Science.gov

Sample records for impact assessment case

  1. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie; Nawaz, Kathleen; Sandor, Debra

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  2. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    This contract reviewed the available literature on mechanisms of low velocity impact damage in filament wound rocket motor cases, MDE methods to quantify damage, critical coupon level test methods, manufacturing and material process variables and empirical and analytical modeling off impact damage. The critical design properties for rocket motor cases are biaxial hoop and axial tensile strength. Low velocity impact damage is insidious because it can create serious nonvisible damage at very low impact velocities. In thick rocket motor cases the prevalent low velocity impact damage is fiber fracture and matrix cracking adjacent to the front face. In contrast, low velocity loading of thin wall cylinders induces flexure, depending on span length and the flexure induces delamination and tensile cracking on the back face wall opposed to impact occurs due to flexural stresses imposed by impact loading. Important NDE methods for rocket motor cases are non-contacting methods that allow inspection from one side. Among these are vibrothermography, and pulse-echo methods based on acoustic-ultrasonic methods. High resolution techniques such as x-ray computed tomography appear to have merit for accurate geometrical characterization of local damage to support development of analytical models of micromechanics. The challenge of coupon level testing is to reproduce the biaxial stress state that the full scale article experiences, and to determine how to scale the composite structure to model full sized behavior. Biaxial tensile testing has been performed by uniaxially tensile loading internally pressurized cylinders. This is experimentally difficult due to gripping problems and pressure containment. Much prior work focused on uniaxial tensile testing of model filament wound cylinders. Interpretation of the results of some studies is complicated by the fact that the fabrication process did not duplicate full scale manufacturing. It is difficult to scale results from testing subscale

  3. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-02-01

    This contract reviewed the available literature on mechanisms of low velocity impact damage in filament wound rocket motor cases, MDE methods to quantify damage, critical coupon level test methods, manufacturing and material process variables and empirical and analytical modeling off impact damage. The critical design properties for rocket motor cases are biaxial hoop and axial tensile strength. Low velocity impact damage is insidious because it can create serious nonvisible damage at very low impact velocities. In thick rocket motor cases the prevalent low velocity impact damage is fiber fracture and matrix cracking adjacent to the front face. In contrast, low velocity loading of thin wall cylinders induces flexure, depending on span length and the flexure induces delamination and tensile cracking on the back face wall opposed to impact occurs due to flexural stresses imposed by impact loading. Important NDE methods for rocket motor cases are non-contacting methods that allow inspection from one side. Among these are vibrothermography, and pulse-echo methods based on acoustic-ultrasonic methods. High resolution techniques such as x-ray computed tomography appear to have merit for accurate geometrical characterization of local damage to support development of analytical models of micromechanics. The challenge of coupon level testing is to reproduce the biaxial stress state that the full scale article experiences, and to determine how to scale the composite structure to model full sized behavior. Biaxial tensile testing has been performed by uniaxially tensile loading internally pressurized cylinders. This is experimentally difficult due to gripping problems and pressure containment. Much prior work focused on uniaxial tensile testing of model filament wound cylinders. Interpretation of the results of some studies is complicated by the fact that the fabrication process did not duplicate full scale manufacturing. It is difficult to scale results from testing subscale

  4. Assessing impacts of invasive phytoplankton: the Baltic Sea case.

    PubMed

    Olenina, Irina; Wasmund, Norbert; Hajdu, Susanna; Jurgensone, Iveta; Gromisz, Sławomira; Kownacka, Janina; Toming, Kaire; Vaiciūte, Diana; Olenin, Sergej

    2010-10-01

    There is an increasing understanding and requirement to take into account the effects of invasive alien species (IAS) in environmental quality assessments. While IAS are listed amongst the most important factors threatening marine biodiversity, information on their impacts remains unquantified, especially for phytoplankton species. This study attempts to assess the impacts of invasive alien phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea during 1980-2008. A bioinvasion impact assessment method (BPL - biopollution level index) was applied to phytoplankton monitoring data collected from eleven sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. BPL takes into account abundance and distribution range of an alien species and the magnitude of the impact on native communities, habitats and ecosystem functioning. Of the 12 alien/cryptogenic phytoplankton species recorded in the Baltic Sea only one (the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum) was categorized as an IAS, causing a recognizable environmental effect.

  5. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  6. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elements of impact assessment: a case study with cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shanchieh Jay; Holsopple, Jared; Liu, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Extensive discussions have taken place in recent year regarding impact assessment - what is it and how can we do it? It is especially intriguing in this modern era where non-traditional warfare has caused either information overload or limited understanding of adversary doctrines. This work provides a methodical discussion of key elements for the broad definition of impact assessment (IA). The discussion will start with a process flow involving components related to IA. Two key functional components, impact estimation and threat projection, are compared and illustrated in detail. These details include a discussion of when to model red and blue knowledge. Algorithmic approaches will be discussed, augmented with lessons learned from our IA development for cyber situation awareness. This paper aims at providing the community with a systematic understanding of IA and its open issues with specific examples.

  8. Recent Extremes in European Climate: Assessment, Case Studies and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.; D'Andrea, F.; Cattiaux, J.; Naveau, P.; Ciais, P.; Garnier, E.

    2008-12-01

    During the last centuries and up to the present decade, extreme climate events have certainly had larger economic impacts than any trend of temperature in Europe. In addition to an intrinsic scientific interest, their study is thus essential for society. One of the challenges of their investigation is that, depending on their definition, extreme climate events potentially have a behavior that is not connected to the secular temperature trend in a simple fashion. This presentation will review the statistical assessments of extremes in Europe, focusing on surface temperature, precipitation, and their connections with large-scale features of the atmospheric circulation. In particular, the questions of modeling their severity and frequency will be discussed in the first part of the presentation. I will then give two kinds of examples of European climate extremes: summer heatwaves and droughts, and winter warm waves. The mechanisms leading to such phenomena will be explored, and I will examine some of the impacts on the biosphere that were recently observed. In order to provide a long term perspective of those events, examples of historical droughts in France will be presented and connected with proxy records of temperature. It appears that the mechanisms that are favored for present-day climate might still have been valid during the past centuries. To conclude, new challenges for dynamical and statistical modeling will be explored.

  9. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja . E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  10. Protecting Health Using an Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of San Francisco Land Use Decisionmaking

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Laws and regulations for an environmental impact assessment enable a health impact assessment whenever physical changes in the environment may significantly affect health. In this case study, I describe 2 instances in which a local public health agency used the procedural requirements for an environmental impact assessment to account for societal-level health determinants that are not traditionally evaluated in land-use decisions. These examples show that a public health critique can contribute both to the scope of analysis in an environmental impact assessment and to substantive changes in land-use decisions. I have evaluated this health appraisal approach as a form of a health impact assessment and will make recommendations for law, research, and practice that support its technical, cultural, and political feasibility. PMID:17267726

  11. Protecting health using an environmental impact assessment: a case study of San Francisco land use decisionmaking.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rajiv

    2007-03-01

    Laws and regulations for an environmental impact assessment enable a health impact assessment whenever physical changes in the environment may significantly affect health. In this case study, I describe 2 instances in which a local public health agency used the procedural requirements for an environmental impact assessment to account for societal-level health determinants that are not traditionally evaluated in land-use decisions. These examples show that a public health critique can contribute both to the scope of analysis in an environmental impact assessment and to substantive changes in land-use decisions. I have evaluated this health appraisal approach as a form of a health impact assessment and will make recommendations for law, research, and practice that support its technical, cultural, and political feasibility.

  12. Health impact assessment in multinationals: A case study of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group

    SciTech Connect

    Birley, Martin . E-mail: martin@birleyhia.co.uk

    2005-10-15

    Health impact assessment is part of the risk management process of multinational corporations/companies. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, and the 'paradox of plenty' are used as examples of the challenges they face. The 'business case' for impact assessment is explained. The policies, procedures, standards, and activities used by Shell to manage such risks are described. An approach to capacity building and competency development is presented that applies to both company staff and external contractors.

  13. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  14. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  15. A rapid equity focused health impact assessment of a policy implementation plan: An Australian case study and impact evaluation.

    PubMed

    Harris-Roxas, Ben F; Harris, Patrick J; Harris, Elizabeth; Kemp, Lynn A

    2011-01-30

    Equity focused health impact assessments (EFHIAs), or health equity impact assessments, are being increasingly promoted internationally as a mechanism for enhancing the consideration of health equity in the development of policies, programs and projects. Despite this there are relatively few examples of examples of completed EFHIAs available. This paper presents a case study of a rapid EFHIA that was conducted in Australia on a health promotion policy implementation plan. It briefly describes the process and findings of the EFHIA and evaluates the impact on decision-making and implementation. The rapid EFHIA was undertaken in four days, drawing on an expert panel and limited review of the literature. A process evaluation was undertaken by email one month after the EFHIA was completed. An impact evaluation was undertaken two years later based on five semi-structured interviews with members of the EFHIA working group and policy officers and managers responsible for implementing the plan. A cost estimation was conducted by the EFHIA working group. The EFHIA made both general and specific recommendations about how the health equity impacts of the policy implementation plan could be improved. The impact evaluation identified changes to development and implementation that occurred as a result of the EFHIA, though there was disagreement about the extent to which changes could be attributed solely to the EFHIA. Those responsible considered the recommendations of the EFHIA in the next versions of their ABHI implementation plans. Factors that influenced the impact of the EFHIA included consolidating understandings of equity, enabling discussion of alternatives, and differing understandings of the purpose of the EFHIA. The EFHIA cost US$4,036 to undertake. This EFHIA was conducted in a short timeframe using relatively few resources. It had some reported impacts on the development of the implementation plan and enhanced overall consideration of health equity. This case

  16. A rapid equity focused health impact assessment of a policy implementation plan: An Australian case study and impact evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Equity focused health impact assessments (EFHIAs), or health equity impact assessments, are being increasingly promoted internationally as a mechanism for enhancing the consideration of health equity in the development of policies, programs and projects. Despite this there are relatively few examples of examples of completed EFHIAs available. This paper presents a case study of a rapid EFHIA that was conducted in Australia on a health promotion policy implementation plan. It briefly describes the process and findings of the EFHIA and evaluates the impact on decision-making and implementation. Methods The rapid EFHIA was undertaken in four days, drawing on an expert panel and limited review of the literature. A process evaluation was undertaken by email one month after the EFHIA was completed. An impact evaluation was undertaken two years later based on five semi-structured interviews with members of the EFHIA working group and policy officers and managers responsible for implementing the plan. A cost estimation was conducted by the EFHIA working group. Findings The EFHIA made both general and specific recommendations about how the health equity impacts of the policy implementation plan could be improved. The impact evaluation identified changes to development and implementation that occurred as a result of the EFHIA, though there was disagreement about the extent to which changes could be attributed solely to the EFHIA. Those responsible considered the recommendations of the EFHIA in the next versions of their ABHI implementation plans. Factors that influenced the impact of the EFHIA included consolidating understandings of equity, enabling discussion of alternatives, and differing understandings of the purpose of the EFHIA. The EFHIA cost US$4,036 to undertake. Conclusions This EFHIA was conducted in a short timeframe using relatively few resources. It had some reported impacts on the development of the implementation plan and enhanced overall

  17. Comparative Case Study as Social Impact Assessment: Possibilities and Limitations for Anticipating Social Change in the Far North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Jodie; Parkins, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is increasingly an accepted component of environmental impact assessment and project evaluation throughout North America. Tools and methodologies utilized to conduct such assessments vary greatly and continue to evolve with time and experience. This paper follows the evolution of case study methods in social impact…

  18. Comparative Case Study as Social Impact Assessment: Possibilities and Limitations for Anticipating Social Change in the Far North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Jodie; Parkins, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is increasingly an accepted component of environmental impact assessment and project evaluation throughout North America. Tools and methodologies utilized to conduct such assessments vary greatly and continue to evolve with time and experience. This paper follows the evolution of case study methods in social impact…

  19. Social impact assessment and public participation in China: A case study of land requisition in Guangzhou

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Bosin Wong Siuwai Lau, Milton Chi-hong

    2008-01-15

    This study examines the current prospects for and obstacles facing the implementation of social impact assessment (SIA) and participatory planning in the People's Republic of China. During the past two decades, rapid urbanisation and the conversion of rural land for urban development have led to numerous social conflicts and tensions between the Chinese government and its people. SIA and public participation in development decisions have received increasing attention from the Chinese authorities as possible ways to tackle the problem. Based on a Guangzhou case study, this paper argues that the assessment and mitigation of adverse impacts on the community from urban development have been carried out with different objectives, core values and principles when compared with those in Western societies. It concludes that the poor prospects of SIA and collaborative planning in China lie not only in the weak framework for environmental legislation, but also in all institutions concerning state-society relations, the socialist governing ideology and traditional Chinese culture.

  20. When product diversification influences life cycle impact assessment: A case study of canned anchovy.

    PubMed

    Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Fullana, Pére; Bala, Alba; Gazulla, Cristina; Irabien, Ángel; Aldaco, Rubén

    2017-03-01

    The anchovy canning industry is one of the most important economic resources of the Cantabria region in Spain. However, environmental, economic and social problems over the past years have forced companies to apply marketing strategies, develop product diversification, create new products and introduce them in new "green markets". Launching Cantabrian canned anchovies into more sustainable markets requires measuring the environmental performance using Product Category Rules (PCRs) and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). EPDs and PCRS include the environmental profile of a range of similar products, such as all of the available canned anchovy products. The great variety of anchovy canned products depends on three process variables: the origin of the anchovy (Cantabria, Argentina and Chile or Peru), the type of oil (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) and the packaging (aluminum, tinplate, glass and plastic). This work aims to assess the environmental impact from cradle to grave of canned anchovies in oil using the life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). Moreover, the paper evaluates the influence of the above-mentioned three product variables in the LCA results. The results show that out of all of the alternatives, Chilean and Peruvian anchovies have the highest environmental burdens due to the transportation by ship. The production of anchovies in sunflower oil is a less environmentally friendly oil process due to the low yield per hectare of sunflower cultivation. Finally, the use of aluminum as the packaging material has the largest environmental impact out of almost all of the impact categories. Moreover, because the LCA results can be significantly affected by the allocation procedure, a sensitivity analysis comparing system expansion, mass and economic allocation is performed. In this case, the system expansion approach presents the highest environmental impacts followed by the mass allocation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  1. Vulnerability and impact assessment of extreme climatic event: A case study of southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Abdul Qayyum; Ahmad, Sajid R; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hussain, Yawar; Hussain, Muhammad Sameem

    2017-02-15

    Understanding of frequency, severity, damages and adaptation costs of climate extremes is crucial to manage their aftermath. Evaluation of PRECIS RCM modelled data under IPCC scenarios in Southern Punjab reveals that monthly mean temperature is 30°C under A2 scenario, 2.4°C higher than A1B which is 27.6°C in defined time lapses. Monthly mean precipitation under A2 scenario ranges from 12 to 15mm and for A1B scenario it ranges from 15 to 19mm. Frequency modelling of floods and droughts via poisson distribution shows increasing trend in upcoming decades posing serious impacts on agriculture and livestock, food security, water resources, public health and economic status. Cumulative loss projected for frequent floods without adaptation will be in the range of USD 66.8-79.3 billion in time lapse of 40years from 2010 base case. Drought damage function @ 18% for A2 scenario and @ 13.5% for A1B scenario was calculated; drought losses on agriculture and livestock sectors were modelled. Cumulative loss projected for frequent droughts without adaptation under A2 scenario will be in the range of USD 7.5-8.5 billion while under A1B scenario it will be in the range of USD 3.5-4.2 billion for time lapse of 60years from base case 1998-2002. Severity analysis of extreme events shows that situation get worse if adaptations are not only included in the policy but also in the integrated development framework with required allocation of funds. This evaluation also highlights the result of cost benefit analysis, benefits of the adaptation options (mean & worst case) for floods and droughts in Southern Punjab. Additionally the research highlights the role of integrated extreme events impact assessment methodology in performing the vulnerability assessments and to support the adaptation decisions. This paper is an effort to highlight importance of bottom up approaches to deal with climate change.

  2. Science case for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): A component of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Küppers, M.; Pravec, P.; Blum, J.; Delbo, M.; Green, S. F.; Rosenblatt, P.; Tsiganis, K.; Vincent, J. B.; Biele, J.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Ulamec, S.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Benner, L.; Naidu, S. P.; Barnouin, O. S.; Richardson, D. C.; Rivkin, A.; Scheirich, P.; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Schwartz, S. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to test the kinetic impactor technique to deflect an asteroid. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is set to rendezvous with the asteroid system to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near-Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Having direct information on the surface and internal properties of small asteroids will allow us to understand how the various processes they undergo work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. Making these measurements from up close and comparing them with ground-based data from telescopes will also allow us to calibrate remote observations and improve our data interpretation of other systems. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the target by AIM, the mission will be the first fully documented impact experiment at asteroid scale, which will include the characterization of the target's properties and the outcome of the impact. AIDA will thus offer a great opportunity to test and refine our understanding and models at the actual scale of an asteroid, and to check whether the current extrapolations of material strength from laboratory-scale targets to the scale of AIDA's target are valid. Moreover, it will offer a first check of the

  3. Development of an environmental impact assessment evaluation model and its application: Taiwan case study

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, W.S.; Williams, W.P.; Bark, A.W.

    1996-03-01

    This article describes an environmental impact assessment (EIA) evaluation model that can be used to assess the completeness and effectiveness of EIA systems. This model is based on a consideration of the fundamental components of an EIA. The EIA system in Taiwan has been used as the case study to demonstrate how the proposed EIA evaluation model can be applied. Taiwan is demonstrated to have a comprehensive EIA system, which is clearly defined legally and with guidelines available to assist proponents in implementing the system. A particular strength is the requirement for compliance and enforcement monitoring. Important reservations are the lack of an appeals system and the failure to require the consideration of no-action or alternative-action strategies and the lack of public participation at some key points in the EIA process, particularly at the decision-making stage. Training programs could be more comprehensively available to expand national EIA capability. It is concluded that the proposed EIA evaluation model provides a useful tool for the evaluation of EIA systems. National authorities can apply this model to analyze strengths and weaknesses of their EIA systems.

  4. Environmental impact assessment in higher education institutions in East Africa: the case of Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Kabera, Telesphore

    2017-03-01

    Due to the pressure on limited resources produced by a growing population and due to a decade of war, Rwanda is facing a major problem in environmental protection. Because of such problems, it seems only reasonable that environment-related courses should play an important role in the curricula of institutions of higher learning. The main aim of this research is to present a comprehensive picture of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) integration in graduate and undergraduate programs in Rwandese higher education institutions and to make recommendations for its improvement. During this study, two surveys were conducted: the first survey targeted Environmental Impact Assessment lecturers and the second survey was for Environmental Impact Assessment practitioners (including EIA certified experts and competent authorities). The study found that Environmental Impact Assessment is not well established in these institutions and it is not taught in some programs; civil engineering, for example, has no Environmental Impact Assessment courses. Recommendations to improve EIA education are proposed, such as requiring that a common core course in Environmental Impact Assessment be made available in Rwandese higher learning institutions.

  5. The Impact of the Technology Used in Formative Assessment: The Case of Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vásquez, Andrea; Nussbaum, Miguel; Sciarresi, Enzo; Martínez, Tomás; Barahona, Camila; Strasser, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the technology used to assist formative assessment in spelling can have an impact on learning. Formative assessment represents a set of student-centered practices, the results of which are not always optimal. Furthermore, different technologies are better suited to certain tasks than to others. The study follows a…

  6. The Impact of the Technology Used in Formative Assessment: The Case of Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vásquez, Andrea; Nussbaum, Miguel; Sciarresi, Enzo; Martínez, Tomás; Barahona, Camila; Strasser, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the technology used to assist formative assessment in spelling can have an impact on learning. Formative assessment represents a set of student-centered practices, the results of which are not always optimal. Furthermore, different technologies are better suited to certain tasks than to others. The study follows a…

  7. The Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Backus, George A.; Ivey, Mark D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2008-11-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing in a way that will affect the rest of the world. Parts of Alaska, western Canada, and Siberia are currently warming at twice the global rate. This warming trend is accelerating permafrost deterioration, coastal erosion, snow and ice loss, and other changes that are a direct consequence of climate change. Climatologists have long understood that changes in the Arctic would be faster and more intense than elsewhere on the planet, but the degree and speed of the changes were underestimated compared to recent observations. Policy makers have not yet had time to examine the latest evidence or appreciate the nature of the consequences. Thus, the abruptness and severity of an unfolding Arctic climate crisis has not been incorporated into long-range planning. The purpose of this report is to briefly review the physical basis for global climate change and Arctic amplification, summarize the ongoing observations, discuss the potential consequences, explain the need for an objective risk assessment, develop scenarios for future change, review existing modeling capabilities and the need for better regional models, and finally to make recommendations for Sandia's future role in preparing our leaders to deal with impacts of Arctic climate change on national security. Accurate and credible regional-scale climate models are still several years in the future, and those models are essential for estimating climate impacts around the globe. This study demonstrates how a scenario-based method may be used to give insights into climate impacts on a regional scale and possible mitigation. Because of our experience in the Arctic and widespread recognition of the Arctic's importance in the Earth climate system we chose the Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security. Sandia can make a swift and significant contribution by applying modeling and simulation tools with internal collaborations as well as with outside

  8. Erosion risk analysis by GIS in environmental impact assessments: a case study--Seyhan Köprü Dam construction.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Kurum, E

    2002-11-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a systematically constructed procedure whereby environmental impacts caused by proposed projects are examined. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are crucially efficient tools for impact assessment and their use is likely to dramatically increase in the near future. GIS have been applied to a wide range of different impact assessment projects and dams among them have been taken as the case work in this article. EIA Regulation in force in Turkey requires the analysis of steering natural processes that can be adversely affected by the proposed project, particularly in the section of the analysis of the areas with higher landscape value. At this point, the true potential value of GIS lies in its ability to analyze spatial data with accuracy. This study is an attempt to analyze by GIS the areas with higher landscape value in the impact assessment of dam constructions in the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal. A method needs to be defined before the overlapping step by GIS to analyze the areas with higher landscape value. In the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal of the present work, considering the geological conditions and the steep slopes of the area and the type of the project, the most important natural process is erosion. Therefore, the areas of higher erosion risk were considered as the Areas with Higher Landscape Value from the conservation demands points of view.

  9. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Wolf, Joost; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Schaap, Ben F.; Mandryk, Maryia; Verhagen, Jan; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2015-04-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semi-quantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.

  10. Health impact assessment in CEE region: case of the former Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Gulis, Gabriel

    2004-02-01

    This paper is based on the author's personnel experience in the Slovak Republic and on information gathered during a health impact assessment (HIA) workshop with participants from Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia. There is a long tradition of health impact assessment in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the former Czechoslovakia, legislation made in 1966, although it did not explicitly mention HIA, provided a legal basis and made the public hygiene service responsible for assessment of health impacts. However, political structures, prevalent values, reliance on limit-based comparisons, and lack of adequate training meant that HIA had little influence on decision making. Political changes since 1990 are allowing development of HIA. This experience highlights the importance of values and methods in undertaking HIA.

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment: Teaching the Principles and Practices by Means of a Role-Playing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.; England, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The principles and practices of environmental impact assessment are best taught to chemical engineering undergraduate students by means of a role­-playing case study. Many suitable examples are available from public sources. The planning appeal process has been selected so as to introduce an adversarial style involving cross-­examination on…

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment: Teaching the Principles and Practices by Means of a Role-Playing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Barry D.; England, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The principles and practices of environmental impact assessment are best taught to chemical engineering undergraduate students by means of a role­-playing case study. Many suitable examples are available from public sources. The planning appeal process has been selected so as to introduce an adversarial style involving cross-­examination on…

  13. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonald's Australia.

    PubMed

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances E; Fisher, Matt; Harris, Elizabeth; Friel, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    The practices of transnational corporations affect population health through production methods, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald's Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia. We adapted existing Health Impact Assessment methods to assess McDonald's activities. Data identifying potential impacts were sourced through document analysis, including McDonald's corporate literature; media analysis and semi-structured interviews. We commissioned a spatial and socioeconomic analysis of McDonald's restaurants in Australia through Geographic Information System technology. The data was mapped against a corporate health impact assessment framework which included McDonald's Australia's political and business practices; products and marketing; workforce, social, environmental and economic conditions; and consumers' health related behaviours. We identified both positive and detrimental aspects of McDonald's Australian operations across the scope of the CHIA framework. We found that McDonald's outlets were slightly more likely to be located in areas of lower socioeconomic status. McDonald's workplace conditions were found to be more favourable than those in many other countries which reflects compliance with Australian employment regulations. The breadth of findings revealed the need for governments to strengthen regulatory mechanisms that are conducive to health; the opportunity for McDonald's to augment their corporate social responsibility initiatives and bolster reputational endorsement; and civil society actors to inform their advocacy towards health and equity outcomes from TNC operations. Our study indicates that undertaking a corporate health impact assessment is possible, with the different methods revealing sufficient information to

  14. Assessing Extension Program Impact: Case Study of a Water Quality Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauder, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Montana State University conducted a voluntary, private well water test program (n=3400) to direct public attention to water quality education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents to an impact assessment questionnaire indicated that the program was moderately to very effective. Other results involved user awareness and understanding, and…

  15. Technological and Social Impact Assessment of Resource Extraction: The Case of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Girard

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report of work in progress on the assessment of the social impact of coal extraction. The research is directed at examining the implications for the human community of the underground and surface mining methods of coal extraction. (BT)

  16. Technological and Social Impact Assessment of Resource Extraction: The Case of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Girard

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report of work in progress on the assessment of the social impact of coal extraction. The research is directed at examining the implications for the human community of the underground and surface mining methods of coal extraction. (BT)

  17. Assessing Extension Program Impact: Case Study of a Water Quality Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauder, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Montana State University conducted a voluntary, private well water test program (n=3400) to direct public attention to water quality education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents to an impact assessment questionnaire indicated that the program was moderately to very effective. Other results involved user awareness and understanding, and…

  18. Assessment of drought impacts on vegetation health: a case study in Kedah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M.; Ash'aari, Z. H.; Muharam, F. M.; Sulaiman, W. N. A.; Hamisan, H.; Mohamad, N. D.; Othman, N. H.

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged drought in the early of 2014 has caused Malaysia to experience water supply shortage which directly affects both health and growth of vegetation. Thus this study aims to assess the risk vegetation areas that were impacted during 2014’s drought by integrating the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Normalized Differentiation Vegetation Index (NDVI) methods. These two methods were able to assess the risk areas for the vegetation by measuring its health and classifying them according to its severity while considering the rainfall reduction at the specific time and location. The results obtained from this study shows that the central and north west of Kedah was vulnerable to the occurrence of drought. Kedah was more impacted by the dry event during the northeast monsoon. This study is significant as a fundamental input for further research and as an alternative approach by the application of space technology.

  19. A multiattribute index for assessing environmental impacts of regional development projects: a case study of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Seung-Jun; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Shin, Chol-Oh

    2002-02-01

    Evaluating environmental impacts has become an increasingly vital part of environmental management. In the present study, a methodological procedure based on multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) has been applied to obtain a decision-maker's value index on assessment of the environmental impacts. The paper begins with an overview of MAUT. Next, we elicited strategic objectives and several important attributes, and then structured them into a hierarchy, with the aim of structuring and quantifying the basic values for the assessment. An environmental multiattribute index is constructed as a multiattribute utility function, based on value judgements provided by a decision-maker at the Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE). The implications of the results are useful for many aspects of MOE's environmental policies; identifying the strategic objectives and basic values; facilitating communication about the organization's priorities; and recognizing decision opportunities that face decision-makers of Korea.

  20. Generic performance assessment for a deep repository for low and intermediate level waste in the UK--a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Patton, D; Copplestone, D; Norris, S; O'Sullivan, P

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of radionuclides in soil and surface water, taken from a generic performance assessment of a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, assumed to be located in the UK, have been used as the basis for a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment. Simplified descriptions of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types likely to be impacted have been developed. A scoping assessment has identified (226)Ra, (210)Po, (234)U, (230)Th and (238)U as having the highest potential for impact, with doses from internally incorporated alpha emitters as being potentially of particular importance. These nuclides, together with (36)Cl and (129)I (which have proved to be of importance in radiological risk assessments for humans) were included in a more detailed dose assessment. A basic methodology for dose assessment of ecosystems is described, and has been applied for the defined impacted ecosystems. Paucity of published data on concentration factors prevented a more detailed assessment for terrestrial ecosystems. For the aquatic ecosystem, a more detailed assessment was possible and highest calculated absorbed dose rates (weighted for the likely higher biological effectiveness of alpha radiation) were about 6.5 microGy h(-1). We conclude that harm to the impacted ecosystems is unlikely and make the observation that the lack of concentration factor or transfer factor data for a sufficiently wide range of species, ecosystems and nuclides appears to be the principal obstacle to establishing a comprehensive framework for the application of radiological protection to ecosystems.

  1. Overview of EPA's Approach to Developing Prospective Case Studies Technical Workshop: Case Studies to Assess Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One component of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources is prospective case studies, which are being conducted to more fully understand and assess if and how site specific hydrau...

  2. Overview of EPA's Approach to Developing Prospective Case Studies Technical Workshop: Case Studies to Assess Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One component of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources is prospective case studies, which are being conducted to more fully understand and assess if and how site specific hydrau...

  3. Environmental impact of biomass based polygeneration - A case study through life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Multi-generation or polygeneration is considered to be a potential sustainable energy solution. To assess environmental sustainability of multi-generation, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool. In this paper, environmental impact of polygeneration using an agro waste (rice straw) is assessed by LCA. Then it is compared with stand alone conventional plants with same utility outputs. Power, ethanol, heating and cooling are utility outputs of the polygeneration plant. System boundary for this polygeneration is defined for surplus biomass only. Exergy based allocation method is used for this analysis. Results of LCA are shown through both mid-point and end-point indicators. Results indicate that polygeneration with surplus rice straw is more environment-friendly than conventional stand-alone generation of same utilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Congenital Heart Surgery Case Mix Across North American Centers and Impact on Performance Assessment.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Wallace, Amelia S; Gaynor, J William; Jacobs, Marshall L; O'Brien, Sean M; Hill, Kevin D; Gaies, Michael G; Romano, Jennifer C; Shahian, David M; Mayer, John E; Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2016-11-01

    Performance assessment in congenital heart surgery is challenging due to the wide heterogeneity of disease. We describe current case mix across centers, evaluate methodology inclusive of all cardiac operations versus the more homogeneous subset of Society of Thoracic Surgeons benchmark operations, and describe implications regarding performance assessment. Centers (n = 119) participating in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2010 through 2014) were included. Index operation type and frequency across centers were described. Center performance (risk-adjusted operative mortality) was evaluated and classified when including the benchmark versus all eligible operations. Overall, 207 types of operations were performed during the study period (112,140 total cases). Few operations were performed across all centers; only 25% were performed at least once by 75% or more of centers. There was 7.9-fold variation across centers in the proportion of total cases comprising high-complexity cases (STAT 5). In contrast, the benchmark operations made up 36% of cases, and all but 2 were performed by at least 90% of centers. When evaluating performance based on benchmark versus all operations, 15% of centers changed performance classification; 85% remained unchanged. Benchmark versus all operation methodology was associated with lower power, with 35% versus 78% of centers meeting sample size thresholds. There is wide variation in congenital heart surgery case mix across centers. Metrics based on benchmark versus all operations are associated with strengths (less heterogeneity) and weaknesses (lower power), and lead to differing performance classification for some centers. These findings have implications for ongoing efforts to optimize performance assessment, including choice of target population and appropriate interpretation of reported metrics. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, John M; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-11-25

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.

  6. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Polimeni, John M.; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M.; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A. PMID:27898017

  7. Improvement of agricultural life cycle assessment studies through spatial differentiation and new impact categories: case study on greenhouse tomato production.

    PubMed

    Antón, Assumpció; Torrellas, Marta; Núñez, Montserrat; Sevigné, Eva; Amores, Maria José; Muñoz, Pere; Montero, Juan I

    2014-08-19

    This paper presents the inclusion of new, relevant impact categories for agriculture life cycle assessments. We performed a specific case study with a focus on the applicability of spatially explicit characterization factors. The main goals were to provide a detailed evaluation of these new impact category methods, compare the results with commonly used methods (ReCiPe and USEtox) and demonstrate how these new methods can help improve environmental assessment in agriculture. As an overall conclusion, the newly developed impact categories helped fill the most important gaps related to land use, water consumption, pesticide toxicity, and nontoxic emissions linked to fertilizer use. We also found that including biodiversity damage due to land use and the effect of water consumption on wetlands represented a scientific advance toward more realistic environmental assessment of agricultural practices. Likewise, the dynamic crop model for assessing human toxicity from pesticide residue in food can lead to better practice in pesticide application. In further life cycle assessment (LCA) method developments, common end point units and normalization units should be agreed upon to make it possible to compare different impacts and methods. In addition, the application of site-specific characterization factors allowed us to be more accurate regarding inventory data and to identify precisely where background flows acquire high relevance.

  8. Health impact assessment: a case study on renovation of a slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Sithisarankul, Pornchai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a health impact assessment (HIA) in a community where an old slaughterhouse was to be renovated. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study in March, 2011. Questionnaires were used to collect data and focus group discussions were conducted to solicit the community concerns and recommendations regarding the project. The results reveal positive impacts in 4 aspects of health: physical, mental, social, and spiritual. The current substandard slaughterhouse was perceived negatively by the surrounding community. They were happy the slaughterhouse would be renovated, and some preferred it moved elsewhere. This HIA had 2 positive results: first, we tested our HIA tool in a real situation and found it practical on a small scale; second, the municipality obtained the community's opinions and concerns and the community knew their opinions reached the municipality, so they were more positive about the municipality.

  9. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  10. Assessing dam implementation impact on threatened carnivores: the case of Alqueva in SE Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria J; Pedroso, Nuno M; Ferreira, Joaquim P; Matos, Hugo M; Sales-Luís, Teresa; Pereira, Iris; Baltazar, Carla; Grilo, Clara; Cândido, Ana T; Sousa, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2008-07-01

    Large dam construction in water deficient areas is a management decision often controversial. Besides providing water storage, economical benefits, and a source of renewable energy, the construction and flooding caused by large dams cause disruptions in natural systems. We monitored the pre- and post-Alqueva dam impacts on the threatened carnivore species (polecat, otter, wildcat and Iberian lynx) populations in SE Portugal, and assessed which factors mostly contribute to post-dam distribution. Major short term impacts of large dams are: (1) increase in accessibility and human presence; (2) movement of heavy machinery and dam-workers; (3) deforestation with habitat loss and fragmentation; (4) change from lotic to lentic system; (5) lower prey availability and harsher capture; and (6) changes in land use adjacent to the reservoir. Thus, the response to those impacts can be predicted as a decline of polecat, wildcat and lynx distribution ranges, and a recovery of the otter from the severe short term impacts. Our results corroborate this hypothesis for all the species, especially during deforestation/early flooding. Otter's distribution range increased in the phase of greater impact, with a subsequent decrease with flooding. Our results suggest carnivores used "escape" areas with favourable habitat and prey conditions, however, the areas with higher probability of species presence decreased by two fold showing a drastic range reduction. To ensure populations' survival of these charismatic threatened carnivore populations of Mediterranean landscapes of south-east Portugal, we propose continuing the monitoring program and the development of a conservation program for the subsisting areas of optimal and suboptimal habitats.

  11. Uncertainty and Evaluation of Impacts Modeling at Regional Scales in Integrated Assessment: the Case of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, L.; Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Kyle, P.; Daly, D.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) models have traditionally focused on the evaluation of climate mitigation strategies. However, in recent years, efforts to consider both impacts and mitigation simultaneously have expanded dramatically. Because climate impacts are inherently regional in scale, the incorporation of impacts into IA modeling - which is inherently global in character - raises a range of challenges beyond the already substantial challenges associated with modeling impacts. In particular, it raises questions about how to best evaluate and diagnose the resulting representations of impacts, and how to characterize the uncertainty surrounding associated projections. This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges and uncertainties surrounding modeling climate impacts on building heating and cooling demands in an integrated assessment modeling framework - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The presentation will first discuss the issues associated with modeling building heating and cooling degree days in IA models. It will review research using spatially explicit climate and population information to inform a standard version of GCAM with fourteen geopolitical regions. It will discuss a new subregional version of GCAM in which building energy consumption is resolved at a fifty-state level. The presentation will also characterize efforts to link GCAM to more technologically resolved buildings models to gain insights about demands at higher temporal resolution. The second portion of the presentation will discuss the uncertainties associated with projections of building heating and cooling demands at various scales. A range of key uncertainties are important. This includes a range of uncertainties surrounding the nature of changes to global and regional climates, with particular emphasis on the uncertainty surrounding temperature projections. In addition, the linkage in this research between human and Earth systems means that the projections are

  12. Assessing the Impact of Case Sensitivity and Term Information Gain on Biomedical Concept Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Verspoor, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Concept recognition (CR) is a foundational task in the biomedical domain. It supports the important process of transforming unstructured resources into structured knowledge. To date, several CR approaches have been proposed, most of which focus on a particular set of biomedical ontologies. Their underlying mechanisms vary from shallow natural language processing and dictionary lookup to specialized machine learning modules. However, no prior approach considers the case sensitivity characteristics and the term distribution of the underlying ontology on the CR process. This article proposes a framework that models the CR process as an information retrieval task in which both case sensitivity and the information gain associated with tokens in lexical representations (e.g., term labels, synonyms) are central components of a strategy for generating term variants. The case sensitivity of a given ontology is assessed based on the distribution of so-called case sensitive tokens in its terms, while information gain is modelled using a combination of divergence from randomness and mutual information. An extensive evaluation has been carried out using the CRAFT corpus. Experimental results show that case sensitivity awareness leads to an increase of up to 0.07 F1 against a non-case sensitive baseline on the Protein Ontology and GO Cellular Component. Similarly, the use of information gain leads to an increase of up to 0.06 F1 against a standard baseline in the case of GO Biological Process and Molecular Function and GO Cellular Component. Overall, subject to the underlying token distribution, these methods lead to valid complementary strategies for augmenting term label sets to improve concept recognition. PMID:25790125

  13. Assessing the impact of case sensitivity and term information gain on biomedical concept recognition.

    PubMed

    Groza, Tudor; Verspoor, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Concept recognition (CR) is a foundational task in the biomedical domain. It supports the important process of transforming unstructured resources into structured knowledge. To date, several CR approaches have been proposed, most of which focus on a particular set of biomedical ontologies. Their underlying mechanisms vary from shallow natural language processing and dictionary lookup to specialized machine learning modules. However, no prior approach considers the case sensitivity characteristics and the term distribution of the underlying ontology on the CR process. This article proposes a framework that models the CR process as an information retrieval task in which both case sensitivity and the information gain associated with tokens in lexical representations (e.g., term labels, synonyms) are central components of a strategy for generating term variants. The case sensitivity of a given ontology is assessed based on the distribution of so-called case sensitive tokens in its terms, while information gain is modelled using a combination of divergence from randomness and mutual information. An extensive evaluation has been carried out using the CRAFT corpus. Experimental results show that case sensitivity awareness leads to an increase of up to 0.07 F1 against a non-case sensitive baseline on the Protein Ontology and GO Cellular Component. Similarly, the use of information gain leads to an increase of up to 0.06 F1 against a standard baseline in the case of GO Biological Process and Molecular Function and GO Cellular Component. Overall, subject to the underlying token distribution, these methods lead to valid complementary strategies for augmenting term label sets to improve concept recognition.

  14. Use of health impact assessment in the U.S.: 27 case studies, 1999-2007.

    PubMed

    Dannenberg, Andrew L; Bhatia, Rajiv; Cole, Brian L; Heaton, Sarah K; Feldman, Jason D; Rutt, Candace D

    2008-03-01

    To document the growing use in the United States of health impact assessment (HIA) methods to help planners and others consider the health consequences of their decisions. Using multiple search strategies, 27 HIAs were identified that were completed in the U.S. during 1999-2007. Key characteristics of each HIA were abstracted from published and unpublished sources. Topics examined in these HIAs ranged from policies about living wages and after-school programs to projects about power plants and public transit. Most HIAs were funded by local health departments, foundations, or federal agencies. Concerns about health disparities were especially important in HIAs on housing, urban redevelopment, home energy subsidies, and wage policy. The use of quantitative and nonquantitative methods varied among HIAs. Most HIAs presented recommendations for policy or project changes to improve health. Impacts of the HIAs were infrequently documented. These completed HIAs are useful for helping conduct future HIAs and for training public health officials and others about HIAs. More work is needed to document the impact of HIAs and thereby increase their value in decision-making processes.

