway Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B.J.; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a “health lens”. This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

  20. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  1. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-02-15

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  2. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Rivkin, A.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Reed, C.

    2012-10-01

    Near Earth objects are small bodies orbiting the Sun near Earth’s orbit, some of which impact the Earth. The impact of an object as large as 30 m in diameter occurs every few centuries. The impact of such an object would already release an energy of at least a megaton of TNT, and the impact of a larger object, which would occur less often, would be even more hazardous. To protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is such an asteroid mitigation mission concept. This mission would be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid’s strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART study is coordinated with an ESA study of an Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which would rendezvous with the same target. AIDA follows the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, with the objective of demonstrating the ability to modify the trajectory of an asteroid and measure the trajectory change. Don Quijote involved an orbiter and an impactor spacecraft, with the orbiter arriving first and measuring the deflection, and with the orbiter making additional characterization measurements. Unlike Don Quijote, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid, with ground-based observations to measure the deflection as well as additional spacecraft observations from AIM. Low cost mission approaches will be presented.

  3. Environmental impact assessment and monetary ecosystem service valuation of an ecosystem under different future environmental change and management scenarios; a case study of a Scots pine forest.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Deckmyn, Gaby; Giot, Olivier; Campioli, Matteo; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Verheyen, Kris; Rugani, Benedetto; Achten, Wouter; Verbeeck, Hans; Dewulf, Jo; Muys, Bart

    2016-05-15

    For a sustainable future, we must sustainably manage not only the human/industrial system but also ecosystems. To achieve the latter goal, we need to predict the responses of ecosystems and their provided services to management practices under changing environmental conditions via ecosystem models and use tools to compare the estimated provided services between the different scenarios. However, scientific articles have covered a limited amount of estimated ecosystem services and have used tools to aggregate services that contain a significant amount of subjective aspects and that represent the final result in a non-tangible unit such as 'points'. To resolve these matters, this study quantifies the environmental impact (on human health, natural systems and natural resources) in physical units and uses an ecosystem service valuation based on monetary values (including ecosystem disservices with associated negative monetary values). More specifically, the paper also focuses on the assessment of ecosystem services related to pollutant removal/generation flows, accounting for the inflow of eutrophying nitrogen (N) when assessing the effect of N leached to groundwater. Regarding water use/provisioning, evapotranspiration is alternatively considered a disservice because it implies a loss of (potential) groundwater. These approaches and improvements, relevant to all ecosystems, are demonstrated using a Scots pine stand from 2010 to 2089 for a combination of three environmental change and three management scenarios. The environmental change scenarios considered interannual climate variability trends and included alterations in temperature, precipitation, nitrogen deposition, wind speed, Particulate matter (PM) concentration and CO2 concentration. The addressed flows/ecosystem services, including disservices, are as follows: particulate matter removal, freshwater loss, CO2 sequestration, wood production, NOx emissions, NH3 uptake and nitrogen pollution/removal. The monetary

  4. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  5. The life cycle impact assessment applied to a coastal lagoon: the case of the Slimane lagoon (Tunisia) by the study of seasonal variations of the aquatic eutrophication potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadj Amor, R.; Quaranta, G.; Gueddari, F.; Million, D.; Clauer, N.

    2008-05-01

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is a standard tool for the study of the environmental impact on a system including all activities in connection with manufacturing a product or detailing a service, from extraction of raw materials to disposal of final waste. Here, the system is not only anthropogenic, but also includes both natural behaviours and pollution aspects from human activity: it is a coastal lagoon with varied activities and waste disposals nearby. This stagnant zone is highly subjected to solar exposure and tends to dryness during summer, thus offering ideal conditions to algal proliferation. We have taken into account the trophic state of the lagoon assessed by the LCIA methodology, on the basis of the aquatic eutrophication potential (AEP). We have considered the concentrations of the phosphorus and nitrogen compounds for the calculation of the AEP and their spatial and temporal variations in the lagoon. The results show that the AEP of the phosphorus exceeds systematically the AEP of nitrogen and that the contents of both are systematically higher in summer than in winter. Nitrogen is the limiting factor for the algae growth. Ammonia and phosphates are the most important nutrients for the AEP in summer, whereas nitrates dominate in winter. In addition, the spatial and temporal variations of the N and P nutrients of the surface waters allow to distinguish three areas in the lagoon: a transition zone between the sea- and the lagoon waters; a zone reflecting directly the influence of the O. Bey creek- and the treated-waste waters and one representing the most isolated part of the lagoon and consequently the less contaminated by nutrient inputs.

  6. Drought impact assessment from monitoring the seasonality of vegetation condition using long-term time-series satellite images: a case study of Mt. Kenya region.

    PubMed

    Song, Youngkeun; Njoroge, John B; Morimoto, Yukihiro

    2013-05-01

    Drought-induced anomalies in vegetation condition over wide areas can be observed by using time-series satellite remote sensing data. Previous methods to assess the anomalies may include limitations in considering (1) the seasonality in terms of each vegetation-cover type, (2) cumulative damage during the drought event, and (3) the application to various types of land cover. This study proposed an improved methodology to assess drought impact from the annual vegetation responses, and discussed the result in terms of diverse landscape mosaics in the Mt. Kenya region (0.4° N 35.8° E ~ 1.6° S 38.4° E). From the 30-year annual rainfall records at the six meteorological stations in the study area, we identified 2000 as the drought year and 2001, 2004, and 2007 as the normal precipitation years. The time-series profiles of vegetation condition in the drought and normal precipitation years were obtained from the values of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI; Huete et al. 2002), which were acquired from Terra MODIS remote sensing dataset (MOD13Q1) taken every 16 days at the scale of 250-m spatial resolution. The drought impact was determined by integrating the annual differences in EVI profiles between drought and normal conditions, per pixel based on nearly same day of year. As a result, we successfully described the distribution of landscape vulnerability to drought, considering the seasonality of each vegetation-cover type at every MODIS pixel. This result will contribute to the large-scale landscape management of Mt. Kenya region. Future study should improve this method by considering land-use change occurred during the long-term monitoring period.

  7. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

  8. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  9. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  10. Integrated Framework for Assessing Impacts of CO₂ Leakage on Groundwater Quality and Monitoring-Network Efficiency: Case Study at a CO₂ Enhanced Oil Recovery Site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus

    2015-07-21

    This study presents a combined use of site characterization, laboratory experiments, single-well push-pull tests (PPTs), and reactive transport modeling to assess potential impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality and leakage-detection ability of a groundwater monitoring network (GMN) in a potable aquifer at a CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) site. Site characterization indicates that failures of plugged and abandoned wells are possible CO2 leakage pathways. Groundwater chemistry in the shallow aquifer is dominated mainly by silicate mineral weathering, and no CO2 leakage signals have been detected in the shallow aquifer. Results of the laboratory experiments and the field test show no obvious damage to groundwater chemistry should CO2 leakage occur and further were confirmed with a regional-scale reactive transport model (RSRTM) that was built upon the batch experiments and validated with the single-well PPT. Results of the RSRTM indicate that dissolved CO2 as an indicator for CO2 leakage detection works better than dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, and alkalinity at the CO2 EOR site. The detection ability of a GMN was assessed with monitoring efficiency, depending on various factors, including the natural hydraulic gradient, the leakage rate, the number of monitoring wells, the aquifer heterogeneity, and the time for a CO2 plume traveling to the monitoring well.

  11. Soil erosion and risk-assessment for on- and off-farm impacts: a test case using the Midhurst area, West Sussex, UK.

    PubMed

    Boardman, John; Shepheard, Mark L; Walker, Edward; Foster, Ian D L

    2009-06-01

    Soil erosion on agricultural land is a growing problem in Western Europe and constitutes a threat to soil quality and to the ability of soils to provide environmental services. The off-site impacts of runoff and eroded soil, principally eutrophication of water bodies, sedimentation of gravel-bedded rivers, loss of reservoir capacity, muddy flooding of roads and communities, are increasingly recognised and costed. The shift of funding in the European Union (EU) from production-related to avoidance of pollution and landscape protection, raises issues of cross-compliance: public support for agriculture has to be seen to give value-for-money. In this context risk-assessment procedures have been introduced to help farmers recognise sites where either certain crops should not be grown or anti-erosion measures are required. In England, Defra [Defra, 2005a. Controlling Soil Erosion: a Manual for the Assessment and Management of Agricultural Land at Risk of Water Erosion in Lowland England. Revised September 2005. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London] sets out a system of risk-assessment, including ranking of crops susceptible to erosion and anti-erosion measures, that may be selected. We assess this system using field data for an area of erodible soils in the Rother valley, Sussex. The Defra approach correctly identifies most at-risk fields and, taken together with land-use maps, allows non-compliance with advice to be highlighted. We suggest a simple extension to the system which would further identify at-risk fields in terms of possible damage to roads and rivers from muddy runoff. The increased risk of erosion in the study area is associated with certain crops: potatoes, winter cereals, maize and grazed turnips and seems unlikely to be the result of changes in rainfall which over the last 130 years are minimal. We have not evaluated proposed anti-erosion measures in the area because few have been put into practice. The European Water Framework

  12. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  13. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, Mårten Mörtberg, Ulla Balfors, Berit

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  14. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  15. Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

  16. Readings in technology assessment. [in relation to social impact and the law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.

  17. Impact assessment and recommendation of alternative conjunctive water use strategies for salt affected agricultural lands through a field scale decision support system - a case study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Paul, Madhumita; Malik, Rashmi

    2007-06-01

    Conjunctive use of saline/non-saline irrigation waters is generally aimed at minimizing yield losses and enhancing flexibility of cropping, without much alteration in farming operations. Recommendation of location-specific suitable conjunctive water use plans requires assessment of their long-term impacts on soil salinization/sodification and crop yield reductions. This is conventionally achieved through long-term field experiments. However such impact evaluations are site specific, expensive and time consuming. Appropriate decision support systems (DSS) can be time-efficient and cost-effective means for such long-term impact evaluations. This study demonstrates the application of one such (indigenously developed) DSS for recommending best conjunctive water use plans for a, rice-wheat growing, salt affected farmer's field in Gurgaon district of Haryana (India). Before application, the DSS was extensively validated on several farmers and controlled experimental fields in Gurgaon and Karnal districts of Haryana (India). Validation of DSS showed its potential to give realistic estimates of root zone soil salinity (with R = 0.76-0.94; AMRE = 0.03-0.06; RMSPD = 0.51-0.90); sodicity (with R = 0.99; AMRE = 0.02; RMSPD = 0.84) and relative crop yield reductions (AMRE = 0.24), under existing (local) resource management practices. Long term (10 years) root zone salt build ups and associated rice/wheat crop yield reductions, in a salt affected farmer's field, under varied conjunctive water use scenarios were evaluated with the validated DSS. It was observed that long-term applications of canal (CW) and tube well (TW) waters in a cycle and in 1:1 mixed mode, during Kharif season, predicted higher average root zone salt reductions (2-9%) and lower rice crop yield reductions (4-5%) than the existing practice of 3-CW, 3-TW, 3-CW. Besides this, long-term application of 75% CW mixed with 25% TW, during Rabi season, predicted about 17% lower average root-zone salt reductions than

  18. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate.

  19. Effects of elevated ozone on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of two soybean varieties: a case study to assess impacts of one component of predicted global climate change.

    PubMed

    Singh, E; Tiwari, S; Agrawal, M

    2009-11-01

    Global climatic change scenarios predict a significant increase in future tropospheric ozone (O(3)) concentrations. The present investigation was done to assess the effects of elevated O(3) (70 and 100 ppb) on electron transport, carbon fixation, stomatal conductance and pigment concentrations in two tropical soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties, PK 472 and Bragg. Plants were exposed to O(3) for 4 h.day(-1) from 10:00 to 14:00 from germination to maturity. Photosynthesis of both varieties were adversely affected, but the reduction was higher in PK 472 than Bragg. A comparison of chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics with carbon fixation suggested greater sensitivity of dark reactions than light reactions of photosynthesis to O(3) stress. The O(3)-induced uncoupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in PK 472 suggests the reduction in photosynthesis may be attributed to a factor other than reduced stomatal conductance. An increase in internal CO(2) concentration in both O(3)-treated soybean varieties compared suggests that the reduction in photosynthesis was due to damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to accumulation of internal CO(2) and stomatal closure. The adverse impact of O(3) stress increased at higher O(3) concentrations in both soybean varieties leading to large reductions in photosynthesis. This study suggests that O(3)-induced reductions in photosynthesis in tropical and temperate varieties are similar.

  20. GIS and remote sensing techniques for the assessment of land use change impact on flood hydrology: the case study of Yialias basin in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, D. D.; Grillakis, M. G.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Agapiou, A.; Themistocleous, K.; Tsanis, I. K.; Michaelides, S.; Pashiardis, S.; Demetriou, C.; Aristeidou, K.; Retalis, A.; Tymvios, F.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Floods are one of the most common natural disasters worldwide, leading to economic losses and loss of human lives. This paper highlights the hydrological effects of multi-temporal land use changes in flood hazard within the Yialias catchment area, located in central Cyprus. A calibrated hydrological model was firstly developed to describe the hydrological processes and internal basin dynamics of the three major subbasins, in order to study the diachronic effects of land use changes. For the implementation of the hydrological model, land use, soil and hydrometeorological data were incorporated. The climatic and stream flow data were derived from rain and flow gauge stations located in the wider area of the watershed basin. In addition, the land use and soil data were extracted after the application of object-oriented nearest neighbor algorithms of ASTER satellite images. Subsequently, the cellular automata (CA)-Markov chain analysis was implemented to predict the 2020 land use/land cover (LULC) map and incorporate it to the hydrological impact assessment. The results denoted the increase of runoff in the catchment area due to the recorded extensive urban sprawl phenomenon of the last decade.

  1. Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Asteroid Impact Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, D.; Wheeler, L.; Prabhu, D. K.; Aftosmis, M.; Dotson, J.; Robertson, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center is developing a physics-based impact risk model for probabilistically assessing threats from potential asteroid impacts on Earth. The model integrates probabilistic sampling of asteroid parameter ranges with physics-based analyses of entry, breakup, and impact to estimate damage areas and casualties from various impact scenarios. Assessing these threats is a highly coupled, dynamic problem involving significant uncertainties in the range of expected asteroid characteristics, how those characteristics may affect the level of damage, and the fidelity of various modeling approaches and assumptions. The presented model is used to explore the sensitivity of impact risk estimates to these uncertainties in order to gain insight into what additional data or modeling refinements are most important for producing effective, meaningful risk assessments. In the extreme cases of very small or very large impacts, the results are generally insensitive to many of the characterization and modeling assumptions. However, the nature of the sensitivity can change across moderate-sized impacts. Results will focus on the value of additional information in this critical, mid-size range, and how this additional data can support more robust mitigation decisions.

  2. Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Thomas F. Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2008-02-15

    Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them.

  3. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Li, Long

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  4. Health Impact Assessment as a Strategy for Intersectoral Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ji Eun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for intersectoral collaboration using the case of an HIA project conducted in Gwang Myeong City, Korea. Methods A typical procedure for rapid HIA was used. In the screening step, the Aegi-Neung Waterside Park Plan was chosen as the target of the HIA. In the scoping step, the specific methods and tools to assess potential health impacts were chosen. A participatory workshop was held in the assessment step. Various interest groups, including the Department of Parks and Greenspace, the Department of Culture and Sports, the Department of Environment and Cleansing, civil societies, and residents, discussed previously reviewed literature on the potential health impacts of the Aegi-Neung Waterside Park Plan. Results Potential health impacts and inequality issues were elicited from the workshop, and measures to maximize positive health impacts and minimize negative health impacts were recommended. The priorities among the recommendations were decided by voting. A report on the HIA was submitted to the Department of Parks and Greenspace for their consideration. Conclusions Although this study examined only one case, it shows the potential usefulness of HIA as a tool for enhancing intersectoral collaboration. Some strategies to formally implement HIA are discussed. PMID:22020185

  5. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  6. Utility of fuzzy cross-impact simulation in environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, A.; Paliwal, R.; Rambabu, P.

    1997-11-01

    Fuzzy cross-impact simulation is a qualitative technique, where interactions within a system are represented by a cross-impact matrix that includes linguistic elements. It can be used effectively to visualize dynamic evolution of a system. The utility of the fuzzy cross-impact simulation approach is: (1) in dealing with uncertainties in environment-development systems; (2) scoping cumulative effect assessment; and (3) integrating societal response structure in environment impact assessment. Use of the method is illustrated in a case concerning the textile industry in Indore, India. Consequences of policy alternatives for cleanup and pollution abatement are predicted in terms of environmental quality and quality of life, using the simulation model. The consequence analysis is used to arrive at preferred policy options.

  7. Assessing Leonid Meteoroid Impact Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Aleck L.

    2000-10-01

    The Leonid meteoroid storm produced by the passage of its parent comet, 55p/Tempel-Tuttle has been a concern for satellite operators. The recent close approach of the comet to the Earth took place around January 17, 1998. The debris cloud was expected to be several hundred to several thousand times higher than normal in the ensuing years when the Earth passes by the comet trail. Leonid meteoroid storm intensity was predicted before by analyses for satellite mission planning. The low observed Zenith Hourly Rate (ZHR) displayed in 1998 was due to the large distance between the particle and the Earth. In 1998, all of the Leonid material was located interior to the Earth's orbit at distances greater than 0.004 AU. In 1999 there will be two streams located interior to the Earth orbit; the first, consisting of material ejected from the comet in 1932, will be 0.0016 AU from the Earth, and the second composed of material ejected from Tempel-Tuttle in 1965 at 0.004 AU. More importantly, there will exist a third stream of cometary debris, located just 0.0008 AU exterior to Earth's orbit. This stream will consist of the material ejected in 1899, and its close proximity to the Earth means that the space shall be subjected to a Gaussian-like Leonid environment. The predicted probability indicates that there will certainly be a storm with ZHR higher than 1000 in November 1999. It is also likely that there will be another Leonid storm in 2000. A procedure to predict the number of hits by the meteoroids was developed using the ZHR prediction model and the orbit data of GEO communication satellites. The data include the attitude of the satellite and its projected area as a function of orbit position. The number and probability of hits are predicted for these satellites during the 1999 Leonid meteoroid storm. The worst case prediction is also included for comparison.

  8. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure.

  9. Untapped potential of health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to “green economy” and “institutional framework” strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century’s sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  10. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  11. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2016-09-24

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available.

  12. Health Impact Assessment of a Predicted Air Quality Change by Moving Traffic from an Urban Ring Road into a Tunnel. The Case of Antwerp, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Van Brusselen, Daan; Arrazola de Oñate, Wouter; Maiheu, Bino; Vranckx, Stijn; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nawrot, Tim S; Nemery, Ben; Avonts, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Background The Antwerp ring road has a traffic density of 300,000 vehicles per day and borders the city center. The ‘Ringland project’ aims to change the current ‘open air ring road’ into a ‘filtered tunneled ring road’, putting the entire urban ring road into a tunnel and thus filtering air pollution. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) to quantify the possible benefit of a ‘filtered tunneled ring road’, as compared to the ‘open air ring road’ scenario, on air quality and its long-term health effects. Materials and Methods We modeled the change in annual ambient PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations by covering 15 kilometers of the Antwerp ring road in high resolution grids using the RIO-IFDM street canyon model. The exposure-response coefficients used were derived from a literature review: all-cause mortality, life expectancy, cardiopulmonary diseases and childhood Forced Vital Capacity development (FVC). Results Our model predicts changes between -1.5 and +2 μg/m³ in PM2.5 within a 1,500 meter radius around the ring road, for the ‘filtered tunneled ring road’ scenario as compared to an ‘open air ring road’. These estimated annual changes were plotted against the population exposed to these differences. The calculated change of PM2.5 is associated with an expected annual decrease of 21 deaths (95% CI 7 to 41). This corresponds with 11.5 deaths avoided per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 3.9–23) in the first 500 meters around the ring road every year. Of 356 schools in a 1,500 meter perimeter around the ring road changes between -10 NO2 and + 0.17 μg/m³ were found, corresponding to FVC improvement of between 3 and 64ml among school-age children. The predicted decline in lung cancer mortality and incidence of acute myocardial infarction were both only 0.1 per 100,000 inhabitants or less. Conclusion The expected change in PM2,5 and NO2 by covering the entire urban ring road in Antwerp is associated with considerable health gains for

  13. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  14. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Applying social impact assessment to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2014-08-05

    Many nurses need to construct a research proposal at some stage of their career and there are multiple texts that provide guidance on doing so. However, most texts do not provide explicit guidance on the issue of social impact--the effect of research on the social health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities and on the improved performance of relevant services. This article proposes that social impact should be considered from the beginning of a research project. It outlines a framework for assessing social impact to help strengthen the quality of research proposals and assist nurses constructing the proposal and also those evaluating it, including academic assessors or funding body reviewers. Nursing research should be useful and should have a positive effect on practice. Focusing on social impact can increase the chances of this desirable outcome.

  16. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Veerman, J; Barendregt, J; Mackenbach, J

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. Design: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). Main results: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitative estimates of change in exposure to determinants, and 16 gave quantified health outcomes. Eleven (categories of) determinants were quantified up to the level of health outcomes. Methods for exposure impact assessment were: estimation on the basis of routine data and measurements, and various kinds of modelling of traffic related and environmental factors, supplemented with experts' estimates and author's assumptions. Some studies used estimates from other documents pertaining to the policy. For the calculation of health outcomes, variants of epidemiological and toxicological risk assessment were used, in some cases in mathematical models. Conclusions: Quantification is comparatively rare in HIA. Methods are available in the areas of environmental health and, to a lesser extent, traffic accidents, infectious diseases, and behavioural factors. The methods are diverse and their reliability and validity are uncertain. Research and development in the following areas could benefit quantitative HIA: methods to quantify the effect of socioeconomic and behavioural determinants; user friendly simulation models; the use of summary measures of public health, expert opinion and scenario building; and empirical research into validity and reliability. PMID:15831683

  17. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  18. A Case for Multidimensional Bilingual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Serafin V.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Soto-Huerta, Mary Esther; Villarreal, Felicia Castro; Guerra, Norma Susan; Flores, Belinda Bustos

    2013-01-01

    Current assessment practices in the United States are not able to accurately capture the total linguistic, cognitive, and achievement abilities of bilingual learners. There are psychometric complexities involved when assessing and interpreting test results of bilingual students, which impact the validity of this practice. Further, the compromise…

  19. Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Kesava Rao, P.; Phanindra Kumar, T.

    2012-07-01

    Change detection from different temporal images usually based on reflectance on natural and human activity impact, using integrated GIS, Remote Sensing and image processing technologies enable impact assessment of watershed in desert region. A time series analysis of seasonal NDVI have been used to estimate net primary productivity, phonological characteristic of vegetative surface, length of growing season and dry drown periods (Ramsey et al., 1995). The study is designed to achieve the objectives to Study the changes in vegetation for selected watershed in a desert districts of Bhilwara, Barmer & Jaisalmer in Rajastan State of India, to identify the changes in density of vegetation, to assess the temporal changes and to assess the impact of the watershed, with an objective to conserve the soil erosion and harvest the rainwater in order to increase the ground water table, to improve the socio economic condition of the people and to stop the migration of the people from the villages in search of livelihood. These activities will have a direct impact on the crop production. The Changes in density of vegetation indicates the quantity of crop production and the growth of vegetation apart from crops and the conservation of land with out scrub/barren land to land with scrub. This gives an picture about the impact of watershed programme in increasing the vegetative cover. The temporal changes help in understanding the changes taken place in the watershed, and facilitate understand the positive as well as negative impacts of any decisions taken in the implementation. The extent and density and type of vegetation for the years, 2000,2004,2005,2007 and 2008, was studied and vegetation growth was analysed using GIS and Digital Image Processing techniques.

  20. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  1. Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

  2. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Marketing Efforts: A Case Study of a Foreign Language Immersion Program in a School-Choice Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.

    2016-01-01

    The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…

  3. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  4. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research. PMID:26989272

  5. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach.

    PubMed

    Drew, Christina H; Pettibone, Kristianna G; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-03-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in "important" research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research.

  6. Assessment and regulation of odour impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicell, Jim A.

    Decades of experience support the inclusion of odours in the list of contaminant types that must be regulated by government. In many jurisdictions, odour impacts are regulated under the nuisance provisions of common law. However, the explicit conditions that establish whether a nuisance condition exists are not easily defined. Due to this shortcoming, there is a need to introduce objectivity into odour impact assessments and odour limits. While individual responses to odours are highly variable and can result in a variety of effects, generally the impacts of odours arise from a variety of interacting factors, collectively known as FIDOL: frequency, intensity, duration, offensiveness, and location. In view of the need to prevent or mitigate such impacts, an approach to odour regulation is proposed in which the protection of the public from odour impacts is accomplished based on the FIDOL approach. This involves the introduction of an objective odour limit, as follows: " Facilities that are identified as sources of potentially offensive odours shall ensure that the 10-min average concentration of odour resulting from all sources at the facility and determined in accordance with accepted procedures, shall be less than 1 odour unit 99.5% of the time at the most impacted sensitive receptor". It is argued that the proposed limit would provide the public with an understanding of the degree of protection from odours that is to be provided through regulations and would provide industries with a basis for designing their facilities to minimize impact at the design stage. Such limits would also provide industries with benchmarks against which they can gauge their success at preventing or mitigating odour impacts and for evaluating the effectiveness of odour control technologies.

