Science.gov

Sample records for impact assessment entwicklung

  1. Assessing climate impacts.

    PubMed

    Wohl, E E; Pulwarty, R S; Zhang, J Y

    2000-10-10

    Assessing climate impacts involves identifying sources and characteristics of climate variability, and mitigating potential negative impacts of that variability. Associated research focuses on climate driving mechanisms, biosphere-hydrosphere responses and mediation, and human responses. Examples of climate impacts come from 1998 flooding in the Yangtze River Basin and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Central America. Although we have limited understanding of the fundamental driving-response interactions associated with climate variability, increasingly powerful measurement and modeling techniques make assessing climate impacts a rapidly developing frontier of science.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)

  3. Community Impact Assessment Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Alberta Development Council, Peace River.

    This handbook is intended for communities that wish to undertake their own community impact assessment (CIA). The goal is to enable communities to plan for changes before they occur, so they can cope with changes when they do occur. CIA involves forecasting and evaluating the full range of unintended consequences for the community of development…

  4. Scoping for Social Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Ross, Helen

    2000-12-01

    Social assessment combines research, analytic, and participatory processes to identify, describe, and interpret changes in the ?human environment? that result from any of a wide variety of change agents -- projects, policies, or planning activities. Scoping for social impact assessment draws upon these same three processes - research, analysis, and participation - to: - Disclose information about the proposed action, preliminary estimates of impacts, and plans for the decision making and assessment effort - Initiate dialogue with the interested and potentially affected publics and decision makers - Establish the focus and level of detail of the assessment, identify particular issues that need to be addressed, and clarify how potentially affected publics will be consulted and involved. This chapter describes the function and key objectives of the scoping process, explains the assessment framework and the conventions and issues that set the context for the scoping process, provides some suggestions about how to plan and conduct scoping for a social assessment, and discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in designing an effective scoping process for social impact assessment. Our approach recognises that social scientists may be involved in assessment tasks that involve other disciplinary areas. This may be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA, the analysis of the impacts of policies or plans, or the combination of impact assessment with planning), or a planning process.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  6. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  7. Assessing Cross-Media Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiquam, Howard; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Using 1000 MW coal-fired central power stations as an example, the impacts upon other media (land, air, water) are analyzed when controls are imposed on one medium. The development of a methodology for assessing the cross-media impact of specific control technologies or strategies is illustrated. (Author/BT)

  8. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  9. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  10. Health impact assessment in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Soeberg, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has its origins in environmental impact assessment methodology. New Zealand's approach to health impact assessment is consistent with other countries. During the 1990s, legislation that related to the management of natural and physical resources provided the basis for public health engagement in impact assessment. In the mid 1990s, the Public Health Commission released guidelines on health impact assessment that adopted a risk assessment approach and was aimed at particular environmental projects. The transition to policy-level impact assessment occurred in 2000 with the national health strategy identifying impact assessment as one its key objectives. Guidelines developed by the Public Health Advisory Committee in 2004 have been applied in a small number of policy-level health impact assessments in New Zealand. One of these projects was the review of a Liveable Communities Plan, a policy proposal for town centre growth and development.

  11. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  12. Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, A.

    1977-01-01

    Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

  13. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  14. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  15. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-11-15

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  16. Risk assessment methodologies for biotechnology impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, James W.

    1986-07-01

    By combining hazard assessment of effects of a potential biotechnology product with exposure assessments based on study of the genetically engineered organism's fate, conclusions may be reached about the risk involved in release of the product to the environment. In order to make this risk assessment, criteria (including regulatory endpoints) must be established and then developed further against a data base from well-accepted tests. Other aspects requiring research and development include test evaluation, quality assurance, statistical procedures, and methods of identifying and monitoring not only the nominal organism(s) in the products, but also any contaminating material or organisms to which the genetically engineered components may be transferred in the environment. Application of microcosm technology to testing of genetically engineered organisms is expected to be important, since these systems may be used safely to understand fate and effects prior to (or in place of) testing the product in the environment. Limitations in the use of microcosms may be offset by the cost-effectiveness and incisiveness of results, as has been shown for other pollutants. Risk management for biotechnology products currently lacks an adequate background, but components of the process exist or can be developed. New resources, in terms of personnel, training, facilities, and funding, will be needed in order to apply the risk assessment paradigm used for toxic chemicals and pesticides. We will need to know:

  17. Handbook for value-impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Burnham, J.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Mullen, M.F.; Nesse, R.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Triplett, M.B.; Weakley, S.A.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

    1983-12-01

    The basic purpose of this handbook is to document a set of systematic procedures for providing information that can be used in performing value-impact assessments of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory actions. The handbook describes a structured but flexible process for performing the assessment. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the value-impact assessment process. Chapter 2 describes the attributes most frequently affected by proposed NRC actions, provides guidance concerningthe appropriate level of effort to be devoted to the assessment, suggests a standard format for documenting the assessment, and discusses the treatment of uncertainty. Chapter 3 contains detailed methods for evaluating each of the attributes affected by a regulatory action. The handbook has five appendixes containing background information, technical data, and example applications of the value-impact assessment procedures. This edition of the handbook focuses primarily on assessing nuclear power reactor safety issues.

  18. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  19. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Rivkin, A.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Reed, C.

    2012-10-01

    Near Earth objects are small bodies orbiting the Sun near Earth’s orbit, some of which impact the Earth. The impact of an object as large as 30 m in diameter occurs every few centuries. The impact of such an object would already release an energy of at least a megaton of TNT, and the impact of a larger object, which would occur less often, would be even more hazardous. To protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is such an asteroid mitigation mission concept. This mission would be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid’s strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART study is coordinated with an ESA study of an Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which would rendezvous with the same target. AIDA follows the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, with the objective of demonstrating the ability to modify the trajectory of an asteroid and measure the trajectory change. Don Quijote involved an orbiter and an impactor spacecraft, with the orbiter arriving first and measuring the deflection, and with the orbiter making additional characterization measurements. Unlike Don Quijote, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid, with ground-based observations to measure the deflection as well as additional spacecraft observations from AIM. Low cost mission approaches will be presented.

  20. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  1. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

  2. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  3. Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Ralph A.

    1975-01-01

    The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

  4. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, Mårten Mörtberg, Ulla Balfors, Berit

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  5. Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

  6. Climate impact assessment, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This report considers unusual or abnormal meteorological or geophysical events (unusual in time, location, intensity, frequency or persistence) that will likely have an impact on societal or economic activities in a special and significant manner. This report considers: 1) violent meteorological events such as damaging thunderstorms, tornadoes, and tropical and winter storms, 2) non-violent meteorological events, including mild, unusually pleasant weather, lack of precipitation, and temperature extremes, 3) meteorologically related events, particularly drought, floods, forest fires and ice jams, and 4) geophysical events such as avalanches, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamies, waves, tides and shoreline erosion.

  7. Cumulative impact assessment: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.; Bain, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) indirectly addressed cumulative impacts. Attempts to include cumulative impacts in environmental impact assessments, however, did not began until the early 1980's. One such effort began when The Federal Energy and Regulatory Commission (FERC) received over 1200 applications for hydroelectric projects in the Pacific Northwest. Federal and State Agencies, Indian tribes and environmental groups realized the potential cumulative effect such development could have on fish and wildfire resources. In response, the FERC developed the Cluster Impact Assessment Procedure (CIAP). The CIAP consisted of public scoping meetings; interactive workshops designed to identify projects with potential for cumulative effects, important resources, available data; and preparation of a NEPA document (EA or EIS). The procedure was modifies to assess the cumulative impacts of fifteen hydroelectric projects in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho. The methodology achieved its basic objective of evaluating the impact of hydroelectric development on fish and wildfire resources. In addition, the use of evaluative techniques to determine project interactions and degrees of impact hindered acceptance of the conclusions. Notwithstanding these problems, the studies provided a basis for decision-makers to incorporate the potential effects of cumulative impacts into the decision-making process. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure.

  9. Untapped potential of health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to “green economy” and “institutional framework” strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century’s sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  10. Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Stickle, A.; Barnouin, O.; Ernst, C.; Atchison, J.; Pravec, P.; Richardson, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid and (ii) to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The AIDA target will be the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, with the deflection experiment to occur in late September, 2022. The DART impact on the secondary member of the binary at ~7 km/s is expected to alter the binary orbit period by about 4 minutes, assuming a simple transfer of momentum to the target, and this period change will be measured by Earth-based observatories. The AIM spacecraft will characterize the asteroid target and monitor results of the impact in situ at Didymos. The DART mission is a full-scale kinetic impact to deflect a 150 m diameter asteroid, with known impactor conditions and with target physical properties characterized by the AIM mission. Predictions for the momentum transfer efficiency of kinetic impacts are given for several possible target types of different porosities, using Housen and Holsapple (2011) crater scaling model for impact ejecta mass and velocity distributions. Results are compared to numerical simulation results using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code of Jutzi and Michel (2014) with good agreement. The model also predicts that the ejecta from the DART impact may make Didymos into an active asteroid, forming an ejecta coma that may be observable from Earth-based telescopes. The measurements from AIDA of the momentum transfer from the DART impact, the crater size and morphology, and the evolution of an ejecta coma will

  11. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  12. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Applying social impact assessment to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2014-08-01

    Many nurses need to construct a research proposal at some stage of their career and there are multiple texts that provide guidance on doing so. However, most texts do not provide explicit guidance on the issue of social impact--the effect of research on the social health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities and on the improved performance of relevant services. This article proposes that social impact should be considered from the beginning of a research project. It outlines a framework for assessing social impact to help strengthen the quality of research proposals and assist nurses constructing the proposal and also those evaluating it, including academic assessors or funding body reviewers. Nursing research should be useful and should have a positive effect on practice. Focusing on social impact can increase the chances of this desirable outcome.

  14. Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Kesava Rao, P.; Phanindra Kumar, T.

    2012-07-01

    Change detection from different temporal images usually based on reflectance on natural and human activity impact, using integrated GIS, Remote Sensing and image processing technologies enable impact assessment of watershed in desert region. A time series analysis of seasonal NDVI have been used to estimate net primary productivity, phonological characteristic of vegetative surface, length of growing season and dry drown periods (Ramsey et al., 1995). The study is designed to achieve the objectives to Study the changes in vegetation for selected watershed in a desert districts of Bhilwara, Barmer & Jaisalmer in Rajastan State of India, to identify the changes in density of vegetation, to assess the temporal changes and to assess the impact of the watershed, with an objective to conserve the soil erosion and harvest the rainwater in order to increase the ground water table, to improve the socio economic condition of the people and to stop the migration of the people from the villages in search of livelihood. These activities will have a direct impact on the crop production. The Changes in density of vegetation indicates the quantity of crop production and the growth of vegetation apart from crops and the conservation of land with out scrub/barren land to land with scrub. This gives an picture about the impact of watershed programme in increasing the vegetative cover. The temporal changes help in understanding the changes taken place in the watershed, and facilitate understand the positive as well as negative impacts of any decisions taken in the implementation. The extent and density and type of vegetation for the years, 2000,2004,2005,2007 and 2008, was studied and vegetation growth was analysed using GIS and Digital Image Processing techniques.

  15. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  16. Impact damage assessment by using peridynamic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oterkus, Erkan; Guven, Ibrahim; Madenci, Erdogan

    2012-12-01

    This study presents an application of peridynamic theory for predicting residual strength of impact damaged building components by considering a reinforced panel subjected to multiple load paths. The validity of the approach is established first by simulating a controlled experiment resulting in mixed-mode fracture of concrete. The agreement between the PD prediction and the experimentally observed behavior is remarkable especially considering the simple material model used for the concrete. Subsequently, the PD simulation concerns damage assessment and residual strength of a reinforced panel under compression after impact due to a rigid penetrator.

  17. Impact Hazard Assessment for 2011 AG5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Bhaskaran, S.; Chodas, P. W.; Grebow, D.; Landau, D.; Petropoulos, A. E.; Sims, J. A.; Yeomans, D. K.

    2012-10-01

    2011 AG5 is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid roughly 140 m in diameter. The current orbit determination, based on 213 optical measurements from 2010-Nov-08.6 to 2011-Sep-21.4, allows for the possibility of an Earth impact on 2040-Feb-05.2 with probability 0.2%. The 2040 potential impact is a 17:10 resonant return from a 2023 Earth encounter, where if the asteroid passes through a 365 km keyhole, it will go on to impact in 2040. We discuss the critical points on the decision tree for averting this potential impact. The decision to proceed with a deflection mission should not be made prematurely, when there is still a chance for eliminating the impact hazard through observations rather than intervention, and yet the decision must not be delayed past the point where it is no longer feasible to achieve a deflection. Thus the decision tree is informed by the evolution of the asteroid’s orbital uncertainty and by the available mission scenarios. We approach the orbital prediction problem by assessing the expected future evolution of the orbital uncertainty at the 2040 encounter based on various observational scenarios. We find that observations made at the next favorable apparition in 2013 are 95% likely to eliminate the possibility of a 2040 impact altogether. With the addition of 2015-16 observations, this likelihood increases to about 99%. Conversely, if the asteroid turns out to really be on an Earth impacting trajectory, the 2013 observations could raise the chance of impact to 10-15%, and observations in 2015-2016 could raise the chance of impact to 70%. On the deflection side, we describe a range of viable kinetic deflection mission scenarios. Mission timelines allow detailed planning to be delayed until after the 2013 observations and spacecraft fabrication to be delayed until after the 2015-16 observations. The full report is available at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news175.html.

  18. AIDA: Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Galvez, A.; Reed, C.; Carnelli, I.; Abell, P.; Ulamec, S.; Rivkin, A.; Biele, J.; Murdoch, N.

    2015-03-01

    AIDA (Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment) is a project of a joint mission demonstration of asteroid deflection and characterisation of the kinetic impact effects. It involves the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (with support from members of NASA centers including Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and the European Space Agency (with support from members of the french CNRS/Cte dAzur Observatory and the german DLR). This assessment will be done using a binary asteroid target. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission concepts, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterisation spacecraft. The objective and status of the project will be presented.

  19. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  20. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-09-16

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.

  1. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  2. Impacts of a Warming Arctic - Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    2004-12-01

    The Arctic is now experiencing some of the most rapid and severe climate change on earth. Over the next 100 years, climate change is expected to accelerate, contributing to major physical, ecological, social, and economic changes, many of which have already begun. Changes in arctic climate will also affect the rest of the world through increased global warming and rising sea levels. Impacts of a Warming Arctic is a plain language synthesis of the key findings of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), designed to be accessible to policymakers and the broader public. The ACIA is a comprehensively researched, fully referenced, and independently reviewed evaluation of arctic climate change. It has involved an international effort by hundreds of scientists. This report provides vital information to society as it contemplates its responses to one of the greatest challenges of our time. It is illustrated in full color throughout.

  3. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  4. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p < 0.05) than fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the impact of organic respirable compounds is smaller for fossil fuels (p < 0.05) than for biofuels. Analysis of inorganic compounds like PM₁₀,₂.₅, SO₂ or NO(x) shows some advantages of sugar beet bioethanol and soybean biodiesel production (p < 0.05), although production of sugarcane bioethanol shows larger impacts of respirable inorganic compounds than for fossil fuels (p < 0.001). Although liquid biofuels are made of renewable energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  6. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  7. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  8. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  9. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  10. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction...

  11. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  12. Functional measures of stream impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of elevated metals (primarily Zn) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration, and phosphatase activity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of mass and chlorophyll a accumulation on ceramic tiles, and as O{sub 2}, evolution from natural substrates incubated in situ in closed chambers. Community respiration was measured in situ by incubating fine-grained sediments, collected and composited along each stream study reach, in closed chambers and measuring O{sub 2} depletion. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activity were measured for periphyton scraped from ceramic tiles and natural substrates. Primary productivity, measured as chlorophyll accretion rates and O{sup 2} evolution, were depressed by increasing Zn concentrations. Productivity measured as mass accretion rates did not show significant Zn effects. Community respiration was depressed by increasing Zn concentrations, as was alkaline phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity was higher at the more impacted sites. Overall, functional measures were able to discern those sites receiving greater metal impacts from less impacted sites.

  13. Comparing Two Approaches for Assessing Observation Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Langland and Baker introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete assessment of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation impacts from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation impact on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.

  14. Groundwater resources impact assessment for triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E.

    1996-10-01

    The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources Impact Assessment of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources Impact Assessment will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less impact on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.

  15. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  16. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Development Project

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malekafzali, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA) has emerged to identify those activities and policies likely to have major impacts on the health of a population. Method: In this research, qualitative method was applied to identifying health determinants that urban man made lake affect on them, formatting and weighing the hierarchy of the factors, calculating AHP, and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method for decide and ranking alternatives. Results: According to the results of the study, from the structural determinants point of view, the most positive effect of man-made lake was on Recreational services by 89.5% and the most negative one was on housing. According to intermediary determinants and general average, the most positive effect of lake was on physical activity and quality of air by 88.9% and the most negative one was on noise pollution by 46.7%. Ultimately, considering the positive and negative effects of lake between constructing and not constructing the lake option, the construction option was selected. Conclusion: There is substantial potential to improve public health by bringing decision makers’ attention to the health consequences of their actions; city councilpersons, zoning commissioners, and other decision makers typically have little background in health. PMID:27157160

  17. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  18. Catalysis-by-design impacts assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L L; Young, J K; Sen, R K

    1991-05-01

    Catalyst researchers have always recognized the need to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of catalytic processes, and have hoped that it would lead to developing a theoretical predictive base to guide the search for new catalysts. This understanding allows one to develop a set of hierarchical models, from fundamental atomic-level ab-initio models to detailed engineering simulations of reactor systems, to direct the search for optimized, efficient catalyst systems. During the last two decades, the explosions of advanced surface analysis techniques have helped considerably to develop the building blocks for understanding various catalytic reactions. An effort to couple these theoretical and experimental advances to develop a set of hierarchical models to predict the nature of catalytic materials is a program entitled Catalysis-by-Design (CRD).'' In assessing the potential impacts of CBD on US industry, the key point to remember is that the value of the program lies in developing a novel methodology to search for new catalyst systems. Industrial researchers can then use this methodology to develop proprietary catalysts. Most companies involved in catalyst R D have two types of ongoing projects. The first type, what we call market-driven R D,'' are projects that support and improve upon a company's existing product lines. Project of the second type, technology-driven R D,'' are longer term, involve the development of totally new catalysts, and are initiated through scientists' research ideas. The CBD approach will impact both types of projects. However, this analysis indicates that the near-term impacts will be on market-driven'' projects. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this report were obtained by the authors through personal interviews with individuals involved in a variety of industrial catalyst development programs and through the three CBD workshops held in the summer of 1989. 34 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. 40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 227.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact. The assessment of impact on other...

  20. Practitioners, professional cultures, and perceptions of impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.; Hart, Andrew; Freeman, Claire; Coutts, Brian; Colwill, David; Hughes, Andrew

    2012-01-15

    The very nature of impact assessment (IA) means that it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, which open the possibility that how IA is perceived and practised may vary according to the professional background of the practitioner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a practitioner's professional background influences their perceptions of the adequacy of impact assessment in New Zealand under the Resource Management Act (RMA). Information gathered concerned professional affiliations, training, understanding of impact assessment practise, and perceptions of adequacy in relation to impact assessment. The results showed a dominance of a legalistic, operational perspective of impact assessment under the Resource Management Act, across all the main professions represented in the study. However, among preparers of impact assessments there was clear evidence of differences between the four main professional groups - surveyors, planners, engineers and natural scientists - in the way they see the nature and purpose of impact assessment, the practical steps involved, and what constitutes adequacy. Similarly, impact assessment reviewers - predominantly planners and lawyers - showed variations in their expectations of impact assessment depending on their respective professional affiliation. Although in many cases the differences seem to be more of a matter of emphasis, rather than major disputes on what constitutes a good process, even those differences can add up to rather distinct professional cultures of impact assessment. The following factors are seen as leading to the emergence of such professional cultures: different professions often contribute in different ways to an impact assessment, affecting their perception of the nature and purpose of the process; impact assessment training will usually be a secondary concern, compared with the core professional training, which will be

  1. Remote sensing for hurricane Andrew impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Stennis Space Center personnel flew a Learjet equipped with instrumentation designed to acquire imagery in many spectral bands into areas most damaged by Hurricane Andrew. The calibrated airborne multispectral scanner (CAMS), a NASA-developed sensor, and a Zeiss camera acquired images of these areas. The information derived from the imagery was used to assist Florida officials in assessing the devastation caused by the hurricane. The imagery provided the relief teams with an assessment of the debris covering roads and highways so cleanup plans could be prioritized. The imagery also mapped the level of damage in residential and commercial areas of southern Florida and provided maps of beaches and land cover for determination of beach loss and vegetation damage, particularly the mangrove population. Stennis Space Center personnel demonstrated the ability to respond quickly and the value of such response in an emergency situation. The digital imagery from the CAMS can be processed, analyzed, and developed into products for field crews faster than conventional photography. The resulting information is versatile and allows for rapid updating and editing. Stennis Space Center and state officials worked diligently to compile information to complete analyses of the hurricane's impact.

  2. Assessing Impact Submissions for REF 2014: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manville, Catriona; Guthrie, Susan; Henham, Marie-Louise; Garrod, Bryn; Sousa, Sonia; Kirtley, Anne; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Ling, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Research Excellence Framework (REF) is a new system for assessing the quality of research in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). For the first time, part of the assessment included the wider impact of research. RAND Europe was commissioned to evaluate the assessment process of the impact element of REF submissions, and to explore the…

  3. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  4. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-02-15

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  5. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  6. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  7. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment... on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set forth in this... profitability of other commercial enterprises....

  8. NSTAR Ion Thruster Plume Impact Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Pencil, Eric J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael; Oden, Katessha

    1995-01-01

    Tests were performed to establish 30-cm ion thruster plume impacts, including plume characterizations via near and farfield ion current measurements, contamination, and sputtering assessments. Current density measurements show that 95% of the beam was enclosed within a 22 deg half-angle and that the thrust vector shifted by less than 0.3 deg during throttling from 2.3 to 0.5 kW. The beam flatness parameter was found to be 0.47, and the ratio of doubly charged to singly charged ion current density decreased from 15% at 2.3 kW to 5% at 0.5 kW. Quartz sample erosion measurements showed that the samples eroded at a rate of between 11 and 13 pm/khr at 25 deg from the thruster axis, and that the rate dropped by a factor of four at 40 deg. Good agreement was obtained between extrapolated current densities and those calculated from tantalum target erosion measurements. Quartz crystal microbalance and witness plate measurements showed that ion beam sputtering of the tank resulted in a facility material backflux rate of -10 A/hr in a large space simulation chamber.

  9. Health impact assessment of urban waterway decisions.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B J; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-12-25

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a "health lens". This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond.

  10. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Waterway Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B.J.; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a “health lens”. This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

  11. The Impact of a Computerized Dietary Assessment on Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The assessment of the impact of these interventions is limited. This study assessed the impact of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal…

  12. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  13. Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bay Area Economics

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

  14. Assessing impacts of roads: Application of a standard assessment protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts of network impacts on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support adaptive management...

  15. Radiographic assessment of impacted teeth and associated pathosis prevalence

    PubMed Central

    El-Khateeb, Sara M.; Arnout, Eman A.; Hifnawy, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of both impaction and associated pathosis in a Saudi population in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia based on digital panoramic radiographs. Methods: This study was carried out from December 2013 to February 2015. Panoramic radiographs of 359 male patients attending the Oral Diagnosis Clinics, Faculty of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia were reviewed. All images were evaluated to determine the prevalence and pattern of impacted third molars and canines, and associated pathosis. Results: Among 359 panoramic radiographs examined, 124 patients had impacted teeth. The impacted mandibular third molars were the most prevalent impacted teeth, 77.6% had class II pattern of impaction. Among the impacted maxillary canines, 75% were mesioangular and among 66 impacted maxillary third molars, 63.6% had class C. Our study showed that 5.8% of Saudi patients had 3 or more impacted teeth, 13.1% had 2 impacted teeth, and 15.6% had one impacted tooth. Associated pathosis was found in 18.2% among impacted maxillary third molars, and 31.5% among impacted mandibular third molars. The incidence of impaction decreases with age. Conclusion: The prevalence and pattern of impacted third molars among Saudis are almost similar to other racial populations. The number of missing wisdom increases with age. Although the percentage of pathosis associated with impaction was considerably low, it is essential to carry you regular oral examinations to preserve asymptomatic impacted teeth in good health. PMID:26219449

  16. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  17. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  18. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  19. The Impact of Assessment Tasks on Subsequent Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gaal, Frank; De Ridder, Annemieke

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the impact of assessment tasks on examination result (measured by examination grades) is investigated. Although many describe the advantages of electronic assessment tasks, few studies have been undertaken which compare a traditional approach using a classical examination with a new approach using assessment tasks. The main…

  20. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Tutorial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.; Shaw, Kimberly A.; Howard, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Many institutions struggle to develop a meaningful way to assess the effectiveness of drop-in tutorial services provided to students. This article discusses the development of a data collection system based on a visitor sign-in system that proved to be an efficient method of gathering assessment data, including frequency of visits, end-of-course…

  2. Health impact assessment needs in south-east Asian countries.

    PubMed Central

    Caussy, Deoraj; Kumar, Priti; Than Sein, U.

    2003-01-01

    A situation analysis was undertaken to assess impediments to health impact assessment (HIA) in the South-East Asia Region of WHO (SEARO). The countries of the region were assessed on the policy framework and procedures for HIA, existing infrastructure required to support HIA, the capacity for undertaking HIA, and the potential for intersectoral collaboration. The findings show that environmental impact assessment (EIA) is being used implicitly as a substitute for HIA, which is not explicitly or routinely conducted in virtually all countries of the Region. Therefore, policy, infrastructure, capacity, and intersectoral collaboration need strengthening for the routine implementation of HIA. PMID:12894329

  3. Satellite Power System (SPS) environmental impacts, preliminary assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    Present power plant assessment factors are used to present satellite power system (SPS) impacts. In contrast to oil, gas, nuclear and coal fueled power plants, the SPS and hydroelectric power plants produce air, water, and solid waste emissions only during the construction phase. Land use impacts result from the placement of rectennas used for microwave receiving and rectifying. Air quality impacts of the SPS resulting from the construction phase amount to 0.405 metric tons per megawatt year. Solid wastes impacts are 0.108 metric tons per year of operation. Other impacts such as those caused by heavy lift launch vehicle sites are also discussed.