  15. Including the introduction of exotic species in life cycle impact assessment: the case of inland shipping.

    PubMed

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Leuven, Rob S E W; Sommerwerk, Nike; Tockner, Klement; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-12-17

    While the ecological impact of anthropogenically introduced exotic species is considered a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystems functioning, it is generally not accounted for in the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of products. In this article, we propose a framework that includes exotic species introduction in an LCA context. We derived characterization factors for exotic fish species introduction related to the transport of goods across the Rhine-Main-Danube canal. These characterization factors are expressed as the potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of native freshwater fish species in the rivers Rhine and Danube integrated over space and time per amount of goods transported (PDF·m(3)·yr·kg(-1)). Furthermore, we quantified the relative importance of exotic fish species introduction compared to other anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater environment (i.e., eutrophication, ecotoxicity, greenhouse gases, and water consumption) for transport of goods through the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway. We found that the introduction of exotic fish species contributed to 70-85% of the total freshwater ecosystem impact, depending on the distance that goods were transported. Our analysis showed that it is relevant and feasible to include the introduction of exotic species in an LCA framework. The proposed framework can be further extended by including the impacts of other exotic species groups, types of water bodies and pathways for introduction.

  16. Derby district redevelopment in Colorado: case study on the health impact assessment process.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, Carol F; Ghosh, Tista S; Juliusson, Lara; Vogt, Richard L; Boehmer, Tegan K

    2012-01-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a tool that is increasingly utilized in the U.S. to shape policies that may impact the public's health. Domestic examples of HIAs and the process by which they were conducted, however, are rarely documented in the peer-reviewed literature. Through an existing relationship with the planning department in Commerce City, Colorado, Tri-County Health Department (TCHD) was able to identify a proposed redevelopment plan as a candidate for an HIA. The HIA focused on potential effects of the proposed redevelopment of Commerce City's historic Derby District on residents' physical activity and nutrition-related behaviors. This article describes the HIA process used by TCHD. Several sources of data were used, including participatory community input on walkability and safety, local health behavior data, and maps of health-influencing environmental characteristics. Using a variety of information sources including community input and local health behavior data can be useful in conducting HIAs and impacting policies. Local health departments should consider cultivating ongoing collaborative partnerships with municipal planning departments and community groups to conduct HIAs and to implement recommendations.

  17. Assessment of temporal hydrologic anomalies coupled with drought impact for a transboundary river flow regime: The Diyala watershed case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Faraj, Furat A. M.; Scholz, Miklas

    2014-09-01

    Recent increases in human activities in shared river basins have unquestionably raised concerns about potential hydrological impacts, especially impacts of dams and large-scale water withdrawal schemes in the highlands. Anthropogenic pressures twinned with drought impacts have exacerbated water management challenges. This article assesses the cumulative consequences of upstream anthropogenic pressures and drought spells on temporal river flow regimes for the downstream country. The size and complexity of problems confronting transboundary river watersheds makes it necessary to use a representative example basin to study the problems and potential solutions. The Diyala (Sīrvān) river basin, which shares dozens of transboundary watersheds between Iraq and Iran, has been selected as a representative case study. A subset of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) was utilised and climate variability was considered in assessing the combined effect of various forms of upstream human-river regulations and climatic conditions on natural flow regimes in the downstream state. Findings indicated that the anthropogenic river-regulation coupled with the impact of drought periods have noticeably modified the natural flow paradigm. The yearly average runoffs, which are no longer available for the downstream country, have soared to very high levels, particularly over the last fifteen years. More adverse impacts were detected in the non-rainy season. Findings reveal also that damming and considerable water diversion to large-scale irrigation projects in the upstream state are the main regulations affecting the management of shared water resources in the downstream country.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Free Primary Education Using Retrospective and Prospective Data: Lessons from the Nairobi Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Oketch, Moses; Ezeh, Alex Chika; Mutisya, Maurice; Ejakait, Charles Epari

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and methodology used to assess the impact of free primary education (FPE) policy in Nairobi, Kenya. The key outcome of the study was to assess the impact of FPE on schooling outcomes among the urban poor. The study assesses the impact of FPE by examining how two non-comparable groups responded to the introduction of…

  19. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of satellite imagery as environmental impact assessment tool: a case study from the NW Egyptian Red Sea coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Moufaddal, Wahid M

    2005-08-01

    Knowledge and detecting impacts of human activities on the coastal ecosystem is an essential management requirement and also very important for future and proper planning of coastal areas. Moreover, documentation of these impacts can help in increasing public awareness about side effects of unsustainable practices. Analysis of multidate remote sensing data can be used as an effective tool in environmental impact assessment (EIA). Being synoptic and frequent in coverage, multidate data from Landsat and other satellites provide a reference record and bird's eye viewing to the environmental situation of the coastal ecosystem and the associated habitats. Furthermore, integration of satellite data with field observations and background information can help in decision if a certain activity has caused deterioration to a specific habitat or not. The present paper is an attempt to utilize remote sensing data for assessment impacts of some human activities on the major sensitive habitats of the NW Egyptian Red Sea coastal zone, definitely between Ras Gemsha and Safaga. Through multidate change analysis of Landsat data (TM & ETM+ sensors), it was possible to depict some of the human infringements in the area and to provide, in some cases, exclusive evidences for the damaging effect of some developmental activities.

  1. Compositional analysis and pollution impact assessment: A case study in the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghan, Wang; Stefano, Albanese; Annamaria, Lima; Claudia, Cannatelli; Antonio, Cosenza; Wanjun, Lu; Marco, Sacchi; Angela, Doherty; Benedetto, De Vivo

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an environmental geochemical investigation of the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno, near the Campania plain (Southern Italy). Surface marine sediment samples were collected during three field campaigns: 96 from the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno (NaSa); 123 from the Bagnoli site coastal area (BaSi); and 11 from the ports around the Gulf of Naples (PoNa). Elemental concentrations were determined and their interpolated distribution maps were compiled. Three geochemical sources (or processes) were determined associating elemental distribution with the results obtained from a R-mode factor analysis: 1) geogenic, 2) water kinetics and 3) anthropogenic. The results are presented as raw data single element distributions of eight potential toxic elements (PTEs) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni and Zn) in the forms of raw data and additive log-ratio transformed data. The latter showed advantages in revealing the actual distribution patterns. Geochemical background reference values of PTEs were determined from the median value of local background reference values. Based on these values, pollution impact analysis was carried out to both BaSi and PoNa samples, indicating most of BaSi and PoNa sediments were affected by moderate to strong Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg pollution. An ecological risk assessment was subsequently carried out on the entire database, pointing a toxic risk ranking in the order Pb > As > Ni > Cd > Hg > Cr.

  2. Physiological impact of CTO recanalization assessed by coronary pressure measurement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kawase, Yoshiaki

    2013-10-01

    In this case report, physiological changes of myocardial perfusion in the collateral recipient right coronary artery (RCA) and the collateral donor left anterior descending artery (LAD) with an intermediate lesion were assessed using intracoronary pressure measurement, before and after revascularization of chronic total occlusion (CTO). A 44-year-old male was referred for a catheter examination due to silent myocardial ischemia. An invasive coronary angiogram revealed diffuse narrowing of the RCA with focal occlusive segments in addition to intermediate stenosis in the LAD. A well developed collateral channel from the LAD to the RCA was also confirmed. Fractional flow reserve (FFRmyo) of the LAD before opening the RCA was 0.81. After successful revascularization of the RCA, FFRmyo of the LAD and the RCA were measured with and without an RCA balloon occlusion. Because collateral fractional flow reserve (FFRcoll) of the RCA could be regarded as FFRmyo before revascularization, FFRmyo of the RCA increased from 0.67 to 0.90, meaning a 23% increase of maximum flow by intervention. Interestingly, improvement of FFRmyo of the LAD from 0.81 to 0.93 was also observed, which means a 12% increase of maximum flow. Coronary steal in the LAD was reconfirmed by dramatic worsening of FFRmyo from 0.93 to 0.77 by an RCA balloon occlusion. This phenomenon may be explained by an immediate recruitment of collateral channels. This case clearly demonstrated that CTO opening improves perfusion in not only myocardium supplied by the CTO vessel, but also in that which is supplied by a contralateral collateral donor artery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessment of climate change impacts on groundwater resources: the case study of Veneto and Friuli plain in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, Andrea; Pasini, Sara; Torresan, Silvia; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will have different impacts on water resources and water-dependent services worldwide. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. Research is needed to better understand how climate change will impact groundwater resources in specific regions and places and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with the envisaged effects of global climate change and the key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution models simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according with IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant outcomes from the described RRA application highlighted that potential climate change impacts will occur

  4. Impacts of inorganic fluorides on terrestrial ecosystems: An ecological risk assessment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.A.; Schneider, U.A.; Pawlisz, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, the national environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act concluded that concentrations of inorganic fluorides near industrial sources in Canada may cause long-term adverse effects in sensitive terrestrial plant and wildlife species. This case study examines the accumulation of inorganic fluorides in vegetation and subsequent effects on a sensitive herbivore species, the white tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Cornwall Island, Ontario, near an aluminum smelting facility, Using environmental concentration data for air, water and food (vegetation), a Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the probability that multimedia exposure of inorganic fluorides exceeded known effects thresholds of skeletal and dental fluorosis in deer, and in turn quantify the magnitude of that risk. With daily intakes ranging from 2--324 {micro}g/deer/day, it was estimated that exposure to fluorides exceeds the daily intake threshold for fluorosis (55 {micro}g/deer/day) in 12% of the deer population. Seasonal differences in exposure and subsequent risk were noted. These results are also supported by additional field data on domestic cattle from the Cornwall Island area where effects (e.g., excessive teeth wear, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis) have been reported and linked to high levels of fluorides in air, water, and forage. It is estimated that at least 10% of the deer from the Cornwall Island area may be subject to debilitating skeletal and dental fluorosis as a result of fluoride emissions from the adjacent aluminum smelter.

  5. Environmental impact assessment using a GSR tool for a landfarming case in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyeongseok; Kwon, Ip-Sae; Lee, Hanuk; Park, Jae-Woo

    2016-04-01

    An environmental impact assessment of a landfarming process, which was performed at an actual petroleum-contaminated site, was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool in this study. The landfarming process was divided into four stages: site preparation, installation, system operation, and system dismantling/waste disposal. The environmental footprints of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, total energy usage, and air pollutants (SOx, NOx, and PM10) were analyzed. GHG emissions and water consumption were approximately 276 metric tons and 7.90E + 05 gal, respectively, in stage III, where they were the highest due to the consumables and equipment use in the system operation. Total energy usage had the highest value of 1.54E + 03 MMBTU in stage II due to material production. The SOx and NOx emissions primarily occurred in stages I and II due to energy usage. The PM10 was mostly emitted in stages I and III and was associated with heavy use of equipment. To reduce the environmental footprints, biodiesel and sunlight were suggested as alternatives in this study. The GHG and SOx emissions decreased to 1.7 and 4.4E-04 metric tons, respectively, on the basis of total emissions with a 1 % increase in biodiesel content, but the NOx emissions increased to 5.6E-03 metric tons. If sunlight was used instead of electricity, the GHG and NOx emissions could be reduced by as much as 79 and 84 %, respectively, and the SOx emissions could also be reduced.

  6. Assessing climate impacts

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Zhang, Jian Yun

    2000-01-01

    Assessing climate impacts involves identifying sources and characteristics of climate variability, and mitigating potential negative impacts of that variability. Associated research focuses on climate driving mechanisms, biosphere–hydrosphere responses and mediation, and human responses. Examples of climate impacts come from 1998 flooding in the Yangtze River Basin and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Central America. Although we have limited understanding of the fundamental driving-response interactions associated with climate variability, increasingly powerful measurement and modeling techniques make assessing climate impacts a rapidly developing frontier of science. PMID:11027321

  7. Assessing storm surge hazard and impact of sea level rise in the Lesser Antilles case study of Martinique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krien, Yann; Dudon, Bernard; Roger, Jean; Arnaud, Gael; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2017-09-01

    In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave-current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge - up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR) with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment of Sand Mining from the Small Catchment Rivers in the Southwestern Coast of India: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from instream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the instream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty-1 of sand (8.764 million ty-1 of instream sand and 2.763 million ty-1 of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  9. Differential case ascertainment in clinical registry versus administrative data and impact on outcomes assessment for pediatric cardiac operations.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Peterson, Eric D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; He, Xia; Li, Jennifer S; Jacobs, Marshall L; Gaynor, J William; Hirsch, Jennifer C; Shah, Samir S; Mayer, John E

    2013-01-01

    Administrative datasets are often used to assess outcomes and quality of pediatric cardiac programs; however their accuracy regarding case ascertainment is unclear. We linked patient data (2004-2010) from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery (STS-CHS) Database (clinical registry) and the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database (administrative database) from hospitals participating in both to evaluate differential coding/classification of operations between datasets and subsequent impact on outcomes assessment. Eight individual benchmark operations and the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery, version 1 (RACHS-1) categories were evaluated. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The cohort included 59,820 patients from 33 centers. There was a greater than 10% difference in the number of cases identified between data sources for half of the benchmark operations. The negative predictive value (NPV) of the administrative (versus clinical) data was high (98.8%-99.9%); the positive predictive value (PPV) was lower (56.7%-88.0%). Overall agreement between data sources in RACHS-1 category assignment was 68.4%. These differences translated into significant differences in outcomes assessment, ranging from an underestimation of mortality associated with truncus arteriosus repair by 25.7% in the administrative versus clinical data (7.01% versus 9.43%; p = 0.001) to an overestimation of mortality associated with ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair by 31.0% (0.78% versus 0.60%; p = 0.1). For the RACHS-1 categories, these ranged from an underestimation of category 5 mortality by 40.5% to an overestimation of category 2 mortality by 12.1%; these differences were not statistically significant. This study demonstrates differences in case ascertainment between administrative and clinical registry data for children undergoing cardiac operations, which translated into important differences in outcomes assessment. Copyright © 2013 The

  10. Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region

    SciTech Connect

    Gontier, Mikael . E-mail: gontier@kth.se

    2007-07-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

  11. Differential Case Ascertainment in Clinical Registry vs. Administrative Data and Impact on Outcomes Assessment in Pediatric Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Sara K.; Peterson, Eric D.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; He, Xia; Li, Jennifer S.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Gaynor, J. William; Hirsch, Jennifer C.; Shah, Samir S.; Mayer, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Administrative datasets are often used to assess outcomes and quality in pediatric heart surgery; however their accuracy regarding case ascertainment is unclear. We linked patient data (2004–2010) from the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database (clinical registry), and Pediatric Health Information Systems Database (administrative database) from hospitals participating in both to evaluate differential coding/classification of operations between datasets, and subsequent impact on outcomes assessment. Methods Eight individual benchmark operations and the RACHS-1 categories were evaluated. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results The cohort included 59,820 patients (33 centers). There was a >10% difference in the number of patients identified between datasources for half of the benchmark operations. Negative predictive value of the administrative (vs. clinical) data was high (98.8–99.9%); positive predictive value was lower (56.7–88.0%). Overall agreement between datasources in RACHS-1 category assignment was 68.4%. These differences translated into significant differences in outcomes assessment, ranging from an underestimation of mortality associated with truncus arteriosus repair by 25.7% in the administrative vs. clinical data (7.01% vs. 9.43%, p=0.001), to an overestimation of mortality associated with VSD repair by 31.0% (0.78% vs. 0.60%, p=0.1). For the RACHS-1 categories, these ranged from an underestimation of Category 5 mortality by 40.5%, to an overestimation of Category 2 mortality by 12.1%; these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study demonstrates differences in case ascertainment between administrative and clinical registry data for children undergoing heart surgery, which translated into important differences in outcomes assessment. PMID:23141907

  12. A case matched study examining the reliability of using ImPACT to assess effects of multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Barker, Trevor; Russo, Stephen A; Barker, Gaytri; Rice, Mark A; Jeffrey, Mary G; Broderick, Gordon; Craddock, Travis J A

    2017-04-28

    Approximately 3.8 million sport and recreational concussions occur per year, creating a need for accurate diagnosis and management of concussions. Researchers and clinicians are exploring the potential dose-response cumulative effects of concussive injuries using computerized neuropsychological exams, however, results have been mixed and/or contradictory. This study starts with a large adolescent population and applies strict inclusion criteria to examine how previous mild traumatic brain injuries affect symptom reports and neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized tool. After applying exclusion criteria and case matching, 204 male and 99 female participants remained. These participants were grouped according to sex and the number of previous self-reported concussions and examined for overall differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. In an effort to further reduce confounding factors due to the varying group sizes, participants were then case matched on age, sex, and body mass index and analyzed for differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. Case matched analysis demonstrated males with concussions experience significantly higher rates of dizziness (p = .027, η(2) = .035), fogginess (p = .038, η(2) = .032), memory problems (p = .003, η(2) = .055), and concentration problems (p = .009, η(2) = .046) than males with no reported previous concussions. No significant effects were found for females, although females reporting two concussions demonstrated a slight trend for experiencing higher numbers of symptoms than females reporting no previous concussions. The results suggest that male adolescent athletes reporting multiple concussions have lingering concussive symptoms well after the last concussive event; however, these symptoms were found to

  13. Impact of Assessment Criteria on Publication Behaviour: The Case of Communication Research in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masip, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper outlines the evolution of Spanish production in the area of communication research over the last seventeen years. It analyses whether the consolidation of the existing systems of assessment of scientific activity have been mirrored by an increase in the output of Spanish authors in journals indexed by the Social Sciences…

  14. Assessment of dynamic effects on aircraft design loads: The landing impact case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstein, Michael; Feldman, Esther; Vescovini, Riccardo; Bisagni, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses the potential benefits due to a fully dynamic approach to determine the design loads of a mid-size business jet. The study is conducted by considering the fuselage midsection of the DAEDALOS aircraft model with landing impact conditions. The comparison is presented in terms of stress levels between the novel dynamic approach and the standard design practice based on the use of equivalent static loads. The results illustrate that a slight reduction of the load levels can be achieved, but careful modeling of the damping level is needed. Guidelines for an improved load definition are discussed, and suggestions for future research activities are provided.

  15. Integration of health and environment through health impact assessment: cases from three continents.

    PubMed

    Negev, Maya; Levine, Hagai; Davidovitch, Nadav; Bhatia, Rajiv; Mindell, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    Despite the strong linkage between environment and health, institutions responsible for these fields operate in largely fragmented ways with limited interaction. As illustrated in the recent engagement between health and urban planning institutions, inter-institutional cooperation could support more effective and politically acceptable solutions for both local and global problems. Analysis of three case-studies, from three different continents, shows that HIA might serve to promote synergies among health and environmental disciplines in different local contexts, and could lead to institutional and procedural changes that promote health. Case examples provided supportive evidence for these effects, despite differences in approaches to HIA and governance levels. Obstacles to the use of HIA for inter-institutional integration also differed between countries. Lessons learned could support cooperation in other common interests of health and environment disciplines such as research, training and preparedness, and mitigation of public health emergencies related to the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized

  17. Mine dewatering and impact assessment in an arid area: Case of Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Drury, Len

    2016-11-01

    Analytical and empirical solution coupled with water balance method were used to predict the ground water inflow to a mine pit excavated below the water table, final pit lake level/recovery and radius of influence, through long-term and time variant simulations. The solution considers the effect of decreased saturated thickness near the pit walls, distributed recharge to the water table and upward flow through the pit bottom. The approach is flexible to accommodate the anisotropy/heterogeneity of the real world. Final pit void water level was assessed through scenarios to know whether it will be consumed by evaporation and a shallow lake will form or not. The optimised radius of influence was estimated which is considered as crucial information in relation to the engineering aspects of mine planning and sustainable development of the mine area. Time-transient inflow over a period of time was estimated using solutions, including analytical element method (AEM). Their primary value is in providing estimates of pit inflow rates to be used in the mine dewatering. Inflow estimation and recovery helps whether there is water to supplement the demand and if there is any recovery issue to be dealt with in relation to surface and groundwater quality/eco-system, environmental evaluations and mitigation. Therefore, this method is good at informing decision makers in assessing the effects of mining operations and developing an appropriate water management strategy.

  18. Assessing opinions in community leadership networks to address health inequalities: a case study from Project IMPACT

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, M. P.; Ramanadhan, S.; Viswanath, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in ‘Milltown’, the New England city where the study was conducted. We used UCINET network analysis software to assess the structure of local leadership and NVivo qualitative software to analyze leaders’ views on public health and health inequalities. Our main analyses showed that community power is distributed unequally in Milltown, with our network of 33 divided into an older, largely male and more powerful group, and a younger, largely female group with many ‘grassroots’ sector leaders who focus on reducing health inequalities. Ancillary network analyses showed that grassroots leaders comprise a self-referential cluster that could benefit from greater affiliation with leaders from other sectors and identified leaders who may serve as leverage points in our overall program of public agenda change to address health inequalities. Our innovative approach provides public health practitioners with a method for assessing community leaders’ views, understanding subgroup divides and mobilizing leaders who may be helpful in reducing health inequalities. PMID:26471919

  19. Assessing opinions in community leadership networks to address health inequalities: a case study from Project IMPACT.

    PubMed

    McCauley, M P; Ramanadhan, S; Viswanath, K

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in 'Milltown', the New England city where the study was conducted. We used UCINET network analysis software to assess the structure of local leadership and NVivo qualitative software to analyze leaders' views on public health and health inequalities. Our main analyses showed that community power is distributed unequally in Milltown, with our network of 33 divided into an older, largely male and more powerful group, and a younger, largely female group with many 'grassroots' sector leaders who focus on reducing health inequalities. Ancillary network analyses showed that grassroots leaders comprise a self-referential cluster that could benefit from greater affiliation with leaders from other sectors and identified leaders who may serve as leverage points in our overall program of public agenda change to address health inequalities. Our innovative approach provides public health practitioners with a method for assessing community leaders' views, understanding subgroup divides and mobilizing leaders who may be helpful in reducing health inequalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from in-stream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the in-stream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty(-1) of sand (8.764 million ty(-1) of in-stream sand and 2.763 million ty(-1) of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  1. Assessing the Impact of Stricter Alcohol Advertising Standards: The Case of Beam Global Spirits.

    PubMed

    Ross, Craig S; Sparks, Alicia; Jernigan, David H

    2016-08-01

    Reducing youth exposure to alcohol advertising is a global health priority. In most countries around the world, the alcohol industry is given the opportunity to regulate itself with respect to advertising practices. Generally, the alcohol industry self-regulations are lax, allowing youth to be disproportionately exposed to alcohol advertising. However, Beam Global Spirits and Wine (Beam) voluntarily adopted more restrictive advertising standards in the United States in 2007. This study assessed Beam's compliance with their new standard and estimates its effect on youth exposure and advertising costs. We found that Beam's compliance with its more restrictive standards was imperfect, but never-the-less, we estimated that youth exposure to alcohol advertising was reduced compared to other spirits brands. Beam's more restrictive standards did not increase their advertising costs and therefore other alcohol companies should consider adopting similar standards around the world.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Stricter Alcohol Advertising Standards: The Case of Beam Global Spirits

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.; Sparks, Alicia; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reducing youth exposure to alcohol advertising is a global health priority. In most countries around the world, the alcohol industry is given the opportunity to regulate itself with respect to advertising practices. Generally, the alcohol industry self-regulations are lax, allowing youth to be disproportionately exposed to alcohol advertising. However, Beam Global Spirits and Wine (Beam) voluntarily adopted more restrictive advertising standards in the United States in 2007. This study assessed Beam's compliance with their new standard and estimates its effect on youth exposure and advertising costs. We found that Beam's compliance with its more restrictive standards was imperfect, but never-the-less, we estimated that youth exposure to alcohol advertising was reduced compared to other spirits brands. Beam's more restrictive standards did not increase their advertising costs and therefore other alcohol companies should consider adopting similar standards around the world. PMID:28042284

  3. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-01

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  4. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  5. Neuropsychological Impact of West Nile Virus Infection: An Extensive Neuropsychiatric Assessment of 49 Cases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Samaan, Zainab; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie; Bawor, Monica; Potter, Tammy Hlywka; Eskandarian, Sasha; Loeb, Mark

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus emerged as an important human pathogen in North America and continues to pose a risk to public health. It can cause a highly variable range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness. Neuroinvasive disease due to West Nile virus can lead to long-term neurological deficits and psychological impairment. However, these deficits have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological manifestations of West Nile virus infection with a focus on neuroinvasive status and time since infection. Patients from Ontario Canada with a diagnosis of neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis) and non-neuroinvasive disease who had participated in a cohort study were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory were collected, as well as demographics and medical history. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Data from 49 individuals (32 with West Nile fever and 17 with West Nile neuroinvasive disease) were included in the present cross-sectional analysis. Patterns of neuropsychological impairment were comparable across participants with both neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection on all cognitive measures. Neuropsychiatric impairment was also observed more frequently at two to four years post-infection compared to earlier stages of illness. Our data provide objective evidence for cognitive difficulties among patients who were infected with West Nile virus; these deficits appear to manifest regardless of severity of West Nile virus infection (West Nile fever vs. West Nile neuroinvasive disease), and are more prevalent with increasing illness duration (2-4 years vs. 1 month). Data from this study will help inform patients and healthcare providers about the expected course of recovery, as well as the need to implement effective treatment strategies that include neuropsychological interventions.

  6. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Community Impact Assessment Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Alberta Development Council, Peace River.

    This handbook is intended for communities that wish to undertake their own community impact assessment (CIA). The goal is to enable communities to plan for changes before they occur, so they can cope with changes when they do occur. CIA involves forecasting and evaluating the full range of unintended consequences for the community of development…

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)

  9. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  10. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  11. Prospective survey of veterinary practitioners’ primary assessment of equine colic: clinical features, diagnoses, and treatment of 120 cases of large colon impaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Large colon impactions are a common cause of colic in the horse. There are no scientific reports on the clinical presentation, diagnostic tests and treatments used in first opinion practice for large colon impaction cases. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation, diagnostic approach and treatment at the primary assessment of horses with large colon impactions. Methods Data were collected prospectively from veterinary practitioners on the primary assessment of equine colic cases over a 12 month period. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of primary large colon impaction and positive findings on rectal examination. Data recorded for each case included history, signalment, clinical and diagnostic findings, treatment on primary assessment and final case outcome. Case outcomes were categorised into three groups: simple medical (resolved with single treatment), complicated medical (resolved with multiple medical treatments) and critical (required surgery, were euthanased or died). Univariable analysis using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test, Kruskal Wallis with Dunn’s post-hoc test and Chi squared analysis were used to compare between different outcome categories. Results 1032 colic cases were submitted by veterinary practitioners: 120 cases met the inclusion criteria for large colon impaction. Fifty three percent of cases were categorised as simple medical, 36.6% as complicated medical, and 9.2% as critical. Most cases (42.1%) occurred during the winter. Fifty nine percent of horses had had a recent change in management, 43% of horses were not ridden, and 12.5% had a recent / current musculoskeletal injury. Mean heart rate was 43bpm (range 26-88) and most cases showed mild signs of pain (67.5%) and reduced gut sounds (76%). Heart rate was significantly increased and gut sounds significantly decreased in critical compared to simple medical cases (p<0.05). Fifty different treatment combinations were used, with NSAIDs (93%) and oral

  12. Prospective survey of veterinary practitioners' primary assessment of equine colic: clinical features, diagnoses, and treatment of 120 cases of large colon impaction.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Kyra; Curtis, Laila; Burford, John; Freeman, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Large colon impactions are a common cause of colic in the horse. There are no scientific reports on the clinical presentation, diagnostic tests and treatments used in first opinion practice for large colon impaction cases. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation, diagnostic approach and treatment at the primary assessment of horses with large colon impactions. Data were collected prospectively from veterinary practitioners on the primary assessment of equine colic cases over a 12 month period. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of primary large colon impaction and positive findings on rectal examination. Data recorded for each case included history, signalment, clinical and diagnostic findings, treatment on primary assessment and final case outcome. Case outcomes were categorised into three groups: simple medical (resolved with single treatment), complicated medical (resolved with multiple medical treatments) and critical (required surgery, were euthanased or died). Univariable analysis using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test, Kruskal Wallis with Dunn's post-hoc test and Chi squared analysis were used to compare between different outcome categories. 1032 colic cases were submitted by veterinary practitioners: 120 cases met the inclusion criteria for large colon impaction. Fifty three percent of cases were categorised as simple medical, 36.6% as complicated medical, and 9.2% as critical. Most cases (42.1%) occurred during the winter. Fifty nine percent of horses had had a recent change in management, 43% of horses were not ridden, and 12.5% had a recent / current musculoskeletal injury. Mean heart rate was 43 bpm (range 26-88) and most cases showed mild signs of pain (67.5%) and reduced gut sounds (76%). Heart rate was significantly increased and gut sounds significantly decreased in critical compared to simple medical cases (p<0.05). Fifty different treatment combinations were used, with NSAIDs (93%) and oral fluids (71%) being administered

  13. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  14. Environmental impact assessment of a mixed tropical hardwood integrated pulp and paper mill--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. ); Landner, L. )

    1993-11-01

    An overview of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) for a mixed tropical hardwood integrated pulp and paper mill in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented. The EIA before the mill construction included, among other things, a detailed baseline study and also environmental impact predictions based on certain mill design and pollution abatement measures. Subsequent to mill construction (during the operational stage), data were gathered to determine the quality of the ambient air as well as the effluent and the receiving bay water quality. These post-construction monitoring results were then compared with the earlier impact predictions, and showed, in general, a good correspondence.

  15. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Katherine; Haigh, Fiona; Gleeson, Deborah; Harris, Patrick; Thow, Anne Marie; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a recently concluded free trade agreement involving Australia and 11 other Pacific-rim nations, which has the potential for far-reaching impacts on public health. A health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out during the negotiations to determine the potential future public health impact in Australia and to provide recommendations to mitigate potential harms. This paper explores the findings and outcomes of the HIA, and how this approach can be used to provide evidence for public health advocacy. Design A modified version of the standard HIA process was followed. The HIA was led by technical experts in HIA, trade policy, and health policy, in collaboration with advocacy organisations concerned with the TPP and health. The HIA reviewed the provisions in leaked TPP text in order to determine their potential impact on future health policy. As part of this process, researchers developed policy scenarios in order to examine how TPP provisions may affect health policies and their subsequent impact to health for both the general and vulnerable populations. The four policy areas assessed were the cost of medicines, tobacco control, alcohol control and food labelling. Results In all areas assessed, the HIA found that proposed TPP provisions were likely to adversely affect health. These provisions are also likely to more adversely affect the health of vulnerable populations. Conclusions The HIA produced relevant evidence that was useful in advocacy efforts by stakeholders, and engaging the public through various media platforms. PMID:27044579

  16. Impact assessment and remediation strategies for roadway construction in acid-bearing media: case study from Mid-Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Viadero, R.C.; Fortney, R.H.; Creel, A.T.

    2008-09-15

    The likelihood of encountering land impacted by current and/or historic coal mining activities is high when constructing roadways in the Mid-Appalachian region. Through additional disturbance of these lands, environmental impacts such as acid and dissolved metals loading and subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna will ensue. Consequently, it is necessary to affect a paradigm shift in roadway design and construction to account for the presence of factors that compound the already difficult task of working in a region characterized by steep topography and aggressive geochemistry. In this study, assessments of the water chemistry and biological impacts of a waste pile containing spoils from previous mining and the presence of an exposed coal mine bench were made as representative microcosmic examples of typical conditions found in the region. Based on quantitative measurements of water quality and biological conditions, recommendations are presented for the assessment and avoidance of impacts prior to construction through acid-bearing materials and suggestions are offered for postconstruction remediation at previously impacted sites.

  17. Health equity impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Povall, Susan L; Haigh, Fiona A; Abrahams, Debbie; Scott-Samuel, Alex

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for 'health equity impact assessments' of all economic agreements, market regulation and public policies. We carried out an international study to clarify if existing health impact assessment (HIA) methods are adequate for the task of global health equity assessments. We triangulated data from a scoping review of the international literature, in-depth interviews with health equity and HIA experts and an international stakeholder workshop. We found that equity is not addressed adequately in HIAs for a variety of reasons, including inadequate guidance, absence of definitions, poor data and evidence, perceived lack of methods and tools and practitioner unwillingness or inability to address values like fairness and social justice. Current methods can address immediate, 'downstream' factors, but not the root causes of inequity. Extending HIAs to cover macro policy and global equity issues will require new tools to address macroeconomic policies, historical roots of inequities and upstream causes like power imbalances. More sensitive, participatory methods are also required. There is, however, no need for the development of a completely new methodology. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-06-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  19. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  20. Life cycle assessment of TV sets in China: A case study of the impacts of CRT monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Song Qingbin; Wang Zhishi; Li Jinhui; Zeng Xianlai

    2012-10-15

    Along with the rapid increase in both production and use of TV sets in China, there is an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of these sets. This paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese TV sets. An assessment of the TV set device (focusing on the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor) was carried out using a detailed modular LCA based on the international standards of the ISO 14040 series. The LCA was constructed using SimaPro software version 7.2 and expressed with the Eco-indicator' 99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the CML method was used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the results. Life cycle inventory information was compiled by Ecoinvent 2.2 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the current Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that the use stage of such devices has the highest environmental impact, followed by the manufacturing stage. In the manufacturing stage, the CRT and the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) are those components contributing the most environmental impacts. During the use phase, the environmental impacts are due entirely to the methods of electricity generation used to run them, since no other aspects were taken into account for this phase. The final processing step-the end-of-life stage-can lead to a clear environmental benefit when the TV sets are processed through the formal dismantling enterprises in China.

  1. Life cycle assessment of TV sets in China: a case study of the impacts of CRT monitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai

    2012-10-01

    Along with the rapid increase in both production and use of TV sets in China, there is an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of these sets. This paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese TV sets. An assessment of the TV set device (focusing on the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor) was carried out using a detailed modular LCA based on the international standards of the ISO 14040 series. The LCA was constructed using SimaPro software version 7.2 and expressed with the Eco-indicator' 99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the CML method was used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the results. Life cycle inventory information was compiled by Ecoinvent 2.2 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the current Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that the use stage of such devices has the highest environmental impact, followed by the manufacturing stage. In the manufacturing stage, the CRT and the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) are those components contributing the most environmental impacts. During the use phase, the environmental impacts are due entirely to the methods of electricity generation used to run them, since no other aspects were taken into account for this phase. The final processing step-the end-of-life stage-can lead to a clear environmental benefit when the TV sets are processed through the formal dismantling enterprises in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  3. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Katherine; Haigh, Fiona; Gleeson, Deborah; Harris, Patrick; Thow, Anne Marie; Friel, Sharon

    2016-04-04

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a recently concluded free trade agreement involving Australia and 11 other Pacific-rim nations, which has the potential for far-reaching impacts on public health. A health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out during the negotiations to determine the potential future public health impact in Australia and to provide recommendations to mitigate potential harms. This paper explores the findings and outcomes of the HIA, and how this approach can be used to provide evidence for public health advocacy. A modified version of the standard HIA process was followed. The HIA was led by technical experts in HIA, trade policy, and health policy, in collaboration with advocacy organisations concerned with the TPP and health. The HIA reviewed the provisions in leaked TPP text in order to determine their potential impact on future health policy. As part of this process, researchers developed policy scenarios in order to examine how TPP provisions may affect health policies and their subsequent impact to health for both the general and vulnerable populations. The four policy areas assessed were the cost of medicines, tobacco control, alcohol control and food labelling. In all areas assessed, the HIA found that proposed TPP provisions were likely to adversely affect health. These provisions are also likely to more adversely affect the health of vulnerable populations. The HIA produced relevant evidence that was useful in advocacy efforts by stakeholders, and engaging the public through various media platforms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction: new perspectives for restoration economy, and development: the Belo Monte Power Plant case study.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M

    2015-08-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction can be viewed as a new strategic perspective for the economic development of a region. Based on the principles of a watershed approach a interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary systemic view including biogeophysiographical, economic and socio environmental studies the new vision of a EIA provides a basic substratum for the restoration economy and an advanced model for the true development much well ahead of the modernization aspects of the project of a reservoir construction.

  5. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Meleah D; Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Nachman, Keeve E; Babik, Kelsey; Jenkins, Christian C; Trowell, Joshua; Milton, Donald K; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP) has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1) presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners), 2) duration of exposure, 3) frequency of exposure, 4) likelihood of health effects, 5) magnitude/severity of health effects, 6) geographic extent, and 7) effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high) that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards.

  6. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Nachman, Keeve E.; Babik, Kelsey; Jenkins, Christian C.; Trowell, Joshua; Milton, Donald K.; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP) has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1) presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners), 2) duration of exposure, 3) frequency of exposure, 4) likelihood of health effects, 5) magnitude/severity of health effects, 6) geographic extent, and 7) effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high) that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards. PMID:26726918

  7. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meso-scale life-cycle impact assessment of novel technology policies: the case of renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Triacchini, G

    2000-11-03

    Assessing the environmental risk of novel technological systems and of the European Union (EU) policies supporting them and regulating their implementation requires good understanding of (i) the pressure on the environment posed by the large-scale use of new technology, and (ii) the vulnerability of the receptor of this pressure. Generic life-cycle assessments (LCAs) provide exhaustive accounting of environmental pressure, yet they do not take into account the vulnerability of the receiving ecosystem. Generic studies of technology externalities fail to produce conclusions on the impacts in a certain area of the systems envisaged due to lack of site-specific information. The combined use of generic (LCA) and spatially referenced data offers new opportunities for comprehensively analysing the environmental impact of novel technologies. A novel information fusion methodology is suggested. Example applications are presented herein focusing on the evaluation of renewable energy technologies as an example of the implementation of meso-scale LCA for integrated environmental risk assessment of EU technology policies.

  9. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  10. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-02-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature of economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of economic impact from drought by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact with a model based on cost-and-benefit analysis. By using analysis of "with-and-without", profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis on a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified, and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained using an autoregressive error model to separate impact by disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free condition and disaster-hit condition, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote the reflections on economic equality among various economic bodies at the occurrence of natural disasters.

  11. Assessment of impacts of land use changes on surface water using L-THIA model (case study: Zayandehrud river basin).

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Solgi, E; Salmanmahiny, A

    2016-12-01

    Land use changes in a basin are the most important factors affecting its hydrology and water quality. A hydrological model is an effective tool in assessing the effects of land use change on surface water. In this study, the effects of land use changes in the Zayandehrud basin are estimated using long-term hydrologic impact assessment model. This model is applicable using long-term data on climate, soil hydrological groups, and land use maps. The study covered three land uses across 18 years (from 1997 to 2015), and we used data on 30 years of precipitation (from 1985 to 2015) in the model. The results of modeling revealed that the average runoff volume increased from around 5,765,034 m(3) in 1997 to 8,894,525 m(3) in 2015. The results also showed an increase in runoff depth. Land use changes over the study period showed an increase of residential areas, bare land, and agricultural lands and a decrease of pasture and forests. The results can be used to make decisions and monitor changes in land use to control the depth and volume of runoff. Using output maps helps in delimitation of the areas that have high runoff average and in implementation of the management plans for controlling the amount of runoff in these areas. Appropriate land use design can decrease impacts of land use changes including hydrologic effects.