  7. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  8. Environmental Impact Assessments: Congressional Intent Versus Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Sprankle U.S. Department of Energy Faculty Research Advisor Dr. Robert Copaken The Industrial College of the Armed Forces National Defense...Impact Assessments: Congressional Intent Versus Application Kenneth A. Sprankle U.S. Department of Energy Faculty Research Advisor Dr. Robert Copaken The...before them. This conference generated a flood of legislation. Then, in February, 1969, Representative John Dingell (D-MI) introduced H.R.6750 (later

  9. National Built Environment Health Impact Assessment Model ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix, street connectivity, access to parks, shops, transit, presence of sidewalks and bikeways, and healthy food with physical activity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some mental health outcomes. This session demonstrates successful integration of health impact assessment into multiple scenario planning tool platforms. Detailed evidence on chronic disease and related costs associated with contrasting land use and transportation investments are built into a general-purpose module that can be accessed by multiple platforms. Funders, researchers, and end users of the tool will present a detailed description of the key elements of the approach, how it has been applied, and how will evolve. A critical focus will be placed on equity and social justice inherent within the assessment of health disparities that will be featured in the session. Health impacts of community design have significant cost benefit implications. Recent research is now extending relationships between community design features and chronic disease to health care costs. This session will demonstrate the recent application of this evidence on health impacts to the newly adopted Los Angeles Regional Transpo

  10. Post-impact behavior of composite solid rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, composite materials have seen increasing use in advanced structural applications because of the significant weight savings they offer when compared to more traditional engineering materials. The higher cost of composites must be offset by the increased performance that results from reduced structural weight if these new materials are to be used effectively. At present, there is considerable interest in fabricating solid rocket motor cases out of composite materials, and capitalizing on the reduced structural weight to increase rocket performance. However, one of the difficulties that arises when composite materials are used is that composites can develop significant amounts of internal damage during low velocity impacts. Such low velocity impacts may be encountered in routine handling of a structural component like a rocket motor case. The ability to assess the reduction in structural integrity of composite motor cases that experience accidental impacts is essential if composite rocket motor cases are to be certified for manned flight. The study described herein was an initial investigation of damage development and reduction of tensile strength in an idealized composite subjected to low velocity impacts.

  11. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA).

  12. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  13. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p < 0.05) than fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the impact of organic respirable compounds is smaller for fossil fuels (p < 0.05) than for biofuels. Analysis of inorganic compounds like PM₁₀,₂.₅, SO₂ or NO(x) shows some advantages of sugar beet bioethanol and soybean biodiesel production (p < 0.05), although production of sugarcane bioethanol shows larger impacts of respirable inorganic compounds than for fossil fuels (p < 0.001). Although liquid biofuels are made of renewable energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards.

  14. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  15. PROFILE: Integrating Sustainability and Environmental Impact Assessment

    PubMed

    LAWRENCE

    1997-01-01

    / Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been identified as an important instrument for facilitating sustainability. However, to do so requires the integration of sustainability into EIA theory and practice. The sustainability concept is a valid and important environmental management perspective. However, many issues and obstacles need to be addressed further if the concept is to be translated into practical strategies. Sustainability can potentially infuse EIA with a clearer sense of direction, an ethical foundation, a mechanism for establishing priorities and assessing choices, and a means of linking EIA to other environmental management instruments. Conceptually, EIA and sustainability can be integrated, but frameworks should be refined, adpated to context, and linked to related initiatives. Sustainability should be explicitly incorporated into EIA legislation, guidelines, and institutional arrangements. An experimental approach to testing, assessing, and sharing experiences is suggested.A framework is first presented that defines and characterizes the sustainability concept. A further framework is then described for integrating sustainability into EIA at the conceptual level. The integration of sustainability and EIA at the regulatory level is next addressed through an overview of sustainability initiatives in EIA requirements in Canada. The Canadian examples include many promising initiatives but these and other experiences will need to be monitored, shared, and integrated into comprehensive environmental management strategies. Finally, means of incorporating sustainability into each activity in the EIA planning process are identified.KEY WORDS: Sustainability; Environmental impact assessment

  16. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  17. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

    2014-01-15

    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions.

  18. Assessing the economic impact of invasive species: the case of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solsitialis L.) in the rangelands of Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Juliá, Roxana; Holland, David W; Guenthner, Joseph

    2007-12-01

    Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solsitialis L.) is an invasive weed that creates problems for the management of Idaho's rangelands. A bioeconomic approach combined with an input-output economic model is used to estimate direct and secondary economic costs of the weed in relation to its interference with agricultural and non-agricultural benefits that rangelands provide. Direct economic costs of the infestations were estimated to be of 8.2 million '05 dollars per year, and secondary costs of 4.5 million '05 dollars per year, for a total of 12.7 million '05 dollars; agricultural related economic impacts accounted for 79% of this total cost, and non-agricultural for 21%.

  19. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  20. Health impact assessment: where does the law come in?

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, David Q.C

    2004-02-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights has profound implications for HIA. Public authorities have a positive obligation to stop others from infringing citizens' rights to life and to respect for private and family life. These rights are qualified and have now been interpreted in many thousands of cases. Authorities must, as best they reasonably can, secure the safety of citizens and inform the citizens about the safety or otherwise of any development. Authorities have to strike a balance between the individuals rights and the public benefit. Any public authority before approving a scheme or reaching a regulatory decision which may impact on human rights must consider the nature of that impact, its seriousness and whether it can be justified on public interest grounds. A number of court judgements in cases concerning these issues are discussed. This article is not about how certain of the ideas underlying Health Impact Assessment, in certain circumstances, are or can be incorporated in existing legally recognised instruments such as Environmental Impact Assessments. Nor is it about the statutory powers which authorities--local and national--could, if so inclined, exercise, to further the health and well-being of their constituents. It is about something rather more general, important and yet rather formless, namely the duties identified by the European Court of Human Rights as resting upon public authorities to take steps to safeguard the public health rights of their citizens.

  1. Assessment of the impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater pollution in two diverse geological settings--a case study from India.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Paras R; Padmakar, C; Labhasetwar, Pawan K; Mahore, Piyush; Ganguly, A K

    2012-01-01

    On-site sanitation has emerged as a preferred mode of sanitation in cities experiencing rapid urbanization due to the high cost involved in off-site sanitation which requires conventional sewerages. However, this practice has put severe stress on groundwater especially its quality. Under the above backdrop, a study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on quality of groundwater sources in two mega cities namely Indore and Kolkata which are situated in two different geological settings. The parameters for the studies are distance of groundwater source from place of sanitation, effect of summer and monsoon seasons, local hydro-geological conditions, and physico-chemical parameters. NO(3) and fecal coliform concentrations are considered as main indexes of pollution in water. Out of many conclusions which can be made from this studies, one major conclusion is about the influence of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality is minimal in Kolkata, whereas it is significant in Indore. This difference is due to the difference in hydrogeological parameters of these two cities, Kolkata being on alluvium quaternary and Indore being on Deccan trap of Cretaceous to Paleogene age.

  2. Assessing the seismic coupling of shallow continental faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimates: a case-study from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carafa, Michele M. C.; Valensise, Gianluca; Bird, Peter