  4. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - MIDPOINTS VS. ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The question of whether to use midpoints or endpoints or both in an LCIA framework is often dependent upon the goal and scope and the decision that is being supported by the LCIA. LCIAs for Enlightenment may not require an aggregation of impact categories and may be most useful ...

  5. Community Level Impact Assessment--Extension Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Mike D.; Doeksen, Gerald A.

    Using the Oklahoma State University (OSU) computerized community simulation model, extension professionals can provide local decision makers with information derived from an impact model that is dynamic, community specific, and easy to adapt to different communities. The four main sections of the OSU model are an economic account, a capital…

  6. Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

  7. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  8. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  9. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  10. International Developments in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive impact assessment since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...

  11. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...

  12. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  13. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, J X; Nielsen, P H

    2001-04-01

    The methodological basis and procedures for determination of Chinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization references for each region were calculated on the basis of an inventory of all of the region's environmental emissions in 1990. The normalization reference was determined as the total environmental impact potential for the area in question in 1990 (EP(j)90) divided by the population. The weighting factor was determined as the normalization reference (ER(j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 based on Chinese political reduction plans, ER(j)T2000. This paper presents and discuss results obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China: global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation and generation of bulk waste, hazardous waste and slag and ashes.

  14. LOX/GOX mechanical impact tester assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bransford, J. W.; Bryan, C. J.; Frye, G. W.; Stohler, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performances of three existing high pressure oxygen mechanical impact test systems were tested at two different test sites. The systems from one test site were fabricated from the same design drawing, whereas the system tested at the other site was of different design. Energy delivered to the test sample for each test system was evaluated and compared. Results were compared to the reaction rates obtained.

  15. PAGER - Rapid Assessment of an Earthquake's Impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul; Wald, David J.

    2007-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system to rapidly assess the number of people and regions exposed to severe shaking by an earthquake, and inform emergency responders, government agencies, and the media to the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER monitors the U.S. Geological Survey?s near real-time U.S. and global earthquake detections and automatically identifies events that are of societal importance, well in advance of ground-truth or news accounts.

  16. Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to the Millennium Assessment: “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...

  17. Climate Change Impact Assessments for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of climate change impact assessments evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when assessing the potential impacts of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially impacted by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the assessment process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change assessments for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an impact assessment for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into impact assessments, and modification of international trade models for use in impact studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the assessment outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change impacts and an assessment product of potentially greater

  18. Cyber-Physical Systems - Wissenschaftliche Herausforderungen Bei Der Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broy, Manfred

    Cyber-Physical Systems adressieren die enge Verbindung eingebetteter Systeme zur Überwachung und Steuerung physikalischer Vorgänge mittels Sensoren und Aktuatoren über Kommunikationseinrichtungen mit den globalen digitalen Netzen (dem Cyberspace"). Dieser Typus von Systemen ermöglicht über Wirkketten eine Verbindung zwischen Vorgängen der physischen Realität und den heute verfügbaren digitalen Netzinfrastrukturen. Dies erlaubt vielfältige Applikationen mit hohem wirtschaftlichen Potential, und mit starker Innovationskraft. Die vollständige Ausschöpfung des Potentials erfordert aber gezielte wissenschaftliche Anstrengungen bei der Entwicklung solcher Systeme im Hinblick auf Methodik, Technologie, Kostenbeherrschung und funktionale Angemessenheit.

  19. E-Learning an der TUM: Entwicklung - Status Quo - Perspektiven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stross, Manfred; Baume, Matthias; Schulze, Elvira

    E-Learning an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) hat sich ähnlich wie an den meisten anderen Hochschulen als ein wesentliches Element der Hochschullehre etabliert. Seit mehr als einem Jahrzehnt werden in diesem Themenfeld Erfahrungen gesammelt und Entwicklungen vorangetrieben. Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit E-Learning aus einer allgemeinen Perspektive und greift unterschiedliche Entwicklungsphasen der vergangenen Jahre auf. Im Anschluss daran wird der Fokus auf die TUM gesetzt. Der Beitrag zeigt die spezifische Entwicklung von E-Learning im Verlauf der vergangenen Jahre auf, nennt Funktionen und Verfahren von E-Learning und beschreibt Zielsetzungen für E-Learning an der TUM. Im Anschluss daran wird die aktuelle Situation anhand verschiedener Perspektiven analysiert. Den Abschluss des Beitrags bilden die Darstellung der zukünftigen Herausforderungen von E-Learning an der TUM und ein Ausblick auf weitere Entwicklungen.

  20. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie; Nawaz, Kathleen; Sandor, Debra

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  1. 76 FR 37823 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between March 31, 2011 and May 31, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until August 29, 2011, after which they...

  2. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.

  3. Assessment of climate change impact on Eastern Washington agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assessment of the potential impact of climate change and the concurrent increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on eastern Washington State agriculture was conducted. Climate projections from four selected general circulation models (GCM) were chosen, and the assessment included the crops with ...

  4. Assessing the impact of HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, B D

    1990-03-01

    This article presents a definition of HIV disease as a four-stage process. The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) (Bergner, Bobbitt, Carter, & Gilson, 1981) was used to measure behavioral dysfunction in a sample of 15 persons with Stage 3 or Stage 4 (symptomatic) HIV disease. The areas of work, leisure, cognitive behavior, and emotional behavior were found to be, on the average, most affected by HIV disease. A diagnosis of AIDS does not affect the severity of dysfunction. Functional deficits that are experienced for longer periods of time affect several behavioral categories on the SIP as well as on the overall SIP score.

  5. Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Asteroid Impact Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, D.; Wheeler, L.; Prabhu, D. K.; Aftosmis, M.; Dotson, J.; Robertson, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center is developing a physics-based impact risk model for probabilistically assessing threats from potential asteroid impacts on Earth. The model integrates probabilistic sampling of asteroid parameter ranges with physics-based analyses of entry, breakup, and impact to estimate damage areas and casualties from various impact scenarios. Assessing these threats is a highly coupled, dynamic problem involving significant uncertainties in the range of expected asteroid characteristics, how those characteristics may affect the level of damage, and the fidelity of various modeling approaches and assumptions. The presented model is used to explore the sensitivity of impact risk estimates to these uncertainties in order to gain insight into what additional data or modeling refinements are most important for producing effective, meaningful risk assessments. In the extreme cases of very small or very large impacts, the results are generally insensitive to many of the characterization and modeling assumptions. However, the nature of the sensitivity can change across moderate-sized impacts. Results will focus on the value of additional information in this critical, mid-size range, and how this additional data can support more robust mitigation decisions.

  6. Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Thomas F. Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2008-02-15

    Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them.

  7. Laboratory assessment of environmental impact of phthalazine

    SciTech Connect

    Lande, S.S.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Reiner, E.A.; Welter, A.N.; Robideau, R.R.

    1987-02-01

    Several approaches to the environmental safety assessment of chemicals have been reported. The basic principles involved in predicting environmental behavior combine degradation kinetics and the partitioning/distribution of chemicals in the environment. The transport mechanisms within the environment can be modeled as partitioning/distribution which are essentially functions of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Phthalazine (2,3-Benzodiazine, C8H6N2) is a component of a specialized paper product. The major route for environmental entry of phthalazine is through land disposal of waste paper. Information available on phthalazine chemistry is consistent with behavior of heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several laboratory test methods and QSAR estimation procedures were used to measure key environmental properties of phthalazine. This assessment examines the environmental release of phthalazine, and its partitioning and distribution in the environment. It predicts the probable fate and possible biological effects of phthalazine.

  8. VTAC: virtual terrain assisted impact assessment for cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argauer, Brian J.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

    2008-03-01

    Overwhelming intrusion alerts have made timely response to network security breaches a difficult task. Correlating alerts to produce a higher level view of intrusion state of a network, thus, becomes an essential element in network defense. This work proposes to analyze correlated or grouped alerts and determine their 'impact' to services and users of the network. A network is modeled as 'virtual terrain' where cyber attacks maneuver. Overlaying correlated attack tracks on virtual terrain exhibits the vulnerabilities exploited by each track and the relationships between them and different network entities. The proposed impact assessment algorithm utilizes the graph-based virtual terrain model and combines assessments of damages caused by the attacks. The combined impact scores allow to identify severely damaged network services and affected users. Several scenarios are examined to demonstrate the uses of the proposed Virtual Terrain Assisted Impact Assessment for Cyber Attacks (VTAC).

  9. Social impact assessment: A review and proposed approach: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J A

    1986-12-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the essential components of a comprehensive plan to assess the potential social impacts of the proposed construction and operation of a high level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The tasks taken to achieve this objective are: examination of the literature on Social Impact Assessment (SIA); identification of different conceptual frameworks that have been proposed or used in SIA; examination of specific aspects of the frameworks; assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the frameworks; synthesis of common elements in these frameworks; and examination and evaluation of methods of data collection and analysis. 150 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Visitor impact assessment and monitoring systems: Evolution and current development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.; Cole, D.N.; Bondrup-Nielsen, Soren

    2002-01-01

    Managers of protected areas are increasingly concerned with recreation impacts to the resource and how they should be managed. Impact management programs must be based on information about the severity and extent of impacts and how they are changing over time. This information need has generated considerable interest in the development of visitor impact assessment and monitoring (VIAM) systems. Over the past three decades VIAM systems have been implemented in various protected areas. This paper provides a historical review of VIAM systems and discusses the current areas of refinement in their methodology. Potential areas of future research are also outlined.

  11. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  12. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  13. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  14. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  15. Assessing the Assessment Methods: Climate Change and Hydrologic Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, L. D.; Clark, M. P.; Gutmann, E. D.; Mizukami, N.; Mendoza, P. A.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.; Pruitt, T.; Arnold, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other water management agencies have an interest in developing reliable, science-based methods for incorporating climate change information into longer-term water resources planning. Such assessments must quantify projections of future climate and hydrology, typically relying on some form of spatial downscaling and bias correction to produce watershed-scale weather information that subsequently drives hydrology and other water resource management analyses (e.g., water demands, water quality, and environmental habitat). Water agencies continue to face challenging method decisions in these endeavors: (1) which downscaling method should be applied and at what resolution; (2) what observational dataset should be used to drive downscaling and hydrologic analysis; (3) what hydrologic model(s) should be used and how should these models be configured and calibrated? There is a critical need to understand the ramification of these method decisions, as they affect the signal and uncertainties produced by climate change assessments and, thus, adaptation planning. This presentation summarizes results from a three-year effort to identify strengths and weaknesses of widely applied methods for downscaling climate projections and assessing hydrologic conditions. Methods were evaluated from two perspectives: historical fidelity, and tendency to modulate a global climate model's climate change signal. On downscaling, four methods were applied at multiple resolutions: statistically using Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation, Bias Correction Constructed Analogs, and Asynchronous Regression; dynamically using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Downscaling results were then used to drive hydrologic analyses over the contiguous U.S. using multiple models (VIC, CLM, PRMS), with added focus placed on case study basins within the Colorado Headwaters. The presentation will identify which types of climate changes are

  16. Formalizing expert judgment in the environmental impact assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, J.K. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    As the debate surrounding the adequacy of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process and its intended role in environmental decision-making continues, there is growing concern that the present guidelines used to develop the EIS may not be adequate given the methodological and theoretical advances that have been introduced in environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the last Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) revisions. This concern is particularly evident when the issues surrounding the application of expert judgment and the role it plays in impact prediction are considered. Presently, there is no standardized procedure for applying expert judgment in EIA, and although the use of expert judgment has long been acknowledged in the impact assessment literature, methodologies that draw upon expert judgment have not attempted to render those judgmental aspects of an assessment visible to decision-makers. This paper presents an approach for formalizing expert judgment using the experience gained from the development of expert systems designed to assist the EIA process. Following a critical examination of judgmental approaches to impact prediction, this paper illustrates how through the application of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and fuzzy logic, substantive improvements in EIA can be made, moving the practice of impact assessment more closely into alignment with the goals expressed in Section 102(2)(a) and Section 102(2)(b) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.

  17. Assessing the impact of global price interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anke

    2008-01-01

    Documented launch delays and the ensuing debate over their underlying causes have focused on assessment from the individual country's perspective. Seen in a larger game theoretical framework this may cause problems, because although the countries see an individual game, the pharmaceutical firm sees a repeated linked game. The links are due to external reference pricing and parallel trade. Behaviours that are optimal in the single, individual game (for either the country or the pharmaceutical firm) may no longer be optimal when considering the global repeated game. A theoretical mixed integer linear model of the firm's launch and pricing decisions is presented along with examples wherein international price dependencies most likely played a role. This model can help countries understand the implication of their external reference pricing policies on the global repeated pricing game. Understanding the behaviour of the pharmaceutical firm in this global context aids countries in designing policies to maximize the welfare of their citizens.

  18. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Li, Long

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  19. Impact assessment of climate change on vegetables in Japan considering uncertainty in an impact model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutomi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the summer of 2010, extreme hot weather hit Japan, and damaged many types of vegetables. In the future, global warming may often cause hot weather and damage vegetable production. In order to make adaptive policies to reduce the future impacts, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the impact of future climate change on vegetables. However, there have been few studies on quantitative impact assessment of climate change on vegetables in Japan because few impact assessment models for vegetables have been developed. In this study, I develop impact assessment models for 14 vegetables, which are designated by the government of Japan, and I assess the impact of climate change on the 14 vegetables considering uncertainty in the developed models. Impact assessment models which I developed are multi-regression models. Dependent variables of the models are shipments in markets in summer, i.e., July, August, and September. Independent variables are monthly temperature and precipitation. In order to consider uncertainty of the models in impact assessments, 1000 regression parameters are derived by the bootstrap method. Data used for developing the regression models are statistics on the shipments of vegetables from 1999 to 2010 and meteorological data of the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Model validations showed that the developed models can reproduce the historical records on the shipments well. Next, I assessed the shipments of the 14 vegetables in 2031-2040 using the developed models and the future climate projections of Miroc-3.2-Hires. The simulations showed that the shipments of almost all vegetables will decrease in 2031-2040.

  20. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, C.H.; Brumburgh, G.P.; Edmunds, T.A.; Kay, D.

    1996-03-01

    President Clinton`s Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations.

  1. Assessing Impact of Weight on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Kolotkin, R L; Head, S; Hamilton, M; Tse, C K

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report on the development of a new instrument, the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL) questionnaire, that assesses the effects of weight on various areas of life. We conducted two studies utilizing subjects in treatment for obesity at Duke University Diet and Fitness Center. The first study describes item development, assesses reliability, and compares pre- and post-treatment scores on the IWQOL. In the second study we examined the effects of body mass index (BMI), gender, and age on subjects' perceptions of impact of weight on quality of life. Results indicate adequate psychometric properties with test-retest reliabilities averaging .75 for single items, and .89 for scales. Scale internal consistency averaged .87. Post-treatment scores differed significantly from pre-treatment scores on all scales, indicating that treatment produced positive changes in impact of weight on quality of life. The results of the second study indicate that the impact of weight generally worsened as the patients' size increased. However for women there was no association between BMI and impact of weight on Self-Esteem and Sexual Life. Even at the lowest BMI tertile studied, women reported that weight had a substantial impact in these areas. There were also significant gender differences, with women showing greater impact of weight on Self-Esteem and Sexual Life compared with men. The impact of age was a bit surprising, with some areas showing positive changes and others showing no change.

  2. Utility of fuzzy cross-impact simulation in environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, A.; Paliwal, R.; Rambabu, P.

    1997-11-01

    Fuzzy cross-impact simulation is a qualitative technique, where interactions within a system are represented by a cross-impact matrix that includes linguistic elements. It can be used effectively to visualize dynamic evolution of a system. The utility of the fuzzy cross-impact simulation approach is: (1) in dealing with uncertainties in environment-development systems; (2) scoping cumulative effect assessment; and (3) integrating societal response structure in environment impact assessment. Use of the method is illustrated in a case concerning the textile industry in Indore, India. Consequences of policy alternatives for cleanup and pollution abatement are predicted in terms of environmental quality and quality of life, using the simulation model. The consequence analysis is used to arrive at preferred policy options.

  3. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-U-14 Ditch

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, K.M.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater impact assessments are conducted at liquid effluent receiving sites on the Hanford Site to determine hydrologic and contaminant impacts caused by discharging wastewater to the soil column. The assessments conducted are pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Ecology et al. 1992). This report assesses impacts on the groundwater and vadose zone from wastewater discharged to the 216-U-14 Ditch. Contemporary effluent waste streams of interest are 242-S Evaporator Steam Condensate and UO{sub 3}/U Plant wastewater.

  4. Health Impact Assessment, Physical Activity and Federal Lands Trail Policy

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this paper are to describe the application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to inform trail decisions affecting a rural, under-resourced community and propose the routine integration of HIAs to enhance NEPA environmental assessments and environmental impact statements for trail decisions on federal lands. Methods Screening, scoping, assessment, recommendations, reporting, monitoring and evaluation are being used to examine the health impact of trail location and design. Results HIA recommendations are being integrated into the public lands National Environmental Protection Act process for planning access to a new segment of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail. Potential users from a nearby rural New Mexico community and a region of almost one million may benefit from this HIA-informed planning. Conclusions HIA can be integrated into the policy and decision-making process for trails on public lands. PMID:27213163

  5. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  6. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  7. Environmental impact assessment: National approaches and international needs.

    PubMed

    Burton, I; Wilson, J; Munn, R E

    1983-06-01

    This paper examines the spread and development of 'environmental impact assessment' (EIA) since the enactment of the U.S. Environmental Policy Act on January 1, 1970, which established for the first time under any jurisdiction the formal requirement that an EIA be made and that an 'environmental impact statement' (EIS) be filed prior to implementation of certain major development projects.The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, we briefly review the forms of EIA introduced in the western industrial countries and contrast these with developments in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in the Third World. The approaches to EIA adopted by five countries - the United States, Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Soviet Union - are used to illustrate the types of national approaches that have been followed. In the second part of the paper, we use some questions raised by impact assessments as codified in legislation or regulations at the national level to highlight some of the limitations of impact assessment. Finally, we turn to international impact assessments and describe the modest progress made to date. Key impediments to the development of appropriate conceptual and institutional frameworks and methodologies for international EIAs are noted.In conclusion, we offer some suggestions about needed actions at both the national and international levels.

  8. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  9. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  10. Mars Rover Curriculum: Impact Assessment and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A., III; Carlson, C.; Nieser, K.; Slagle, E. M.; Jacobs, L. T.; Kapral, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Houston is in the process of developing a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model Mars rover: the Mars Rover Model Celebration (MRC). It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. A total of 140 Mars Rover teachers from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 cohorts were invited to complete the Mars Rover Teacher Evaluation Survey. The survey was administered online and could be taken at the convenience of the participant. So far ~40 teachers have participated with responses still coming in. A total of 675 students from the 2013-2014 cohort were invited to submit brief self-assessments of their participation in the program. Teachers were asked to rate their current level of confidence in their ability to teach specific topics within the Earth and Life Science realms, as well as their confidence in their ability to implement teaching strategies with their students. The majority of teachers (81-90%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively teach concepts related to earth and life sciences to their students. In addition, many of the teachers felt that their confidence in teaching these concepts increased somewhat to quite a bit as a result of their participation in the MRC program (54-88%). The most striking increase in this area was the reported 48% of teachers who felt their confidence in teaching "Earth and the solar system and universe" increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The vast majority of teachers (86-100%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively implement all of the listed teaching strategies. The most striking increases were the percentage of teachers who felt their confidence increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation

  11. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  12. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-15

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  13. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  14. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  15. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR INCREASING INDUSTRIAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) can be a very useful decision support tool for assisting in environmental decision making to allow the pursuit of increasing sustainability. Increasing sustainability will be defined and presented as a more concrete and quantifiable goal when c...

  16. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  17. Gainesville Junior College Community Impact Study/Needs Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Barbara; And Others

    Procedures, methodology, and findings are reported for a six-part study undertaken by Gainesville Junior College (GJC) to: assess the economic impact of the college on its service area; determine community attitudes concerning the degree to which GJC has met stated goals and objectives; and identify needed services and programs that GJC has yet to…

  18. Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA): Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dwayne E.

    In July 1990, "Standards, Policies and Procedures for the Evaluation of Assessment Instruments Used in the California Community Colleges" was published, requiring colleges to determine whether current testing practices discriminate against members of underrepresented groups. The standard for demonstrating disproportionate impact comes from the…

  19. 77 FR 46100 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... Privacy Office's Web site between March 1, 2012 and May 31, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until October 1, 2012, after which they may be obtained by contacting the DHS...

  20. 76 FR 78934 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between September 1, 2011 and November 30, 2011. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until February 21, 2012, after which they may...

  1. 78 FR 12337 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... of Records Notice, 77 FR 30297 (May 22, 2012). System: DHS/CBP/PIA-010 Analytical Framework for... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office...'s Web ] site between June 1, 2012, and November 30, 2012. DATES: The PIA will be available on...

  2. Integrated economic and climate projections for impact assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...

  3. Impact of a Reaffirmation Accreditation Program on Institutional Assessment Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Karen Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In the period between 2004 and 2006, several publications were released questioning the quality of higher education: One such report was from the 2006 Spellings Commission of the U.S. Secretary of Education, which prompted accrediting agencies to review institutional assessment practices. This research was designed to measure the impact Academy…

  4. Assessing the Impact of New Student Campus Recreation Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zizzi, Samuel; Ayers, Suzan F.; Watson II, Jack C.; Keeler, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The student recreation center (SRC) at many colleges and universities has evolved from being a place to lift weights and take aerobics classes to becoming a high-powered recruitment tool (Colleges use recreation, 2002). The present study included the development of an instrument to assess the use and impact of SRCs. Students (N = 655; users = 537,…

  5. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  6. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  7. Health Impact Assessment as a Student Service Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Cynthia; Greene, Marion S.

    2012-01-01

    Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) incorporate a combination of tools, methods, and procedures to evaluate the potential health effects of a proposed program, project, or policy. The university public health department, in collaboration with the county health department, and the local planning organization, developed a curriculum for a…

  8. Parametric assessment of climate change impacts of automotive material substitution.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Roland

    2008-09-15

    Quantifying the net climate change impact of automotive material substitution is not a trivial task. It requires the assessment of the mass reduction potential of automotive materials, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their production and recycling, and their impact on GHG emissions from vehicle use. The model presented in this paper is based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and completely parameterized, i.e., its computational structure is separated from the required input data, which is not traditionally done in LCAs. The parameterization increases scientific rigor and transparency of the assessment methodology, facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, and also makes it possible to compare different studies and explain their disparities. The state of the art of the modeling methodology is reviewed and advanced. Assessment of the GHG emission impacts of material recycling through consequential system expansion shows that our understanding of this issue is still incomplete. This is a critical knowledge gap since a case study shows thatfor materials such as aluminum, the GHG emission impacts of material production and recycling are both of the same size as the use phase savings from vehicle mass reduction.

  9. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

  10. Parametric assessment of climate change impacts of automotive material substitution.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Roland

    2008-09-15

    Quantifying the net climate change impact of automotive material substitution is not a trivial task. It requires the assessment of the mass reduction potential of automotive materials, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their production and recycling, and their impact on GHG emissions from vehicle use. The model presented in this paper is based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and completely parameterized, i.e., its computational structure is separated from the required input data, which is not traditionally done in LCAs. The parameterization increases scientific rigor and transparency of the assessment methodology, facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, and also makes it possible to compare different studies and explain their disparities. The state of the art of the modeling methodology is reviewed and advanced. Assessment of the GHG emission impacts of material recycling through consequential system expansion shows that our understanding of this issue is still incomplete. This is a critical knowledge gap since a case study shows thatfor materials such as aluminum, the GHG emission impacts of material production and recycling are both of the same size as the use phase savings from vehicle mass reduction. PMID:18853818

  11. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  12. Elements of impact assessment: a case study with cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shanchieh Jay; Holsopple, Jared; Liu, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Extensive discussions have taken place in recent year regarding impact assessment - what is it and how can we do it? It is especially intriguing in this modern era where non-traditional warfare has caused either information overload or limited understanding of adversary doctrines. This work provides a methodical discussion of key elements for the broad definition of impact assessment (IA). The discussion will start with a process flow involving components related to IA. Two key functional components, impact estimation and threat projection, are compared and illustrated in detail. These details include a discussion of when to model red and blue knowledge. Algorithmic approaches will be discussed, augmented with lessons learned from our IA development for cyber situation awareness. This paper aims at providing the community with a systematic understanding of IA and its open issues with specific examples.

  13. Ultrasonic impact damage assessment in 3D woven composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannai, E.; Lamboul, B.; Roche, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    An ultrasonic nondestructive methodology is proposed for the assessment of low velocity impact damage in a 3D woven composite material. The output data is intended for material scientists and numerical scientists to validate the damage tolerance performance of the manufactured materials and the reliability of damage modeling predictions. A depth-dependent threshold based on the reflectivity of flat bottom holes is applied to the ultrasonic data to remove the structural noise and isolate echoes of interest. The methodology was applied to a 3 mm thick 3D woven composite plate impacted with different energies. An artificial 3D representation of the detected echoes is proposed to enhance the spatial perception of the generated damage by the end user. The paper finally highlights some statistics made on the detected echoes to quantitatively assess the impact damage resistance of the tested specimens.

  14. Tsunami Forecast Technology for Asteroid Impact Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over 75% of all historically documented tsunamis have been generated by earthquakes. As the result, all existing Tsunami Warning and Forecast systems focus almost exclusively on detecting, warning and forecasting earthquake-generated tsunamis.The sequence of devastating tsunamis across the globe over the past 10 years has significantly heightened awareness and preparation activities associated with these high-impact events. Since the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra tsunami, NOAA has invested significant efforts in modernizing the U.S. tsunami warning system. Recent developments in tsunami modeling capability, inundation forecasting, sensing networks, dissemination capability and local preparation and mitigation activities have gone a long way toward enhancing tsunami resilience within the United States. The remaining quarter of the tsunami hazard problem is related to other mechanisms of tsunami generation, that may not have received adequate attention. Among those tsunami sources, the asteroid impact may be the most exotic, but possible one of the most devastating tsunami generation mechanisms. Tsunami forecast capabilities that have been developed for the tsunami warning system can be used to explore both, hazard assessment and the forecast of a tsunami generated by the asteroid impact. Existing tsunami flooding forecast technology allows for forecast for non-seismically generated tsunamis (asteroid impact, meteo-generated tsunamis, landslides, etc.), given an adequate data for the tsunami source parameters. Problems and opportunities for forecast of tsunamis from asteroid impact will be discussed. Preliminary results of impact-generated tsunami analysis for forecast and hazard assessment will be presented.