  12. Feasibility of Assessing Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution Reduction Programs on a Local Scale: New Haven Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lobdell, Danelle T.; Isakov, Vlad; Baxter, Lisa; Touma, Jawad S.; Smuts, Mary Beth; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2011-01-01

    Background New approaches to link health surveillance data with environmental and population exposure information are needed to examine the health benefits of risk management decisions. Objective We examined the feasibility of conducting a local assessment of the public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities from federal, state, local, and voluntary actions in the City of New Haven, Connecticut (USA). Methods Using a hybrid modeling approach that combines regional and local-scale air quality data, we estimated ambient concentrations for multiple air pollutants [e.g., PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), NOx (nitrogen oxides)] for baseline year 2001 and projected emissions for 2010, 2020, and 2030. We assessed the feasibility of detecting health improvements in relation to reductions in air pollution for 26 different pollutant–health outcome linkages using both sample size and exploratory epidemiological simulations to further inform decision-making needs. Results Model projections suggested decreases (~ 10–60%) in pollutant concentrations, mainly attributable to decreases in pollutants from local sources between 2001 and 2010. Models indicated considerable spatial variability in the concentrations of most pollutants. Sample size analyses supported the feasibility of identifying linkages between reductions in NOx and improvements in all-cause mortality, prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations. Conclusion Substantial reductions in air pollution (e.g., ~ 60% for NOx) are needed to detect health impacts of environmental actions using traditional epidemiological study designs in small communities like New Haven. In contrast, exploratory epidemiological simulations suggest that it may be possible to demonstrate the health impacts of PM reductions by predicting intraurban pollution gradients within New Haven using coupled models. PMID:21335318

  13. Is HIA the most effective tool to assess the impact on health of climate change mitigation policies at the local level? A case study in Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Thierno; Cantoreggi, Nicola; Simos, Jean; Christie, Derek P T H

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to understand how the health dimension is integrated into four impact assessment tools used in Geneva, Switzerland: environmental impact assessment (EIA), strategic environmental assessment (SEA), sustainability assessment (SA) and health impact assessment (HIA). We have chosen as a case study greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction policies chosen by the city of Geneva. The methodological approach consists in analysing EIA, SEA, SA and HIA conducted on three projects in three topic areas: urban planning, heating and transportation. These projects are: a complex urbanisation plan in an urban neighbourhood in Geneva (the Gare des Eaux-Vives project), a sustainable transportation plan for a central district in Geneva (the St-Gervais transportation project) and a strategy to encourage the City's employees to use sustainable transport for local business travel. The results show some shortcomings in the consideration of health in SEA, EIA and SA. This work highlights a narrow vision of health in SEA and EIA, limiting itself to a review of the effects of projects on the determinants of the physical environment as required by the legislation relating to these tools. EIA does not require the integration of the health dimension. As for SA, our research found that health is treated much more superficially than in HIA and primarily through the analysis of 'health and safety' criteria. It appears from this work that HIA is the tool which provides the most elaborate assessment, compared to SA, SEA or EIA, of the consequences for health of the GHG reduction policies chosen by the local decision-makers of a city. However, our study suggests that the HIA community should identify the situations in which HIA should be carried out and in which cases it is better to include health issues within an integrated analysis.

  14. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  15. Influence of the impact assessment method on the conclusions of a LCA study. Application to the case of a part made with virgin and recycled HDPE.

    PubMed

    Simões, Carla L; Xará, Susana M; Bernardo, C A

    2011-10-01

    Recent legislation has stressed the need to decide the best end-of-life (EoL) option for post-consumer products considering their full life-cycle and the corresponding overall environmental impacts. The life cycle assessment (LCA) technique has become a common tool to evaluate those impacts. The present study aimed to contribute to the better understanding of the application of this technique, by evaluating the influence of the selection of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method in its results and conclusions. A specific case study was chosen, using previous information related to an anti-glare lamellae (AGL) for highway use, made with virgin and recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Five distinct LCIA methods were used: Eco-indicator 99, CML 2 (2000), EPS 2000, Eco-indicator 95 and EDIP 97. Consistent results between these methods were obtained for the Climate change, Ozone layer depletion, Acidification and Eutrophication environmental indicators. Conversely, the Summer smog indicator showed large discrepancies between impact assessment methods. The work sheds light on the advantages inherent in using various LCIA methods when doing the LCA study of a specific product, thus evidencing complementary analysis perspectives.

  16. Impact Assessment of the Renewable Energies in the Cultural Heritage: the Case of the Way of St. James in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chias, P.; Abad, T.

    2014-06-01

    Medieval town centres and landscapes along the Way of St. James are being affected by renewable energy sources at the architectural, urban and territorial scales. The impact is not only visual, but thermal, accoustic and electromagnetic. Visual impact of solar photovoltaic power plants - which are placed over traditional crops close to the urban borders -, and also wind farms located at the hilltops, are sometimes remarkable. Solar photovoltaic modules are integrated into ancient roofs, and small scale wind turbines are taking up the ancient urban spaces. Among other effects on animal life and vegetation, the rise in temperature, radioelectric interferences, as well as changes in the traditional land uses are noticeable, and a deep analysis is needed. Our main target is to define an integrated methodology which considers all these effects. As a part of our project premises, we work with Open Source programs. We obtained a digital terrain model - 25 m spatial resolution -, and from Corine Land Cover images we got different raster files according to our research targets. Databases where implemented from both remote sensing and measures obtained directly in the field work. We applied GIS based multicriteria decision analysis and weighted linear combination, and then we adapted GRASS tools for a better usability. Our case studies are particularly interesting due to their situation along the Spanish Way of St. James, which is an itinerary named one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

  17. Assessment of wildland fire impacts on watershed annual water yield: Analytical framework and case studies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V.; Norman, Steven P.; Cohen, Erika C.; Liu, Yongqiang; Ward, Eric J.; McNulty, Steven G.

    2016-11-29

    More than 50% of water supplies in the conterminous United States originate on forestland or rangeland and are potentially under increasing stress as a result of larger and more severe wildfires. Little is known, however, about the long-term impacts of fire on annual water yield and the role of climate variability within this context. We here propose a framework for evaluating wildland fire impacts on streamflow that combines double-mass analysis with new methods (change point analysis, climate elasticity modeling, and process-based modeling) to distinguish between multiyear fire and climate impacts. The framework captures a wide range of fire types, watersheds characteristics, and climate conditions using streamflow data, as opposed to other approaches requiring paired watersheds. The process is illustrated with three case studies. A watershed in Arizona experienced a +266% increase in annual water yield in the 5 years after a wildfire, where +219% was attributed to wildfire and +24% to precipitation trends. In contrast, a California watershed had a lower (–64%) post-fire net water yield, comprised of enhanced flow (+38%) attributed to wildfire offset (–102%) by lower precipitation in the post-fire period. Changes in streamflow within a watershed in South Carolina had no apparent link to periods of prescribed burning but matched a very wet winter and reports of storm damage. As a result, the presented framework is unique in its ability to detect and quantify fire or other disturbances, even if the date or nature of the disturbance event is uncertain, and regardless of precipitation trends.

  18. Assessment of wildland fire impacts on watershed annual water yield: Analytical framework and case studies in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V.; ...

    2016-11-29

    More than 50% of water supplies in the conterminous United States originate on forestland or rangeland and are potentially under increasing stress as a result of larger and more severe wildfires. Little is known, however, about the long-term impacts of fire on annual water yield and the role of climate variability within this context. We here propose a framework for evaluating wildland fire impacts on streamflow that combines double-mass analysis with new methods (change point analysis, climate elasticity modeling, and process-based modeling) to distinguish between multiyear fire and climate impacts. The framework captures a wide range of fire types, watershedsmore » characteristics, and climate conditions using streamflow data, as opposed to other approaches requiring paired watersheds. The process is illustrated with three case studies. A watershed in Arizona experienced a +266% increase in annual water yield in the 5 years after a wildfire, where +219% was attributed to wildfire and +24% to precipitation trends. In contrast, a California watershed had a lower (–64%) post-fire net water yield, comprised of enhanced flow (+38%) attributed to wildfire offset (–102%) by lower precipitation in the post-fire period. Changes in streamflow within a watershed in South Carolina had no apparent link to periods of prescribed burning but matched a very wet winter and reports of storm damage. As a result, the presented framework is unique in its ability to detect and quantify fire or other disturbances, even if the date or nature of the disturbance event is uncertain, and regardless of precipitation trends.« less

  19. Health impact assessment as an accountability mechanism for the International Monetary Fund: the case of sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Eileen; Scott-Samuel, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is both an effective tool for promoting healthy public policies and one that has the potential to help hold accountable for their actions those who create unhealthy public policies. This article identifies some of the issues that arise in considering the application of HIA to the operation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), especially in the context of sub-Saharan Africa. The authors do this in the belief that the IMF's lending conditionalities and macroeconomic policies constitute an important social determinant of health. The recent report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health has created helpful and timely policy space for the development of a health equity- and human rights-oriented accountability framework for the IMF.

  20. Assessing climate change impacts on wetlands in a flow regulated catchment: A case study in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Baihua; Pollino, Carmel A; Cuddy, Susan M; Andrews, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Globally wetlands are increasingly under threat due to changes in water regimes as a result of river regulation and climate change. We developed the Exploring CLimAte Impacts on Management (EXCLAIM) decision support system (DSS), which simulates flow-driven habitat condition for 16 vegetation species, 13 waterbird species and 4 fish groups in the Macquarie catchment, Australia. The EXCLAIM DSS estimates impacts to habitat condition, considering scenarios of climate change and water management. The model framework underlying the DSS is a probabilistic Bayesian network, and this approach was chosen to explicitly represent uncertainties in climate change scenarios and predicted ecological outcomes. The results suggest that the scenario with no climate change and no water resource development (i.e. flow condition without dams, weirs or water license entitlements, often regarded as a surrogate for 'natural' flow) consistently has the most beneficial outcomes for vegetation, waterbird and native fish. The 2030 dry climate change scenario delivers the poorest ecological outcomes overall, whereas the 2030 wet climate change scenario has beneficial outcomes for waterbird breeding, but delivers poor outcomes for river red gum and black box woodlands, and fish that prefer river channels as habitats. A formal evaluation of the waterbird breeding model showed that higher numbers of observed nest counts are typically associated with higher modelled average breeding habitat conditions. The EXCLAIM DSS provides a generic framework to link hydrology and ecological habitats for a large number of species, based on best available knowledge of their flood requirements. It is a starting point towards developing an integrated tool for assessing climate change impacts on wetland ecosystems.

  1. Near Real-Time Flood Monitoring and Impact Assessment Systems. Chapter 6; [Case Study: 2011 Flooding in Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin; Fayne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the costliest natural disaster, causing approximately 6.8 million deaths in the twentieth century alone. Worldwide economic flood damage estimates in 2012 exceed $19 Billion USD. Extended duration floods also pose longer term threats to food security, water, sanitation, hygiene, and community livelihoods, particularly in developing countries. Projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggest that precipitation extremes, rainfall intensity, storm intensity, and variability are increasing due to climate change. Increasing hydrologic uncertainty will likely lead to unprecedented extreme flood events. As such, there is a vital need to enhance and further develop traditional techniques used to rapidly assess flooding and extend analytical methods to estimate impacted population and infrastructure. Measuring flood extent in situ is generally impractical, time consuming, and can be inaccurate. Remotely sensed imagery acquired from space-borne and airborne sensors provides a viable platform for consistent and rapid wall-to-wall monitoring of large flood events through time. Terabytes of freely available satellite imagery are made available online each day by NASA, ESA, and other international space research institutions. Advances in cloud computing and data storage technologies allow researchers to leverage these satellite data and apply analytical methods at scale. Repeat-survey earth observations help provide insight about how natural phenomena change through time, including the progression and recession of floodwaters. In recent years, cloud-penetrating radar remote sensing techniques (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar) and high temporal resolution imagery platforms (e.g., MODIS and its 1-day return period), along with high performance computing infrastructure, have enabled significant advances in software systems that provide flood warning, assessments, and hazard reduction potential. By incorporating social and economic data

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  4. Scoping for Social Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Ross, Helen

    2000-12-01

    Social assessment combines research, analytic, and participatory processes to identify, describe, and interpret changes in the ?human environment? that result from any of a wide variety of change agents -- projects, policies, or planning activities. Scoping for social impact assessment draws upon these same three processes - research, analysis, and participation - to: - Disclose information about the proposed action, preliminary estimates of impacts, and plans for the decision making and assessment effort - Initiate dialogue with the interested and potentially affected publics and decision makers - Establish the focus and level of detail of the assessment, identify particular issues that need to be addressed, and clarify how potentially affected publics will be consulted and involved. This chapter describes the function and key objectives of the scoping process, explains the assessment framework and the conventions and issues that set the context for the scoping process, provides some suggestions about how to plan and conduct scoping for a social assessment, and discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in designing an effective scoping process for social impact assessment. Our approach recognises that social scientists may be involved in assessment tasks that involve other disciplinary areas. This may be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA, the analysis of the impacts of policies or plans, or the combination of impact assessment with planning), or a planning process.

  5. Environmental decision-making using life cycle impact assessment and stochastic multiattribute decision analysis: a case study on alternative transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kristin; Seager, Thomas P

    2009-03-15

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) involves weighing trade-offs between multiple and incommensurate criteria. Current state-of-the-art LCIA tools typically compute an overall environmental score using a linear-weighted aggregation of characterized inventory data that has been normalized relative to total industry, regional, or national emissions. However, current normalization practices risk masking impacts that may be significant within the context of the decision, albeit small relative to the reference data (e.g., total U.S. emissions). Additionally, uncertainty associated with quantification of weights is generally very high. Partly for these reasons, many LCA studies truncate impact assessment at the inventory characterization step, rather than completing normalization and weighting steps. This paper describes a novel approach called stochastic multiattribute life cycle impact assessment (SMA-LCIA) that combines an outranking approach to normalization with stochastic exploration of weight spaces-avoiding some of the drawbacks of current LCIA methods. To illustrate the new approach, SMA-LCIA is compared with a typical LCIA method for crop-based, fossil-based, and electric fuels using the Greenhouse gas Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for inventory data and the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) model for data characterization. In contrast to the typical LCIA case, in which results are dominated by fossil fuel depletion and global warming considerations regardless of criteria weights, the SMA-LCIA approach results in a rank ordering that is more sensitive to decisionmaker preferences. The principal advantage of the SMA-LCIA method is the ability to facilitate exploration and construction of context-specific criteria preferences by simultaneously representing multiple weights spaces and the sensitivity of the rank ordering to uncertain stakeholder values.

  6. Regional impact assessment of land use scenarios in developing countries using the FoPIA approach: findings from five case studies.

    PubMed

    König, Hannes Jochen; Uthes, Sandra; Schuler, Johannes; Zhen, Lin; Purushothaman, Seema; Suarma, Utia; Sghaier, Mongi; Makokha, Stella; Helming, Katharina; Sieber, Stefan; Chen, Le; Brouwer, Floor; Morris, Jake; Wiggering, Hubert

    2013-09-01

    The impact of land use changes on sustainable development is of increasing interest in many regions of the world. This study aimed to test the transferability of the Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA), which was originally developed in the European context, to developing countries, in which lack of data often prevents the use of data-driven impact assessment methods. The core aspect of FoPIA is the stakeholder-based assessment of alternative land use scenarios. Scenario impacts on regional sustainability are assessed by using a set of nine regional land use functions (LUFs), which equally cover the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. The cases analysed in this study include (1) the alternative spatial planning policies around the Merapi volcano and surrounding areas of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia; (2) the large-scale afforestation of agricultural areas to reduce soil erosion in Guyuan, China; (3) the expansion of soil and water conservation measures in the Oum Zessar watershed, Tunisia; (4) the agricultural intensification and the potential for organic agriculture in Bijapur, India; and (5) the land degradation and land conflicts resulting from land division and privatisation in Narok, Kenya. All five regions are characterised by population growth, partially combined with considerable economic development, environmental degradation problems and social conflicts. Implications of the regional scenario impacts as well as methodological aspects are discussed. Overall, FoPIA proved to be a useful tool for diagnosing regional human-environment interactions and for supporting the communication and social learning process among different stakeholder groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the impact of bycatch on dolphin populations: the case of the common dolphin in the eastern North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of -5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  8. Assessing the Impact of Bycatch on Dolphin Populations: The Case of the Common Dolphin in the Eastern North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Mannocci, Laura; Dabin, Willy; Augeraud-Véron, Emmanuelle; Dupuy, Jean-François; Barbraud, Christophe; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic information to monitor our study population. Necropsy analysis provided an estimate of individual age and reproductive state. Then we estimated effective survivorship (including natural and human-induced mortality), age at first reproduction and pregnancy rates. Reproductive parameters were consistent with literature, but effective survivorship was unexpectedly low. Demographic parameters were then used as inputs in two models. A constant parameter matrix proposed an effective growth rate of −5.5±0.5%, corresponding to the current situation (including bycatch mortality). Subsequently, deterministic projections suggested that the population would be reduced to 20% of its current size in 30 years and would be extinct in 100 years. The demographic invariant model suggested a maximum growth rate of +4.5±0.09%, corresponding to the optimal demographic situation. Then, a risk analysis incorporating Potential Biological Removal (PBR), based on two plausible scenarii for stock structure suggested that bycatch level was unsustainable for the neritic population of the Bay of Biscay under a two-stock scenario. In depth assessment of stock structure and improved observer programs to provide scientifically robust bycatch estimates are needed. Effective conservation measures would be reducing bycatch to less than 50% of the current level in the neritic stock to reach PBR. Our approach provided indicators of the status and trajectory of the common dolphin population in the eastern North

  9. Assessing climate change impacts on fruit plant and pest phenology and their synchrony: the case of apple and codling moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, Raphael; Stöckli, Sibylle; Calanca, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a main climatic driver of plant phenology and the dominant abiotic factor directly affecting insect pests. Global warming is therefore expected to accelerate the development of plants and insects. Moreover, in the case of multivoltine pest species higher temperatures are expected to lead to the appearance of additional generations toward the end of the warm season. These changes could entail higher pest pressure and hence require an adaptation of pest management, but ultimately this would depend on whether plant and pest phenology remain synchronized or not. In this contribution we present an analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the phenology of the apple tree (Malus pumila L.), a fruit crop of economic relevance worldwide, and the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), one of its main pests. Key developmental stages of the apple and the codling moth were simulated by means of two heat summation models. The models were calibrated with lab and field data from Switzerland and subsequently run with observed weather data and various climate change scenarios. The time period between flowering termination and the harvest of the apples was compared to the appearance of the second and third generation of codling moth larvae to study the interlinkage between host and pest. To illustrate the potential for practical applications of the phenology models, we used spatial temperature data of Switzerland to produce risk maps that can serve as a basis for further studies and decision support.

  10. Quantitative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in selected categories of deli meats: impact of lactate and diacetate on listeriosis cases and deaths.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Foodborne disease associated with consumption of ready-to-eat foods contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes represents a considerable pubic health concern. In a risk assessment published in 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service estimated that about 90% of human listeriosis cases in the United States are caused by consumption of contaminated deli meats. In this risk assessment, all deli meats were grouped into one of 23 categories of ready-to-eat foods, and only the postretail growth of L. monocytogenes was considered. To provide an improved risk assessment for L. monocytogenes in deli meats, we developed a revised risk assessment that (i) models risk for three subcategories of deli meats (i.e., ham, turkey, and roast beef) and (ii) models L. monocytogenes contamination and growth from production to consumption while considering subcategory-specific growth kinetics parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate). This model also was used to assess how reformulation of the chosen deli meat subcategories with L. monocytogenes growth inhibitors (i.e., lactate and diacetate) would impact the number of human listeriosis cases. Use of product-specific growth parameters demonstrated how certain deli meat categories differ in the relative risk of causing listeriosis; products that support more rapid growth and have reduced lag phases (e.g., turkey) represent a higher risk. Although reformulation of deli meats with growth inhibitors was estimated to reduce by about 2.5- to 7.8-fold the number of human listeriosis cases linked to a given deli meat subcategory and thus would reduce the overall risk of human listeriosis, even with reformulation deli meats would still cause a considerable number of human listeriosis cases. A combination of strategies is thus needed to provide continued reduction of these cases. Risk assessment models such as that described here will be critical for evaluation of different control

  11. Applicability of ranked Regional Climate Models (RCM) to assess the impact of climate change on Ganges: A case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Jatin; Devak, Manjula; Gosain, Ashvani Kumar; Khosa, Rakesh; Dhanya, Ct

    2017-04-01

    The negative impact of climate change is felt over wide range of spatial scales, ranging from small basins to large watershed area, which can possibly outweighs the benefits of natural water system. General Circulation Models (GCMs) has been widely used as an input to a hydrological models (HMs), to simulate different hydrological components of a river basin. However, the coarser scale of GCMs and spatio-temporal biases, restricted its use at finer resolution. If downscaled, adds one more level of uncertainty i.e., downscaling uncertainty together with model and scenario uncertainty. The outputs computed from Regional Climate Models (RCM) may aid the uncertainties arising from GCMs, as the RCMs are the miniatures of GCMs. However, the RCMs do have some inherent systematic biases, hence bias correction is a prerequisite process before it is fed to HMs. RCMs, together with the input from GCMs at later boundaries also takes topography of the area into account. Hence, RCMs need to be ranked a priori. In this study, impact of climate change on the Ganga basin, India, is assessed using the ranked RCMs. Firstly, bias correction of 14 RCM models are done using Quantile-Quantile mapping and Equidistant cumulative distribution method, for historic (1990-2004) and future scenario (2021-2100), respectively. The runoff simulations from Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), for historic scenario is used for ranking of RCMs. Entropy and PROMETHEE-2 method is employed to rank the RCMs based on five performance indicators namely, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), normalised root mean square error (NRMSE), absolute normalised mean bias error (ANMBE) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The results illustrated that each of the performance indicators behaves differently for different RCMs. RCA 4 (CNRM-CERFACS) is found as the best model with the highest value of  (0.85), followed by RCA4 (MIROC) and RCA4 (ICHEC) with  values of 0.80 and 0

  12. Environmental Mission Impact Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    System Agency’s (DISA) Federated Search service. The mission impacts can be generated for a general rectangular area, or generated for routes, route...that respond to queries (format- ted according to DISA’s Federated Search specifi- FIGURE 2 EVIS service-oriented architecture design, illustrating the

  13. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  14. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzwairo, Bloodless; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Love, David; Guzha, Edward

    In resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses. Groundwater pollution potential from on-site sanitation in such areas conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles that advocate for sustainable use of water resources. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. This study assessed impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Kamangira village, Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Groundwater samples from 14 monitoring boreholes and 3 shallow wells were analysed during 6 sampling campaigns, from February 2005 to May 2005. Parameters analysed were total and faecal coliforms, NH4+-N, NO3--N, conductivity, turbidity and pH, both for boreholes and shallow wells. Total and faecal coliforms both ranged 0-TNTC (too-numerous-to-count), 78% of results meeting the 0 CFU/100 ml WHO guidelines value. NH4+-N range was 0-2.0 mg/l, with 99% of results falling below the 1.5 mg/l WHO recommended value. NO3--N range was 0.0-6.7 mg/l, within 10 mg/l WHO guidelines value. The range for conductivity values was 46-370 μS/cm while the pH range was 6.8-7.9. There are no WHO guideline values for these two parameters. Turbidity ranged from 1 NTU to 45 NTU, 59% of results meeting the 5 NTU WHO guidelines limit. Depth from the ground surface to the water table for the period February 2005 to May 2005 was determined for all sampling points using a tape measure. The drop in water table averaged from 1.1 m to 1.9 m and these values were obtained by subtracting water table elevations from absolute ground surface elevation. Soil from the monitoring boreholes was classified as sandy. The soil infiltration layer was taken as the layer between the pit latrine bottom and the water table. It averaged from 1.3 m to 1.7 m above the water table for two latrines

  15. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  16. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Francesca; Grignolio, Stefano; Sica, Nicoletta; Cerise, Stefano; Bassano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural) effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury) and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex): during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females) or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation). Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid biased

  17. Environmental quality assessment of reservoirs impacted by Hg from chlor-alkali technologies: case study of a recovery.

    PubMed

    Le Faucheur, Séverine; Vasiliu, Dan; Catianis, Irina; Zazu, Mariana; Dranguet, Perrine; Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Cosio, Claudia; Ungureanu, Costin; Ungureanu, Viorel Gheorghe; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2016-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) pollution legacy of chlor-alkali plants will be an important issue in the next decades with the planned phase out of Hg-based electrodes by 2025 within the Minamata convention. In such a context, the present study aimed to examine the extent of Hg contamination in the reservoirs surrounding the Oltchim plant and to evaluate the possible improvement of the environmental quality since the closure of its chlor-alkali unit. This plant is the largest chlor-alkali plant in Romania, which partly switched to Hg-free technology in 1999 and definitely stopped the use of Hg electrolysis in May 2012. Total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (CH3Hg) concentrations were found to decrease in the surface waters and sediments of the reservoirs receiving the effluents of the chlor-alkali platform since the closure of Hg units. Hence, calculated risk quotients (RQ) indicated no adverse effect of Hg for aquatic organisms from the ambient water exposure. RQ of Hg in sediments were mostly all higher than 1, showing important risks for benthic organisms. However, ecotoxicity testing of water and sediments suggest possible impact of other contaminants and their mixtures. Hg hotspots were found in soils around the platform with RQ values much higher than 1. Finally, THg and CH3Hg concentrations in fish were below the food safety limit set by the WHO, which contrasts with previous measurements made in 2007 revealing that 92 % of the studied fish were of high risk of consumption. Discontinuing the use of Hg electrodes greatly improved the surrounding environment of chlor-alkali plants within the following years and led to the decrease environmental exposure to Hg through fish consumption. However, sediment and soil still remained highly contaminated and problematic for the river reservoir management. The results of this ecological risk assessment study have important implications for the evaluation of the benefits as well as limits of the Minamata Convention implementation.

  18. An assessment of the impact of home safety assessments on fires and fire-related injuries: a case study of Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service.

    PubMed

    Arch, B N; Thurston, M N

    2013-06-01

    Deaths and injuries related to fires are largely preventable events. In the UK, a plethora of community-based fire safety initiatives have been introduced over the last 25 years, often led by fire and rescue services, to address this issue. This paper focuses on one such initiative--home safety assessments (HSAs). Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service (in England) implemented a uniquely large-scale HSA intervention. This paper assesses its effectiveness. The impact of HSAs was assessed in relation to three outcomes: accidental dwelling fires (ADFs), ADFs contained and injuries arising from ADFs. A two-period comparison in fire-related rates of incidences in Cheshire between 2002 and 2011 was implemented, using Poisson regression and adjusting for the national temporal trend using a control group comprising the 37 other English non-metropolitan fire-services. Significant reductions were observed in rates of ADFs [incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.83, P < 0.001, 2002/03-2007/08 versus 2008/09-2010/11] and associated injuries (IRR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.39-0.60, P < 0.001, 2002/03-2006/07 versus 2007/08-2010/11), but not in the proportion of fires contained to room of origin. There is strong evidence to suggest that the intervention was successful in reducing domestic fires and related injuries.

  19. Assessing Cross-Media Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiquam, Howard; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Using 1000 MW coal-fired central power stations as an example, the impacts upon other media (land, air, water) are analyzed when controls are imposed on one medium. The development of a methodology for assessing the cross-media impact of specific control technologies or strategies is illustrated. (Author/BT)

  20. Assessing Cross-Media Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiquam, Howard; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Using 1000 MW coal-fired central power stations as an example, the impacts upon other media (land, air, water) are analyzed when controls are imposed on one medium. The development of a methodology for assessing the cross-media impact of specific control technologies or strategies is illustrated. (Author/BT)

  1. Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions in river flood defences to uncertainty in climate impact analysis: A case study on the River Suir, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Murphy, C.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenging environment for policy makers and planners as future climate projections are fraught with uncertainty. From the formulation of emissions scenarios, through to the output from Global Climate Models to the regional and then the local scale, uncertainty propagates and increases leading to a cascade of uncertainty (Jones, 2001). The level of flood defences for rivers in Ireland has been built to withstand the 1 in 100 year event based on the historic record. However, stream flow due to climate change is likely to increase by 20% in winter by mid century. The Office of Public Works has therefore revised their projections by adding 20% to the 1 in 100 year event as a design feature of their new flood defences. This poster presents a sensitivity analysis of how various aspects of the climate impact assessment affect the revised level of the 1 in 100 year flood. The River Suir is used as a case study. This poster aims to quantify how different aspects of climate impact assessment uncertainty (GCM, Emissions scenario, impact model) affect the revised level of the 1 in 100 year flood and evaluates if the design of flood defences remains robust to the this uncertainty. Authors. Nuala Murphy Conor Murphy

  2. Impacts of river water consumption on aquatic biodiversity in life cycle assessment--a proposed method, and a case study for Europe.

    PubMed

    Tendall, Danielle M; Hellweg, Stefanie; Pfister, Stephan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Gaillard, Gérard

    2014-03-18

    In the context of climate change and food provisioning for a growing global population, the impacts of water consumption on aquatic biodiversity (e.g., river water consumption for irrigation) should be considered in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). A previous LCIA method quantifying the potential impacts of river water consumption on fish biodiversity, using a species-discharge relationship (SDR), constituted an essential first step. This method is however limited in terms of regionalization and taxa considered, and predicts the potential risk of local species loss only. Here, we address these shortcomings by developing region-specific SDRs for Europe at various scales (continent, country, and eco-region), and including macro-invertebrate biodiversity. SDR exponents vary from 0.06 to 0.45 between regions, underlining the importance of such regionalization. Furthermore, we provide a new regionalized method which considers the location of water consumption within a river basin, by integrating the concept of longitudinal river zonation. This involves the use of a novel measure of potential loss of species richness, standardizing local species loss to an equivalent of global extinction and reflecting species vulnerability. The new method is applied in a Swiss case-study. The consideration of the location of water consumption within a basin was found to be of high importance in the assessment: potential species loss varied between 4.22 × 10(-3) and 3.95 × 10(-1) species (2 orders of magnitude) depending on location. This work thus provides enhancements in the assessment of potential impacts of river water consumption on aquatic biodiversity and contributes to the ecological relevance of the method.

  3. Assessment of biomass burning emissions and their impacts on urban and regional PM2.5: a Georgia case study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Wang, Yuhang; Boylan, James W; Zheng, Mei; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-01-15

    Biomass burning is a major and growing contributor to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Such impacts (especially individual impacts from each burning source) are quantified using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, a chemical transport model (CTM). Given the sensitivity of CTM results to uncertain emission inputs, simulations were conducted using three biomass burning inventories. Shortcomings in the burning emissions were also evaluated by comparing simulations with observations and results from a receptor model. Model performance improved significantly with the updated emissions and speciation profiles based on recent measurements for biomass burning: mean fractional bias is reduced from 22% to 4% for elemental carbon and from 18% to 12% for organic matter; mean fractional error is reduced from 59% to 50% for elemental carbon and from 55% to 49% for organic matter. Quantified impacts of biomass burning on PM2.5 during January, March, May, and July 2002 are 3.0, 5.1, 0.8, and 0.3 microg m(-3) domainwide on average, with more than 80% of such impacts being from primary emissions. Impacts of prescribed burning dominate biomass burning impacts, contributing about 55% and 80% of PM2.5 in January and March, respectively, followed by land clearing and agriculture field burning. Significant impacts of wildfires in May and residential wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves in January are also found.

  4. Assessing the impact of mass media public health campaigns. Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee': a case in point.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Browne, Daisy; Mensah, Elsie; Vale, Justin; Mayer, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact on suspected cancer referral burden and new cancer diagnosis of Public Health England's recent Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee' mass media campaign. A retrospective cohort study design was used. For two distinct time periods, August 2012 to May 2013 and August 2013 to May 2014, all referrals of patients deemed to be at risk of urological cancer by the referring primary healthcare physician to Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust were screened. Data were collected on age and sex and whether the referral was for visible haematuria, non-visible haematuria or other suspected urological cancer. In addition to referral data, hospital episode data for all new renal cell (RCC) and upper and lower tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), as well as testicular and prostate cancer diagnoses for the same time periods were obtained. Over the campaign period and the subsequent 3 months, the number of haematuria referrals increased by 92% (P = 0.013) when compared with the same period a year earlier. This increase in referrals was not associated with a significant corresponding rise in cancer diagnosis; instead changes of 26.8% (P = 0.56) and -3.3% (P = 0.84) were seen in RCC and TCC, respectively. This study has shown that the Be Clear on Cancer 'blood in pee' mass media campaign significantly increased the number of new suspected cancer referrals, but there was no significant change in the diagnosis of target cancers across a large catchment. Mass media campaigns are expensive, require significant planning and appropriate implementation and, while the findings of this study do not challenge their fundamental objective, more work needs to be done to understand why no significant change in target cancers was observed. Further consideration should also be given to the increased referral burden that results from these campaigns, such that pre-emptive strategies, including educational and process mapping, across primary and secondary care can be implemented

  5. Uncertainty in Agricultural Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallach, Daniel; Mearns, Linda O.; Rivington, Michael; Antle, John M.; Ruane, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers issues concerning uncertainty associated with modeling and its use within agricultural impact assessments. Information about uncertainty is important for those who develop assessment methods, since that information indicates the need for, and the possibility of, improvement of the methods and databases. Such information also allows one to compare alternative methods. Information about the sources of uncertainties is an aid in prioritizing further work on the impact assessment method. Uncertainty information is also necessary for those who apply assessment methods, e.g., for projecting climate change impacts on agricultural production and for stakeholders who want to use the results as part of a decision-making process (e.g., for adaptation planning). For them, uncertainty information indicates the degree of confidence they can place in the simulated results. Quantification of uncertainty also provides stakeholders with an important guideline for making decisions that are robust across the known uncertainties. Thus, uncertainty information is important for any decision based on impact assessment. Ultimately, we are interested in knowledge about uncertainty so that information can be used to achieve positive outcomes from agricultural modeling and impact assessment.

  6. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  7. Using global Climate Impact Indicators to assess water resource availability in a Mediterranean mountain catchment: the Sierra Nevada study case (Spain) in the SWICCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Gulliver, Zacarias; José Polo, María

    2017-04-01

    Climate services provide water resource managements and users with science-based information on the likely impacts associated to the future climate scenarios. Mountainous areas are especially vulnerable to climate variations due to the expected changes in the snow regime, among others; in Mediterranean regions, this shift involves significant effects on the river flow regime and water resource availability and management. The Guadalfeo River Basin is a 1345 km2 mountainous, coastal catchment in southern Spain, ranging from the Mediterranean Sea coastline to the Sierra Nevada mountains to the north (up to 3450 m a.s.l.) within a 40-km distance. The climate variability adds complexity to this abrupt topography and heterogeneous area. The uncertainty associated to snow occurrence and persistence for the next decades poses a challenge for the current and future water resource uses in the area. The development of easy-to-use local climate indicators and derived decision-making variables is key to assess and face the economic impact of the potential changes. The SWICCA (Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation) Platform (http://swicca.climate.copernicus.eu/) has been developed under the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and provides global climate and hydrology indicators on a Pan-European scale. Different case studies are included to assess the platform development and contents, and analyse the indicators' performance from a proof-of-concept approach that includes end-users feedbacks. The Guadalfeo River Basin is one of these case studies. This work presents the work developed so far to analyse and use the SWICCA Climate Impact Indicators (CIIs) related to river flow in this mountainous area, and the first set of local indicators specifically designed to assess selected end-users on the potential impact associated to different climate scenarios. Different CIIs were extracted from the SWICCA interface and tested against the local information

  8. Beyond citation analysis: a model for assessment of research impact

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, Ellen K.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Is there a means of assessing research impact beyond citation analysis? Setting: The case study took place at the Washington University School of Medicine Becker Medical Library. Method: This case study analyzed the research study process to identify indicators beyond citation count that demonstrate research impact. Main Results: The authors discovered a number of indicators that can be documented for assessment of research impact, as well as resources to locate evidence of impact. As a result of the project, the authors developed a model for assessment of research impact, the Becker Medical Library Model for Assessment of Research. Conclusion: Assessment of research impact using traditional citation analysis alone is not a sufficient tool for assessing the impact of research findings, and it is not predictive of subsequent clinical applications resulting in meaningful health outcomes. The Becker Model can be used by both researchers and librarians to document research impact to supplement citation analysis. PMID:20098647

  9. The Self-Assessment Process and Impacts on the Health Information Management Program Performance: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Spohn, Renae

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how health information management (HIM) educational programs can use the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Model (MBNQAM) educational criteria to meet the self-assessment requirement for Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) accreditation. An existing instrument, Quantum Performance Group's Organizational Assessment Survey authored by Dr. Mark Blazey, was used in this study. The instrument was designed to self-assess the entire organization. Results of the study demonstrate how the MBNQAM can be used to successfully self-assess HIM programs. This research adds to the body of literature surrounding the application of the MBNQAM for HIM programs and provides new information to deans, administrators, and educators that may be useful, as an added component, when self-assessing HIM programs. The results of this study will help to establish a foundation for HIM programs to strengthen the self-assessment process, providing a strong starting point for strategic planning prioritization for HIM program improvement initiatives. The improved process will help in maturing the HIM program while fulfilling accreditation requirements for self-assessment. As additional HIM programs formalize the self-assessment process, benchmarking opportunities with other HIM programs will be created.

  10. The Self-Assessment Process and Impacts on the Health Information Management Program Performance: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Spohn, Renae

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how health information management (HIM) educational programs can use the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Model (MBNQAM) educational criteria to meet the self-assessment requirement for Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) accreditation. An existing instrument, Quantum Performance Group's Organizational Assessment Survey authored by Dr. Mark Blazey, was used in this study. The instrument was designed to self-assess the entire organization. Results of the study demonstrate how the MBNQAM can be used to successfully self-assess HIM programs. This research adds to the body of literature surrounding the application of the MBNQAM for HIM programs and provides new information to deans, administrators, and educators that may be useful, as an added component, when self-assessing HIM programs. The results of this study will help to establish a foundation for HIM programs to strengthen the self-assessment process, providing a strong starting point for strategic planning prioritization for HIM program improvement initiatives. The improved process will help in maturing the HIM program while fulfilling accreditation requirements for self-assessment. As additional HIM programs formalize the self-assessment process, benchmarking opportunities with other HIM programs will be created. PMID:26755899

  11. From impact assessment to recommendation: How are the impact assessment results presented and used?

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, T.

    1995-07-01

    Most work on impact assessment (IA) deals with data, technique, and procedures for making the assessment. While these things can influence the final choice of planning alternative, it is equally important how the assessment results are used in the political decision process. The case material concerns integrated transportation and land use plans for the 10 largest urban regions in Norway. It is demonstrated that application of the impact assessment results varies widely among the cities. The information potential of the impact calculations is considerably underexploited in many cases, and assessment results seem too easily ignored in the process of reaching a recommendation on planning strategy. Some factors are identified and discussed in an attempt to shed light on this phenomenon.

  12. Assessment of wildland fire impacts on watershed annual water yield: Analytical framework and case studies in the United States

    Treesearch

    Dennis W. Hallema; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steve Norman; Erika Cohen Mack; Yongqiang Liu; Eric J. Ward; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    More than 50% of water supplies in the conterminous United States originate on forestland or rangeland, and are potentially under increasing stress as a result of larger and more severe wildfires. Little is known however about the long-term impacts of fire on annual water yield, and the role of climate variability within this context. We here propose a framework for...

  13. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  14. Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoussi, Maria; Ouchani, Tachfine; Niazi, Saïda

    2008-04-01

    The eastern part of the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is physically and socio-economically vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise, due to its low topography and its high ecological and touristic value. Assessment of the potential land loss by inundation has been based on empirical approaches using a minimum inundation level of 2 m and a maximum inundation level of 7 m, where scenarios for future sea-level rise range from 200 to 860 mm, with a 'best estimate' of 490 mm. The socio-economic impacts have been based on two possible alternative futures: (1) a 'worst-case' scenario, obtained by combining the 'economic development first' scenario with the maximum inundation level; and (2) a 'best-case' scenario, by combining the 'sustainability first' scenario with the minimum inundation level. Inundation analysis, based on Geographical Information Systems and a modelling approach to erosion, has identified both locations and the socioeconomic sectors that are most at risk to accelerated sea-level rise. Results indicate that 24% and 59% of the area will be lost by flooding at minimum and maximum inundation levels, respectively. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the residential and recreational areas, agricultural land, and the natural ecosystem. Shoreline erosion will affect 50% and 70% of the total area in 2050 and 2100, respectively. Potential strategies to ameliorate the impact of seawater inundation include: wetland preservation; beach nourishment at tourist resorts; and the afforestation of dunes. As this coast is planned to become one of the most developed tourist resorts in Morocco by 2010, measures such as building regulation, urban growth planning and development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan, are recommended for the region.