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe propose an objective and reproducible algorithmic path to forecast seismicity in Italy from long-term deformation models. These models are appropriate for Italy and its neighboring countries and seas thanks to the availability of rich, reliable and regularly updated historical earthquake and seismogenic fault databases, and to the density of permanent GPS stations. However, so far little has been done to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the seismic coupling of Italian active faults, i.e. to quantify their ability to release earthquakes. This must be determined in order to use geodetic and active faulting observations in alternative seismicity models, to overcome possible limitations of the earthquake record for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of seismic hazard. We use a probabilistic method to assign upper crustal earthquakes from the historical catalogue to their presumed causative faults, then collect all the events into three subcatalogues corresponding to the compressional, extensional and strike-slip faulting classes. We then determine the parameters of their Gutenberg-Richter frequency/magnitude relations using maximum-likelihood methods and integrate these distributions to estimate the long-term seismic moment rate for each class. Finally, we compare these seismicity rates to the long-term tectonic deformation based on GPS data, thus determining the coupled thickness (and estimating seismic coupling) for each fault class. We find that in our study region the seismic coupling and the related coupled thickness is on average two times larger for extensional than for compressional faults. As for the spatial distribution of earthquake rates, a larger number of events is predicted for the extensional settings of the Apennines chain, in agreement with the inferred seismic coupling but also with the long-term strain rates. We also find that the frequency/magnitude distributions indicate that the largest earthquakes occur in extensional settings, whereas compressional faults are expected to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4231376','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4231376"><span>Injury Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Non-Lethal Projectile Head <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real <span class="hlt">cases</span> indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400712"><span>Injury risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of non-lethal projectile head <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real <span class="hlt">cases</span> indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction on... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC41B1002T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC41B1002T"><span>Agricultural climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for economic modeling and decision support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> mitigation level of 3.7 W/m2, as well as consideration of different levels of climate sensitivity (2, 3, 4.5 and 6oC) and different initial conditions for addressing uncertainty. Since the CMIP 3 and CMIP5 protocols did not include this mitigation level or consider alternative levels of climate sensitivity, additional climate projections were required. These two <span class="hlt">cases</span> will be discussed to illustrate some of the trade-offs made in development of methodologies for climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> that are intended for a specific user or audience, and oriented towards addressing a specific topic of interest and providing useable results. This involvement of stakeholders from the design phase of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> methodology serves to both define the appropriate method for the question at hand and also to engage and inform the stakeholders of the myriad options and uncertainties associated with different methodology choices. This type of engagement should benefit decision making in the long run through greater stakeholder understanding of the science of future climate model projections, scenarios, the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> sector models and the types of outputs that can be generated by each along with the respective uncertainties at each step of the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556502','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556502"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> research <span class="hlt">impact</span> in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span>. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators and criteria. Methods The <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators proposed in the 2010 REF <span class="hlt">impact</span> pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research <span class="hlt">impact</span> in clinical medicine in a given university are <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. Twenty <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research <span class="hlt">impact</span> across different <span class="hlt">cases</span> in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing <span class="hlt">impact</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/566276','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/566276"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in Estonia and Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holm-Hansen, J.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Authorities in Eastern European countries are looking for best available policy tools from the West, and policy instruments tailored for a Western context are being introduced massively in the former state socialist countries of Europe. This study examines some of the contextual factors that hamper the introduction of modern, Western tools of environmental management within previously state socialist countries. These are highlighted through a comparison of how environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) is put into practice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia and Norway belong to the same European Baltic-Nordic region, but the two countries have a dramatically different history for most of this century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...63I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...63I"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of water and soil contamination in Rajakhali Canal of Karnaphuli River (Bangladesh) <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by anthropogenic influences: a preliminary <span class="hlt">case</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Islam, M. Rafiqul; Das, N. G.; Barua, Prabal; Hossain, M. Belal; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Soil and water quality determines the health of an aquatic ecosystem. Rajakhali Canal, a tributary of Karnaphuli River estuary, flowing through Chittagong City (the commercial capital of Bangladesh) receives a huge amount of domestic and industrial wastes and sewages. Monitoring the environmental status of Karnaphuli River and its tributaries is very important for their ecological and economical services provided to city areas. This study evaluated some environmental characteristics of water and soil in the Rajakhali Canal as it affected the environment, and ultimately the life and human beings of Chittagong City. The mean concentrations of physico-chemical parameters were pH (8.5), DO (0.1 mg/L), TA (47.6 mg/L), TDS (631.8 mg/L), TSS (280 mg/L), SO4-S (2.3 mg/L), NH3 (1.1 mg/L), NO3-N (0.2 mg/L) and PO4-P (0.1 mg/L) in the dry season. During the rainy season, the mean concentrations of physico-chemical parameters were pH (7.01), DO (0.55 mg/L), TA (65.9 mg/L), TDS (653.6 mg/L), TSS (300.3 mg/L), SO4-S (1 mg/L), NH3 - (0.6 mg/L), (NO3-N (0.3 mg/L) and PO4-P (0.5 mg/L) in water. In <span class="hlt">case</span> of soil, the mean concentration of physico-chemical parameters in dry and rainy seasons was represented respectively as follows: pH (6.8), OM (4.5 %), sand (71.7 %), silt (3.1 %), clay (25.2 %), organic nitrogen (45.4 ppm) and phosphorus (9.6 ppm); and pH (6.7), OM (4.5 %), sand (74.4 %), silt (2.4 %), clay (23.2 %), organic nitrogen (35.3 ppm) and phosphorus (7.6 ppm). The result revealed that water and soil quality of this canal became deteriorated and that the total environment of the water body became polluted due to the anthropogenic activities such as industrial, domestic and irrigation effluents. Statistical analyses also supported that water and soil parameters were strongly correlated (1-tailed 0.05 level and 0.01 level significant) with each other at all stations during all seasons. The result of this study will be useful for management and planning for water quality</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA51B4054C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA51B4054C"><span>Integrated Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the <span class="hlt">assessments</span> have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and recognize the need for a sustained <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18564972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18564972"><span>Developing public sociology through health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The renewed interest in 'public sociology' has sparked debate and discussion about forms of sociological work and their relationship to the State and civil society. Medical sociologists are accustomed to engaging with a range of publics and audiences inside and outside universities and are in a position to make an informed contribution to this debate. This paper describes how some of the debates about sociological work are played out through a 'health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>' of a proposed housing renewal in a former coal mining community. We explore the dynamics of the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process and relate it to wider debates, current in the social sciences, on the 'new knowledge spaces' within which contentious public issues are now being discussed, and the nature of different forms of expertise. The role of the 'public sociologist' in mediating the relationships between the accounts and interpretations of lay participants and the published 'evidence' is described as a process of mutual learning between publics, professionals and social scientists. It is argued that the continued existence and development of any meaningful 'professional sociology' requires an openness to a 'public sociology' which recognises and responds to new spaces of knowledge production.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_pra_view.cfm?direntryid=320470','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_pra_view.cfm?direntryid=320470"><span>Qualitative <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The South Fork Nooksack River (South Fork) is located in northwest Washington State and is home to nine species of Pacific salmon, including Nooksack early Chinook (aka, spring Chinook salmon), an iconic species for the Nooksack Indian Tribe. The quantity of salmon in the South Fork, especially spring Chinook salmon, has dramatically declined from historic levels, due primarily to habitat degradation from the legacy <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of various land uses such as commercial forestry, agriculture, flood control, and transportation infrastructure. Segments of the South Fork and some of its tributaries exceed temperature criteria established for the protection of cold-water salmonid populations, and were listed on Washington State’s Clean Water Act (CWA) 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies. High water temperatures in the South Fork are detrimental to fish and other native species that depend on cool, clean, well-oxygenated water. Of the nine salmon species, three have been listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are of high priority to restoration efforts in the South Fork—spring Chinook salmon, summer steelhead trout, and bull trout. Growing evidence shows that climate change will exacerbate legacy <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is a comprehensive analysis of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on freshwater habitat and Pacific salmon in the South Fork. It also evaluates the effectiveness of restoration tools that address Pacific salmon recovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009206','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009206"><span>Comparing Two Approaches for <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Observation <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Todling, Ricardo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Langland and Baker introduced an approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/369965','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/369965"><span>Groundwater resources <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for triazine herbicides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less <span class="hlt">impact</span> on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18951608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18951608"><span>Ranking potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of priority and emerging pollutants in urban wastewater through life cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muñoz, Ivan; José Gómez, M; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Life cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCIA), a feature of the Life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) methodology, is used in this work outside the LCA framework, as a means to quantify the potential environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on ecotoxicity and human toxicity of wastewater containing priority and emerging pollutants. In order to do this, so-called characterisation factors are obtained for 98 frequently detected pollutants, using two characterisation models, EDIP97 and USES-LCA. The applicability of this methodology is shown in a <span class="hlt">case</span> study in which wastewater influent and effluent samples from a Spanish wastewater treatment plant located in the Mediterranean coast were analysed. Characterisation factors were applied to the average concentration of each pollutant, obtaining <span class="hlt">impact</span> scores for different scenarios: discharging wastewater to aquatic recipient, and using it for crop irrigation. The results show that treated wastewater involves a substantially lower environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> when compared to the influent, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are very important contributors to toxicity in this wastewater. Ciprofloxacin, fluoxetine, and nicotine constitute the main PPCPs of concern in this <span class="hlt">case</span> study, while 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Nickel, and hexachlorobenzene are the priority pollutants with highest contribution. Nevertheless, it must be stressed that the new characterisation factors are based on very limited data, especially with regard to toxicology, and therefore they must be seen as a first screening to be improved in the future when more and higher quality data is available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5295751','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5295751"><span>Workplace-based <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>; Applications and Educational <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yousuf Guraya, Salman</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Workplace based <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (WPBA) refers to a group of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> modalities which evaluates trainees’ performance during the clinical settings. Hallmark of WPBA is the element of observation of the trainee’s performance in real workplace environment along with relevant feedback, thus fostering reflective practice. WPBA consists of observation of clinical performance (mini-clinical evaluation exercise, direct observation of procedural skills), discussion of clinical <span class="hlt">cases</span> (<span class="hlt">case</span> based discussion), and feedback from peers, coworkers, and patients (multisource feedback). This literature review was conducted on the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library. Data were retrieved by connecting Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: ‘workplace based assessment’ AND ‘mini-clinical evaluation exercise’ AND ‘direct observation of procedural skills’ AND ‘<span class="hlt">case</span> based discussion’ AND ‘multi-source feedback’. Additional studies were searched in the reference lists of all included articles. As WPBA is gaining popularity, there is a growing need for continuing faculty development and greater evidence regarding the validity and reliability of these instruments, which will allow the academia to embed this strategy in the existing curricula. As of today, there are conflicting reports about the educational <span class="hlt">impact</span> of WPBA in terms of its validity and reliability. This review draws upon the spectrum of WPBA tools, their designs and applications, and an account of the existing educational <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this emerging <span class="hlt">assessment</span> strategy in medical education. Finally, the study reports some educational <span class="hlt">impact</span> of WPBAs on learning and emphasises the need for more empirical research in endorsing its application worldwide. PMID:28223879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=risk+AND+assessment&pg=5&id=EJ739981','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=risk+AND+assessment&pg=5&id=EJ739981"><span>Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in Child Sexual Abuse <span class="hlt">Cases</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Despite continuing improvements in risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse <span class="hlt">cases</span> present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Electric+generator&id=EJ301650','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Electric+generator&id=EJ301650"><span>Training Needs <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Horton, George R. "Dick"</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Presents a <span class="hlt">case</span> study and findings of a training needs <span class="hlt">assessment</span> which was conducted to determine the training implications of implementing an integral system of quality assurance at the Fridley, Minnesota, plant of Onan Corporation, a manufacturer of electric generator sets and switch gear. (MBR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22849285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22849285"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of risk management interventions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shryock, T R</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Much effort has been invested in the development and implementation of international recommendations to manage the risk of foodborne antimicrobial resistance, and monitoring programmes to measure bacterial antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial product volumes. A variety of approaches have been recommended for various stakeholders in the food animal and food production sectors. Interestingly, much less consideration has been given to the establishment of success criteria for the individual interventions and even less for the cumulative effects, when all interventions are considered together as consecutive 'hurdles' along the food chain. The author explores the outcome and unforeseen consequences of these various interventions and appropriate methods that could provide data to <span class="hlt">assess</span> their <span class="hlt">impact</span>, as well as key learning experiences that should lead to refinements of such interventions in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24508156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24508156"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A methodology was developed for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and comparison of the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A <span class="hlt">case</span> study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the aquatic environment and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health. The relative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnGeo..58..205M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnGeo..58..205M"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of open pit mining in Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various <span class="hlt">impacting</span> factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each <span class="hlt">impacting</span> factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each <span class="hlt">impacting</span> factor. The overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four <span class="hlt">case</span> histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Predicting+AND+urban+AND+growth&id=EJ455692','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Predicting+AND+urban+AND+growth&id=EJ455692"><span>Comprehensive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in Planning Education and a Course Syllabus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burby, Raymond J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> skills are used in planning practice, reflecting expansion in society's concern with externalities of growth and development, improved methods for predicting environmental effects, and wider acceptance of <span class="hlt">impact</span> mitigation as a growth management goal. This article reviews the status of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in planning pedagogy and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol26/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol26-sec227-19.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol26/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol26-sec227-19.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.19 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 227.19 Section... FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An overall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec227-22.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec227-22.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.22 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 227.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span> on other...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5818376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5818376"><span>Catalysis-by-design <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fassbender, L L; Young, J K; Sen, R K</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Catalyst researchers have always recognized the need to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of catalytic processes, and have hoped that it would lead to developing a theoretical predictive base to guide the search for new catalysts. This understanding allows one to develop a set of hierarchical models, from fundamental atomic-level ab-initio models to detailed engineering simulations of reactor systems, to direct the search for optimized, efficient catalyst systems. During the last two decades, the explosions of advanced surface analysis techniques have helped considerably to develop the building blocks for understanding various catalytic reactions. An effort to couple these theoretical and experimental advances to develop a set of hierarchical models to predict the nature of catalytic materials is a program entitled Catalysis-by-Design (CRD).'' In <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of CBD on US industry, the key point to remember is that the value of the program lies in developing a novel methodology to search for new catalyst systems. Industrial researchers can then use this methodology to develop proprietary catalysts. Most companies involved in catalyst R D have two types of ongoing projects. The first type, what we call market-driven R D,'' are projects that support and improve upon a company's existing product lines. Project of the second type, technology-driven R D,'' are longer term, involve the development of totally new catalysts, and are initiated through scientists' research ideas. The CBD approach will <span class="hlt">impact</span> both types of projects. However, this analysis indicates that the near-term <span class="hlt">impacts</span> will be on market-driven'' projects. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this report were obtained by the authors through personal interviews with individuals involved in a variety of industrial catalyst development programs and through the three CBD workshops held in the summer of 1989. 34 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5064089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5064089"><span>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Urban Development Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malekafzali, Hosein</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) has emerged to identify those activities and policies likely to have major <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the health of a population. Method: In this research, qualitative method was applied to identifying health determinants that urban man made lake affect on them, formatting and weighing the hierarchy of the factors, calculating AHP, and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method for decide and ranking alternatives. Results: According to the results of the study, from the structural determinants point of view, the most positive effect of man-made lake was on Recreational services by 89.5% and the most negative one was on housing. According to intermediary determinants and general average, the most positive effect of lake was on physical activity and quality of air by 88.9% and the most negative one was on noise pollution by 46.7%. Ultimately, considering the positive and negative effects of lake between constructing and not constructing the lake option, the construction option was selected. Conclusion: There is substantial potential to improve public health by bringing decision makers’ attention to the health consequences of their actions; city councilpersons, zoning commissioners, and other decision makers typically have little background in health. PMID:27157160</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572469','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572469"><span>Integrated environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: a Canadian example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Canadian federal process for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12894328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12894328"><span>Integrated environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: a Canadian example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Canadian federal process for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732566','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732566"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: multidisciplinary and international perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krieger, N; Northridge, M; Gruskin, S; Quinn, M; Kriebel, D; Davey, S; Bassett, M; Rehkopf, D; Miller, C</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) seeks to expand evaluation of policy and programmes in all sectors, both private and public, to include their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on population health. While the idea that the public's health is affected by a broad array of social and economic policies is not new and dates back well over two centuries, what is new is the notion—increasingly adopted by major health institutions, such as the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Kingdom National Health Services (NHS)—that health should be an explicit consideration when evaluating all public policies. In this article, it is argued that while HIA has the potential to enhance recognition of societal determinants of health and of intersectoral responsibility for health, its pitfalls warrant critical attention. Greater clarity is required regarding criteria for initiating, conducting, and completing HIA, including rules pertaining to decision making, enforcement, compliance, plus paying for their conduct. Critical debate over the promise, process, and pitfalls of HIA needs to be informed by multiple disciplines and perspectives from diverse people and regions of the world. PMID:12933768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-06/pdf/2011-8086.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-04-06/pdf/2011-8086.pdf"><span>76 FR 19110 - Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-06</p> <p>... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... the Department. The <span class="hlt">assessments</span> were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between May 3, 2010 and January 7, 2011. DATES: The Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> are available on the DHS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18293029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18293029"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of potential aquatic herbicide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to California aquatic ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-<span class="hlt">case</span>" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-<span class="hlt">case</span> scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=revenue+AND+recognition&pg=2&id=ED510286','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=revenue+AND+recognition&pg=2&id=ED510286"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) <span class="hlt">assesses</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed <span class="hlt">case</span> studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Many of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC22A..08I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC22A..08I"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2009]. The HadCM3L simulations carried out for this work include a pre-industrial control, a simulation with 4xCO2, and 10 simulations with 4xCO2 and different levels of SRM geoengineering ranging from 10% to 100% of a full intervention sufficient to cool the climate to pre-industrial average surface air temperature. Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell (2000), Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model, Nature, 408(6809), 184-187. Govindasamy, B., K. Caldeira, and P. B. Duffy (2003), Geoengineering Earth's radiation balance to mitigate climate change from a quadrupling of CO2, Global and Planetary Change, 37(1-2), 157-168. Irvine, P. J., D. J. Lunt, E. J. Stone, and A. Ridgwell (2009), The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world, Environmental Research Letters, 4(4). Irvine, P., A. Ridgwell, and D. Lunt (2010), <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL044447, in press</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN54A..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN54A..03P"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> multi-disciplinary Earth observation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on societal benefits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pearlman, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Multi-disciplinary interactions are becoming more important as demands for science-driven information needed for decision-making are increasing. Further development of systems to improve the scientific understanding of Earth's system and its response to natural or human-induced changes are required to meet this need. These would facilitate modeling and analyses in many critical areas such as climate prediction, food security, water availability and ecosystem sustainability among others. It is intuitive that better information will have a positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on decision outcomes. Yet this is difficult to quantitate. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of multi-disciplinary work are particularly difficult to <span class="hlt">assess</span>, yet it is hard to predict climate change without considering oceans, land use and many other Earth system characteristics. There are several steps that are important to quantitate the benefits. Some of these have been discussed at IIASA, RFI and other centers of excellence in this area. The key is to establish a program with metrics, a community of practice to propagate the metrics and clear <span class="hlt">case</span> studies that will demonstrate effectiveness. A workshop was held to set the foundations for this approach and recommendations from a team of global experts are evolving into a program. This presentation discusses the indicators and metrics, examines their efficacy and looks at a <span class="hlt">case</span> study to <span class="hlt">assess</span> and validate the development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447504','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447504"><span>A method proposal for cumulative environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Cumulative environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative <span class="hlt">impact</span> identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and the overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this <span class="hlt">case</span> study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading <span class="hlt">impact</span> significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction in the EIA process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447517"><span>Social cost <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of pipeline infrastructure projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various <span class="hlt">case</span> histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for two pipeline construction projects. The <span class="hlt">case</span> histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of social costs and <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8367S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8367S"><span>Cost Analysis of Water Transport for Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szaleniec, V.; Buytaert, W.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>It is expected that climate change will have a strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> on water resources worldwide. Many studies exist that couple the output of global climate models with hydrological models to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change on physical water availability. However, the water resources topology of many regions and especially that of cities can be very complex. Changes in physical water availability do therefore not translate easily into <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on water resources for cities. This is especially the <span class="hlt">case</span> for cities with a complex water supply topology, for instance because of geographical barriers, strong gradients in precipitation patterns, or competing water uses. In this study we explore the use of cost maps to enable the inclusion of water supply topologies in climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies. We use the city of Lima as a <span class="hlt">case</span> study. Lima is the second largest desert city in the world. Although Peru as a whole has no water shortage, extreme gradients exist. Most of the economic activities including the city of Lima are located in the coastal desert. This region is geographically disconnected from the wet Amazon basin because of the Andes mountain range. Hence, water supply is precarious, provided by a complex combination of high mountain ecosystems including wetlands and glaciers, as well as groundwater aquifers depending on recharge from the mountains. We investigate the feasibility and costs of different water abstraction scenarios and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change using cost functions for different resources. The option of building inter basins tunnels across the Andes is compared to the costs of desalinating seawater from the Pacific Ocean under different climate change scenarios and population growth scenarios. This approach yields recommendations for the most cost-effective options for the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82277','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82277"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on natural resource systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J.</p> <p>1994-11-30</p> <p>This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> of the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> of Global Warming <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological <span class="hlt">Assessments</span>; Environmental Change in Grasslands: <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> using Models; <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the Socio-economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491733','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491733"><span>Screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and requirements for a comprehensive <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>To evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> to evaluate the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058831','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058831"><span>Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat</p> <p>2012-01-15</p> <p>The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334154','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334154"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> corporate project <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Project-level <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal <span class="hlt">assessments</span> from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in each of these domains, with human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. Project <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience <span class="hlt">assessing</span> and responding to human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The <span class="hlt">case</span> study demonstrates the value of longitudinal <span class="hlt">assessment</span> both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Chemical+AND+Society&pg=3&id=EJ789583','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Chemical+AND+Society&pg=3&id=EJ789583"><span>Examining Technology's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Society: Using <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karukstis, Kerry K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's <span class="hlt">impact</span> on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world <span class="hlt">case</span> studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. <span class="hlt">Case</span> study design, implementation, and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> are presented.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3718702I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3718702I"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the regional disparities in geoengineering <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> regional disparities in geoengineering <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Taking a 4 × CO2 climate and an idealized ‘sunshade’ SRM strategy, we consider different fractions of the maximum theoretical, 4 × CO2-cancelling global mean cooling. Whilst regional predictions in particularly relatively low resolution global climate models must be treated with caution, our simulations indicate that it might be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960002903','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960002903"><span>NSTAR Ion Thruster Plume <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Myers, Roger M.; Pencil, Eric J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael; Oden, Katessha</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Tests were performed to establish 30-cm ion thruster plume <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, including plume characterizations via near and farfield ion current measurements, contamination, and sputtering <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. Current density measurements show that 95% of the beam was enclosed within a 22 deg half-angle and that the thrust vector shifted by less than 0.3 deg during throttling from 2.3 to 0.5 kW. The beam flatness parameter was found to be 0.47, and the ratio of doubly charged to singly charged ion current density decreased from 15% at 2.3 kW to 5% at 0.5 kW. Quartz sample erosion measurements showed that the samples eroded at a rate of between 11 and 13 pm/khr at 25 deg from the thruster axis, and that the rate dropped by a factor of four at 40 deg. Good agreement was obtained between extrapolated current densities and those calculated from tantalum target erosion measurements. Quartz crystal microbalance and witness plate measurements showed that ion beam sputtering of the tank resulted in a facility material backflux rate of -10 A/hr in a large space simulation chamber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/privacy/privacy-impact-assessment-environmental-assessments-residential-properties-earp','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/privacy/privacy-impact-assessment-environmental-assessments-residential-properties-earp"><span>Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> for the Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> for Residential Properties (EARP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the course of EPA <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, EPA finds that there are the potential for releases to <span class="hlt">impact</span> residential properties. To complete the <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and public health evaluations related to the release EPA must specifically <span class="hlt">assess</span> individual properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795325.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795325.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Teaching Practices of Secondary Mathematics Student Teachers: An Exploratory Cross <span class="hlt">Case</span> Analysis of Voluntary Field Experiences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McClintock, Edwin; O'Brien, George; Jiang, Zhonghong</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Analyses of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of reform-based teaching practices in Florida International University's program have been previously reported. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the field experiences "per se" has not been <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. Using a cross-<span class="hlt">case</span> analysis approach, the authors <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of voluntary field experiences with teachers who practice…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23807176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23807176"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> framing assumptions in quantitative health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>: a housing intervention example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Foss, Anna M</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) is often used to determine ex ante the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an environmental policy or an environmental intervention. Underpinning any HIA is the framing assumption, which defines the causal pathways mapping environmental exposures to health outcomes. The sensitivity of the HIA to the framing assumptions is often ignored. A novel method based on fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is developed to quantify the framing assumptions in the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> stage of a HIA, and is then applied to a housing intervention (tightening insulation) as a <span class="hlt">case</span>-study. Framing assumptions of the <span class="hlt">case</span>-study were identified through a literature search of Ovid Medline (1948-2011). The FCM approach was used to identify the key variables that have the most influence in a HIA. Changes in air-tightness, ventilation, indoor air quality and mould/humidity have been identified as having the most influence on health. The FCM approach is widely applicable and can be used to inform the formulation of the framing assumptions in any quantitative HIA of environmental interventions. We argue that it is necessary to explore and quantify framing assumptions prior to conducting a detailed quantitative HIA during the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22journal+citation+reports%22&pg=3&id=EJ555789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22journal+citation+reports%22&pg=3&id=EJ555789"><span>ISI's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Factor as Misnomer: A Proposed New Measure To <span class="hlt">Assess</span> Journal <span class="hlt">Impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harter, Stephen P.; Nisonger, Thomas E.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Discusses "<span class="hlt">impact</span> factor," a measure of journal <span class="hlt">impact</span> defined by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and available in Journal Citation Reports. Argues that "<span class="hlt">impact</span> factor" is misnamed and misused, suggesting an alternative name and interpretation of the measure, and proposes two new measures to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21647006','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21647006"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of breakthrough cancer pain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burton, Beth; Zeppetella, Giovambattista</p> <p></p> <p>Breakthrough pain is a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs either spontaneously or in relation to a specific predictable or unpredictable trigger despite relative stable and adequately controlled background pain. Breakthrough pain is a common and distinct component of cancer pain and is typically of rapid onset, severe in intensity, and generally self-limiting with an average duration of 30-60minutes. Despite the self-limiting nature of breakthrough pain, it can place significant physical, psychological, and economic burdens on both patients and their carers. Patients with breakthrough pain are often less satisfied with their analgesic therapy, they have decreased functioning because of their pain, and may also experience social and psychosocial consequences, such as increased levels of anxiety and depression. Successful management of breakthrough pain is best achieved by a thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span> which includes determining the severity, pathophysiology, and aetiology of the pain and takes into account both background and breakthrough pains while considering whether the underlying disease, co-morbidities or precipitating events are amenable to interventions. The features of breakthrough pain and the challenges it presents to patients, their carers, and health professionals are illustrated with a <span class="hlt">case</span> study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ubiquitous&pg=2&id=EJ1125677','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ubiquitous&pg=2&id=EJ1125677"><span>Supporting Research <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Metrics in Academic Libraries: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Braun, Steven</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Measuring research <span class="hlt">impact</span> has become a nearly ubiquitous facet of scholarly communication. At the University of Minnesota Medical School, new administrative directives have directly tied <span class="hlt">impact</span> metrics to faculty <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, promotion, and tenure. In this paper, I describe a platform for the analysis and visualization of research <span class="hlt">impact</span> that was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2668076','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2668076"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5127382','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5127382"><span>Controls on project proponents and environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> effectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ortolano, L. )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The degree of effectiveness of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) for particular projects is associated with the existence of mechanisms of organizational control. Five dimensions of EIA effectiveness are considered: procedural compliance, completeness of EIA documents, methods to <span class="hlt">assess</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, influence on project decisions, and weight given to environmental factors. Six mechanisms of control are introduced and illustrated by programs and projects in several countries. Experience in the Philippines under President Marcos demonstrates that procedural control in the form of EIA regulations, when used without other control mechanisms, will lead at most to token compliance. Judicial control, as practiced in the US, yields high procedural compliance. Evaluative control can yield effective EIA, but some systems based on this form of control treat only a small fraction of the major projects proposed. Both control exerted by development assistance organizations and control by professionals have great potential for yielding effective EIA, but that potential has not been fully realized. Control exerted directly by citizens or agencies not otherwise involved in EIA is uncommon, but <span class="hlt">cases</span> from Taiwan demonstrate that those controls can be significant. An understanding of relationships between control mechanisms and EIA effectiveness is useful in designing EIA policies and programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3863845','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3863845"><span>Automatic <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Socioeconomic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Cardiac Rehabilitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Calvo, Mireia; Subirats, Laia; Ceccaroni, Luigi; Maroto, José María; de Pablo, Carmen; Miralles, Felip</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), which capture life expectancy and quality of the remaining life-years, are applied in a new method to measure socioeconomic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> related to health. A 7-step methodology estimating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of health interventions based on DALYs, QALYs and functioning changes is presented. It relates the latter (1) to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire (2) to automatically calculate the health status before and after the intervention (3). This change of status is represented as a change in quality of life when calculating QALYs gained due to the intervention (4). In order to make an economic <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, QALYs gained are converted to DALYs averted (5). Then, by inferring the cost/DALY from the cost associated to the disability in terms of DALYs lost (6) and taking into account the cost of the action, cost savings due to the intervention are calculated (7) as an objective measure of socioeconomic <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The methodology is implemented in Java. <span class="hlt">Cases</span> within the framework of cardiac rehabilitation processes are analyzed and the calculations are based on 200 patients who underwent different cardiac-rehabilitation processes. Results show that these interventions result, on average, in a gain in QALYs of 0.6 and a cost savings of 8,000 €. PMID:24284349</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246915','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246915"><span>Stakeholder participation in health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: A multicultural approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Negev, Maya; Davidovitch, Nadav; Garb, Yaakov; Tal, Alon</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>The literature on <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The <span class="hlt">case</span> study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. The <span class="hlt">case</span> study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/500538','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/500538"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for the National Ignition Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bay Area Economics</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>This report documents the economic and other <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204586"><span>Human Rights <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: A Method for Healthy Policymaking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacNaughton, Gillian</p> <p>2015-06-11</p> <p>Two decades ago, Lawrence Gostin and Jonathan Mann developed a methodology for human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HRIA) of proposed public health policies. This article looks back over the last 20 years to examine the development of HRIA in the health field and consider the progress that has been made since Gostin and Mann published their pioneering article. Health-related HRIA has advanced substantially in three ways. First, the content of the right to health has been delineated in greater detail through domestic and international laws and policies. Second, the UN human rights mechanisms have recommended that governments undertake HRIAs and have issued guidelines and methodologies for doing so. Third, nongovernmental organizations and international organizations have developed HRIA tools and carried out <span class="hlt">case</span> studies to demonstrate their feasibility. In this light, the article concludes by recognizing the substantial progress that has been made in HRIA over the last 20 years and by considering some challenges that remain for health-related HRIA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329569"><span>Risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis of the implementation of new European legislation on radiopharmaceuticals in Italy: the <span class="hlt">case</span> of the new monograph chapter Compounding of Radiopharmaceuticals (PHARMEUROPA, Vol. 23, No. 4, October 2011).