  15. "Learning Careers" or "Assessment Careers?" The Impact of Assessment Systems on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecclestone, Kathryn; Pryor, John

    2003-01-01

    Highlights key factors in learning careers, particularly in relation to the impact of formative assessment practices. Relates research findings on formative assessment in primary and further education to studies which use Pierre Bourdieu's notions of habitus, field, cultural and social capital to explore learning careers and learning identities in…

  16. Territorial impact assessment: integrating territorial aspects in sectoral policies.

    PubMed

    Golobic, Mojca; Marot, Naja

    2011-08-01

    Territorial impact assessment has recently gained attention as a tool to improve the coherence of sector policies with territorial cohesion objectives. The paper presents a method for territorial impact assessment and the results of applying this method on Slovenian energy policy. A two phase approach first disaggregates the problem into a three-dimensional matrix, consisting of policy measures, territorial objectives and territorial units. The synthesis phase aggregates measures and objectives in physical, economic or socio-cultural groups and observes their interrelation through an input-output matrix. The results have shown that such a two level approach is required to obtain complete and useful information for policy developers. In contrast to the relatively favourable evaluation of individual measures on the first level of assessment, the synthesis has revealed substantial and systemic weaknesses: considerable imbalance of energy policy favouring territorial effectiveness and mainly neglecting territorial identity as well as its counterproductiveness in reducing regional disparities.

  17. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research. PMID:26989272

  18. Consequences Validity Evidence: Evaluating the Impact of Educational Assessments.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Lineberry, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Because tests that do not alter management (i.e., influence decisions and actions) should not be performed, data on the consequences of assessment constitute a critical source of validity evidence. Consequences validity evidence is challenging for many educators to understand, perhaps because it has no counterpart in the older framework of content, criterion, and construct validity. The authors' purpose is to explain consequences validity evidence and propose a framework for organizing its collection and interpretation.Both clinical and educational assessments can be viewed as interventions. The act of administering or taking a test, the interpretation of scores, and the ensuing decisions and actions influence those being assessed (e.g., patients or students) and other people and systems (e.g., physicians, teachers, hospitals, schools). Consequences validity evidence examines such impacts of assessments. Despite its importance, consequences evidence is reported infrequently in health professions education (range 5%-20% of studies in recent systematic reviews) and is typically limited in scope and rigor.Consequences validity evidence can derive from evaluations of the impact on examinees, educators, schools, or the end target of practice (e.g., patients or health care systems); and the downstream impact of classifications (e.g., different score cut points and labels). Impact can result from the uses of scores or from the assessment activity itself, and can be intended or unintended and beneficial or harmful. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are useful. The type, quantity, and rigor of consequences evidence required will vary depending on the assessment and the claims for its use. PMID:26839945

  19. Health impact and damage cost assessment of pesticides in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-11-15

    Health impacts from pesticide use are of continuous concern in the European population, requiring a constant evaluation of European pesticide policy. However, health impacts have never been quantified accounting for specific crops contributing differently to overall human exposure as well as accounting for individual substances showing distinct environmental behavior and toxicity. We quantify health impacts and related damage costs from exposure to 133 pesticides applied in 24 European countries in 2003 adding up to almost 50% of the total pesticide mass applied in that year. Only 13 substances applied to 3 crop classes (grapes/vines, fruit trees, vegetables) contribute to 90% of the overall health impacts of about 2000 disability-adjusted life years in Europe per year corresponding to annual damage costs of 78 million Euro. Considering uncertainties along the full impact pathway mainly attributable to non-cancer dose-response relationships and residues in treated crops, we obtain an average burden of lifetime lost per person of 2.6 hours (95% confidence interval between 22 seconds and 45.3 days) or costs per person over lifetime of 12 Euro (95% confidence interval between 0.03 Euro and 5142 Euro), respectively. 33 of the 133 assessed substances accounting for 20% of health impacts in 2003 are now banned from the European market according to current legislation. The main limitation in assessing human health impacts from pesticides is related to the lack of systematic application data for all used substances. Since health impacts can be substantially influenced by the choice of pesticides, the need for more information about substance application becomes evident.

  20. Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.

    PubMed

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  1. Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  2. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  3. Cyber threat impact assessment and analysis for space vehicle architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Robert M.; Fowler, Mark J.; Umphress, David; MacDonald, Richard A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper covers research into an assessment of potential impacts and techniques to detect and mitigate cyber attacks that affect the networks and control systems of space vehicles. Such systems, if subverted by malicious insiders, external hackers and/or supply chain threats, can be controlled in a manner to cause physical damage to the space platforms. Similar attacks on Earth-borne cyber physical systems include the Shamoon, Duqu, Flame and Stuxnet exploits. These have been used to bring down foreign power generation and refining systems. This paper discusses the potential impacts of similar cyber attacks on space-based platforms through the use of simulation models, including custom models developed in Python using SimPy and commercial SATCOM analysis tools, as an example STK/SOLIS. The paper discusses the architecture and fidelity of the simulation model that has been developed for performing the impact assessment. The paper walks through the application of an attack vector at the subsystem level and how it affects the control and orientation of the space vehicle. SimPy is used to model and extract raw impact data at the bus level, while STK/SOLIS is used to extract raw impact data at the subsystem level and to visually display the effect on the physical plant of the space vehicle.

  4. Environmental disasters: preparing for impact assessments and operational feedback.

    PubMed

    Verger, Pierre; Bard, Denis; Noiville, Christine; Lahidji, Reza

    2008-01-01

    On March 24, 2006, the French Minister of Environment asked the Committee for Prevention and Precaution (CPP), an independent multidisciplinary committee created in 1996, to conduct a methodological analysis of operational feedback of natural and technological disasters to determine if France is equipped to collect the information and data necessary for the assessment, and optimal management of a disaster and its consequences. The Committee's analysis was based on the testimony it heard from 13 experts--scientists and representatives of associations and advocacy groups--and its review of the literature, including operational feedback reports. Its response to the Minister focused on the assessment of the health, social, environmental, and economic impacts of disasters and on their operational feedback (defined as the systematic analysis of a past event to draw lessons for the management of the risk), as practiced in France. It presents the results of the literature review about the consequences of disasters, expert's views on the current utility and limitations of impact assessments and operational feedback, the CPP's discussion of these results, and its recommendations to improve impact assessment and operational feedback of disasters. These recommendations cover preparation for and activation of data collection and operational feedback, financial provisions, coordination of stakeholders, education and training in disaster preparedness, and the distribution and use of data from operational feedback.

  5. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  6. Assessing research impact in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot impact indicators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research assessment, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic impact. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic impact of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine impact indicators and criteria. Methods The impact indicators proposed in the 2010 REF impact pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research impact in clinical medicine in a given university are assessed. Twenty impact indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research impact across different cases in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing impact

  7. Organisational impact: Definition and assessment methods for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational impact has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational impact in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the impact of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational impact. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational impact. This work shows that taking organisational impact into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle. PMID:27080633

  8. Organisational impact: Definition and assessment methods for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational impact has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational impact in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the impact of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational impact. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational impact. This work shows that taking organisational impact into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle.

  9. Improving environmental impact and cost assessment for supplier evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucker, Severin; Lang, Claus

    2004-02-01

    Improving a company"s environmental and financial performance necessitates the evaluation of environmental impacts deriving from the production and cost effects of corporate actions. These effects have to be made transparent and concrete targets have to be developed. Such an evaluation has to be done on a regular basis but with limited expenses. To achieve this, different instruments of environmental controlling such as LCA and environmental performance indicators have to be combined with methods from cost accounting. Within the research project CARE (Computer Aided Resource Efficiency Accounting for Medium-Sized Enterprises), the method Resource Efficiency Accounting (REA) is used to give the participating companies new insights into hidden costs and environmental effects of their production and products. The method combines process based cost accounting with environmental impact assessment methodology and offers results that can be integrated into a company"s environmental controlling system and business processes like cost accounting, supplier assessment, etc. Much of the data necessary for the combined assessment can be available within a company"s IT system and therefore can be efficiently used for the assessment process. The project CARE puts a strong focus on the use of company data and information systems for the described assessment process and offers a methodological background for the evaluation and the structuring of such data. Besides the general approach of the project CARE the paper will present results from a case study in which the described approach is used for the evaluation of suppliers.

  10. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA.

  11. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. PMID:25971645

  12. An airport community noise-impact assessment model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1980-01-01

    A computer model was developed to assess the noise impact of an airport on the community which it serves. Assessments are made using the Fractional Impact Method by which a single number describes the community aircraft noise environment in terms of exposed population and multiple event noise level. The model is comprised of three elements: a conventional noise footprint model, a site specific population distribution model, and a dose response transfer function. The footprint model provides the noise distribution for a given aircraft operating scenario. This is combined with the site specific population distribution obtained from a national census data base to yield the number of residents exposed to a given level of noise. The dose response relationship relates noise exposure levels to the percentage of individuals highly annoyed by those levels.

  13. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions.

  14. Impact assessment of extreme storm events using a Bayesian network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    den Heijer, C.(Kees); Knipping, Dirk T.J.A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; van Thiel de Vries, Jaap S. M.; Baart, Fedor; van Gelder, Pieter H. A. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation on the usefulness of Bayesian Networks in the safety assessment of dune coasts. A network has been created that predicts the erosion volume based on hydraulic boundary conditions and a number of cross-shore profile indicators. Field measurement data along a large part of the Dutch coast has been used to train the network. Corresponding storm impact on the dunes was calculated with an empirical dune erosion model named duros+. Comparison between the Bayesian Network predictions and the original duros+ results, here considered as observations, results in a skill up to 0.88, provided that the training data covers the range of predictions. Hence, the predictions from a deterministic model (duros+) can be captured in a probabilistic model (Bayesian Network) such that both the process knowledge and uncertainties can be included in impact and vulnerability assessments.

  15. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  16. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  17. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2003-05-01

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts.

  18. Assessment of Jessica oil spill impacts on intertidal invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Gelin, Agnès; Gravez, Vincent; Edgar, Graham J

    2003-11-01

    The impact of the Jessica oil-spill on intertidal macroinvertebrate communities was studied using a reference-impact design at three tidal levels at sites where oil deposits had been reported by a shoreline assessment team, and adjacent reference sites. Faunal relationships between the various sites did not show any clear pattern related to oil exposure at the time of sampling (4-11 months post-spill). Similarly, no significant differences associated with oiling were detected for total animal density nor species richness data, nor for the abundances of common taxa. We note that post-hoc studies such as this are limited by a failure to recognise different levels of oiling impacts at different sites (oiling-site interactions). Baseline information is critical if subtle effects of oiling are to be distinguished.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    SciTech Connect

    Gałaś, Slávka; Gałaś, Andrzej; Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka; Fialová, Jitka; and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  20. Assessing transportation infrastructure impacts on rangelands: test of a standard rangeland assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Pyke, David A.; Toledo, David

    2010-01-01

    Linear disturbances associated with on- and off-road vehicle use on rangelands has increased dramatically throughout the world in recent decades. This increase is due to a variety of factors including increased availability of all-terrain vehicles, infrastructure development (oil, gas, renewable energy, and ex-urban), and recreational activities. In addition to the direct impacts of road development, the presence and use of roads may alter resilience of adjoining areas through indirect effects such as altered site hydrologic and eolian processes, invasive seed dispersal, and sediment transport. There are few standardized methods for assessing impacts of transportation-related land-use activities on soils and vegetation in arid and semi-arid rangelands. Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) is an internationally accepted qualitative assessment that is applied widely to rangelands. We tested the sensitivity of IIRH to impacts of roads, trails, and pipelines on adjacent lands by surveying plots at three distances from these linear disturbances. We performed tests at 16 randomly selected sites in each of three ecosystems (Northern High Plains, Colorado Plateau, and Chihuahuan Desert) for a total of 208 evaluation plots. We also evaluated the repeatability of IIRH when applied to road-related disturbance gradients. Finally, we tested extent of correlations between IIRH plot attribute departure classes and trends in a suite of quantitative indicators. Results indicated that the IIRH technique is sensitive to direct and indirect impacts of transportation activities with greater departure from reference condition near disturbances than far from disturbances. Trends in degradation of ecological processes detected with qualitative assessments were highly correlated with quantitative data. Qualitative and quantitative assessments employed in this study can be used to assess impacts of transportation features at the plot scale. Through integration with remote

  1. Advances and challenges of incorporating ecosystem services into impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Josianne Claudia Sales; Sánchez, Luis E

    2016-09-15

    An ecosystem services approach (ESA) to assess the environmental and social impacts of projects is a conceptual innovation that contributes to overcome two widely acknowledged deficiencies of impact assessment (IA): integration of knowledge areas and participation of affected communities. This potential was demonstrated through a practical application to a large mining project, showing evidence of advances in relation to current practice and identifying challenges. Data was obtained from the environmental impact study of the reviewed project and its supplements; additional data to fulfill the needs of the ESA were collected using rapid appraisal techniques. Results show that the ESA provides: (i) a more effective scoping; (ii) a contribution to delimitate the study area; (iii) a more detailed identification of impacts; (iv) a determination of significance inclusive of the perspective of affected communities; (v) a design of mitigation focused on human well-being. The challenges of using the ESA fall into two groups: the limitations inherent to the concept and those that can be overcome by furthering research and advancing practical applications. This research added evidence to previous studies showing that incorporating ecosystem services into IA can improve practice. PMID:27285950

  2. On assessment of success and the IMPACT of FAIR.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J; Richmond, P

    2001-08-01

    Early in 2001, the authors were awarded an Accompanying Measure by the Agri-Food Directorate of DG Research to assess the IMPACT of a selected subset of projects recently completed within the FAIR RTD program. We have three aims: To specifically evaluate the impact of 25 projects supported under the EU FAIR Programme. To develop and validate a methodology for assessing the impact of collaborative projects in the food area. To identify any generic messages which could relate to the forthcoming European Research Area (ERA). A series of Workshops are being held with FAIR participants and stakeholders around the Community to facilitate the development of the methodology. At the time of writing meetings have been held in the UK, Ireland and Denmark. Diet and Health will a key driver for innovation in food during the 21st century and will play a major role in both EU and national research. Participation in the HEALFO Food and Health Conference allowed us to meet and discuss IMPACT with an important group of both past and future contributors to EU research. This paper outlines the workshop methodology and outlines some interim findings together with emerging hypotheses.

  3. On assessment of success and the IMPACT of FAIR.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J; Richmond, P

    2001-08-01

    Early in 2001, the authors were awarded an Accompanying Measure by the Agri-Food Directorate of DG Research to assess the IMPACT of a selected subset of projects recently completed within the FAIR RTD program. We have three aims: To specifically evaluate the impact of 25 projects supported under the EU FAIR Programme. To develop and validate a methodology for assessing the impact of collaborative projects in the food area. To identify any generic messages which could relate to the forthcoming European Research Area (ERA). A series of Workshops are being held with FAIR participants and stakeholders around the Community to facilitate the development of the methodology. At the time of writing meetings have been held in the UK, Ireland and Denmark. Diet and Health will a key driver for innovation in food during the 21st century and will play a major role in both EU and national research. Participation in the HEALFO Food and Health Conference allowed us to meet and discuss IMPACT with an important group of both past and future contributors to EU research. This paper outlines the workshop methodology and outlines some interim findings together with emerging hypotheses. PMID:11894752

  4. Health impact assessment: where does the law come in?

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, David Q.C

    2004-02-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights has profound implications for HIA. Public authorities have a positive obligation to stop others from infringing citizens' rights to life and to respect for private and family life. These rights are qualified and have now been interpreted in many thousands of cases. Authorities must, as best they reasonably can, secure the safety of citizens and inform the citizens about the safety or otherwise of any development. Authorities have to strike a balance between the individuals rights and the public benefit. Any public authority before approving a scheme or reaching a regulatory decision which may impact on human rights must consider the nature of that impact, its seriousness and whether it can be justified on public interest grounds. A number of court judgements in cases concerning these issues are discussed. This article is not about how certain of the ideas underlying Health Impact Assessment, in certain circumstances, are or can be incorporated in existing legally recognised instruments such as Environmental Impact Assessments. Nor is it about the statutory powers which authorities--local and national--could, if so inclined, exercise, to further the health and well-being of their constituents. It is about something rather more general, important and yet rather formless, namely the duties identified by the European Court of Human Rights as resting upon public authorities to take steps to safeguard the public health rights of their citizens.

  5. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  6. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling. PMID:16573187

  7. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  8. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling.

  9. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  10. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 1: Text, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, T.B.; O`Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project`s planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants.

  11. Using soil functional indices to assess wildfire impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Poma, Rosario; Mayor, Ángeles G.; Bautista, Susana

    2014-05-01

    Disturbance impact on ecosystem are often based on functional indicators, which provide integrated and yet simple and affordable measures of key ecosystem functions. In this work, we studied the amount of change (resistance) and the recovery (resilience) of soil functions after fire as a function of vegetation type for a variety of Mediterranean shrublands. We used the Landscape Functional Analysis methodology to assess soil stability, water infiltration, and nutrient cycling functions for different types of vegetation patches and for bare-soil interpatches in repeatedly burned shrubland communities two weeks before, and two and nine months after experimental fires. We assessed the impact of fire on soil functions using resistance and resilience indices. The resistance and resilience of soil surface functions to fire was mediated by vegetation traits associated to the fuel structure and the post-fire regenerative strategy of the species. Resistance was higher in vegetation patches that accumulated low contents of fine dead fuel, whereas resilience was higher in patches of resprouter species. The variation in resistance and resilience of soil functions to fire in Mediterranean shrublands depends greatly on variation in fire-related plant structural and functional traits. Although originally designed for the assessment of dryland ecosystems LFA has proved to have great potential for the assessment of the soil functional status of recently burned areas.

  12. Arctic Cities and Climate Change: A Geographic Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic climate change is a concern for the engineering community, land-use planners and policy makers as it may have significant impacts on socio-economic development and human activities in the northern regions. A warmer climate has potential for a series of positive economic effects, such as development of maritime transportation, enhanced agricultural production and decrease in energy consumption. However, these potential benefits may be outwaited by negative impacts related to transportation accessibility and stability of existing infrastructure, especially in permafrost regions. Compared with the Arctic zones of other countries, the Russian Arctic is characterized by higher population, greater industrial development and urbanization. Arctic urban areas and associated industrial sites are the location of some of intense interaction between man and nature. However, while there is considerable research on various aspects of Arctic climate change impacts on human society, few address effects on Arctic cities and their related industries. This presentation overviews potential climate-change impacts on Russian urban environments in the Arctic and discusses methodology for addressing complex interactions between climatic, permafrost and socio-economic systems at the range of geographical scales. We also provide a geographic assessment of selected positive and negative climate change impacts affecting several diverse Russian Arctic cities.

  13. Impact of self-assessment by students on their learning

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajeev; Jain, Amit; Gupta, Naveenta; Garg, Sonia; Batta, Meenal; Dhir, Shashi Kant

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tutor assessment is sometimes also considered as an exercise of power by the assessor over assesses. Student self-assessment is the process by which the students gather information about and reflect on their own learning and is considered to be a very important component of learning. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to analyze the impact of self-assessment by undergraduate medical students on their subsequent academic performance. The secondary objective was to obtain the perception of students and faculty about self-assessment as a tool for enhanced learning. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the evaluation of two theory tests consisting of both essay type and short answer questions, administered to students of the 1st year MBBS (n = 89). They self-assessed their performance after 3 days of the first test followed by marking of faculty and feedback. Then, a nonidentical theory test on the same topic with the same difficulty level was conducted after 7 days and assessed by the teachers. The feedback about the perception of students and faculty about this intervention was obtained. Results: Significant improvement in the academic performance after the process of self-assessment was observed (P < 0.001). There was a significantly positive correlation between student and teacher marking (r = 0.79). Both students and faculty perceived it to be helpful for developing self-directed learning skills. Conclusions: Self-assessment can increase the interest and motivation level of students for the subjects leading to enhanced learning and better academic performance, helping them in development of critical skills for analysis of their own work. PMID:27563593

  14. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  15. Methodology for qualitative uncertainty assessment of climate impact indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Rechid, Diana; Hänsler, Andreas; Pfeifer, Susanne; Roth, Ellinor; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC) is developing an integrated platform of climate data services to provide a single point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change and climate change impacts. In this project, the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) has been in charge of the development of a methodology on how to assess the uncertainties related to climate impact indicators. Existing climate data portals mainly treat the uncertainties in two ways: Either they provide generic guidance and/or express with statistical measures the quantifiable fraction of the uncertainty. However, none of the climate data portals give the users a qualitative guidance how confident they can be in the validity of the displayed data. The need for such guidance was identified in CLIPC user consultations. Therefore, we aim to provide an uncertainty assessment that provides the users with climate impact indicator-specific guidance on the degree to which they can trust the outcome. We will present an approach that provides information on the importance of different sources of uncertainties associated with a specific climate impact indicator and how these sources affect the overall 'degree of confidence' of this respective indicator. To meet users requirements in the effective communication of uncertainties, their feedback has been involved during the development process of the methodology. Assessing and visualising the quantitative component of uncertainty is part of the qualitative guidance. As visual analysis method, we apply the Climate Signal Maps (Pfeifer et al. 2015), which highlight only those areas with robust climate change signals. Here, robustness is defined as a combination of model agreement and the significance of the individual model projections. Reference Pfeifer, S., Bülow, K., Gobiet, A., Hänsler, A., Mudelsee, M., Otto, J., Rechid, D., Teichmann, C. and Jacob, D.: Robustness of Ensemble Climate Projections

  16. The 6/94 gap in health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Erlanger, Tobias E. Krieger, Gary R. Singer, Burton H. Utzinger, Juerg

    2008-05-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA), a methodology that aims to facilitate the mitigation of negative and enhancement of positive health effects due to projects, programmes and policies, has been developed over the past 20-30 years. There is an underlying assumption that HIA has become a full fledged critical piece of the impact assessment process with a stature equal to both environmental and social impact assessments. This assumption needs to be supported by evidence however. Within the context of projects in developing country settings, HIA is simply a slogan without a clearly articulated and relevant methodology, offered by academia and having little or no salience in the decision-making process regarding impacts. This harsh assertion is supported by posing a simple question: 'Where in the world have HIAs been carried out?' To answer this question, we systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature and online HIA-specific databases. We identified 237 HIA-related publications, but only 6% of these publications had a focus on the developing world. What emerges is, therefore, a huge disparity, which we coin the 6/94 gap in HIA, even worse than the widely known 10/90 gap in health research (10% of health research funding is utilized for diseases causing 90% of the global burden of disease). Implications of this 6/94 gap in HIA are discussed with pointed emphasis on extractive industries (oil/gas and mining) and water resources development. We conclude that there is a pressing need to institutionalize HIA in the developing world, as a consequence of current predictions of major extractive industry and water resources development, with China's investments in these sectors across Africa being particularly salient.

  17. Uncertainty assessment tool for climate change impact indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Jacob, Daniela; Rechid, Diana; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Juckes, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A major difficulty in the study of climate change impact indicators is dealing with the numerous sources of uncertainties of climate and non-climate data . Its assessment, however, is needed to communicate to users the degree of certainty of climate change impact indicators. This communication of uncertainty is an important component of the FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC). CLIPC is developing a portal to provide a central point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change. In this project the Climate Service Center 2.0 is in charge of the development of a tool to assess the uncertainty of climate change impact indicators. The calculation of climate change impact indicators will include climate data from satellite and in-situ observations, climate models and re-analyses, and non-climate data. There is a lack of a systematic classification of uncertainties arising from the whole range of climate change impact indicators. We develop a framework that intends to clarify the potential sources of uncertainty of a given indicator and provides - if possible - solutions how to quantify the uncertainties. To structure the sources of uncertainties of climate change impact indicators, we first classify uncertainties along a 'cascade of uncertainty' (Reyer 2013). Our cascade consists of three levels which correspond to the CLIPC meta-classification of impact indicators: Tier-1 indicators are intended to give information on the climate system. Tier-2 indicators attempt to quantify the impacts of climate change on biophysical systems (i.e. flood risks). Tier-3 indicators primarily aim at providing information on the socio-economic systems affected by climate change. At each level, the potential sources of uncertainty of the input data sets and its processing will be discussed. Reference: Reyer, C. (2013): The cascade of uncertainty in modeling forest ecosystem responses to environmental change and the challenge of sustainable

  18. Effectiveness of Health Impact Assessments: A Synthesis of Data From Five Impact Evaluation Reports

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since the 1990s, the use of health impact assessments (HIAs) has grown for considering the potential health impacts of proposed policies, plans, programs, and projects in various sectors. Evaluation of HIA impacts is needed for understanding the value of HIAs, improving the methods involved in HIAs, and potentially expanding their application. Impact evaluations examine whether HIAs affect decisions and lead to other effects. Methods I reviewed HIA impact evaluations identified by literature review and professional networking. I abstracted and synthesized data on key findings, success factors, and challenges from 5 large evaluations conducted in the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand and published from 2006 through 2015. These studies analyzed impacts of approximately 200 individual HIAs. Results Major impacts of HIAs were directly influencing some decisions, improving collaboration among stakeholders, increasing awareness of health issues among decision makers, and giving community members a stronger voice in local decisions. Factors that contributed to successful HIAs included engaging stakeholders, timeliness, policy and systems support for conducting HIAs, having people with appropriate skills on the HIA team, obtaining the support of decision makers, and providing clearly articulated, feasible recommendations. Challenges that may have reduced HIA success were poor timeliness, underestimation of time and resources needed, difficulty in accessing relevant data, use of jargon in HIA reports, difficulty in involving decision makers in the HIA process, and absence of a requirement to conduct HIAs. Conclusion HIAs can be useful to promote health and mitigate adverse impacts of decisions made outside of the health sector. Stakeholder interactions and community engagement may be as important as direct impacts of HIAs. Multiple factors are required for HIA success. Further work could strengthen the role of HIAs in promoting equity, examine

  19. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  20. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    PubMed

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades.