  15. Assessing land take by urban development and its impact on carbon storage: Findings from two case studies in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sallustio, L.; Quatrini, V.; Geneletti, D.; Corona, P.; Marchetti, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We tested a new methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on C storage. • The ecological impact of urban growth derives from the previous land use. • C loss increases with the naturalness of the territory. • Different urban assets may imply different forms of land take containment. Land take due to urbanization triggers a series of negative environmental impacts with direct effects on quality of life for people living in cities. Changes in ecosystem services are associated with land take, among which is the immediate C loss due to land use conversion. Land use change monitoring represents the first step in quantifying land take and its drivers and impacts. To this end, we propose an innovative methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on ecosystem services (in particular, C loss) under multi-scale contexts. The devised approach was tested in two areas with similar sizes, but different land take levels during the time-span 1990–2008 in Central Italy (the Province of Rome and the Molise Region). The estimates of total coverage of built up areas were calculated using point sampling. The area of the urban patches including each sampling point classified as built up areas in the year 1990 and/or in the year 2008 is used to estimate total abundance and average area of built up areas. Biophysical and economic values for carbon loss associated with land take were calculated using InVEST. Although land take was 7–8 times higher in the Province of Rome (from 15.1% in 1990 to 20.4% in 2008) than in Molise region, our findings show that its relative impact on C storage is higher in the latter, where the urban growth consistently affects not only croplands but also semi-natural land uses such as grasslands and other wooded lands. The total C loss due to land take has been estimated in 1.6 million Mg C, corresponding to almost 355 million €. Finally, the paper discusses the main characteristics of urban growth and their

  16. Assessment of Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) Training: A Case Study of a Training Program and Its Impact on GTAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Stacy L.; Bippus, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Graduate teaching associates (GTAs) play a vital role as instructors at many universities but often are not confident in their ability to perform their job-related duties. Based on Bandura's (1997) theory of self-efficacy, this project examined a teacher-training program for GTAs and assessed its outcomes. Our results revealed that GTAs reported…

  17. Assessment of Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) Training: A Case Study of a Training Program and Its Impact on GTAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Stacy L.; Bippus, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Graduate teaching associates (GTAs) play a vital role as instructors at many universities but often are not confident in their ability to perform their job-related duties. Based on Bandura's (1997) theory of self-efficacy, this project examined a teacher-training program for GTAs and assessed its outcomes. Our results revealed that GTAs reported…

  18. Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

  19. The use of cartographic modeling to assess the impacts of coastal flooding: a case study of Port Said Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou Samra, Rasha M

    2017-09-01

    Low-set coastal areas are expected to aggravate inundation on account of sea level rise (SLR). The present study is planned to appraise the impacts of coastal flooding in Port Said city, Egypt by using remote sensing, GIS, and cartographic modeling techniques. To accomplish this scope, Landsat 8-OLI image dated 2016 and SRTM 1Arc-Second Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were used. Landsat image was classified into seven land use and land cover (LULC) classes by using remote sensing and GIS's software. Different inundation scenarios 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0-m coastal elevation were used to figure the influence of SLR on the study area. Estimation of potential losses under SLR was made by overlaying the expected scenarios on land use. The inundation areas under the expected SLR scenarios of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 m were estimated at 827.49, 1072.67, and 1179.41 km(2), respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that expected coastal flooding scenarios will lead up to serious impacts on LULC classes and coastal features in the study area.

  20. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  1. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  2. C-17A Sustainment Performance Metrics Assessment: Repair Source Impact on Sustainment for Future Business Case Analysis Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Maintenance Depots. June 10, 2010. Report No. D-2010-067. Kaplan , Robert S., Norton , David P., Putting the Balances Scorecard to Work. Harvard...metrics. Most applicably, a recognized “best practice”, as advocated by Kaplan (1993), used a balanced scorecard to assess cross-functional areas...strategic model to measure the balanced scorecard as cited in Graham (1996). Both Kaplan and Brown viewed performance metrics as the key success

  3. Biomass burning influences on atmospheric composition: A case study to assess the impact of aerosol data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keslake, Tim; Chipperfield, Martyn; Mann, Graham; Flemming, Johannes; Remy, Sam; Dhomse, Sandip; Morgan, Will

    2016-04-01

    The C-IFS (Composition Integrated Forecast System) developed under the MACC series of projects and to be continued under the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring System, provides global operational forecasts and re-analyses of atmospheric composition at high spatial resolution (T255, ~80km). Currently there are 2 aerosol schemes implemented within C-IFS, a mass-based scheme with externally mixed particle types and an aerosol microphysics scheme (GLOMAP-mode). The simpler mass-based scheme is the current operational system, also used in the existing system to assimilate satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for improved forecast capability. The microphysical GLOMAP scheme has now been implemented and evaluated in the latest C-IFS cycle alongside the mass-based scheme. The upgrade to the microphysical scheme provides for higher fidelity aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, accounting for global variations in size distribution and mixing state, and additional aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. The new scheme will also provide increased aerosol information when used as lateral boundary conditions for regional air quality models. Here we present a series of experiments highlighting the influence and accuracy of the two different aerosol schemes and the impact of MODIS AOD assimilation. In particular, we focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on aerosol properties in the Amazon, comparing to ground-based and aircraft observations from the 2012 SAMBBA campaign. Biomass burning can affect regional air quality, human health, regional weather and the local energy budget. Tropical biomass burning generates particles primarily composed of particulate organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC), the local ratio of these two different constituents often determining the properties and subsequent impacts of the aerosol particles. Therefore, the model's ability to capture the concentrations of these two

  4. Near Real-Time Flood Monitoring and Impact Assessment Systems. Chapter 6; [Case Study: 2011 Flooding in Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, C.; Fayne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the costliest natural disaster (United Nations 2004), causing approximately6.8 million deaths in the twentieth century alone (Doocy et al. 2013).Worldwide economic flood damage estimates in 2012 exceed $19 Billion USD(Munich Re 2013). Extended duration floods also pose longer term threats to food security, water, sanitation, hygiene, and community livelihoods, particularly in developing countries (Davies et al. 2014).Projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggest that precipitation extremes, rainfall intensity, storm intensity, and variability are increasing due to climate change (IPCC 2007). Increasing hydrologic uncertainty will likely lead to unprecedented extreme flood events. As such, there is a vital need to enhance and further develop traditional techniques used to rapidly assessflooding and extend analytical methods to estimate impacted population and infrastructure.

  5. An assessment of the impact of the pet trade on five CITES-Appendix II case studies - Boa constrictor imperator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, Chad E.; Boback, Scott M.; Reed, Robert N.; Frazier, Julius A.

    2015-01-01

    Boa constrictor is a wide ranging snake species that is common in the pet trade and is currently listed in CITES Appendix II. Hog Island boas, or Cayos Cochinos boas, are a dwarf, insular race of Boa constrictor imperator endemic to the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras. Cayos Cochinos boas are prized in the international pet trade for their light pink dorsal coloration, as well as for being much smaller and more docile than mainland boas (Porras, 1999; Russo, 2007). The boa population in the Cayos Cochinos was heavily exploited for the pet trade from 1979 to 1993, and researchers reported finding no boas on the islands during a five day herpetological survey trip in the early 1990s (Wilson and CruzDiaz, 1993), leading to the speculation that the population had been extirpated (e.g., Russo, 2007). The Cayos Cochinos Archipelago Natural Marine Monument has been managed by the Honduran Coral Reef Foundation since 1994 and prohibits removal of boas from the area. Poaching for the pet trade continues today, although at a lower level. Due to the endemic nature of this island morph of B. c. imperator it is imperative that we understand the dynamics of the populations and the ongoing threats that could negatively impact their long-term survival.

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Phytoplankton Functional Types from Space - A Case Study for the Amazon River Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.; McKee, K.; Galina, T.; Chen, T. L.; Diaz Turkowsky, M.; Yager, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    As human activities continue to raise the levels of atmospheric and oceanic CO2, we require a clearer understanding of the responses of plankton to these increases and better ways to detect the global impacts of anthropogenic change on marine ecosystems. The Amazon River plume which contains the surface ocean's largest environmental gradient of pCO2 ( 100 ppm and 1300 μmol C kg-1), provides the perfect natural laboratory for making critical progress on these challenges. Our recent ship-based bio-optical measurements along the plume's gradient of salinity, CDOM, nutrients and pCO2, together with on-deck and laboratory - CO2 manipulation experiments, suggest that phytoplankton community structure and metabolic activity may be in large part controlled by DIC concentrations and to a lesser degree by dissolved inorganic phosphate and nitrate availability. These observations allow us to postulate that 1) coastal-estuarine phytoplankton, which are typically exposed to a wider range of pH than their truly oceanic counterparts, are as susceptible to ocean acidification as their oceanic counterparts and 2) changes in the carbonic acid system will fundamentally alter the community structure and function of tropical marine primary producers. We also discuss our findings in the context of their potential application to ocean acidification studies using satellite data.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  9. Integrating a process-based ecosystem model with Landsat imagery to assess impacts of forest disturbance on terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in Alabama and Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guangsheng; Tian, Hanqin; Huang, Chengquan; Prior, Stephen A.; Pan, Shufen

    2013-07-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are dramatically altered by three major disturbances: timber harvesting, hurricane, and permanent land conversion. Understanding and quantifying effects of disturbance on forest carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles is critical for sustainable forest management in this region. In this study, we introduced a process-based ecosystem model for simulating forest disturbance impacts on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles. Based on forest mortality data classified from Landsat TM/ETM + images, this model was then applied to estimate changes in carbon storage using Mississippi and Alabama as a case study. Mean annual forest mortality rate for these states was 2.37%. Due to frequent disturbance, over 50% of the forest land in the study region was less than 30 years old. Forest disturbance events caused a large carbon source (138.92 Tg C, 6.04 Tg C yr-1; 1 Tg = 1012 g) for both states during 1984–2007, accounting for 2.89% (4.81% if disregard carbon storage changes in wood products) of the total forest carbon storage in this region. Large decreases and slow recovery of forest biomass were the main causes for carbon release. Forest disturbance could result in a carbon sink in few areas if wood product carbon was considered as a local carbon pool, indicating the importance of accounting for wood product carbon when assessing forest disturbance effects. The legacy effects of forest disturbance on ecosystem carbon storage could last over 50 years. Lastly, this study implies that understanding forest disturbance impacts on carbon dynamics is of critical importance for assessing regional carbon budgets.

  10. Integrating a process-based ecosystem model with Landsat imagery to assess impacts of forest disturbance on terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in Alabama and Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangsheng; Tian, Hanqin; Huang, Chengquan; Prior, Stephen A.; Pan, Shufen

    2013-07-01

    ecosystems in the southern United States are dramatically altered by three major disturbances: timber harvesting, hurricane, and permanent land conversion. Understanding and quantifying effects of disturbance on forest carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles is critical for sustainable forest management in this region. In this study, we introduced a process-based ecosystem model for simulating forest disturbance impacts on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles. Based on forest mortality data classified from Landsat TM/ETM + images, this model was then applied to estimate changes in carbon storage using Mississippi and Alabama as a case study. Mean annual forest mortality rate for these states was 2.37%. Due to frequent disturbance, over 50% of the forest land in the study region was less than 30 years old. Forest disturbance events caused a large carbon source (138.92 Tg C, 6.04 Tg C yr-1; 1 Tg = 1012 g) for both states during 1984-2007, accounting for 2.89% (4.81% if disregard carbon storage changes in wood products) of the total forest carbon storage in this region. Large decreases and slow recovery of forest biomass were the main causes for carbon release. Forest disturbance could result in a carbon sink in few areas if wood product carbon was considered as a local carbon pool, indicating the importance of accounting for wood product carbon when assessing forest disturbance effects. The legacy effects of forest disturbance on ecosystem carbon storage could last over 50 years. This study implies that understanding forest disturbance impacts on carbon dynamics is of critical importance for assessing regional carbon budgets.

  11. Integrating a process-based ecosystem model with Landsat imagery to assess impacts of forest disturbance on terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in Alabama and Mississippi

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Guangsheng; Tian, Hanqin; Huang, Chengquan; ...

    2013-07-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are dramatically altered by three major disturbances: timber harvesting, hurricane, and permanent land conversion. Understanding and quantifying effects of disturbance on forest carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles is critical for sustainable forest management in this region. In this study, we introduced a process-based ecosystem model for simulating forest disturbance impacts on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles. Based on forest mortality data classified from Landsat TM/ETM + images, this model was then applied to estimate changes in carbon storage using Mississippi and Alabama as a case study. Mean annual forest mortality rate formore » these states was 2.37%. Due to frequent disturbance, over 50% of the forest land in the study region was less than 30 years old. Forest disturbance events caused a large carbon source (138.92 Tg C, 6.04 Tg C yr-1; 1 Tg = 1012 g) for both states during 1984–2007, accounting for 2.89% (4.81% if disregard carbon storage changes in wood products) of the total forest carbon storage in this region. Large decreases and slow recovery of forest biomass were the main causes for carbon release. Forest disturbance could result in a carbon sink in few areas if wood product carbon was considered as a local carbon pool, indicating the importance of accounting for wood product carbon when assessing forest disturbance effects. The legacy effects of forest disturbance on ecosystem carbon storage could last over 50 years. Lastly, this study implies that understanding forest disturbance impacts on carbon dynamics is of critical importance for assessing regional carbon budgets.« less

  12. [Multiple imputation and complete case analysis in logistic regression models: a practical assessment of the impact of incomplete covariate data].

    PubMed

    Camargos, Vitor Passos; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Xavier, Cesar Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2011-12-01

    Researchers in the health field often deal with the problem of incomplete databases. Complete Case Analysis (CCA), which restricts the analysis to subjects with complete data, reduces the sample size and may result in biased estimates. Based on statistical grounds, Multiple Imputation (MI) uses all collected data and is recommended as an alternative to CCA. Data from the study Saúde em Beagá, attended by 4,048 adults from two of nine health districts in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2008-2009, were used to evaluate CCA and different MI approaches in the context of logistic models with incomplete covariate data. Peculiarities in some variables in this study allowed analyzing a situation in which the missing covariate data are recovered and thus the results before and after recovery are compared. Based on the analysis, even the more simplistic MI approach performed better than CCA, since it was closer to the post-recovery results.

  13. Global Assessment of the Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Sleep through Specific Questionnaires. A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecube, Albert; Sánchez, Enric; Gómez-Peralta, Fernando; Abreu, Cristina; Valls, Joan; Mestre, Olga; Romero, Odile; Martínez, María Dolores; Sampol, Gabriel; Ciudin, Andreea; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent risk factor for sleep breathing disorders. However, it is unknown whether T2D affects daily somnolence and quality of sleep independently of the impairment of polysomnographic parameters. Material and Methods A case-control study including 413 patients with T2D and 413 non-diabetic subjects, matched by age, gender, BMI, and waist and neck circumferences. A polysomnography was performed and daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In addition, 135 subjects with T2D and 45 controls matched by the same previous parameters were also evaluated through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to calculate sleep quality. Results Daytime sleepiness was higher in T2D than in control subjects (p = 0.003), with 23.9% of subjects presenting an excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS>10). Patients with fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥13.1 mmol/l) were identified as the group with a higher risk associated with an ESS>10 (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.8–7.9, p = 0.0003). A stepwise regression analyses showed that the presence of T2D, baseline glucose levels and gender but not polysomnographic parameters (i.e apnea-hyoapnea index or sleeping time spent with oxigen saturation lower than 90%) independently predicted the ESS score. In addition, subjects with T2D showed higher sleep disturbances [PSQI: 7.0 (1.0–18.0) vs. 4 (0.0–12.0), p<0.001]. Conclusion The presence of T2D and high levels of FPG are independent risk factors for daytime sleepiness and adversely affect sleep quality. Prospective studies addressed to demonstrate whether glycemia optimization could improve the sleep quality in T2D patients seem warranted. PMID:27315083

  14. Assessing the impacts of climate change in Mediterranean catchments under conditions of data scarcity - The Gaza case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampe, David; Ludwig, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    According to current climate projections, Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. While there is scientific consensus that climate induced changes on the hydrology of Mediterranean regions are presently occurring and are projected to amplify in the future, very little knowledge is available about the quantification of these changes, which is hampered by a lack of suitable and cost effective hydrological monitoring and modeling systems. The European FP7-project CLIMB is aiming to analyze climate induced changes on the hydrology of the Mediterranean Basins by investigating seven test sites located in the countries Italy, France, Turkey, Tunisia, Gaza and Egypt. CLIMB employs a combination of novel geophysical field monitoring concepts, remote sensing techniques and integrated hydrologic modeling to improve process descriptions and understanding and to quantify existing uncertainties in climate change impact analysis. One of those seven sites is the Gaza Strip, located in the Eastern Mediterranean and part of the Palestinian Autonomous Area, covers an area of 365km² with a length of 35km and 6 to 12km in width. Elevation ranges from sea level up to 104m in the East of the test site. Mean annual precipitation varies from 235mm in the South to 420mm in the North of the area. The inter annual variability of rainfall and the rapid population growth in an highly agricultural used area represent the major challenges in this area. The physically based Water Simulation Model WaSiM Vers. 2 (Schulla & Jasper (1999)) is setup to model current and projected future hydrological conditions. The availability of measured meteorological and hydrological data is poor as common to many Mediterranean catchments. The lack of available measured input data hampers the calibration of the model setup and the validation of model outputs. WaSiM was driven with meteorological forcing taken from 4

  15. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban climate by remote satellite perspective: a case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Khanh Linh, N.; Van Chuong, H.

    2015-04-01

    Urban climate, one of the challenges of human being in 21 century, is known as the results of land use/cover transformation. Its characteristics are distinguished by different varieties of climatic conditions in comparison with those of less built-up areas. The alterations lead to "Urban Heat Island", in which temperature in urban places is higher than surrounding environment. This happens not only in mega cities but also in less urbanized sites. The results determine the change of land use/cover and land surface temperature in Danang city by using multi-temporal Landsat and ASTER data for the period of 1990-2009. Based on the supervised classification method of maximum likelihood algorithm, satellite images in 1990, 2003, 2009 were classified into five classes: water, forest, shrub, agriculture, barren land and built-up area. For accuracy assessment, the error metric tabulations of mapped classes and reference classes were made. The Kappa statistics, derived from error matrices, were over 80% for all of land use maps. An comparison change detection algorithm was made in three intervals, 1990-2003, 2003-2009 and 1990-2009. The results showed that built-up area increased from 8.95% to 17.87% between 1990 and 2009, while agriculture, shrub and barren decreased from 12.98% to 7.53%, 15.72% to 9.89% and 3.88% to 1.77% due to urbanization that resulted from increasing of urban population and economic development, respectively. Land surface temperature (LST) maps were retrieved from thermal infrared bands of Landsat and ASTER data. The result indicated that the temperature in study area increased from 39oC to 41oC for the period of 1990-2009. Our analysis showed that built-up area had the highest LST values, whereas water bodies had the least LST. This study is expected to be useful for decision makers to make an appropriate land use planning which can mitigate the effect to urban climate.

  16. Environmental impact assessment in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.G.; De Aguiar, A.M.D. . Dept. de Ecologia e Programa de Pos- graduac ao em Analise Ambiental)

    1993-05-01

    Brazilian environmental impact assessment (EIA) had a relatively late birth and is still far from being operative by international standards. Currently, geological, economic, and social considerations are more highly valued. Nevertheless, EIA has become important in shaping governmental policy. The state of Sao Paulo is responsible for 40% of all EIAs produced in Brazil, and the number of EIAs produced is proportional to stat population density.

  17. Assessing the impact of hydrodynamics on large-scale flood wave propagation - a case study for the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Jannis M.; Haag, Arjen V.; van Dam, Arthur; Winsemius, Hessel C.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale flood events often show spatial correlation in neighbouring basins, and thus can affect adjacent basins simultaneously, as well as result in superposition of different flood peaks. Such flood events therefore need to be addressed with large-scale modelling approaches to capture these processes. Many approaches currently in place are based on either a hydrologic or a hydrodynamic model. However, the resulting lack of interaction between hydrology and hydrodynamics, for instance, by implementing groundwater infiltration on inundated floodplains, can hamper modelled inundation and discharge results where such interactions are important. In this study, the global hydrologic model PCR-GLOBWB at 30 arcmin spatial resolution was one-directionally and spatially coupled with the hydrodynamic model Delft 3D Flexible Mesh (FM) for the Amazon River basin at a grid-by-grid basis and at a daily time step. The use of a flexible unstructured mesh allows for fine-scale representation of channels and floodplains, while preserving a coarser spatial resolution for less flood-prone areas, thus not unnecessarily increasing computational costs. In addition, we assessed the difference between a 1-D channel/2-D floodplain and a 2-D schematization in Delft 3D FM. Validating modelled discharge results shows that coupling PCR-GLOBWB to a hydrodynamic routing scheme generally increases model performance compared to using a hydrodynamic or hydrologic model only for all validation parameters applied. Closer examination shows that the 1-D/2-D schematization outperforms 2-D for r2 and root mean square error (RMSE) whilst having a lower Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE). We also found that spatial coupling has the significant advantage of a better representation of inundation at smaller streams throughout the model domain. A validation of simulated inundation extent revealed that only those set-ups incorporating 1-D channels are capable of representing inundations for reaches below the

  18. Alternate approaches for assessing impacts of oil sands development on air quality: A case study using the First Nation Community of Fort McKay.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Carla; Spink, David

    2017-09-25

    Previous analyses of continuously measured compounds in Fort McKay, an indigenous community in the Athabasca Oil Sands, have detected increasing concentrations of NO2 and total hydrocarbons (THC), but not of SO2, O3, total reduced sulfur compounds (TRS) or particulate matter (PM2.5). Yet the community frequently experiences odours, dust, and reduced air quality. We used Fort McKay's continuously monitored air quality data (1998-2014) as a case study to assess techniques for air quality analysis that make no assumptions regarding type of change. Linear trends analysis detected increasing concentrations of higher percentiles of NO2, NO and NOx, and THC. However, comparisons of all compounds between an early industrial expansion period (1998-2001) and current-day (2011-2014) show that concentrations of NO2, SO2, THC, TRS and PM2.5 have significantly increased, while concentrations of O3 are significantly lower. An assessment of the frequency and duration of periods when concentrations of each compound were above a variety of thresholds indicates that the frequency of air quality events is increasing for NO2, and THC. Assessment of change over time with odds ratios of the 25(th), 50(th), 75(th) and 90(th) percentile concentrations for each compound compared to an estimate of natural background variability showed that concentrations of TRS, SO2 and THC are dynamic, higher than background, and changes are non-linear and non-monotonic. An assessment of concentrations as a function of wind direction showed a clear and generally increasing influence of industry on air quality. This work shows that evaluating air quality without assumptions of linearity reveals dynamic changes in air quality in Fort McKay, and that it is increasingly being affected by oil sands operations. Implication Statement: Understanding the nature and types of air quality changes occurring in a community or region are essential for the development of appropriate air quality management policies. Time

  19. Impact assessment of on-site sanitation system on groundwater quality in alluvial settings: A case study from Lucknow city in North India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Chandrakant; Ramya Sanam, S; Chaturvedi, M K; Padmakar, C; Pujari, Paras R; Labhasetwar, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    The present case study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality in alluvial settings in Lucknow City in India. The groundwater samples have been collected in the areas of Lucknow City where the on-site sanitation systems have been implemented. The groundwater samples have been analyzed for the major physicochemical parameters and fecal coliform. The results of analysis reveal that none of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) limits for all the parameters. Fecal coliform was not found in majority of the samples including those samples which were very close to the septic tank. The study area has a thick alluvium cover as a top layer which acts as a natural barrier for groundwater contamination from the on-site sanitation system. The t test has been performed to assess the seasonal effect on groundwater quality. The statistical t test implies that there is a significant effect of season on groundwater quality in the study area.

  20. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  1. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-09-16

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.

  2. Health Impact Assessment Impact Characterization Table

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The potential health impacts of the proposed decision should be characterized based on the following criteria: Direction, Likelihood, Magnitude, Distribution, Severity, Permanence, Strength of Evidence.

  3. Economic Impacts of Arts and Cultural Institutions: A Model for Assessment and a Case Study in Baltimore. Research Division Report #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David; Lyall, Katherine

    This research project attempts to determine the economic effects of arts activities and cultural institutions on a local community (Baltimore, Maryland). This document contains an economic impact model that uses 30 equations to determine direct and secondary effects on businesses, government, and individuals and a case study of the model involving…

  4. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  5. Keeping Learning on Track: A Case-Study of Formative Assessment Practice and Its Impact on Learning in Meridian School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thum, Y. M.; Tarasawa, B.; Hegedus, A.; Yun, X.; Bowe, B.

    2015-01-01

    In partnership with Joint School District 2 in Meridian, Idaho, this theory-driven study assessed the impact of Keeping Learning on Track® (KLT™), a professional development program pioneered by Dylan Wiliam and his colleagues at the Educational Testing Service (ETS). A team of Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) researchers surveyed…

  6. Assessing the Impact of Research: A Case Study of the LSAY Research Innovation and Expansion Fund. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the framework developed by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) for measuring research impact to assess the outcomes of the research and activities funded under the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Research Innovation and Expansion Fund (RIEF). LSAY provides a rich…

  7. Practitioners, professional cultures, and perceptions of impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.; Hart, Andrew; Freeman, Claire; Coutts, Brian; Colwill, David; Hughes, Andrew

    2012-01-15

    The very nature of impact assessment (IA) means that it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, which open the possibility that how IA is perceived and practised may vary according to the professional background of the practitioner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a practitioner's professional background influences their perceptions of the adequacy of impact assessment in New Zealand under the Resource Management Act (RMA). Information gathered concerned professional affiliations, training, understanding of impact assessment practise, and perceptions of adequacy in relation to impact assessment. The results showed a dominance of a legalistic, operational perspective of impact assessment under the Resource Management Act, across all the main professions represented in the study. However, among preparers of impact assessments there was clear evidence of differences between the four main professional groups - surveyors, planners, engineers and natural scientists - in the way they see the nature and purpose of impact assessment, the practical steps involved, and what constitutes adequacy. Similarly, impact assessment reviewers - predominantly planners and lawyers - showed variations in their expectations of impact assessment depending on their respective professional affiliation. Although in many cases the differences seem to be more of a matter of emphasis, rather than major disputes on what constitutes a good process, even those differences can add up to rather distinct professional cultures of impact assessment. The following factors are seen as leading to the emergence of such professional cultures: different professions often contribute in different ways to an impact assessment, affecting their perception of the nature and purpose of the process; impact assessment training will usually be a secondary concern, compared with the core professional training, which will be

  8. Comparative Assessment of a New Hydrological Modelling Approach for Prediction of Runoff in Gauged and Ungauged Basins, and Climate Change Impacts Assessment: A Case Study from Benin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GABA, C. O. U.; Alamou, E.; Afouda, A.; Diekkrüger, B.

    2016-12-01

    Assessing water resources is still an important challenge especially in the context of climatic changes. Although numerous hydrological models exist, new approaches are still under investigation. In this context, we investigate a new modelling approach based on the Physics Principle of Least Action which was first applied to the Bétérou catchment in Benin and gave very good results. The study presents new hypotheses to go further in the model development with a view of widening its application. The improved version of the model MODHYPMA was applied to sixteen (16) subcatchments in Bénin, West Africa. Its performance was compared to two well-known lumped conceptual models, the GR4J and HBV models. The model was successfully calibrated and validated and showed a good performance in most catchments. The analysis revealed that the three models have similar performance and timing errors. But in contrary to other models, MODHYMA is subject to a less loss of performance from calibration to validation. In order to evaluate the usefulness of our model for the prediction of runoff in ungauged basins, model parameters were estimated from the physical catchments characteristics. We relied on statistical methods applied on calibrated model parameters to deduce relationships between parameters and physical catchments characteristics. These relationships were further tested and validated on gauged basins that were considered ungauged. This regionalization was also performed for GR4J model.We obtained NSE values greater than 0.7 for MODHYPMA while the NSE values for GR4J were inferior to 0.5. In the presented study, the effects of climate change on water resources in the Ouémé catchment at the outlet of Savè (about 23 500 km2) are quantified. The output of a regional climate model was used as input to the hydrological models.Computed within the GLOWA-IMPETUS project, the future climate projections (describing a rainfall reduction of up to 15%) are derived from the regional

  9. Assessing the Impact of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Rooke, Sally E.

    2008-01-01

    University teaching can have a positive impact, a negative impact, or no impact. This article describes indicators of the impact of university teaching at the unit level. Teaching-impact indicators can be organized by the main beneficiary of the teaching: students; others, such as employers and clients, who interact with the students; the…

  10. Co-production of science for regional integrated assessment and management of climate change impacts: The case study of Aspen, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of global climate change to regional scales are complex and cut across sectorial and jurisdictional boundaries, and therefore, a unique enterprise of collaboration between scientists, resource managers, and other stakeholders for development of adequate response strategies is required. Such collaboration has been exhibited between stakeholders, researchers, and a boundary organization—the Aspen Global Change Institute—since 2005 in assessing impacts and crafting policies in response with regard to climate change impacts in the mountain watershed surrounding Aspen, CO. A series of structured stakeholder interviews and town hall sessions, impact assessment reports, and intensive collaboration between various information providers and user groups has set the stage for development of both mitigation of and adaptation to climate change impacts. The most recent example of this has included the use of global scale climate model output to inform the development of resiliency strategies in response to extreme precipitation projections. The use of this kind of resource has been considered in a variety of decision-making contexts and has included the development of region- and decision-relevant qualitative scenarios that make use of quantitative model-based information. Results from this line of work that include feedback from actual users', a boundary organization, and researchers' perspectives will be reported along with examples of policy and implementation results.

  11. Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, A.

    1977-01-01

    Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

  12. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  13. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  14. Environmental impact assessment and environmental audit in large-scale public infrastructure construction: the case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.

    PubMed

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China's modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China's rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway's construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Audit in Large-Scale Public Infrastructure Construction: The Case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China’s modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China’s rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway’s construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  16. Assessment by regional modelling of the impact of monopile foundations on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport: case of Courseulles-sur-Mer (France) wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Offshore monopile foundations of wind turbines modify hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local scale and also at regional scale. The aim of this work is to assess these changes and to parametrize them in a regional model. These modifications were previously evaluated using the regional circulation model MARS3D (Lazure and Dumas, 2008) in tests-cases (Rivier et al., 2014) using two approaches: in the first approach, monopiles are explicitly modelled in the mesh as dry cells and in the second approach a sub-grid parametrization which considers the drag force exerted by a monopile on the flow is used. The sub-grid parametrization is improved close to the bed in this paper by adding a drag force term in the momentum equations, source terms in the turbulence model and by increasing the bed shear stress at monopile location. Changes in hydrodynamics regime, especially near-bed, affect sediment transport regime and modifications due to monopiles on sediment dynamics is also investigated using the MARS3D sediment transport module (Le Hir et al., 2011) which solves the advection-diffusion equations. Test-cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France) where an offshore wind farm is planned to be built. Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and bed thickness changes due to the monopile simulated by both approaches are compared to each other and to experimental measurements made in a flume at the University of Caen or to published data (e.g. Roulund et al., 2005; Dargahi,1989). Then the model is applied in a real configuration on an area including the future offshore wind farm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed along a tidal cycle. Currents increase at the side edge of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream the monopile. Turbulent kinetic

  17. Influence of climate model biases and daily-scale temperature and precipitation events on hydrological impacts assessment: A case study of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ashfaq, Moetasim; Bowling, Laura C.; Cherkauer, Keith; Pal, Jeremy; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2010-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report concludes that climate change is now unequivocal, and associated increases in evaporation and atmospheric water content could intensify the hydrological cycle. However, the biases and coarse spatial resolution of global climate models limit their usefulness in hydrological impact assessment. In order to reduce these limitations, we use a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM3) to drive a hydrological model (variable infiltration capacity) for the full contiguous United States. The simulations cover 1961-1990 in the historic period and 2071-2100 in the future (A2) period. A quantile-based bias correction technique is applied to the times series of RegCM3-simulated precipitation and temperature. Our results show that biases in the RegCM3 fields not only affect the magnitude of hydrometeorological variables in the baseline hydrological simulation, but they also affect the response of hydrological variables to projected future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. Further, we find that changes in the intensity and occurrence of severe wet and hot events are critical in determining the sign of hydrologic change. These results have important implications for the assessment of potential future hydrologic changes, as well as for developing approaches for quantitative impacts assessment.

  18. Health Impact Assessments for Environmental Restoration: The Case of Caño Martín Peña

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry; Agu, Damiris; Rodríguez, Lyvia; Avilés, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a methodology for predicting health impacts of a proposed policy or plan. A proposed environmental restoration and development plan presented an opportunity for an HIA in an environmental justice community surrounding the Martín Peña channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The HIA focused on the dredging of the channel, debris removal, road, sewer, and storm water infrastructure improvements, housing demolition, and resident relocation. Objective The HIA sought to determine the potential health impacts of the proposed plan on the community to inform the funding decision by the Puerto Rican legislature. As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, a secondary objective was to build HIA capacity in Puerto Rico. Methods This HIA used a community training, literature reviews, existing local studies, focus groups, interviews, and disease surveillance data to assess baseline health, determine expected impacts, and build capacity. Findings The Martín Peña community is experiencing deteriorating environmental conditions. Flooding and negative environmental exposures, such as mold, limits to physical activity, stress, chemical toxicants, pathogenic bacteria, and pests, are worsening. The higher rates of diseases, such as asthma and diarrhea, in the community compared to elsewhere in Puerto Rico appear to be largely attributable to these factors. Overall, the proposed plan is expected to improve many of these health disparities but the successful implementation depends on continued community acceptance and participation, particularly with the relocation process. Recommendations are for full financing and several mitigation efforts to avoid negative and preserve beneficial health consequences. Conclusions As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, this assessment provided specific recommendations to benefit the health of the community affected by an environmental restoration and development plan and also capacity building for a larger audience in Puerto

  19. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Air quality impact assessment of at-berth ship emissions: Case-study for the project of a new freight port.

    PubMed

    Lonati, Giovanni; Cernuschi, Stefano; Sidi, Shelina

    2010-12-01

    This work is intended to assess the impact on local air quality due to atmospheric emissions from port area activities for a new port in project in the Mediterranean Sea. The sources of air pollutants in the harbour area are auxiliary engines used by ships at berth during loading/offloading operations. A fleet activity-based methodology is first applied to evaluate annual pollutant emissions (NO(X), SO(X), PM, CO and VOC) based on vessel traffic data, ships tonnage and in-port hotelling time for loading/offloading operations. The 3-dimensional Calpuff transport and dispersion model is then applied for the subsequent assessment of the ground level spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants for both long-term and short-term averaging times. Compliance with current air quality standards in the port area is finally evaluated and indications for port operation are provided. Some methodological aspects of the impact assessment procedure, namely those concerning the steps of emission scenario definitions and model simulations set-up at the project stage, are specifically addressed, suggesting a pragmatic approach for similar evaluations for small new ports in project.

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways

  2. How Well Does Brazil's Environmental Law Work in Practice? Environmental Impact Assessment and the Case of the Itapiranga Private Sustainable Logging Plan.

    PubMed

    Eve; Arguelles; Fearnside

    2000-09-01

    / The Itapiranga Sustainable Logging Plan provides an example of how Brazil's licensing system functions for logging companies in the state of Amazonas. Two questions need to be dealt with: "How sustainable can logging in the Amazon be?" and "What and how effective are existing legal mechanisms to deal with logging projects?" The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental impact statement (EIS, known as the RIMA in Brazil), present relatively detailed accounts of biodiversity and the need to adopt conservation strategies to protect it. However, social and health impacts are only superficially addressed. The economic sustainability of the operation over multiple cycles is not demonstrated. The multidisciplinary teams responsible for the EIA and EIS (RIMA) reports are hired by the project proponent, an arrangement inherently carrying the risk of biasing the result. Logging reduces biodiversity, releases greenhouse gases and inflicts social and health costs. These impacts reduce the ability of Amazonian forests to provide environmental services and to supply food and livelihood security to local populations. The reports inflate positive effects such as employment: the estimated number of jobs was cut by more than half in a revision made after the EIA and EIS (RIMA) had been approved. Not only do the reports need to be more realistic in assessing both positive and negative consequences of proposed projects, but better means are needed to ensure that promised mitigatory measures are enforced in practice. Many of the lessons that can be drawn from the Itapiranga Plan are not unique to logging projects and apply to licensing of development activites generally in Brazil and elsewhere.

  3. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-11-15

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  4. Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, L.N.; Saulsbury, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    Environmental concerns such as loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion have heightened awareness of the need to assess cumulative impacts in environmental documents. More than 20 years of experience with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have provided analysts in the United States with opportunities for developing successful techniques to assess site-specific impacts of proposed actions. Methods for analyzing a proposed action`s incremental contribution to cumulative impacts are generally less advanced than those for project-specific impacts. The Presidents Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) defines cumulative impact to include the impacts of {open_quotes}past, present and reasonably foreseeable future actions{close_quotes} regardless of who undertakes the action. Court decisions have helped clarify the distinction between reasonably foreseeable future actions and other possible future actions. This paper seeks to clarify how past and present impacts should be included in cumulative impact analyses. The definition of cumulative impacts implies that cumulative impact analyses should include the effects of all past and present actions on a particular resource. Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments increases the likelihood of identifying significant impacts. NEPA requires agencies to give more consideration to alternatives and mitigation and to provide more opportunities for public involvement for actions that would have significant impacts than for actions that would not cause or contribute to significant impacts. For an action that would contribute to significant cumulative impacts, the additional cost and effort involved in increased consideration of alternatives and mitigation and in additional public involvement may be avoided if the action can be modified so that its contributions to significant cumulative impacts are eliminated. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Risk assessment methodologies for biotechnology impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, James W.

    1986-07-01

    By combining hazard assessment of effects of a potential biotechnology product with exposure assessments based on study of the genetically engineered organism's fate, conclusions may be reached about the risk involved in release of the product to the environment. In order to make this risk assessment, criteria (including regulatory endpoints) must be established and then developed further against a data base from well-accepted tests. Other aspects requiring research and development include test evaluation, quality assurance, statistical procedures, and methods of identifying and monitoring not only the nominal organism(s) in the products, but also any contaminating material or organisms to which the genetically engineered components may be transferred in the environment. Application of microcosm technology to testing of genetically engineered organisms is expected to be important, since these systems may be used safely to understand fate and effects prior to (or in place of) testing the product in the environment. Limitations in the use of microcosms may be offset by the cost-effectiveness and incisiveness of results, as has been shown for other pollutants. Risk management for biotechnology products currently lacks an adequate background, but components of the process exist or can be developed. New resources, in terms of personnel, training, facilities, and funding, will be needed in order to apply the risk assessment paradigm used for toxic chemicals and pesticides. We will need to know:

  6. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  7. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  8. Three-dimensional modelling for assessment of far-field impact of tidal stream turbine: A case study at the Anglesey Coast, Wales, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaorong; Li, Ming; Wolf, Judith

    2017-04-01

    which the developed model is tested; based on a combination of laboratory measured data and CFD simulated results. The developed turbine simulation system is then applied to the Anglesey coast, North Wales, UK for a case study. The validation study suggests that the developed turbine simulation system is able to accurately simulate both hydrodynamics and wave dynamics in the turbine wake. The case study with 18 turbines (diameter is 15 m) modelled individually in the waterway between the north-west Anglesey and the Skerries reveals impacts of the turbine farm on free surface elevation, flow field, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), surface waves, bottom shear stress and suspended sediment transport. The wake is observable up to 4.5 km downstream of the device farm. Flow near the bed in the wake is accelerated, leading to enhanced bottom shear stress. The device farm has a strong influence on TKE and hence the vertical mixing of suspended sediment in the wake. Further, the eastwards directed residual sediment transport along the north coast of Anglesey is found to be weakened by the turbine farm.

  9. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  10. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Waterway Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B.J.; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a “health lens”. This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

  11. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Rivkin, A.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Reed, C.

    2012-10-01

    Near Earth objects are small bodies orbiting the Sun near Earth’s orbit, some of which impact the Earth. The impact of an object as large as 30 m in diameter occurs every few centuries. The impact of such an object would already release an energy of at least a megaton of TNT, and the impact of a larger object, which would occur less often, would be even more hazardous. To protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is such an asteroid mitigation mission concept. This mission would be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid’s strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART study is coordinated with an ESA study of an Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which would rendezvous with the same target. AIDA follows the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, with the objective of demonstrating the ability to modify the trajectory of an asteroid and measure the trajectory change. Don Quijote involved an orbiter and an impactor spacecraft, with the orbiter arriving first and measuring the deflection, and with the orbiter making additional characterization measurements. Unlike Don Quijote, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid, with ground-based observations to measure the deflection as well as additional spacecraft observations from AIM. Low cost mission approaches will be presented.