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chitto, Giuseppe; Di Domenico, Elvira; Gandolfo, Patrizia; Ria, Francesco; Tafuri, Chiara; Papa, Sergio</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the new monograph chapter Compounding of Radiopharmaceuticals has been conducted on the basis of the first period of implementation of Italian legislation on Good Radiopharmaceuticals Practice (NBP) in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, in keeping with Decree by the Italian Ministry of Health dated March 30, 2005. This approach is well grounded in the several points of similarity between the two sets of regulations. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient risk, on staff risk, and on healthcare organization risk, has been <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. At the same time, the actual costs of coming into compliance with regulations have been estimated. A change risk analysis has been performed through the identification of healthcare-associated risks, the analysis and measurement of the likelihood of occurrence and of the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> in terms of patient harm and staff harm, and the determination of the healthcare organization's controlling capability. In order to evaluate the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span>, the expenses directly related to the implementation of the activities as per ministerial decree have been estimated after calculating the overall costs unrelated to NBP implementation. The resulting costs have then been averaged over the total number of patient services delivered. NBP implementation shows an extremely positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on risk management for both patients receiving Nuclear Medicine services and the healthcare organization. With regard to healthcare workers, instead, the implementation of these regulations has a negative effect on the risk for greater exposure and a positive effect on the defense against litigation. The economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis of NBP implementation shows a 34% increase in the costs for a single patient service. The implementation of the ministerial decree allows for greater detectability of and control over a number of critical elements, paving the way for risk management and minimization. We, therefore, believe that the proposed tool can provide basic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173917','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173917"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierazzo, E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hypothesis+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ1018913','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hypothesis+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ1018913"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Tasks on Subsequent Examination Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Van Gaal, Frank; De Ridder, Annemieke</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tasks on examination result (measured by examination grades) is investigated. Although many describe the advantages of electronic <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tasks, few studies have been undertaken which compare a traditional approach using a classical examination with a new approach using <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tasks. The main…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+assessment&pg=2&id=EJ992136','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+assessment&pg=2&id=EJ992136"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Quality <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in Universities: Portuguese Students' Perceptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cardoso, Sonia; Santiago, Rui; Sarrico, Claudia S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Despite being one of the major reasons for the development of quality <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, students seem relatively unaware of its potential <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Since one of the main purposes of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is to provide students with information on the quality of universities, this lack of awareness brings in to question the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> as a device for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046218','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046218"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of roads: application of a standard <span class="hlt">assessment</span> protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road <span class="hlt">impacts</span> across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road <span class="hlt">impacts</span> across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent <span class="hlt">impact</span> did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542458"><span>Review of Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies Blending Elements of Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harder, Robin; Holmquist, Hanna; Molander, Sverker; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (RA) and life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) are two analytical tools used to support decision making in environmental management. This study reviewed 30 environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> <span class="hlt">case</span> studies that claimed an integration, combination, hybridization, or complementary use of RA and LCA. The focus of the analysis was on how the respective <span class="hlt">case</span> studies evaluated emissions of chemical pollutants and pathogens. The analysis revealed three clusters of similar <span class="hlt">case</span> studies. Yet, there seemed to be little consensus as to what should be referred to as RA and LCA, and when to speak of combination, integration, hybridization, or complementary use of RA and LCA. This paper provides clear recommendations toward a more stringent and consistent use of terminology. Blending elements of RA and LCA offers multifaceted opportunities to adapt a given environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> <span class="hlt">case</span> study to a specific decision making context, but also requires awareness of several implications and potential pitfalls, of which six are discussed in this paper. To facilitate a better understanding and more transparent communication of the nature of a given <span class="hlt">case</span> study, this paper proposes a "design space" (i.e., identification framework) for environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> <span class="hlt">case</span> studies blending elements of RA and LCA. Thinking in terms of a common design space, we postulate, can increase clarity and transparency when communicating the design and results of a given <span class="hlt">assessment</span> together with its potential strengths and weaknesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25584628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25584628"><span>High-resolution <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on biodiversity in life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> using species habitat suitability models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Baan, Laura; Curran, Michael; Rondinini, Carlo; Visconti, Piero; Hellweg, Stefanie; Koellner, Thomas</p> <p>2015-02-17</p> <p>Agricultural land use is a main driver of global biodiversity loss. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in decision-support tools such as life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) requires spatially explicit models, but existing approaches are either not spatially differentiated or modeled at very coarse scales (e.g., biomes or ecoregions). In this paper, we develop a high-resolution (900 m) <span class="hlt">assessment</span> method for land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on biodiversity based on habitat suitability models (HSM) of mammal species. This method considers potential land use effects on individual species, and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are weighted by the species' conservation status and global rarity. We illustrate the method using a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of crop production in East Africa, but the underlying HSMs developed by the Global Mammals <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> are available globally. We calculate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of three major export crops and compare the results to two previously developed methods (focusing on local and regional <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, respectively) to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the relevance of the methodological innovations proposed in this paper. The results highlight hotspots of product-related biodiversity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that help characterize the links among agricultural production, consumption, and biodiversity loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814182"><span>Industrial <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Center Program <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martin, M.A.</p> <p>2000-01-26</p> <p>This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for small to medium-sized industrial firms. <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> are conducted by 30 university-based industrial <span class="hlt">assessment</span> centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19324382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19324382"><span>Healthy public policy--is health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> the cornerstone?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Metcalfe, O; Higgins, C</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The 8th International Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Conference, entitled 'Healthy public policy--is health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> the cornerstone?', was hosted by the Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH). At the event, IPH sponsored a keynote speech to set the context of the conference and outline the importance of healthy public policy. This article presents an overview of healthy public policy and the barriers to its adoption in policy-making. Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is one such tool to overcome the barriers, and the authors recommend the methodology as the cornerstone to healthy public policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161804"><span>Evaluating Ireland's IBIA as an approach to improving the quality and effectiveness of biodiversity <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González, Ainhoa; Hochstrasser, Tamara; Fry, John; Scott, Paul; Grist, Berna; Jones, Mike</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of plans, programmes and projects on biodiversity is required under various legislative remits (including the European Union's Habitats, Strategic Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Directives). The objective of such <span class="hlt">assessments</span> is to ensure that potential negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on both protected nature conservation sites and species and wider biodiversity are efficiently identified in a timely manner, quantified and subsequently avoided or mitigated, while enhancing positive effects. The procedural requirements of these legal obligations vary and, as a result, differing methodological steps, data gathering and analysis methods, and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> techniques are commonly applied under each individual process, often leading to uncoordinated <span class="hlt">assessment</span> efforts and results (in terms, for example, of scope, scale and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> detail). In order to address these issues and improve current practice, an Integrated Biodiversity <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (IBIA) methodology has been developed in Ireland with the overall aim of providing a holistic and systematic approach to biodiversity <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The IBIA framework seeks to ensure that relevant procedures are effectively integrated, time and resource efficiencies are optimised, and unnecessary duplication avoided. Particular emphasis is given to compliance with legal requirements, integration and communication of scientific knowledge, spatial <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and biodiversity data considerations, and integration of biodiversity aspects with a variety of other concerns during the plan-making process. This paper presents the IBIA methodology and critically examines current key issues in biodiversity <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> that can be potentially addressed through IBIA, as well as remaining challenges. In addition, and in order to support the examination of the anticipated benefits of using this new methodological framework (such as biodiversity-inclusive planning through</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tutorial&pg=6&id=EJ1089209','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tutorial&pg=6&id=EJ1089209"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Tutorial Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ticknor, Cindy S.; Shaw, Kimberly A.; Howard, Timothy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many institutions struggle to develop a meaningful way to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the effectiveness of drop-in tutorial services provided to students. This article discusses the development of a data collection system based on a visitor sign-in system that proved to be an efficient method of gathering <span class="hlt">assessment</span> data, including frequency of visits, end-of-course…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HESS...12..669D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HESS...12..669D"><span>Quantifying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of model inaccuracy in climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> studies using an agro-hydrological model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Droogers, P.; van Loon, A.; Immerzeel, W. W.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Numerical simulation models are frequently applied to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change on hydrology and agriculture. A common hypothesis is that unavoidable model errors are reflected in the reference situation as well as in the climate change situation so that by comparing reference to scenario model errors will level out. For a polder in The Netherlands an innovative procedure has been introduced, referred to as the Model-Scenario-Ratio (MSR), to express model inaccuracy on climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> studies based on simulation models comparing a reference situation to a climate change situation. The SWAP (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant) model was used for the <span class="hlt">case</span> study and the reference situation was compared to two climate change scenarios. MSR values close to 1, indicating that <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is mainly a function of the scenario itself rather than of the quality of the model, were found for most indicators evaluated. A climate change scenario with enhanced drought conditions and indicators based on threshold values showed lower MSR values, indicating that model accuracy is an important component of the climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. It was concluded that the MSR approach can be applied easily and will lead to more robust <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294714','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294714"><span>Application of Non-Human Biota <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Methodologies to the <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Potential <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from a Nuclear Waste Repository</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, K.L.; Robinson, C.A.; Ikonen, A.T.K.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation has become increasingly more topical over the last few years as the intentions enshrined in international principles and agreements have become more binding through national and international law. For example, the Directive on <span class="hlt">impact</span> of certain projects on the environment (EIA Directive 85/337/EEC) [CEC, 1985], amended in 1997 [CEC, 1997], places a mandatory requirement on all EU Member States to conduct environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for a range of project having potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the environment, including radioactive waste disposal. Such <span class="hlt">assessments</span> must consider humans, fauna and flora, the abiotic environment (soil, water, air), material assets and cultural heritage as well as the interactions between these factors. In Finland, Posiva Oy are responsible for the overall repository programme for spent nuclear fuel and, as such, are conducting the Safety <span class="hlt">Case</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> for a proposed geological repository for nuclear waste. Within the European legislation framework, the Finnish regulatory body requires that the repository safety <span class="hlt">case</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> should include not only human radiological safety, but also an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon populations of non-human biota. Specifically, the Safety <span class="hlt">Case</span> should demonstrate that there will be: - no decline in the biodiversity of currently living populations; - no significant detriment to populations of fauna and flora; and, - no detrimental effects on individuals of domestic animals and rare plants and animals. At present, there are no internationally agreed criteria that explicitly address protection of the environment from ionising radiation. However, over recent years a number of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methodologies have been developed including, at a European level, the Framework for the <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> (FASSET) and Environmental Risks from Ionising Contaminants (ERICA). The International Committee on Radiation Protection</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2711B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2711B"><span>The key role of eyewitnesses in rapid earthquake <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Frédéric; Etivant, Caroline</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in rapid earthquake <span class="hlt">impact</span> models are intrinsically large even when excluding potential indirect losses (fires, landslides, tsunami…). The reason is that they are based on several factors which are themselves difficult to constrain, such as the geographical distribution of shaking intensity, building type inventory and vulnerability functions. The difficulties can be illustrated by two boundary <span class="hlt">cases</span>. For moderate (around M6) earthquakes, the size of potential damage zone and the epicentral location uncertainty share comparable dimension of about 10-15km. When such an earthquake strikes close to an urban area, like in 1999, in Athens (M5.9), earthquake location uncertainties alone can lead to dramatically different <span class="hlt">impact</span> scenario. Furthermore, for moderate magnitude, the overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> is often controlled by individual accidents, like in 2002 in Molise, Italy (M5.7), in Bingol, Turkey (M6.4) in 2003 or in Christchurch, New Zealand (M6.3) where respectively 23 out of 30, 84 out of 176 and 115 out of 185 of the causalities perished in a single building failure. Contrastingly, for major earthquakes (M>7), the point source approximation is not valid anymore, and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> requires knowing exactly where the seismic rupture took place, whether it was unilateral, bilateral etc.… and this information is not readily available directly after the earthquake's occurrence. In-situ observations of actual <span class="hlt">impact</span> provided by eyewitnesses can dramatically reduce <span class="hlt">impact</span> models uncertainties. We will present the overall strategy developed at the EMSC which comprises of crowdsourcing and flashsourcing techniques, the development of citizen operated seismic networks, and the use of social networks to engage with eyewitnesses within minutes of an earthquake occurrence. For instance, testimonies are collected through online questionnaires available in 32 languages and automatically processed in maps of effects. Geo-located pictures are collected and then</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6422332','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6422332"><span>Plan to meet a new requirement: energy <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Breedlove, K.H.</p> <p>1980-08-01</p> <p>New and proposed regulations require Energy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (ENIA) statements and consideration of energy alternatives for federal aid in building major new facilities which <span class="hlt">impact</span> greatly on local energy resources. The objectives will be to determine long-term energy costs, reduce adverse <span class="hlt">impacts</span> through tradeoffs, set baselines for evaluating future changes in usage, and provide inputs to Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statements and to energy-feasibility analyses. ENIA and Energy Resource <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statements (ERIS) are defined, and the proposed content and applicability discussed. Methodological research, energy cost-factor data, and specialists will be needed. Army regulations and other laws are quoted. (DCK)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790004386','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790004386"><span>Satellite Power System (SPS) environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, preliminary <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Livingston, F. R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Present power plant <span class="hlt">assessment</span> factors are used to present satellite power system (SPS) <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. In contrast to oil, gas, nuclear and coal fueled power plants, the SPS and hydroelectric power plants produce air, water, and solid waste emissions only during the construction phase. Land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> result from the placement of rectennas used for microwave receiving and rectifying. Air quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the SPS resulting from the construction phase amount to 0.405 metric tons per megawatt year. Solid wastes <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are 0.108 metric tons per year of operation. Other <span class="hlt">impacts</span> such as those caused by heavy lift launch vehicle sites are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572488','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572488"><span>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> needs in south-east Asian countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Caussy, Deoraj; Kumar, Priti; Than Sein, U.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A situation analysis was undertaken to <span class="hlt">assess</span> impediments to health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) in the South-East Asia Region of WHO (SEARO). The countries of the region were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> on the policy framework and procedures for HIA, existing infrastructure required to support HIA, the capacity for undertaking HIA, and the potential for intersectoral collaboration. The findings show that environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) is being used implicitly as a substitute for HIA, which is not explicitly or routinely conducted in virtually all countries of the Region. Therefore, policy, infrastructure, capacity, and intersectoral collaboration need strengthening for the routine implementation of HIA. PMID:12894329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295651','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295651"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of weather and climate scenarios on conservation <span class="hlt">assessment</span> outcomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper reviews selected watershed studies of the Conservation Effects <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Project (CEAP) and interprets findings from the perspective of potential climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on conservation outcomes. Primary foci are runoff, soil erosion, sediment transport, watershed sediment yield, and asso...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+law&pg=5&id=EJ157369','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+law&pg=5&id=EJ157369"><span>Berkeley's Course on Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Reporting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McColl, John G.; Nicholas, Tawna</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A four-quarter sequence of courses to <span class="hlt">assess</span> environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>, to provide students with knowledge of environmental law, a strong interdisciplinary base, and an understanding of the processes of planning and policy formation, is described. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=212550&keyword=ISO&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78685862&CFTOKEN=78528315','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=212550&keyword=ISO&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78685862&CFTOKEN=78528315"><span>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Research Developments and Needs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230290&keyword=ISO&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78685862&CFTOKEN=78528315','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230290&keyword=ISO&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78685862&CFTOKEN=78528315"><span>International Developments in Environmental and Social <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=119147&keyword=science+AND+political&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77859595&CFTOKEN=23247375','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=119147&keyword=science+AND+political&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77859595&CFTOKEN=23247375"><span>LIFE CYCLE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span>: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research within the field of Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=204103&fed_org_id=1253&subject=homeland%20security%20research&view=desc&sortby=pubdateyear&showcriteria=1&count=25&searchall=decontamination%20and%20conference','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=204103&fed_org_id=1253&subject=homeland%20security%20research&view=desc&sortby=pubdateyear&showcriteria=1&count=25&searchall=decontamination%20and%20conference"><span>Experimental Approaches to <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Symposium Paper The US EPA, as part of the CRTI project team, is currently working to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of an urban radiological dispersion device (RDD) and develop containment and decontamination strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234249&keyword=Bees&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90774855&CFTOKEN=79052552','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234249&keyword=Bees&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90774855&CFTOKEN=79052552"><span>Developments in <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has <span class="hlt">impacted</span> North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED274502.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED274502.pdf"><span>Community Level <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>--Extension Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Woods, Mike D.; Doeksen, Gerald A.</p> <p></p> <p>Using the Oklahoma State University (OSU) computerized community simulation model, extension professionals can provide local decision makers with information derived from an <span class="hlt">impact</span> model that is dynamic, community specific, and easy to adapt to different communities. The four main sections of the OSU model are an economic account, a capital…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88S.218Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88S.218Z"><span>In Brief: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of wind energy <span class="hlt">assessed</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zielinski, Sarah</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The report, ``Environmental <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234263&keyword=Debate&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89896438&CFTOKEN=29609133','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234263&keyword=Debate&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89896438&CFTOKEN=29609133"><span>Current Research in Land Use <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143157&keyword=free+AND+software&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78748408&CFTOKEN=93226592','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143157&keyword=free+AND+software&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78748408&CFTOKEN=93226592"><span>LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> (LTHIA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24391285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24391285"><span>Towards improved socio-economic <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of ocean acidification's <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of these potential socio-economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. For instance, economic data on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and sets out what further information is required for economists to <span class="hlt">assess</span> socio-economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861668"><span>Validating health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: Prediction is difficult (especially about the future)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Petticrew, Mark . E-mail: mark@msoc.mrc.gla.ac.uk; Cummins, Steven; Sparks, Leigh; Findlay, Anne</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) has been recommended as a means of estimating how policies, programmes and projects may <span class="hlt">impact</span> on public health and on health inequalities. This paper considers the difference between predicting health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and measuring those <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. It draws upon a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of the building of a new hypermarket in a deprived area of Glasgow, which offered an opportunity to reflect on the issue of the predictive validity of HIA, and to consider the difference between potential and actual <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. We found that the actual <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the new hypermarket on diet differed from that which would have been predicted based on previous studies. Furthermore, they challenge current received wisdom about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of food retail outlets in poorer areas. These results are relevant to the validity of HIA as a process and emphasise the importance of further research on the predictive validity of HIA, which should help improve its value to decision-makers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec227-22.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec227-22.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.22 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 227.22 Section 227.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec227-19.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec227-19.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.19 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 227.19 Section 227.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec227-19.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec227-19.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.19 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 227.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An overall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012949"><span>Tracking long-distance migration to <span class="hlt">assess</span> marine pollution <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory</p> <p>2012-04-23</p> <p>Animal tracking provides new means to <span class="hlt">assess</span> far-reaching environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to <span class="hlt">assess</span>) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the <span class="hlt">case</span> in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ985393.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ985393.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies in the Field of Marketing Education: Learner <span class="hlt">Impact</span>, <span class="hlt">Case</span> Performance, and Cost Efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spais, George S.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The major objective of this study is to identify a methodology that will help educators in marketing to efficiently manage the design, <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and cost of <span class="hlt">case</span> studies. It is my intention is to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">case</span> study characteristics in relation to the degree of learner involvement in the learning process. The author proposes that…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006920','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006920"><span>LOX/GOX mechanical <span class="hlt">impact</span> tester <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bransford, J. W.; Bryan, C. J.; Frye, G. W.; Stohler, S. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The performances of three existing high pressure oxygen mechanical <span class="hlt">impact</span> test systems were tested at two different test sites. The systems from one test site were fabricated from the same design drawing, whereas the system tested at the other site was of different design. Energy delivered to the test sample for each test system was evaluated and compared. Results were compared to the reaction rates obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA285130','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA285130"><span>Biological <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> on <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> to Peregrine Falcons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-03-15</p> <p>reduction in prey base would mean less food for the peregrine falcons and other raptors that compete for this food source and, therefore, fewer raptors...resulting from major boat fuel and oil spills could result in localized secondary <span class="hlt">impacts</span> such as fouling of bird’s plumage and food source reduction and/or...shorebird populations should be monicored to determine whether their numbers are stable and that they continue to provide a consistent food source for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3101/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3101/"><span>PAGER - Rapid <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of an Earthquake's <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Earle, Paul S.; Wald, David J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>PAGER (Prompt <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system to rapidly <span class="hlt">assess</span> the number of people and regions exposed to severe shaking by an earthquake, and inform emergency responders, government agencies, and the media to the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER monitors the U.S. Geological Survey?s near real-time U.S. and global earthquake detections and automatically identifies events that are of societal importance, well in advance of ground-truth or news accounts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chocolate+OR+cocoa&id=EJ932572','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chocolate+OR+cocoa&id=EJ932572"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study from Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Based on a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of <span class="hlt">assessing</span> whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20713497','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20713497"><span>Making effective links to decision-making: Key challenges for health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Elliott, Eva . E-mail: elliotte@cf.ac.uk; Francis, Sarah</p> <p>2005-10-15</p> <p>This paper draws on an exploratory research study to examine the effectiveness of health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> in Wales. Through the review of five <span class="hlt">case</span> study health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> the research identified a number of benefits of the process in terms of skills and knowledge development amongst participants. The indirect contributions to decision-making were also evident including the way in which health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> provided useful insights into the local community's perspective and raised awareness about the wider determinants of health. The process was also useful in establishing a dialogue between different stakeholders, which indirectly assisted decision-making and implementation. The direct links between health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and decision-making were more difficult to trace and this paper puts forward a number of suggestions for making those links more transparent. Suggestions include integrating decision-makers and clarifying the intended links to decision-making at the start of the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process. Mainstreaming health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> so that it is triggered as a routine part of all decision-making would help ensure it stands the best chance of informing decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499129"><span>Integrating <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and conflict management in urban planning: Experiences from Finland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peltonen, Lasse; Sairinen, Rauno</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>The article examines the interlinkages between recent developments in conflict management and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedures in the context of urban planning in Finland. It sets out by introducing the fields of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and conflict mediation. It then proceeds to discuss the development of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> practices and the status of conflict mediation in Finnish land use planning. The <span class="hlt">case</span> of Korteniitty infill development plan in Jyvaeskylae is used to demonstrate how the Finnish planning system operates in conflict situations - and how social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> can contribute to managing planning conflicts. The authors ask how the processes of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> contribute to conflict management. Based on the Finnish experience, it is argued that social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of land use plans can contribute to conflict management, especially in the absence of institutionalised conflict mediation processes. In addition, SIA may acquire features of conflict mediation, depending on extent and intensity of stakeholder participation in the process, and the quality of linkages it between knowledge production and decision-making. Simultaneously, conflict mediation practices and theoretical insights can inform the application of SIA to help it address land use conflicts more consciously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ973831.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ973831.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Twenty-First Century Rural School Consolidation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Surface, Jeanne</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study was to make a qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of school consolidation on several rural Nebraska communities that have recently lost their schools. This research uses a multiple-<span class="hlt">case</span> study design with interviews conducted in three Nebraska communities. The data from this research fell into four broad themes: social…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217325&keyword=global+AND+strategy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78770501&CFTOKEN=10759522','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217325&keyword=global+AND+strategy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78770501&CFTOKEN=10759522"><span>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> for Land Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>According to the Millennium <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51J..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51J..02W"><span>Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The vast majority of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, and modification of international trade models for use in <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> product of potentially greater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313863"><span>Risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in submarine outfall projects: the <span class="hlt">case</span> of Portugal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedure was then applied to four <span class="hlt">case</span> studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedure was able to measure the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the outfalls on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/118660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/118660"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in practice: A gender critique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurian, P.A. |</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The author evaluates the extent to which environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Such biases distort the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7028E..0FD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7028E..0FD"><span><span class="hlt">Case</span> study: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of VSB fracturing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dillon, Brian; Norris, Tim</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Yield of a Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) created photomask is directly related to the quality of the fracture. The quality of a fracture is determined by three criteria: split CDs, slivers, and fracture consistency. Split CDs of figures whose widths are under the beam's shot size affect the quality due to adding an unnecessary shot registration error. Slivers, or extremely skinny shots, are harmful because they increase write time, adversely affect lithography patterning, and subsequently can cause inspection errors. Inconsistent fracturing of identical geometry compounds these issues that affect uniformity. Testmask structures devoted to grading the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of slivers and consistency will be created, manufactured, and measured to enable statistical analysis of fracture data. These structures will be systematically designed to cover a wide range of sliver widths and feature geometries. The mean to target will be evaluated for these test structures, and from this, <span class="hlt">impact</span> on CD linearity and CD uniformity can be judged. The effect of slivers on write time will be discussed in a more general scope. When evaluating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of slivers, five criteria should be investigated: sliver length, sliver width, proximity, avoidability, and location. Each of these criteria either affect lithography or write time. Determining how to define the maximum width of a sliver is fracture algorithm dependent, but this paper gives guidelines that should ease that process. The goal is to fracture identical geometry in an identical fashion, regardless of orientation or mirroring, while making the shots as large as possible and avoiding slivers; and when avoiding a sliver is impossible, trying to embed the sliver between large shots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&pg=3&id=ED160599','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&pg=3&id=ED160599"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Research on Education: Some <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suppes, Patrick, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Significant <span class="hlt">cases</span> of research in terms of their effect on school practices are cited and discussed in this volume. In presenting the various <span class="hlt">case</span> studies, the authors have not focused on the scientific validity of the ideas they present but on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these ideas on education practice. The following topics are covered: (1) the use of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&id=ED160598','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&id=ED160598"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Research on Education: Some <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies. Summaries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suppes, Patrick, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Significant <span class="hlt">cases</span> of research in terms of their effect on school practices have been extensively documented by educational researchers. This booklet summarizes nine such studies, which are published in detail in a companion volume ("<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Research on Education: Some <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies"). These studies have a variety reasonably characteristic of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186606"><span>Groundwater <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report <span class="hlt">assesses</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-27/pdf/2011-13247.