  1. A Protocol for the Global Sensitivity Analysis of Impact Assessment Models in Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Borgonovo, E; Heijungs, R

    2016-02-01

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) framework has established itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Several works have established the need of integrating the LCA and risk analysis methodologies, due to the several common aspects. One of the ways to reach such integration is through guaranteeing that uncertainties in LCA modeling are carefully treated. It has been claimed that more attention should be paid to quantifying the uncertainties present in the various phases of LCA. Though the topic has been attracting increasing attention of practitioners and experts in LCA, there is still a lack of understanding and a limited use of the available statistical tools. In this work, we introduce a protocol to conduct global sensitivity analysis in LCA. The article focuses on the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and particularly on the relevance of global techniques for the development of trustable impact assessment models. We use a novel characterization model developed for the quantification of the impacts of noise on humans as a test case. We show that global SA is fundamental to guarantee that the modeler has a complete understanding of: (i) the structure of the model and (ii) the importance of uncertain model inputs and the interaction among them.

  2. Leading North American programs in clinical assessment research: an assessment of productivity and impact.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C

    2010-05-01

    To identify doctoral programs with strong concentrations in clinical assessment, I measured productivity and impact of faculty at North American institutions with American Psychological Association accredited clinical programs. Publications, citations, and h-indexes derived from 4 top assessment journals were calculated over a 10-year period (1999-2009). I identified a total of 42 leading programs that collectively accounted for more than half of the publications and citations in these journals. I found a moderate relationship between assessment productivity and both US News & World Report program rankings as well as general productivity rankings of clinical programs reported in an earlier study.

  3. Balance in scientific impact assessment: the EGU Awards Committe experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of scientific impact is becoming an essential step all over the world for assigning academic positions, funding and recognition. Impact is generally assessed by means of objective bibliometric indicators which are frequently integrated with a subjective evaluation by one or more individuals. An essential requirement of impact assessment is to ensure balance across several potential discriminating factors, including gender, ethnics, culture, scientific field and many others. Scientific associations need to ensure balance in any step of their activity and in particular when electing their representatives, evaluating scientific contributions, reviewing papers and assigning awards. While ensuring balance is a strict necessity, how to get to target is still a matter of vivid debates. In fact, the context of science is very different with respect to the general context of society and the need for scientific associations to maintain confidentiality in their evaluation procedures makes the application of transparent procedures more complicated. This talk aims to present the experience and the efforts of the European Geosciences Union to ensure balance, with a particular focus on gender balance. Data and statistics will be presented in the attempt to provide constructive indications to get to the target of giving equal opportunities to researchers across gender, continents and ethnic groups. Science is a unifying discipline and balance will be vital to ensure that humans and our planet co-evolve sustainably.

  4. Bates solar industrial process steam application environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-30

    It is planned to install 34,440 square feet of linear parabolic trough solar collectors at a new corrugator plant for making corrugated boxes. The system is to operate in parallel with a fossil fuel boiler. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the solar energy system on the existing environment and to determine whether or not a more detailed environmental impact statement is needed. The environmental assessment is based on actual operational data obtained on the collector, fluid, and heat transport system. A description of the design of the solar energy system and its application is given. Also included is a discussion of the location of the new plant in Fort Worth, Texas, and of the surrounding environment. Environmental impacts are discussed in detail, and alternatives to the solar industrial process steam retrofit application are offered. It is concluded that the overall benefits from the solar industrial process heat system outweigh any negative environmental factors. Benefits include reduced fossil fuel demand, with attending reductions in air pollutants. The selection of a stable heat transfer fluid with low toxicity and biodegradable qualities minimizes environmental damage due to fluid spills, personal exposure, and degradation byproducts. The collector is found to be aesthetically attractive with minimal hazards due to glare. (LEW)

  5. Revealing and reducing uncertainties in climate impact assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources planning and management involves understanding the vulnerability of water resource systems to a wide range of different stresses. A key responsibility is to identify defensible options for the design and management of systems under an uncertain and changing climate. In the water resources sector this requires defining a range of different climate change narratives in order to evaluate the vulnerability of infrastructure and the effectiveness of different management strategies to climate-related stresses. Recent research is just now beginning to reveal how different methodological choices can impact portrayals of climate risk. We present research showing that the common approaches to climate change assessments in the water sector are affected by substantial uncertainties in methods used for climate downscaling and hydrologic modeling, and suggest that many of these uncertainties are reducible. For example, improving continental scale hydrologic model parameters can reduce one source of uncertainty. We also present research to improve characterization of uncertainty, in order to reduce the extent to which the portrayal of climate change impacts depends on ad hoc methodological choices and provide a holistic estimate of the degree to which the climate change signal emerges from the envelope of uncertainty. We hope that this presentation stimulates discussion on the best practices for climate impact assessments, and ways to improve the robustness of water resources planning under a changing climate.

  6. The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  7. Health Impact Assessment practice and potential for integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy.

    PubMed

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population's health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA andSEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health,significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection ofthe environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest.

  8. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. PMID:26826362

  9. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models.

  10. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results. PMID:27424115

  11. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. PMID:26595397

  12. Social impact assessments: Developing a consolidated conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Arce-Gomez, Antonio Donovan, Jerome D. Bedggood, Rowan E.

    2015-01-15

    Social Impact Assessments (SIAs) have played an increasingly important role in the conduct of planned interventions, providing proponents the capacity to assess and manage the social consequences of their activities. Whilst the SIA field has experienced significant conceptual and practical development over the last decade, efforts at consolidating this within one framework have been limited. In this paper, we incorporate this new knowledge by redeveloping and thus updating the SIA procedural framework developed by Interorganizational Committee on Guidelines and Principles for Social Impact Assessment. In doing so, this updated procedural framework has attempted to incorporate current ‘best practice’ that focuses on participatory approaches to undertaking an SIA. This involved making adaptions to two steps, expansions to five steps, integration of a stronger participatory approach to six steps, and the development of a new step, Management and Evaluation reflecting moves towards ex-post use of SIA processes. It is hoped that this consolidation of the literature of a decade's worth of key findings in SIA research will lead to further efforts towards a meta-evaluation of SIA literature and a platform from which newer developments may be further investigated.

  13. Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.

    PubMed

    Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

    2013-04-15

    Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made.

  14. The development of ecological impact assessment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehua; Li, Zhouyuan; Liao, Chenghao; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Annah; Li, Dong; Li, Yajun; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    The balance between economic development and ecological conservation in China has become a critical issue in recent decades. Ecological impact assessment (EcoIA) was established beginning in the 1980s as a component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) that focuses specifically on human-related changes in ecosystem structure and function. EcoIA has since been widely applied throughout the country with continuous refinements in theory and practice. As compared to EIA, EcoIA is often performed at a larger scale in the long-term, and thus requires more advanced tools and techniques to quantify and assess. This paper reviews the development of EcoIA over the past 30years in China, with specific consideration given to refinements in legislation and methodology. Three stages in the development of EcoIA in China are identified, along with their achievements and limitations. Supplementing this qualitative analysis, the paper also provides a quantitative bibliometrics review of academic publications concerning EcoIA in China over the three identified stages. Lastly, general trends in the development of EcoIA are summarized with the aim of conveying potential future trajectories. This review is intended to introduce the EcoIA system to scholars interested in the growing field of environmental management in China.

  15. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model.

  16. Assessing the end-of-life impacts of buildings.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Pedro Santos; Horvath, Arpad

    2008-07-01

    This paper builds on previous research on end of life of products by synthesizing some of the theories proposed in the literature and presenting a method for environmental decision-making related to buildings. This is achieved through different solutions, but most significantly through the use of hybrid life-cycle assessment and the definition of allocation boundaries in a way that decreases the uncertainty associated with technologicalforecasting. Results show that there is no significant difference between the results of two major end-of-life assessment approaches (attributional and consequential), and that the choice between the use of one or the other for buildings may not be a critical decision. Assessing the impacts of recycling polices requires accounting for product substitutions, market analysis, and the full supply chain impacts of the recycling chains. Increasing the recycling of concrete from deconstructed buildings from the current 27% rate to 50% could yield a 2-3% (2.7-5.6 million metric tons of CO2 equivalents) reduction in buildings' greenhouse gas emissions, or the equivalent of removing 408,000-847,000 typical cars from U.S. roads.

  17. Assessing the end-of-life impacts of buildings.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Pedro Santos; Horvath, Arpad

    2008-07-01

    This paper builds on previous research on end of life of products by synthesizing some of the theories proposed in the literature and presenting a method for environmental decision-making related to buildings. This is achieved through different solutions, but most significantly through the use of hybrid life-cycle assessment and the definition of allocation boundaries in a way that decreases the uncertainty associated with technologicalforecasting. Results show that there is no significant difference between the results of two major end-of-life assessment approaches (attributional and consequential), and that the choice between the use of one or the other for buildings may not be a critical decision. Assessing the impacts of recycling polices requires accounting for product substitutions, market analysis, and the full supply chain impacts of the recycling chains. Increasing the recycling of concrete from deconstructed buildings from the current 27% rate to 50% could yield a 2-3% (2.7-5.6 million metric tons of CO2 equivalents) reduction in buildings' greenhouse gas emissions, or the equivalent of removing 408,000-847,000 typical cars from U.S. roads. PMID:18677988

  18. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results.

  19. Assessment of antipodal-impact terrains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    The regions anitpodal to Mars' three largest impact basins, Hellas, Isidis, and Argyre, were assessed for evidence of impact-induced disrupted terrains. Photogeology and computer modeling using the Simplified Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (SALE) finite element code suggest that such terrains could have been found by the Hellas impact. Maximum antipodal pressures are 1100 MPa for Hellas, 520 MPa for Isidis, and 150 MPa for Argyre. The results suggest that if antipodal fracturing were associated with later volcanism, then Alba Patera may be related to the Hellas event, as proposed by Peterson (1978). Alba Patera is a unique volcano in the solar system, being a shield volcano which emitted large volume lava flows. This volcanism could be the result of the focusing of seismic energy which created a fractured region that served as a volcanic conduit for the future release of large volumes of magma. No disrupted terrain features are observed antipodal to the Isidis or Argyre basins, although some of the old fractures in Noctis Labyrinthus could have originated in response to the Isidis impact, and later have been reactivated by the Tharsis tectonics assumed to have produced Noctis. If the lower calculated antipodal pressures for Argyre were capable of producing disrupted terrains, then the terrains have been covered subsequently by volcanic or aeolian material, or modified beyond recognition.

  20. Assessment of the health impacts of climate change in Kiribati.

    PubMed

    McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Kiribati-a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation-is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health. PMID:24830452

  1. Quantitative estimation in Health Impact Assessment: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Seto, Edmund

    2011-04-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) considers multiple effects on health of policies, programs, plans and projects and thus requires the use of diverse analytic tools and sources of evidence. Quantitative estimation has desirable properties for the purpose of HIA but adequate tools for quantification exist currently for a limited number of health impacts and decision settings; furthermore, quantitative estimation generates thorny questions about the precision of estimates and the validity of methodological assumptions. In the United States, HIA has only recently emerged as an independent practice apart from integrated EIA, and this article aims to synthesize the experience with quantitative health effects estimation within that practice. We use examples identified through a scan of available identified instances of quantitative estimation in the U.S. practice experience to illustrate methods applied in different policy settings along with their strengths and limitations. We then discuss opportunity areas and practical considerations for the use of quantitative estimation in HIA.

  2. Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dingle, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

  3. Assessment of the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Kiribati

    PubMed Central

    McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health. PMID:24830452

  4. Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingle, A. N.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

  5. The role of stand history in assessing forest impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, V.H.; Doyle, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Air pollution, harvesting practices, and natural disturbances can affect the growth of trees and forest development. To make predictions about anthropogenic impacts on forests, we need to understand how these factors affect tree growth. In this study the effect of disturbance history on tree growth and stand structure was examined by using a computer model of forest development. The model was run under the climatic conditions of east Tennessee, USA, and the results compared to stand structure and tree growth data from a yellow poplar-white oak forest. Basal area growth and forest biomass were more accurately projected when rough approximations of the thinning and fire history typical of the measured plots were included in the simulation model. Stand history can influence tree growth rates and forest structure and should be included in any attempt to assess forest impacts.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT TAXONOMY PROVIDING COMPREHENSIVE COVERAGE OF MIDPOINTS, ENDPOINTS, DAMAGES, AND AREAS OF PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to conducting a comprehensive impact assessment, such as a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), there is a need to discuss the range of impacts which could and should be included. Up to this point in time, there has not been available a comprehensive list of impacts for po...

  7. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Food- and Waterborne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Jan C.; Herbst, Susanne; Rechenburg, Andrea; Suk, Jonathan E.; Höser, Christoph; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The PubMed and ScienceDirect bibliographic databases were searched for the period of 1998–2009 to evaluate the impact of climatic and environmental determinants on food- and waterborne diseases. The authors assessed 1,642 short and concise sentences (key facts), which were extracted from 722 relevant articles and stored in a climate change knowledge base. Key facts pertaining to temperature, precipitation, water, and food for 6 selected pathogens were scrutinized, evaluated, and compiled according to exposure pathways. These key facts (corresponding to approximately 50,000 words) were mapped to 275 terminology terms identified in the literature, which generated 6,341 connections. These relationships were plotted on semantic network maps to examine the interconnections between variables. The risk of campylobacteriosis is associated with mean weekly temperatures, although this link is shown more strongly in the literature relating to salmonellosis. Irregular and severe rain events are associated with Cryptosporidium sp. outbreaks, while noncholera Vibrio sp. displays increased growth rates in coastal waters during hot summers. In contrast, for Norovirus and Listeria sp. the association with climatic variables was relatively weak, but much stronger for food determinants. Electronic data mining to assess the impact of climate change on food- and waterborne diseases assured a methodical appraisal of the field. This climate change knowledge base can support national climate change vulnerability, impact, and adaptation assessments and facilitate the management of future threats from infectious diseases. In the light of diminishing resources for public health this approach can help balance different climate change adaptation options. PMID:24808720

  8. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  9. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  10. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  11. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  12. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries)...

  13. Environmental impact assessment at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J L; Holt, J K

    1992-08-01

    The environmental program for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) has been established to monitor and evaluate facility operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Program objectives include: (1) Compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local effluent regulations and DOE orders; (2) Compliance with commitments made in the ``Environmental Monitoring Program for the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility at University of Tennessee Space Institute``; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control; (4) Assessing the potential impact of CFFF operations on the environment. (VC)

  14. Assessing Health Impacts within Environmental Impact Assessments: An Opportunity for Public Health Globally Which Must Not Remain Missed

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patrick; Viliani, Francesca; Spickett, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Within the member states of the United Nations 190 of 193 have regulated Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) which is a systematic process to prevent and mitigate the potential environmental impacts of industry development projects before these occur. However, the routine and comprehensive assessment of health impacts within EIAs remains underdeveloped. Focusing, as an example, on the risks to global health from the global shift in the mining industry towards Low and Middle Income Countries LMIC), this viewpoint details why connecting with EIA is an essential task for the health system. Although existing knowledge is out of date in relation to global practice we identify how health has been included, to some extent, in High Income Country EIAs and the institutional requirements for doing so. Using arguments identified by industry themselves about requiring a ‘social license to operate’, we conclude that EIA regulations provide the best current mechanism to ensure health protection is a core aspect in the decision making process to approve projects. PMID:25608592

  15. Using public surveys to assess aesthetic resource impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, T.

    1995-12-31

    FERC regulations require that hydropower license applicants prepare reports that describe the visual characteristics of the project area and discuss any expected impacts to aesthetic resources. While describing the visual character of the project area is relatively straightforward, scenic beauty and aesthetic quality are far more difficult to define and quantify. How do you determine the aesthetic consequences of lake level fluctuations or changes in streamflow, for example? What conditions are acceptable? Is there some threshold beyond which adverse impacts on scenic quality occur? Mitigation measures for aesthetic resources (such as increased minimum flows) may have significant consequences on project economics. Therefore, it is important that aesthetic resource evaluations be conducted in a fashion that provides reasonable and defensible conclusions. The inherently subjective nature of aesthetics dictates that evaluations be conducted in a rigorous, systematic manor. A study approach based on a well designed and implemented public survey accomplishes these goals. Most aesthetic impact assessments are carried out by one or two highly trained individuals. Unfortunately, these {open_quotes}professional judgement{close_quotes} methods may be sensitive to bias. Public survey techniques which rely on data representative of the public-at-large offer significant advantages. This paper describes how public surveys have been used by EDAW to identify impacts of hydropower developments and operations on aesthetic resources drawing on recent applications at Mono Lake California, and the North Umpqua River in Oregon. Studies at Mono Lake focused on the potential scenic quality impacts of different lake levels being considered as management alternatives. Studies of the North Umpqua River focused on the relationship between streamflows associated with hydropower operations the aesthetic quality of the river channel and several popular waterfalls.

  16. Ranking potential impacts of priority and emerging pollutants in urban wastewater through life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; José Gómez, M; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2008-12-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), a feature of the Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, is used in this work outside the LCA framework, as a means to quantify the potential environmental impacts on ecotoxicity and human toxicity of wastewater containing priority and emerging pollutants. In order to do this, so-called characterisation factors are obtained for 98 frequently detected pollutants, using two characterisation models, EDIP97 and USES-LCA. The applicability of this methodology is shown in a case study in which wastewater influent and effluent samples from a Spanish wastewater treatment plant located in the Mediterranean coast were analysed. Characterisation factors were applied to the average concentration of each pollutant, obtaining impact scores for different scenarios: discharging wastewater to aquatic recipient, and using it for crop irrigation. The results show that treated wastewater involves a substantially lower environmental impact when compared to the influent, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are very important contributors to toxicity in this wastewater. Ciprofloxacin, fluoxetine, and nicotine constitute the main PPCPs of concern in this case study, while 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Nickel, and hexachlorobenzene are the priority pollutants with highest contribution. Nevertheless, it must be stressed that the new characterisation factors are based on very limited data, especially with regard to toxicology, and therefore they must be seen as a first screening to be improved in the future when more and higher quality data is available. PMID:18951608

  17. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  18. Participation in health impact assessment: objectives, methods and core values.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Mathers, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary aid to decision-making that assesses the impact of policy on public health and on health inequalities. Its purpose is to assist decision-makers to maximize health gains and to reduce inequalities. The 1999 Gothenburg Consensus Paper (GCP) provides researchers with a rationale for establishing community participation as a core value of HIA. According to the GCP, participation in HIA empowers people within the decision-making process and redresses the democratic deficit between government and society. Participation in HIA generates a sense that health and decision-making is community-owned, and the personal experiences of citizens become integral to the formulation of policy. However, the participatory and empowering dimensions of HIA may prove difficult to operationalize. In this review of the participation strategies adopted in key applications of HIA in the United Kingdom, we found that HIA's aim of influencing decision-making creates tension between its participatory and knowledge-gathering dimensions. Accordingly, researchers have decreased the participatory dimension of HIA by reducing the importance attached to the community's experience of empowerment, ownership and democracy, while enlarging its knowledge-gathering dimension by giving pre-eminence to "expert" and "research-generated" evidence. Recent applications of HIA offer a serviceable rationale for participation as a means of information gathering and it is no longer tenable to uphold HIA as a means of empowering communities and advancing the aims of participatory democracy. PMID:15682250

  19. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.

    2015-01-15

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.

  20. Use of Animal Species Data in Environmental Impact Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knegtering, Edo; Drees, J. Marijke; Geertsema, Paul; Huitema, Hans J.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs referred to specific species and the accuracy of survey data referred to; and (c) apparent roles of different EIA actors in species inclusion. EIAs were found to use data on various taxa but on limited numbers of species. The frequency with which taxa were included varied significantly. Birds were most frequently included, followed by mammals, amphibians, and other species groups. The quality of data on birds exceeded that regarding other vertebrates. Our results indicate that (a) EIA working groups of independent experts were the most influential in determining the data to be used; (b) on average, proponents included data more often than required by guidelines; and (c) in 30 to 40% of the EIAs, the participation of nongovernmental organizations prompted use of data. Despite the key role of experts in data inclusion, the taxon rankings found in the EIAs showed little deviation from those observed in studies on people’s preferences for species. Given the limited ranges of species considered, it is doubtful that the EIAs examined effectively contributed to conserving animal species diversity.

  1. Use of animal species data in environmental impact assessments.

    PubMed

    Knegtering, Edo; Drees, J Marijke; Geertsema, Paul; Huitema, Hans J; Uiterkamp, Anton J M Schoot

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs referred to specific species and the accuracy of survey data referred to; and (c) apparent roles of different EIA actors in species inclusion. EIAs were found to use data on various taxa but on limited numbers of species. The frequency with which taxa were included varied significantly. Birds were most frequently included, followed by mammals, amphibians, and other species groups. The quality of data on birds exceeded that regarding other vertebrates. Our results indicate that (a) EIA working groups of independent experts were the most influential in determining the data to be used; (b) on average, proponents included data more often than required by guidelines; and (c) in 30 to 40% of the EIAs, the participation of nongovernmental organizations prompted use of data. Despite the key role of experts in data inclusion, the taxon rankings found in the EIAs showed little deviation from those observed in studies on people's preferences for species. Given the limited ranges of species considered, it is doubtful that the EIAs examined effectively contributed to conserving animal species diversity. PMID:16215653

  2. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Paula V. Vanclay, Frank

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  3. Hyper-velocity impact risk assessment study for LOFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinati, Emanuele

    Within the ESA Cosmic Vision programme, the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) mission is one of the candidates for the M3 slot opportunity. LOFT is an x-ray (2-30 keV) experiment with two instruments on-board: the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). Both are based on Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs). Due to the design of the instrumental configuration, hyper-velocity impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris represent a significant hazard factor. During the three-year assessment phase of LOFT, we performed experimental test campaigns at the MPIK Van de Graaff accelerator to measure the degradation of LOFT SDD prototypes induced by hyper-velocity impacts. For the WFM, to mitigate the impact risk we designed and tested at the TUM plasma accelerator a compact double-wall shield using thin (~10 micron) foils of Kapton and Polypropylene, capable to effectively stop hyper-velocity particles up to 70 micron in size, in a remarkable agreement with simulations performed in ESABASE2. We present the results of these activities in the context of LOFT, and brievly discuss the potential applicability of the SDD as a debris detector.

  4. Automatic Assessment of Socioeconomic Impact on Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Mireia; Subirats, Laia; Ceccaroni, Luigi; Maroto, José María; de Pablo, Carmen; Miralles, Felip

    2013-01-01

    Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), which capture life expectancy and quality of the remaining life-years, are applied in a new method to measure socioeconomic impacts related to health. A 7-step methodology estimating the impact of health interventions based on DALYs, QALYs and functioning changes is presented. It relates the latter (1) to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire (2) to automatically calculate the health status before and after the intervention (3). This change of status is represented as a change in quality of life when calculating QALYs gained due to the intervention (4). In order to make an economic assessment, QALYs gained are converted to DALYs averted (5). Then, by inferring the cost/DALY from the cost associated to the disability in terms of DALYs lost (6) and taking into account the cost of the action, cost savings due to the intervention are calculated (7) as an objective measure of socioeconomic impact. The methodology is implemented in Java. Cases within the framework of cardiac rehabilitation processes are analyzed and the calculations are based on 200 patients who underwent different cardiac-rehabilitation processes. Results show that these interventions result, on average, in a gain in QALYs of 0.6 and a cost savings of 8,000 €. PMID:24284349

  5. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres.

  6. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres. PMID:19157835

  7. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer

  8. Environmental and health impact assessment for ports in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanchang, Chamchan; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Supanitayanon, Thanawat

    2016-01-01

    Port development in Thailand is an essential part of the national maritime interest in connection with ship and shore activities. The growth of maritime industry and transportation has led to the expansion of ports' areas and capacity. Each port type causes different environmental impacts. Therefore, the Port Authority of Thailand has set up guidelines on ports' environmental management. This is divided into 3 major phases; namely, planning, construction and operation commencement periods. The Report of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EIA, HIA and EHIA) is regarded as the environmental management process in the planning period. It is a key tool to anticipate and prevent any adverse effects that might occur on the environment as well as community health resulting from the project implementation. This measure, in turn, creates advance preparation on both the preventive and problem-solving means before the project gets off the ground. At present, the majority of new projects on port development have still been in the process of information gathering for EHIA submission. Some cannot start to operate due to their EHIA failure. For example, the Tha-sala port which did not pass EHIA, mainly because emphasis had been focused on adhering to legal regulations without taking into consideration the in-depth analysis of data being conducted by community entities in the area. Thus caused the project to be finally abolished. Impact assessment on environment and health should be aimed at detailed understanding of the community in each particular area so that effective data of objective achievement in preventing environmental problems could actually be carried out and welcomed by the concerned society. PMID:27364177

  9. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union

    PubMed Central

    Lock, K.; McKee, M.

    2005-01-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  10. Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.

    PubMed

    Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

  11. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    cylinders since there are significant differences in out time of the resins relative to full scale cylinder fabrication, differences in hoop fiber tensioning and unsatisfactory coupon configurations. It appears that development of a new test method for subscale cylinders is merited. Damage tolerance may be improved by material optimization that uses fiber treatments and matrix modifications to control the fiber matrix interface bonding. It is difficult to develop process optimization in subscale cylinders without also modeling the longer out times resins experience in full scale testing. A major breakthrough in characterizing the effect of impact damage on residual strength, and understanding how to scale results of subscale evaluations, will be a sound micromechanical model that described progressive failure of the composite. Such models will utilize a three dimensional stress analysis due to the complex nature of low velocity impact stresses in thick composites. When these models are coupled with non-contact NDE methods that geometrically characterize the damage and acoustic methods that characterize the effective local elastic properties, accurate assessment of residual strength from impact damage may be possible. Directions for further development are suggested.

  12. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-02-01

    cylinders since there are significant differences in out time of the resins relative to full scale cylinder fabrication, differences in hoop fiber tensioning and unsatisfactory coupon configurations. It appears that development of a new test method for subscale cylinders is merited. Damage tolerance may be improved by material optimization that uses fiber treatments and matrix modifications to control the fiber matrix interface bonding. It is difficult to develop process optimization in subscale cylinders without also modeling the longer out times resins experience in full scale testing. A major breakthrough in characterizing the effect of impact damage on residual strength, and understanding how to scale results of subscale evaluations, will be a sound micromechanical model that described progressive failure of the composite. impact stresses in thick composites. &When these models are coupled with non-contact NDE methods that geometrically characterize the damage and acoustic methods that characterize the effective local elastic properties, accurate assessment of residual strength from impact damage may be possible. Directions for further development are suggested.