  12. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew; Michel, Patrick; Ulamec, Stephan; Reed, Cheryl; Galvez, Andres; Carnelli, Ian

    On Feb. 15, 2013, an exceptionally close approach to Earth by the small asteroid 2012 DA14 was eagerly awaited by observers, but another small asteroid impacted Earth over Chelyabinsk, Russia the same day without warning, releasing several hundred kilotons TNT of energy and injuring over 1500 people. These dramatic events remind us of the needs to discover hazardous asteroids and to learn how to mitigate them. The AIDA mission is the first demonstration of a mitigation technique to protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, by performing a spacecraft kinetic impact on an asteroid to deflect it from its trajectory. We will provide an update on the status of parallel AIDA mission studies supported by ESA and NASA. AIDA is an international collaboration consisting of two independent but mutually supporting missions, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor, and the other is the characterization spacecraft which will orbit the asteroid system to monitor the deflection experiment and measure the results. These two missions are the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), which is the kinetic impactor, and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which is the characterization spacecraft. The target of the AIDA mission will be a binary asteroid, in which DART will target the secondary, smaller member in order to deflect the binary orbit. The resulting period change can be measured to within 10% by ground-based observations. The asteroid deflection will be measured to higher accuracy, and additional results of the DART impact, like the impact crater, will be studied in great detail by the AIM mission. AIDA will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact and key physical properties of the target asteroid. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable, but when combined they provide a greatly increased knowledge return. The AIDA mission will combine

  13. Environmental impact assessment and monetary ecosystem service valuation of an ecosystem under different future environmental change and management scenarios; a case study of a Scots pine forest.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Deckmyn, Gaby; Giot, Olivier; Campioli, Matteo; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Verheyen, Kris; Rugani, Benedetto; Achten, Wouter; Verbeeck, Hans; Dewulf, Jo; Muys, Bart

    2016-05-15

    For a sustainable future, we must sustainably manage not only the human/industrial system but also ecosystems. To achieve the latter goal, we need to predict the responses of ecosystems and their provided services to management practices under changing environmental conditions via ecosystem models and use tools to compare the estimated provided services between the different scenarios. However, scientific articles have covered a limited amount of estimated ecosystem services and have used tools to aggregate services that contain a significant amount of subjective aspects and that represent the final result in a non-tangible unit such as 'points'. To resolve these matters, this study quantifies the environmental impact (on human health, natural systems and natural resources) in physical units and uses an ecosystem service valuation based on monetary values (including ecosystem disservices with associated negative monetary values). More specifically, the paper also focuses on the assessment of ecosystem services related to pollutant removal/generation flows, accounting for the inflow of eutrophying nitrogen (N) when assessing the effect of N leached to groundwater. Regarding water use/provisioning, evapotranspiration is alternatively considered a disservice because it implies a loss of (potential) groundwater. These approaches and improvements, relevant to all ecosystems, are demonstrated using a Scots pine stand from 2010 to 2089 for a combination of three environmental change and three management scenarios. The environmental change scenarios considered interannual climate variability trends and included alterations in temperature, precipitation, nitrogen deposition, wind speed, Particulate matter (PM) concentration and CO2 concentration. The addressed flows/ecosystem services, including disservices, are as follows: particulate matter removal, freshwater loss, CO2 sequestration, wood production, NOx emissions, NH3 uptake and nitrogen pollution/removal. The monetary

  14. Drought impact assessment from monitoring the seasonality of vegetation condition using long-term time-series satellite images: a case study of Mt. Kenya region.

    PubMed

    Song, Youngkeun; Njoroge, John B; Morimoto, Yukihiro

    2013-05-01

    Drought-induced anomalies in vegetation condition over wide areas can be observed by using time-series satellite remote sensing data. Previous methods to assess the anomalies may include limitations in considering (1) the seasonality in terms of each vegetation-cover type, (2) cumulative damage during the drought event, and (3) the application to various types of land cover. This study proposed an improved methodology to assess drought impact from the annual vegetation responses, and discussed the result in terms of diverse landscape mosaics in the Mt. Kenya region (0.4° N 35.8° E ~ 1.6° S 38.4° E). From the 30-year annual rainfall records at the six meteorological stations in the study area, we identified 2000 as the drought year and 2001, 2004, and 2007 as the normal precipitation years. The time-series profiles of vegetation condition in the drought and normal precipitation years were obtained from the values of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI; Huete et al. 2002), which were acquired from Terra MODIS remote sensing dataset (MOD13Q1) taken every 16 days at the scale of 250-m spatial resolution. The drought impact was determined by integrating the annual differences in EVI profiles between drought and normal conditions, per pixel based on nearly same day of year. As a result, we successfully described the distribution of landscape vulnerability to drought, considering the seasonality of each vegetation-cover type at every MODIS pixel. This result will contribute to the large-scale landscape management of Mt. Kenya region. Future study should improve this method by considering land-use change occurred during the long-term monitoring period.

  15. The life cycle impact assessment applied to a coastal lagoon: the case of the Slimane lagoon (Tunisia) by the study of seasonal variations of the aquatic eutrophication potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadj Amor, R.; Quaranta, G.; Gueddari, F.; Million, D.; Clauer, N.

    2008-05-01

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is a standard tool for the study of the environmental impact on a system including all activities in connection with manufacturing a product or detailing a service, from extraction of raw materials to disposal of final waste. Here, the system is not only anthropogenic, but also includes both natural behaviours and pollution aspects from human activity: it is a coastal lagoon with varied activities and waste disposals nearby. This stagnant zone is highly subjected to solar exposure and tends to dryness during summer, thus offering ideal conditions to algal proliferation. We have taken into account the trophic state of the lagoon assessed by the LCIA methodology, on the basis of the aquatic eutrophication potential (AEP). We have considered the concentrations of the phosphorus and nitrogen compounds for the calculation of the AEP and their spatial and temporal variations in the lagoon. The results show that the AEP of the phosphorus exceeds systematically the AEP of nitrogen and that the contents of both are systematically higher in summer than in winter. Nitrogen is the limiting factor for the algae growth. Ammonia and phosphates are the most important nutrients for the AEP in summer, whereas nitrates dominate in winter. In addition, the spatial and temporal variations of the N and P nutrients of the surface waters allow to distinguish three areas in the lagoon: a transition zone between the sea- and the lagoon waters; a zone reflecting directly the influence of the O. Bey creek- and the treated-waste waters and one representing the most isolated part of the lagoon and consequently the less contaminated by nutrient inputs.

  16. Can the case-control method be used to assess the impact of water supply and sanitation on diarrhoea? A study in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, J; Briscoe, J; Mesola, V; Moe, C; Solon, F; Vanderslice, J; Young, B

    1988-01-01

    This study had 2 objectives: 1) to determine whether a case-control approach is an effective measure for assessing the effect of improved sanitation on bacterial diarrhea, and 2) to assess the effects of environmental sanitation on diarrheal disease in Cebu. The study took place during the warm, rainy months (July-September) of 1985. The study population consisted of 281 children under 2 who were treated at 1 of 16 clinics for diarrhea due to Escherichia coli, salmonella, shigella, and Vibrio cholerae. The controls were 384 children under 2 who were brought to the clinics for respiratory ailments and did not have diarrhea. Environmental sanitation was classed as "good" if the bacterial count in the water supply was low (i.e., water was obtained from the municipal water supply or bore holes) and if excreta disposal was adequate (i.e., there were flush toilets, sealed latrines, or pit latrines). Water quantity was measured by the number of times the child was bathed. The effects of the exposure variables on the study children were determined by logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounding variables, which included sex, educational level of the household, breast feeding, attendance at well-baby clinics, number of children under 5 in the household, and frequency of bathing the child. The results of the study showed that improved sanitation reduced the episodes of bacterial diarrhea by 40%, and that case-control studies with sample sizes of about of about 500 cases and 500 controls are adequate to detect disease reductions of 33% or more.

  17. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-02-15

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  18. Integrated Framework for Assessing Impacts of CO₂ Leakage on Groundwater Quality and Monitoring-Network Efficiency: Case Study at a CO₂ Enhanced Oil Recovery Site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus

    2015-07-21

    This study presents a combined use of site characterization, laboratory experiments, single-well push-pull tests (PPTs), and reactive transport modeling to assess potential impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality and leakage-detection ability of a groundwater monitoring network (GMN) in a potable aquifer at a CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) site. Site characterization indicates that failures of plugged and abandoned wells are possible CO2 leakage pathways. Groundwater chemistry in the shallow aquifer is dominated mainly by silicate mineral weathering, and no CO2 leakage signals have been detected in the shallow aquifer. Results of the laboratory experiments and the field test show no obvious damage to groundwater chemistry should CO2 leakage occur and further were confirmed with a regional-scale reactive transport model (RSRTM) that was built upon the batch experiments and validated with the single-well PPT. Results of the RSRTM indicate that dissolved CO2 as an indicator for CO2 leakage detection works better than dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, and alkalinity at the CO2 EOR site. The detection ability of a GMN was assessed with monitoring efficiency, depending on various factors, including the natural hydraulic gradient, the leakage rate, the number of monitoring wells, the aquifer heterogeneity, and the time for a CO2 plume traveling to the monitoring well.

  19. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

  20. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

  1. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  2. Soil erosion and risk-assessment for on- and off-farm impacts: a test case using the Midhurst area, West Sussex, UK.

    PubMed

    Boardman, John; Shepheard, Mark L; Walker, Edward; Foster, Ian D L

    2009-06-01

    Soil erosion on agricultural land is a growing problem in Western Europe and constitutes a threat to soil quality and to the ability of soils to provide environmental services. The off-site impacts of runoff and eroded soil, principally eutrophication of water bodies, sedimentation of gravel-bedded rivers, loss of reservoir capacity, muddy flooding of roads and communities, are increasingly recognised and costed. The shift of funding in the European Union (EU) from production-related to avoidance of pollution and landscape protection, raises issues of cross-compliance: public support for agriculture has to be seen to give value-for-money. In this context risk-assessment procedures have been introduced to help farmers recognise sites where either certain crops should not be grown or anti-erosion measures are required. In England, Defra [Defra, 2005a. Controlling Soil Erosion: a Manual for the Assessment and Management of Agricultural Land at Risk of Water Erosion in Lowland England. Revised September 2005. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London] sets out a system of risk-assessment, including ranking of crops susceptible to erosion and anti-erosion measures, that may be selected. We assess this system using field data for an area of erodible soils in the Rother valley, Sussex. The Defra approach correctly identifies most at-risk fields and, taken together with land-use maps, allows non-compliance with advice to be highlighted. We suggest a simple extension to the system which would further identify at-risk fields in terms of possible damage to roads and rivers from muddy runoff. The increased risk of erosion in the study area is associated with certain crops: potatoes, winter cereals, maize and grazed turnips and seems unlikely to be the result of changes in rainfall which over the last 130 years are minimal. We have not evaluated proposed anti-erosion measures in the area because few have been put into practice. The European Water Framework

  3. Asteroid Threat Assessment: Land versus Water Impact Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, D.; Wheeler, L.; Register, P.; Aftosmis, M.; Berger, M. J.; LeVeque, R. J.; Robertson, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Asteroid Threat Assessment Project (ATAP) team at NASA Ames Research Center has created a physics-based impact risk model to quantify the risk that asteroid impacts pose to Earth's population. The model uses Monte Carlo sampling to produce stochastic sets of potential impact scenarios based on uncertainty distributions characterizing key asteroid parameters. For each impact case, the entry and fragmentation process is modeled to compute the energy deposited in the atmosphere, determine airburst altitude or surface impact, and estimate the resulting damage areas and affected populations. Damage due to blast overpressure and thermal radiation is assessed for land impacts, and tsunami generation is assessed for impacts over the oceans. This presentation will describe the physics-based impact risk model, the generation of damage regions based on energy deposition profiles, and the adaptation of engineering tsunami inundation models for the current analysis. Modeling assumptions that have a strong impact on the integrated results will be discussed and compared to results from high-fidelity simulations. The overall probabilistic risks of water versus land impacts will be compared to quantify the relative hazard posed by each.

  4. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  5. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  6. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  7. Ecosystem and human health assessment to define environmental management strategies: The case of long-term human impacts on an Arctic lake.

    PubMed

    Moiseenko, T I; Voinov, A A; Megorsky, V V; Gashkina, N A; Kudriavtseva, L P; Vandish, O I; Sharov, A N; Sharova, Yu; Koroleva, I N

    2006-10-01

    There are rich deposits of mineral and fossil natural resources in the Arctic, which make this region very attractive for extracting industries. Their operations have immediate and vast consequences for ecological systems, which are particularly vulnerable in this region. We are developing a management strategy for Arctic watersheds impacted by industrial production. The case study is Lake Imandra watershed (Murmansk oblast, Russia) that has exceptionally high levels of economic development and large numbers of people living there. We track the impacts of toxic pollution on ecosystem health and then--human health. Three periods are identified: (a) natural, pre-industrial state; (b) disturbed, under rapid economic development; and (c) partial recovery, during recent economic meltdown. The ecosystem is shown to transform into a qualitatively new state, which is still different from the original natural state, even after toxic loadings have substantially decreased. Fish disease where analyzed to produce and integral evaluation of ecosystem health. Accumulation of heavy metals in fish is correlated with etiology of many diseases. Dose-effect relationships are between integral water quality indices and ecosystem health indicators clearly demonstrates that existing water quality standards adopted in Russia are inadequate for Arctic regions. Health was also poor for people drinking water from the Lake. Transport of heavy metals from drinking water, into human organs, and their effect on liver and kidney diseases shows the close connection between ecosystem and human health. A management system is outlined that is based on feedback from indices of ecosystem and human health and control over economic production and/or the amount of toxic loading produced. We argue that prospects for implementation of such a system are quite bleak at this time, and that more likely we will see a continued depopulation of these Northern regions.

  8. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.

  9. Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Ralph A.

    1975-01-01

    The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

  10. Synopsis of the CASIROZ case study: carbon sink strength of Fagus sylvatica L. in a changing environment--experimental risk assessment of mitigation by chronic ozone impact.

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Bahnweg, G; Ceulemans, R; Fabian, P; Grill, D; Hanke, D E; Kraigher, H; Osswald, W; Rennenberg, H; Sandermann, H; Tausz, M; Wieser, G

    2007-03-01

    Databases are needed for the ozone (O(3)) risk assessment on adult forest trees under stand conditions, as mostly juvenile trees have been studied in chamber experiments. A synopsis is presented here from an integrated case study which was conducted on adult FAGUS SYLVATICA trees at a Central-European forest site. Employed was a novel free-air canopy O(3) fumigation methodology which ensured a whole-plant assessment of O(3) sensitivity of the about 30 m tall and 60 years old trees, comparing responses to an experimental 2 x ambient O(3) regime (2 x O(3), max. 150 nl O(3) l (-1)) with those to the unchanged 1 x ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)=control) prevailing at the site. Additional experimentation on individual branches and juvenile beech trees exposed within the forest canopy allowed for evaluating the representativeness of young-tree and branch-bag approaches relative to the O(3) sensitivity of the adult trees. The 2 x O(3) regime did not substantially weaken the carbon sink strength of the adult beech trees, given the absence of a statistically significant decline in annual stem growth; a 3 % reduction across five years was demonstrated, however, through modelling upon parameterization with the elaborated database. 2 x O(3) did induce a number of statistically significant tree responses at the cell and leaf level, although the O(3) responsiveness varied between years. Shade leaves displayed an O(3) sensitivity similar to that of sun leaves, while indirect belowground O(3) effects, apparently mediated through hormonal relationships, were reflected by stimulated fine-root and ectomycorrhizal development. Juvenile trees were not reliable surrogates of adult ones in view of O(3) risk assessment. Branch sections enclosed in (climatized) cuvettes, however, turned out to represent the O(3) sensitivity of entire tree crowns. Drought-induced stomatal closure decoupled O(3) intake from O(3) exposure, as in addition, also the "physiologically effective O(3) dose" was

  11. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate.

  12. Impact assessment and recommendation of alternative conjunctive water use strategies for salt affected agricultural lands through a field scale decision support system - a case study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Paul, Madhumita; Malik, Rashmi

    2007-06-01

    Conjunctive use of saline/non-saline irrigation waters is generally aimed at minimizing yield losses and enhancing flexibility of cropping, without much alteration in farming operations. Recommendation of location-specific suitable conjunctive water use plans requires assessment of their long-term impacts on soil salinization/sodification and crop yield reductions. This is conventionally achieved through long-term field experiments. However such impact evaluations are site specific, expensive and time consuming. Appropriate decision support systems (DSS) can be time-efficient and cost-effective means for such long-term impact evaluations. This study demonstrates the application of one such (indigenously developed) DSS for recommending best conjunctive water use plans for a, rice-wheat growing, salt affected farmer's field in Gurgaon district of Haryana (India). Before application, the DSS was extensively validated on several farmers and controlled experimental fields in Gurgaon and Karnal districts of Haryana (India). Validation of DSS showed its potential to give realistic estimates of root zone soil salinity (with R = 0.76-0.94; AMRE = 0.03-0.06; RMSPD = 0.51-0.90); sodicity (with R = 0.99; AMRE = 0.02; RMSPD = 0.84) and relative crop yield reductions (AMRE = 0.24), under existing (local) resource management practices. Long term (10 years) root zone salt build ups and associated rice/wheat crop yield reductions, in a salt affected farmer's field, under varied conjunctive water use scenarios were evaluated with the validated DSS. It was observed that long-term applications of canal (CW) and tube well (TW) waters in a cycle and in 1:1 mixed mode, during Kharif season, predicted higher average root zone salt reductions (2-9%) and lower rice crop yield reductions (4-5%) than the existing practice of 3-CW, 3-TW, 3-CW. Besides this, long-term application of 75% CW mixed with 25% TW, during Rabi season, predicted about 17% lower average root-zone salt reductions than

  13. Impact of type of full-field digital image on mammographic density assessment and breast cancer risk estimation: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Busana, Marta Cecilia; Eng, Amanda; Denholm, Rachel; Dowsett, Mitch; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Allen, Steve; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel

    2016-09-26

    Full-field digital mammography, which is gradually being introduced in most clinical and screening settings, produces two types of images: raw and processed. However, the extent to which mammographic density measurements, and their ability to predict breast cancer risk, vary according to type of image is not fully known. We compared the performance of the semi-automated Cumulus method on digital raw, "analogue-like" raw and processed images, and the performance of a recently developed method - Laboratory for Breast Radiodensity Assessment (LIBRA) - on digital raw and processed images, in a case-control study (414 patients (cases) and 684 controls) by evaluating the extent to which their measurements were associated with breast cancer risk factors, and by comparing their ability to predict breast cancer risk. Valid Cumulus and LIBRA measurements were obtained from all available images, but the resulting distributions differed according to the method and type of image used. Both Cumulus and LIBRA percent density were inversely associated with age, body mass index (BMI), parity and postmenopausal status, regardless of type of image used. Cumulus percent density was strongly associated with breast cancer risk, but with the magnitude of the association slightly stronger for processed (risk increase per one SD increase in percent density (95 % CI): 1.55 (1.29, 1.85)) and "analogue-like" raw (1.52 (1.28, 1.80)) than for raw (1.35 (1.14, 1.60)) images. LIBRA percent density produced weaker associations with risk, albeit stronger for processed (1.32 (1.08, 1.61)) than raw images (1.17 (0.99, 1.37)). The percent density values yielded by the various density assessment/type of image combinations had similar ability to discriminate between patients and controls (area under the receiving operating curve values for percent density, age, BMI, parity and menopausal status combined ranged from 0.61 and 0.64). The findings showed that Cumulus can be used to measure density on all

  14. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  15. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, Mårten Mörtberg, Ulla Balfors, Berit

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  16. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  17. Effects of elevated ozone on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of two soybean varieties: a case study to assess impacts of one component of predicted global climate change.

    PubMed

    Singh, E; Tiwari, S; Agrawal, M

    2009-11-01

    Global climatic change scenarios predict a significant increase in future tropospheric ozone (O(3)) concentrations. The present investigation was done to assess the effects of elevated O(3) (70 and 100 ppb) on electron transport, carbon fixation, stomatal conductance and pigment concentrations in two tropical soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties, PK 472 and Bragg. Plants were exposed to O(3) for 4 h.day(-1) from 10:00 to 14:00 from germination to maturity. Photosynthesis of both varieties were adversely affected, but the reduction was higher in PK 472 than Bragg. A comparison of chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics with carbon fixation suggested greater sensitivity of dark reactions than light reactions of photosynthesis to O(3) stress. The O(3)-induced uncoupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in PK 472 suggests the reduction in photosynthesis may be attributed to a factor other than reduced stomatal conductance. An increase in internal CO(2) concentration in both O(3)-treated soybean varieties compared suggests that the reduction in photosynthesis was due to damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to accumulation of internal CO(2) and stomatal closure. The adverse impact of O(3) stress increased at higher O(3) concentrations in both soybean varieties leading to large reductions in photosynthesis. This study suggests that O(3)-induced reductions in photosynthesis in tropical and temperate varieties are similar.

  18. GIS and remote sensing techniques for the assessment of land use change impact on flood hydrology: the case study of Yialias basin in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, D. D.; Grillakis, M. G.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Agapiou, A.; Themistocleous, K.; Tsanis, I. K.; Michaelides, S.; Pashiardis, S.; Demetriou, C.; Aristeidou, K.; Retalis, A.; Tymvios, F.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Floods are one of the most common natural disasters worldwide, leading to economic losses and loss of human lives. This paper highlights the hydrological effects of multi-temporal land use changes in flood hazard within the Yialias catchment area, located in central Cyprus. A calibrated hydrological model was firstly developed to describe the hydrological processes and internal basin dynamics of the three major subbasins, in order to study the diachronic effects of land use changes. For the implementation of the hydrological model, land use, soil and hydrometeorological data were incorporated. The climatic and stream flow data were derived from rain and flow gauge stations located in the wider area of the watershed basin. In addition, the land use and soil data were extracted after the application of object-oriented nearest neighbor algorithms of ASTER satellite images. Subsequently, the cellular automata (CA)-Markov chain analysis was implemented to predict the 2020 land use/land cover (LULC) map and incorporate it to the hydrological impact assessment. The results denoted the increase of runoff in the catchment area due to the recorded extensive urban sprawl phenomenon of the last decade.

  19. Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

  20. Readings in technology assessment. [in relation to social impact and the law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.

  1. The relevance of work-related learning for vulnerable groups. Dutch case study of a Health Impact Assessment with equity focus.

    PubMed

    Storm, Ilse; Uiters, Ellen; Busch, Mirjam C M; den Broeder, Lea; Schuit, Albertine J

    2015-07-01

    Learning is essential for sustainable employability. However, various factors make work-related learning more difficult for certain groups of workers, who are consequently at a disadvantage in the labour market. In the long term, that in turn can have adverse health implications and can make those groups vulnerable. With a view to encouraging workers to continue learning, the Netherlands has a policy on work-related learning, which forms part of the 'Vitality Package'. A Health Impact Assessment with equity focus (HIAef) was undertaken to determine whether the policy on work-related learning affected certain groups of workers and their health in different ways, and whether the differences were avoidable. The HIAef method involved the standard phases: screening, scoping, appraisal and recommendations. Equity was the core principle in this method. Data were collected by means of both literature searches (e.g., Scopus, Medline) and interviews with experts and stakeholders (e.g., expertise regarding work, training and/or health). The HIAef identified the following groups as potentially vulnerable in the field of work-related learning: the chronically sick, older people, less educated people, flexi-workers/the self-employed and lay carers (e.g., thresholds to learning). Published literature indicates that work-related learning may have a positive influence on health through (work-related) factors such as pay, employability, longer employment rate and training-participation. According to experts and stakeholders, work-related learning policy could be adapted to take more account of vulnerable groups through alignment with their particular needs, such as early support, informal learning and e-learning. With a view to reducing avoidable inequalities in work-related learning, it is recommended that early, low-threshold, accessible opportunities are made available to identified vulnerable groups. Making such opportunities available may have a positive effect on (continued

  2. Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Asteroid Impact Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, D.; Wheeler, L.; Prabhu, D. K.; Aftosmis, M.; Dotson, J.; Robertson, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center is developing a physics-based impact risk model for probabilistically assessing threats from potential asteroid impacts on Earth. The model integrates probabilistic sampling of asteroid parameter ranges with physics-based analyses of entry, breakup, and impact to estimate damage areas and casualties from various impact scenarios. Assessing these threats is a highly coupled, dynamic problem involving significant uncertainties in the range of expected asteroid characteristics, how those characteristics may affect the level of damage, and the fidelity of various modeling approaches and assumptions. The presented model is used to explore the sensitivity of impact risk estimates to these uncertainties in order to gain insight into what additional data or modeling refinements are most important for producing effective, meaningful risk assessments. In the extreme cases of very small or very large impacts, the results are generally insensitive to many of the characterization and modeling assumptions. However, the nature of the sensitivity can change across moderate-sized impacts. Results will focus on the value of additional information in this critical, mid-size range, and how this additional data can support more robust mitigation decisions.

  3. Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Thomas F. Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2008-02-15

    Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them.

  4. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Li, Long

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  5. Retrospective study assessing efficacy of treatment of large colonic impactions.

    PubMed

    Hallowell, G D

    2008-06-01

    Cases with a history of colic due to a large colonic impaction were recruited retrospectively to assess the treatment efficacy and complications of oral and parenteral fluid therapy regimes for correction of primary large colon impactions. Oral isotonic fluids had been administered at varying intervals following initial treatment with magnesium sulphate and water. There was no significant difference in complication rates between groups. Considering complication rates with impaction clearance, hourly administration of oral fluids appears to be the most appropriate treatment regime of those investigated.

  6. Assessing Leonid Meteoroid Impact Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Aleck L.

    2000-10-01

    The Leonid meteoroid storm produced by the passage of its parent comet, 55p/Tempel-Tuttle has been a concern for satellite operators. The recent close approach of the comet to the Earth took place around January 17, 1998. The debris cloud was expected to be several hundred to several thousand times higher than normal in the ensuing years when the Earth passes by the comet trail. Leonid meteoroid storm intensity was predicted before by analyses for satellite mission planning. The low observed Zenith Hourly Rate (ZHR) displayed in 1998 was due to the large distance between the particle and the Earth. In 1998, all of the Leonid material was located interior to the Earth's orbit at distances greater than 0.004 AU. In 1999 there will be two streams located interior to the Earth orbit; the first, consisting of material ejected from the comet in 1932, will be 0.0016 AU from the Earth, and the second composed of material ejected from Tempel-Tuttle in 1965 at 0.004 AU. More importantly, there will exist a third stream of cometary debris, located just 0.0008 AU exterior to Earth's orbit. This stream will consist of the material ejected in 1899, and its close proximity to the Earth means that the space shall be subjected to a Gaussian-like Leonid environment. The predicted probability indicates that there will certainly be a storm with ZHR higher than 1000 in November 1999. It is also likely that there will be another Leonid storm in 2000. A procedure to predict the number of hits by the meteoroids was developed using the ZHR prediction model and the orbit data of GEO communication satellites. The data include the attitude of the satellite and its projected area as a function of orbit position. The number and probability of hits are predicted for these satellites during the 1999 Leonid meteoroid storm. The worst case prediction is also included for comparison.

  7. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  8. Health Impact Assessment as a Strategy for Intersectoral Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ji Eun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for intersectoral collaboration using the case of an HIA project conducted in Gwang Myeong City, Korea. Methods A typical procedure for rapid HIA was used. In the screening step, the Aegi-Neung Waterside Park Plan was chosen as the target of the HIA. In the scoping step, the specific methods and tools to assess potential health impacts were chosen. A participatory workshop was held in the assessment step. Various interest groups, including the Department of Parks and Greenspace, the Department of Culture and Sports, the Department of Environment and Cleansing, civil societies, and residents, discussed previously reviewed literature on the potential health impacts of the Aegi-Neung Waterside Park Plan. Results Potential health impacts and inequality issues were elicited from the workshop, and measures to maximize positive health impacts and minimize negative health impacts were recommended. The priorities among the recommendations were decided by voting. A report on the HIA was submitted to the Department of Parks and Greenspace for their consideration. Conclusions Although this study examined only one case, it shows the potential usefulness of HIA as a tool for enhancing intersectoral collaboration. Some strategies to formally implement HIA are discussed. PMID:22020185

  9. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Stephan; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2009-06-01

    A method for assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption was developed. This method considers damages to three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem quality, and resources. The method can be used within most existing life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. The relative impact of water consumption in LCIA was analyzed with a case study on worldwide cotton production. The importance of regionalized characterization factors for water use was also examined in the case study. In arid regions, water consumption may dominate the aggregated life-cycle impacts of cotton-textile production. Therefore, the consideration of water consumption is crucial in life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies that include water-intensive products, such as agricultural goods. A regionalized assessment is necessary, since the impacts of water use vary greatly as a function of location. The presented method is useful for environmental decision-support in the production of water-intensive products as well as for environmentally responsible value-chain management.

  10. Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Stickle, A.; Barnouin, O.; Ernst, C.; Atchison, J.; Pravec, P.; Richardson, D. C.; AIDA team

    2016-02-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid and (ii) to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The AIDA target will be the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, with the deflection experiment to occur in late September, 2022. The DART impact on the secondary member of the binary at 7 km/s is expected to alter the binary orbit period by about 4 minutes, assuming a simple transfer of momentum to the target, and this period change will be measured by Earth-based observatories. The AIM spacecraft will characterize the asteroid target and monitor results of the impact in situ at Didymos. The DART mission is a full-scale kinetic impact to deflect a 150 m diameter asteroid, with known impactor conditions and with target physical properties characterized by the AIM mission. Predictions for the momentum transfer efficiency of kinetic impacts are given for several possible target types of different porosities, using Housen and Holsapple (2011) crater scaling model for impact ejecta mass and velocity distributions. Results are compared to numerical simulation results using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code of Jutzi and Michel (2014) with good agreement. The model also predicts that the ejecta from the DART impact may make Didymos into an active asteroid, forming an ejecta coma that may be observable from Earth-based telescopes. The measurements from AIDA of the momentum transfer from the DART impact, the crater size and morphology, and the evolution of an ejecta coma will

  11. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Farcas, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.; Merchant, Nathan D.

    2016-02-15

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  12. The NIOSH Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program: a New York case study illustrating the impact of a farm manure pump PTO entanglement.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Eric M; Gelberg, Kitty H; Hallisey, Jennifer L

    2005-01-01

    The New York Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program is designed to identify and study fatal occupational injuries in New York State. The New York FACE program is supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and administered by the New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) in cooperation with Cornell University. New York FACE investigators evaluate information from multiple sources, conduct objective on-site investigations, and then summarize their findings in narrative reports that include recommendations for preventing similar events in the future. These recommendations are distributed to employers, workers, and other organizations as an educational tool for promoting workplace safety. The following case study involved a 53-year-old dairy farm owner who was fatally injured while transferring manure from an underground storage pit to a manure lagoon. At the time of the incident, the farmer was utilizing a manure pump that was connected to a tractor via a power take-off (PTO) shaft. The farmer reached across the unshielded PTO shaft in order to operate a hand crank that adjusted the manure pump chute. As he did this, his clothing became entangled in the PTO shaft, wrapping the farmer's body around the shaft. New York FACE investigators concluded that to help prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future: PTO-powered equipment should not be operated unless the PTO shield is in place and in good condition; Power to equipment should be turned off prior to making mechanical adjustments; Manure handling systems should be designed to facilitate operator safety; Farm workers should be healthy and well rested prior to performing hazardous activities and; Dairy farm workers should be trained in manure handling safety and knowledgeable about other manure hazards.

  13. Utility of fuzzy cross-impact simulation in environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, A.; Paliwal, R.; Rambabu, P.

    1997-11-01

    Fuzzy cross-impact simulation is a qualitative technique, where interactions within a system are represented by a cross-impact matrix that includes linguistic elements. It can be used effectively to visualize dynamic evolution of a system. The utility of the fuzzy cross-impact simulation approach is: (1) in dealing with uncertainties in environment-development systems; (2) scoping cumulative effect assessment; and (3) integrating societal response structure in environment impact assessment. Use of the method is illustrated in a case concerning the textile industry in Indore, India. Consequences of policy alternatives for cleanup and pollution abatement are predicted in terms of environmental quality and quality of life, using the simulation model. The consequence analysis is used to arrive at preferred policy options.

  14. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure.

  15. Untapped potential of health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to “green economy” and “institutional framework” strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century’s sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  16. Health Impact Assessment of a Predicted Air Quality Change by Moving Traffic from an Urban Ring Road into a Tunnel. The Case of Antwerp, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Van Brusselen, Daan; Arrazola de Oñate, Wouter; Maiheu, Bino; Vranckx, Stijn; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nawrot, Tim S; Nemery, Ben; Avonts, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Background The Antwerp ring road has a traffic density of 300,000 vehicles per day and borders the city center. The ‘Ringland project’ aims to change the current ‘open air ring road’ into a ‘filtered tunneled ring road’, putting the entire urban ring road into a tunnel and thus filtering air pollution. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) to quantify the possible benefit of a ‘filtered tunneled ring road’, as compared to the ‘open air ring road’ scenario, on air quality and its long-term health effects. Materials and Methods We modeled the change in annual ambient PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations by covering 15 kilometers of the Antwerp ring road in high resolution grids using the RIO-IFDM street canyon model. The exposure-response coefficients used were derived from a literature review: all-cause mortality, life expectancy, cardiopulmonary diseases and childhood Forced Vital Capacity development (FVC). Results Our model predicts changes between -1.5 and +2 μg/m³ in PM2.5 within a 1,500 meter radius around the ring road, for the ‘filtered tunneled ring road’ scenario as compared to an ‘open air ring road’. These estimated annual changes were plotted against the population exposed to these differences. The calculated change of PM2.5 is associated with an expected annual decrease of 21 deaths (95% CI 7 to 41). This corresponds with 11.5 deaths avoided per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 3.9–23) in the first 500 meters around the ring road every year. Of 356 schools in a 1,500 meter perimeter around the ring road changes between -10 NO2 and + 0.17 μg/m³ were found, corresponding to FVC improvement of between 3 and 64ml among school-age children. The predicted decline in lung cancer mortality and incidence of acute myocardial infarction were both only 0.1 per 100,000 inhabitants or less. Conclusion The expected change in PM2,5 and NO2 by covering the entire urban ring road in Antwerp is associated with considerable health gains for

  17. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  18. Health Impact Assessment of a Predicted Air Quality Change by Moving Traffic from an Urban Ring Road into a Tunnel. The Case of Antwerp, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Brusselen, Daan; Arrazola de Oñate, Wouter; Maiheu, Bino; Vranckx, Stijn; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Nawrot, Tim S; Nemery, Ben; Avonts, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The Antwerp ring road has a traffic density of 300,000 vehicles per day and borders the city center. The 'Ringland project' aims to change the current 'open air ring road' into a 'filtered tunneled ring road', putting the entire urban ring road into a tunnel and thus filtering air pollution. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) to quantify the possible benefit of a 'filtered tunneled ring road', as compared to the 'open air ring road' scenario, on air quality and its long-term health effects. We modeled the change in annual ambient PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations by covering 15 kilometers of the Antwerp ring road in high resolution grids using the RIO-IFDM street canyon model. The exposure-response coefficients used were derived from a literature review: all-cause mortality, life expectancy, cardiopulmonary diseases and childhood Forced Vital Capacity development (FVC). Our model predicts changes between -1.5 and +2 μg/m³ in PM2.5 within a 1,500 meter radius around the ring road, for the 'filtered tunneled ring road' scenario as compared to an 'open air ring road'. These estimated annual changes were plotted against the population exposed to these differences. The calculated change of PM2.5 is associated with an expected annual decrease of 21 deaths (95% CI 7 to 41). This corresponds with 11.5 deaths avoided per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI 3.9-23) in the first 500 meters around the ring road every year. Of 356 schools in a 1,500 meter perimeter around the ring road changes between -10 NO2 and + 0.17 μg/m³ were found, corresponding to FVC improvement of between 3 and 64ml among school-age children. The predicted decline in lung cancer mortality and incidence of acute myocardial infarction were both only 0.1 per 100,000 inhabitants or less. The expected change in PM2,5 and NO2 by covering the entire urban ring road in Antwerp is associated with considerable health gains for the approximate 352,000 inhabitants living in a 1,500 meter perimeter around the

  19. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  20. Impacted primary mandibular central incisors: case report.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Salwa M; Salama, Fouad S

    2002-01-01

    Impaction of primary teeth is very rare especially in the maxillary anterior teeth. A tooth that fails to erupt into a normal functional position by the time it normally should, is considered impacted. The purpose of this article is to present a case of a 2 year and 4-month-old male with an impacted primary mandibular central incisors. Clinical examination did not reveal systemic diseases or trauma in the facial region. Clinical and radiographic examinations are described. Treatment consisted of a period of observation for 6 months and the extraction of the impacted primary mandibular central incisors. Eight months after the surgery, the permanent central incisors were erupted in the proper position.

  1. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  2. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2016-09-24

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available.

  3. Workplace-based Assessment; Applications and Educational Impact.

    PubMed

    Yousuf Guraya, Salman

    2015-11-01

    Workplace based assessment (WPBA) refers to a group of assessment modalities which evaluates trainees' performance during the clinical settings. Hallmark of WPBA is the element of observation of the trainee's performance in real workplace environment along with relevant feedback, thus fostering reflective practice. WPBA consists of observation of clinical performance (mini-clinical evaluation exercise, direct observation of procedural skills), discussion of clinical cases (case based discussion), and feedback from peers, coworkers, and patients (multisource feedback). This literature review was conducted on the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library. Data were retrieved by connecting Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: 'workplace based assessment' AND 'mini-clinical evaluation exercise' AND 'direct observation of procedural skills' AND 'case based discussion' AND 'multi-source feedback'. Additional studies were searched in the reference lists of all included articles. As WPBA is gaining popularity, there is a growing need for continuing faculty development and greater evidence regarding the validity and reliability of these instruments, which will allow the academia to embed this strategy in the existing curricula. As of today, there are conflicting reports about the educational impact of WPBA in terms of its validity and reliability. This review draws upon the spectrum of WPBA tools, their designs and applications, and an account of the existing educational impact of this emerging assessment strategy in medical education. Finally, the study reports some educational impact of WPBAs on learning and emphasises the need for more empirical research in endorsing its application worldwide.

  4. Applying social impact assessment to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2014-08-05

    Many nurses need to construct a research proposal at some stage of their career and there are multiple texts that provide guidance on doing so. However, most texts do not provide explicit guidance on the issue of social impact--the effect of research on the social health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities and on the improved performance of relevant services. This article proposes that social impact should be considered from the beginning of a research project. It outlines a framework for assessing social impact to help strengthen the quality of research proposals and assist nurses constructing the proposal and also those evaluating it, including academic assessors or funding body reviewers. Nursing research should be useful and should have a positive effect on practice. Focusing on social impact can increase the chances of this desirable outcome.

  5. A Case for Multidimensional Bilingual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Serafin V.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Soto-Huerta, Mary Esther; Villarreal, Felicia Castro; Guerra, Norma Susan; Flores, Belinda Bustos

    2013-01-01

    Current assessment practices in the United States are not able to accurately capture the total linguistic, cognitive, and achievement abilities of bilingual learners. There are psychometric complexities involved when assessing and interpreting test results of bilingual students, which impact the validity of this practice. Further, the compromise…

  6. A Case for Multidimensional Bilingual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Serafin V.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Soto-Huerta, Mary Esther; Villarreal, Felicia Castro; Guerra, Norma Susan; Flores, Belinda Bustos

    2013-01-01

    Current assessment practices in the United States are not able to accurately capture the total linguistic, cognitive, and achievement abilities of bilingual learners. There are psychometric complexities involved when assessing and interpreting test results of bilingual students, which impact the validity of this practice. Further, the compromise…

  7. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Marketing Efforts: A Case Study of a Foreign Language Immersion Program in a School-Choice Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.

    2016-01-01

    The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…

  8. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Marketing Efforts: A Case Study of a Foreign Language Immersion Program in a School-Choice Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.

    2016-01-01

    The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…

  9. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  11. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  12. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Veerman, J; Barendregt, J; Mackenbach, J

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. Design: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). Main results: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitative estimates of change in exposure to determinants, and 16 gave quantified health outcomes. Eleven (categories of) determinants were quantified up to the level of health outcomes. Methods for exposure impact assessment were: estimation on the basis of routine data and measurements, and various kinds of modelling of traffic related and environmental factors, supplemented with experts' estimates and author's assumptions. Some studies used estimates from other documents pertaining to the policy. For the calculation of health outcomes, variants of epidemiological and toxicological risk assessment were used, in some cases in mathematical models. Conclusions: Quantification is comparatively rare in HIA. Methods are available in the areas of environmental health and, to a lesser extent, traffic accidents, infectious diseases, and behavioural factors. The methods are diverse and their reliability and validity are uncertain. Research and development in the following areas could benefit quantitative HIA: methods to quantify the effect of socioeconomic and behavioural determinants; user friendly simulation models; the use of summary measures of public health, expert opinion and scenario building; and empirical research into validity and reliability. PMID:15831683

  13. Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Kesava Rao, P.; Phanindra Kumar, T.