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-27/pdf/2011-13247.pdf"><span>76 FR 30952 - Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-05-27</p> <p>... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... <span class="hlt">assessments</span> were approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between January 8, 2011 and March 31, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until July 26, 2011, after which they...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-28/pdf/2011-16160.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-28/pdf/2011-16160.pdf"><span>76 FR 37823 - Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-28</p> <p>... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... <span class="hlt">assessments</span> were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between March 31, 2011 and May 31, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until August 29, 2011, after which they...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-02/pdf/2012-18813.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-02/pdf/2012-18813.pdf"><span>77 FR 46100 - Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-02</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice of publication of Privacy... <span class="hlt">assessments</span> were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between March 1, 2012 and May 31, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until October 1, 2012, after which they...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256865','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256865"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on Eastern Washington agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change and the concurrent increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on eastern Washington State agriculture was conducted. Climate projections from four selected general circulation models (GCM) were chosen, and the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> included the crops with ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IMPACT+AND+ENVIRONMENTAL+AND+CONSTRUCTION&pg=6&id=EJ386164','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IMPACT+AND+ENVIRONMENTAL+AND+CONSTRUCTION&pg=6&id=EJ386164"><span>Training for Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (E.I.A.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vougias, S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Deals with the methodology and practices for Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA). Describes the EIA process, prediction process, alternative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods, training needs, major activities, training provision and material, main deficiencies and the precautions, and real world training examples. (Author/YP)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA338978','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA338978"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Sandia Laboratories, New Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-05-01</p> <p>Flora on Kirtland Air Force Base East 177 APPENDIX E -- Estimated Probability of Aircraft <span class="hlt">Impacting</span> Oil Tank, East of - Albuquerque Airport East-West...facilities 27 4 Methane gas facility 30 5 Hydrogen tube-bank trailer 32 6 Liquid ammonia storage tanks 32 7 View of oil tank farm 1.4 miles from main runway at...Albuquerque International Airport 33 8 Million-gallon oil tank 33 9 • ’iZ eratcr with stack scrubbers 35 10 Technical Area II facilities 37 11</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515647"><span>Uncertainty in environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: quantitative methods and perspectives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Vanni, Tazio; Foss, Anna M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> models are subjected to great uncertainty due to the complex associations between environmental exposures and health. Quantifying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of uncertainty is important if the models are used to support health policy decisions. We conducted a systematic review to identify and appraise current methods used to quantify the uncertainty in environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. In the 19 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, several methods were identified. These were grouped into random sampling methods, second-order probability methods, Bayesian methods, fuzzy sets, and deterministic sensitivity analysis methods. All 19 studies addressed the uncertainty in the parameter values but only 5 of the studies also addressed the uncertainty in the structure of the models. None of the articles reviewed considered conceptual sources of uncertainty associated with the framing assumptions or the conceptualisation of the model. Future research should attempt to broaden the way uncertainty is taken into account in environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409837"><span>Laboratory <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of phthalazine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lande, S.S.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Reiner, E.A.; Welter, A.N.; Robideau, R.R.</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>Several approaches to the environmental safety <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of chemicals have been reported. The basic principles involved in predicting environmental behavior combine degradation kinetics and the partitioning/distribution of chemicals in the environment. The transport mechanisms within the environment can be modeled as partitioning/distribution which are essentially functions of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Phthalazine (2,3-Benzodiazine, C8H6N2) is a component of a specialized paper product. The major route for environmental entry of phthalazine is through land disposal of waste paper. Information available on phthalazine chemistry is consistent with behavior of heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several laboratory test methods and QSAR estimation procedures were used to measure key environmental properties of phthalazine. This <span class="hlt">assessment</span> examines the environmental release of phthalazine, and its partitioning and distribution in the environment. It predicts the probable fate and possible biological effects of phthalazine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1346282','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1346282"><span>Towards a comprehensive climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of solar geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.</p> <p>2016-11-23</p> <p>Here, despite a growing literature on the projected physical climate responses to solar geoengineering — i.e. proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo — there is no clear picture of the subsequent <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of such a modified climate on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. Here we argue that engaging the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community is necessary to evaluate and communicate how solar geoengineering might reduce some risks, exacerbate others, and give rise to novel risks. We review the current state of knowledge on consequences of solar geoengineering and conclude that a thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> can proceed by building upon the frameworks developed for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change. However, the climate response to solar geoengineering will depend on the form under consideration and the manner in which it is deployed, presenting a novel challenge for the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1346282-towards-comprehensive-climate-impacts-assessment-solar-geoengineering','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1346282-towards-comprehensive-climate-impacts-assessment-solar-geoengineering"><span>Towards a comprehensive climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of solar geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; ...</p> <p>2016-11-23</p> <p>Here, despite a growing literature on the projected physical climate responses to solar geoengineering — i.e. proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo — there is no clear picture of the subsequent <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of such a modified climate on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. Here we argue that engaging the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community is necessary to evaluate and communicate how solar geoengineering might reduce some risks, exacerbate others, and give rise to novel risks. We review the current state of knowledge on consequences of solar geoengineering and conclude thatmore » a thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> can proceed by building upon the frameworks developed for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change. However, the climate response to solar geoengineering will depend on the form under consideration and the manner in which it is deployed, presenting a novel challenge for the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..532H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..532H"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the observed <span class="hlt">impact</span> of anthropogenic climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of recent regional changes in climate on natural and human systems are documented across the globe, yet studies explicitly linking these observations to anthropogenic forcing of the climate are scarce. Here we provide a systematic <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the role of anthropogenic climate change for the range of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of regional climate trends reported in the IPCC’s Fifth <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Report. We find that almost two-thirds of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> related to atmospheric and ocean temperature can be confidently attributed to anthropogenic forcing. In contrast, evidence connecting changes in precipitation and their respective <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to human influence is still weak. Moreover, anthropogenic climate change has been a major influence for approximately three-quarters of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> observed on continental scales. Hence the effects of anthropogenic emissions can now be discerned not only globally, but also at more regional and local scales for a variety of natural and human systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/59973','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/59973"><span>Social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: A review and proposed approach: Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bradbury, J A</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>The objective of the report is to identify the essential components of a comprehensive plan to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the potential social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the proposed construction and operation of a high level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The tasks taken to achieve this objective are: examination of the literature on Social <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (SIA); identification of different conceptual frameworks that have been proposed or used in SIA; examination of specific aspects of the frameworks; <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of strengths and weaknesses of the frameworks; synthesis of common elements in these frameworks; and examination and evaluation of methods of data collection and analysis. 150 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26324393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26324393"><span>Patient-specific finite element model of the spine and spinal cord to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the neurological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of scoliosis correction: preliminary application on two <span class="hlt">cases</span> with and without intraoperative neurological complications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henao, Juan; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Labelle, Hubert; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scoliosis is a 3D deformation of the spine and rib cage. For severe <span class="hlt">cases</span>, surgery with spine instrumentation is required to restore a balanced spine curvature. This surgical procedure may represent a neurological risk for the patient, especially during corrective maneuvers. This study aimed to computationally simulate the surgical instrumentation maneuvers on a patient-specific biomechanical model of the spine and spinal cord to <span class="hlt">assess</span> and predict potential damage to the spinal cord and spinal nerves. A detailed finite element model (FEM) of the spine and spinal cord of a healthy subject was used as reference geometry. The FEM was personalized to the geometry of the patient using a 3D biplanar radiographic reconstruction technique and 3D dual kriging. Step by step surgical instrumentation maneuvers were simulated in order to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the neurological risk associated to each maneuver. The surgical simulation methodology implemented was divided into two parts. First, a global multi-body simulation was used to extract the 3D displacement of six vertebral landmarks, which were then introduced as boundary conditions into the personalized FEM in order to reproduce the surgical procedure. The results of the FEM simulation for two <span class="hlt">cases</span> were compared to published values on spinal cord neurological functional threshold. The efficiency of the reported method was checked considering one patient with neurological complications detected during surgery and one control patient. This comparison study showed that the patient-specific hybrid model reproduced successfully the biomechanics of neurological injury during scoliosis correction maneuvers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703012"><span>Chemical alternatives <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: the <span class="hlt">case</span> of flame retardants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howard, Gregory J</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Decisions on chemical substitution are made rapidly and by many stakeholders; these decisions may have a direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> on consumer exposures, and, when a hazard exists, to consumer risks. Flame retardants (FRs) represent particular challenges, including very high production volumes, designed-in persistence, and often direct consumer exposure. Newer FR products, as with other industrial chemicals, typically lack data on hazard and exposure, and in many <span class="hlt">cases</span> even basic information on structure and use in products is unknown. Chemical alternatives <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (CAA) provides a hazard-focused approach to distinguishing between possible substitutions; variations on this process are used by several government and numerous corporate entities. By grouping chemicals according to functional use, some information on exposure potential can be inferred, allowing for decisions based on those hazard properties that are most distinguishing. This approach can help prevent the "regrettable substitution" of one chemical with another of equal, or even higher, risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21364596','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21364596"><span>A proposed <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da</p> <p>2009-11-15</p> <p>An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of their potential economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and safety, including an evaluation of the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> method to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> System GMP Method. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. In this <span class="hlt">case</span> by <span class="hlt">case</span> analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/1565','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/1565"><span>Trail resource <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and an examination of alternative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and different types of trail <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, including inventory, maintenance, and condition <span class="hlt">assessment</span> approaches. Two <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods, point sampling and problem <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, are compared empirically from separate <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem <span class="hlt">assessment</span> method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail <span class="hlt">impact</span> problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960045469','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960045469"><span>An <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Commuter Aircraft Noise <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully <span class="hlt">assessed</span> by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246880"><span>Advancing the theory and practice of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: Setting the research agenda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois</p> <p>2013-07-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, SIA, HIA and sustainability <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. We note that although the fundamentals of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each <span class="hlt">case</span>, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, SIA, HIA and sustainability <span class="hlt">assessment</span> are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..67..184Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..67..184Y"><span>Air quality and public health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of UK airports. Part II: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and policy <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The potential adverse human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of emissions from UK airports have become a significant issue of public concern. We produce an inventory of UK airport emissions - including emissions from aircraft landing and takeoff operations, aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and ground support equipment (GSE) - with quantified uncertainty. Emissions due to more than 95% of UK passenger enplanements are accounted for. We apply a multi-scale air quality modelling approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the air quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of UK airports. Using a concentration-response function we estimate that 110 (90% CI: 72-160) early deaths occur in the UK each year (based on 2005 data) due to UK airport emissions. We estimate that up to 65% of the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of UK airports could be mitigated by desulphurising jet fuel, electrifying GSE, avoiding use of APUs and use of single engine taxiing. Two plans for the expansion of UK airport capacity are examined - expansion of London Heathrow and new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. Even if capacity is constrained, we find that the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of UK airports still increases by 170% in 2030 due to an increasing and aging population, increasing emissions, and a changing atmosphere. We estimate that if Heathrow were to be expanded as per previous UK Government plans, UK-wide health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in 2030 would increase by 4% relative to the 2030 constrained <span class="hlt">case</span>, but this increase could become a 48% reduction if emissions mitigation measures were employed. We calculate that 24% of UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths could be avoided in 2030 if Heathrow were replaced by a new airport in Thames Estuary because the location is downwind of London, where this reduction occurs notwithstanding the increase in aircraft emissions. A Thames hub airport would (isolated from knock-on effects at other airports) cause 60-70% fewer early deaths than an expanded Heathrow, or 55-63% fewer early deaths than an unexpanded Heathrow. Finally, replacing Heathrow by a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=242952','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=242952"><span>BASINs and WEPP Climate <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Tools (CAT): <span class="hlt">Case</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Tools (CAT): <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Science Integrating point & Non-point Sources (BASINS) and the Water Erosion Prediction Project Climate <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Tool (WEPPCAT). The report presents a series of short <span class="hlt">case</span> studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of the potential effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality. This report presents a series of short, illustrative <span class="hlt">case</span> studies using the BASINS and WEPP climate <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447511"><span>Hybrid LCA model for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the embodied environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of buildings in South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jang, Minho; Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the embodied environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. For a more comprehensive <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the embodied environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of buildings, a hybrid life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> model was developed in this study. The developed model can <span class="hlt">assess</span> the embodied environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of an elementary school building were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a <span class="hlt">case</span> study. The embodied environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the embodied environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1346282','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1346282"><span>Towards a comprehensive climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of solar geoengineering: TOWARDS A CLIMATE <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> OF SOLAR GEOENGINEERING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Despite a growing literature on the projected physical climate responses to solar geoengineering — i.e. proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo — there is no clear picture of the subsequent <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of such a modified climate on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. Here we argue that engaging the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community is necessary to evaluate and communicate how solar geoengineering might reduce some risks, exacerbate others, and give rise to novel risks. We review the current state of knowledge on consequences of solar geoengineering and conclude that a thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> can proceed by building upon the frameworks developed for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change. However, the climate response to solar geoengineering will depend on the form under consideration and the manner in which it is deployed, presenting a novel challenge for the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5129284','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5129284"><span>Proposal of Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Tae Hyoung; Tae, Sung Ho</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to develop a system for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories, i.e., global warming (GWP), acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), abiotic depletion (ADP), ozone depletion (ODP), and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP), using the life a cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> System (CLAS) thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the <span class="hlt">case</span> analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> to amount to 309 kg-CO2 eq/m3, 28.7 kg-SO2 eq/m3, 5.21 kg-PO43− eq/m3, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m3, 34 kg/m3, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m3, respectively. Of these six environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> in all other categories. PMID:27827843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27827843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27827843"><span>Proposal of Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Tae Hyoung; Tae, Sung Ho</p> <p>2016-11-02</p> <p>This study aims to develop a system for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories, i.e., global warming (GWP), acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), abiotic depletion (ADP), ozone depletion (ODP), and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP), using the life a cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> System (CLAS) thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the <span class="hlt">case</span> analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> to amount to 309 kg-CO₂ eq/m³, 28.7 kg-SO₂ eq/m³, 5.21 kg-PO₄(3-) eq/m³, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m³, 34 kg/m³, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m³, respectively. Of these six environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> in all other categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17847668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17847668"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of migraine: a <span class="hlt">case</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jung, Sharon</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Migraine headaches are common and among the most disabling nonfatal conditions of humankind. They are frequently misdiagnosed, which may lead to undertreatment. Patients often self-diagnose and self-medicate, resulting in inadequate treatment. Consequently, patients may take additional doses, trying to gain relief with inappropriate medications. Rebound can ensue. With adequate treatment, a patient's condition and quality of life may improve considerably. Patient education is extremely important to help patients identify appropriate self-care measures, such as identification of triggering events and coping with the chronic nature of their condition. This <span class="hlt">case</span> study presents a patient who began experiencing migraines following a neck injury. His headaches became more frequent, and ergotamine and caffeine (Cafergot) suppositories were prescribed. When he presented, he was experiencing daily headaches and using daily ergotamine and caffeine suppositories. He was using the emergency department (ED) frequently because of severe headaches. Cervical spasm was recognized as his trigger, and the ergotamine and caffeine suppositories were discontinued. After 3 days of severe headaches, his rebound ceased. He reverted back to episodic migraines, which he treated with zolmitriptan (Zomig) nasal spray, which was effective. His cervical spasm was treated with botulinum toxin type A (Botox), with excellent results. He has maintained reasonable headache control for 2 years.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.U21A..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.U21A..01B"><span>Regional Climate Tutorial: <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Regional Climate Change and Its <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barron, E.; Fisher, A.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Recent scientific progress now enables credible projections of global changes in climate over long time periods. But people will experience global climate change where they live and work, and have difficulty thinking of a future beyond their grandchildren's lifetime. Although the task of projecting climate change and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is far more challenging for regional and relatively near-term time scales, these are the scales at which actions most easily can be taken to moderate negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This tutorial will summarize what is known about projecting changes in regional climate, and about <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for sectors such as forests, agriculture, fresh water quantity and quality, coastal zones, human health, and ecosystems. The Mid-Atlantic Regional <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (MARA) is used to provide context and illustrate how adaptation within the region and feedback from other regions influence the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that might be experienced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20033278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20033278"><span>Integrated <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of brick kiln emission <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on air quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Le, Hoang Anh; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base <span class="hlt">case</span>. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were <span class="hlt">assessed</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4870598','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4870598"><span>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>, Physical Activity and Federal Lands Trail Policy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives The objectives of this paper are to describe the application of Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) to inform trail decisions affecting a rural, under-resourced community and propose the routine integration of HIAs to enhance NEPA environmental <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> statements for trail decisions on federal lands. Methods Screening, scoping, <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, recommendations, reporting, monitoring and evaluation are being used to examine the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of trail location and design. Results HIA recommendations are being integrated into the public lands National Environmental Protection Act process for planning access to a new segment of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail. Potential users from a nearby rural New Mexico community and a region of almost one million may benefit from this HIA-informed planning. Conclusions HIA can be integrated into the policy and decision-making process for trails on public lands. PMID:27213163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077716"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nooteboom, Sibout</p> <p>2007-10-15</p> <p>The author assumes that effective <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21156435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21156435"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matejovic, Igor; Polak, Vincent</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10128839','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10128839"><span>Groundwater <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> report for the 216-U-14 Ditch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Singleton, K.M.; Lindsey, K.A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> are conducted at liquid effluent receiving sites on the Hanford Site to determine hydrologic and contaminant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> caused by discharging wastewater to the soil column. The <span class="hlt">assessments</span> conducted are pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Ecology et al. 1992). This report <span class="hlt">assesses</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the groundwater and vadose zone from wastewater discharged to the 216-U-14 Ditch. Contemporary effluent waste streams of interest are 242-S Evaporator Steam Condensate and UO{sub 3}/U Plant wastewater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1121G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1121G"><span>Integrated <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in the Mediterranean: the CIRCE <span class="hlt">case</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goodess, C. M.; Agnew, M. D.; Hemming, D.; Giannakopoulos, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The heterogeneous nature of the Mediterranean environment, combined with a wide diversity of economic, social and cultural identities, make this region particularly amenable to integrated research on climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, vulnerabilities, and adaptive response. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CIRCE project, eleven <span class="hlt">case</span>-study locations were selected to reflect three generic environments (urban, rural and coastal), to quantify current and future climate change and to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the potential consequences to human communities and ecosystems at the regional to local scale. The <span class="hlt">case</span> studies (Athens, Beirut, Alexandria, Tuscany, Apulia, Tel Hadya, Judean Foothills, Gulf of Valencia, Gulf of Oran, Gulf of Gabes, West Nile Delta) were chosen to reflect the east-west and north-south contrasts across the Mediterranean, using common selection criteria. A rigorous common framework, referred to as the CIRCE <span class="hlt">Case</span> studies Integrating Framework was developed to facilitate a structured and systematic basis for identifying and selecting indicators. Within this framework, climate dynamics is viewed as a key driver of changes in social and biogeophysical systems and is modulated by the inherent dynamics of these systems. The top-down, indicator-based approach was complemented by a bottom-up approach involving local and regional stakeholders. A participatory level of involvement was aimed for, with stakeholder dialogue on an informal basis throughout the project, culminating in a series of more formal regional stakeholder workshops. Identification and construction of physical and socio-economic indicators was the most challenging and time-consuming aspect of the <span class="hlt">case</span>-study work. A detailed set of selection criteria was defined and the process of reviewing and refining indicators was iterative. Nonetheless, a number of data and methodological challenges were encountered. Despite these issues, indicator linkages diagrams provided a useful preparatory stage for structuring the integrated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=appraisal&pg=4&id=EJ1099290','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=appraisal&pg=4&id=EJ1099290"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Vocal Performances Using Analytical <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gynnild, Vidar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based <span class="hlt">assessment</span> framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246894','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246894"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> human rights <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in corporate development projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p>Human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+assessment&id=EJ1063369','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+assessment&id=EJ1063369"><span>Higher Education Quality <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in China: An <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liu, Shuiyun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This research analyses an external higher education quality <span class="hlt">assessment</span> scheme in China, namely, the Quality <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. <span class="hlt">Case</span> studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ECSS...20...41S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ECSS...20...41S"><span>Oil spill fishery <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> model: Sensitivity to spill location and timing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spaulding, Malcolm L.; Reed, Mark; Anderson, Eric; Isaji, Tatsusaburo; Swanson, J. Craig; Saila, Saul B.; Lorda, Ernesto; Walker, Henry</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An oil spill fishery <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> model system has been applied to the Georges Bank-Gulf of Maine region to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the sensitivity of probable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on several key fisheries to spill location and timing. Simulations of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the fishery of tanker spills (20 million gallons released over 5 days), at two separate locations for each season of the year, and blowout spills (68 million gallons released over 30 days) at one location, with monthly releases and at six other locations with seasonal spills have been studied. Atlantic cod has been employed as the principal fish species throughout the simulations. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Atlantic herring and haddock have also been investigated for selected <span class="hlt">cases</span>. All spill sites are located on Georges Bank with the majority in the general region of OCS leasing activity. The results of these simulations suggest a complex interaction among spill location and timing, the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning, the population dynamics of the species under study, and the hydrodynamics of the area. For the species studied, spills occurring during the winter and spring have the largest <span class="hlt">impact</span> with cod being the most heavily <span class="hlt">impacted</span> followed by haddock and herring. In all <span class="hlt">cases</span>, the maximum cumulative loss to the fishery of a one time spill event never exceeded 25% of the annual catch with the exact value depending on the number of ichthyoplankton <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by the spill and the compensatory dynamics of the population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27759296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27759296"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Ecological <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: Lessons from Mono Lake, California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiens, John A; Patten, Duncan T; Botkin, Daniel B</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Because of its high salinity and alkalinity, Mono Lake, in eastern California (USA), is a relatively simple ecosystem. It has become the focus of an environmental controversy over the effects of 50 yr of diversions of water from tributary streams to supply water to Los Angeles. Diversions lowered the lake level, increased the salinity, changed the availability of aquatic habitats, and altered the configuration of the shoreline and of islands that support breeding colonies of gulls. We consider (1) how two independent panels of experts synthesized scientific information on the lake ecosystem to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the environmental consequences of these changes, and (2) how the findings of these groups influenced policy decisions and how well subsequent changes in the lake matched expectations. Despite differences in composition and approach, the two panels reached generally similar conclusions. These conclusions have been a major component of legal activities and the development of management plans for the lake and basin ecosystem. Both panels concluded that, because of the simplicity of the lake ecosystem, ecological consequences of changes in lake level and salinity associated with continuing diversions were likely to be unusually clear-cut. At certain lake levels these changes would be expected to alter algal and invertebrate populations and the populations of aquatic birds that feed upon them or to disrupt breeding activities in gull colonies. Projections about when critical lake levels might be reached, however, have not been met. This is largely because stream flows into the lake have been altered from recent historic patterns by the cessation of water diversions due to governmental and legal actions (prompted in part by the panels' findings) and by a prolonged drought. These events illustrate the difficulty of projecting a timetable for environmental changes, even in simple and well-studied ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3036/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3036/"><span>PAGER--Rapid <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of an earthquake?s <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>PAGER (Prompt <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly <span class="hlt">assesses</span> earthquake <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA092434','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA092434"><span>Cost <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Cost Accounting Practice Changes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>7A0-A092 434 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/0 5/1 COST <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> OF COST ACCOUNTING PRACTICE CHANGES.(UlNL S EP 80 J S ANDERSONUN CL...MNGER 4. TITLE (mod Su&CEI* I. Tyss[ of REPORT & 11.1110 Coyenea Cost <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Cost Accounting Master’ s Thesis; September Practice Chages... Accounting ," IICASB,’I "Audits," IV"DCASŕ "Decision Models." 20. ASTMAC T (CO.COuMMO 10 GW 0ewr 0 Ite 00404.....VI 0114 id..CEF of 001111 inmb,) *This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334143','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334143"><span>A state-<span class="hlt">impact</span>-state methodology for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> in land use planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the LUP environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> using Strategic Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-<span class="hlt">impact</span>-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal <span class="hlt">assessment</span> from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of LUP environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-<span class="hlt">Impact</span>-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED23C3492B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED23C3492B"><span>Mars Rover Curriculum: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bering, E. A., III; Carlson, C.; Nieser, K.; Slagle, E. M.; Jacobs, L. T.; Kapral, A. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The University of Houston is in the process of developing a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model Mars rover: the Mars Rover Model Celebration (MRC). It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. A total of 140 Mars Rover teachers from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 cohorts were invited to complete the Mars Rover Teacher Evaluation Survey. The survey was administered online and could be taken at the convenience of the participant. So far ~40 teachers have participated with responses still coming in. A total of 675 students from the 2013-2014 cohort were invited to submit brief self-<span class="hlt">assessments</span> of their participation in the program. Teachers were asked to rate their current level of confidence in their ability to teach specific topics within the Earth and Life Science realms, as well as their confidence in their ability to implement teaching strategies with their students. The majority of teachers (81-90%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively teach concepts related to earth and life sciences to their students. In addition, many of the teachers felt that their confidence in teaching these concepts increased somewhat to quite a bit as a result of their participation in the MRC program (54-88%). The most striking increase in this area was the reported 48% of teachers who felt their confidence in teaching "Earth and the solar system and universe" increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The vast majority of teachers (86-100%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively implement all of the listed teaching strategies. The most striking increases were the percentage of teachers who felt their confidence increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499144','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499144"><span>Gross national happiness as a framework for health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=assessment+AND+mathematics&pg=4&id=EJ1076875','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=assessment+AND+mathematics&pg=4&id=EJ1076875"><span><span class="hlt">Assessments</span>: An Open and Closed <span class="hlt">Case</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Khan, R. Nazim</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Open book <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is not a new idea, but it does not seem to have gained ground in higher education. In particular, not much literature is available on open book examinations in mathematics and statistics in higher education. The objective of this paper is to investigate the appropriateness of open book <span class="hlt">assessments</span> in a first-year business…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11188682','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11188682"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> infant suck dysfunction: <span class="hlt">case</span> management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marmet, C; Shell, E; Aldana, S</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>Based on this more thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, the lactation consultant may be able to identify all of the factors contributing to this complex <span class="hlt">case</span>. In some situations, her skilled interventions will suffice once the underlying problem is addressed. Occasionally, she will identify a factor that falls outside of her area of expertise; when this happens, she must make the appropriate referrals. For example, a referral to a physician for a frenotomy or suspected neurological or other medical problem is appropriate. It is clear that because Baby E's problems were not resolved after 6 weeks of concerned effort, something was missed. It would certainly be appropriate for the lactation consultant to refer the dyad to another lactation consultant who has more expertise in handling clinically challenging breastfeeding problems. If possible, the referring lactation consultant should accompany the dyad so that she can improve her clinical skills. Assuming Baby E does not have underlying medical problems, the most likely causes of Baby E's difficulties are anatomical variation and/or sucking dysfunction. Because the baby is so fussy, it also would be wise to consider the possibility of allergies or food tolerance. Our first rule is " Feed the baby." The second rule is " Correct or work on correcting the problem or problems." Our goal is to achieve exclusive breastfeeding or as close an approximation as possible. We almost never give up on this goal, but we do educate the mother and work professionally with her choices. Until the baby is breastfeeding well, the lactation consultant will probably need to instruct the mother to continue using a pump ( preferably a hospital-grade, electric, bilateral pump). The mother should use the pump physiologically, pumping as many times a day as the baby would breastfeed. As soon as the situation improves, the mother should be instructed to wean gradually from the pump and any other breastfeeding equipment she is using. The goal should always be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMES..46.1061N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMES..46.1061N"><span><span class="hlt">Assessments</span>: an open and closed <span class="hlt">case</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nazim Khan, R.