  13. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  14. Assessing risk by impacts: a probabilistic approach for drought assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The risk of natural disasters in a very general sense is a combination of hazard and vulnerability. For drought, the hazard is commonly derived from the statistical analysis of one or a set of drought indicators. Their selection mostly depends on the focus of the study, with the usage of standardized indices experiencing growing popularity. Vulnerability to drought is typically estimated by a subjectively weighted combination of relevant factors describing different aspects of vulnerability, such as exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. This epistemic approach requires explicit information on physical, ecological, institutional and socioeconomic parameters. Even though impacts are known as symptoms of vulnerability and risk is often defined as the likelihood of impact occurrence (e.g. by the IPCC 2012 SREX report), information on past impacts is only poorly integrated in current drought risk assessment. Only few approaches have verified their vulnerability index with past impact information. We present a probabilistic approach to estimate drought risk based on the assumption that a system is vulnerable if it was impacted during a certain hazard. Thatfore, information on past drought impacts from the European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII) can function as a proxy for vulnerability to drought. Multivariable logistic regression is then applied to find non-subjective combinations of drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict the likelihood of drought impact occurrence. The Combined Drought Indicator (CDI) of the European Drought Observatory, SPI and SPEI (1-36) are considered as drought indices; vulnerability factors are gathered from quantitative and qualitative data of statistical databases (e.g. Eurostat, Aquastat). Thus, sector- specific drought risk maps for selected hazard levels were developed for Europe. This work reconsiders the practice of current research philosophies and highlights the importance to detect vulnerability by its

  15. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems.

  16. Health impact assessment of traffic noise in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Tobías, Aurelio; Recio, Alberto; Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between environmental noise and health has been examined in depth. In view of the sheer number of persons exposed, attention should be focused on road traffic noise. The city of Madrid (Spain) is a densely populated metropolitan area in which 80% of all environmental noise exposure is attributed to traffic. The aim of this study was to quantify avoidable deaths resulting from reducing the impact of equivalent diurnal noise levels (LeqD) on daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality among people aged ≥65 years in Madrid. A health impact assessment of (average 24h) LeqD and PM2.5 levels was conducted by using previously reported risk estimates of mortality rates for the period 2003-2005: For cardiovascular causes: LeqD 1.048 (1.005, 1.092) and PM2.5 1.041(1.020, 1.062) and for respiratory causes: LeqD 1.060 (1.000, 1.123) and PM2.5 1.030 (1.000, 1.062). The association found between LeqD exposure and mortality for both causes suggests an important health effect. A reduction of 1dB(A) in LeqD implies an avoidable annual mortality of 284 (31, 523) cardiovascular- and 184 (0, 190) respiratory-related deaths in the study population. The magnitude of the health impact is similar to reducing average PM2.5 levels by 10µg/m(3). Regardless of air pollution, exposure to traffic noise should be considered an important environmental factor having a significant impact on health.

  17. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. PMID:26282744

  18. Water resources development and impact assessment in the Mekong Basin: which way to go?

    PubMed

    Keskinen, Marko

    2008-05-01

    The Mekong River Basin is facing rapid changes, including intensive plans for water development. While the different development projects are considered to be important for economic development, the negative impacts that they are likely to cause for ecosystems and livelihoods are estimated to be remarkable. Yet, existing impact assessment processes seem in many cases to be inadequate to capture even the actual magnitude of the impacts at different levels. This article looks at the different impact assessment processes and their challenges in the basin. It is argued that impact assessment in this kind of dynamic and complex setting requires better coordination between assessments at different levels. Basinwide impact assessment would benefit from a more adaptive, multilevel approach that makes better use of assessments from local levels up to the regional level and builds on more participatory and interdisciplinary methods. Successful impact assessment also requires the recognition of the highly political nature of water development and related planning processes.

  19. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA): Applications for Assessing the Impact of Urban Growth and the use of Low Impact Development Practices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    New tools and functionality have been incorporated into the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) to assess the impact of urban growth and evaluate the effects of low impact development (LID) practices. AGWA (see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov...

  20. The key role of eyewitnesses in rapid earthquake impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Frédéric; Etivant, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties in rapid earthquake impact models are intrinsically large even when excluding potential indirect losses (fires, landslides, tsunami…). The reason is that they are based on several factors which are themselves difficult to constrain, such as the geographical distribution of shaking intensity, building type inventory and vulnerability functions. The difficulties can be illustrated by two boundary cases. For moderate (around M6) earthquakes, the size of potential damage zone and the epicentral location uncertainty share comparable dimension of about 10-15km. When such an earthquake strikes close to an urban area, like in 1999, in Athens (M5.9), earthquake location uncertainties alone can lead to dramatically different impact scenario. Furthermore, for moderate magnitude, the overall impact is often controlled by individual accidents, like in 2002 in Molise, Italy (M5.7), in Bingol, Turkey (M6.4) in 2003 or in Christchurch, New Zealand (M6.3) where respectively 23 out of 30, 84 out of 176 and 115 out of 185 of the causalities perished in a single building failure. Contrastingly, for major earthquakes (M>7), the point source approximation is not valid anymore, and impact assessment requires knowing exactly where the seismic rupture took place, whether it was unilateral, bilateral etc.… and this information is not readily available directly after the earthquake's occurrence. In-situ observations of actual impact provided by eyewitnesses can dramatically reduce impact models uncertainties. We will present the overall strategy developed at the EMSC which comprises of crowdsourcing and flashsourcing techniques, the development of citizen operated seismic networks, and the use of social networks to engage with eyewitnesses within minutes of an earthquake occurrence. For instance, testimonies are collected through online questionnaires available in 32 languages and automatically processed in maps of effects. Geo-located pictures are collected and then

  1. A health impact assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-12-12

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru.

  2. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  3. Multi-jurisdictional environmental impact assessment: Canadian experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sinclair, A. John

    2009-07-15

    This research examines complexities surrounding environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a multi-jurisdictional environment, with a specific focus on opportunities for public participation. With almost universal adoption of EIA, projects are increasingly subject to more than one assessment process. Thus there is demand to facilitate inter-jurisdictional coordination of EIAs. Canada has growing expertise with multijuristictional EIA that serves to illustrate the costs and opportunities associated with three different approaches to coordination: standardization, harmonization and substitution. Findings suggest that, although fraught with issues, harmonization is the most realistic approach for coordinating efforts. Harmonization has the potential to minimize duplication, avoid process uncertainty and increase efficiency and effectiveness in EIA. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that a bilateral agreement between jurisdictions is the best approach to harmonization, so long as negotiation of the agreement includes opportunities for meaningful participation, and implementation includes activities designed to communicate the assessment responsibilities of each jurisdiction, activities and schedules to the public. The experience of participants of different coordinated EIAs in Canada serves as counsel for on-going and future efforts to facilitate inter-jurisdictional coordination.

  4. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  5. Differing forms, differing purposes: A typology of health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harris-Roxas, Ben Harris, Elizabeth

    2011-07-15

    There is currently considerable diversity in health impact assessment (HIA) practice internationally. Historically this diversity has been described as simple dichotomies, for example the differences between HIAs of projects and policies. However these distinctions have failed to adequately describe the differences that can be observed between different forms of HIAs. This paper describes the three historical and disciplinary fields from which HIA has emerged - environmental health, a social view of health, and health equity. It also puts forward a typology of four different forms of HIA that can be observed in current HIA practice: mandated, decision-support, advocacy, and community-led HIAs. This paper argues that these different forms of HIA serve different purposes and are not necessarily in competition; rather they allow HIA to be responsive to a range of population health concerns and purposes.

  6. Application of fisheries-management techniques to assessing impacts

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Simmons, M.A.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Monitoring methods used in fisheries-management assessments were examined and their potential applicability in confirmatory impact monitoring were evaluated using case studies from selected nuclear power plants. A report on Task I of the project examined the application of Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) techniques in monitoring programs at riverine, large lake and ocean sites. Included in this final report is an examination of CPUE data for the Oconee Nuclear Plant on Lake Keowee, a reservoir site. This report also presents a summary of results obtained over the life of the project and guidelines for designing and implementing data collection programs and for data analysis and interpretation. Analysis of monitoring data from Lake Keowee confirmed findings from previous analyses of surveys at nuclear power plants on large lakes, rivers and coastal sites. CPUE techniques as applied to these monitoring programs do not provide data necessary to separate changes induced by plant operation from naturally occurring changes.

  7. Scoping in environmental impact assessment: Balancing precaution and efficiency?

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Tim . E-mail: t.snell@adamshendry.co.uk; Cowell, Richard . E-mail: cowellrj@cardiff.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    Scoping is a crucial yet under-researched stage of environmental impact assessment, in which practice falls well behind conceptual ideals. We argue that such 'implementation deficits' reflect dilemmas between two key rationales for scoping - environmental precaution and decision-making efficiency - and between technical and participatory conceptions of the decision-making process. We use qualitative research to understand how scoping practice in the UK reconciles these competing imperatives. Our findings suggest that practitioners mainly rationalise their approach in terms of decision-making efficiency, while justifying excluding the public from scoping on grounds of prematurity, delay and risks of causing confusion. The tendency to scope issues in rather than exclude them reflects a pervasive concern for legal challenge, rather than environmental precaution, but this reinforces standard lists of environmental considerations rather than the investigation of novel, cumulative or indirect risks.

  8. Data Compendium for the Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Huesties, L.R.; Maughan, A.D.; Miley, T.B.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-04-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). The CRCIA is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the CRCIA is to evaluate the current human and ecological risk from the Columbia River attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. Human risk will be addressed for radioactive and hazardous materials over a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The initial effort for the CRCIA is the development of a compendium of existing data on Columbia River contamination. This document provides the data compendium. It also includes a discussion of data sources, descriptions of the physical format of the data, and descriptions of the search process used to identify data.

  9. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    SciTech Connect

    Vanclay, Frank . E-mail: Frank.Vanclay@utas.edu.au

    2006-01-15

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion.

  10. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  11. Coupled Dynamic Modeling to Assess Human Impact on Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I. N.; Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Bomblies, A.; Zia, A.

    2014-12-01

    Humans are intrinsic to the hydrologic system, both as agents of change and as beneficiaries of ecosystem services. This connection has been underappreciated in hydrology. We present a modeling linkage framework of an agent-based land use change model with a physical-based watershed model. The coupled model framework presented constitutes part of an integrated assessment model that is being developed to study human-ecosystem interaction in Missisquoi Bay, spanning Vermont and Québec, which is experiencing high concentrations of nutrients from the Missisquoi River watershed. The integrated assessment approach proposed is comprised of linking two simulation models: the Interactive Land-Use Transition Agent-Based Model (ILUTABM) and a physically based process model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). The ILUTABM treats both landscape and landowners as agents and simulates annual land-use patterns resulting from landowners annual land-use decisions and Best Management Practices (BMPs) adaptations to landowners utilities, land productivity and perceived impacts of floods. The Missisquoi River at Swanton watershed RHESSys model (drainage area of 2,200 km2) driven by climate data was first calibrated to daily streamflows and water quality sensor data at the watershed outlet. Simulated land-use patterns were then processed to drive the calibrated RHESSys model to obtain streamflow nutrient loading realizations. Nutrients loading realizations are then examined and routed back to the ILUTAB model to obtain public polices needed to manage the Missisquoi watershed as well as the Lake Champlain in general. We infer that the applicability of this approach can be generalized to other similar watersheds. Index Terms: 0402: Agricultural systems; 1800: Hydrology; 1803: Anthropogenic effects; 1834 Human impacts; 6344: System operation and management; 6334: Regional Planning

  12. Impact of total pancreatectomy: short- and long-term assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Louise; Jamal, Wisam; Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Corcos, Olivier; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to assess the outcome of a total pancreatectomy (TP). Methods From 1993 to 2010, 56 patients underwent an elective TP for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (n = 42), endocrine tumours (n = 6), adenocarcinoma (n = 5), metastases (n = 2) and chronic pancreatitis (n = 1). Morbidity and survival were analysed. Long-term survivors were assessed prospectively using quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaires. Results Five patients developed gastric venous congestion intra-operatively. Post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 45% and 3.6%, respectively. An anastomotic ulcer occurred in seven patients, but none after proton pump inhibitor therapy. There were five inappropriate TPs according to definitive pathological examination. Overall 3- and 5-year survival rates were 62% and 55% respectively; five deaths were related to TP (two postoperative deaths, one hypoglycaemia, one ketoacidosis and one anastomotic ulcer). Prospective evaluation of 25 patients found that 14 had been readmitted for diabetes and that all had hypoglycaemia within the past month. The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 7.8% (6.3–10.3). Fifteen patients experienced weight loss. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire showed a decrease in QoL predominantly because of fatigue and diarrhoea, and the QLQ-PAN26 showed an impact on bowel habit, flatulence and eating-related items. Discussion Morbidity and mortality rates of TP are acceptable, although diabetes- and TP-related mortality still occurs. Endocrine and exocrine insufficiency impacts on the long-term quality of life. PMID:23458647

  13. Including ecotoxic impacts on warm-blooded predators in life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Golsteijn, Laura; van Zelm, Rosalie; Veltman, Karin; Musters, Gijs; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2012-04-01

    In current life cycle impact assessment, the focus of ecotoxicity is on cold-blooded species. We developed a method to calculate characterization factors (CFs) for the impact assessment of chemical emissions on warm-blooded predators in freshwater food chains. The method was applied to 329 organic chemicals. The CF for these predators was defined as a multiplication of the fate factor (FF), exposure factor (XF), bioaccumulation factor (BF), and effect factor (EF). Fate factors and XFs were calculated with the model USES-LCA 2.0. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated with the model OMEGA, for chemical uptake via freshwater, food, and air. Effect factors were calculated based on experimental, median lethal doses (LD50). The concentration buildup (CB) of the chemicals (i.e., FF, XF, and BF over the 3 routes of exposure) showed a range of 7 to 9 orders of magnitude, depending on the emission compartment. Effect factors displayed a range of 7 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors ranged 9 orders of magnitude. After emissions to freshwater, the relative contribution of the uptake routes to CB were 1% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-2%) for uptake from air, 43% (11%-50%) for uptake from water, and 56% (50%-87%) for uptake from food. After an emission to agricultural soil, the contribution was 11% (0%-80%) for uptake from air, 39% (5%-50%) for uptake from water, and 50% (11%-83%) for uptake from food. Uptake from air was mainly relevant for emissions to air (on average 42%, 90% CI: 5%-98%). Characterization factors for cold-blooded species were typically 4 orders of magnitude higher than CFs for warm-blooded predators. The correlation between both types of CFs was low, which means that a high relative impact on cold-blooded species does not necessarily indicate a high relative impact on warm-blooded predators. Depending on the weighing method to be considered, the inclusion of impacts on warm-blooded predators can change the relative ranking of toxic chemicals

  14. Asteroid Impact Deflection and Assessment (AIDA) mission - Properties of Impact Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Murdoch, Naomi; Asphaug, Erik; Cheng, Andrew F.; Housen, Kevin R.; Michel, Patrick; Miller, Paul L.; Stickle, Angela; Tancredi, Gonzalo; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Wuennemann, Kai; Yu, Yang; AIDA Impact Simulation Working Group

    2016-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact Deflection and Assessment (AIDA) mission is composed of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) rendezvous mission. The DART spacecraft is designed to impact the small satellite of near-Earth asteroid 65803 Didymos in October 2022, while the in-situ AIM spacecraft observes. AIDA's Modeling and Simulation of Impact Outcomes Working Group is tasked with investigating properties of the debris ejected from the impact. The orbital evolution of this ejecta has important implications for observations that the AIM spacecraft will take as well as for the safety of the spacecraft itself. Ejecta properties including particle sizes, bulk densities, and velocities all depend on the poorly-known physical properties of Didymos' moon. The moon's density, internal strength, and especially its porosity have a strong effect on all ejecta properties. Making a range of assumptions, we perform a suite of numerical simulations to determine the fate of the ejected material; we will use simulation predictions to optimize AIM observations and safety. Ultimately, combining AIM's observations of the ejecta with detailed numerical simulations will help constrain key satellite parameters.We use distinct types of numerical tools to explore ejecta properties based on additional target parameters (different forms of friction, cohesion), e.g., the shock physics code iSALE, smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes, and the granular code PKDGRAV. Given the large discrepancy between the 6 km/s impact speed of DART and the moon's 6 cm/s escape speed, a great challenge will be to determine properties of the low-speed ejecta. Very low-speed material relevant to the safety of the AIM spacecraft and its ability to conduct its observations may loft from the crater at late stages of the impact process, or from other locations far from the impact site due to seismic energy propagation. The manner in which seismic waves manifests in

  15. Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2010-11-15

    To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

  16. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  17. Novorossiysk agglomeration landscapes and cement production: geochemical impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, A. V.; Pashkevich, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with assessing the environmental impact of marl mining and cement production in Novorossiysk city (Krasnodar krai, Russia). The existing methods of studying the environmental effects caused by the cement industry have been reviewed. Soil and aquatic vegetation sampling has been carried out and the gross concentration of metals in the samples has been defined. The research has been conducted in the certified and accredited laboratory using emission spectral analysis. The external control has been carried out via X-ray fluorescence analysis. Based on the collected data, main chemical pollutants in soil cover and water area near the cement plant have been identified. The contaminants released by urban enterprises and motor vehicle emissions, as well as fugitive dust from dumps and the cement factory, lead to multi-element lithogeochemical anomaly at geochemical barriers in soils. Accumulation of pollutants in soil depends on the type of land use and the area relief. The most contaminated aquatic landscapes have been identified in the inner bay. According to this information, the technical proposals can be prepared for environmental safety management in strongly polluted city areas, as well as for the reclamation design in the areas currently experiencing the negative impact of cement production.

  18. Quantitative assessments of ecological impact/recovery in freshwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birge, W.J.; Keogh, D.P.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Robison, W.A.

    1994-12-31

    Long-term studies were under taken to evaluate the fidelity of multi-metric scoring systems, and other means of quantifying effects of chemical stresses on aquatic ecosystems. Integrity of macroinvertebrate communities was assessed using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III; Brillouin and Shannon-Weaver diversity indices; judgment based on traditional parameters of species richness, abundance and trophic group assemblages, and cluster analysis. In addition, chemical and toxicological monitoring data and periphyton studies were used in these evaluations. Surveys were performed at 8 or more stations selected for comparable conditions, including upstream reference and downstream recovery areas. In two streams, ecological impact varied from severe to extreme near point-source outfalls and decreased progressively with downstream distance. Station to station scoring with Protocol III and diversity indices correlated well with independent chemical and toxicological evaluations. However, in metal-stressed streams affected by slight to moderate impact, or which were in early recovery, Protocol III scoring and other family-level metrics did not consistently reflect losses in species richness and mean abundance of up to 32% and 75%, respectively. Observations on deformities (e.g., eyespots, gills), selected subfamily and species-level metrics, including ratios of metal sensitive to metal tolerant chironomids, gave greater accuracy in characterizing marginal to moderate perturbations. Observations on fugitive and opportunistic species also were useful.

  19. Ethics-based decision-making and health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Tannahill, Andrew; Douglas, Margaret J

    2014-03-01

    To compare the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and the decision-making triangle (DMT) framework for evidence-informed, ethics-based decision-making and consider implications for practice. We compared HIA and the DMT approach with reference to: their use of evidence and theory; their application of ethical principles or values; and how they aid decision-making. A good fit between the HIA and DMT approaches was found. Ways in which they could be of benefit to each other were identified. The DMT approach and HIA are highly compatible: they are rooted in largely shared ethical principles or values; both involve appropriate use of evidence and theory; and both are concerned with enhancing the quality of decision-making in the interests of population health. The DMT approach and HIA are of potential value to each other: established HIA methods and tools can be of practical help in using the DMT approach; and the DMT framework provides insights to how HIA methods and processes could be improved and the vision of 'impacts that matter' widened.

  20. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  1. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-11-21

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  2. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  3. The Connectivity Between Site-Specific Life Cycle Impact Assessment and Site-Specific Weighting

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of many LCIAs is to come to a single score with all of the impacts from a wide variety of impact assessments weighted to form this single score. My past experiences with developing site-specific impact assessment methodologies and how this can change the valuation porti...

  4. Assessing the impact of oil spills on a commercial fishery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    An oil spill fishery impact assessment system composed of fishery, hydrodynamic, ichthyoplankton transport and fates submodels has been applied to assess the probable impact of oil spills on several key fisheries in the Georges Bank - Gulf of Maine region. The model system addresses direct impacts of oil on the commercial fishery through hydrocarbon induced egg and larval mortality.

  5. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators...

  6. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators...

  7. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators...

  8. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators...

  9. Cumulative impacts on wetlands: Linking scientific assessments and regulatory alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lyndon C.; Gosselink, James G.

    1988-09-01

    This article is an extension and application of Preston and Bedford (1988), especially as relevant to bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests of the southeastern United States. The most important cumulative effects in BLH forests result from incremental forest loss (nibbling) and from synergisms resulting from this nibbling. Present regulatory procedures are ineffective in preventing incremental forest loss because of the focus on permit site evaluation, rather than on large landscapes. Three examples are given to illustrate the need for a landscape focus. This perspective requires preplanning or goal-setting to establish the desired conditions to be maintained in the regulated landscape unit. Spatial and temporal scales are of particular concern for landscape impact assessment. Natural drainage basins of about 106 ha, as identified in U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic units, appear to appropriate spatial units: they have fairly natural boundaries, are of sufficient size to support populations of large, wide-ranging mammals, and are compatible with existing maps and databases. Time scales should be sufficiently long to include recovery of wetland ecosystems from human perturbations. In practice, available data sets limit analysis to no longer than 50 yr. Eight indicators of landscape integrity are identified, based on generally available long-term data sets. Linking technical information concerning cumulative effects on landscapes to the evaluation of cumulative impacts in regulatory programs (i.e., goal-setting) is a serious issue that can benefit from precedents found in the field of epidemiology, and in the establishment of clean air and clean water standards. We suggest that reference data sets must be developed, relating BLH function to structure (forest area). These can be used to set goals for individual watersheds, based on their present conditions and the magnitude and type of perceived development pressures. Thus the crucial steps in establishing a successful

  10. Analysis of environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Aynur Aydın; Turker, Ozhan

    2011-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) System, which embodies the "prevention principle" of the environmental law, is an important tool for environmental protection. This tool has a private importance for Turkey since it is a developing country, and it entered the Turkish law in 1983 with the Environmental Law. Besides, the EIA Regulation, which shows the application principles, became effective in 1993. Because Turkey is a candidate for European Union (EU), the EIA Regulation has been changed due to the EU compliance procedure, and its latest version became valid in 2008. This study aims to emphasize The EIA system in Turkey to supervise the efficiency of this procedure and point the success level. In the introduction part, general EIA concept, its importance, and some notations are mentioned. Following that, the legislation, which builds the EIA system, has been analyzed starting from the 1982 Turkish Constitution. Then, the legislation rules are explained due to the basic steps of the EIA procedure. In order to shed light upon the application, the EIA final decisions given until today, the results, and their distributions to the industries are assessed. In the final part of the study, a SWOT analysis is made to mention the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats of the EIA system in Turkey.

  11. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact

    PubMed Central

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns. PMID:22012949

  12. Integrating environmental justice (EJ) methodologies into environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental Justice (EJ) concerns are now a pervasive part of environmental policy. Moreover, Federal Executive Order 12898 mandates its diffusion throughout federal government programs, and many states are developing similar programs. EJ concerns first arose in the environmental field in the context of hazardous waste facilities. Thus, hazardous waste applications provide important analytical models for EJ issues addressed in other programs, such as environmental assessment (EA). At the present time, EJ concerns are treated largely qualitatively in EAs and environmental impact statements (EISs) in sections dealing with neighborhood and community character or socioeconomics. The manner in which EJ issues are examined in EISs is described using examples from recent EISs, and an approach to quantifying EJ in terms of demographic patterns is presented using techniques previously applied by the author to hazardous waste sites (primarily sites on the National Priorities List under the Superfund program). Various geographic levels and demographic parameters are discussed and compared. A key point is the manner in which the choice of a comparison area influences conclusions about a particular area. these methods are critical in addressing such issues as whether proposed projects are being located in areas with relatively greater proportions of {open_quotes}vulnerable{close_quotes} populations or, in the case of public service projects, how these populations are served relative to other populations by the facilities that are the subject of the assessment.

  13. Public participation in environmental impact assessment: why, who and how?

    SciTech Connect

    Glucker, Anne N.; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Kolhoff, Arend; Runhaar, Hens A.C.

    2013-11-15

    Even a cursory glance at the literature on environmental impact assessment (EIA) reveals that public participation is being considered as an integral part of the assessment procedure. Public participation in EIA is commonly deemed to foster democratic policy-making and to render EIA more effective. Yet a closer look at the literature unveils that, beyond this general assertion, opinions of the precise meaning, objectives and adequate representation of public participation in EIA considerably diverge. Against this background, in this article we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the academic debate on public participation in EIA concerning its meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness. In so doing, we hope to stimulate a more focused debate on the subject, which is key to advancing the research agenda. Furthermore, this paper may serve as a starting point for practitioners involved in defining the role of public participation in EIA practice. -- Highlights: • There is little reflection on the meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness of public participation in EIA. • We provide a comprehensive overview of the academic debate on public participation in EIA concerning the meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness. • Theoretical claims put forth by scholars are contrasted with empirical evidence. • Overview shall stimulate a more focused debate on the subject. • This paper may serve as a starting point for practitioners involved in defining the role of public participation in EIA.

  14. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Jeremy; Wagler, Meghan; Lkhagvasuren, Oyun; Laing, Lory; Davison, Colleen; Janes, Craig

    2012-04-15

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  15. Dynamic performance assessment of selected sport shoes on impact forces.

    PubMed

    Dufek, J S; Bates, B T; Davis, H P; Malone, L A

    1991-09-01

    Few investigators have evaluated the performance characteristics of non-running sport shoes. The purpose of this study was to assess the dynamic performance characteristics of four different shoe models during landings. Five male subjects performed 25 voluntary hanging drop landings (60 cm) onto a force platform (1000 Hz) for each of four shoe conditions (C1 and C2 = basketball shoe, C3 = running shoe, C4 = volleyball shoe). Ground reaction force data were evaluated for maximum forefoot (F1) and rearfoot (F2) impact forces as well as the respective times of occurrence of these events (T1, T2). Results of the group data analysis indicated a preferential performance rank order of C1, C3, C4, C2 although significant interaction effects were observed, indicating a need for single-subject analyses. Three techniques were incorporated to assess individual subject condition differences, all of which elicited unique rank orders for the shoes although each identified C1 as the "best" shoe condition. The results of the study support the necessity for within-subject analyses conducted with an adequate number of trials when attempting to detect subtle performance differences that may exist between various sport shoes. Whether the observed statistically significant differences are biomechanically meaningful remains an important unanswered question.