    2012-07-01

    Change detection from different temporal images usually based on reflectance on natural and human activity impact, using integrated GIS, Remote Sensing and image processing technologies enable impact assessment of watershed in desert region. A time series analysis of seasonal NDVI have been used to estimate net primary productivity, phonological characteristic of vegetative surface, length of growing season and dry drown periods (Ramsey et al., 1995). The study is designed to achieve the objectives to Study the changes in vegetation for selected watershed in a desert districts of Bhilwara, Barmer & Jaisalmer in Rajastan State of India, to identify the changes in density of vegetation, to assess the temporal changes and to assess the impact of the watershed, with an objective to conserve the soil erosion and harvest the rainwater in order to increase the ground water table, to improve the socio economic condition of the people and to stop the migration of the people from the villages in search of livelihood. These activities will have a direct impact on the crop production. The Changes in density of vegetation indicates the quantity of crop production and the growth of vegetation apart from crops and the conservation of land with out scrub/barren land to land with scrub. This gives an picture about the impact of watershed programme in increasing the vegetative cover. The temporal changes help in understanding the changes taken place in the watershed, and facilitate understand the positive as well as negative impacts of any decisions taken in the implementation. The extent and density and type of vegetation for the years, 2000,2004,2005,2007 and 2008, was studied and vegetation growth was analysed using GIS and Digital Image Processing techniques.

  14. Protocol for the End-of-Life Social Action Study (ELSA): a randomised wait-list controlled trial and embedded qualitative case study evaluation assessing the causal impact of social action befriending services on end of life experience.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Catherine; Algorta, Guillermo Perez; Dodd, Steven; Hill, Matthew; Ockenden, Nick; Payne, Sheila; Preston, Nancy

    2016-07-13

    Compassionate support at the end of life should not be the responsibility of health and social care professionals alone and requires a response from the wider community. Volunteers, as community members, are a critical part of many end-of-life care services. The impact of their services on important outcomes such as quality of life is currently poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a series of social action initiatives which use volunteers to deliver befriending services to people anticipated to be in their last year of life. The aim is to determine if receiving care from a social action volunteer befriending service plus usual care significantly improves quality of life in the last year of life. The research questions will be addressed through a wait-list randomised controlled trial (WLRCT) and qualitative case study evaluation across 12 sites in England. Participants will be randomly allocated to either receive the social action volunteer befriending service straight away or receive the intervention after a four week wait (wait-list arm). The impact of the intervention on end-of-life experience (quality of life as primary outcome, loneliness, social support) will be measured. Repeated assessments will be carried out at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 for the intervention arm and weeks 4, 8 and 12 for the wait-list arm. For selected sites case study evaluation will include interviews, observation and documentary analysis to understand the mechanisms underpinning any found impact. This study will address the need to both provide services which use social action models to support end-of-life care in community settings, and to robustly evaluate these models to determine if they influence the experience of end-of-life care. Such services could work to reduce isolation, help meet emotional needs and maintain a sense of connectedness to the community. ISRCTN 12929812 Registered 20.5.15.

  15. Transformation products in the life cycle impact assessment of chemicals.

    PubMed

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van de Meent, Dik

    2010-02-01

    The current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of chemicals focuses only on the fate and effects of the parent compound, neglecting the potential impact of transformation products. Here, we assess the importance of including the potential impact of transformation products in the calculation of characterization factors (CF). The developed method is applied to freshwater ecotoxicity for 15 pesticides and perchloroethylene, which are all known to have potentially persistent transformation products. The inclusion of transformation products resulted in a median increase in CF that varied from negligible to more than 5 orders of magnitude. This increase, however, can be highly uncertain, particularly due to a lack of toxicity data for transformation products and a lack of mode of action-specific data. We show in a case study that replacement of atrazine with other pesticides for application on corn results in a median impact score of 2 orders of magnitude lower when the fate and effects of only the parent compounds are included. When transformation products are included, the reduction in median impact score would likely be lower (less than 1 order of magnitude). An uncertainty analysis showed that the difference in impact scores of atrazine and the atrazine replacements was not statistically significant when only the parent chemical was considered. When transformation products were included, the uncertainty in impact scores was even greater.

  16. Case study examples using self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Garstecki, D; Hutton, C L; Nerbonne, M A; Newman, C W; Smoski, W J

    1990-10-01

    The following case studies demonstrate the application of self-assessment techniques. The selection of procedures reported here is not meant to imply necessarily that these procedures are more or less effective or more widely used than other available self-assessment tests, but rather to illustrate the various purposes for which self-assessment tools may be employed. Case 1 illustrates the contribution of data obtained from the Hearing Performance Inventory (Giolas, Owens, Lamb, & Shubert, 1979) in the management and counseling of a severely hearing impaired adult. Case 2 involves the use of the Hearing Problem Inventory developed by Hutton in Atlanta (HPI-A, Hutton, 1987). Application of the Self-Assessment of Communication (SAC) and Significant Other Assessment of Communication (SOAC) (Schow and Nerbonne, 1982) is shown in Case 3, whereas Case 4 demonstrates the usefulness of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE, Ventry and Weinstein, 1982). Both the SAC/SOAC and HHIE batteries involve problem cases associated with hearing aid fitting and assessment of benefit. The final illustration (Case 5) is a report on the Children's Auditory Processing Performance Scale (CHAPPS), a new questionnaire developed by Smoski, Brunt, and Tannahill/ISHA (1987) for assessing parent's judgment of children's listening abilities (Appendix). The versatility of self-assessment applications across a broad assortment of impairment levels, age groups, and clinical settings is demonstrated in these cases. Hopefully the reader will see more clearly the application and value of these and other non-audiometric techniques and will be motivated to increase the use of self-assessment tools in the individual work setting.

  17. The Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukes, J. S.; Widhalm, M.

    2016-12-01

    With coordination from the Purdue Climate Change Research Center, experts and stakeholders from across Indiana are working together to develop a state-focused assessment to inform decision makers, policy makers, and interested citizens about the likely impacts of climate change in Indiana. While this assessment is not intended to provide policy recommendations, we anticipate it will elevate conversations about climate change risks within a state that is not traditionally focused on these issues, and provide the baseline data needed for moving forward with improved planning and actions. Our guiding principal throughout this process is creating information that matters. We are connecting with stakeholders before, during, and after the assessment process to understand key vulnerabilities, risks, and reasons for concern so we can ensure the Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment (IN CCIA) includes relevant information that is usable by state and local decision makers.The IN CCIA is building a statewide network of experts and stakeholders interested in climate change that can serve as a foundation for a sustained assessment process. This presentation will describe the grassroots, collaborative approach being followed as we conduct this assessment, and discuss the opportunities and challenges encountered along the way.

  18. Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

  19. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  20. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  1. Post-impact behavior of composite solid rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, composite materials have seen increasing use in advanced structural applications because of the significant weight savings they offer when compared to more traditional engineering materials. The higher cost of composites must be offset by the increased performance that results from reduced structural weight if these new materials are to be used effectively. At present, there is considerable interest in fabricating solid rocket motor cases out of composite materials, and capitalizing on the reduced structural weight to increase rocket performance. However, one of the difficulties that arises when composite materials are used is that composites can develop significant amounts of internal damage during low velocity impacts. Such low velocity impacts may be encountered in routine handling of a structural component like a rocket motor case. The ability to assess the reduction in structural integrity of composite motor cases that experience accidental impacts is essential if composite rocket motor cases are to be certified for manned flight. The study described herein was an initial investigation of damage development and reduction of tensile strength in an idealized composite subjected to low velocity impacts.

  2. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research. PMID:26989272

  3. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach.

    PubMed

    Drew, Christina H; Pettibone, Kristianna G; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-03-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in "important" research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research.

  4. Assessment and regulation of odour impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicell, Jim A.

    Decades of experience support the inclusion of odours in the list of contaminant types that must be regulated by government. In many jurisdictions, odour impacts are regulated under the nuisance provisions of common law. However, the explicit conditions that establish whether a nuisance condition exists are not easily defined. Due to this shortcoming, there is a need to introduce objectivity into odour impact assessments and odour limits. While individual responses to odours are highly variable and can result in a variety of effects, generally the impacts of odours arise from a variety of interacting factors, collectively known as FIDOL: frequency, intensity, duration, offensiveness, and location. In view of the need to prevent or mitigate such impacts, an approach to odour regulation is proposed in which the protection of the public from odour impacts is accomplished based on the FIDOL approach. This involves the introduction of an objective odour limit, as follows: " Facilities that are identified as sources of potentially offensive odours shall ensure that the 10-min average concentration of odour resulting from all sources at the facility and determined in accordance with accepted procedures, shall be less than 1 odour unit 99.5% of the time at the most impacted sensitive receptor". It is argued that the proposed limit would provide the public with an understanding of the degree of protection from odours that is to be provided through regulations and would provide industries with a basis for designing their facilities to minimize impact at the design stage. Such limits would also provide industries with benchmarks against which they can gauge their success at preventing or mitigating odour impacts and for evaluating the effectiveness of odour control technologies.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessments: Congressional Intent Versus Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Sprankle U.S. Department of Energy Faculty Research Advisor Dr. Robert Copaken The Industrial College of the Armed Forces National Defense...Impact Assessments: Congressional Intent Versus Application Kenneth A. Sprankle U.S. Department of Energy Faculty Research Advisor Dr. Robert Copaken The...before them. This conference generated a flood of legislation. Then, in February, 1969, Representative John Dingell (D-MI) introduced H.R.6750 (later

  6. National Built Environment Health Impact Assessment Model ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix, street connectivity, access to parks, shops, transit, presence of sidewalks and bikeways, and healthy food with physical activity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some mental health outcomes. This session demonstrates successful integration of health impact assessment into multiple scenario planning tool platforms. Detailed evidence on chronic disease and related costs associated with contrasting land use and transportation investments are built into a general-purpose module that can be accessed by multiple platforms. Funders, researchers, and end users of the tool will present a detailed description of the key elements of the approach, how it has been applied, and how will evolve. A critical focus will be placed on equity and social justice inherent within the assessment of health disparities that will be featured in the session. Health impacts of community design have significant cost benefit implications. Recent research is now extending relationships between community design features and chronic disease to health care costs. This session will demonstrate the recent application of this evidence on health impacts to the newly adopted Los Angeles Regional Transpo

  7. National Built Environment Health Impact Assessment Model ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix, street connectivity, access to parks, shops, transit, presence of sidewalks and bikeways, and healthy food with physical activity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some mental health outcomes. This session demonstrates successful integration of health impact assessment into multiple scenario planning tool platforms. Detailed evidence on chronic disease and related costs associated with contrasting land use and transportation investments are built into a general-purpose module that can be accessed by multiple platforms. Funders, researchers, and end users of the tool will present a detailed description of the key elements of the approach, how it has been applied, and how will evolve. A critical focus will be placed on equity and social justice inherent within the assessment of health disparities that will be featured in the session. Health impacts of community design have significant cost benefit implications. Recent research is now extending relationships between community design features and chronic disease to health care costs. This session will demonstrate the recent application of this evidence on health impacts to the newly adopted Los Angeles Regional Transpo

  8. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  9. Assessing the economic impact of invasive species: the case of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solsitialis L.) in the rangelands of Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Juliá, Roxana; Holland, David W; Guenthner, Joseph

    2007-12-01

    Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solsitialis L.) is an invasive weed that creates problems for the management of Idaho's rangelands. A bioeconomic approach combined with an input-output economic model is used to estimate direct and secondary economic costs of the weed in relation to its interference with agricultural and non-agricultural benefits that rangelands provide. Direct economic costs of the infestations were estimated to be of 8.2 million '05 dollars per year, and secondary costs of 4.5 million '05 dollars per year, for a total of 12.7 million '05 dollars; agricultural related economic impacts accounted for 79% of this total cost, and non-agricultural for 21%.

  10. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA).

  11. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  12. Does health intervention research have real world policy and practice impacts: testing a new impact assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Gillian; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rychetnik, Lucie; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the importance of research having demonstrable public benefit. Measurements of the impacts of research are therefore needed. We applied a modified impact assessment process that builds on best practice to 5 years (2003-2007) of intervention research funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council to determine if these studies had post-research real-world policy and practice impacts. We used a mixed method sequential methodology whereby chief investigators of eligible intervention studies who completed two surveys and an interview were included in our final sample (n = 50), on which we conducted post-research impact assessments. Data from the surveys and interviews were triangulated with additional information obtained from documentary analysis to develop comprehensive case studies. These case studies were then summarized and the reported impacts were scored by an expert panel using criteria for four impact dimensions: corroboration; attribution, reach, and importance. Nineteen (38%) of the cases in our final sample were found to have had policy and practice impacts, with an even distribution of high, medium, and low impact scores. While the tool facilitated a rigorous and explicit criterion-based assessment of post-research impacts, it was not always possible to obtain evidence using documentary analysis to corroborate the impacts reported in chief investigator interviews. While policy and practice is ideally informed by reviews of evidence, some intervention research can and does have real world impacts that can be attributed to single studies. We recommend impact assessments apply explicit criteria to consider the corroboration, attribution, reach, and importance of reported impacts on policy and practice. Impact assessments should also allow sufficient time between impact data collection and completion of the original research and include mechanisms to obtain end-user input to corroborate claims and reduce biases

  13. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  14. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p < 0.05) than fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the impact of organic respirable compounds is smaller for fossil fuels (p < 0.05) than for biofuels. Analysis of inorganic compounds like PM₁₀,₂.₅, SO₂ or NO(x) shows some advantages of sugar beet bioethanol and soybean biodiesel production (p < 0.05), although production of sugarcane bioethanol shows larger impacts of respirable inorganic compounds than for fossil fuels (p < 0.001). Although liquid biofuels are made of renewable energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards.

  15. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  16. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

    2014-01-15

    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions.

  17. Parametric assessment of climate change impacts of automotive material substitution.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Roland

    2008-09-15

    Quantifying the net climate change impact of automotive material substitution is not a trivial task. It requires the assessment of the mass reduction potential of automotive materials, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their production and recycling, and their impact on GHG emissions from vehicle use. The model presented in this paper is based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and completely parameterized, i.e., its computational structure is separated from the required input data, which is not traditionally done in LCAs. The parameterization increases scientific rigor and transparency of the assessment methodology, facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, and also makes it possible to compare different studies and explain their disparities. The state of the art of the modeling methodology is reviewed and advanced. Assessment of the GHG emission impacts of material recycling through consequential system expansion shows that our understanding of this issue is still incomplete. This is a critical knowledge gap since a case study shows thatfor materials such as aluminum, the GHG emission impacts of material production and recycling are both of the same size as the use phase savings from vehicle mass reduction.

  18. A case study by life cycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuyun

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.

  19. PROFILE: Integrating Sustainability and Environmental Impact Assessment

    PubMed

    LAWRENCE

    1997-01-01

    / Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been identified as an important instrument for facilitating sustainability. However, to do so requires the integration of sustainability into EIA theory and practice. The sustainability concept is a valid and important environmental management perspective. However, many issues and obstacles need to be addressed further if the concept is to be translated into practical strategies. Sustainability can potentially infuse EIA with a clearer sense of direction, an ethical foundation, a mechanism for establishing priorities and assessing choices, and a means of linking EIA to other environmental management instruments. Conceptually, EIA and sustainability can be integrated, but frameworks should be refined, adpated to context, and linked to related initiatives. Sustainability should be explicitly incorporated into EIA legislation, guidelines, and institutional arrangements. An experimental approach to testing, assessing, and sharing experiences is suggested.A framework is first presented that defines and characterizes the sustainability concept. A further framework is then described for integrating sustainability into EIA at the conceptual level. The integration of sustainability and EIA at the regulatory level is next addressed through an overview of sustainability initiatives in EIA requirements in Canada. The Canadian examples include many promising initiatives but these and other experiences will need to be monitored, shared, and integrated into comprehensive environmental management strategies. Finally, means of incorporating sustainability into each activity in the EIA planning process are identified.KEY WORDS: Sustainability; Environmental impact assessment

  20. Assessment of the impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater pollution in two diverse geological settings--a case study from India.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Paras R; Padmakar, C; Labhasetwar, Pawan K; Mahore, Piyush; Ganguly, A K

    2012-01-01

    On-site sanitation has emerged as a preferred mode of sanitation in cities experiencing rapid urbanization due to the high cost involved in off-site sanitation which requires conventional sewerages. However, this practice has put severe stress on groundwater especially its quality. Under the above backdrop, a study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on quality of groundwater sources in two mega cities namely Indore and Kolkata which are situated in two different geological settings. The parameters for the studies are distance of groundwater source from place of sanitation, effect of summer and monsoon seasons, local hydro-geological conditions, and physico-chemical parameters. NO(3) and fecal coliform concentrations are considered as main indexes of pollution in water. Out of many conclusions which can be made from this studies, one major conclusion is about the influence of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality is minimal in Kolkata, whereas it is significant in Indore. This difference is due to the difference in hydrogeological parameters of these two cities, Kolkata being on alluvium quaternary and Indore being on Deccan trap of Cretaceous to Paleogene age.

  1. Assessing the seismic coupling of shallow continental faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimates: a case-study from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carafa, Michele M. C.; Valensise, Gianluca; Bird, Peter