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Open book <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is not a new idea, but it does not seem to have gained ground in higher education. In particular, not much literature is available on open book examinations in mathematics and statistics in higher education. The objective of this paper is to investigate the appropriateness of open book <span class="hlt">assessments</span> in a first-year business statistics course. Data over two semesters of open book <span class="hlt">assessments</span> provided some interesting results when compared with the closed book <span class="hlt">assessment</span> regime in the following semester. The relevance of the results is discussed and compared with findings from the literature. The implications of insights gained for further practice in the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of mathematics and statistics is also discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA637085','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA637085"><span>Environmental Methods Review: Retooling <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> for the New Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: Wanted-Dead or Alive! [A. Thomas Roper and Alan L. Porter] PROCESSES 14 Methods for EIA: Selecting a Model and Approach [Ron D. Webster] 15...Emerging Issues [Cory H. Wilkinson] MODELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> 33 Selecting· Computer Models and Input Parameters for Analysis of...Meier raise data and modeling issues with wide implications in EAandlA. • Brown’s "environmental overview" and "decision- scoping" offer exciting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=assessment+AND+programs+AND+Prevention+AND+drugs&pg=7&id=EJ416135','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=assessment+AND+programs+AND+Prevention+AND+drugs&pg=7&id=EJ416135"><span>The <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Parent-Led Prevention Programs: A Preliminary <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">Impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Klitzner, Michael; And Others</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Examined <span class="hlt">impact</span> of parent-led prevention groups on youthful drug and alcohol use and <span class="hlt">assessed</span> extent to which families involved with parent-led prevention programs reported improved family relations and increased parental control of children's social activities in 10 communities. Results suggest parent groups did have <span class="hlt">impact</span> on family relations…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=236809','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=236809"><span>BASINS and WEPP Climate <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Tools (CAT): <span class="hlt">Case</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tools. The report presents a series of short <span class="hlt">case</span> studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of the potential future effects of climate change on water resources. This report presents a series of short, illustrative <span class="hlt">case</span> studies using the BASINS and WEPP climate <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Trust+AND+autonomy&pg=2&id=ED551977','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Trust+AND+autonomy&pg=2&id=ED551977"><span>Making Room for Formative <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Processes: A Multiple <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McEntarffer, Robert E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative instrumental multiple <span class="hlt">case</span> study (Stake, 2005) explored how teachers made room for formative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> processes in their classrooms, and how thinking about <span class="hlt">assessment</span> changed during those formative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> experiences. Data were gathered from six teachers over three months and included teacher interviews, student interviews,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18161028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18161028"><span>A new <span class="hlt">assessment</span> method for urbanization environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>: urban environment entropy model and its application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ouyang, Tingping; Fu, Shuqing; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Wu, Zhifeng</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The thermodynamic law is one of the most widely used scientific principles. The comparability between the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urbanization and the thermodynamic entropy was systematically analyzed. Consequently, the concept "Urban Environment Entropy" was brought forward and the "Urban Environment Entropy" model was established for urbanization environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in this study. The model was then utilized in a <span class="hlt">case</span> study for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. The results indicated that the <span class="hlt">assessing</span> results of the model are consistent to that of the equalized synthetic pollution index method. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Urban Environment Entropy model has high reliability and can be applied widely in urbanization environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> research using many different environmental parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1343941','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1343941"><span>Towards a comprehensive climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of solar geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.</p> <p>2016-11-23</p> <p>Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343941-towards-comprehensive-climate-impacts-assessment-solar-geoengineering','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343941-towards-comprehensive-climate-impacts-assessment-solar-geoengineering"><span>Towards a comprehensive climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of solar geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; ...</p> <p>2016-11-23</p> <p>Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of amore » range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EaFut...5...93I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EaFut...5...93I"><span>Towards a comprehensive climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of solar geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PrAeS..47...15M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PrAeS..47...15M"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aircraft noise and emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on <span class="hlt">assessing</span> a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare <span class="hlt">impacts</span> versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and the policy choices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cell+AND+theory&pg=6&id=ED563367','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cell+AND+theory&pg=6&id=ED563367"><span>Multiple <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study on Cyberbullying's <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Adolescent Technology Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thompson, Kent W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This multiple <span class="hlt">case</span> study focused on whether and how cyberbullying had an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on students' use of technology. Analysis of the lived experiences of the participants in this study added depth to the quantitative research previously conducted by others in this area. The conceptual framework was based on social learning theory, which suggested that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093102"><span>Selection of spatial scale for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Indicators of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The <span class="hlt">assessments</span> showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. For the three <span class="hlt">case</span> studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than <span class="hlt">impacts</span> calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater <span class="hlt">impacts</span> caused by groundwater abstraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252197&keyword=greenhouse+AND+gases&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89948662&CFTOKEN=47811903','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252197&keyword=greenhouse+AND+gases&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89948662&CFTOKEN=47811903"><span>Integrated economic and climate projections for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We designed scenarios for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=99490&keyword=sponsorship&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84682347&CFTOKEN=23320762','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=99490&keyword=sponsorship&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84682347&CFTOKEN=23320762"><span>LIFE-CYCLE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=14602&keyword=gorsuch&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90712444&CFTOKEN=17461102','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=14602&keyword=gorsuch&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90712444&CFTOKEN=17461102"><span>AQUATIC PLANT COMMUNITIES FOR <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> MONITORING AND <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The studies revewed here suggest that both structural and functional <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of aquatic plant communities are valuable tools in the determination of environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and water quality. I am not suggesting that aquatic plants be used in lieu of macronivertebrates or fish ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=keeler&pg=3&id=EJ746567','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=keeler&pg=3&id=EJ746567"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of New Student Campus Recreation Centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zizzi, Samuel; Ayers, Suzan F.; Watson II, Jack C.; Keeler, Linda A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The student recreation center (SRC) at many colleges and universities has evolved from being a place to lift weights and take aerobics classes to becoming a high-powered recruitment tool (Colleges use recreation, 2002). The present study included the development of an instrument to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the use and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of SRCs. Students (N = 655; users = 537,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=area+AND+51+AND+us&id=ED556276','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=area+AND+51+AND+us&id=ED556276"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Reaffirmation Accreditation Program on Institutional <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Culture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lee, Karen Michelle</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the period between 2004 and 2006, several publications were released questioning the quality of higher education: One such report was from the 2006 Spellings Commission of the U.S. Secretary of Education, which prompted accrediting agencies to review institutional <span class="hlt">assessment</span> practices. This research was designed to measure the <span class="hlt">impact</span> Academy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bus&pg=3&id=EJ988172','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bus&pg=3&id=EJ988172"><span>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> as a Student Service Learning Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stone, Cynthia; Greene, Marion S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> (HIAs) incorporate a combination of tools, methods, and procedures to evaluate the potential health effects of a proposed program, project, or policy. The university public health department, in collaboration with the county health department, and the local planning organization, developed a curriculum for a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63338&keyword=Discourse&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78675467&CFTOKEN=35665950','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63338&keyword=Discourse&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78675467&CFTOKEN=35665950"><span>AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> SOPHISTICATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=218618','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=218618"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Temperature on Grape Phenolic Metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fruit temperature on the phenolic metabolism of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) grown under field conditions with controlled exposure to sunlight. Individual cluster temperatures were manipulated in situ. Diurnal temperature fluctuation was damped by da...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-20/pdf/2011-32483.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-20/pdf/2011-32483.pdf"><span>76 FR 78934 - Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-20</p> <p>... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between September 1, 2011 and November 30, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until February 21, 2012, after which they may...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-22/pdf/2013-04109.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-22/pdf/2013-04109.pdf"><span>78 FR 12337 - Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-22</p> <p>... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office...'s Web ] site between June 1, 2012, and November 30, 2012. DATES: The PIA will be available on the DHS Web site until April 23, 2013, after which they may be obtained by contacting the DHS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-22/pdf/2012-6847.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-22/pdf/2012-6847.pdf"><span>77 FR 16846 - Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-22</p> <p>... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between December 1, 2011 and February 29, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until May 21, 2012, after which they may...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=118647&keyword=skin+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89987909&CFTOKEN=34398682','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=118647&keyword=skin+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89987909&CFTOKEN=34398682"><span>LIFE CYCLE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research within the field of Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90407&keyword=technology+AND+national+AND+defense&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883124&CFTOKEN=87800298','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90407&keyword=technology+AND+national+AND+defense&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77883124&CFTOKEN=87800298"><span>LIFE-CYCLE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61118&keyword=spirit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77944407&CFTOKEN=50651621','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61118&keyword=spirit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77944407&CFTOKEN=50651621"><span>LIFE CYCLE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> FOR INCREASING INDUSTRIAL SUSTAINABILITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) can be a very useful decision support tool for assisting in environmental decision making to allow the pursuit of increasing sustainability. Increasing sustainability will be defined and presented as a more concrete and quantifiable goal when c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1081417','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1081417"><span>Groundwater <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and <span class="hlt">assess</span> the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tech&pg=5&id=EJ1118202','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tech&pg=5&id=EJ1118202"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Viticulture Extension Programs in Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ferreira, Gustavo F. C.; Hatch, Tremain; Wolf, Tony K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The study discussed in this article <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) on the Virginia wine grape industry. An online survey was developed and administered to members of the Virginia Vineyards Association. The results indicate that the resources and recommendations VCE and Virginia Tech have provided have been beneficial…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=10016&keyword=judgement+AND+decision+AND+making&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88635021&CFTOKEN=12336713','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=10016&keyword=judgement+AND+decision+AND+making&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88635021&CFTOKEN=12336713"><span>A SYNOPTIC APPROACH FOR <span class="hlt">ASSESSING</span> CUMULATIVE <span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> TO WETLANDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The US Environmental Protection Agency's Wetlands Research Program has developed the synoptic approach as a proposed method for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to wetlands by providing both a general and a comprehensive view of the environment. It can also be applied more broadly to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029939"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Our objective was to carry out environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH14B..03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH14B..03T"><span>Tsunami Forecast Technology for Asteroid <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Hazard <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Over 75% of all historically documented tsunamis have been generated by earthquakes. As the result, all existing Tsunami Warning and Forecast systems focus almost exclusively on detecting, warning and forecasting earthquake-generated tsunamis.The sequence of devastating tsunamis across the globe over the past 10 years has significantly heightened awareness and preparation activities associated with these high-<span class="hlt">impact</span> events. Since the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra tsunami, NOAA has invested significant efforts in modernizing the U.S. tsunami warning system. Recent developments in tsunami modeling capability, inundation forecasting, sensing networks, dissemination capability and local preparation and mitigation activities have gone a long way toward enhancing tsunami resilience within the United States. The remaining quarter of the tsunami hazard problem is related to other mechanisms of tsunami generation, that may not have received adequate attention. Among those tsunami sources, the asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> may be the most exotic, but possible one of the most devastating tsunami generation mechanisms. Tsunami forecast capabilities that have been developed for the tsunami warning system can be used to explore both, hazard <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and the forecast of a tsunami generated by the asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Existing tsunami flooding forecast technology allows for forecast for non-seismically generated tsunamis (asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span>, meteo-generated tsunamis, landslides, etc.), given an adequate data for the tsunami source parameters. Problems and opportunities for forecast of tsunamis from asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> will be discussed. Preliminary results of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated tsunami analysis for forecast and hazard <span class="hlt">assessment</span> will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED392405.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED392405.pdf"><span>Forecasting the VCR: A Retrospective <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Media Trade Press and Academic Forecasts of Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Broadcasting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Napoli, Philip M.</p> <p></p> <p>Retrospective technology <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (RTA) is the use of historical research to <span class="hlt">assess</span> current and future technology issues. This paper uses the introduction of the videocassette recorder (VCR) as an RTA <span class="hlt">case</span> study, focusing on the broadcasting and advertising trade presses and their forecasts of the VCR's potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on broadcasting. Trade…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573361"><span>Participatory <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of soil and water conservation scenarios in Oum Zessar watershed, Tunisia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>König, Hannes Jochen; Sghaier, Mongi; Schuler, Johannes; Abdeladhim, Mohamed; Helming, Katharina; Tonneau, Jean-Philippe; Ounalli, Nadia; Imbernon, Jacques; Morris, Jake; Wiggering, Hubert</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Environmental threats and progressive degradation of natural resources are considered critical impediments to sustainable development. This paper reports on a participatory <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of alternative soil and water conservation (SWC) scenarios in the Oum Zessar watershed, Tunisia. The first objective was to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of three SWC scenarios on key social, economic and environmental land use functions. The second objective was to test and evaluate the applicability of the 'Framework for Participatory <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (FoPIA)' for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> scenario <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the context of a developing country, in this <span class="hlt">case</span> Tunisia. The <span class="hlt">assessed</span> scenarios included: the originally planned SWC policy implementation at 85 % coverage of arable land of the watershed, the current implementation (70 %), and a hypothetical expansion of SWC measures to the entire watershed (100 %). Our results suggest that implementation of the SWC policy at 100 % coverage of arable land achieves the maximum socioeconomic benefit. However, if stakeholders' preferences regarding land use functions are taken into account, and considering the fact that the implementation of SWC measures also implies some negative changes to traditional landscapes and the natural system, SWC implementation at 85 % coverage of arable land might be preferable. The FoPIA approved to be a useful tool for conducting a holistic sustainability <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of SWC scenarios and for studying the most intriguing sustainability problems while providing possible recommendations towards sustainable development. We conclude that participatory <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> contributes to an enhanced regional understanding of key linkages between policy effects and sustainable development, which provides the foundation for improved policy decision making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH41A1797G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH41A1797G"><span>Vulnerabilities to Rock-Slope Failure <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Christchurch, NZ <span class="hlt">Case</span> History Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grant, A.; Wartman, J.; Massey, C. I.; Olsen, M. J.; Motley, M. R.; Hanson, D.; Henderson, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Rock-slope failures during the 2010/11 Canterbury (Christchurch), New Zealand Earthquake Sequence resulted in 5 fatalities and caused an estimated US$400 million of damage to buildings and infrastructure. Reducing losses from rock-slope failures requires consideration of both hazard (i.e. likelihood of occurrence) and risk (i.e. likelihood of losses given an occurrence). Risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> thus requires information on the vulnerability of structures to rock or boulder <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Here we present 32 <span class="hlt">case</span> histories of structures <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by boulders triggered during the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquake sequence, in the Port Hills region of Christchurch, New Zealand. The consequences of rock fall <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on structures, taken as penetration distance into structures, are shown to follow a power-law distribution with <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy. Detailed mapping of rock fall sources and paths from field mapping, aerial lidar digital elevation model (DEM) data, and high-resolution aerial imagery produced 32 well-constrained runout paths of boulders that <span class="hlt">impacted</span> structures. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> velocities used for structural analysis were developed using lumped mass 2-D rock fall runout models using 1-m resolution lidar elevation data. Model inputs were based on calibrated surface parameters from mapped runout paths of 198 additional boulder runouts. Terrestrial lidar scans and structure from motion (SfM) imagery generated 3-D point cloud data used to measure structural damage and <span class="hlt">impacting</span> boulders. Combining velocity distributions from 2-D analysis and high-precision boulder dimensions, kinetic energy distributions were calculated for all <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Calculated <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy versus penetration distance for all <span class="hlt">cases</span> suggests a power-law relationship between damage and <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy. These <span class="hlt">case</span> histories and resulting fragility curve should serve as a foundation for future risk analysis of rock fall hazards by linking vulnerability data to the predicted energy distributions from the hazard analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.526G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.526G"><span>An integrated <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for Athens- relevance to stakeholders and policy makers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Analysing climate change and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected <span class="hlt">case</span> studies have been chosen that will provide <span class="hlt">assessments</span> that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban <span class="hlt">case</span> study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is adopted. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> sectors covered range from direct climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect <span class="hlt">impacts</span> resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of <span class="hlt">impact</span> sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. <span class="hlt">Case</span>-study work on <span class="hlt">impact</span> sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5344357','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5344357"><span>Measuring scientific <span class="hlt">impact</span> beyond academia: An <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of existing <span class="hlt">impact</span> metrics and proposed improvements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liakata, Maria; Clare, Amanda; Duma, Daniel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>How does scientific research affect the world around us? Being able to answer this question is of great importance in order to appropriately channel efforts and resources in science. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> by scientists in academia is currently measured by citation based metrics such as h-index, i-index and citation counts. These academic metrics aim to represent the dissemination of knowledge among scientists rather than the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the research on the wider world. In this work we are interested in measuring scientific <span class="hlt">impact</span> beyond academia, on the economy, society, health and legislation (comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span>). Indeed scientists are asked to demonstrate evidence of such comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span> by authoring <span class="hlt">case</span> studies in the context of the Research Excellence Framework (REF). We first investigate the extent to which existing citation based metrics can be indicative of comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span>. We have collected all recent REF <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">case</span> studies from 2014 and we have linked these to papers in citation networks that we constructed and derived from CiteSeerX, arXiv and PubMed Central using a number of text processing and information retrieval techniques. We have demonstrated that existing citation-based metrics for <span class="hlt">impact</span> measurement do not correlate well with REF <span class="hlt">impact</span> results. We also consider metrics of online attention surrounding scientific works, such as those provided by the Altmetric API. We argue that in order to be able to evaluate wider non-academic <span class="hlt">impact</span> we need to mine information from a much wider set of resources, including social media posts, press releases, news articles and political debates stemming from academic work. We also provide our data as a free and reusable collection for further analysis, including the PubMed citation network and the correspondence between REF <span class="hlt">case</span> studies, grant applications and the academic literature. PMID:28278243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28278243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28278243"><span>Measuring scientific <span class="hlt">impact</span> beyond academia: An <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of existing <span class="hlt">impact</span> metrics and proposed improvements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ravenscroft, James; Liakata, Maria; Clare, Amanda; Duma, Daniel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>How does scientific research affect the world around us? Being able to answer this question is of great importance in order to appropriately channel efforts and resources in science. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> by scientists in academia is currently measured by citation based metrics such as h-index, i-index and citation counts. These academic metrics aim to represent the dissemination of knowledge among scientists rather than the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the research on the wider world. In this work we are interested in measuring scientific <span class="hlt">impact</span> beyond academia, on the economy, society, health and legislation (comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span>). Indeed scientists are asked to demonstrate evidence of such comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span> by authoring <span class="hlt">case</span> studies in the context of the Research Excellence Framework (REF). We first investigate the extent to which existing citation based metrics can be indicative of comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span>. We have collected all recent REF <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">case</span> studies from 2014 and we have linked these to papers in citation networks that we constructed and derived from CiteSeerX, arXiv and PubMed Central using a number of text processing and information retrieval techniques. We have demonstrated that existing citation-based metrics for <span class="hlt">impact</span> measurement do not correlate well with REF <span class="hlt">impact</span> results. We also consider metrics of online attention surrounding scientific works, such as those provided by the Altmetric API. We argue that in order to be able to evaluate wider non-academic <span class="hlt">impact</span> we need to mine information from a much wider set of resources, including social media posts, press releases, news articles and political debates stemming from academic work. We also provide our data as a free and reusable collection for further analysis, including the PubMed citation network and the correspondence between REF <span class="hlt">case</span> studies, grant applications and the academic literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49555','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49555"><span>Ecological risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for watersheds: Lessons learned from <span class="hlt">case</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marcy, S.K.M.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The USEPA Office of Water and Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Forum are co-sponsoring the development of watershed level ecological risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span> in Big Darby Creek, OH, Clinch River, VA, Middle Platte River Wetlands, NE, Snake River, ID, and Waquoit Bay Estuary, MA. The <span class="hlt">case</span> studies are testing the Agency`s Framework for Ecological Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> at a watershed scale for multiple stressors. During <span class="hlt">case</span> study development much has been learned about how to apply and modify the principles in the Framework to landscape scale risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. Insights include how to select appropriate <span class="hlt">assessment</span> endpoints to drive the risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, how to effectively increase involvement by risk management teams, and provide decision opportunities for managers throughout development. The <span class="hlt">case</span> studies demonstrate diverse ways to conduct watershed risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, and illustrate the importance of multiple risk hypotheses in conceptual models addressing the combined and relative risk of chemical, physical and biological stressors. Issues the <span class="hlt">case</span> studies highlight include the need for a process to determine when watershed risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span> are appropriate and at what level of complexity they should be performed, how to increase the use of the ecological risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span> in management decision-making and how to determine the best risk reduction strategy. An update on the watershed <span class="hlt">case</span> studies will be provided and the insights and issues stated above, discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24770926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24770926"><span>Towards standardised evaluative measurement of nature <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: two spatial planning <span class="hlt">case</span> studies for major Dutch lakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Puijenbroek, P J T M; Sijtsma, F J; Wortelboer, F G; Ligtvoet, W; Maarse, M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of complex spatial planning projects, the ecological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and socio-economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are fundamental to the evaluation. The measurements of ecological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of spatial plans have to be integrated in a standardised way. In the present paper, we analyse two Dutch <span class="hlt">case</span> studies and apply the standardised Threat-Weighted Ecological Quality Area measurement. This measurement is developed to evaluate projects with terrestrial <span class="hlt">impacts</span> but has not yet been applied for water evaluations. We aim to show how the use of a common measurement tool incorporates both ecological quality and degree of threat on criteria in the EU Water Framework Directive and Nature 2000. The measurements discussed here derive from two <span class="hlt">cases</span> of cost-benefit analysis: The first <span class="hlt">case</span> is the Markermeer, the second largest lake of The Netherlands, and a study on water quality improvement and nature restoration; an artificial island will also be the setting for a new residential area. The second <span class="hlt">case</span> study is on water level management carried out on the IJsselmeer, the largest lake in the country. Results of our analysis show the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with a standardised method to the spatial distribution and quality of the ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1016/ofr20161016.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1016/ofr20161016.pdf"><span>Estimating the economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ecosystem restoration—Methods and <span class="hlt">case</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Skrabis, Kristin; Sidon, Joshua</p> <p>2016-04-05</p> <p>This analysis estimates the economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a wide variety of ecosystem restoration projects associated with U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) lands and programs. Specifically, the report provides estimated economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for 21 DOI restoration projects associated with Natural Resource Damage <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Restoration <span class="hlt">cases</span> and Bureau of Land Management lands. The study indicates that ecosystem restoration projects provide meaningful economic contributions to local economies and to broader regional and national economies, and, based on the <span class="hlt">case</span> studies, we estimate that between 13 and 32 job-years4 and between $2.2 and $3.4 million in total economic output5 are contributed to the U.S. economy for every $1 million invested in ecosystem restoration. These results highlight the magnitude and variability in the economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with ecosystem restoration projects and demonstrate how investments in ecosystem restoration support jobs and livelihoods, small businesses, and rural economies. In addition to providing improved information on the economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of restoration, the <span class="hlt">case</span> studies included with this report highlight DOI restoration efforts and tell personalized stories about each project and the communities that are positively affected by restoration activities. Individual <span class="hlt">case</span> studies are provided in appendix 1 of this report and are available from an online database at https://www.fort.usgs.gov/economic-<span class="hlt">impacts</span>-restoration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940502"><span>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> and damage cost <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of pesticides in Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fantke, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier</p> <p>2012-11-15</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from pesticide use are of continuous concern in the European population, requiring a constant evaluation of European pesticide policy. However, health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> have never been quantified accounting for specific crops contributing differently to overall human exposure as well as accounting for individual substances showing distinct environmental behavior and toxicity. We quantify health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and related damage costs from exposure to 133 pesticides applied in 24 European countries in 2003 adding up to almost 50% of the total pesticide mass applied in that year. Only 13 substances applied to 3 crop classes (grapes/vines, fruit trees, vegetables) contribute to 90% of the overall health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of about 2000 disability-adjusted life years in Europe per year corresponding to annual damage costs of 78 million Euro. Considering uncertainties along the full <span class="hlt">impact</span> pathway mainly attributable to non-cancer dose-response relationships and residues in treated crops, we obtain an average burden of lifetime lost per person of 2.6 hours (95% confidence interval between 22 seconds and 45.3 days) or costs per person over lifetime of 12 Euro (95% confidence interval between 0.03 Euro and 5142 Euro), respectively. 33 of the 133 <span class="hlt">assessed</span> substances accounting for 20% of health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in 2003 are now banned from the European market according to current legislation. The main limitation in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> human health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from pesticides is related to the lack of systematic application data for all used substances. Since health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> can be substantially influenced by the choice of pesticides, the need for more information about substance application becomes evident.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED390325.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED390325.pdf"><span>Core Curriculum <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Program: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jonas, Peter M.; Weimer, Don</p> <p></p> <p>This paper reviews the development of a curriculum <span class="hlt">assessment</span> plan by the Business and Management Division of Cardinal Stritch College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and reports the results of a study to determine the effectiveness of the plan. The division, which delivers accelerated instruction in evening courses, used the comprehensive outcomes…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010047831','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010047831"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Testing of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan <span class="hlt">Cases</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Before composite materials can be considered for use in the fan <span class="hlt">case</span> of a commercial jet engine, the performance of a composite structure under blade-out loads needs to be demonstrated. The objective of this program is to develop an efficient test and analysis method for evaluating potential composite <span class="hlt">case</span> concepts. Ballistic <span class="hlt">impact</span> tests were performed on laminated glass/epoxy composites in order to identify potential failure modes and to provide data for analysis. Flat 7x7 in. panels were <span class="hlt">impacted</span> with cylindrical titanium projectiles, and 15 in. diameter half-rings were <span class="hlt">impacted</span> with wedge-shaped titanium projectiles. Composite failure involved local fiber fracture as well as tearing and delamination on a larger scale. A 36 in. diameter full-ring subcomponent was proposed for larger scale testing. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses were used to evaluate <span class="hlt">impact</span> dynamics and subsequent global deformation for the proposed full-ring subcomponent test. Analyses on half-ring and quarter ring configurations indicated that less expensive smaller scale tests could be used to screen potential composite concepts when evaluation of local <span class="hlt">impact</span> damage is the primary concern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/329492','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/329492"><span>The performance <span class="hlt">assessment</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W.; Hechnova, A.; Jacobson, R.; Voss, C.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the performance <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has <span class="hlt">impacted</span> the conclusions of the completed performance <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Three questions were developed by the panel to <span class="hlt">assess</span> performance <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: (1) the performance <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of reduced container integrity, (2) the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of excess moisture were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were noted for either the base-<span class="hlt">case</span> scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance <span class="hlt">impacts</span> results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and the robust nature of the disposal site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9085E..0KM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9085E..0KM"><span>Cyber threat <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and analysis for space vehicle architectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGraw, Robert M.; Fowler, Mark J.; Umphress, David; MacDonald, Richard A.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This paper covers research into an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and techniques to detect and mitigate cyber attacks that affect the networks and control systems of space vehicles. Such systems, if subverted by malicious insiders, external hackers and/or supply chain threats, can be controlled in a manner to cause physical damage to the space platforms. Similar attacks on Earth-borne cyber physical systems include the Shamoon, Duqu, Flame and Stuxnet exploits. These have been used to bring down foreign power generation and refining systems. This paper discusses the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of similar cyber attacks on space-based platforms through the use of simulation models, including custom models developed in Python using SimPy and commercial SATCOM analysis tools, as an example STK/SOLIS. The paper discusses the architecture and fidelity of the simulation model that has been developed for performing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The paper walks through the application of an attack vector at the subsystem level and how it affects the control and orientation of the space vehicle. SimPy is used to model and extract raw <span class="hlt">impact</span> data at the bus level, while STK/SOLIS is used to extract raw <span class="hlt">impact</span> data at the subsystem level and to visually display the effect on the physical plant of the space vehicle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02755947.2016.1214647','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02755947.2016.1214647"><span>Using scenarios to <span class="hlt">assess</span> possible future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lauber, T. Bruce; Stedman, Richard C.; Connelly, Nancy A; Rudstam, Lars G.; Ready, Richard C; Poe, Gregory L; Bunnell, David; Hook, Tomas O.; Koops, Marten A.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Rutherford, Edward S; Wittmann, Marion E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The expected <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of invasive species are key considerations in selecting policy responses to potential invasions. But predicting the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of invasive species is daunting, particularly in large systems threatened by multiple invasive species, such as North America’s Laurentian Great Lakes. We developed and evaluated a scenario-building process that relied on an expert panel to <span class="hlt">assess</span> possible future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aquatic invasive species on recreational fishing in the Great Lakes. To maximize its usefulness to policy makers, this process was designed to be implemented relatively rapidly and consider a range of species. The expert panel developed plausible, internally-consistent invasion scenarios for 5 aquatic invasive species, along with subjective probabilities of those scenarios. We describe these scenarios and evaluate this approach for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> future invasive species <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The panel held diverse opinions about the likelihood of the scenarios, and only one scenario with <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on sportfish species was considered likely by most of the experts. These outcomes are consistent with the literature on scenario building, which advocates for developing a range of plausible scenarios in decision making because the uncertainty of future conditions makes the likelihood of any particular scenario low. We believe that this scenario-building approach could contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to address the possible <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of invasive species. In this <span class="hlt">case</span>, scenarios could allow policy makers to narrow the range of possible <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Great Lakes fisheries they consider and help set a research agenda for further refining invasive species predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447503','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447503"><span>Framing effectiveness in <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: Discourse accommodation in controversial infrastructure development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rozema, Jaap G.; Bond, Alan J.