  16. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  17. Compensatory mitigation and screening rules in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, Andrew Waugh, Lauren

    2014-11-15

    Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the screening process under the Australian government's EIA regime from its introduction on 16 July 2000 to 30 June 2013 (study period). Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions—a type of screening decision under the regime—were found to be unlawful. The extent of non-compliance is explained on the basis of convenience. The department was required to assess a large number of projects under tight timeframes and with limited resources, while being pressured by proponents to allow their projects to bypass EIA. These pressures resulted in the development of an informal custom whereby the formal compensatory mitigation restrictions were frequently ignored. The results highlight the relative significance of formal and informal institutions in EIA. Formal EIA rules typically provide a mere outline of the process. The informal institutions adopted by administrators often have a greater influence on how the process operates and what it achieves. - Highlights: • Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. • To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the Australian government's screening process, looking at the extent of compliance with a formal prohibition on the consideration of compensatory mitigation. • Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions – a type of screening decision under the regime – were found to be unlawful (with a 95% confidence interval of between 1:4 and 1:7) because of a failure to abide by the compensatory mitigation restrictions

  18. The impact of inclusion criteria in health economic assessments.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anke; Thieda, Patricia; Thaler, Kylie; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2011-05-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore the use of a pilot study to examine the impact of inclusion criteria on cost-effectiveness results and clinical heterogeneity. A health economic assessment was conducted using QRISK®2 and simulation modelling of different population groups within the pilot study in Lower Austria. Patients were referred by their family physicians to 'Active Prevention' (Vorsorge Aktiv), a community-based lifestyle intervention focused on exercise and nutritional programmes. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded before and after the intervention and translated to cardiovascular events. As expected, enforcing restrictive inclusion criteria produced stronger and more irrefutable computations - in the expected number of events, the number of deaths, the incremental cost per life-year saved and in the 95% confidence interval. These findings provide insight into the issues surrounding clinical heterogeneity and the need for restrictive inclusion criteria. This is not a full health economic assessment of the intervention. While inclusion criteria provide stronger results by limiting populations to those who would benefit the most, they must be enforced, both within and outside the clinical trial setting. Enforcement has costs, both monetary and arising from unintended negative consequences of enforcement mechanisms. All these considerations will affect the results realized by the payer organization. A pilot study can reveal whether an intervention may be cost effective 'enough' without restrictive

  19. Stakeholder participation in health impact assessment: A multicultural approach

    SciTech Connect

    Negev, Maya; Davidovitch, Nadav; Garb, Yaakov; Tal, Alon

    2013-11-15

    The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.

  20. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measures to assess and verify... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... extent to which such impacts are consistent with the Protocol; and (2) Provide information useful...

  1. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  2. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  3. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  4. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  5. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  6. The impact and effectiveness of health impact assessment: A conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Harris-Roxas, Ben Harris, Elizabeth

    2013-09-15

    The use of health impact assessment (HIA) has expanded rapidly and there are increasing demands for it to demonstrate its effectiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for evaluating HIA and describes its development through (i) a review of the literature, (ii) a review of work undertaken as part of a major HIA capacity building project and (iii) an in-depth study of seven completed HIAs. The framework emphasises context, process and impacts as key domains in understanding and evaluating the effectiveness of an HIA. This new framework builds upon the existing approaches to evaluating HIA and extends them to reflect the broad range of factors that comprise and influence the effectiveness of HIAs. It may be of use in evaluating completed HIAs and in planning HIAs that are yet to be undertaken. -- Highlights: ► The first empirically-derived conceptual framework for evaluating HIA ► It may also be useful for planning and reporting on HIAs. ► The framework emphasises context, process and impacts as key domains. ► A broad range of factors influence the effectiveness of HIAs.

  7. TRACI - THE TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI, The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, is described along with its history, the underlying research, methodologies, and insights within individual impact categories. TRACI facilitates the characterization of stressors that ma...

  8. Perspectives on the Impact of the 1994 Trial State Assessments: State Assessment Directors, State Mathematics Specialists, and State Reading Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartka, Liz; Stancavage, Fran

    This paper is the fourth in a series prepared for the National Academy of Education on the evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress Trial State Assessment (TSA) and the impact of reporting TSA results. This paper provides a perspective on the last of the TSAs, an assessment of fourth-grade reading that was carried out in 44…

  9. Assessing the organizational impact of patient involvement: a first STEPP.

    PubMed

    Kreindler, Sara A; Struthers, Ashley

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - Patient involvement in the design and improvement of health services is increasingly recognized as an essential part of patient-centred care. Yet little research, and no measurement tool, has addressed the organizational impacts of such involvement. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The authors developed and piloted the scoresheet for tangible effects of patient participation (STEPP) to measure the instrumental use of patient input. Its items assess the magnitude of each recommendation or issue brought forward by patients, the extent of the organization's response, and the apparent degree of patient influence on this response. In collaboration with teams (staff) from five involvement initiatives, the authors collected interview and documentary data and scored the STEPP, first independently then jointly. Feedback meetings and a "challenges log" supported ongoing improvement. Findings - Although researchers' and teams' initial scores often diverged, the authors quickly reached consensus as new information was shared. Composite scores appeared to credibly reflect the degree of organizational impact, and were associated with salient features of the involvement initiatives. Teams described the STEPP as easy to use and useful for monitoring and accountability purposes. The tool seemed most suitable for initiatives in which patients generated novel, concrete recommendations; less so for broad public consultations of which instrumental use was not a primary goal. Originality/value - The STEPP is a promising, first-in-class tool with potential usefulness to both researchers and practitioners. With further research to better establish its reliability and validity, it could make a valuable contribution to full mixed-methods evaluation of patient involvement. PMID:27142952

  10. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  11. Understanding Orbital Uncertainty and Assessing Impact Risk in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckett, Andrew W.; Rector, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    We present a software toolkit enabling the assessment of asteroid impact risk in the undergraduate classroom. This is part of an NSF-funded CCLI grant to develop Research Based Science Education (RBSE) curricula for undergraduate non-majors. These curricula include six projects covering astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic techniques, which are being tested at multiple schools of varying sizes around the country. The toolkit begins with a Java plugin we have developed for the public-domain image-processor ImageJ. Students perform both astrometry and aperture photometry on research-grade astronomical images, producing output suitable for submission to the Minor Planet Center. They then feed this astrometric record into the freeware orbit-determination software Find_Orb, which computes elements for hundreds of possible orbits by the method of observational Monte Carlo. After format conversion with an online utility we have written, this custom orbit database is fed into the Starry Night planetarium program. Students are then able to visualize the uncertainty region from any desired perspective, and to observe how that region changes with time and/or additional data. Alternatively, the output from the ImageJ plugin can be used directly to measure the lightcurves of minor planets, leading to an improved understanding of their shapes. The recent near-Earth and Mars-crossing asteroid 2007 WD5 presents an ideal scenario for testing this toolkit. All observations fall within 90 days of its 2008 Jan 30 close approach with Mars, and the 1-in-25 impact probability resulting from the inclusion of SDSS precovery observations is sufficiently large to be replicated with a relatively small number of "clone” orbits. Our plugin is the first FITS reader to produce correct time-stamps for minor planet observations found in the SDSS, which observes in drift-scan mode. We report on the first test of this project with undergraduate students at the University of Alaska Anchorage.

  12. Quantitative assessments of ecological impact/recovery in freshwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birge, W.J.; Keogh, D.P.; Zuiderveen, J.A. |

    1995-12-31

    Long-term studies were undertaken to evaluate the fidelity of multi-metric scoring systems, and other means of quantifying effects of chemical stresses on aquatic biota. Integrity of macroinvertebrate communities was assessed using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III; trophic group analysis, diversity indices and various individual parameters, including species richness, abundance and indicator species. In addition, chemical and toxicological monitoring data and periphyton studies were used in the evaluations. Surveys were performed at monitoring stations selected for comparable conditions, and included upstream reference and downstream recovery areas. In two streams, ecological impact varied from severe to extreme near point-source outfalls and decreased progressively with distance downstream. Station to station scoring with Protocol III and diversity indices correlated well with independent chemical and toxicological evaluations. However, in metal-stressed streams affected by slight to moderate impact, or which were in early recovery, Protocol III scoring and other family-level metrics did not consistently reflect losses in species richness and mean abundance up to 32% and 75%, respectively. Observations on morphological deformities (e.g., eyespots, gills), selected subfamily and species-level metrics, including ratios of metal sensitive to metal tolerant chironomids, gave greater accuracy in characterizing low to moderate perturbations. However, in conclusion, it appeared that marginal losses in biodiversity over time may not be detectable with current procedures. Major factors affecting precision included the normal range of seasonal and annual fluctuations in ecological parameters within and among stream systems, inadequate historical data, as well as drought and high water events.

  13. Assessing the Impacts of Wind Integration in the Western Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopinka, Amy

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels and the fear of irreversible climate change has prompted policy makers to implement renewable portfolio standards. These renewable portfolio standards are meant to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technologies thereby reducing carbon emissions associated with fossil fuel-fired electricity generation. The ability to efficiently adopt and utilize high levels of renewable energy technology, such as wind power, depends upon the composition of the extant generation within the grid. Western Canadian electric grids are poised to integrate high levels of wind and although Alberta has sufficient and, at times, an excess supply of electricity, it does not have the inherent generator flexibility required to mirror the variability of its wind generation. British Columbia, with its large reservoir storage capacities and rapid ramping hydroelectric generation could easily provide the firming services required by Alberta; however, the two grids are connected only by a small, constrained intertie. We use a simulation model to assess the economic impacts of high wind penetrations in the Alberta grid under various balancing protocols. We find that adding wind capacity to the system impacts grid reliability, increasing the frequency of system imbalances and unscheduled intertie flow. In order for British Columbia to be viable firming resource, it must have sufficient generation capability to meet and exceed the province's electricity self-sufficiency requirements. We use a linear programming model to evaluate the province's ability to meet domestic load under various water and trade conditions. We then examine the effects of drought and wind penetration on the interconnected Alberta -- British Columbia system given differing interconnection sizes.

  14. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D. Lancaster

    1999-03-29

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  15. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part II: Impacts and policy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-03-01

    The potential adverse human health impacts of emissions from UK airports have become a significant issue of public concern. We produce an inventory of UK airport emissions - including emissions from aircraft landing and takeoff operations, aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and ground support equipment (GSE) - with quantified uncertainty. Emissions due to more than 95% of UK passenger enplanements are accounted for. We apply a multi-scale air quality modelling approach to assess the air quality impacts of UK airports. Using a concentration-response function we estimate that 110 (90% CI: 72-160) early deaths occur in the UK each year (based on 2005 data) due to UK airport emissions. We estimate that up to 65% of the health impacts of UK airports could be mitigated by desulphurising jet fuel, electrifying GSE, avoiding use of APUs and use of single engine taxiing. Two plans for the expansion of UK airport capacity are examined - expansion of London Heathrow and new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. Even if capacity is constrained, we find that the health impacts of UK airports still increases by 170% in 2030 due to an increasing and aging population, increasing emissions, and a changing atmosphere. We estimate that if Heathrow were to be expanded as per previous UK Government plans, UK-wide health impacts in 2030 would increase by 4% relative to the 2030 constrained case, but this increase could become a 48% reduction if emissions mitigation measures were employed. We calculate that 24% of UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths could be avoided in 2030 if Heathrow were replaced by a new airport in Thames Estuary because the location is downwind of London, where this reduction occurs notwithstanding the increase in aircraft emissions. A Thames hub airport would (isolated from knock-on effects at other airports) cause 60-70% fewer early deaths than an expanded Heathrow, or 55-63% fewer early deaths than an unexpanded Heathrow. Finally, replacing Heathrow by a

  16. Second California Assessment: Integrated climate change impacts assessment of natural and managed systems. Guest editorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franco, G.; Cayan, D.R.; Moser, S.; Hanemann, M.; Jones, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006 the scientific community in California, in cooperation with resource managers, has been conducting periodic statewide studies about the potential impacts of climate change on natural and managed systems. This Special Issue is a compilation of revised papers that originate from the most recent assessment that concluded in 2009. As with the 2006 studies that influenced the passage of California's landmark Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), these papers have informed policy formulation at the state level, helping bring climate adaptation as a complementary measure to mitigation. We provide here a brief introduction to the papers included in this Special Issue focusing on how they are coordinated and support each other. We describe the common set of downscaled climate and sea-level rise scenarios used in this assessment that came from six different global climate models (GCMs) run under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios: B1 (low emissions) and A2 (a medium-high emissions). Recommendations for future state assessments, some of which are being implemented in an on-going new assessment that will be completed in 2012, are offered. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. A review of uncertainty research in impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Wanda; Noble, Bram; Gunn, Jill; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.

    2015-01-15

    This paper examines uncertainty research in Impact Assessment (IA) and the focus of attention of the IA scholarly literature. We do so by first exploring ‘outside’ the IA literature, identifying three main themes of uncertainty research, and then apply these themes to examine the focus of scholarly research on uncertainty ‘inside’ IA. Based on a search of the database Scopus, we identified 134 journal papers published between 1970 and 2013 that address uncertainty in IA, 75% of which were published since 2005. We found that 90% of IA research addressing uncertainty focused on uncertainty in the practice of IA, including uncertainty in impact predictions, models and managing environmental impacts. Notwithstanding early guidance on uncertainty treatment in IA from the 1980s, we found no common, underlying conceptual framework that was guiding research on uncertainty in IA practice. Considerably less attention, only 9% of papers, focused on uncertainty communication, disclosure and decision-making under uncertain conditions, the majority of which focused on the need to disclose uncertainties as opposed to providing guidance on how to do so and effectively use that information to inform decisions. Finally, research focused on theory building for explaining human behavior with respect to uncertainty avoidance constituted only 1% of the IA published literature. We suggest the need for further conceptual framework development for researchers focused on identifying and addressing uncertainty in IA practice; the need for guidance on how best to communicate uncertainties in practice, versus criticizing practitioners for not doing so; research that explores how best to interpret and use disclosures about uncertainty when making decisions about project approvals, and the implications of doing so; and academic theory building and exploring the utility of existing theories to better understand and explain uncertainty avoidance behavior in IA. - Highlights: • We

  18. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    adaptation, mitigation and post-hazard recovery and resettlement measures. Providing basic necessities such as water, food and power, maintaining public health, implementing protective measures in the coastal zones and modifications in the urban infrastructure, especially in the coastal megacities become expensive. Impact of extremes on rails, roads and building are also becoming a major issue in the coastal zones and urban centres. Industrial sector is facing a threat from the falling reliable supply of water and power. However, procedure for the implementation of the strategies to mitigate the climate change impact and of the policy for the adaptation to climate change is slow. There are several hurdles for this, including various ecological, socio-economic, technical and political issues, alterations of the physical environment, inability of certain habitats and species to adapt to a new environment, abject poverty, lack of awareness, and the inefficient administrative mechanism. A comprehensive assessment of the shifts in regional climate and the impact of climate change on different facets of life in India, and of the current strategies and polices to face such challenges is made in this study. Suggestions for the improvement of the climate policy and adaptation strategy have been provided.

  19. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Dhondt, Stijn; Beckx, Carolien; Degraeuwe, Bart; Lefebvre, Wouter; Kochan, Bruno; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  20. Assessing the Economic Impacts of University R&D and Identifying Roles for Technology Transfer Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.

    2000-01-01

    Sets forth guidelines for assessing the economic impact of university research and development and identifies what may become the roles and responsibilities of technology transfer officers in the assessment process. (Author/JOW)

  1. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE APPLICATION OF IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention requires the assessment of various multimedia environmental impacts to ensure that the alternative selected most closely represents the environmental goals and priorities of the facility. While some facility's environmental policies are easy to assess, others...

  2. Impact assessment of odours emitted by a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Sandra P; Santos, Jane Méri; Reis, Neyval Costa; de Sá, Leandro Melo; Goulart, Elisa Valentim; de Abreu Costa, Elza

    2012-01-01

    Complaints from the Domingos Martins population about sewage odours in the city made the district attorney order an impact assessment of the odours emitted by the city wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This study comprised various techniques, models and population surveys. In 2007, an odour emission model proved that the main hydrogen sulphide emitter was the aeration tank of the WWTP (13.5 g h(-1)) and such emissions, according to CALPUFF model, should be perceived in the whole Domingos Martins city centre area. In this area, 58% of those interviewed were annoyed by the WWTP odours. However, in 2009, the odour monitoring panel recorded few odour occurrences. A second population survey showed that hereafter only 20% of those interviewed were annoyed by the WWTP emissions. Odour emission and dispersion models run with 2010 data proved a drastic reduction of the WWTP aeration tank emissions and consequently the city centre was not bothered by WWTP emissions anymore. The odour emission reduction was due to the modification of the WWTP aeration tank system. Despite the odour emission reduction, houses located southeast of the WWTP were still annoyed by sewage odours. However, in this part of the town, other sources of sewage odours have been found.

  3. Assessing the impact of transgenerational epigenetic variation on complex traits.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Frank; Porcher, Emmanuelle; Teixeira, Felipe K; Saliba-Colombani, Vera; Simon, Matthieu; Agier, Nicolas; Bulski, Agnès; Albuisson, Juliette; Heredia, Fabiana; Audigier, Pascal; Bouchez, David; Dillmann, Christine; Guerche, Philippe; Hospital, Frédéric; Colot, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    Loss or gain of DNA methylation can affect gene expression and is sometimes transmitted across generations. Such epigenetic alterations are thus a possible source of heritable phenotypic variation in the absence of DNA sequence change. However, attempts to assess the prevalence of stable epigenetic variation in natural and experimental populations and to quantify its impact on complex traits have been hampered by the confounding effects of DNA sequence polymorphisms. To overcome this problem as much as possible, two parents with little DNA sequence differences, but contrasting DNA methylation profiles, were used to derive a panel of epigenetic Recombinant Inbred Lines (epiRILs) in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The epiRILs showed variation and high heritability for flowering time and plant height ( approximately 30%), as well as stable inheritance of multiple parental DNA methylation variants (epialleles) over at least eight generations. These findings provide a first rationale to identify epiallelic variants that contribute to heritable variation in complex traits using linkage or association studies. More generally, the demonstration that numerous epialleles across the genome can be stable over many generations in the absence of selection or extensive DNA sequence variation highlights the need to integrate epigenetic information into population genetics studies.

  4. Integrated assessment of brick kiln emission impacts on air quality.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Anh; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base case. Impacts of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were assessed.

  5. The modelling and assessment of whale-watching impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    New, Leslie; Hall, Ailsa J.; Harcourt, Robert; Kaufman, Greg; Parsons, E.C.M.; Pearson, Heidi C.; Cosentino, A. Mel; Schick, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in modelling cumulative effects and the population consequences of individual changes in cetacean behaviour and physiology due to disturbance. One potential source of disturbance that has garnered particular interest is whale-watching. Though perceived as ‘green’ or eco-friendly tourism, there is evidence that whale-watching can result in statistically significant and biologically meaningful changes in cetacean behaviour, raising the question whether whale-watching is in fact a long term sustainable activity. However, an assessment of the impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans requires an understanding of the potential behavioural and physiological effects, data to effectively address the question and suitable modelling techniques. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the viability of long-term whale-watching, as well as logistical limitations and potential opportunities. We conclude that an integrated, coordinated approach will be needed to further understanding of the possible effects of whale-watching on cetaceans.

  6. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Zheng

    2012-01-15

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  7. Assessment of the radiological impact of oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Bakr, W F

    2010-03-01

    The field of radiation protection and corresponding national and international regulations has evolved to ensure safety in the use of radioactive materials. Oil and gas production processing operations have been known to cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) to accumulate at elevated concentrations as by-product waste streams. A comprehensive radiological study on the oil refining industry in Egypt was carried out to assess the radiological impact of this industry on the workers. Scales, sludge, water and crude oil samples were collected at each stage of the refining process. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were determined using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of the determined isotopes are lower than the IAEA exempt activity levels for NORM isotopes. Different exposure scenarios were studied. The average annual effective dose for workers due to direct exposure to gamma radiation and dust inhalation found to be 0.6 microSv and 3.2 mSv, respectively. Based on the ALARA principle, the results indicate that special care must be taken during cleaning operations in order to reduce the personnel's exposure due to maintenance as well as to avoid contamination of the environment.

  8. Human Rights Impact Assessment: A Method for Healthy Policymaking.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Two decades ago, Lawrence Gostin and Jonathan Mann developed a methodology for human rights impact assessment (HRIA) of proposed public health policies. This article looks back over the last 20 years to examine the development of HRIA in the health field and consider the progress that has been made since Gostin and Mann published their pioneering article. Health-related HRIA has advanced substantially in three ways. First, the content of the right to health has been delineated in greater detail through domestic and international laws and policies. Second, the UN human rights mechanisms have recommended that governments undertake HRIAs and have issued guidelines and methodologies for doing so. Third, nongovernmental organizations and international organizations have developed HRIA tools and carried out case studies to demonstrate their feasibility. In this light, the article concludes by recognizing the substantial progress that has been made in HRIA over the last 20 years and by considering some challenges that remain for health-related HRIA. PMID:26204586

  9. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja . E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  10. A Model for Assessing Impact of Institutional Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A three-dimensional model was developed to assist researchers in conceptualizing the research-study-impact process. Drawing on communication and decision making literature, the model relates time, action, and audience dimensions. The results of these relationships is labeled "institutional study impact." Impact is viewed as the outcomes from a…

  11. Readings in technology assessment. [in relation to social impact and the law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.

  12. It's All about Student Learning: Assessing Teacher Candidates' Ability to Impact P-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, A. E., Ed.; Ehrenberg, P., Ed.; Leibbrand, J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "It's All About Student Learning Assessing Teacher Candidates' Ability to Impact P-12 Students", provides practical assistance for institutions designing or revising assessment systems or individual assessments for use by units or programs. The publication includes performance assessments currently used by teacher preparation institutions and…

  13. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment

  14. Head Impacts During High School Football: A Biomechanical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, Steven P; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Shin, SungHoon; He, Xuming; Alcaraz, Christopher; Zimmerman, Jerrad

    2009-01-01

    Context: Little is known about the impact biomechanics sustained by players during interscholastic football. Objective: To characterize the location and magnitude of impacts sustained by players during an interscholastic football season. Design: Observational design. Setting: On the field. Patients or Other Participants: High school varsity football team (n  =  35; age  =  16.85 ± 0.75 years, height  =  183.49 ± 5.31 cm, mass  =  89.42 ± 12.88 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Biomechanical variables (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, jerk, force, impulse, and impact duration) related to head impacts were categorized by session type, player position, and helmet impact location. Results: Differences in grouping variables were found for each impact descriptor. Impacts occurred more frequently and with greater intensity during games. Linear acceleration was greatest in defensive linemen and offensive skill players and when the impact occurred at the top of the helmet. The largest rotational acceleration occurred in defensive linemen and with impacts to the front of the helmet. Impacts with the highest-magnitude jerk, force, and impulse and shortest duration occurred in the offensive skill, defensive line, offensive line, and defensive skill players, respectively. Top-of-the-helmet impacts yielded the greatest magnitude for the same variables. Conclusions: We are the first to provide a biomechanical characterization of head impacts in an interscholastic football team across a season of play. The intensity of game play manifested with more frequent and intense impacts. The highest-magnitude variables were distributed across all player groups, but impacts to the top of the helmet yielded the highest values. These high school football athletes appeared to sustain greater accelerations after impact than their older counterparts did. How this finding relates to concussion occurrence has yet to be elucidated. PMID:19593415

  15. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  16. Health impact assessment of air pollution in Valladolid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cárdaba Arranz, Mario; Muñoz Moreno, María Fe; Armentia Medina, Alicia; Alonso Capitán, Margarita; Carreras Vaquer, Fernando; Almaraz Gómez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the attributable and targeted avoidable deaths (ADs; TADs) of outdoor air pollution by ambient particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5 and O3 according to specific WHO methodology. Design Health impact assessment. Setting City of Valladolid, Spain (around 300 000 residents). Data sources Demographics; mortality; pollutant concentrations collected 1999–2008. Main outcome measures Attributable fractions; ADs and TADs per year for 1999–2008. Results Higher TADs estimates (shown here) were obtained when assuming as ‘target’ concentrations WHO Air Quality Guidelines instead of Directive 2008/50/EC. ADs are considered relative to pollutant background levels. All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (all ages): 52 ADs (95% CI 39 to 64); 31 TADs (95% CI 24 to 39).All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (<5 years): 0 ADs (95% CI 0 to 1); 0 TADs (95% CI 0 to 1). All-cause mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30 years): 326 ADs (95% CI 217 to 422); 231 TADs (95% CI 153 to 301). Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30 years): ▸ Cardiopulmonary: 186 ADs (95% CI 74 to 280); 94 TADs (95% CI 36 to 148). ▸ Lung cancer : 51 ADs (95% CI 21 to 73); 27 TADs (95% CI 10 to 41).All-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality associated to O3 (all ages): ▸ All-cause: 52ADs (95% CI 25 to 77) ; 31 TADs (95% CI 15 to 45). ▸ Respiratory: 5ADs (95% CI −2 to 13) ; 3 TADs (95% CI −1 to 8). ▸ Cardiovascular: 30 ADs (95% CI 8 to 51) ; 17 TADs (95% CI 5 to 30). Negative estimates which should be read as zero were obtained when pollutant concentrations were below counterfactuals or assumed risk coefficients were below one. Conclusions Our estimates suggest a not negligible negative impact on mortality of outdoor air pollution. The implementation of WHO methodology provides critical information to distinguish an improvement range in air pollution control. PMID:25326212

  17. Groundwater Impact Assessment of Tailings Storage Facility, Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peksezer-Sayit, A.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A tailings storage facility (TSF) is a fundamental part of the mining process and should be carefully designed and managed to prevent any adverse environmental effects. TSF is site-specific and its design criteria are determined by regulations. The new mine waste regulation for the deposition of hazardous waste in a tailings storage facility in Turkey enforces, from bottom to top, 0.5 m thick compacted clay layer with K less than or equal to 1X10-9 m/s , 2 mm thick HDPE geomembrane, and a protective natural material or geotextile. Although these criteria seem to be enough to prevent leakage from the base, in practice, manufacturing and application errors may cause leakage and subsequent contamination of groundwater. The purpose of this study is to assess potential impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater quality both in operational and post-closure period of a mine site in western Turkey. For this purpose, analytical and 2-D and 3-D numerical models are used together. The potential leakage rate of sulphate-bearing solution from the base of TSF is determined from analytical model. 2-D finite element models (SEEP/W and CTRAN/W) are used to simulate unsaturated flow conditions and advective-dispersive contaminant transport below the TSF under steady-state and transient conditions for the operating period. The long-term impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater resources are evaluated by 3-D numerical groundwater flow (MODFLOW) and contaminant transport models (MT3DMS). The model results suggest that sulphate-bearing solution leaking from the base of TSF can reach water table in about 290 years. Hence, during the operational period (i.e. 21 years), no interaction is expected between the solution and groundwater. Moreover, long-term simulation results show that about 500 years later, the sulphate concentration in groundwater will be below the maximum allowable limits (i.e. 250 mg/L).