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe propose an objective and reproducible algorithmic path to forecast seismicity in Italy from long-term deformation models. These models are appropriate for Italy and its neighboring countries and seas thanks to the availability of rich, reliable and regularly updated historical earthquake and seismogenic fault databases, and to the density of permanent GPS stations. However, so far little has been done to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the seismic coupling of Italian active faults, i.e. to quantify their ability to release earthquakes. This must be determined in order to use geodetic and active faulting observations in alternative seismicity models, to overcome possible limitations of the earthquake record for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of seismic hazard. We use a probabilistic method to assign upper crustal earthquakes from the historical catalogue to their presumed causative faults, then collect all the events into three subcatalogues corresponding to the compressional, extensional and strike-slip faulting classes. We then determine the parameters of their Gutenberg-Richter frequency/magnitude relations using maximum-likelihood methods and integrate these distributions to estimate the long-term seismic moment rate for each class. Finally, we compare these seismicity rates to the long-term tectonic deformation based on GPS data, thus determining the coupled thickness (and estimating seismic coupling) for each fault class. We find that in our study region the seismic coupling and the related coupled thickness is on average two times larger for extensional than for compressional faults. As for the spatial distribution of earthquake rates, a larger number of events is predicted for the extensional settings of the Apennines chain, in agreement with the inferred seismic coupling but also with the long-term strain rates. We also find that the frequency/magnitude distributions indicate that the largest earthquakes occur in extensional settings, whereas compressional faults are expected to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.209...32C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.209...32C"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the seismic coupling of shallow continental faults and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on seismic hazard estimates: a <span class="hlt">case</span>-study from Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carafa, Michele M. C.; Valensise, Gianluca; Bird, Peter</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We propose an objective and reproducible algorithmic path to forecast seismicity in Italy from long-term deformation models. These models are appropriate for Italy and its neighbouring countries and seas thanks to the availability of rich, reliable and regularly updated historical earthquake and seismogenic fault databases, and to the density of permanent GPS stations. However, so far little has been done to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the seismic coupling of Italian active faults, that is to quantify their ability to release earthquakes. This must be determined in order to use geodetic and active faulting observations in alternative seismicity models, to overcome possible limitations of the earthquake record for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of seismic hazard. We use a probabilistic method to assign upper crustal earthquakes from the historical catalogue to their presumed causative faults, then collect all the events into three subcatalogues corresponding to the compressional, extensional and strike-slip faulting classes. We then determine the parameters of their Gutenberg-Richter frequency/magnitude relations using maximum-likelihood methods and integrate these distributions to estimate the long-term seismic moment rate for each class. Finally, we compare these seismicity rates to the long-term tectonic deformation based on GPS data, thus determining the coupled thickness (and estimating seismic coupling) for each fault class. We find that in our study region the seismic coupling and the related coupled thickness is on average two times larger for extensional than for compressional faults. As for the spatial distribution of earthquake rates, a larger number of events is predicted for the extensional settings of the Apennines chain, in agreement with the inferred seismic coupling but also with the long-term strain rates. We also find that the frequency/magnitude distributions indicate that the largest earthquakes occur in extensional settings, whereas compressional faults are expected to host</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999867"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of human diet changes with rapid urbanization on regional nitrogen and phosphorus flows--a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of the megacity Shanghai.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chen; Zou, Chunjing; Wang, Qinxue; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Yasunari, Tetsuzo</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Regional material flows are strongly influenced by human diets. To diagnose and prevent environmental problems that threaten urban sustainability, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of human diet changes with rapid urbanization on the regional nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows were quantitatively evaluated. A survey of day-to-day activities was conducted of 450 individuals surveyed (adults over 18 years old) in three representative areas (the central district, the new district, and the suburban/rural areas) of Shanghai, a megacity which has attracted worldwide attention. The lifestyle (eating habits, domestic sanitation, drainage facilities, etc.) pattern was determined and the potential N and P loads from human diets on the environment were calculated. The daily potential nitrogen and phosphorus loads from human diets was 19.36 g-N, 1.80 g-P in the central district, 16.48 g-N, 1.52 g-P in the new district, and 13.04 g-N, 1.20 g-P in the suburban/rural areas of Shanghai. Respondents in all three areas, especially those in the suburban/rural areas reported a preference for increasing the intake of animal-derived as well as processed foods, which means that the potential N and P load from human diets to the environment will increase further. In addition, most respondents consider industrial wastewater discharge as the main cause of eutrophication of waterbodies, though in recent years water pollution caused by domestic wastewater has increased rapidly, but this has received much less attention. Environment-friendly eating habits and improvements in the environmental awareness will be required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19159960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19159960"><span>Environmental and socioeconomic <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by mining activities-a <span class="hlt">case</span> study in the Certej River catchment, Western Carpathians, Romania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zobrist, Jürg; Sima, Mihaela; Dogaru, Diana; Senila, Marin; Yang, Hong; Popescu, Claudia; Roman, Cecilia; Bela, Abraham; Frei, Linda; Dold, Bernhard; Balteanu, Dan</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>In the region of the Apuseni Mountains, part of the Western Carpathians in Romania, metal mining activities have a long-standing tradition. These mining industries created a clearly beneficial economic development in the region. But their activities also caused impairments to the environment, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in long-lasting heavy metal pollution of waters and sediments. The study, established in the context of the ESTROM programme, investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of metal mining activities both from environmental and socioeconomic perspectives and tried to incorporate the results of the two approaches into an integrated proposition for mitigation of mining-related issues. The small Certej catchment, situated in the Southern Apuseni Mountains, covers an area of 78 km(2). About 4,500 inhabitants are living in the basin, in which metal mining was the main economic sector. An open pit and several abandoned underground mines are producing heavy metal-loaded acidic water that is discharged untreated into the main river. The solid wastes of mineral processing plants were deposited in several dumps and tailings impoundment embodying the acidic water-producing mineral pyrite. The natural science team collected samples from surface waters, drinking water from dug wells and from groundwater. Filtered and total heavy metals, both after enrichment, and major cations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major anions in waters, measured by ion chromatography, alkalinity and acidity were determined by titration. Solid samples were taken from river sediments and from the largest tailings dam. The latter were characterised by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed after digestion. Simultaneously, the socioeconomic team performed a household survey to evaluate the perception of people related to the river and drinking water pollution by way of a logistic regression analysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650605','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650605"><span>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: where does the law come in?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hart, David Q.C</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The European Convention on Human Rights has profound implications for HIA. Public authorities have a positive obligation to stop others from infringing citizens' rights to life and to respect for private and family life. These rights are qualified and have now been interpreted in many thousands of <span class="hlt">cases</span>. Authorities must, as best they reasonably can, secure the safety of citizens and inform the citizens about the safety or otherwise of any development. Authorities have to strike a balance between the individuals rights and the public benefit. Any public authority before approving a scheme or reaching a regulatory decision which may <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human rights must consider the nature of that <span class="hlt">impact</span>, its seriousness and whether it can be justified on public interest grounds. A number of court judgements in <span class="hlt">cases</span> concerning these issues are discussed. This article is not about how certain of the ideas underlying Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>, in certain circumstances, are or can be incorporated in existing legally recognised instruments such as Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span>. Nor is it about the statutory powers which authorities--local and national--could, if so inclined, exercise, to further the health and well-being of their constituents. It is about something rather more general, important and yet rather formless, namely the duties identified by the European Court of Human Rights as resting upon public authorities to take steps to safeguard the public health rights of their citizens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914131H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914131H"><span>Using long term synthetic time series to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of wind and hydro power in Sweden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Höltinger, Stefan; Schmidt, Johannes; Weterlund, Elisabeth</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low - in particular if meteorological extreme events should be <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment). We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15733317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15733317"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water on the risk of breast cancer: using a dose model to <span class="hlt">assess</span> exposure in a <span class="hlt">case</span>-control study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vieira, Verónica; Aschengrau, Ann; Ozonoff, David</p> <p>2005-02-25</p> <p>A population-based <span class="hlt">case</span>-control study was undertaken in 1997 to investigate the association between tetrachloroethylene (PCE) exposure from public drinking water and breast cancer among permanent residents of the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. PCE, a volatile organic chemical, leached from the vinyl lining of certain water distribution pipes into drinking water from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. The measure of exposure in the original study, referred to as the relative delivered dose (RDD), was based on an amount of PCE in the tap water entering the home and estimated with a mathematical model that involved only characteristics of the distribution system. In the current analysis, we constructed a personal delivered dose (PDD) model that included personal information on tap water consumption and bathing habits so that inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption were also considered. We reanalyzed the association between PCE and breast cancer and compared the results to the original RDD analysis of subjects with complete data. The PDD model produced higher adjusted odds ratios than the RDD model for exposures > 50th and >75th percentile when shorter latency periods were considered, and for exposures < 50th and >90th percentile when longer latency periods were considered. Overall, however, the results from the PDD analysis did not differ greatly from the RDD analysis. The inputs that most heavily influenced the PDD model were initial water concentration and duration of exposure. These variables were also included in the RDD model. In this study population, personal factors like bath and shower temperature, bathing frequencies and durations, and water consumption did not differ greatly among subjects, so including this information in the model did not significantly change subjects' exposure classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApWS....7..997I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApWS....7..997I"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of water and soil contamination in Rajakhali Canal of Karnaphuli River (Bangladesh) <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by anthropogenic influences: a preliminary <span class="hlt">case</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Islam, M. Rafiqul; Das, N. G.; Barua, Prabal; Hossain, M. Belal; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Soil and water quality determines the health of an aquatic ecosystem. Rajakhali Canal, a tributary of Karnaphuli River estuary, flowing through Chittagong City (the commercial capital of Bangladesh) receives a huge amount of domestic and industrial wastes and sewages. Monitoring the environmental status of Karnaphuli River and its tributaries is very important for their ecological and economical services provided to city areas. This study evaluated some environmental characteristics of water and soil in the Rajakhali Canal as it affected the environment, and ultimately the life and human beings of Chittagong City. The mean concentrations of physico-chemical parameters were pH (8.5), DO (0.1 mg/L), TA (47.6 mg/L), TDS (631.8 mg/L), TSS (280 mg/L), SO4-S (2.3 mg/L), NH3 (1.1 mg/L), NO3-N (0.2 mg/L) and PO4-P (0.1 mg/L) in the dry season. During the rainy season, the mean concentrations of physico-chemical parameters were pH (7.01), DO (0.55 mg/L), TA (65.9 mg/L), TDS (653.6 mg/L), TSS (300.3 mg/L), SO4-S (1 mg/L), NH3 - (0.6 mg/L), (NO3-N (0.3 mg/L) and PO4-P (0.5 mg/L) in water. In <span class="hlt">case</span> of soil, the mean concentration of physico-chemical parameters in dry and rainy seasons was represented respectively as follows: pH (6.8), OM (4.5 %), sand (71.7 %), silt (3.1 %), clay (25.2 %), organic nitrogen (45.4 ppm) and phosphorus (9.6 ppm); and pH (6.7), OM (4.5 %), sand (74.4 %), silt (2.4 %), clay (23.2 %), organic nitrogen (35.3 ppm) and phosphorus (7.6 ppm). The result revealed that water and soil quality of this canal became deteriorated and that the total environment of the water body became polluted due to the anthropogenic activities such as industrial, domestic and irrigation effluents. Statistical analyses also supported that water and soil parameters were strongly correlated (1-tailed 0.05 level and 0.01 level significant) with each other at all stations during all seasons. The result of this study will be useful for management and planning for water quality</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...63I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...63I"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of water and soil contamination in Rajakhali Canal of Karnaphuli River (Bangladesh) <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by anthropogenic influences: a preliminary <span class="hlt">case</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Islam, M. Rafiqul; Das, N. G.; Barua, Prabal; Hossain, M. Belal; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Soil and water quality determines the health of an aquatic ecosystem. Rajakhali Canal, a tributary of Karnaphuli River estuary, flowing through Chittagong City (the commercial capital of Bangladesh) receives a huge amount of domestic and industrial wastes and sewages. Monitoring the environmental status of Karnaphuli River and its tributaries is very important for their ecological and economical services provided to city areas. This study evaluated some environmental characteristics of water and soil in the Rajakhali Canal as it affected the environment, and ultimately the life and human beings of Chittagong City. The mean concentrations of physico-chemical parameters were pH (8.5), DO (0.1 mg/L), TA (47.6 mg/L), TDS (631.8 mg/L), TSS (280 mg/L), SO4-S (2.3 mg/L), NH3 (1.1 mg/L), NO3-N (0.2 mg/L) and PO4-P (0.1 mg/L) in the dry season. During the rainy season, the mean concentrations of physico-chemical parameters were pH (7.01), DO (0.55 mg/L), TA (65.9 mg/L), TDS (653.6 mg/L), TSS (300.3 mg/L), SO4-S (1 mg/L), NH3 - (0.6 mg/L), (NO3-N (0.3 mg/L) and PO4-P (0.5 mg/L) in water. In <span class="hlt">case</span> of soil, the mean concentration of physico-chemical parameters in dry and rainy seasons was represented respectively as follows: pH (6.8), OM (4.5 %), sand (71.7 %), silt (3.1 %), clay (25.2 %), organic nitrogen (45.4 ppm) and phosphorus (9.6 ppm); and pH (6.7), OM (4.5 %), sand (74.4 %), silt (2.4 %), clay (23.2 %), organic nitrogen (35.3 ppm) and phosphorus (7.6 ppm). The result revealed that water and soil quality of this canal became deteriorated and that the total environment of the water body became polluted due to the anthropogenic activities such as industrial, domestic and irrigation effluents. Statistical analyses also supported that water and soil parameters were strongly correlated (1-tailed 0.05 level and 0.01 level significant) with each other at all stations during all seasons. The result of this study will be useful for management and planning for water quality</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21975095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21975095"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of antibiotic prophylaxis in outpatient elective hand surgery: a single-center, retrospective review of 8,850 <span class="hlt">cases</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bykowski, Michael R; Sivak, Wesley N; Cray, James; Buterbaugh, Glenn; Imbriglia, Joseph E; Lee, W P Andrew</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Prophylactic antibiotics have been shown to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) after some gastrointestinal, orthopedic, and plastic surgical procedures, but their efficacy in clean, elective hand surgery is unclear. Our aims were to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the efficacy of preoperative antibiotics in preventing SSI after clean, elective hand surgery, and to identify potential risk factors for SSI. We queried the database from an outpatient surgical center by Current Procedural Terminology code to identify patients who underwent elective hand surgery. For each medical record, we collected patient demographics and characteristics along with preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management details. The primary outcome of this study was SSI, and secondary outcomes were wound dehiscence and suture granuloma. From October 2000 through October 2008, 8,850 patient records met our inclusion criteria. The overall SSI rate was 0.35%, with an average patient follow-up duration of 79 days. The SSI rates did not significantly differ between patients receiving antibiotics (0.54%; 2,755 patients) and those who did not (0.26%; 6,095 patients). Surgical site infection was associated with smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and longer procedure length irrespective of antibiotic use. Subgroup analysis revealed that prophylactic antibiotics did not prevent SSI in male patients, smokers, or diabetics, or for procedure length less than 30 minutes, 30 to 60 minutes, and greater than 60 minutes. Prophylactic antibiotic administration does not reduce the incidence of SSI after clean, elective hand surgery in an outpatient population. Moreover, subgroup analysis revealed that prophylactic antibiotics did not reduce the frequency of SSI among patients who were found to be at higher risk in this study. We identified 3 factors associated with the development of SSI in our study: diabetes mellitus status, procedure length, and smoking status. Given the potential harmful complications associated with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4231376','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4231376"><span>Injury Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Non-Lethal Projectile Head <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real <span class="hlt">cases</span> indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400712"><span>Injury risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of non-lethal projectile head <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real <span class="hlt">cases</span> indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/566276','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/566276"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in Estonia and Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holm-Hansen, J.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Authorities in Eastern European countries are looking for best available policy tools from the West, and policy instruments tailored for a Western context are being introduced massively in the former state socialist countries of Europe. This study examines some of the contextual factors that hamper the introduction of modern, Western tools of environmental management within previously state socialist countries. These are highlighted through a comparison of how environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) is put into practice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia and Norway belong to the same European Baltic-Nordic region, but the two countries have a dramatically different history for most of this century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556502','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556502"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> research <span class="hlt">impact</span> in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span>. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators and criteria. Methods The <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators proposed in the 2010 REF <span class="hlt">impact</span> pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research <span class="hlt">impact</span> in clinical medicine in a given university are <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. Twenty <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research <span class="hlt">impact</span> across different <span class="hlt">cases</span> in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing <span class="hlt">impact</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC41B1002T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC41B1002T"><span>Agricultural climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for economic modeling and decision support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> mitigation level of 3.7 W/m2, as well as consideration of different levels of climate sensitivity (2, 3, 4.5 and 6oC) and different initial conditions for addressing uncertainty. Since the CMIP 3 and CMIP5 protocols did not include this mitigation level or consider alternative levels of climate sensitivity, additional climate projections were required. These two <span class="hlt">cases</span> will be discussed to illustrate some of the trade-offs made in development of methodologies for climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> that are intended for a specific user or audience, and oriented towards addressing a specific topic of interest and providing useable results. This involvement of stakeholders from the design phase of climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> methodology serves to both define the appropriate method for the question at hand and also to engage and inform the stakeholders of the myriad options and uncertainties associated with different methodology choices. This type of engagement should benefit decision making in the long run through greater stakeholder understanding of the science of future climate model projections, scenarios, the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> sector models and the types of outputs that can be generated by each along with the respective uncertainties at each step of the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction on...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-27/pdf/2011-13247.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-27/pdf/2011-13247.pdf"><span>76 FR 30952 - Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-05-27</p> <p>... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Publication of Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> (PIA). SUMMARY: The Privacy Office of..., the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published sixteen Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> (PIAs...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title34-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title34-vol1-sec75-601.pdf"><span>34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An applicant shall include with its application its <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the proposed construction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27637','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27637"><span>Visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in British oil and gas developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Dennis F. Gillespie; Brian D. Clark</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Development of oil and gas resource in the North Sea has led to the application of visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> techniques to onshore oil and gas developments in the United Kingdom. Formal visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods are needed to supplement landscape evaluations and site selection studies. Three major orientations of British visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> are: the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec50-150.pdf"><span>10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. 50.150 Section 50.150 Energy... Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. (a...-specific <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the effects on the facility of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large, commercial aircraft. Using...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA51B4054C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA51B4054C"><span>Integrated Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the <span class="hlt">assessments</span> have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and recognize the need for a sustained <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=320470','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=320470"><span>Qualitative <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climate ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The South Fork Nooksack River (South Fork) is located in northwest Washington State and is home to nine species of Pacific salmon, including Nooksack early Chinook (aka, spring Chinook salmon), an iconic species for the Nooksack Indian Tribe. The quantity of salmon in the South Fork, especially spring Chinook salmon, has dramatically declined from historic levels, due primarily to habitat degradation from the legacy <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of various land uses such as commercial forestry, agriculture, flood control, and transportation infrastructure. Segments of the South Fork and some of its tributaries exceed temperature criteria established for the protection of cold-water salmonid populations, and were listed on Washington State’s Clean Water Act (CWA) 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies. High water temperatures in the South Fork are detrimental to fish and other native species that depend on cool, clean, well-oxygenated water. Of the nine salmon species, three have been listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are of high priority to restoration efforts in the South Fork—spring Chinook salmon, summer steelhead trout, and bull trout. Growing evidence shows that climate change will exacerbate legacy <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is a comprehensive analysis of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on freshwater habitat and Pacific salmon in the South Fork. It also evaluates the effectiveness of restoration tools that address Pacific salmon recovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18564972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18564972"><span>Developing public sociology through health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The renewed interest in 'public sociology' has sparked debate and discussion about forms of sociological work and their relationship to the State and civil society. Medical sociologists are accustomed to engaging with a range of publics and audiences inside and outside universities and are in a position to make an informed contribution to this debate. This paper describes how some of the debates about sociological work are played out through a 'health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>' of a proposed housing renewal in a former coal mining community. We explore the dynamics of the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process and relate it to wider debates, current in the social sciences, on the 'new knowledge spaces' within which contentious public issues are now being discussed, and the nature of different forms of expertise. The role of the 'public sociologist' in mediating the relationships between the accounts and interpretations of lay participants and the published 'evidence' is described as a process of mutual learning between publics, professionals and social scientists. It is argued that the continued existence and development of any meaningful 'professional sociology' requires an openness to a 'public sociology' which recognises and responds to new spaces of knowledge production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/369965','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/369965"><span>Groundwater resources <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for triazine herbicides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less <span class="hlt">impact</span> on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009206','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009206"><span>Comparing Two Approaches for <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Observation <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Todling, Ricardo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Langland and Baker introduced an approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=risk+AND+assessment&pg=5&id=EJ739981','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=risk+AND+assessment&pg=5&id=EJ739981"><span>Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in Child Sexual Abuse <span class="hlt">Cases</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Despite continuing improvements in risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse <span class="hlt">cases</span> present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Electric+generator&id=EJ301650','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Electric+generator&id=EJ301650"><span>Training Needs <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Horton, George R. "Dick"</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Presents a <span class="hlt">case</span> study and findings of a training needs <span class="hlt">assessment</span> which was conducted to determine the training implications of implementing an integral system of quality assurance at the Fridley, Minnesota, plant of Onan Corporation, a manufacturer of electric generator sets and switch gear. (MBR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27760886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27760886"><span>An Empirical Study of Design Parameters for <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Differential <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> for Students in Group Randomized Trials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaciw, Andrew P; Lin, Li; Ma, Boya</p> <p>2016-10-18</p> <p>Prior research has investigated design parameters for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> average program <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on achievement outcomes with cluster randomized trials (CRTs). Less is known about parameters important for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> differential <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This article develops a statistical framework for designing CRTs to <span class="hlt">assess</span> differences in <span class="hlt">impact</span> among student subgroups and presents initial estimates of critical parameters. Effect sizes and minimum detectable effect sizes for average and differential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are calculated before and after conditioning on effects of covariates using results from several CRTs. Relative sensitivities to detect average and differential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are also examined. Student outcomes from six CRTs are analyzed. Achievement in math, science, reading, and writing. The ratio of between-cluster variation in the slope of the moderator divided by total variance-the "moderator gap variance ratio"-is important for designing studies to detect differences in <span class="hlt">impact</span> between student subgroups. This quantity is the analogue of the intraclass correlation coefficient. Typical values were .02 for gender and .04 for socioeconomic status. For studies considered, in many <span class="hlt">cases</span> estimates of differential <span class="hlt">impact</span> were larger than of average <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and after conditioning on effects of covariates, similar power was achieved for detecting average and differential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the same size. Measuring differential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is important for addressing questions of equity, generalizability, and guiding interpretation of subgroup <span class="hlt">impact</span> findings. Adequate power for doing this is in some <span class="hlt">cases</span> reachable with CRTs designed to measure average <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Continuing collection of parameters for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> differential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is the next step. © The Author(s) 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5262..174B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5262..174B"><span>Improving environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> and cost <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for supplier evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beucker, Severin; Lang, Claus</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>Improving a company"s environmental and financial performance necessitates the evaluation of environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> deriving from the production and cost effects of corporate actions. These effects have to be made transparent and concrete targets have to be developed. Such an evaluation has to be done on a regular basis but with limited expenses. To achieve this, different instruments of environmental controlling such as LCA and environmental performance indicators have to be combined with methods from cost accounting. Within the research project CARE (Computer Aided Resource Efficiency Accounting for Medium-Sized Enterprises), the method Resource Efficiency Accounting (REA) is used to give the participating companies new insights into hidden costs and environmental effects of their production and products. The method combines process based cost accounting with environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methodology and offers results that can be integrated into a company"s environmental controlling system and business processes like cost accounting, supplier <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, etc. Much of the data necessary for the combined <span class="hlt">assessment</span> can be available within a company"s IT system and therefore can be efficiently used for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process. The project CARE puts a strong focus on the use of company data and information systems for the described <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process and offers a methodological background for the evaluation and the structuring of such data. Besides the general approach of the project CARE the paper will present results from a <span class="hlt">case</span> study in which the described approach is used for the evaluation of suppliers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18951608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18951608"><span>Ranking potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of priority and emerging pollutants in urban wastewater through life cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muñoz, Ivan; José Gómez, M; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Life cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCIA), a feature of the Life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) methodology, is used in this work outside the LCA framework, as a means to quantify the potential environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on ecotoxicity and human toxicity of wastewater containing priority and emerging pollutants. In order to do this, so-called characterisation factors are obtained for 98 frequently detected pollutants, using two characterisation models, EDIP97 and USES-LCA. The applicability of this methodology is shown in a <span class="hlt">case</span> study in which wastewater influent and effluent samples from a Spanish wastewater treatment plant located in the Mediterranean coast were analysed. Characterisation factors were applied to the average concentration of each pollutant, obtaining <span class="hlt">impact</span> scores for different scenarios: discharging wastewater to aquatic recipient, and using it for crop irrigation. The results show that treated wastewater involves a substantially lower environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> when compared to the influent, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are very important contributors to toxicity in this wastewater. Ciprofloxacin, fluoxetine, and nicotine constitute the main PPCPs of concern in this <span class="hlt">case</span> study, while 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Nickel, and hexachlorobenzene are the priority pollutants with highest contribution. Nevertheless, it must be stressed that the new characterisation factors are based on very limited data, especially with regard to toxicology, and therefore they must be seen as a first screening to be improved in the future when more and higher quality data is available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH21B..07C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH21B..07C"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Multiple Breadbasket Failures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casellas Connors, J. P.; Janetos, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A relatively small area of the world accounts for a large proportion of total global cereal production, with most of the area devoted to the production of the world's three major cereal crops, rice, wheat and maize. An extensive literature of the sensitivity of agricultural productivity of these crops, and many others, has arisen over the past 25 years, with a general consensus that continued change in the physical climate system will very likely increase the difficulty of agricultural production in areas of the world that are already marginal with respect to production. But what this research only rarely does is <span class="hlt">assess</span> the influence of extreme events in shocking agricultural production, and how the rest of the agricultural system reacts, in terms of prices, food insecurity, subsequent land-use change, and terrestrial carbon emissions, among many other possible responses. Because the agricultural system is interlinked with energy systems, food distribution and transportation systems, and economic systems, models that focus only on agricultural productivity can only provide a unidimensional view of the magnitude of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. We know such <span class="hlt">impacts</span> can occur as a consequence of extreme climatic events, because they have - the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the severe regional drought and heat wave on the Russian and Ukrainian wheat harvests in 2010 had global consequences for food prices, just as one example. In this paper, we use an Integrated <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Model, the Global Change <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Model (GCAM), to investigate the potential outcomes of both moderate and severe shocks to agricultural productivity in the major breadbaskets of the world - both singly and in combination. The results demonstrate clearly that there are likely to be multidimensional consequences from the kinds of shocks that are possible from a rapidly changing climate system, especially when combined with other demographic and economic trends in the coming decades. These results are only one aspect of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/486038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/486038"><span>Establishing an appropriate baseline for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, R.L.</p> <p>1997-05-22</p> <p>An important consideration in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to establish a baseline from which to evaluate potential changes associated with a proposed action. For some <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, establishment of the baseline is straightforward because the proposed action is located in an undeveloped area which has been negligibly affected by human activity. For other <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, however, the baseline may be more difficult to determine because the proposed action may occur in an area where human activities have affected the environment and, in essence, have established a new (and often changing) baseline. Frequently, appreciable degradation has occurred on the proposed site itself. For such <span class="hlt">cases</span>, the question arises as to whether the unperturbed condition or the present condition is more appropriate to use as the baseline. This paper argues that a proposed action in a previously disturbed area should not be <span class="hlt">assessed</span> merely in relation to the new baseline. Rather, a more comprehensive evaluation should be given that compares potential environmental effects with both the unperturbed condition and the present condition and consequently presents a more balanced approach to the <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Furthermore, the sponsoring federal agency should take the opportunity offered by the proposed action to improve the environment by shifting the affected area back toward its natural unperturbed condition. mitigation measures should be examined to achieve this goal. A NEPA <span class="hlt">case</span> study is presented in the paper to support this viewpoint.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595377"><span>A Protocol for the Global Sensitivity Analysis of <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Models in Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cucurachi, S; Borgonovo, E; Heijungs, R</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) framework has established itself as the leading tool for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of products. Several works have established the need of integrating the LCA and risk analysis methodologies, due to the several common aspects. One of the ways to reach such integration is through guaranteeing that uncertainties in LCA modeling are carefully treated. It has been claimed that more attention should be paid to quantifying the uncertainties present in the various phases of LCA. Though the topic has been attracting increasing attention of practitioners and experts in LCA, there is still a lack of understanding and a limited use of the available statistical tools. In this work, we introduce a protocol to conduct global sensitivity analysis in LCA. The article focuses on the life cycle <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCIA), and particularly on the relevance of global techniques for the development of trustable <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> models. We use a novel characterization model developed for the quantification of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of noise on humans as a test <span class="hlt">case</span>. We show that global SA is fundamental to guarantee that the modeler has a complete understanding of: (i) the structure of the model and (ii) the importance of uncertain model inputs and the interaction among them. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22849285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22849285"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of risk management interventions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shryock, T R</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Much effort has been invested in the development and implementation of international recommendations to manage the risk of foodborne antimicrobial resistance, and monitoring programmes to measure bacterial antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial product volumes. A variety of approaches have been recommended for various stakeholders in the food animal and food production sectors. Interestingly, much less consideration has been given to the establishment of success criteria for the individual interventions and even less for the cumulative effects, when all interventions are considered together as consecutive 'hurdles' along the food chain. The author explores the outcome and unforeseen consequences of these various interventions and appropriate methods that could provide data to <span class="hlt">assess</span> their <span class="hlt">impact</span>, as well as key learning experiences that should lead to refinements of such interventions in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24508156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24508156"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A methodology was developed for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and comparison of the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A <span class="hlt">case</span> study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the aquatic environment and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health. The relative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnGeo..58..205M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EnGeo..58..205M"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of open pit mining in Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various <span class="hlt">impacting</span> factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each <span class="hlt">impacting</span> factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each <span class="hlt">impacting</span> factor. The overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four <span class="hlt">case</span> histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5818376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5818376"><span>Catalysis-by-design <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fassbender, L L; Young, J K; Sen, R K</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Catalyst researchers have always recognized the need to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of catalytic processes, and have hoped that it would lead to developing a theoretical predictive base to guide the search for new catalysts. This understanding allows one to develop a set of hierarchical models, from fundamental atomic-level ab-initio models to detailed engineering simulations of reactor systems, to direct the search for optimized, efficient catalyst systems. During the last two decades, the explosions of advanced surface analysis techniques have helped considerably to develop the building blocks for understanding various catalytic reactions. An effort to couple these theoretical and experimental advances to develop a set of hierarchical models to predict the nature of catalytic materials is a program entitled Catalysis-by-Design (CRD).'' In <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of CBD on US industry, the key point to remember is that the value of the program lies in developing a novel methodology to search for new catalyst systems. Industrial researchers can then use this methodology to develop proprietary catalysts. Most companies involved in catalyst R D have two types of ongoing projects. The first type, what we call market-driven R D,'' are projects that support and improve upon a company's existing product lines. Project of the second type, technology-driven R D,'' are longer term, involve the development of totally new catalysts, and are initiated through scientists' research ideas. The CBD approach will <span class="hlt">impact</span> both types of projects. However, this analysis indicates that the near-term <span class="hlt">impacts</span> will be on market-driven'' projects. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this report were obtained by the authors through personal interviews with individuals involved in a variety of industrial catalyst development programs and through the three CBD workshops held in the summer of 1989. 34 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572469','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572469"><span>Integrated environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: a Canadian example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Canadian federal process for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5064089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5064089"><span>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Urban Development Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malekafzali, Hosein</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) has emerged to identify those activities and policies likely to have major <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the health of a population. Method: In this research, qualitative method was applied to identifying health determinants that urban man made lake affect on them, formatting and weighing the hierarchy of the factors, calculating AHP, and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method for decide and ranking alternatives. Results: According to the results of the study, from the structural determinants point of view, the most positive effect of man-made lake was on Recreational services by 89.5% and the most negative one was on housing. According to intermediary determinants and general average, the most positive effect of lake was on physical activity and quality of air by 88.9% and the most negative one was on noise pollution by 46.7%. Ultimately, considering the positive and negative effects of lake between constructing and not constructing the lake option, the construction option was selected. Conclusion: There is substantial potential to improve public health by bringing decision makers’ attention to the health consequences of their actions; city councilpersons, zoning commissioners, and other decision makers typically have little background in health. PMID:27157160</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12894328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12894328"><span>Integrated environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: a Canadian example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Canadian federal process for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732566','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732566"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: multidisciplinary and international perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krieger, N; Northridge, M; Gruskin, S; Quinn, M; Kriebel, D; Davey, S; Bassett, M; Rehkopf, D; Miller, C</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) seeks to expand evaluation of policy and programmes in all sectors, both private and public, to include their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on population health. While the idea that the public's health is affected by a broad array of social and economic policies is not new and dates back well over two centuries, what is new is the notion—increasingly adopted by major health institutions, such as the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Kingdom National Health Services (NHS)—that health should be an explicit consideration when evaluating all public policies. In this article, it is argued that while HIA has the potential to enhance recognition of societal determinants of health and of intersectoral responsibility for health, its pitfalls warrant critical attention. Greater clarity is required regarding criteria for initiating, conducting, and completing HIA, including rules pertaining to decision making, enforcement, compliance, plus paying for their conduct. Critical debate over the promise, process, and pitfalls of HIA needs to be informed by multiple disciplines and perspectives from diverse people and regions of the world. PMID:12933768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec227-22.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec227-22.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.22 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 227.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span> on other...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Predicting+AND+urban+AND+growth&id=EJ455692','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Predicting+AND+urban+AND+growth&id=EJ455692"><span>Comprehensive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in Planning Education and a Course Syllabus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burby, Raymond J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> skills are used in planning practice, reflecting expansion in society's concern with externalities of growth and development, improved methods for predicting environmental effects, and wider acceptance of <span class="hlt">impact</span> mitigation as a growth management goal. This article reviews the status of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in planning pedagogy and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol26/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol26-sec227-19.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol26/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol26-sec227-19.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.19 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 227.19 Section... FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An overall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940027958','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940027958"><span>Remote sensing for hurricane Andrew <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Stennis Space Center personnel flew a Learjet equipped with instrumentation designed to acquire imagery in many spectral bands into areas most damaged by Hurricane Andrew. The calibrated airborne multispectral scanner (CAMS), a NASA-developed sensor, and a Zeiss camera acquired images of these areas. The information derived from the imagery was used to assist Florida officials in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the devastation caused by the hurricane. The imagery provided the relief teams with an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the debris covering roads and highways so cleanup plans could be prioritized. The imagery also mapped the level of damage in residential and commercial areas of southern Florida and provided maps of beaches and land cover for determination of beach loss and vegetation damage, particularly the mangrove population. Stennis Space Center personnel demonstrated the ability to respond quickly and the value of such response in an emergency situation. The digital imagery from the CAMS can be processed, analyzed, and developed into products for field crews faster than conventional photography. The resulting information is versatile and allows for rapid updating and editing. Stennis Space Center and state officials worked diligently to compile information to complete analyses of the hurricane's <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SJRUE...4...91P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SJRUE...4...91P"><span>Use of Benchmark Methodology in Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Every industrial activity and procedure influences the environment and climate change. This <span class="hlt">impact</span> has to be <span class="hlt">assessed</span> and therefore the procedure of Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) including the application of a benchmark methodology has been developed. The developed benchmark methodology can be used in the initial <span class="hlt">assessment</span> as a screening method. The article surveys the developed benchmark methodology for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the projects providing extraction of dolomite in the deposits of mineral resources. The benchmark methodology developed makes it possible to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> caused by the provided activity by objective considerations, to conduct comparison of different projects and evaluate whether the provided activity corresponds to the principles of sustainable development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18293029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18293029"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of potential aquatic herbicide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to California aquatic ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-<span class="hlt">case</span>" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-<span class="hlt">case</span> scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC22A..08I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC22A..08I"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2009]. The HadCM3L simulations carried out for this work include a pre-industrial control, a simulation with 4xCO2, and 10 simulations with 4xCO2 and different levels of SRM geoengineering ranging from 10% to 100% of a full intervention sufficient to cool the climate to pre-industrial average surface air temperature. Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell (2000), Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model, Nature, 408(6809), 184-187. Govindasamy, B., K. Caldeira, and P. B. Duffy (2003), Geoengineering Earth's radiation balance to mitigate climate change from a quadrupling of CO2, Global and Planetary Change, 37(1-2), 157-168. Irvine, P. J., D. J. Lunt, E. J. Stone, and A. Ridgwell (2009), The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world, Environmental Research Letters, 4(4). Irvine, P., A. Ridgwell, and D. Lunt (2010), <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL044447, in press</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rand&pg=3&id=ED561165','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rand&pg=3&id=ED561165"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Submissions for REF 2014: An Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Manville, Catriona; Guthrie, Susan; Henham, Marie-Louise; Garrod, Bryn; Sousa, Sonia; Kirtley, Anne; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Ling, Tom</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Research Excellence Framework (REF) is a new system for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the quality of research in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). For the first time, part of the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> included the wider <span class="hlt">impact</span> of research. RAND Europe was commissioned to evaluate the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> element of REF submissions, and to explore the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1733092','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1733092"><span>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: <span class="hlt">assessing</span> opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lock, K.; McKee, M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of policy in the EU and, using health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> as a <span class="hlt">case</span> study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447517"><span>Social cost <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of pipeline infrastructure projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various <span class="hlt">case</span> histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for two pipeline construction projects. The <span class="hlt">case</span> histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of social costs and <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN54A..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN54A..03P"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> multi-disciplinary Earth observation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on societal benefits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pearlman, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Multi-disciplinary interactions are becoming more important as demands for science-driven information needed for decision-making are increasing. Further development of systems to improve the scientific understanding of Earth's system and its response to natural or human-induced changes are required to meet this need. These would facilitate modeling and analyses in many critical areas such as climate prediction, food security, water availability and ecosystem sustainability among others. It is intuitive that better information will have a positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on decision outcomes. Yet this is difficult to quantitate. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of multi-disciplinary work are particularly difficult to <span class="hlt">assess</span>, yet it is hard to predict climate change without considering oceans, land use and many other Earth system characteristics. There are several steps that are important to quantitate the benefits. Some of these have been discussed at IIASA, RFI and other centers of excellence in this area. The key is to establish a program with metrics, a community of practice to propagate the metrics and clear <span class="hlt">case</span> studies that will demonstrate effectiveness. A workshop was held to set the foundations for this approach and recommendations from a team of global experts are evolving into a program. This presentation discusses the indicators and metrics, examines their efficacy and looks at a <span class="hlt">case</span> study to <span class="hlt">assess</span> and validate the development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=legal+AND+theory+AND+international&pg=4&id=ED510286','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=legal+AND+theory+AND+international&pg=4&id=ED510286"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) <span class="hlt">assesses</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed <span class="hlt">case</span> studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Many of these…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cambridge&pg=6&id=ED510286','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cambridge&pg=6&id=ED510286"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) <span class="hlt">assesses</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed <span class="hlt">case</span> studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Many of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8367S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8367S"><span>Cost Analysis of Water Transport for Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szaleniec, V.; Buytaert, W.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>It is expected that climate change will have a strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> on water resources worldwide. Many studies exist that couple the output of global climate models with hydrological models to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change on physical water availability. However, the water resources topology of many regions and especially that of cities can be very complex. Changes in physical water availability do therefore not translate easily into <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on water resources for cities. This is especially the <span class="hlt">case</span> for cities with a complex water supply topology, for instance because of geographical barriers, strong gradients in precipitation patterns, or competing water uses. In this study we explore the use of cost maps to enable the inclusion of water supply topologies in climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies. We use the city of Lima as a <span class="hlt">case</span> study. Lima is the second largest desert city in the world. Although Peru as a whole has no water shortage, extreme gradients exist. Most of the economic activities including the city of Lima are located in the coastal desert. This region is geographically disconnected from the wet Amazon basin because of the Andes mountain range. Hence, water supply is precarious, provided by a complex combination of high mountain ecosystems including wetlands and glaciers, as well as groundwater aquifers depending on recharge from the mountains. We investigate the feasibility and costs of different water abstraction scenarios and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change using cost functions for different resources. The option of building inter basins tunnels across the Andes is compared to the costs of desalinating seawater from the Pacific Ocean under different climate change scenarios and population growth scenarios. This approach yields recommendations for the most cost-effective options for the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21519370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21519370"><span>Developing tools for health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Sithisarankul, Pornchai</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research was to develop tools applicable to the Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) in Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) in a Thai context. The relevant documents and articles were extensively reviewed, analyzed, and drafted. The first draft was presented to a research advisory committee for their review, and the recommended changes were subsequently made. The second draft was then presented to respondents from 6 groups of key stakeholders-expert review committees under the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONREPP), EIA registered consulting firms, non-government organizations, members of the ONREPP, local government organizations, and government organizations responsible for issuing permission to the proposed projects. Their commentary and recommendation were considered, and modifications were made as necessary. The third draft was finally reviewed by the research advisory committee before the tryout step. The final revised version is presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464045"><span>Evaluating variability and uncertainty in radiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> using SYMBIOSE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simon-Cornu, M; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Boyer, P; Calmon, P; Garcia-Sanchez, L; Mourlon, C; Nicoulaud, V; Sy, M; Gonze, M A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>SYMBIOSE is a modelling platform that accounts for variability and uncertainty in radiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, when simulating the environmental fate of radionuclides and <span class="hlt">assessing</span> doses to human populations. The default database of SYMBIOSE is partly based on parameter values that are summarized within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) documents. To characterize uncertainty on the transfer parameters, 331 Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were defined from the summary statistics provided within the IAEA documents (i.e. sample size, minimal and maximum values, arithmetic and geometric means, standard and geometric standard deviations) and are made available as spreadsheet files. The methods used to derive the PDFs without complete data sets, but merely the summary statistics, are presented. Then, a simple <span class="hlt">case</span>-study illustrates the use of the database in a second-order Monte Carlo calculation, separating parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447504','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447504"><span>A method proposal for cumulative environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Cumulative environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative <span class="hlt">impact</span> identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and the overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this <span class="hlt">case</span> study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading <span class="hlt">impact</span> significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction in the EIA process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22589230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22589230"><span>Consideration of climate change on environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Most of the projects subject to environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the <span class="hlt">cases</span> it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously <span class="hlt">assess</span> climate change. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41F0667B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41F0667B"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Methods: Climate Change and Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brekke, L. D.; Clark, M. P.; Gutmann, E. D.; Mizukami, N.; Mendoza, P. A.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.; Pruitt, T.; Arnold, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other water management agencies have an interest in developing reliable, science-based methods for incorporating climate change information into longer-term water resources planning. Such <span class="hlt">assessments</span> must quantify projections of future climate and hydrology, typically relying on some form of spatial downscaling and bias correction to produce watershed-scale weather information that subsequently drives hydrology and other water resource management analyses (e.g., water demands, water quality, and environmental habitat). Water agencies continue to face challenging method decisions in these endeavors: (1) which downscaling method should be applied and at what resolution; (2) what observational dataset should be used to drive downscaling and hydrologic analysis; (3) what hydrologic model(s) should be used and how should these models be configured and calibrated? There is a critical need to understand the ramification of these method decisions, as they affect the signal and uncertainties produced by climate change <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and, thus, adaptation planning. This presentation summarizes results from a three-year effort to identify strengths and weaknesses of widely applied methods for downscaling climate projections and <span class="hlt">assessing</span> hydrologic conditions. Methods were evaluated from two perspectives: historical fidelity, and tendency to modulate a global climate model's climate change signal. On downscaling, four methods were applied at multiple resolutions: statistically using Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation, Bias Correction Constructed Analogs, and Asynchronous Regression; dynamically using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Downscaling results were then used to drive hydrologic analyses over the contiguous U.S. using multiple models (VIC, CLM, PRMS), with added focus placed on <span class="hlt">case</span> study basins within the Colorado Headwaters. The presentation will identify which types of climate changes are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058831','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058831"><span>Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat</p> <p>2012-01-15</p> <p>The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Harvey&pg=7&id=EJ789583','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Harvey&pg=7&id=EJ789583"><span>Examining Technology's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Society: Using <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karukstis, Kerry K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's <span class="hlt">impact</span> on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world <span class="hlt">case</span> studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. <span class="hlt">Case</span> study design, implementation, and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> are presented.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Chemical+AND+Society&pg=3&id=EJ789583','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Chemical+AND+Society&pg=3&id=EJ789583"><span>Examining Technology's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Society: Using <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karukstis, Kerry K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's <span class="hlt">impact</span> on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world <span class="hlt">case</span> studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. <span class="hlt">Case</span> study design, implementation, and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> are presented.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474334"><span>Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development <span class="hlt">case</span> study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was <span class="hlt">assessed</span> using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82277','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82277"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on natural resource systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J.</p> <p>1994-11-30</p> <p>This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> of the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> of Global Warming <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological <span class="hlt">Assessments</span>; Environmental Change in Grasslands: <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> using Models; <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the Socio-economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491733','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491733"><span>Screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and requirements for a comprehensive <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>To evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> to evaluate the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960002903','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960002903"><span>NSTAR Ion Thruster Plume <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Myers, Roger M.; Pencil, Eric J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael; Oden, Katessha</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Tests were performed to establish 30-cm ion thruster plume <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, including plume characterizations via near and farfield ion current measurements, contamination, and sputtering <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. Current density measurements show that 95% of the beam was enclosed within a 22 deg half-angle and that the thrust vector shifted by less than 0.3 deg during throttling from 2.3 to 0.5 kW. The beam flatness parameter was found to be 0.47, and the ratio of doubly charged to singly charged ion current density decreased from 15% at 2.3 kW to 5% at 0.5 kW. Quartz sample erosion measurements showed that the samples eroded at a rate of between 11 and 13 pm/khr at 25 deg from the thruster axis, and that the rate dropped by a factor of four at 40 deg. Good agreement was obtained between extrapolated current densities and those calculated from tantalum target erosion measurements. Quartz crystal microbalance and witness plate measurements showed that ion beam sputtering of the tank resulted in a facility material backflux rate of -10 A/hr in a large space simulation chamber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3718702I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3718702I"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the regional disparities in geoengineering <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> regional disparities in geoengineering <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Taking a 4 × CO2 climate and an idealized ‘sunshade’ SRM strategy, we consider different fractions of the maximum theoretical, 4 × CO2-cancelling global mean cooling. Whilst regional predictions in particularly relatively low resolution global climate models must be treated with caution, our simulations indicate that it might be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21117434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21117434"><span>GIS based procedure of cumulative environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balakrishna Reddy, M; Blah, Baiantimon</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Scale and spatial limits of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> study in a GIS platform are two very important factors that could have a bearing on the genuineness and quality of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. While effect of scale has been documented and well understood, no significant study has been carried out on spatial considerations in an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> study employing GIS technique. A novel technique of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> demonstrable through GIS approach termed hereby as 'spatial data integrated GIS <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> method (SGIAM)' is narrated in this paper. The technique makes a fundamental presumption that the importance of environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is dependent, among other things, on spatial distribution of the effects of the proposed action and of the affected receptors in a study area. For each environmental component considered (e.g., air quality), <span class="hlt">impact</span> indices are calculated through aggregation of <span class="hlt">impact</span> indicators which are measures of the severity of the <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The presence and spread of environmental descriptors are suitably quantified through modeling techniques and depicted. The environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> index is calculated from data exported from ArcINFO, thus giving significant importance to spatial data in the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> exercise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mas&pg=5&id=ED570709','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mas&pg=5&id=ED570709"><span>Restor(y)ing Teacher Education: A Critical Bifocal <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Teacher Performance <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EDTPA) in New York State on a Teacher Preparation Program in English Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McKibbin, Kerry Marie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this critical bifocal <span class="hlt">case</span> study, the author examines how the Obama administration's Race to the Top education reform agenda was enacted into policy that gave rise to the Teacher Performance <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (edTPA), which was in turn embodied by a single MA English education teacher preparation program in New York State. Drawing on Weis and Fine's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795325.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795325.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Teaching Practices of Secondary Mathematics Student Teachers: An Exploratory Cross <span class="hlt">Case</span> Analysis of Voluntary Field Experiences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McClintock, Edwin; O'Brien, George; Jiang, Zhonghong</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Analyses of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of reform-based teaching practices in Florida International University's program have been previously reported. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the field experiences "per se" has not been <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. Using a cross-<span class="hlt">case</span> analysis approach, the authors <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of voluntary field experiences with teachers who practice…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334154','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334154"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> corporate project <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Project-level <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal <span class="hlt">assessments</span> from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in each of these domains, with human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. Project <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience <span class="hlt">assessing</span> and responding to human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The <span class="hlt">case</span> study demonstrates the value of longitudinal <span class="hlt">assessment</span> both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=case+AND+study&pg=5&id=EJ1125677','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=case+AND+study&pg=5&id=EJ1125677"><span>Supporting Research <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Metrics in Academic Libraries: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Braun, Steven</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Measuring research <span class="hlt">impact</span> has become a nearly ubiquitous facet of scholarly communication. At the University of Minnesota Medical School, new administrative directives have directly tied <span class="hlt">impact</span> metrics to faculty <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, promotion, and tenure. In this paper, I describe a platform for the analysis and visualization of research <span class="hlt">impact</span> that was…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=online+AND+education+AND+platforms&pg=5&id=EJ1125677','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=online+AND+education+AND+platforms&pg=5&id=EJ1125677"><span>Supporting Research <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Metrics in Academic Libraries: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Braun, Steven</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Measuring research <span class="hlt">impact</span> has become a nearly ubiquitous facet of scholarly communication. At the University of Minnesota Medical School, new administrative directives have directly tied <span class="hlt">impact</span> metrics to faculty <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, promotion, and tenure. In this paper, I describe a platform for the analysis and visualization of research <span class="hlt">impact</span> that was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2668076','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2668076"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23807176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23807176"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> framing assumptions in quantitative health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>: a housing intervention example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Foss, Anna M</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) is often used to determine ex ante the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an environmental policy or an environmental intervention. Underpinning any HIA is the framing assumption, which defines the causal pathways mapping environmental exposures to health outcomes. The sensitivity of the HIA to the framing assumptions is often ignored. A novel method based on fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is developed to quantify the framing assumptions in the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> stage of a HIA, and is then applied to a housing intervention (tightening insulation) as a <span class="hlt">case</span>-study. Framing assumptions of the <span class="hlt">case</span>-study were identified through a literature search of Ovid Medline (1948-2011). The FCM approach was used to identify the key variables that have the most influence in a HIA. Changes in air-tightness, ventilation, indoor air quality and mould/humidity have been identified as having the most influence on health. The FCM approach is widely applicable and can be used to inform the formulation of the framing assumptions in any quantitative HIA of environmental interventions. We argue that it is necessary to explore and quantify framing assumptions prior to conducting a detailed quantitative HIA during the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21647006','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21647006"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of breakthrough cancer pain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burton, Beth; Zeppetella, Giovambattista</p> <p></p> <p>Breakthrough pain is a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs either spontaneously or in relation to a specific predictable or unpredictable trigger despite relative stable and adequately controlled background pain. Breakthrough pain is a common and distinct component of cancer pain and is typically of rapid onset, severe in intensity, and generally self-limiting with an average duration of 30-60minutes. Despite the self-limiting nature of breakthrough pain, it can place significant physical, psychological, and economic burdens on both patients and their carers. Patients with breakthrough pain are often less satisfied with their analgesic therapy, they have decreased functioning because of their pain, and may also experience social and psychosocial consequences, such as increased levels of anxiety and depression. Successful management of breakthrough pain is best achieved by a thorough <span class="hlt">assessment</span> which includes determining the severity, pathophysiology, and aetiology of the pain and takes into account both background and breakthrough pains while considering whether the underlying disease, co-morbidities or precipitating events are amenable to interventions. The features of breakthrough pain and the challenges it presents to patients, their carers, and health professionals are illustrated with a <span class="hlt">case</span> study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/privacy/privacy-impact-assessment-environmental-assessments-residential-properties-earp','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/privacy/privacy-impact-assessment-environmental-assessments-residential-properties-earp"><span>Privacy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> for the Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> for Residential Properties (EARP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the course of EPA <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, EPA finds that there are the potential for releases to <span class="hlt">impact</span> residential properties. To complete the <span class="hlt">assessments</span> and public health evaluations related to the release EPA must specifically <span class="hlt">assess</span> individual properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12674359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12674359"><span>Permanent maxillary central incisor <span class="hlt">impaction</span>: report of two <span class="hlt">cases</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamat, Sushant S; Kumar, G S; Raghunath, Vandana; Rekha, K P</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impaction</span> of the permanent maxillary central incisor is rare. Trauma to the primary maxillary anterior teeth is the most common cause. Two <span class="hlt">case</span> reports of <span class="hlt">impacted</span> permanent maxillary central incisors with a history of trauma to the primary maxillary anterior teeth are presented. In one <span class="hlt">case</span> there was radiographic evidence of complete arrest of root formation, and in the other <span class="hlt">case</span> the root was dilacerated from the cervical third and the enamel surface was rough.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+citation+AND+report&pg=4&id=EJ555789','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+citation+AND+report&pg=4&id=EJ555789"><span>ISI's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Factor as Misnomer: A Proposed New Measure To <span class="hlt">Assess</span> Journal <span class="hlt">Impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harter, Stephen P.; Nisonger, Thomas E.