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>There is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tools, which matters both because of the threat to future practice of the tools which are frequently perceived to be ineffective, and because of the disillusionment that can ensue, and controversy generated, amongst stakeholders in a decision context where opportunities for meaningful debate have not been provided. In this article we regard debate about the meaning of effectiveness in <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> as an inevitable consequence of increased participation in environmental decision-making, and therefore frame effectiveness based on an inclusive democracy role to mean the extent to which <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> can accommodate civil society discourse. Our aim is to investigate effectiveness based on this framing by looking at one type of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> – environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) – in two controversial project proposals: the HS2 rail network in England; and the A4DS motorway in the Netherlands. Documentary analysis and interviews held with key civil society stakeholders have been deployed to identify discourses that were mobilised in the <span class="hlt">cases</span>. EIA was found to be able to accommodate only one out of four discourses that were identified; for the other three it did not provide the space for the arguments that characterised opposition. The conclusion in relation to debate on framings of effectiveness is that EIA will not be considered effective by the majority of stakeholders. EIA was established to support decision-making through a better understanding of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, so its ineffectiveness is unsurprising when its role is perceived to be broader. However, there remains a need to map discourses in different decision contexts and to analyse the extent to which the range of discourses are accommodated throughout the decision process, and the role of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in those processes, before recommendations can be made to either improve <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> effectiveness, or whether it is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19202889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19202889"><span>Environmental disasters: preparing for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and operational feedback.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verger, Pierre; Bard, Denis; Noiville, Christine; Lahidji, Reza</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>On March 24, 2006, the French Minister of Environment asked the Committee for Prevention and Precaution (CPP), an independent multidisciplinary committee created in 1996, to conduct a methodological analysis of operational feedback of natural and technological disasters to determine if France is equipped to collect the information and data necessary for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, and optimal management of a disaster and its consequences. The Committee's analysis was based on the testimony it heard from 13 experts--scientists and representatives of associations and advocacy groups--and its review of the literature, including operational feedback reports. Its response to the Minister focused on the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the health, social, environmental, and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of disasters and on their operational feedback (defined as the systematic analysis of a past event to draw lessons for the management of the risk), as practiced in France. It presents the results of the literature review about the consequences of disasters, expert's views on the current utility and limitations of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and operational feedback, the CPP's discussion of these results, and its recommendations to improve <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and operational feedback of disasters. These recommendations cover preparation for and activation of data collection and operational feedback, financial provisions, coordination of stakeholders, education and training in disaster preparedness, and the distribution and use of data from operational feedback.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=334197','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=334197"><span>The Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) Resource and Tool ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) is a relatively new and rapidly emerging field in the U.S. An inventory of available HIA resources and tools was conducted, with a primary focus on resources developed in the U.S. The resources and tools available to HIA practitioners in the conduct of their work were identified through multiple methods and compiled into a comprehensive list. The compilation includes tools and resources related to the HIA process itself and those that can be used to collect and analyze data, establish a baseline profile, <span class="hlt">assess</span> potential health <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and establish benchmarks and indicators for monitoring and evaluation. These resources include literature and evidence bases, data and statistics, guidelines, benchmarks, decision and economic analysis tools, scientific models, methods, frameworks, indices, mapping, and various data collection tools. Understanding the data, tools, models, methods, and other resources available to perform HIAs will help to advance the HIA community of practice in the U.S., improve the quality and rigor of <span class="hlt">assessments</span> upon which stakeholder and policy decisions are based, and potentially improve the overall effectiveness of HIA to promote healthy and sustainable communities. The Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) Resource and Tool Compilation is a comprehensive list of resources and tools that can be utilized by HIA practitioners with all levels of HIA experience to guide them throughout the HIA process. The HIA Resource</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23490105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23490105"><span>Life-cycle and freshwater withdrawal <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of water supply technologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Four alternative <span class="hlt">cases</span> for water supply were environmentally evaluated and compared based on the standard environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> categories from the life-cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) methodology extended with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI). The <span class="hlt">cases</span> were designed for Copenhagen, a part of Denmark with high population density and relatively low available water resources. FWI was applied at local groundwater catchments based on data from the national implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. The base <span class="hlt">case</span> of the study was the current practice of groundwater abstraction from well fields situated near Copenhagen. The 4 <span class="hlt">cases</span> studied were: Rain & stormwater harvesting from several blocks in the city; Today's groundwater abstraction with compensating actions applied in the affected freshwater environments to ensure sufficient water flow in water courses; Establishment of well fields further away from the city; And seawater desalination. The standard LCA showed that the Rain & stormwater harvesting <span class="hlt">case</span> had the lowest overall environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> (81.9 μPET/m(3)) followed by the <span class="hlt">cases</span> relying on groundwater abstraction (123.5-137.8 μPET/m(3)), and that desalination had a relatively small but still important increase in environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> (204.8 μPET/m(3)). Rain & stormwater harvesting and desalination had a markedly lower environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> compared to the base <span class="hlt">case</span>, due to the reduced water hardness leading to e.g. a decrease in electricity consumption in households. For a relevant comparison, it is therefore essential to include the effects of water hardness when comparing the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of water systems of different hardness. This study also emphasizes the necessity of including freshwater withdrawal respecting the relevant affected geographical scale, i.e. by focusing the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> on the local groundwater catchments rather than on the regional catchments. Our work shows that freshwater withdrawal methods previously used on a regional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II5..389Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II5..389Z"><span>A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The understanding and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080633"><span>Organisational <span class="hlt">impact</span>: Definition and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods for medical devices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Health technology <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational <span class="hlt">impact</span> has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational <span class="hlt">impact</span>. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational <span class="hlt">impact</span>. This work shows that taking organisational <span class="hlt">impact</span> into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115190"><span>Screening risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tools for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> in an abandoned pyritic mine in Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; García-Gómez, Concepción; Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Esteban, Elvira; Haro, Amparo; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón; Tarazona, Jose Vicente; Peñalosa, Jesus Manuel; Fernández, María Dolores</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>This paper describes a new methodology for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> site-specific environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of contaminants. The proposed method integrates traditional risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> approaches with real and variable environmental characteristics at a local scale. Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> on selected receptors was classified for each environmental compartment into 5 categories derived from the whole (chronic and acute) risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> using 8 risk levels. Risk levels were established according to three hazard quotients (HQs) which represented the ratio of exposure to acute and chronic toxicity values. This tool allowed integrating in only one <span class="hlt">impact</span> category all the elements involved in the standard risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The methodology was applied to an abandoned metal mine in Spain, where high levels of As, Cd, Zn and Cu were detected. Risk affecting potential receptors such as aquatic and soil organisms and terrestrial vertebrates were <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. Whole results showed that <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the ecosystem is likely high and further investigation or remedial actions are necessary. Some proposals to refine the risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for a more realistic diagnostic are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732829"><span>Enhancing the evidence base for health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mindell, J; Boaz, A; Joffe, M; Curtis, S; Birley, M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> differs from other purposes for which evidence is collated in a number of ways, including: These have implications for commissioning and conducting reviews. Methods must be developed to: facilitate comprehensive searching across a broad range of disciplines and information sources; collate appropriate quality criteria to <span class="hlt">assess</span> a range of study designs; synthesise different kinds of evidence; and facilitate timely stakeholder involvement. Good practice standards for reviews are needed to reduce the risk of poor quality recommendations. Advice to decision makers must make explicit limitations resulting from absent, conflicting, or poor quality evidence. PMID:15194713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH14B..05R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH14B..05R"><span>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Asteroid <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>: Observations and Risk Reduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reinhardt, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Stanford Engineering Risk Research Group has developed a method for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the risks associated with asteroid <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with the Earth. The model is intended to inform policy and decision makers who are charged with allocating limited resources to planetary defense missions. Our model and method have been used to perform baseline <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of risk and compare options for mitigation. We extend that analysis to examine the risk reductions associated with observation missions that have been active over the last decade. We present the basic model, summarize our past work, describe our current results and findings, and examine the role of observations in reducing risks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118345','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118345"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of extreme storm events using a Bayesian network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>den Heijer, C.(Kees); Knipping, Dirk T.J.A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; van Thiel de Vries, Jaap S. M.; Baart, Fedor; van Gelder, Pieter H. A. J. M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes an investigation on the usefulness of Bayesian Networks in the safety <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of dune coasts. A network has been created that predicts the erosion volume based on hydraulic boundary conditions and a number of cross-shore profile indicators. Field measurement data along a large part of the Dutch coast has been used to train the network. Corresponding storm <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the dunes was calculated with an empirical dune erosion model named duros+. Comparison between the Bayesian Network predictions and the original duros+ results, here considered as observations, results in a skill up to 0.88, provided that the training data covers the range of predictions. Hence, the predictions from a deterministic model (duros+) can be captured in a probabilistic model (Bayesian Network) such that both the process knowledge and uncertainties can be included in <span class="hlt">impact</span> and vulnerability <span class="hlt">assessments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015178','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015178"><span>An airport community noise-<span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deloach, R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A computer model was developed to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the noise <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an airport on the community which it serves. <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> are made using the Fractional <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Method by which a single number describes the community aircraft noise environment in terms of exposed population and multiple event noise level. The model is comprised of three elements: a conventional noise footprint model, a site specific population distribution model, and a dose response transfer function. The footprint model provides the noise distribution for a given aircraft operating scenario. This is combined with the site specific population distribution obtained from a national census data base to yield the number of residents exposed to a given level of noise. The dose response relationship relates noise exposure levels to the percentage of individuals highly annoyed by those levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650580','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650580"><span>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of climate change in Bangladesh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, Deborah Imel</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reality+AND+increased&pg=5&id=EJ872096','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reality+AND+increased&pg=5&id=EJ872096"><span>Increased Authenticity in Practical <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Using Emergency <span class="hlt">Case</span> OSCE Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ruesseler, Miriam; Weinlich, Michael; Byhahn, Christian; Muller, Michael P.; Junger, Jana; Marzi, Ingo; Walcher, Felix</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">case</span> of an emergency, a fast and structured patient management is crucial for patient's outcome. The competencies needed should be acquired and <span class="hlt">assessed</span> during medical education. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a valid and reliable <span class="hlt">assessment</span> format to evaluate practical skills. However, traditional OSCE stations examine…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=uruguay&pg=5&id=EJ774816','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=uruguay&pg=5&id=EJ774816"><span>A Formative Approach to National <span class="hlt">Assessments</span>: The <span class="hlt">Case</span> of Uruguay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ravela, Pedro</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to present a <span class="hlt">case</span> of national achievement <span class="hlt">assessment</span> at the primary level within a formative approach. Many countries experience an increasing obligation to attach high stakes to national <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, which results in greater pressure on teachers and schools. The author's view is that this kind of approach is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=4+AND+marketing&pg=7&id=EJ929462','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=4+AND+marketing&pg=7&id=EJ929462"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Higher Level Learning: Developing Rubrics for <span class="hlt">Case</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rochford, Linda; Borchert, Patricia S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Case</span> study analyses allow students to demonstrate proficiency in executing authentic tasks in marketing and management, facilitating faculty evaluation of higher order learning outcomes. Effective and consistent <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">case</span> analyses depends in large part on the development of sound rubrics. The authors explored the process of rubric…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479757','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479757"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in the Visegrad Group countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gałaś, Slávka; Gałaś, Andrzej; Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka; Fialová, Jitka; and others</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, or transboundary <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “<span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15531442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15531442"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> ozone-related health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> under a changing climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knowlton, Kim; Rosenthal, Joyce E; Hogrefe, Christian; Lynn, Barry; Gaffin, Stuart; Goldberg, Richard; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Civerolo, Kevin; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Kinney, Patrick L</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Climate change may increase the frequency and intensity of ozone episodes in future summers in the United States. However, only recently have models become available that can <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change on O3 concentrations and health effects at regional and local scales that are relevant to adaptive planning. We developed and applied an integrated modeling framework to <span class="hlt">assess</span> potential O3-related health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in future decades under a changing climate. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model at 4 degrees x 5 degrees resolution was linked to the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model 5 and the Community Multiscale Air Quality atmospheric chemistry model at 36 km horizontal grid resolution to simulate hourly regional meteorology and O3 in five summers of the 2050s decade across the 31-county New York metropolitan region. We <span class="hlt">assessed</span> changes in O3-related <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on summer mortality resulting from climate change alone and with climate change superimposed on changes in O3 precursor emissions and population growth. Considering climate change alone, there was a median 4.5% increase in O3-related acute mortality across the 31 counties. Incorporating O3 precursor emission increases along with climate change yielded similar results. When population growth was factored into the projections, absolute <span class="hlt">impacts</span> increased substantially. Counties with the highest percent increases in projected O3 mortality spread beyond the urban core into less densely populated suburban counties. This modeling framework provides a potentially useful new tool for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the health risks of climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135211"><span>Clinical <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pelvic pain on women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chalmers, K Jane; Catley, Mark J; Evans, Susan F; Moseley, G Lorimer</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We aimed to develop a questionnaire that <span class="hlt">assesses</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pelvic pain on women, regardless of diagnosis, that has high utility, sound psychometric performance, easy scoring, and high reliability. Two studies, with 3 separate cohorts, were undertaken. Both studies were completed online. Studies included women with self-reported pelvic pain. Women were eligible to participate regardless of whether their pelvic pain was undiagnosed, self-diagnosed, or diagnosed by a clinician. Study 1 used a 3-round "patient-as-expert" Delphi technique. These rounds defined the 10 aspects of life with the self-reported greatest <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the lives of women with pelvic pain, which formed the questionnaire. Study 2 used Rasch analysis to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the psychometric properties of the resultant 10-item questionnaire. To <span class="hlt">assess</span> its reliability, a subgroup completed the questionnaire 3 times over a 3-week period. In study 1, 443 women with pelvic pain participated. The resultant 10-item questionnaire consisted of 8 Likert questions and 2 supplemental, nonscored questions. In study 2, 1203 women with pelvic pain completed the questionnaire. Rasch analysis showed that the questionnaire targeted the pelvic pain population well, had appropriate Likert categories, constituted a unidimensional scale, and showed internal consistency. Twenty-seven women with pelvic pain completed the reliability trial. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.91, P < 0.001). The resultant Pelvic Pain <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Questionnaire <span class="hlt">assesses</span> the life <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pelvic pain. It uses patient-generated language, is easily administered and scored, has very strong psychometric properties, and it is suitable for research and clinical settings across primary, secondary, and tertiary care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854434"><span>The <span class="hlt">case</span> for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> cannabidiol in epilepsy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cilio, Maria Roberta; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Devinsky, Orrin</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Intractable epilepsies have an extraordinary <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cognitive and behavioral function and quality of life, and the treatment of seizures represents a challenge and a unique opportunity. Over the past few years, considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychotropic compound of Cannabis sativa. Basic research studies have provided strong evidence for safety and anticonvulsant properties of CBD. However, the lack of pure, pharmacologically active compounds and legal restrictions have prevented clinical research and confined data on efficacy and safety to anecdotal reports. Pure CBD appears to be an ideal candidate among phytocannabinoids as a therapy for treatment-resistant epilepsy. A first step in this direction is to systematically investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and interactions of CBD with other antiepileptic drugs and obtain an initial signal regarding efficacy at different dosages. These data can then be used to plan double-blinded placebo-controlled efficacy trials. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.srmjournals.org/doi/abs/10.2111/REM-D-09-00176.1?journalCode=rama','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.srmjournals.org/doi/abs/10.2111/REM-D-09-00176.1?journalCode=rama"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> transportation infrastructure <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on rangelands: test of a standard rangeland <span class="hlt">assessment</span> protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Pyke, David A.; Toledo, David</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Linear disturbances associated with on- and off-road vehicle use on rangelands has increased dramatically throughout the world in recent decades. This increase is due to a variety of factors including increased availability of all-terrain vehicles, infrastructure development (oil, gas, renewable energy, and ex-urban), and recreational activities. In addition to the direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of road development, the presence and use of roads may alter resilience of adjoining areas through indirect effects such as altered site hydrologic and eolian processes, invasive seed dispersal, and sediment transport. There are few standardized methods for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of transportation-related land-use activities on soils and vegetation in arid and semi-arid rangelands. Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) is an internationally accepted qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> that is applied widely to rangelands. We tested the sensitivity of IIRH to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of roads, trails, and pipelines on adjacent lands by surveying plots at three distances from these linear disturbances. We performed tests at 16 randomly selected sites in each of three ecosystems (Northern High Plains, Colorado Plateau, and Chihuahuan Desert) for a total of 208 evaluation plots. We also evaluated the repeatability of IIRH when applied to road-related disturbance gradients. Finally, we tested extent of correlations between IIRH plot attribute departure classes and trends in a suite of quantitative indicators. Results indicated that the IIRH technique is sensitive to direct and indirect <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of transportation activities with greater departure from reference condition near disturbances than far from disturbances. Trends in degradation of ecological processes detected with qualitative <span class="hlt">assessments</span> were highly correlated with quantitative data. Qualitative and quantitative <span class="hlt">assessments</span> employed in this study can be used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of transportation features at the plot scale. Through integration with remote</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335207&keyword=climate%20change&subject=climate%20change%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=02/15/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=02/15/2017&sortby=pubdateyear&','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335207&keyword=climate%20change&subject=climate%20change%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=02/15/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=02/15/2017&sortby=pubdateyear&"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Future Land Cover Change ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from future urban growth through time. This methodology was then expanded and utilized to characterize the changing hydrology on the South Platte River Basin. Future urban growth is represented by housingdensity maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land‐Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and describe a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as anapproach to evaluate basin‐wide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of development on water‐quantity and ‐quality, 2) present initial results from the application of the methodology to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11894752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11894752"><span>On <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of success and the <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> of FAIR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leslie, J; Richmond, P</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Early in 2001, the authors were awarded an Accompanying Measure by the Agri-Food Directorate of DG Research to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> of a selected subset of projects recently completed within the FAIR RTD program. We have three aims: To specifically evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of 25 projects supported under the EU FAIR Programme. To develop and validate a methodology for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of collaborative projects in the food area. To identify any generic messages which could relate to the forthcoming European Research Area (ERA). A series of Workshops are being held with FAIR participants and stakeholders around the Community to facilitate the development of the methodology. At the time of writing meetings have been held in the UK, Ireland and Denmark. Diet and Health will a key driver for innovation in food during the 21st century and will play a major role in both EU and national research. Participation in the HEALFO Food and Health Conference allowed us to meet and discuss <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> with an important group of both past and future contributors to EU research. This paper outlines the workshop methodology and outlines some interim findings together with emerging hypotheses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27285950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27285950"><span>Advances and challenges of incorporating ecosystem services into <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosa, Josianne Claudia Sales; Sánchez, Luis E</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>An ecosystem services approach (ESA) to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the environmental and social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of projects is a conceptual innovation that contributes to overcome two widely acknowledged deficiencies of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (IA): integration of knowledge areas and participation of affected communities. This potential was demonstrated through a practical application to a large mining project, showing evidence of advances in relation to current practice and identifying challenges. Data was obtained from the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> study of the reviewed project and its supplements; additional data to fulfill the needs of the ESA were collected using rapid appraisal techniques. Results show that the ESA provides: (i) a more effective scoping; (ii) a contribution to delimitate the study area; (iii) a more detailed identification of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>; (iv) a determination of significance inclusive of the perspective of affected communities; (v) a design of mitigation focused on human well-being. The challenges of using the ESA fall into two groups: the limitations inherent to the concept and those that can be overcome by furthering research and advancing practical applications. This research added evidence to previous studies showing that incorporating ecosystem services into IA can improve practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9905E..5TD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9905E..5TD"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of crosstalk in the X-IFU instrument on Athena science <span class="hlt">cases</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>den Hartog, R.; Peille, P.; Dauser, T.; Jackson, B.; Bandler, S.; Barret, D.; Brand, T.; den Herder, J.-W.; Kiviranta, M.; van der Kuur, J.; Smith, S.; Wilms, J.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a first <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of various forms of instrumental crosstalk on the science performance of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on the Athena X-ray mission. This <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is made using the SIXTE end-to-end simulator in the context of one of the more technically challenging science <span class="hlt">cases</span> for the XIFU instrument. Crosstalk considerations may influence or drive various aspects of the design of the array of high-countrate Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detectors and its Frequency Domain Multiplexed (FDM) readout architecture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9458E..09C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9458E..09C"><span>Risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cam, Hasan</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to <span class="hlt">assessing</span> cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and <span class="hlt">impact</span> using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be <span class="hlt">assessed</span> by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813252C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813252C"><span>Preliminary <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of lava flow <span class="hlt">impact</span>. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow <span class="hlt">impact</span> of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712878A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712878A"><span>Foundation stones for a real socio-environmental integration in projects' <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andres Dominguez-Gomez, J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) and Social <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (SIA), have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it a parallel progress in addressing their main shortcomings: insufficient integration of environmental and social features into development project analyses and, in <span class="hlt">cases</span> where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their diagnosis and <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of schemes which <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the environment, and in consequence, to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argue that, in a sociological context of growing complexity, four foundation-stones are required to underpin research methodologies (for both diagnosis and <span class="hlt">assessment</span>) in the socio-environmental risks of development projects: a theoretical foundation in actor-network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized though not always carried through into practice; a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20713499','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20713499"><span>Equity-focused health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simpson, Sarah . E-mail: sarah.simpson@unsw.edu.au; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny</p> <p>2005-10-15</p> <p>In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely <span class="hlt">assess</span> the potential health and equity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the <span class="hlt">case</span> study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123844"><span>A <span class="hlt">case</span> for early bronchoscopic airway <span class="hlt">assessment</span> after disc battery ingestion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wurzel, Danielle F; Masters, I Brent; Choo, Kelvin L; Isles, Alan F</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Disc battery ingestion in children is becoming increasingly common with the proliferation of small battery-powered electronic devices. In the <span class="hlt">case</span> of esophageal <span class="hlt">impaction</span>, the likelihood and severity of complications are proportionate to the time between ingestion and removal. Tracheo-esophageal fistulae (TOF) are a recognized complication and can be life-threatening. We describe an interesting <span class="hlt">case</span> of disc battery ingestion with delayed recognition of a TOF. We document the tracheal mucosal healing process of a large airway defect and describe the role of bronchoscopy in guiding the timing of surgical intervention. This <span class="hlt">case</span> highlights the important role of early bronchoscopic <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in management of these patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479770"><span>Putting social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCombes, Lucy; Vanclay, Frank; Evers, Yvette</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>The discourse on the social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test <span class="hlt">case</span> tourism business to better understand their social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of tourism. • Our adapted Social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23381801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23381801"><span>Integrated approach of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> and risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as <span class="hlt">case</span> study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082575"><span>Testing a health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tool by <span class="hlt">assessing</span> community opinion about a public park.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Bualert, Surat; Sithisarankul, Pornchai</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to <span class="hlt">assess</span> a health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) tool to determine the perceived health <span class="hlt">impact</span> by the public of a public park. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study from March to April, 2011, using this HIA questionnaire to collect data and through focus group discussions. We also <span class="hlt">assessed</span> community concerns about the park and obtained recommendations of how to mitigate possible negative aspects of the parks. Four aspects were listed as possible benefits of the park: physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. The negative aspects mentioned by participants were that a park could be a potential place of assembly for teenagers, a place for theft and crime and accidents among children. The HIA tool used for this research seemed appropriate. The next challenge is to use this tool to <span class="hlt">assess</span> a more controversial project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815343A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815343A"><span>Multi Hazard <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) <span class="hlt">case</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos <span class="hlt">case</span> was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC34A..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC34A..04S"><span>Arctic Cities and Climate Change: A Geographic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Arctic climate change is a concern for the engineering community, land-use planners and policy makers as it may have significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on socio-economic development and human activities in the northern regions. A warmer climate has potential for a series of positive economic effects, such as development of maritime transportation, enhanced agricultural production and decrease in energy consumption. However, these potential benefits may be outwaited by negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> related to transportation accessibility and stability of existing infrastructure, especially in permafrost regions. Compared with the Arctic zones of other countries, the Russian Arctic is characterized by higher population, greater industrial development and urbanization. Arctic urban areas and associated industrial sites are the location of some of intense interaction between man and nature. However, while there is considerable research on various aspects of Arctic climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human society, few address effects on Arctic cities and their related industries. This presentation overviews potential climate-change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Russian urban environments in the Arctic and discusses methodology for addressing complex interactions between climatic, permafrost and socio-economic systems at the range of geographical scales. We also provide a geographic <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of selected positive and negative climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> affecting several diverse Russian Arctic cities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21747285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21747285"><span>Pooled exposure <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for matched <span class="hlt">case</span>-control studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Exposure <span class="hlt">assessment</span> using biologic specimens is important for epidemiology but may become impracticable if assays are expensive, specimen volumes are marginally adequate, or analyte levels fall below the limit of detection. Pooled exposure <span class="hlt">assessment</span> can provide an effective remedy for these problems in unmatched <span class="hlt">case</span>-control studies. We extend pooled exposure strategies to handle specimens collected in a matched <span class="hlt">case</span>-control study. We show that if a logistic model applies to individuals, then a logistic model also applies to an analysis using pooled exposures. Consequently, the individual-level odds ratio can be estimated while conserving both cost and specimen. We discuss appropriate pooling strategies for a single exposure, with adjustment for multiple, possibly continuous, covariates (confounders) and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of effect modification by a categorical variable. We <span class="hlt">assess</span> the performance of the approach via simulations and conclude that pooled strategies can markedly improve efficiency for matched as well as unmatched <span class="hlt">case</span>-control studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447510','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447510"><span>Is the ecosystem service concept improving <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>? Evidence from recent international practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosa, Josianne Claudia Sales Sánchez, Luis E.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Considering ecosystem services (ES) could foster innovation and improve environmental and social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (ESIA) practice, but is the potential being fulfilled? In order to investigate how ES have been treated in recent international practice, three questions are asked: (i) were the tasks of an ES analysis carried out? (ii) how is such analysis integrated with other analysis presented in the ESIA? (iii) does ES analysis result in additional or improved mitigation or enhancement measures? These research questions were unfolded into 15 auxiliary questions for reviewing five ESIA reports prepared for mining, hydroelectric and transportation infrastructure projects in Africa, Asia and South America. All <span class="hlt">cases</span> incorporated ES into ESIA to meet a requirement of the International Finance Corporation's Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability. It was found that: (i) in only three <span class="hlt">cases</span> most tasks recommended by current guidance were adopted (ii) all reports feature a dedicated ES chapter or section, but in three of them no evidence was found that the ES analysis was integrated within <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (iii) in the two ESIAs that followed guidance, ES analysis resulted in specific mitigation measures. Few evidence was found that the ES concept is improving current ESIA practice. Key challenges are: (i) integrating ES analysis in such a way that it does not duplicate other analysis; (ii) adequately characterizing the beneficiaries of ES; and (iii) quantifying ES supply for <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction. - Highlights: • Incorporating ecosystem services analysis in <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> can improve results. • Additional <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and mitigation were identified. • Challenges include developing appropriate indicators for <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction. • A key challenge is integrating the concept in such a way that it does not duplicate other analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/251317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/251317"><span>Data for the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Volume 1: Text, Columbia River Comprehensive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miley, T.B.; O`Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project`s planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> to evaluate the current <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the river. The purpose of the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be <span class="hlt">assessed</span>; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and <span class="hlt">assessing</span> risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27825446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27825446"><span>Ecological <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> fail to reduce risk of bat casualties at wind farms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lintott, Paul R; Richardson, Suzanne M; Hosken, David J; Fensome, Sophie A; Mathews, Fiona</p> <p>2016-11-07</p> <p>Demand for renewable energy is rising exponentially. While this has benefits in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, there may be costs to biodiversity [1]. Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> (EIAs) are the main tool used across the world to predict the overall positive and negative effects of renewable energy developments before planning consent is given, and the Ecological <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> (EcIAs) within them <span class="hlt">assess</span> their species-specific effects. Given that EIAs are undertaken globally, are extremely expensive, and are enshrined in legislation, their place in evidence-based decision making deserves evaluation. Here we <span class="hlt">assess</span> how well EIAs of wind-farm developments protect bats. We found they do not predict the risks to bats accurately, and even in those <span class="hlt">cases</span> where high risk was correctly identified, the mitigation deployed did not avert the risk. Given that the primary purpose of an EIA is to make planning decisions evidence-based, our results indicate that EIA mitigation strategies used to date have been ineffective in protecting bats. In the future, greater emphasis should be placed on <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the actual <span class="hlt">impacts</span> post-construction and on developing effective mitigation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4979309','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4979309"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of self-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> by students on their learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Rajeev; Jain, Amit; Gupta, Naveenta; Garg, Sonia; Batta, Meenal; Dhir, Shashi Kant</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Context: Tutor <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is sometimes also considered as an exercise of power by the assessor over <span class="hlt">assesses</span>. Student self-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> is the process by which the students gather information about and reflect on their own learning and is considered to be a very important component of learning. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to analyze the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of self-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> by undergraduate medical students on their subsequent academic performance. The secondary objective was to obtain the perception of students and faculty about self-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> as a tool for enhanced learning. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the evaluation of two theory tests consisting of both essay type and short answer questions, administered to students of the 1st year MBBS (n = 89). They self-<span class="hlt">assessed</span> their performance after 3 days of the first test followed by marking of faculty and feedback. Then, a nonidentical theory test on the same topic with the same difficulty level was conducted after 7 days and <span class="hlt">assessed</span> by the teachers. The feedback about the perception of students and faculty about this intervention was obtained. Results: Significant improvement in the academic performance after the process of self-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> was observed (P < 0.001). There was a significantly positive correlation between student and teacher marking (r = 0.79). Both students and faculty perceived it to be helpful for developing self-directed learning skills. Conclusions: Self-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> can increase the interest and motivation level of students for the subjects leading to enhanced learning and better academic performance, helping them in development of critical skills for analysis of their own work. PMID:27563593</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4951082','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4951082"><span>Effectiveness of Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span>: A Synthesis of Data From Five <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Evaluation Reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Since the 1990s, the use of health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> (HIAs) has grown for considering the potential health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of proposed policies, plans, programs, and projects in various sectors. Evaluation of HIA <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is needed for understanding the value of HIAs, improving the methods involved in HIAs, and potentially expanding their application. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> evaluations examine whether HIAs affect decisions and lead to other effects. Methods I reviewed HIA <span class="hlt">impact</span> evaluations identified by literature review and professional networking. I abstracted and synthesized data on key findings, success factors, and challenges from 5 large evaluations conducted in the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand and published from 2006 through 2015. These studies analyzed <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of approximately 200 individual HIAs. Results Major <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of HIAs were directly influencing some decisions, improving collaboration among stakeholders, increasing awareness of health issues among decision makers, and giving community members a stronger voice in local decisions. Factors that contributed to successful HIAs included engaging stakeholders, timeliness, policy and systems support for conducting HIAs, having people with appropriate skills on the HIA team, obtaining the support of decision makers, and providing clearly articulated, feasible recommendations. Challenges that may have reduced HIA success were poor timeliness, underestimation of time and resources needed, difficulty in accessing relevant data, use of jargon in HIA reports, difficulty in involving decision makers in the HIA process, and absence of a requirement to conduct HIAs. Conclusion HIAs can be useful to promote health and mitigate adverse <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of decisions made outside of the health sector. Stakeholder interactions and community engagement may be as important as direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of HIAs. Multiple factors are required for HIA success. Further work could strengthen the role of HIAs in promoting equity, examine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712076O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712076O"><span>Uncertainty <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tool for climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Jacob, Daniela; Rechid, Diana; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Juckes, Martin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A major difficulty in the study of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators is dealing with the numerous sources of uncertainties of climate and non-climate data . Its <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, however, is needed to communicate to users the degree of certainty of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators. This communication of uncertainty is an important component of the FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC). CLIPC is developing a portal to provide a central point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change. In this project the Climate Service Center 2.0 is in charge of the development of a tool to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the uncertainty of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators. The calculation of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators will include climate data from satellite and in-situ observations, climate models and re-analyses, and non-climate data. There is a lack of a systematic classification of uncertainties arising from the whole range of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators. We develop a framework that intends to clarify the potential sources of uncertainty of a given indicator and provides - if possible - solutions how to quantify the uncertainties. To structure the sources of uncertainties of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators, we first classify uncertainties along a 'cascade of uncertainty' (Reyer 2013). Our cascade consists of three levels which correspond to the CLIPC meta-classification of <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators: Tier-1 indicators are intended to give information on the climate system. Tier-2 indicators attempt to quantify the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on biophysical systems (i.e. flood risks). Tier-3 indicators primarily aim at providing information on the socio-economic systems affected by climate change. At each level, the potential sources of uncertainty of the input data sets and its processing will be discussed. Reference: Reyer, C. (2013): The cascade of uncertainty in modeling forest ecosystem responses to environmental change and the challenge of sustainable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811897O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811897O"><span>Methodology for qualitative uncertainty <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Rechid, Diana; Hänsler, Andreas; Pfeifer, Susanne; Roth, Ellinor; Jacob, Daniela</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC) is developing an integrated platform of climate data services to provide a single point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change and climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. In this project, the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) has been in charge of the development of a methodology on how to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the uncertainties related to climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators. Existing climate data portals mainly treat the uncertainties in two ways: Either they provide generic guidance and/or express with statistical measures the quantifiable fraction of the uncertainty. However, none of the climate data portals give the users a qualitative guidance how confident they can be in the validity of the displayed data. The need for such guidance was identified in CLIPC user consultations. Therefore, we aim to provide an uncertainty <span class="hlt">assessment</span> that provides the users with climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicator-specific guidance on the degree to which they can trust the outcome. We will present an approach that provides information on the importance of different sources of uncertainties associated with a specific climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicator and how these sources affect the overall 'degree of confidence' of this respective indicator. To meet users requirements in the effective communication of uncertainties, their feedback has been involved during the development process of the methodology. <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> and visualising the quantitative component of uncertainty is part of the qualitative guidance. As visual analysis method, we apply the Climate Signal Maps (Pfeifer et al. 2015), which highlight only those areas with robust climate change signals. Here, robustness is defined as a combination of model agreement and the significance of the individual model projections. Reference Pfeifer, S., Bülow, K., Gobiet, A., Hänsler, A., Mudelsee, M., Otto, J., Rechid, D., Teichmann, C. and Jacob, D.: Robustness of Ensemble Climate Projections</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/212503','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/212503"><span>Human scenarios for the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Columbia River Comprehensive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of contaminants in the river on human health can be <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be <span class="hlt">assessed</span> at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6126261','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6126261"><span>The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maki, A.W. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> spill <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360916"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climatic change on mountain water resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus</p> <p>2014-09-15</p> <p>As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also <span class="hlt">impacted</span>, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (<span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Climate <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED33B..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED33B..07K"><span>The Non-<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Scientific Reviews of Oil Sands Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kienzle, S. W.; Byrne, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Schindler (Science, Vol. 192: 509; 1976) stated that Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> authors "conduct the studies regardless of how quickly results are demanded, write large, diffuse reports containing reams of uninterpreted and incomplete descriptive data, and in some <span class="hlt">cases</span>, construct "predictive" models, irrespective of the quality of the data base." Schindler offered a solution: "If we are to protect both our resources and scientific integrity, environmental scientists must seek to put their studies on a scientifically credible basis-to see that problems, terms of reference, funding, time constraints, reports, and conclusions are all within a bona fide scientific framework." When the first scientific panel was formed in 2003 by the Mikisew Cree First Nations (MCFN), Alberta, to objectively review EIAs of proposed oil sands mining projects, the scientific panel uncovered many severe omissions, errors, and a significant lack of substance that could not withstand scientific scrutiny. Neither the Terms of Reference for two major oilsands projects, estimated to be worth approximately CND 15 billion, nor the EIAs (one single EIA was over 11,000 pages long) contained the terms "climate change", "trend analysis", or "risk analysis", and nearly all environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were described by the proponents as "negligible". The Hydrology Section (over 950 pages in length) of one EIA did not contain a single peer-reviewed scientific publication. In summary, nothing had changed since Schindler's observations 27 years earlier. Since 2003, the authors have reviewed more than a dozen EIAs of proposed oilsands projects in northern Alberta. The "non-<span class="hlt">impact</span>" of scientific reviews on the quality of EIAs and the insincerity of the stewards of the land are very sobering: apart from cosmetic improvements in the requirements of the Terms of Reference and the writing of the EIAs, no meaningful improvement of scientific content has been made. Key environmental concerns around water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21531068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21531068"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fisheries co-management interventions in developing countries: a meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Louisa; Cherrett, Nia; Pemsl, Diemuth</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Co-management is now established as a mainstream approach to small-scale fisheries management across the developing world. A comprehensive review of 204 potential <span class="hlt">cases</span> reveals a lack of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of fisheries co-management. This study reports on a meta-analysis of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fisheries co-management in developing countries in 90 sites across 29 <span class="hlt">case</span>-studies. The top five most frequently measured process indicators are participation, influence, rule compliance, control over resources, and conflict. The top five most frequently measured outcome indicators are access to resources, resource well-being, fishery yield, household well-being, and household income. To deal with the diversity of the 52 indicators measured and the different ways these data are collected and analysed, we apply a coding system to capture change over time. The results of the meta-analysis suggest that, overall fisheries co-management delivers benefits to end-users through improvements in key process and outcome indicators. However, the dataset as a whole is constituted primarily of data from the Philippines. When we exclude this body of work, few generalisations can be made about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fisheries co-management. The lack of comparative data suitable for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and the difficulties in comparing data and generalising across countries and regions reiterates calls in other fields for more systematic approaches to understanding and evaluating governance frameworks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11591027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11591027"><span>A note on the use of the analytic hierarchy process for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramanathan, R</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) is an intrinsically complex multi-dimensional process, involving multiple criteria and multiple actors. Multi-criteria methods can serve as useful decision aids for carrying out the EIA. This paper proposes the use of a multi-criteria technique, namely the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), for the purpose. AHP has the flexibility to combine quantitative and qualitative factors, to handle different groups of actors, to combine the opinions expressed by many experts, and can help in stakeholder analysis. The main shortcomings of AHP and some modifications to it to overcome the shortcomings are briefly described. Finally, the use of AHP is illustrated for a <span class="hlt">case</span> study involving socio-economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. In this <span class="hlt">case</span> study, AHP has been used for capturing the perceptions of stakeholders on the relative severity of different socio-economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, which will help the authorities in prioritizing their environmental management plan, and can also help in allocating the budget available for mitigating adverse socio-economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499684"><span>Visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> of wind farms on cultural heritage: A Norwegian <span class="hlt">case</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jerpasen, Gro B. Larsen, Kari C.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>This paper discusses different approaches of how visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cultural heritage can be methodologically improved within Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA). During the recent decade, visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cultural heritage and heritage sites has become a more frequent but contentious issue in public and academic discussions. Yet, within EIA issues relating to heritage sites and visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> are rarely debated or critically reflected upon. Today most methods and theories on visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> and cultural heritage within EIA are transferred from disciplines such as landscape architecture, architecture and geography. The article suggests how working with the concepts and definitions of site and setting can be a methodological tool for delimiting and clarifying visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cultural heritage sites. The article also presents ways of how public participation can be a tool to start exploring the field of what the visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cultural heritage implies and how it effects upon our understanding and appreciation of heritage sites. Examples from a Norwegian <span class="hlt">case</span> are taken as illustrations to highlight these issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616007W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616007W"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Nuclear Power Plant accidents on aviation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold, Delia; Maurer, Christian</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The nuclear accidents in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 demonstrated the urgent need to provide adequate guidance for land-based, marine and airborne transport. Quick <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are essential to avoid unnecessary traffic disruptions while guaranteeing appropriate safety levels for staff in the transport industry as well as travellers. Such estimates are to be provided under difficult circumstances, mostly due to the lack of reliable initial information on the severity of the accident and the exact source term of radionuclides. Regarding aviation, there are three equally relevant aspects to look at, namely aircraft in cruising altitude (about 40000 ft), aircraft approaching an airport, and finally the airports as such as critical infrastructure, including airport operations and ground transport. Based on the accident scenarios encountered in the Chernobyl and Fukushima <span class="hlt">cases</span>, exemplary <span class="hlt">case</span> studies shall be provided to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of such events on aviation. The study is based on the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model (ATDM) FLEXPART and a simplified scheme to calculate effective dose rates based on a few key radionuclides (Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133). Besides the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, possible new products provided by WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres in the event of an accident shall be discussed as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1341K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1341K"><span><span class="hlt">Case</span> Histories of Landslide <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: A Database-driven Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Fundamental understanding of landslide risk requires in-depth knowledge of how landslides have <span class="hlt">impacted</span> society in the past (e.g., Corominas et al., 2014). A key to obtain insights into the evolution of landslide risk at single facilities of critical infrastructures are <span class="hlt">case</span> histories of landslide <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The purpose of such historical analyses is to inform about the site-specific interactions between landslides and land-use activity. <span class="hlt">Case</span> histories support correlating landslide events and associated damages with multiple control variables of landslide risk, including (i) previous construction works, (ii) hazard awareness, (iii) the type of structure or its material properties, and (iv) measures of post-disaster mitigation. It is a key advantage of <span class="hlt">case</span> histories to provide an overview of the changes in the exposure and vulnerability of infrastructures over time. Their application helps to learn more about changing patterns in risk culture and the effectiveness of repair or prevention measures (e.g., Klose et al., 2014). <span class="hlt">Case</span> histories of landslide <span class="hlt">impact</span> are developed on the basis of information extracted from landslide databases. The use of path diagrams and illustrated flowcharts as data modeling techniques is aimed at structuring, condensing, and visualizing complex historical data sets on landslide activity and land-use. Much of the scientific potential of <span class="hlt">case</span> histories simply depends on the quality of available database information. Landslide databases relying on a bottom-up approach characterized by targeted local data specification are optimally suited for historical <span class="hlt">impact</span> analyses. Combined with systematic retrieval, extraction, and integration of data from multiple sources, landslide databases constitute a valuable tool for developing <span class="hlt">case</span> histories that enable to open a whole new window on the study of landslide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (e.g., Damm and Klose, 2014). The present contribution introduces such a <span class="hlt">case</span> history for a well-known landslide site at a heavily</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19026482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19026482"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the influence of Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on science and policy: an analysis of the Three Gorges Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tullos, Desiree</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>The need to understand and minimize negative environmental outcomes associated with large dams has both contributed to and benefited from the introduction and subsequent improvements in the Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) process. However, several limitations in the EIA process remain, including those associated with the uncertainty and significance of <span class="hlt">impact</span> projections. These limitations are directly related to the feedback between science and policy, with information gaps in scientific understanding discovered through the EIA process contributing valuable recommendations on critical focus areas for prioritizing and funding research within the fields of ecological conservation and river engineering. This paper presents an analysis of the EIA process for the Three Gorges Project (TGP) in China as a <span class="hlt">case</span> study for evaluating this feedback between the EIA and science and policy. For one of the best-studied public development projects in the world, this paper presents an investigation into whether patterns exist between the scientific interest (via number of publications) in environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and (a) the identification of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> as uncertain or priority by the EIA, (b) decisions or political events associated with the dam, and (c) <span class="hlt">impact</span> type. This analysis includes the compilation of literature on TGP, characterization of ecosystem interactions and responses to TGP through a hierarchy of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, coding of EIA <span class="hlt">impacts</span> as "uncertain" <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that require additional study and "priority" <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that have particularly high significance, mapping of an event chronology to relate policies, institutional changes, and decisions about TGP as "events" that could influence the focus and intensity of scientific investigation, and analysis of the number of publications by <span class="hlt">impact</span> type and order within the <span class="hlt">impact</span> hierarchy. From these analyses, it appears that the availability and consistency of scientific information limit the accuracy of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12295962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12295962"><span>Gender <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in microfinance and microenterprise: why and how.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, S</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>This article discusses the reasons for conducting gender <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in microfinance and microenterprise. Although women are increasingly being targeted in microfinance and microenterprise projects, this does not necessarily mean that gender relations are being taken into account. Rather, targeting women raises a host of questions about the context in which women are operating their businesses or handling finance. <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> gender <span class="hlt">impact</span> in microfinance and microenterprise can help answer the questions in order to understand whether women are able to use the services and make the anticipated improvements in their livelihoods. Moreover, several approaches are suggested: 1) establish a gender baseline; 2) consider the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the project on gender relations; 3) establish the information and indicators required; and 4) collect and analyze the data using tools and techniques appropriate to the task. However, in the context of gender relations there remains much ground, which often cannot be openly discussed. The discussion of how people organize their financial and economic affairs inside the household is usually a delicate area. Hence, it is suggested that such matters should be handled very carefully and to consider the composition and dynamics of the research team itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335823','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335823"><span>Utilizing a Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) to Connect Natural ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Marrying scientific and health research with natural resource management should be a straightforward process. However, differences in purpose, goals, language, levels of detail and implementation authority between the scientists who conduct research and resource managers who plan and implement projects make it difficult for resource managers to include information not specific to the problem at hand. One method to overcome this barrier is a Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) or process that uses scientific data, health expertise and public input to factor public health considerations into the decision-making process. An HIA informs decision makers and stakeholders of the potential health effects of a proposed program, policy, project or plan through a systematic investigation of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to health and health determinants and deliberative engagement of community members and other stakeholders throughout the HIA process. USEPA will be conducting an HIA on the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources’ sediment remediation and habitat restoration project at Kingsbury Bay and Grassy Point. This poster outlines the HIA process, illustrates how technical and stakeholder committees inform the process, and presents the determinants of health that will be explored in the HIA. This poster will illustrate how a Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>, a process that uses scientific data, health expertise and public input to factor public health considerations into the decision-making proces</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2332M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2332M"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of language <span class="hlt">impact</span> to speech privacy in closed offices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Yong Ma; Caswell, Daryl J.; Dai, Liming; Goodchild, Jim T.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Speech privacy is the opposite concept of speech intelligibility and can be <span class="hlt">assessed</span> by the predictors of speech intelligibility. Based on the existing standards and the research to date, most objective <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for speech privacy and speech intelligibility, such as articulation index (AI) or speech intelligibility index (SII), speech transmission index (STI), and sound early-to-late ratio (C50), are evaluated by the subjective measurements. However, these subject measurements are based on the studies of English or the other Western languages. The language <span class="hlt">impact</span> to speech privacy has been overseen. It is therefore necessary to study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of different languages and accents in multiculturalism environments to speech privacy. In this study, subjective measurements were conducted in closed office environments by using English and a tonal language, Mandarin. Detailed investigations on the language <span class="hlt">impact</span> to speech privacy were carried out with the two languages. The results of this study reveal the significant evaluation variations in speech privacy when different languages are used. The subjective measurement results obtained in this study were also compared with the objective measurement employing articulation indices.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264683"><span>The value of mainstreaming human rights into health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa</p> <p>2014-09-26</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5358379','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5358379"><span>Bates solar industrial process steam application environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1981-06-30</p> <p>It is planned to install 34,440 square feet of linear parabolic trough solar collectors at a new corrugator plant for making corrugated boxes. The system is to operate in parallel with a fossil fuel boiler. An <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is presented of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the solar energy system on the existing environment and to determine whether or not a more detailed environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> statement is needed. The environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is based on actual operational data obtained on the collector, fluid, and heat transport system. A description of the design of the solar energy system and its application is given. Also included is a discussion of the location of the new plant in Fort Worth, Texas, and of the surrounding environment. Environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are discussed in detail, and alternatives to the solar industrial process steam retrofit application are offered. It is concluded that the overall benefits from the solar industrial process heat system outweigh any negative environmental factors. Benefits include reduced fossil fuel demand, with attending reductions in air pollutants. The selection of a stable heat transfer fluid with low toxicity and biodegradable qualities minimizes environmental damage due to fluid spills, personal exposure, and degradation byproducts. The collector is found to be aesthetically attractive with minimal hazards due to glare. (LEW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3459M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3459M"><span>Balance in scientific <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: the EGU Awards Committe experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanari, Alberto</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Evaluation of scientific <span class="hlt">impact</span> is becoming an essential step all over the world for assigning academic positions, funding and recognition. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> is generally <span class="hlt">assessed</span> by means of objective bibliometric indicators which are frequently integrated with a subjective evaluation by one or more individuals. An essential requirement of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is to ensure balance across several potential discriminating factors, including gender, ethnics, culture, scientific field and many others. Scientific associations need to ensure balance in any step of their activity and in particular when electing their representatives, evaluating scientific contributions, reviewing papers and assigning awards. While ensuring balance is a strict necessity, how to get to target is still a matter of vivid debates. In fact, the context of science is very different with respect to the general context of society and the need for scientific associations to maintain confidentiality in their evaluation procedures makes the application of transparent procedures more complicated. This talk aims to present the experience and the efforts of the European Geosciences Union to ensure balance, with a particular focus on gender balance. Data and statistics will be presented in the attempt to provide constructive indications to get to the target of giving equal opportunities to researchers across gender, continents and ethnic groups. Science is a unifying discipline and balance will be vital to ensure that humans and our planet co-evolve sustainably.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC52B..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC52B..05C"><span>Revealing and reducing uncertainties in climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, M. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Water resources planning and management involves understanding the vulnerability of water resource systems to a wide range of different stresses. A key responsibility is to identify defensible options for the design and management of systems under an uncertain and changing climate. In the water resources sector this requires defining a range of different climate change narratives in order to evaluate the vulnerability of infrastructure and the effectiveness of different management strategies to climate-related stresses. Recent research is just now beginning to reveal how different methodological choices can <span class="hlt">impact</span> portrayals of climate risk. We present research showing that the common approaches to climate change <span class="hlt">assessments</span> in the water sector are affected by substantial uncertainties in methods used for climate downscaling and hydrologic modeling, and suggest that many of these uncertainties are reducible. For example, improving continental scale hydrologic model parameters can reduce one source of uncertainty. We also present research to improve characterization of uncertainty, in order to reduce the extent to which the portrayal of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> depends on ad hoc methodological choices and provide a holistic estimate of the degree to which the climate change signal emerges from the envelope of uncertainty. We hope that this presentation stimulates discussion on the best practices for climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, and ways to improve the robustness of water resources planning under a changing climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22863150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22863150"><span>Climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Rizzi, J; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; Marcomini, A</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> on water resources has received high international attention over the last two decades, due to the observed global warming and its consequences at the global to local scale. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose a great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. The close link of global warming with water cycle alterations encourages research to deepen current knowledge on relationships between climate trends and status of water systems, and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution model simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according to IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4276640','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4276640"><span>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Strategic Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> in Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when <span class="hlt">assessing</span> health systematically, and their basic principles regarding <span class="hlt">assessment</span> are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26826362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26826362"><span>Towards a meaningful <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of marine ecological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177816"><span>[Quantitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of fungal risk in the <span class="hlt">case</span> of construction works in healthcare establishments: Proposed indicators for the determination of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of management precautions on the risk of fungal infection].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gangneux, J-P; Adjidé, C-C; Bernard, L; Botterel, F; Carel, A; Castel, O; Derouin, F; Hoarau, G; Labussière, H; Lafaurie, M; Millon, L; Pottecher, B; Thiebaut, A; Turco, M; Baron, R</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Construction works in healthcare establishments produce airborne fungal spores and considerably increase the risk of exposure of immunosuppressed patients. It is necessary to reinforce protective measures, or even to implement specific precautions, during this critical phase. The aim of these precautions is to protect both those areas, which are susceptible to dust, and patients at risk of a fungal infection particularly invasive aspergillosis. When construction works are planned in healthcare establishments, the first step consists in the characterisation of the environmental fungal risk and the second one in proposing risk management methods. It is then essential to establish <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators in order to evaluate the risk management precautions applied. The working group promoted by the French societies of medical mycology and hospital hygiene (SFMM & SF2H) details here both environmental and epidemiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators that can be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318514"><span>The development of ecological <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Xuehua; Li, Zhouyuan; Liao, Chenghao; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Annah; Li, Dong; Li, Yajun; Tang, Zhuo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The balance between economic development and ecological conservation in China has become a critical issue in recent decades. Ecological <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EcoIA) was established beginning in the 1980s as a component of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) that focuses specifically on human-related changes in ecosystem structure and function. EcoIA has since been widely applied throughout the country with continuous refinements in theory and practice. As compared to EIA, EcoIA is often performed at a larger scale in the long-term, and thus requires more advanced tools and techniques to quantify and <span class="hlt">assess</span>. This paper reviews the development of EcoIA over the past 30years in China, with specific consideration given to refinements in legislation and methodology. Three stages in the development of EcoIA in China are identified, along with their achievements and limitations. Supplementing this qualitative analysis, the paper also provides a quantitative bibliometrics review of academic publications concerning EcoIA in China over the three identified stages. Lastly, general trends in the development of EcoIA are summarized with the aim of conveying potential future trajectories. This review is intended to introduce the EcoIA system to scholars interested in the growing field of environmental management in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27424115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27424115"><span>Vulnerability <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of atmospheric environment driven by human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and atmospheric environment driven by human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability <span class="hlt">assessment</span> method of atmospheric environment associated with human <span class="hlt">impact</span>, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability <span class="hlt">assessment</span> results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447505','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447505"><span>Social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>: Developing a consolidated conceptual framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arce-Gomez, Antonio Donovan, Jerome D. Bedggood, Rowan E.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Social <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> (SIAs) have played an increasingly important role in the conduct of planned interventions, providing proponents the capacity to <span class="hlt">assess</span> and manage the social consequences of their activities. Whilst the SIA field has experienced significant conceptual and practical development over the last decade, efforts at consolidating this within one framework have been limited. In this paper, we incorporate this new knowledge by redeveloping and thus updating the SIA procedural framework developed by Interorganizational Committee on Guidelines and Principles for Social <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>. In doing so, this updated procedural framework has attempted to incorporate current ‘best practice’ that focuses on participatory approaches to undertaking an SIA. This involved making adaptions to two steps, expansions to five steps, integration of a stronger participatory approach to six steps, and the development of a new step, Management and Evaluation reflecting moves towards ex-post use of SIA processes. It is hoped that this consolidation of the literature of a decade's worth of key findings in SIA research will lead to further efforts towards a meta-evaluation of SIA literature and a platform from which newer developments may be further investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595397"><span>Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ecohydrological models are frequently used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28197650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28197650"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank</p> <p>2017-02-14</p> <p>In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methodology, the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950046551&hterms=mars+terrain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmars%2Bterrain','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950046551&hterms=mars+terrain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmars%2Bterrain"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of antipodal-<span class="hlt">impact</span> terrains on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The regions anitpodal to Mars' three largest <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins, Hellas, Isidis, and Argyre, were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> for evidence of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced disrupted terrains. Photogeology and computer modeling using the Simplified Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (SALE) finite element code suggest that such terrains could have been found by the Hellas <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Maximum antipodal pressures are 1100 MPa for Hellas, 520 MPa for Isidis, and 150 MPa for Argyre. The results suggest that if antipodal fracturing were associated with later volcanism, then Alba Patera may be related to the Hellas event, as proposed by Peterson (1978). Alba Patera is a unique volcano in the solar system, being a shield volcano which emitted large volume lava flows. This volcanism could be the result of the focusing of seismic energy which created a fractured region that served as a volcanic conduit for the future release of large volumes of magma. No disrupted terrain features are observed antipodal to the Isidis or Argyre basins, although some of the old fractures in Noctis Labyrinthus could have originated in response to the Isidis <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and later have been reactivated by the Tharsis tectonics assumed to have produced Noctis. If the lower calculated antipodal pressures for Argyre were capable of producing disrupted terrains, then the terrains have been covered subsequently by volcanic or aeolian material, or modified beyond recognition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19590275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19590275"><span>Relative radiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a reactor accident in the <span class="hlt">case</span> of emerging nuclear fuels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicolaou, G</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">assessment</span> has been carried out on the radiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> on an area contaminated from an accident of a nuclear reactor loaded with different actinide fuels considered in transmutation and recycling schemes. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these schemes is compared to reference <span class="hlt">cases</span> of commercial UO2 and MOX fuels. The effective dose equivalent delivered to permanent residents has been calculated using the RESRAD code and used as an index for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> purposes. The highest and lowest doses would be delivered from the self-generating recycling of actinides in fast and thermal reactors, respectively. External irradiation is the main contributor to the dose delivered to the target population in comparison to ingestion and inhalation. The external dose delivered would be attributed for the first few years to 134Cs and for the following several tens of years to 137Cs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EnMan..38..572L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EnMan..38..572L"><span>Tourism's <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Natural Resources: A Positive <span class="hlt">Case</span> from China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Tourism development may result in negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a <span class="hlt">case</span> study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16933085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16933085"><span>Tourism's <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on natural resources: A positive <span class="hlt">case</span> from China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>Tourism development may result in negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a <span class="hlt">case</span> study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20174866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20174866"><span>Application of network method as a tool for integrating biodiversity values in Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Monavari, Masoud; Fard, Samaneh M B</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Highway construction or expansion projects are among major activities of economic development especially in developing countries. However, road development consistently can lead to major damages to the environment, including habitat fragmentation and ecological instabilities and a considerable threat to fauna and flora. At this point, Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) in road developments is needed to address and evaluate the ecological issues in decision-making. The object of this study is to strengthen the consideration of ecological issues, i.e., biodiversity in the existing EIA tools. This paper regards a network method as a means to make informed planning decisions by the lessons from a <span class="hlt">case</span> study. The results indicate that network method is well suited to be applied in ecological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. However, some limitations such as complexity and time consumed make casual networks unpopular. Also, <span class="hlt">impact</span> of traffic noise on acoustic communication (wildlife and human) was performed. It has been shown that sound level for human is much higher than admissible standards. Finally, the study expresses some mitigation measures to improve the acquisition for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479730','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479730"><span>Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wanderer, Thomas Herle, Stefan</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> workflow. • The conducted <span class="hlt">case</span> study proves the suitability of the methodology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16160792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16160792"><span>Hiking trails and tourism <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse <span class="hlt">impacts</span> caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as <span class="hlt">assessment</span> objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as <span class="hlt">assessment</span> indicators to <span class="hlt">assess</span> ecological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the <span class="hlt">case</span> study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_