  18. Assessing climate change impact by integrated hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajer Hojberg, Anker; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans; Olsen, Martin; der Keur Peter, van; Seaby, Lauren Paige; Troldborg, Lars; Sonnenborg, Torben; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2013-04-01

    Future climate may have a profound effect on the freshwater cycle, which must be taken into consideration by water management for future planning. Developments in the future climate are nevertheless uncertain, thus adding to the challenge of managing an uncertain system. To support the water managers at various levels in Denmark, the national water resources model (DK-model) (Højberg et al., 2012; Stisen et al., 2012) was used to propagate future climate to hydrological response under considerations of the main sources of uncertainty. The DK-model is a physically based and fully distributed model constructed on the basis of the MIKE SHE/MIKE11 model system describing groundwater and surface water systems and the interaction between the domains. The model has been constructed for the entire 43.000 km2 land area of Denmark only excluding minor islands. Future climate from General Circulation Models (GCM) was downscaled by Regional Climate Models (RCM) by a distribution-based scaling method (Seaby et al., 2012). The same dataset was used to train all combinations of GCM-RCMs and they were found to represent the mean and variance at the seasonal basis equally well. Changes in hydrological response were computed by comparing the short term development from the period 1990 - 2010 to 2021 - 2050, which is the time span relevant for water management. To account for uncertainty in future climate predictions, hydrological response from the DK-model using nine combinations of GCMs and RCMs was analysed for two catchments representing the various hydrogeological conditions in Denmark. Three GCM-RCM combinations displaying high, mean and low future impacts were selected as representative climate models for which climate impact studies were carried out for the entire country. Parameter uncertainty was addressed by sensitivity analysis and was generally found to be of less importance compared to the uncertainty spanned by the GCM-RCM combinations. Analysis of the simulations

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Privacy Impact Assessment E Appendix E to Part... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806b, App. E Appendix E to Part 806b—Privacy Impact Assessment Section A... implement citizen-centered e-Government. Privacy issues must be addressed when systems are being...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Impact Assessment E Appendix E to Part... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806b, App. E Appendix E to Part 806b—Privacy Impact Assessment Section A... implement citizen-centered e-Government. Privacy issues must be addressed when systems are being...

  1. Groundwater impact assessment for the 216-U-17 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Johnson, V.G.; Kline, N.W.

    1993-06-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact to groundwater from discharge of process condensate to the ground at the 216-U-17 Crib. The assessment considers impacts associated with moisture movement through soil beneath the crib and the potential transport of contaminants to the groundwater.

  2. Incorporating detectability of threatened species into environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Garrard, Georgia E; Bekessy, Sarah A; McCarthy, Michael A; Wintle, Brendan A

    2015-02-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a key mechanism for protecting threatened plant and animal species. Many species are not perfectly detectable and, even when present, may remain undetected during EIA surveys, increasing the risk of site-level loss or extinction of species. Numerous methods now exist for estimating detectability of plants and animals. Despite this, regulations concerning survey protocol and effort during EIAs fail to adequately address issues of detectability. Probability of detection is intrinsically linked to survey effort; thus, minimum survey effort requirements are a useful way to address the risks of false absences. We utilized 2 methods for determining appropriate survey effort requirements during EIA surveys. One method determined the survey effort required to achieve a probability of detection of 0.95 when the species is present. The second method estimated the survey effort required to either detect the species or reduce the probability of presence to 0.05. We applied these methods to Pimelea spinscens subsp. spinescens, a critically endangered grassland plant species in Melbourne, Australia. We detected P. spinescens in only half of the surveys undertaken at sites where it was known to exist. Estimates of the survey effort required to detect the species or demonstrate its absence with any confidence were much higher than the effort traditionally invested in EIA surveys for this species. We argue that minimum survey requirements be established for all species listed under threatened species legislation and hope that our findings will provide an impetus for collecting, compiling, and synthesizing quantitative detectability estimates for a broad range of plant and animal species. PMID:25155009

  3. Walking the sustainability assessment talk - Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2012-09-15

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  4. Investigating the Impact of Cambridge International Assessments on U.S. Stakeholders: Student and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    As part of the continuing program to study the impact of its international assessments, the University of Cambridge International Examinations ("Cambridge") has undertaken a series of studies investigating the impact on a range of US stakeholders. This paper reports on research designed to respond to a series of washback and impact questions…

  5. 77 FR 31353 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... draft document addresses potential impacts to water quality and the salmon fishery that may result from... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK AGENCY... of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004a-d)....

  6. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  7. The mechanism of impact of summative assessment on medical students’ learning

    PubMed Central

    Schuwirth, Lambert W.; Adendorff, Hanelie J.; Herman, Nicoline; van der Vleuten, Cees P.

    2010-01-01

    It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning, but there is a surprising dearth of research on how. This study explored the mechanism of impact of summative assessment on the process of learning of theory in higher education. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with medical students and analyzed qualitatively. The impact of assessment on learning was mediated through various determinants of action. Respondents’ learning behaviour was influenced by: appraising the impact of assessment; appraising their learning response; their perceptions of agency; and contextual factors. This study adds to scant extant evidence and proposes a mechanism to explain this impact. It should help enhance the use of assessment as a tool to augment learning. PMID:20455078

  8. Ländliche Entwicklung durch erneuerbare Energien - Das Beispiel Photovoltaik in Niederbayern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Roland

    2013-09-01

    Der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien ist in Deutschland eine zentrale und politisch konsensfähige Forderung, um die Energieversorgung klimafreundlich und nachhaltig zu gestalten. Speziell ländliche Regionen rücken dabei in den Fokus, bieten sie doch aufgrund ihrer hohen Flächenverfügbarkeit große Potenziale für die flächenintensiven dezentralen Energieformen. Folglich erkennen Kommunen zunehmend das Entwicklungspotenzial dieser Technologien und sehen sie auch als Chance, neue wirtschaftliche Impulse vor Ort zu setzen. Der Beitrag skizziert die rasante Entwicklung der Photovoltaik im Regierungsbezirk Niederbayern und diskutiert anhand des Beispiels die Folgen für eine nachhaltige Regionalentwicklung.

  9. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  10. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eunyoung; Song, Wonkyong; Lee, Dongkun

    2013-09-15

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should

  11. Drought impact functions as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    While damage or vulnerability functions for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought impacts are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage functions difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage functions we exploit text-based reports on drought impacts from the European Drought Impact report Inventory and the US Drought Impact Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought impacts is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of impacts, or number of impact occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link functions relating drought hazard indicators with drought impacts: 1) logistic regression for drought impacts coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought impact occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought impact occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) impacts for regions at the scale of federal states or

  12. Legal and institutional framework of environmental impact assessment in Nigeria: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Olokesusi, F.

    1998-03-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has high rates of urbanization and industrialization. Until recently, decisions on most large-scale projects such as expressways, harbors, industries, dams, and irrigation were considered with an emphasis on traditional technical and cost-benefit analysis. Spurred by massive environmental degradation and persistent community agitation in oil producing areas, environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation was passed in late 1992. The main purpose of this article is to review and assess the content of this legislation and the guidelines produced by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), the institution responsible for EIA administration. Some EIA reports have been prepared and reviewed by FEPA since 1994. There are some positive outcomes and expectations, but some problems have been identified as well, including: deliberate restriction of public involvement and participation by proponents and/or their consultants, interagency conflict leading to high cost and project delays especially in the oil industry, and restriction of public access to final EIA reports. These are discussed, and recommendations for improving the process are made.

  13. Assessing Impact on Family Caregivers to Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talkington-Boyer, Shannon; Snyder, Douglas K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of caregiving among 110 caregivers to aging family member with Alzheimer's disease. Family caregivers' appraisals along dimensions of subjective burden, negative impact, caregiving satisfaction, and caregiver mastery were correlated with extent of memory and behavior problems of patient and caregivers' coping style, locus of…

  14. Comparative assessment of transport risks--how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies.

    PubMed Central

    Kjellstrom, Tord; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Bammer, Gabriele; McMichael, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy-makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as the health risks and impacts of transport policy and planning activities. As yet, however, HIA and CRA have not been applied widely to the area of transport. We draw on the limited experience of the application of these tools in the context of road transport to explore how comparative assessment of transport risks can contribute to HIA of transport policies. PMID:12894331

  15. Assessing Impacts of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Li-Guang; Wang, Bin

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to assess the possible impacts of the global climate change on tropical cyclone (TC) tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) basin. The idea is based on the premise that the future change of TC track characteristics is primarily determined by changes in large-scale environmental steering flows. It is demonstrated that the main characteristics of the current climatology of TC tracks can be derived from the climatological mean velocity field of TC motion by using a trajectory model. The climatological mean velocity of TC motion, which is composed of the large-scale steering and beta drift, is determined on each grid of the basin. The mean beta drift is estimated from the best track data, and the mean large-scale steering flow is computed from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the current climate state. The derived mean beta drift agrees well with the results of previous observational and numerical studies in terms of its direction and magnitude. The outputs of experiments A2 and B2 of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) R30 climate model suggest that the subtropical high will be persistently weak over the western part of the WNP or shift eastward during July-September in response to the future climate change. By assuming that the mean beta drift in the future climate state is unchanged, the change in the general circulation by 2059 will decrease the TC activities in the WNP, but favor a northward shift of typical TC tracks. As a result, the storm activities in the South China Sea will decrease by about 12%, while the Japan region will experience an increase of TCs by 12-15%. During the period of 2000-2029, the tropical storms that affect the China region will increase by 5-6%, but return to the current level during 2030-2059. It is also suggested that, during the period of 2030-2059 tropical storms will more frequently affect Japan and the middle latitude region of China given that the formation locations remain the same as in the

  16. Assessment of the impact sound in golf putting.

    PubMed

    Barrass, D F; Roberts, J R; Jones, R

    2006-05-01

    The influence of impact sound in putting on players' perceptions of "feel" is explored in this paper. Tests were conducted to investigate the impact sound characteristics of five different ball types using two different putter types. The first test studied the impact sound of purely the ball, while the second test investigated the influence of putter construction and impact location on impact sound for the different ball types. Trends were found between sound spectra peaks in the 2 - 4 kHz range and the compression values of the balls. In addition, frequency content was more dependent on putter type and impact location than on ball construction in the 0 - 2 kHz range. The final test employed a paired comparison technique to investigate players' perceptions of sharpness and loudness of impact sound, ball speed from the clubface and ball hardness. Relationships between the subjective data and the sound characteristics of the balls were then examined. It was found that the ball the players' perceived to have the sharpest and loudest sound, to feel the hardest and to come off the clubface the quickest also had the largest calculated values of loudness and sharpness and had a spectral peak at a higher frequency than the other balls.

  17. The transitional impact scale: assessing the material and psychological impact of life transitions.

    PubMed

    Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R; Reddon, John R; Uzer, Tugba; Lee, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    The Transitional Impact Scale (TIS) advances the measurement of event cognition into the real world. The TIS was created to provide a measure of change for important life transitions, including an index of their transitional properties and magnitude. Pilot work prior to Study 1 led to the creation of a 95-item version (TIS-95). A principal components analysis of TIS-95 (n = 215) resulted in two dimensions that we rotated to a Varimax criterion and interpreted as (1) material change (e.g., "This event changed where I live") and (2) psychological change (e.g., "This event changed the way I think about things"). TIS-95 was reduced to 25 items. In Study 2, the structure of TIS-25 was replicated (n = 531) using the same method. The best 12 items were retained. TIS-12 was evaluated in two random split-half samples (n = 557 and n = 553). These samples produced essentially identical results, as assessed through factor comparison. The cumulative scales formed from items constituting each factor demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranged from .79 to .86).

  18. Reclamation of automotive batteries: Assessment of health impacts and recycling technology. Task 2: Assessment of health impacts; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Unnasch, S.

    1999-04-01

    The task 2 report compares the relative health and hazard impacts of EV battery recycling technologies. Task 2 compared the relative impact of recycling EV batteries in terms of cancer, toxicity, and ecotoxicological potential, as well as leachability, flammability, and corrosivity/reactivity hazards. Impacts were evaluated for lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium sulfur, sodium-nickel chloride, lithium-iron sulfide and disulfide, lithium-polymer, lithium-ion, and zinc-air batteries. Health/hazard impacts were evaluated for recycling methods including smelting, electrowinning, and other appropriate techniques that apply to different battery technologies.

  19. The sensitivity of agricultural impacts assessment to climate data and scenario methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2011-12-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on the agricultural sector are crucially important from the farm- to global levels. While impacts assessments have made wide and creative use of data products, climate models, and methods for downscaling and scenario generation, this variety also hinders our ability to compare impacts from one study to other assessments. The unique nature of many impacts assessments is especially problematic when evaluating the impacts of climate change on large agricultural regions and global production; a crucial scale in understanding the economic impacts and market influence on food security and land use. This presentation examines the influence of methodological choices on agricultural impacts assessment by describing results from several projects. First, the utility of a wide variety of global and regional observational data products are compared for an agricultural system in the Florida Panhandle to determine the influence of observational uncertainties, reanalysis products, remotely sensed information, and downscaled models on impacts assessment. Second, the role of future climate scenarios is isolated by running the same Panhandle station with scenarios generated through a variety of generation methods with a focus on downscaling methodologies and the climate statistics allowed to change. Finally, an ensemble of weather generators are compared across an ensemble of wheat models in a variety of major agricultural regions, isolating important sensitivities in the crop models and corresponding strengths and weaknesses in the weather generators.

  20. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  1. Evaluating Ireland's IBIA as an approach to improving the quality and effectiveness of biodiversity impact assessment.

    PubMed

    González, Ainhoa; Hochstrasser, Tamara; Fry, John; Scott, Paul; Grist, Berna; Jones, Mike

    2013-12-15

    The assessment of potential impacts of plans, programmes and projects on biodiversity is required under various legislative remits (including the European Union's Habitats, Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment Directives). The objective of such assessments is to ensure that potential negative impacts on both protected nature conservation sites and species and wider biodiversity are efficiently identified in a timely manner, quantified and subsequently avoided or mitigated, while enhancing positive effects. The procedural requirements of these legal obligations vary and, as a result, differing methodological steps, data gathering and analysis methods, and impact assessment techniques are commonly applied under each individual process, often leading to uncoordinated assessment efforts and results (in terms, for example, of scope, scale and assessment detail). In order to address these issues and improve current practice, an Integrated Biodiversity Impact Assessment (IBIA) methodology has been developed in Ireland with the overall aim of providing a holistic and systematic approach to biodiversity impact assessment. The IBIA framework seeks to ensure that relevant procedures are effectively integrated, time and resource efficiencies are optimised, and unnecessary duplication avoided. Particular emphasis is given to compliance with legal requirements, integration and communication of scientific knowledge, spatial assessment and biodiversity data considerations, and integration of biodiversity aspects with a variety of other concerns during the plan-making process. This paper presents the IBIA methodology and critically examines current key issues in biodiversity impact assessment that can be potentially addressed through IBIA, as well as remaining challenges. In addition, and in order to support the examination of the anticipated benefits of using this new methodological framework (such as biodiversity-inclusive planning through

  2. Assessing the contribution of centaur impacts to ice giant luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations revealed that Neptune's internal luminosity is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, Neptune's luminosity can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce Neptune's luminosity. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Neptune are too infrequent to provide luminosities of order Neptune's observed value, even for optimistic impact-rate estimates and (2) that Uranus and Neptune rarely have significantly different impact-generated luminosities at any given time. Uranus and Neptune most likely have structural differences that force them to cool and contract at different rates.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of abnormal events: a follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Lee, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Impact analyses included in environmental assessments for a selected nuclear power plant, petroleum storage facility, crude oil pipeline, and geopressure well that have experienced operational, abnormal events are compared with the data quantifying the environmental impacts of the events. Comparisons of predicted vs actual impacts suggests that prediction of the types of events and associated impacts could be improved; in some instances, impacts have been underestimated. Analysis of abnormal events is especially important in environmental assessment documents addressing a technology that is novel or unique to a particular area. Incorporation of abnormal event impact analysis into project environmental monitoring and emergency response plans can help improve these plans and can help reduce the magnitude of environmental impacts resulting from said events.

  4. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  5. Appendix E: Research papers. Use of remote sensing in landscape stratification for environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanturf, J. A.; Heimbuch, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A refinement to the matrix approach to environmental impact assessment is to use landscape units in place of separate environmental elements in the analysis. Landscape units can be delineated by integrating remotely sensed data and available single-factor data. A remote sensing approach to landscape stratification is described and the conditions under which it is superior to other approaches that require single-factor maps are indicated. Flowcharts show the steps necessary to develop classification criteria, delineate units and a map legend, and use the landscape units in impact assessment. Application of the approach to assessing impacts of a transmission line in Montana is presented to illustrate the method.

  6. Socioeconomic impact assessment and nuclear power plant licensing, Greene County, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews the setting, participants and status of the joint federal-state hearings, findings of the FES, problems of conducting social impact assessment (SIA) for the GCNPP, and the nature and effect of public participation in the formal, legalistic hearings process. The GCNPP is evaluated in terms of trends in Atomic Energy Commission-Nuclear Regulatory Commission social impact assessments from 1972 to 1979. Progress in the adequacy and relevance of social impact assessment is defined according to steps in a lengthy, evolutionary legitimation process.

  7. Higher Education Quality Assessment in China: An Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses an external higher education quality assessment scheme in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. Case studies were conducted in three Chinese universities with different statuses. Analysis shows that the evaluated institutions responded to the external requirements of the QAUE…

  8. Guiding Principles to Impact an Institution-Wide Assessment Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinerichs, Scott; Bernotsky, R. Lorraine; Danner, Loretta Rieser

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are faced with challenges when implementing an assessment initiative. These challenges include constraints on time and resources, the demands of specialized accreditation, and faculty motivation to comply. In addition, the communication of the expectations around assessment must be clear to all constituents in…

  9. Revisiting the Impact of Formative Assessment Opportunities on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue; Devlin, Marcia; Charles, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This project developed as a result of some inconclusive data from an investigation of whether a relationship existed between the use of formative assessment opportunities and performance, as measured by final grade. We were expecting to show our colleagues and students that use of formative assessment resources had the potential to improve…

  10. Impact of Animation on Assessment of Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancy, Melissa H.; Beichner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil…

  11. Assessment and non-clinical impact of medical devices.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Szwarcensztein, Karine; Josseran, Anne; Barna, Alexandre; Carbonneil, Cédric; Chevrie, Karine; Debroucker, Frédérique; Grumblat, Anne; Grumel, Olivier; Massol, Jacques; Maugendre, Philippe; Méchin, Hubert; Orlikowski, David; Roussel, Christophe; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine; Sales, Jean-Patrick; Vicaut, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices (MDs) cover a wide variety of products. They accompany changes in medical practice in step with technology innovations. Innovations in the field of MDs can improve the conditions of use of health technology and/or modify the organisation of care beyond the strict diagnostic or therapeutic benefit for the patients. However, these non purely clinical criteria seem to be only rarely documented or taken into account in the assessment of MDs during reimbursement decisions at national level or for formulary listing by hospitals even though multidimensional models for the assessment of health technologies have been developed that take into account the views of all stakeholders in the healthcare system In this article, after summarising the background concerning the assessment of health technologies in France, a definition of non-clinical criteria for the assessment of MDs is proposed and a decision tree for the assessment of MDs is described. Future lines of approach are proposed as a conclusion.

  12. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines.

  13. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-15

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  14. Ecological assessment of the environmental impacts of the kerosene burning in jet turbines and its improvement assessment.

    PubMed

    Geldermann, J; Gabriel, R; Rentz, O

    1999-01-01

    The burning of kerosene in jet turbines is investigated for two reference flights with a Boeing 747-400 and an Airbus A320-200, representing the typical Lufthansa planes for long and middle distance. The ecological evaluation is performed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Formation of condensation trails, which is a specific environmental impact caused by air traffic, has to be considered in addition to established LCA impact categories. Based on the ecological assessment, an improvement assessment is performed. Environmental performance of diesel fuel during the combustion in car engines is analysed based on available publications. The relevant parameters for the environmental impact of the combustion of diesel (aromatics content, reduction of sulphur content, the reduction of the density and raising of the cetane number) are discussed with regard to improvements of the exhaust qualities of kerosene. A reduction of the aromatics content promises to improve the emission of soot which should be further investigated. PMID:19009417

  15. Assessing the Impact of Aircraft Emissions on the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Anderson, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) has been the U.S. focal point for research on aircraft effects. In conjunction with U.S. basic research programs, AEAP and concurrent European research programs have driven remarkable progress reports released in 1999 [IPCC, 1999; Kawa et al., 1999]. The former report primarily focuses on aircraft effects in the upper troposphere, with some discussion on stratospheric impacts. The latter report focuses entirely on the stratosphere. The current status of research regarding aviation effects on stratospheric ozone and climate, as embodied by the findings of these reports, is reviewed. The following topics are addressed: Aircraft Emissions, Pollution Transport, Atmospheric Chemistry, Polar Processes, Climate Impacts of Supersonic Aircraft, Subsonic Aircraft Effect on the Stratosphere, Calculations of the Supersonic Impact on Ozone and Sensitivity to Input Conditions.

  16. Impact assessment of subsurface drainage on waterlogged and saline lands.

    PubMed

    Ghumman, Abdul R; Ghazaw, Yousry Mahmoud; Niazi, Muhammed F; Hashmi, Hashim N

    2011-01-01

    Waterlogging and salinity due to seepage from canals have polluted land and environment in various parts of Pakistan. A sustainable environment requires urgent remedial measures for this problem. The research in this paper presents the impacts of the Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad on the twin problem of waterlogging and salinity. Monitoring of the project was made on regular basis. The key performance indicators for the project include the lowering of water table, improvement of water quality and soil salinity, increase in area under cultivation, cropping intensity, and socioeconomic status of the project population. Data regarding water levels and discharge from the drain pipes were collected to monitor the impact on waterlogging. Soil samples were tested to evaluate the impact of drainage on land. It has been found that the percentage of the contaminated land in the project area has considerably been decreased, while the cropping intensities have been increased.

  17. Improving the methodology for assessing natural hazard impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Anand; Sharma, Upasna

    2005-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards such as cyclones have been conventionally measured through changes in human, social and economic capital, typically represented by stock variables such as population, built property and public infrastructure, livestock, agricultural land, etc. This paper develops an alternative approach that seeks to detect and quantify impacts as changes in flow variables. In particular, we explore whether changes in annual agricultural output, when measured at an appropriate spatial level, could be used to measure impacts associated with tropical cyclones in coastal regions of India. We believe that such an approach may have a number of benefits from a policy perspective, particularly with regard to the debate between relief versus recovery as disaster management strategies. A focus on flow variables is also likely to be more relevant and useful in developing countries; the maintenance of economic activity directly affects livelihood and is perhaps of greater importance than loss of built property or other physical capital.

  18. Why and how should we assess occupational health impacts in integrated product policy?

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Patrick; Norris, Gregory A

    2003-05-15

    Integrated product policy (IPP) and life cycle assessment (LCA), one of the analytic tools used in IPP, focus traditionally on environmental impacts. However, in an attempt to consider other sustainability criteria and to avoid a shift from environmental health impacts to occupational health impacts one may want to include occupational health in IPP. Should and can occupational health impacts be included in LCA and IPP? Using published and unpublished occupational health data for injuries and illnesses and an economic input-output model of the United States, we provide attributional occupational health impacts measured in disability adjusted life years per dollars output for 491 industry sectors including supply chain impacts. Estimates for the "true" number of United States occupational health impacts suggest that this initial analysis underestimates the total impact 3-7-fold. A comparison suggests that United States occupational health impacts are about 10 times smaller than environmental health impacts and are, relatively speaking, important only for sectors with hazardous working environments but low environmental impacts. A consequential rather than attributional view suggests that a method to assess true consequences on long-term health impacts by product policies needs to be able to predict effects from present-day work place exposure and to account for likely changes in the labor market, including changes in unemployment rates and other substitution mechanisms. PMID:12785504

  19. Why and how should we assess occupational health impacts in integrated product policy?

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Patrick; Norris, Gregory A

    2003-05-15

    Integrated product policy (IPP) and life cycle assessment (LCA), one of the analytic tools used in IPP, focus traditionally on environmental impacts. However, in an attempt to consider other sustainability criteria and to avoid a shift from environmental health impacts to occupational health impacts one may want to include occupational health in IPP. Should and can occupational health impacts be included in LCA and IPP? Using published and unpublished occupational health data for injuries and illnesses and an economic input-output model of the United States, we provide attributional occupational health impacts measured in disability adjusted life years per dollars output for 491 industry sectors including supply chain impacts. Estimates for the "true" number of United States occupational health impacts suggest that this initial analysis underestimates the total impact 3-7-fold. A comparison suggests that United States occupational health impacts are about 10 times smaller than environmental health impacts and are, relatively speaking, important only for sectors with hazardous working environments but low environmental impacts. A consequential rather than attributional view suggests that a method to assess true consequences on long-term health impacts by product policies needs to be able to predict effects from present-day work place exposure and to account for likely changes in the labor market, including changes in unemployment rates and other substitution mechanisms.