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Discusses "<span class="hlt">impact</span> factor," a measure of journal <span class="hlt">impact</span> defined by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and available in Journal Citation Reports. Argues that "<span class="hlt">impact</span> factor" is misnamed and misused, suggesting an alternative name and interpretation of the measure, and proposes two new measures to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22journal+citation+reports%22&pg=3&id=EJ555789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22journal+citation+reports%22&pg=3&id=EJ555789"><span>ISI's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Factor as Misnomer: A Proposed New Measure To <span class="hlt">Assess</span> Journal <span class="hlt">Impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harter, Stephen P.; Nisonger, Thomas E.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Discusses "<span class="hlt">impact</span> factor," a measure of journal <span class="hlt">impact</span> defined by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and available in Journal Citation Reports. Argues that "<span class="hlt">impact</span> factor" is misnamed and misused, suggesting an alternative name and interpretation of the measure, and proposes two new measures to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ794039.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ794039.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Computerized Dietary <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> on Nutrition Knowledge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these interventions is limited. This study <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650575"><span>An environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> system for agricultural R and D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Index for the agricultural technology innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3863845','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3863845"><span>Automatic <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Socioeconomic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Cardiac Rehabilitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Calvo, Mireia; Subirats, Laia; Ceccaroni, Luigi; Maroto, José María; de Pablo, Carmen; Miralles, Felip</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), which capture life expectancy and quality of the remaining life-years, are applied in a new method to measure socioeconomic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> related to health. A 7-step methodology estimating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of health interventions based on DALYs, QALYs and functioning changes is presented. It relates the latter (1) to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire (2) to automatically calculate the health status before and after the intervention (3). This change of status is represented as a change in quality of life when calculating QALYs gained due to the intervention (4). In order to make an economic <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, QALYs gained are converted to DALYs averted (5). Then, by inferring the cost/DALY from the cost associated to the disability in terms of DALYs lost (6) and taking into account the cost of the action, cost savings due to the intervention are calculated (7) as an objective measure of socioeconomic <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The methodology is implemented in Java. <span class="hlt">Cases</span> within the framework of cardiac rehabilitation processes are analyzed and the calculations are based on 200 patients who underwent different cardiac-rehabilitation processes. Results show that these interventions result, on average, in a gain in QALYs of 0.6 and a cost savings of 8,000 €. PMID:24284349</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5127382','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5127382"><span>Controls on project proponents and environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> effectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ortolano, L. )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The degree of effectiveness of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) for particular projects is associated with the existence of mechanisms of organizational control. Five dimensions of EIA effectiveness are considered: procedural compliance, completeness of EIA documents, methods to <span class="hlt">assess</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, influence on project decisions, and weight given to environmental factors. Six mechanisms of control are introduced and illustrated by programs and projects in several countries. Experience in the Philippines under President Marcos demonstrates that procedural control in the form of EIA regulations, when used without other control mechanisms, will lead at most to token compliance. Judicial control, as practiced in the US, yields high procedural compliance. Evaluative control can yield effective EIA, but some systems based on this form of control treat only a small fraction of the major projects proposed. Both control exerted by development assistance organizations and control by professionals have great potential for yielding effective EIA, but that potential has not been fully realized. Control exerted directly by citizens or agencies not otherwise involved in EIA is uncommon, but <span class="hlt">cases</span> from Taiwan demonstrate that those controls can be significant. An understanding of relationships between control mechanisms and EIA effectiveness is useful in designing EIA policies and programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/500538','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/500538"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for the National Ignition Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bay Area Economics</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>This report documents the economic and other <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/35501','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/35501"><span>Hemlock woolly adelgid <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jim Colbert; Matthew Seese; Bradley. Onken</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of hemlock woolly adelgid has been varied among the sites followed in this study of the mid-Atlantic region. It appears that in some sites, the insect has not yet had an <span class="hlt">impact</span> while in others it has killed or put the hemlock in such a state of severe decline that death is imminent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329569"><span>Risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis of the implementation of new European legislation on radiopharmaceuticals in Italy: the <span class="hlt">case</span> of the new monograph chapter Compounding of Radiopharmaceuticals (PHARMEUROPA, Vol. 23, No. 4, October 2011).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chitto, Giuseppe; Di Domenico, Elvira; Gandolfo, Patrizia; Ria, Francesco; Tafuri, Chiara; Papa, Sergio</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the new monograph chapter Compounding of Radiopharmaceuticals has been conducted on the basis of the first period of implementation of Italian legislation on Good Radiopharmaceuticals Practice (NBP) in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, in keeping with Decree by the Italian Ministry of Health dated March 30, 2005. This approach is well grounded in the several points of similarity between the two sets of regulations. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient risk, on staff risk, and on healthcare organization risk, has been <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. At the same time, the actual costs of coming into compliance with regulations have been estimated. A change risk analysis has been performed through the identification of healthcare-associated risks, the analysis and measurement of the likelihood of occurrence and of the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> in terms of patient harm and staff harm, and the determination of the healthcare organization's controlling capability. In order to evaluate the economic <span class="hlt">impact</span>, the expenses directly related to the implementation of the activities as per ministerial decree have been estimated after calculating the overall costs unrelated to NBP implementation. The resulting costs have then been averaged over the total number of patient services delivered. NBP implementation shows an extremely positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on risk management for both patients receiving Nuclear Medicine services and the healthcare organization. With regard to healthcare workers, instead, the implementation of these regulations has a negative effect on the risk for greater exposure and a positive effect on the defense against litigation. The economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis of NBP implementation shows a 34% increase in the costs for a single patient service. The implementation of the ministerial decree allows for greater detectability of and control over a number of critical elements, paving the way for risk management and minimization. We, therefore, believe that the proposed tool can provide basic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270916','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270916"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of roads: Application of a standard <span class="hlt">assessment</span> protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of network <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support adaptive management...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246915','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246915"><span>Stakeholder participation in health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: A multicultural approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Negev, Maya; Davidovitch, Nadav; Garb, Yaakov; Tal, Alon</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>The literature on <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The <span class="hlt">case</span> study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. The <span class="hlt">case</span> study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22324901R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22324901R"><span>NITARP: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>, 2005-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rebull, Luisa M.; Gorjian, V.; Brinkworth, C.; Squires, G. K.; Burtnyk, K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>NITARP, the NASA/IPAC Training in Archival Research Program, gets educators involved in authentic astronomical research. We partner small groups of educators with a mentor professional astronomer for a year-long original research project. The educators incorporate the experience into their classrooms and share their experience with other teachers. The teams echo the entire research process, from writing a proposal, to doing the research, to writing up and presenting the results at an AAS meeting. The educators incorporate this experience into their classroom. This program differs from other programs that we know of that get real astronomy data into the classroom in that: (a) Each team works on an original, unique project. There are no canned labs here! (b) Each team presents their results in posters at the AAS, in science sessions (not just outreach sessions). The posters are distributed throughout the meeting, in amongst other researchers' work; the participants are not "given a free pass" because they are teachers. (c) The 'product' of this project is the scientific result, not a curriculum packet. (d) Because the teachers work with students throughout this project, the teachers have already begun to adapt their project to fit in their classroom environment. This poster will describe the program, with highlights of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> survey conducted of NITARP alumni in June 2013. Including all forms of the project from 2004-2013, there have been 80 educator participants from 33 states; 40 of them responded to our survey. There have been 37 science and 42 education AAS posters presented by NITARP-affiliated educators and scientists (with 8 more expected to be presented at this meeting). There have been 5 refereed journal articles in professional astronomy research journals that directly involve NITARP teachers and scientists (Howell et al. 2006, Guieu et al. 2010, Howell et al. 2008, Rebull et al., 2011, 2013), and 2 more astronomy journal articles describing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6503421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6503421"><span>Application of fisheries-management techniques to <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKenzie, D.H.; Simmons, M.A.; Skalski, J.R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Monitoring methods used in fisheries-management <span class="hlt">assessments</span> were examined and their potential applicability in confirmatory <span class="hlt">impact</span> monitoring were evaluated using <span class="hlt">case</span> studies from selected nuclear power plants. A report on Task I of the project examined the application of Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) techniques in monitoring programs at riverine, large lake and ocean sites. Included in this final report is an examination of CPUE data for the Oconee Nuclear Plant on Lake Keowee, a reservoir site. This report also presents a summary of results obtained over the life of the project and guidelines for designing and implementing data collection programs and for data analysis and interpretation. Analysis of monitoring data from Lake Keowee confirmed findings from previous analyses of surveys at nuclear power plants on large lakes, rivers and coastal sites. CPUE techniques as applied to these monitoring programs do not provide data necessary to separate changes induced by plant operation from naturally occurring changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20077868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20077868"><span>[<span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of undergraduate internship in solving clinical problems].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-López, Victor; Rosales-Gracia, Sandra; Ramírez-Martínez, Jesús; García-Galaviz, José; Peña-Maldonado, Alma; Vázquez-Vázquez, Arturo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the undergraduate internship in the overall clinical competence and indicators on students who graduate from medical school. We performed a prospective comparative study among 56 medical students enrolled in undergraduate internship at public secondary care hospitals. We administered an ad-hoc instrument used to measure clinical competence at the end of their undergraduate studies and internship. The instrument included twelve clinical <span class="hlt">cases</span> with 320 questions. The response options were "true", "false" and "do not know." We used nonparametric statistics for the analysis Clinical competence improved at the end of undergraduate internship, reaching 22% of students who scored in the middle range of the clinical aptitude scale. This result was not applicable to the end of medical school where 96% of the students scored in the lower ranges of clinical competence. The rotation of medical students in secondary care hospitals significantly improves the clinical skills acquired during their medical training, although scores remain low.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204586"><span>Human Rights <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: A Method for Healthy Policymaking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacNaughton, Gillian</p> <p>2015-06-11</p> <p>Two decades ago, Lawrence Gostin and Jonathan Mann developed a methodology for human rights <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HRIA) of proposed public health policies. This article looks back over the last 20 years to examine the development of HRIA in the health field and consider the progress that has been made since Gostin and Mann published their pioneering article. Health-related HRIA has advanced substantially in three ways. First, the content of the right to health has been delineated in greater detail through domestic and international laws and policies. Second, the UN human rights mechanisms have recommended that governments undertake HRIAs and have issued guidelines and methodologies for doing so. Third, nongovernmental organizations and international organizations have developed HRIA tools and carried out <span class="hlt">case</span> studies to demonstrate their feasibility. In this light, the article concludes by recognizing the substantial progress that has been made in HRIA over the last 20 years and by considering some challenges that remain for health-related HRIA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173917','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173917"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierazzo, E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046218','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046218"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of roads: application of a standard <span class="hlt">assessment</span> protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road <span class="hlt">impacts</span> across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road <span class="hlt">impacts</span> across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent <span class="hlt">impact</span> did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542458"><span>Review of Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies Blending Elements of Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harder, Robin; Holmquist, Hanna; Molander, Sverker; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (RA) and life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) are two analytical tools used to support decision making in environmental management. This study reviewed 30 environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> <span class="hlt">case</span> studies that claimed an integration, combination, hybridization, or complementary use of RA and LCA. The focus of the analysis was on how the respective <span class="hlt">case</span> studies evaluated emissions of chemical pollutants and pathogens. The analysis revealed three clusters of similar <span class="hlt">case</span> studies. Yet, there seemed to be little consensus as to what should be referred to as RA and LCA, and when to speak of combination, integration, hybridization, or complementary use of RA and LCA. This paper provides clear recommendations toward a more stringent and consistent use of terminology. Blending elements of RA and LCA offers multifaceted opportunities to adapt a given environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> <span class="hlt">case</span> study to a specific decision making context, but also requires awareness of several implications and potential pitfalls, of which six are discussed in this paper. To facilitate a better understanding and more transparent communication of the nature of a given <span class="hlt">case</span> study, this paper proposes a "design space" (i.e., identification framework) for environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> <span class="hlt">case</span> studies blending elements of RA and LCA. Thinking in terms of a common design space, we postulate, can increase clarity and transparency when communicating the design and results of a given <span class="hlt">assessment</span> together with its potential strengths and weaknesses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EnMan..17..211B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EnMan..17..211B"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bain, Mark B.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one <span class="hlt">case</span> study. The <span class="hlt">case</span> study demonstrated that conclusions about potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to <span class="hlt">assess</span> most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814182"><span>Industrial <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Center Program <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martin, M.A.</p> <p>2000-01-26</p> <p>This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for small to medium-sized industrial firms. <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> are conducted by 30 university-based industrial <span class="hlt">assessment</span> centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22516439','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22516439"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">case</span> reports in oral and maxillofacial surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nabil, S; Samman, N</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>This review examines the effect of publishing <span class="hlt">case</span> reports on journal <span class="hlt">impact</span> factor and future research. All <span class="hlt">case</span> reports published in the four major English language oral and maxillofacial surgery journals in the two year period, 2007-2008, were searched manually. The citation data of each <span class="hlt">case</span> report were retrieved from the ISI online database. The number, percentage and mean citations received by <span class="hlt">case</span> reports and their relation to the 2009 journal <span class="hlt">impact</span> factor were analysed. <span class="hlt">Case</span> reports which received more than 5 citations were also identified and all of the citing articles retrieved and analysed. Thirty-one percent of all articles published in major oral and maxillofacial journals in 2007-2008 were <span class="hlt">case</span> reports. <span class="hlt">Case</span> reports had a low citation rate with a mean citation of less than 1. There were 38 (7.2%) <span class="hlt">case</span> reports with more than 5 citations and 30% of the citing articles were also <span class="hlt">case</span> reports. The publication of <span class="hlt">case</span> reports negatively affected journal <span class="hlt">impact</span> factor which correlated directly with the percentage of <span class="hlt">case</span> reports published within a journal. <span class="hlt">Case</span> reports reporting recent topics, describing new treatment/diagnosis method and with a literature review were more likely to receive citations. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hypothesis+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ1018913','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hypothesis+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ1018913"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Tasks on Subsequent Examination Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Van Gaal, Frank; De Ridder, Annemieke</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tasks on examination result (measured by examination grades) is investigated. Although many describe the advantages of electronic <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tasks, few studies have been undertaken which compare a traditional approach using a classical examination with a new approach using <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tasks. The main…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+assessment&pg=2&id=EJ992136','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+assessment&pg=2&id=EJ992136"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Quality <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in Universities: Portuguese Students' Perceptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cardoso, Sonia; Santiago, Rui; Sarrico, Claudia S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Despite being one of the major reasons for the development of quality <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, students seem relatively unaware of its potential <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Since one of the main purposes of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is to provide students with information on the quality of universities, this lack of awareness brings in to question the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> as a device for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+assessment&pg=2&id=EJ992136','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+assessment&pg=2&id=EJ992136"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Quality <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in Universities: Portuguese Students' Perceptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cardoso, Sonia; Santiago, Rui; Sarrico, Claudia S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Despite being one of the major reasons for the development of quality <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, students seem relatively unaware of its potential <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Since one of the main purposes of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is to provide students with information on the quality of universities, this lack of awareness brings in to question the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> as a device for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25584628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25584628"><span>High-resolution <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on biodiversity in life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> using species habitat suitability models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Baan, Laura; Curran, Michael; Rondinini, Carlo; Visconti, Piero; Hellweg, Stefanie; Koellner, Thomas</p> <p>2015-02-17</p> <p>Agricultural land use is a main driver of global biodiversity loss. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in decision-support tools such as life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) requires spatially explicit models, but existing approaches are either not spatially differentiated or modeled at very coarse scales (e.g., biomes or ecoregions). In this paper, we develop a high-resolution (900 m) <span class="hlt">assessment</span> method for land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on biodiversity based on habitat suitability models (HSM) of mammal species. This method considers potential land use effects on individual species, and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are weighted by the species' conservation status and global rarity. We illustrate the method using a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of crop production in East Africa, but the underlying HSMs developed by the Global Mammals <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> are available globally. We calculate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of three major export crops and compare the results to two previously developed methods (focusing on local and regional <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, respectively) to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the relevance of the methodological innovations proposed in this paper. The results highlight hotspots of product-related biodiversity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that help characterize the links among agricultural production, consumption, and biodiversity loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tutorial&pg=6&id=EJ1089209','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tutorial&pg=6&id=EJ1089209"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Tutorial Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ticknor, Cindy S.; Shaw, Kimberly A.; Howard, Timothy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many institutions struggle to develop a meaningful way to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the effectiveness of drop-in tutorial services provided to students. This article discusses the development of a data collection system based on a visitor sign-in system that proved to be an efficient method of gathering <span class="hlt">assessment</span> data, including frequency of visits, end-of-course…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19324382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19324382"><span>Healthy public policy--is health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> the cornerstone?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Metcalfe, O; Higgins, C</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The 8th International Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Conference, entitled 'Healthy public policy--is health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> the cornerstone?', was hosted by the Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH). At the event, IPH sponsored a keynote speech to set the context of the conference and outline the importance of healthy public policy. This article presents an overview of healthy public policy and the barriers to its adoption in policy-making. Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> is one such tool to overcome the barriers, and the authors recommend the methodology as the cornerstone to healthy public policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ985393.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ985393.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies in the Field of Marketing Education: Learner <span class="hlt">Impact</span>, <span class="hlt">Case</span> Performance, and Cost Efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spais, George S.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The major objective of this study is to identify a methodology that will help educators in marketing to efficiently manage the design, <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and cost of <span class="hlt">case</span> studies. It is my intention is to examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">case</span> study characteristics in relation to the degree of learner involvement in the learning process. The author proposes that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2711B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2711B"><span>The key role of eyewitnesses in rapid earthquake <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Frédéric; Etivant, Caroline</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in rapid earthquake <span class="hlt">impact</span> models are intrinsically large even when excluding potential indirect losses (fires, landslides, tsunami…). The reason is that they are based on several factors which are themselves difficult to constrain, such as the geographical distribution of shaking intensity, building type inventory and vulnerability functions. The difficulties can be illustrated by two boundary <span class="hlt">cases</span>. For moderate (around M6) earthquakes, the size of potential damage zone and the epicentral location uncertainty share comparable dimension of about 10-15km. When such an earthquake strikes close to an urban area, like in 1999, in Athens (M5.9), earthquake location uncertainties alone can lead to dramatically different <span class="hlt">impact</span> scenario. Furthermore, for moderate magnitude, the overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> is often controlled by individual accidents, like in 2002 in Molise, Italy (M5.7), in Bingol, Turkey (M6.4) in 2003 or in Christchurch, New Zealand (M6.3) where respectively 23 out of 30, 84 out of 176 and 115 out of 185 of the causalities perished in a single building failure. Contrastingly, for major earthquakes (M>7), the point source approximation is not valid anymore, and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> requires knowing exactly where the seismic rupture took place, whether it was unilateral, bilateral etc.… and this information is not readily available directly after the earthquake's occurrence. In-situ observations of actual <span class="hlt">impact</span> provided by eyewitnesses can dramatically reduce <span class="hlt">impact</span> models uncertainties. We will present the overall strategy developed at the EMSC which comprises of crowdsourcing and flashsourcing techniques, the development of citizen operated seismic networks, and the use of social networks to engage with eyewitnesses within minutes of an earthquake occurrence. For instance, testimonies are collected through online questionnaires available in 32 languages and automatically processed in maps of effects. Geo-located pictures are collected and then</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234249&keyword=Bees&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90774855&CFTOKEN=79052552','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234249&keyword=Bees&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90774855&CFTOKEN=79052552"><span>Developments in <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has <span class="hlt">impacted</span> North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88S.218Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88S.218Z"><span>In Brief: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of wind energy <span class="hlt">assessed</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zielinski, Sarah</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The report, ``Environmental <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234249&keyword=Bees&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234249&keyword=Bees&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Developments in <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> in North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has <span class="hlt">impacted</span> North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143157&keyword=GIS+AND+Soil+AND+Water+AND+Watershed+AND+water+AND+resource+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78840789&CFTOKEN=26574280','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143157&keyword=GIS+AND+Soil+AND+Water+AND+Watershed+AND+water+AND+resource+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78840789&CFTOKEN=26574280"><span>LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> (LTHIA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED274502.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED274502.pdf"><span>Community Level <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>--Extension Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Woods, Mike D.; Doeksen, Gerald A.</p> <p></p> <p>Using the Oklahoma State University (OSU) computerized community simulation model, extension professionals can provide local decision makers with information derived from an <span class="hlt">impact</span> model that is dynamic, community specific, and easy to adapt to different communities. The four main sections of the OSU model are an economic account, a capital…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143157&keyword=science+AND+direct+AND+journals&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143157&keyword=science+AND+direct+AND+journals&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span> (LTHIA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234263&keyword=Debate&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89896438&CFTOKEN=29609133','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234263&keyword=Debate&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89896438&CFTOKEN=29609133"><span>Current Research in Land Use <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234263&keyword=au&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234263&keyword=au&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Current Research in Land Use <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790004386','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790004386"><span>Satellite Power System (SPS) environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, preliminary <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Livingston, F. R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Present power plant <span class="hlt">assessment</span> factors are used to present satellite power system (SPS) <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. In contrast to oil, gas, nuclear and coal fueled power plants, the SPS and hydroelectric power plants produce air, water, and solid waste emissions only during the construction phase. Land use <span class="hlt">impacts</span> result from the placement of rectennas used for microwave receiving and rectifying. Air quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the SPS resulting from the construction phase amount to 0.405 metric tons per megawatt year. Solid wastes <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are 0.108 metric tons per year of operation. Other <span class="hlt">impacts</span> such as those caused by heavy lift launch vehicle sites are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6422332','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6422332"><span>Plan to meet a new requirement: energy <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Breedlove, K.H.</p> <p>1980-08-01</p> <p>New and proposed regulations require Energy <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (ENIA) statements and consideration of energy alternatives for federal aid in building major new facilities which <span class="hlt">impact</span> greatly on local energy resources. The objectives will be to determine long-term energy costs, reduce adverse <span class="hlt">impacts</span> through tradeoffs, set baselines for evaluating future changes in usage, and provide inputs to Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statements and to energy-feasibility analyses. ENIA and Energy Resource <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Statements (ERIS) are defined, and the proposed content and applicability discussed. Methodological research, energy cost-factor data, and specialists will be needed. Army regulations and other laws are quoted. (DCK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161804"><span>Evaluating Ireland's IBIA as an approach to improving the quality and effectiveness of biodiversity <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González, Ainhoa; Hochstrasser, Tamara; Fry, John; Scott, Paul; Grist, Berna; Jones, Mike</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of plans, programmes and projects on biodiversity is required under various legislative remits (including the European Union's Habitats, Strategic Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Directives). The objective of such <span class="hlt">assessments</span> is to ensure that potential negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on both protected nature conservation sites and species and wider biodiversity are efficiently identified in a timely manner, quantified and subsequently avoided or mitigated, while enhancing positive effects. The procedural requirements of these legal obligations vary and, as a result, differing methodological steps, data gathering and analysis methods, and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> techniques are commonly applied under each individual process, often leading to uncoordinated <span class="hlt">assessment</span> efforts and results (in terms, for example, of scope, scale and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> detail). In order to address these issues and improve current practice, an Integrated Biodiversity <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (IBIA) methodology has been developed in Ireland with the overall aim of providing a holistic and systematic approach to biodiversity <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. The IBIA framework seeks to ensure that relevant procedures are effectively integrated, time and resource efficiencies are optimised, and unnecessary duplication avoided. Particular emphasis is given to compliance with legal requirements, integration and communication of scientific knowledge, spatial <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and biodiversity data considerations, and integration of biodiversity aspects with a variety of other concerns during the plan-making process. This paper presents the IBIA methodology and critically examines current key issues in biodiversity <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> that can be potentially addressed through IBIA, as well as remaining challenges. In addition, and in order to support the examination of the anticipated benefits of using this new methodological framework (such as biodiversity-inclusive planning through</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7028E..0FD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7028E..0FD"><span><span class="hlt">Case</span> study: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of VSB fracturing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dillon, Brian; Norris, Tim</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Yield of a Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) created photomask is directly related to the quality of the fracture. The quality of a fracture is determined by three criteria: split CDs, slivers, and fracture consistency. Split CDs of figures whose widths are under the beam's shot size affect the quality due to adding an unnecessary shot registration error. Slivers, or extremely skinny shots, are harmful because they increase write time, adversely affect lithography patterning, and subsequently can cause inspection errors. Inconsistent fracturing of identical geometry compounds these issues that affect uniformity. Testmask structures devoted to grading the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of slivers and consistency will be created, manufactured, and measured to enable statistical analysis of fracture data. These structures will be systematically designed to cover a wide range of sliver widths and feature geometries. The mean to target will be evaluated for these test structures, and from this, <span class="hlt">impact</span> on CD linearity and CD uniformity can be judged. The effect of slivers on write time will be discussed in a more general scope. When evaluating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of slivers, five criteria should be investigated: sliver length, sliver width, proximity, avoidability, and location. Each of these criteria either affect lithography or write time. Determining how to define the maximum width of a sliver is fracture algorithm dependent, but this paper gives guidelines that should ease that process. The goal is to fracture identical geometry in an identical fashion, regardless of orientation or mirroring, while making the shots as large as possible and avoiding slivers; and when avoiding a sliver is impossible, trying to embed the sliver between large shots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&pg=3&id=ED160599','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&pg=3&id=ED160599"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Research on Education: Some <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suppes, Patrick, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Significant <span class="hlt">cases</span> of research in terms of their effect on school practices are cited and discussed in this volume. In presenting the various <span class="hlt">case</span> studies, the authors have not focused on the scientific validity of the ideas they present but on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these ideas on education practice. The following topics are covered: (1) the use of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&id=ED160598','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&id=ED160598"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Research on Education: Some <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies. Summaries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suppes, Patrick, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Significant <span class="hlt">cases</span> of research in terms of their effect on school practices have been extensively documented by educational researchers. This booklet summarizes nine such studies, which are published in detail in a companion volume ("<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Research on Education: Some <span class="hlt">Case</span> Studies"). These studies have a variety reasonably characteristic of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294714','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294714"><span>Application of Non-Human Biota <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Methodologies to the <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Potential <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from a Nuclear Waste Repository</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, K.L.; Robinson, C.A.; Ikonen, A.T.K.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation has become increasingly more topical over the last few years as the intentions enshrined in international principles and agreements have become more binding through national and international law. For example, the Directive on <span class="hlt">impact</span> of certain projects on the environment (EIA Directive 85/337/EEC) [CEC, 1985], amended in 1997 [CEC, 1997], places a mandatory requirement on all EU Member States to conduct environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for a range of project having potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the environment, including radioactive waste disposal. Such <span class="hlt">assessments</span> must consider humans, fauna and flora, the abiotic environment (soil, water, air), material assets and cultural heritage as well as the interactions between these factors. In Finland, Posiva Oy are responsible for the overall repository programme for spent nuclear fuel and, as such, are conducting the Safety <span class="hlt">Case</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> for a proposed geological repository for nuclear waste. Within the European legislation framework, the Finnish regulatory body requires that the repository safety <span class="hlt">case</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> should include not only human radiological safety, but also an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon populations of non-human biota. Specifically, the Safety <span class="hlt">Case</span> should demonstrate that there will be: - no decline in the biodiversity of currently living populations; - no significant detriment to populations of fauna and flora; and, - no detrimental effects on individuals of domestic animals and rare plants and animals. At present, there are no internationally agreed criteria that explicitly address protection of the environment from ionising radiation. However, over recent years a number of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methodologies have been developed including, at a European level, the Framework for the <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> (FASSET) and Environmental Risks from Ionising Contaminants (ERICA). The International Committee on Radiation Protection</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25068795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25068795"><span>Combining life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and qualitative risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: the <span class="hlt">case</span> study of alumina nanofluid production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>In this paper the authors propose a framework for combining life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (LCA) and Risk <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (RA) to support the sustainability <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of emerging technologies. This proposal includes four steps of analysis: technological system definition; data collection; risk evaluation and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> quantification; results interpretation. This scheme has been applied to a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of nanofluid alumina production in two different pilot lines, "single-stage" and "two-stage". The study has been developed in the NanoHex project (enhanced nano-fluid heat exchange). Goals of the study were analyzing the hotspots and highlighting possible trade-off between the results of LCA, which identifies the processes having the best environmental performance, and the results of RA, which identifies the scenarios having the highest risk for workers. Indeed, due to lack of data about exposure limits, exposure-dose relationships and toxicity of alumina nanopowders (NPs) and nanofluids (NF), the workplace exposure has been evaluated by means of qualitative risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, using Stoffenmanager Nano. Though having different aims, LCA and RA have a complementary role in the description of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of products/substances/technologies. Their combined use can overcome limits of each of them and allows a wider vision of the problems to better support the decision making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24391285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24391285"><span>Towards improved socio-economic <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of ocean acidification's <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of these potential socio-economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. For instance, economic data on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and sets out what further information is required for economists to <span class="hlt">assess</span> socio-economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572488','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572488"><span>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> needs in south-east Asian countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Caussy, Deoraj; Kumar, Priti; Than Sein, U.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A situation analysis was undertaken to <span class="hlt">assess</span> impediments to health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) in the South-East Asia Region of WHO (SEARO). The countries of the region were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> on the policy framework and procedures for HIA, existing infrastructure required to support HIA, the capacity for undertaking HIA, and the potential for intersectoral collaboration. The findings show that environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) is being used implicitly as a substitute for HIA, which is not explicitly or routinely conducted in virtually all countries of the Region. Therefore, policy, infrastructure, capacity, and intersectoral collaboration need strengthening for the routine implementation of HIA. PMID:12894329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295651','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=295651"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of weather and climate scenarios on conservation <span class="hlt">assessment</span> outcomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper reviews selected watershed studies of the Conservation Effects <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Project (CEAP) and interprets findings from the perspective of potential climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on conservation outcomes. Primary foci are runoff, soil erosion, sediment transport, watershed sediment yield, and asso...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=119147&keyword=science+AND+political&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77859595&CFTOKEN=23247375','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=119147&keyword=science+AND+political&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77859595&CFTOKEN=23247375"><span>LIFE CYCLE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span>: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research within the field of Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=119147&keyword=global+AND+warming+AND+life&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=119147&keyword=global+AND+warming+AND+life&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>LIFE CYCLE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> <span class="hlt">ASSESSMENT</span>: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research within the field of Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/healthresearch/health-impact-assessment-hia-resource-and-tool-compilation','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/healthresearch/health-impact-assessment-hia-resource-and-tool-compilation"><span>The Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) Resource and Tool Compilation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The compilation includes tools and resources related to the HIA process and can be used to collect and analyze data, establish a baseline profile, <span class="hlt">assess</span> potential health <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and establish benchmarks and indicators for monitoring and evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=204103&fed_org_id=1253&subject=homeland%20security%20research&view=desc&sortby=pubdateyear&showcriteria=1&count=25&searchall=decontamination%20and%20conference','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=204103&fed_org_id=1253&subject=homeland%20security%20research&view=desc&sortby=pubdateyear&showcriteria=1&count=25&searchall=decontamination%20and%20conference"><span>Experimental Approaches to <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Symposium Paper The US EPA, as part of the CRTI project team, is currently working to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of an urban radiological dispersion device (RDD) and develop containment and decontamination strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+law&pg=5&id=EJ157369','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+law&pg=5&id=EJ157369"><span>Berkeley's Course on Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Reporting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McColl, John G.; Nicholas, Tawna</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A four-quarter sequence of courses to <span class="hlt">assess</span> environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>, to provide students with knowledge of environmental law, a strong interdisciplinary base, and an understanding of the processes of planning and policy formation, is described. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=212550&keyword=product+AND+life+AND+cycle+AND+stages&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=212550&keyword=product+AND+life+AND+cycle+AND+stages&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Research Developments and Needs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Environmental+AND+law&pg=5&id=EJ157369','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Environmental+AND+law&pg=5&id=EJ157369"><span>Berkeley's Course on Environmental <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Reporting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McColl, John G.; Nicholas, Tawna</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A four-quarter sequence of courses to <span class="hlt">assess</span> environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>, to provide students with knowledge of environmental law, a strong interdisciplinary base, and an understanding of the processes of planning and policy formation, is described. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230290&keyword=ISO&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78685862&CFTOKEN=78528315','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230290&keyword=ISO&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78685862&CFTOKEN=78528315"><span>International Developments in Environmental and Social <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=212550&keyword=Smog&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78831002&CFTOKEN=81655113','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=212550&keyword=Smog&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78831002&CFTOKEN=81655113"><span>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Research Developments and Needs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230290&keyword=bank+AND+america&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230290&keyword=bank+AND+america&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>International Developments in Environmental and Social <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861668"><span>Validating health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: Prediction is difficult (especially about the future)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Petticrew, Mark . E-mail: mark@msoc.mrc.gla.ac.uk; Cummins, Steven; Sparks, Leigh; Findlay, Anne</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (HIA) has been recommended as a means of estimating how policies, programmes and projects may <span class="hlt">impact</span> on public health and on health inequalities. This paper considers the difference between predicting health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and measuring those <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. It draws upon a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of the building of a new hypermarket in a deprived area of Glasgow, which offered an opportunity to reflect on the issue of the predictive validity of HIA, and to consider the difference between potential and actual <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. We found that the actual <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the new hypermarket on diet differed from that which would have been predicted based on previous studies. Furthermore, they challenge current received wisdom about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of food retail outlets in poorer areas. These results are relevant to the validity of HIA as a process and emphasise the importance of further research on the predictive validity of HIA, which should help improve its value to decision-makers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA285130','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA285130"><span>Biological <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> on <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> to Peregrine Falcons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-03-15</p> <p>reduction in prey base would mean less food for the peregrine falcons and other raptors that compete for this food source and, therefore, fewer raptors...resulting from major boat fuel and oil spills could result in localized secondary <span class="hlt">impacts</span> such as fouling of bird’s plumage and food source reduction and/or...shorebird populations should be monicored to determine whether their numbers are stable and that they continue to provide a consistent food source for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006920','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800006920"><span>LOX/GOX mechanical <span class="hlt">impact</span> tester <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bransford, J. W.; Bryan, C. J.; Frye, G. W.; Stohler, S. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The performances of three existing high pressure oxygen mechanical <span class="hlt">impact</span> test systems were tested at two different test sites. The systems from one test site were fabricated from the same design drawing, whereas the system tested at the other site was of different design. Energy delivered to the test sample for each test system was evaluated and compared. Results were compared to the reaction rates obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec227-22.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec227-22.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.22 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 227.22 Section 227.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec227-19.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec227-19.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.19 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. 227.19 Section 227.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec227-19.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec227-19.pdf"><span>40 CFR 227.19 - <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 227.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An overall...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/41376','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/41376"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> soil <span class="hlt">impacts</span> related to forest harvest operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>E.A. Carter; John M. III. Grace</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Three studies conducted in Alabama evaluated <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with a clear cut harvest in three physiographic regions. Machine <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> via tabulation of soil disturbance classes, measurement of bulk density and soil strength, or a combination of the two. Soil disturbance classes were similar among all locations with untrafficked areas comprising...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3297400','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3297400"><span>Tracking long-distance migration to <span class="hlt">assess</span> marine pollution <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Animal tracking provides new means to <span class="hlt">assess</span> far-reaching environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to <span class="hlt">assess</span>) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the <span class="hlt">case</span> in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns. PMID:22012949</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/125939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/125939"><span>Integrating environmental justice (EJ) methodologies into environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zimmerman, R.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Environmental Justice (EJ) concerns are now a pervasive part of environmental policy. Moreover, Federal Executive Order 12898 mandates its diffusion throughout federal government programs, and many states are developing similar programs. EJ concerns first arose in the environmental field in the context of hazardous waste facilities. Thus, hazardous waste applications provide important analytical models for EJ issues addressed in other programs, such as environmental <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EA). At the present time, EJ concerns are treated largely qualitatively in EAs and environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> statements (EISs) in sections dealing with neighborhood and community character or socioeconomics. The manner in which EJ issues are examined in EISs is described using examples from recent EISs, and an approach to quantifying EJ in terms of demographic patterns is presented using techniques previously applied by the author to hazardous waste sites (primarily sites on the National Priorities List under the Superfund program). Various geographic levels and demographic parameters are discussed and compared. A key point is the manner in which the choice of a comparison area influences conclusions about a particular area. these methods are critical in addressing such issues as whether proposed projects are being located in areas with relatively greater proportions of {open_quotes}vulnerable{close_quotes} populations or, in the <span class="hlt">case</span> of public service projects, how these populations are served relative to other populations by the facilities that are the subject of the <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012949"><span>Tracking long-distance migration to <span class="hlt">assess</span> marine pollution <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory</p> <p>2012-04-23</p> <p>Animal tracking provides new means to <span class="hlt">assess</span> far-reaching environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to <span class="hlt">assess</span>) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the <span class="hlt">case</span> in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3101/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3101/"><span>PAGER - Rapid <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of an Earthquake's <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Earle, Paul S.; Wald, David J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>PAGER (Prompt <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system to rapidly <span class="hlt">assess</span> the number of people and regions exposed to severe shaking by an earthquake, and inform emergency responders, government agencies, and the media to the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER monitors the U.S. Geological Survey?s near real-time U.S. and global earthquake detections and automatically identifies events that are of societal importance, well in advance of ground-truth or news accounts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=assessment&pg=3&id=EJ1138287','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=assessment&pg=3&id=EJ1138287"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Conceptions of <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> on <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Literacy in a Teacher Education Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Deneen, Christopher Charles; Brown, Gavin T. L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> literacy is considered essential to modern teaching. Over time, <span class="hlt">assessment</span> literacy has evolved to include both measurement and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for learning perspectives. At the same time, research into teachers' conceptions of the purpose and role of <span class="hlt">assessment</span> demonstrates increasing evidence of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of teachers' conceptions on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313863"><span>Risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in submarine outfall projects: the <span class="hlt">case</span> of Portugal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedure was then applied to four <span class="hlt">case</span> studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedure was able to measure the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the outfalls on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=FFS&id=EJ932572','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=FFS&id=EJ932572"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study from Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Based on a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of <span class="hlt">assessing</span> whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chocolate+OR+cocoa&id=EJ932572','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chocolate+OR+cocoa&id=EJ932572"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A <span class="hlt">Case</span> Study from Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Based on a <span class="hlt">case</span> study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of <span class="hlt">assessing</span> whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/323768','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/323768"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for infrastructure planning: Some Dutch dilemmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Niekerk, F.; Voogd, H.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This article explores four dilemmas with respect to the role of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in Dutch infrastructure planning. The first dilemma concerns a difficult choice between a top-down and a bottom-up approach of infrastructure planning. The other three dilemmas relate to choices between strategic versus operational, reviewed versus unreviewed, and sectorial versus integral <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. The article`s most important observation is the lack of fundamental strategic discussions, which leads to a lack of well-considered strategic <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. To solve this shortcoming, a choice must be made between pursuing one integral <span class="hlt">assessment</span> or several sectorial <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. The outcome of this choice will direct how the other dilemmas can be solved. The challenge for planners is to search for approaches that (1) provide facts for fair and straight discussions as well as (2) increase public involvement in strategic decision-making.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217325&keyword=Water+AND+scarcity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78824431&CFTOKEN=90965795','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217325&keyword=Water+AND+scarcity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78824431&CFTOKEN=90965795"><span>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> for Land Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>According to the Millennium <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217325&keyword=forestry&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217325&keyword=forestry&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> for Land Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>According to the Millennium <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>: “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22589256','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22589256"><span>Methods for land use <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perminova, Tataina; Sirina, Natalia; Laratte, Bertrand; Baranovskaya, Natalia; Rikhvanov, Leonid</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>Many types of methods to <span class="hlt">assess</span> land use <span class="hlt">impact</span> have been developed. Nevertheless a systematic synthesis of all these approaches is necessary to highlight the most commonly used and most effective methods. Given the growing interest in this area of research, a review of the different methods of <span class="hlt">assessing</span> land use <span class="hlt">impact</span> (LUI) was performed using bibliometric analysis. One hundred eighty seven articles of agricultural and biological science, and environmental sciences were examined. According to our results, the most frequently used land use <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods are Life-Cycle <span class="hlt">Assessment</span>, Material Flow Analysis/Input–Output Analysis, Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Ecological Footprint. Comparison of the methods allowed their specific features to be identified and to arrive at the conclusion that a combination of several methods is the best basis for a comprehensive analysis of land use <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. - Highlights: • We identified the most frequently used methods in land use <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. • A comparison of the methods based on several criteria was carried out. • Agricultural land use is by far the most common area of study within the methods. • Incentive driven methods, like LCA, arouse the most interest in this field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26324393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26324393"><span>Patient-specific finite element model of the spine and spinal cord to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the neurological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of scoliosis correction: preliminary application on two <span class="hlt">cases</span> with and without intraoperative neurological complications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henao, Juan; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Labelle, Hubert; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scoliosis is a 3D deformation of the spine and rib cage. For severe <span class="hlt">cases</span>, surgery with spine instrumentation is required to restore a balanced spine curvature. This surgical procedure may represent a neurological risk for the patient, especially during corrective maneuvers. This study aimed to computationally simulate the surgical instrumentation maneuvers on a patient-specific biomechanical model of the spine and spinal cord to <span class="hlt">assess</span> and predict potential damage to the spinal cord and spinal nerves. A detailed finite element model (FEM) of the spine and spinal cord of a healthy subject was used as reference geometry. The FEM was personalized to the geometry of the patient using a 3D biplanar radiographic reconstruction technique and 3D dual kriging. Step by step surgical instrumentation maneuvers were simulated in order to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the neurological risk associated to each maneuver. The surgical simulation methodology implemented was divided into two parts. First, a global multi-body simulation was used to extract the 3D displacement of six vertebral landmarks, which were then introduced as boundary conditions into the personalized FEM in order to reproduce the surgical procedure. The results of the FEM simulation for two <span class="hlt">cases</span> were compared to published values on spinal cord neurological functional threshold. The efficiency of the reported method was checked considering one patient with neurological complications detected during surgery and one control patient. This comparison study showed that the patient-specific hybrid model reproduced successfully the biomechanics of neurological injury during scoliosis correction maneuvers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA094652','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA094652"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Man’s <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Wetlands,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>Evaluation System is applied in abbreviated <span class="hlt">case</span> studies to construction in the Yazoo Basin in Mississippi and the Neuse River Estuaries of North... WETLANS Wetland is a collective term encompassing ... areas such as swamps, marshes, and bogs. It shares their hydrologic, vege- tative, and soil...advertisements for new developments along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, the end of construction was not in sight as more and more Americans were seeking second</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703012"><span>Chemical alternatives <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: the <span class="hlt">case</span> of flame retardants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howard, Gregory J</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Decisions on chemical substitution are made rapidly and by many stakeholders; these decisions may have a direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> on consumer exposures, and, when a hazard exists, to consumer risks. Flame retardants (FRs) represent particular challenges, including very high production volumes, designed-in persistence, and often direct consumer exposure. Newer FR products, as with other industrial chemicals, typically lack data on hazard and exposure, and in many <span class="hlt">cases</span> even basic information on structure and use in products is unknown. Chemical alternatives <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (CAA) provides a hazard-focused approach to distinguishing between possible substitutions; variations on this process are used by several government and numerous corporate entities. By grouping chemicals according to functional use, some information on exposure potential can be inferred, allowing for decisions based on those hazard properties that are most distinguishing. This approach can help prevent the "regrettable substitution" of one chemical with another of equal, or even higher, risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/118660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/118660"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in practice: A gender critique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurian, P.A. |</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The author evaluates the extent to which environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Such biases distort the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28698462','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28698462"><span>Using Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> as an Interdisciplinary Teaching Tool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chinchilla, Melissa; Arcaya, Mariana C</p> <p>2017-07-08</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (HIA) courses are teaching public health and urban planning students how to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the likely health effects of proposed policies, plans, and projects. We suggest that public health and urban planning have complimentary frameworks for training practitioners to address the living conditions that affect health. Planning perspectives emphasize practical skills for <span class="hlt">impacting</span> community change, while public health stresses professional purpose and ethics. Frameworks from both disciplines can enhance the HIA learning experience by helping students tackle questions related to community <span class="hlt">impact</span>, engagement, social justice, and ethics. We also propose that HIA community engagement processes can be enriched through an empathetic practice that focuses on greater personal introspection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ973831.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ973831.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Twenty-First Century Rural School Consolidation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Surface, Jeanne</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study was to make a qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of school consolidation on several rural Nebraska communities that have recently lost their schools. This research uses a multiple-<span class="hlt">case</span> study design with interviews conducted in three Nebraska communities. The data from this research fell into four broad themes: social…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51J..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51J..02W"><span>Climate Change <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span> for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The vast majority of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change <span class="hlt">assessments</span> for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>, and modification of international trade models for use in <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> product of potentially greater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409837"><span>Laboratory <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of phthalazine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lande, S.S.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Reiner, E.A.; Welter, A.N.; Robideau, R.R.</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>Several approaches to the environmental safety <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of chemicals have been reported. The basic principles involved in predicting environmental behavior combine degradation kinetics and the partitioning/distribution of chemicals in the environment. The transport mechanisms within the environment can be modeled as partitioning/distribution which are essentially functions of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Phthalazine (2,3-Benzodiazine, C8H6N2) is a component of a specialized paper product. The major route for environmental entry of phthalazine is through land disposal of waste paper. Information available on phthalazine chemistry is consistent with behavior of heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several laboratory test methods and QSAR estimation procedures were used to measure key environmental properties of phthalazine. This <span class="hlt">assessment</span> examines the environmental release of phthalazine, and its partitioning and distribution in the environment. It predicts the probable fate and possible biological effects of phthalazine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20713497','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20713497"><span>Making effective links to decision-making: Key challenges for health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Elliott, Eva . E-mail: elliotte@cf.ac.uk; Francis, Sarah</p> <p>2005-10-15</p> <p>This paper draws on an exploratory research study to examine the effectiveness of health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> in Wales. Through the review of five <span class="hlt">case</span> study health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span> the research identified a number of benefits of the process in terms of skills and knowledge development amongst participants. The indirect contributions to decision-making were also evident including the way in which health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> provided useful insights into the local community's perspective and raised awareness about the wider determinants of health. The process was also useful in establishing a dialogue between different stakeholders, which indirectly assisted decision-making and implementation. The direct links between health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and decision-making were more difficult to trace and this paper puts forward a number of suggestions for making those links more transparent. Suggestions include integrating decision-makers and clarifying the intended links to decision-making at the start of the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> process. Mainstreaming health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> so that it is triggered as a routine part of all decision-making would help ensure it stands the best chance of informing decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499129"><span>Integrating <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and conflict management in urban planning: Experiences from Finland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peltonen, Lasse; Sairinen, Rauno</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>The article examines the interlinkages between recent developments in conflict management and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> procedures in the context of urban planning in Finland. It sets out by introducing the fields of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and conflict mediation. It then proceeds to discuss the development of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> practices and the status of conflict mediation in Finnish land use planning. The <span class="hlt">case</span> of Korteniitty infill development plan in Jyvaeskylae is used to demonstrate how the Finnish planning system operates in conflict situations - and how social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> can contribute to managing planning conflicts. The authors ask how the processes of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> contribute to conflict management. Based on the Finnish experience, it is argued that social <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of land use plans can contribute to conflict management, especially in the absence of institutionalised conflict mediation processes. In addition, SIA may acquire features of conflict mediation, depending on extent and intensity of stakeholder participation in the process, and the quality of linkages it between knowledge production and decision-making. Simultaneously, conflict mediation practices and theoretical insights can inform the application of SIA to help it address land use conflicts more consciously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256865','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=256865"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of climate change <span class="hlt">impact</span> on Eastern Washington agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate change and the concurrent increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on eastern Washington State agriculture was conducted. Climate projections from four selected general circulation models (GCM) were chosen, and the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> included the crops with ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+technology+AND+social+AND+skills&pg=3&id=EJ459526','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+technology+AND+social+AND+skills&pg=3&id=EJ459526"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Technology on <span class="hlt">Assessing</span> Social Skills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Storey, Keith</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of computer technology in social skills <span class="hlt">assessment</span> for people with disabilities. The article describes the technology, implications of the technology, and the role of micro versus macro analysis in social skills <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. Implications for direct service and research are discussed. (JDD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1130071.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1130071.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Timing: Student Preferences and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McManus, Richard</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Students on a first year undergraduate economics module were given the choice of when to sit their first <span class="hlt">assessment</span> in the subject in order to determine both preferences over <span class="hlt">assessment</span> timing, and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of timing on performance. Clear preferences of having this option were shown (only 2% of students stated to be indifferent) with those more…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IMPACT+AND+ENVIRONMENTAL+AND+CONSTRUCTION&pg=6&id=EJ386164','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IMPACT+AND+ENVIRONMENTAL+AND+CONSTRUCTION&pg=6&id=EJ386164"><span>Training for Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (E.I.A.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vougias, S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Deals with the methodology and practices for Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> (EIA). Describes the EIA process, prediction process, alternative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods, training needs, major activities, training provision and material, main deficiencies and the precautions, and real world training examples. (Author/YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186606"><span>Groundwater <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report <span class="hlt">assesses</span> the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The <span class="hlt">assessment</span> reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515647"><span>Uncertainty in environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: quantitative methods and perspectives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Vanni, Tazio; Foss, Anna M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> models are subjected to great uncertainty due to the complex associations between environmental exposures and health. Quantifying the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of uncertainty is important if the models are used to support health policy decisions. We conducted a systematic review to identify and appraise current methods used to quantify the uncertainty in environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. In the 19 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, several methods were identified. These were grouped into random sampling methods, second-order probability methods, Bayesian methods, fuzzy sets, and deterministic sensitivity analysis methods. All 19 studies addressed the uncertainty in the parameter values but only 5 of the studies also addressed the uncertainty in the structure of the models. None of the articles reviewed considered conceptual sources of uncertainty associated with the framing assumptions or the conceptualisation of the model. Future research should attempt to broaden the way uncertainty is taken into account in environmental health <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessments</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22206467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22206467"><span>GIS-based regionalized life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span>: how big is small enough? Methodology and <span class="hlt">case</span> study of electricity generation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mutel, Christopher L; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie</p> <p>2012-01-17</p> <p>We describe a new methodology for performing regionalized life cycle <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and systematically choosing the spatial scale of regionalized <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods. We extend standard matrix-based calculations to include matrices that describe the mapping from inventory to <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> spatial supports. Uncertainty in inventory spatial data is modeled using a discrete spatial distribution function, which in a <span class="hlt">case</span> study is derived from empirical data. The minimization of global spatial autocorrelation is used to choose the optimal spatial scale of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods. We demonstrate these techniques on electricity production in the United States, using regionalized <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods for air emissions and freshwater consumption. <span class="hlt">Case</span> study results show important differences between site-generic and regionalized calculations, and provide specific guidance for future improvements of inventory data sets and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1346282-towards-comprehensive-climate-impacts-assessment-solar-geoengineering','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1346282-towards-comprehensive-climate-impacts-assessment-solar-geoengineering"><span>Towards a comprehensive climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of solar geoengineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; ...</p> <p>2016-11-23</p> <p>Here, despite a growing literature on the projected physical climate responses to solar geoengineering — i.e. proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo — there is no clear picture of the subsequent <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of such a modified climate on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. Here we argue that engaging the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> research community is necessary to evaluate and communicate how solar geoengineering might reduce some risks, exacerbate others, and give rise to novel risks. We review the current state of knowledge on consequences of solar geoengineering and conclude thatmore » a