  20. Assessment of health impacts in electricity generation and use

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the health effects of concern associated with electricity generation, information from which health effects can be estimated, and how the boundaries of analysis are determined. It also describes advances, new approaches, and trends in the risk assessment process. It discusses the application of these advances to comparative risk studies. Trends in the risk assessment process include more explicit characterization of quantitative uncertainty, the broader application and acceptance of Monte Carlo analysis and other numerical methods to the propagation of uncertainties through the analysis, greater realism in risk assessment, and the application of greatly increased computational capabilities.

  1. Assessing Flood Impacts in Rural Coastal Communities Using LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal communities are vulnerable to floods from storm events which are further exacerbated by storm surges. Additionally, coastal towns provide specific challenges during flood events as many coastal communities are peninsular and vulnerable to inundation of road access points. Publicly available lidar data has been used to model areas of inundation and resulting flood impacts on road networks. However, these models may overestimate areas that are inaccessible as they rely on publicly available Digital Terrain Models. Through incorporation of Digital Surface Models to estimate bridge height, a more accurate model of flood impacts on rural coastal residents can be estimated.

  2. Photovoltaic (PV) Impact Assessment for Very High Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Danling; Mather, Barry A.; Seguin, Richard; Hambrick, Joshua; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a granular approach for investigating the impacts of very high photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration. Studies on two real-world distribution feeders connected to PV plants are presented. The studies include both steady-state and time-series power flow analyses, which include the effects of solar variability. The goal of the study is to predict the effects of increasing levels of PV generation as it reaches very high penetration levels. The loss and return of generation with and without regulation is simulated to capture short-term problems such as voltage fluctuations. Impact results from the analyses are described along with potential mitigations.

  3. FORMAL SCENARIO DEVELOPMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario analysis is a process of evaluating possible future events through the consideration of alternative plausible (though not equally likely) outcomes (scenarios). The analysis is designed to enable improved decision-making and assessment through a more rigorous evaluation o...

  4. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Deaf Smith County

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise impact assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impacts sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 13 tabs.

  5. Assessment of Arctic community wastewater impacts on marine benthic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Kira A; Krkosek, Wendy H; Greenwood, Mark; Ragush, Colin; Schmidt, Jordan; Grant, Jon; Barrell, Jeff; Lu, Lin; Lam, Buuan; Gagnon, Graham A; Jamieson, Rob C

    2015-01-20

    This study sought to understand the performance of arctic treatment systems and the impact of wastewater effluent on benthic invertebrate communities in arctic receiving water habitats. Effluent quality and benthic impacts were monitored in the receiving water of five communities across Nunavut that differed in the type and level of treatment achieved by wastewater infrastructure, the volume of effluent and receiving water mixing environment. We detected minimal impacts to benthic communities (<225 m linear distance from the effluent source) in four out of the five communities (Grise Fiord, Kugaaruk, Pond Inlet, and Pangnirtung), where the population was <2000 people. In these small communities impacts were characterized by increases or decreases in species richness, diversity, evenness, and density, and some differences in benthic species composition. This was in contrast to benthic sediments in Iqaluit (population 6699), which were devoid of benthic fauna up to 580 m from the effluent source in response to sediment anoxia. Variation in benthic community response between sampling locations was attributed primarily to differences in effluent volume, with effluent quality and receiving water hydrodynamics playing secondary roles. The results of this study will help to inform the development of northern specific treatment performance standards which will aid in prioritizing community wastewater system upgrades in arctic communities.

  6. Laptop Initiative Impact: Assessed Using Student, Parent and Teacher Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Diane M.; King, Frederick B.; Brown, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Several university researchers were invited to assist in the implementation and study of a Laptop Initiative for high school students. This initiative provided laptop computers for 247 students and 24 teachers who were grouped into ninth grade learning clusters at three schools. The research on the program's impact focused on student, teacher, and…

  7. Assessing Impacts of "Math in Focus," a "Singapore Math" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaciw, Andrew P.; Hegseth, Whitney Michelle; Lin, Li; Toby, Megan; Newman, Denis; Ma, Boya; Zacamy, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates, through a cluster randomized trial, the impact of "Math in Focus," a core mathematics program modeled after instructional approaches used in Singapore, on third- through fifth-grade students' achievement in mathematics. The program is currently being used in more than 400 school districts in the United States.…

  8. Assessing off-taraget impacts of herbicide drift on plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants and plant communities provide vital economic services including production of food and fiber crops for direct human consumption and ecosystem services including wildlife habitat and cycling of nutrients and energy. These services can be impacted if herbicides drift from t...

  9. Assessing Individual-Level Impact of Interruptions during Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Wan, Ping; Choi, Seung W.; Kim, Dong-In

    2015-01-01

    With an increase in the number of online tests, the number of interruptions during testing due to unexpected technical issues seems to be on the rise. For example, interruptions occurred during several recent state tests. When interruptions occur, it is important to determine the extent of their impact on the examinees' scores. Researchers such as…

  10. Assessing the Impact of Peer Revision on L2 Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villamil, Olga S.; de Guerrero, Maria C. M.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of peer revision on writers' final drafts in two rhetorical modes, narration and persuasion, among 14 Spanish-speaking college students of English-as-a-Second-Language. Results revealed 74% of revisions made in peer sessions were incorporated into final drafts, and writers made many further self-revisions,…

  11. Sea Extremes: Integrated impact assessment in coastal climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Broge, Niels; Molgaard, Mads; Andersen, Ole

    2016-04-01

    We investigate effects of sea level rise and a change in precipitation pattern on coastal flooding hazards. Historic and present in situ and satellite data of water and groundwater levels, precipitation, vertical ground motion, geology, and geotechnical soil properties are combined with flood protection measures, topography, and infrastructure to provide a more complete picture of the water-related impact from climate change at an exposed coastal location. Results show that future sea extremes evaluated from extreme value statistics may, indeed, have a large impact. The integrated effects from future storm surges and other geo- and hydro-parameters need to be considered in order to provide for the best protection and mitigation efforts, however. Based on the results we present and discuss a simple conceptual model setup that can e.g. be used for 'translation' of regional sea level rise evidence and projections to concrete impact measures. This may be used by potentially affected stakeholders -often working in different sectors and across levels of governance, in a common appraisal of the challenges faced ahead. The model may also enter dynamic tools to evaluate local impact as sea level research advances and projections for the future are updated.

  12. Basin-wide Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystems and Biodiversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mekong ecosystems are under pressure from a number of "drivers", including rapid economic development, population growth, unsustainable resource use, and climate change. Ecological modeling can help assess vulnerability and impacts of these drivers on the Lower Mekong Basin.

  13. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS ON MACROINVERTEBRATE INDICATORS IN OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroinvertebrate indicators are used as assessment endpoints for surface water quality monitoring in Ohio. The purpose of this study is to explain and predict the impact of environmental stressors on macroinvertebrate communities as measured by the Ohio Environmental Protection...

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainable Agricultural Development--With Special Reference to Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiragu, Consolater Wambuku; Goode, Pamela M.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of sustainable agriculture from the perspective of development in Kenya is discussed. The steps in an Environmental Impact Assessment which takes into account the physical, cultural, social, and ecological aspects of the problem are presented. (CW)

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment in Norway--Understanding Implementation as a Function of Professional Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmelin, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Describes the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Norway using a survey of the paradigm of environmental management carried out in the central and regional Norwegian environmental administrations. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Defining a Need for Assessing the Extraterrestrial Environmental Impacts of Lunar Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, W. R.

    2016-11-01

    Protocols guiding an extraterrestrial environmental impact assessment process are warranted. Industry-developed and -managed standards and an environmental code of conduct based, in part, on best management practices are proposed.

  17. Social Impact Assessment: A Critical Tool in Land-Development Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De'Ath, Colin

    1982-01-01

    A social impact assessment (SIA) should accompany plans for land development in developing nations. An SIA team should maintain an ongoing relationship with the community and attempt to implement recommendations. (KC)

  18. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption From 10 CFR 30, 40, and 70; Commencement of Construction Requirements; AREVA Enrichment Services, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County, ID AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  19. Recommendation for Land Use Impact Assessment: First Steps into Framework, Theory, and Implementation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although early Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology researchers focused on the modeling of impacts from chemical emissions, it has become obvious that resource depletion categories such as land use, water use, and fossil fuel depletion require additional attention to appropria...

  20. Developments in Impact Assessment of New Diagnostic Algorithms for Tuberculosis Control.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ivor; Squire, S Bertel; Dacombe, Russell; Madan, Jason; Lapa e Silva, Jose Roberto; Barreira, Draurio; Galliez, Rafael; Oliveira, Martha Maria; Fujiwara, Paula I; Kritski, Afrânio

    2015-10-15

    A modified presentation of the impact assessment framework is proposed that improves accessibility while continuing to provide a checklist of the evidence needed to support policy decisions on the implementation of new tools for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  1. TRACI THE TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - VERSION 2 CHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) was developed to allow the quantification of environmental impacts for a variety of impact categories which are necessary for a comprehensive impact assessment. See Figure 1. TRACI is c...

  2. TRACI 2.0 - The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI 2.0, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts 2.0, has been expanded and developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, industrial ecology, and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sus...

  3. Assessing the Impact of Free Primary Education Using Retrospective and Prospective Data: Lessons from the Nairobi Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Oketch, Moses; Ezeh, Alex Chika; Mutisya, Maurice; Ejakait, Charles Epari

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and methodology used to assess the impact of free primary education (FPE) policy in Nairobi, Kenya. The key outcome of the study was to assess the impact of FPE on schooling outcomes among the urban poor. The study assesses the impact of FPE by examining how two non-comparable groups responded to the introduction of…

  4. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  5. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  6. Health impact assessment in multinationals: A case study of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group

    SciTech Connect

    Birley, Martin . E-mail: martin@birleyhia.co.uk

    2005-10-15

    Health impact assessment is part of the risk management process of multinational corporations/companies. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, and the 'paradox of plenty' are used as examples of the challenges they face. The 'business case' for impact assessment is explained. The policies, procedures, standards, and activities used by Shell to manage such risks are described. An approach to capacity building and competency development is presented that applies to both company staff and external contractors.

  7. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  8. Insulation materials for commercial buildings in North America: An assessment of lifetime energy and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Shrestha, Som S.; Bhandari, Mahabir S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-12-12

    In the United States, commercial buildings accounted for about 19 percent of the total primary energy consumption in 2012. Further, 29 percent of the site energy in commercial buildings was consumed for space heating and cooling. Applying insulation materials to building envelopes is an effective way of reducing energy consumption for heating and cooling, and limiting the negative environmental impacts from the buildings sector. While insulation materials have a net positive impact on the environment due to reduced energy consumption, they also have some negative impacts associated with their 'embodied energy'. The total lifetime environmental impacts of insulation materials are a summation of: (1) direct impacts due to their embodied energy, and (2) indirect or impacts avoided due to the reduced building energy consumption. Here, assessments of the lifetime environmental impacts of selected insulation materials are presented. Direct and indirect environmental impact factors were estimated for the cradle-to-grave insulation life cycle stages. Impact factors were calculated for two categories: primary energy consumption and global warming potential. The direct impact factors were calculated using data from existing literature and a life cycle assessment software. The indirect impact factors were calculated through simulations of a set of standard whole-building models.

  9. Insulation materials for commercial buildings in North America: An assessment of lifetime energy and environmental impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Kaushik; Shrestha, Som S.; Bhandari, Mahabir S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-12-12

    In the United States, commercial buildings accounted for about 19 percent of the total primary energy consumption in 2012. Further, 29 percent of the site energy in commercial buildings was consumed for space heating and cooling. Applying insulation materials to building envelopes is an effective way of reducing energy consumption for heating and cooling, and limiting the negative environmental impacts from the buildings sector. While insulation materials have a net positive impact on the environment due to reduced energy consumption, they also have some negative impacts associated with their 'embodied energy'. The total lifetime environmental impacts of insulation materials aremore » a summation of: (1) direct impacts due to their embodied energy, and (2) indirect or impacts avoided due to the reduced building energy consumption. Here, assessments of the lifetime environmental impacts of selected insulation materials are presented. Direct and indirect environmental impact factors were estimated for the cradle-to-grave insulation life cycle stages. Impact factors were calculated for two categories: primary energy consumption and global warming potential. The direct impact factors were calculated using data from existing literature and a life cycle assessment software. The indirect impact factors were calculated through simulations of a set of standard whole-building models.« less

  10. Setting boundaries of participation in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, Geoffrey H.; Hoberg, George

    2014-02-15

    Public participation processes are touted as an effective way to increase the capacity and legitimacy of environmental assessment and the regulatory process that rely on them. Recent changes to the Canadian environmental assessment process narrowed the criteria for who can participate in environmental assessments from any who were interested to those who were most directly affected. This article examines the potential consequences of this change by exploring other areas of Canadian regulatory law where a similar directed affected test has been applied. This new standard risks institutionalizing the long-understood representational bias confronted by more diffuse interest like environmental protection. Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow a test for processes like environmental assessment that are designed to determine the public interest. -- Highlights: • Public participation can improve the legitimacy of environmental assessments. • New Canadian rules narrow the range of eligible participants. • Similar rules in Alberta have excluded environmental representation. • The new rules may institutionalize bias against more diffuse interests. • Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow.

  11. Faculty Development Programs: Assessing the Impact on Instructional Practices, and Student Learning and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosino, Roberta; Peel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating the impact of faculty development activities is difficult and infrequently attempted beyond assessing participant satisfaction. This study examines how faculty development activities affect instructional practices and the impact on student learning and motivation in accordance with Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation. Ten instructors…

  12. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  13. Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

    Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

  14. 76 FR 50275 - Guidance for the Assessment of Beyond-Design-Basis Aircraft Impacts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Guidance for the Assessment of Beyond-Design-Basis Aircraft Impacts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...-Design-Basis Aircraft Impacts.'' This guide describes a method that the staff of NRC considers acceptable... power reactors. ADDRESSES: You can access publicly available documents related to this regulatory...

  15. Making effective links to decision-making: Key challenges for health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Eva . E-mail: elliotte@cf.ac.uk; Francis, Sarah

    2005-10-15

    This paper draws on an exploratory research study to examine the effectiveness of health impact assessments in Wales. Through the review of five case study health impact assessments the research identified a number of benefits of the process in terms of skills and knowledge development amongst participants. The indirect contributions to decision-making were also evident including the way in which health impact assessment provided useful insights into the local community's perspective and raised awareness about the wider determinants of health. The process was also useful in establishing a dialogue between different stakeholders, which indirectly assisted decision-making and implementation. The direct links between health impact assessment and decision-making were more difficult to trace and this paper puts forward a number of suggestions for making those links more transparent. Suggestions include integrating decision-makers and clarifying the intended links to decision-making at the start of the health impact assessment process. Mainstreaming health impact assessment so that it is triggered as a routine part of all decision-making would help ensure it stands the best chance of informing decisions.

  16. Environmental impact assessment for alternative-energy power plants in México.

    PubMed

    González-Avila, María E; Beltrán-Morales, Luis Felipe; Braker, Elizabeth; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo

    2006-07-01

    Ten Environmental Impact Assessment Reports (EIAR) were reviewed for projects involving alternative power plants in Mexico developed during the last twelve years. Our analysis focused on the methods used to assess the impacts produced by hydroelectric and geothermal power projects. These methods used to assess impacts in EIARs ranged from the most simple, descriptive criteria, to quantitative models. These methods are not concordant with the level of the EIAR required by the environmental authority or even, with the kind of project developed. It is concluded that there is no correlation between the tools used to assess impacts and the assigned type of the EIAR. Because the methods to assess impacts produced by these power projects have not changed during 2000 years, we propose a quantitative method, based on ecological criteria and tools, to assess the impacts produced by hydroelectric and geothermal plants, according to the specific characteristics of the project. The proposed method is supported by environmental norms, and can assist environmental authorities in assigning the correct level and tools to be applied to hydroelectric and geothermal projects. The proposed method can be adapted to other production activities in Mexico and to other countries.

  17. Integrating impact assessment and conflict management in urban planning: Experiences from Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Peltonen, Lasse; Sairinen, Rauno

    2010-09-15

    The article examines the interlinkages between recent developments in conflict management and impact assessment procedures in the context of urban planning in Finland. It sets out by introducing the fields of impact assessment and conflict mediation. It then proceeds to discuss the development of impact assessment practices and the status of conflict mediation in Finnish land use planning. The case of Korteniitty infill development plan in Jyvaeskylae is used to demonstrate how the Finnish planning system operates in conflict situations - and how social impact assessment can contribute to managing planning conflicts. The authors ask how the processes of impact assessment contribute to conflict management. Based on the Finnish experience, it is argued that social impact assessment of land use plans can contribute to conflict management, especially in the absence of institutionalised conflict mediation processes. In addition, SIA may acquire features of conflict mediation, depending on extent and intensity of stakeholder participation in the process, and the quality of linkages it between knowledge production and decision-making. Simultaneously, conflict mediation practices and theoretical insights can inform the application of SIA to help it address land use conflicts more consciously.

  18. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    SciTech Connect

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  19. Assessing Ecological Impacts According to Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.; Jeong, S. G.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Land use patterns have changed by human activities, and it has affected the structure and dynamics of ecosystems. In particular, the conversion of forests into other land use has caused environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. The evaluation of species and their habitat can be preferentially considered to prevent or minimize the adverse effects of land use change. The objective of study is identifying the impacts of environmental conditions on forest ecosystems by comparing ecological changes with time series spatial data. Species distribution models were developed for diverse species with presence data and time-series environmental variables, which allowed comparison of the habitat suitability and connectivity. Habitat suitability and connectivity were used to estimate impacts of forest ecosystems due to land use change. Our result suggested that the size and degree of ecological impacts are were different depending on the properties of land use change. The elements and species were greatly affected by the land use change according to the results. This study suggested that a methodology for measuring the interference of land use change in species habitat and connectivity. Furthermore, it will help to conserve and manage forest by identifying priority conservation areas with influence factor and scale.

  20. Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: Setting the research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2013-07-15

    Impact assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential.

  1. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Minho; Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon

    2015-01-15

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  2. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  3. Maximizing the Impact of Portfolio Assessment through Effective Instructional Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krusekopf, Frances; Karr-Kidwell, P. J.

    This study was designed as a field research project aimed at improving the method of assessing student learning at ACT Academy in the McKinney Independent School District, McKinney, Texas. Data and information were gathered and analyzed to see how the administration could improve the current student portfolio process. Reflections were completed by…

  4. Toolkit for Integrated Impact Assessments version 1.0

    2007-05-14

    TIIA is designed to perform ecological and human risk assessments for environmental contaminants in air, water, soil, and sediment. It uses a novel approach that applies to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, based on a food web approach. Stochastic calculations (i.e., those that allow for propagation of uncertainty in a numerical fashion) are allowed.

  5. Measuring the Impact of Student Assessment on Institutional Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losak, John

    Assessment programs, which have recently been implemented in colleges around the country, have indirectly affected the quality of education in ways that are both researchable and measurable. Admissions and placement testing affect educational quality by separating high and low achievers, and making it possible for high-level texts to be used and…

  6. Assessing the Enduring Impact of Library Instruction Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Gabrielle; Chan, Diana; Chu, Sam

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve library instruction and to produce data that shed light on the value of this core library service, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Library conducted a formal assessment on its instruction program in 2004. A group of 688 users from 25 one-shot sessions was surveyed by a questionnaire four to eight weeks after…

  7. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (a) of this section, if the permit holder changes the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to... effect of the changed feature or capability on the original assessment required by 10 CFR 50.150(a) and amend the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to be included in the preliminary safety...

  8. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (a) of this section, if the permit holder changes the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to... effect of the changed feature or capability on the original assessment required by 10 CFR 50.150(a) and amend the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to be included in the preliminary safety...

  9. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (a) of this section, if the permit holder changes the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to... effect of the changed feature or capability on the original assessment required by 10 CFR 50.150(a) and amend the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to be included in the preliminary safety...

  10. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (a) of this section, if the permit holder changes the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to... effect of the changed feature or capability on the original assessment required by 10 CFR 50.150(a) and amend the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to be included in the preliminary safety...

  11. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (a) of this section, if the permit holder changes the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to... effect of the changed feature or capability on the original assessment required by 10 CFR 50.150(a) and amend the information required by 10 CFR 50.34(a)(13) to be included in the preliminary safety...

  12. Impact of Personalised Learning Styles on Online Delivery and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Karen; Kehoe, Jo; Tennent, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which learning styles influence tertiary students' preferences for flexible delivery and assessment methods in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A voluntary self-administered questionnaire was distributed within three core undergraduate courses. A total of 891 students…

  13. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transportation systems. Volume 6: Impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Consequences that might occur if certain technological developments take place in intercity transportation are described. These consequences are broad ranging, and include economic, environmental, social, institutional, energy-related, and transportation service implications. The possible consequences are traced through direct (primary) impacts to indirect (secondary, tertiary, etc.) impacts. Chains of consequences are traced, reaching as far beyond the original transportation cause as is necessary to identify all impacts felt to be influenced significantly by the technological development considered.

  14. Assessing cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, T.A.; Witmer, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the method, using the potential for cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer from multiple hydroelectric development in the Salmon River Basin of Idaho. We attempted to incorporate knowledge of elk and mule deer habitat needs into a paradigm to assess cumulative impacts and aid in the regulatory decision making process. Undoubtedly, other methods could be developed based on different needs or constraints, but we offer this technique as a means to further refine cumulative impact assessment. Our approach is divided into three phases: analysis, evaluation, and documentation. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Environmental impact assessment procedure: A new approach based on fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Peche, Roberto; Rodriguez, Esther

    2009-09-15

    The information related to the different environmental impacts produced by the execution of activities and projects is often limited, described by semantic variables and, affected by a high degree of inaccuracy and uncertainty, thereby making fuzzy logic a suitable tool with which to express and treat this information. The present study proposes a new approach based on fuzzy logic to carry out the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of these activities and projects. Firstly, a set of impact properties is stated and two nondimensional parameters - ranging from 0 to 100 -are assigned, (p{sub i}) to assess the value of the property and (v{sub i}) to assess its contribution to each environmental impact. Next, the impact properties are described by means of fuzzy numbers p{sub i}{sup -} using generalised confidence intervals. Then, a procedure based on fuzzy arithmetic is developed to define the assessment functions v-bar = f(p-bar) - conventional mathematical functions, which incorporate the knowledge of these impact properties and give the fuzzy values v{sub i}{sup -} corresponding to each p{sub i}{sup -}. Subsequently, the fuzzy value of each environmental impact V-bar is estimated by aggregation of the values v{sub i}{sup -}, in order to obtain the total positive and negative environmental impacts V{sup +-} and V{sup --} and, later - from them - the total environmental impact of the activity or project TV{sup -}. Finally, the defuzzyfication of TV{sup -} leads to a punctual impact estimator TV{sup (1)} - a conventional EI estimation - and its corresponding uncertainty interval estimator left brace(delta{sub l}(TV{sup -}),delta{sub r}(TV{sup -})right brace, which represent the total value of the environmental impact caused by the execution of the considered activity or project.

  16. Validating health impact assessment: Prediction is difficult (especially about the future)

    SciTech Connect

    Petticrew, Mark . E-mail: mark@msoc.mrc.gla.ac.uk; Cummins, Steven; Sparks, Leigh; Findlay, Anne

    2007-01-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been recommended as a means of estimating how policies, programmes and projects may impact on public health and on health inequalities. This paper considers the difference between predicting health impacts and measuring those impacts. It draws upon a case study of the building of a new hypermarket in a deprived area of Glasgow, which offered an opportunity to reflect on the issue of the predictive validity of HIA, and to consider the difference between potential and actual impacts. We found that the actual impacts of the new hypermarket on diet differed from that which would have been predicted based on previous studies. Furthermore, they challenge current received wisdom about the impact of food retail outlets in poorer areas. These results are relevant to the validity of HIA as a process and emphasise the importance of further research on the predictive validity of HIA, which should help improve its value to decision-makers.

  17. Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) TRACI version 2.1 User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI 2.1 (the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts) has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, industrial ecology, and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products...

  18. Further Thoughts on "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, María Elena; Khan, Saad

    2014-01-01

    María Oliveri, and Saad Khan write that the article: "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games" provided helpful illustrations regarding the implementation of evidence-centered assessment design (Mislevy & Haertel, 2006; Mislevy, Steinberg, & Almond, 1999) with games and simulations.…

  19. Screening and Assessment for Physical and Mental Health Issues That Impact TANF Recipients' Ability To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Fredrica D.

    2001-01-01

    This document examines screening and assessment for physical and mental health conditions that impact Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients' ability to work. The document begins by defining screening and assessment and discussing their relevance for agencies serving TANF recipients. The next section answers policy questions…

  20. Study of the Impacts of the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education Policy in China: Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuiyun; Yu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes a higher education policy issued in China in 2002: "the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education Policy." It examines students' perceptions of the policy impacts and students' roles in the evaluation process by semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys. It reveals that the quality assessment in China…

  1. Assessment of the Impact of Service Learning on Academic Growth of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Sturdivant, Leon; Hopson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Research studies on service learning and teacher education have concluded that one of the major challenges is the lack of assessment studies that document the impact of service learning on students' academic development. In this research study, the perceptions of 65 preservice teachers on service learning were assessed. The major goals of the…

  2. Impacts of Professional Development in Classroom Assessment on Teacher and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Bruce; Apthorp, Helen; Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an impact study of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL), a widely used professional development program in classroom and formative assessment. Researchers randomly assigned 67 elementary schools to receive CASL materials or continue with regularly scheduled professional development. Teachers in CASL schools formed…

  3. The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…

  4. The Impact of Alternate Assessment on Teaching and Learning for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Melinda Reed

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation mandates all students, including those with significant cognitive disabilities, participate in standards based education and in state assessments linked to those standards. To address this issue, this study used a multiple case study design in order to determine the impact alternate assessments based on alternate achievement…

  5. Evidence for the Impact of Assessment on Mood and Motivation in First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Rosanne; Gilleard, Wendy; Baglin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Learning, and particularly assessment practices, that encourages a self-determined approach enhances feelings of well-being and achievement motivation. Students (n = 137) in a common first-year unit were the participants for an evaluation of the impact of assessment. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Brunel Mood Scale were used to assess…

  6. Here Come the Judges. The Assessment Movement and Its Potential Impact on UCSD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Layng, Michael

    Developments in the assessment movement are summarized, with educational guesses made about the impact these developments could have at the University of California at San Diego (UCSD). Information is presented as follows: national concerns; national and federal developments; western regional developments: assessment and accreditation;…

  7. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  8. The Impact of the Programme for International Student Assessment on Academic Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Maria; Vieira, Maria-Jose; Vidal, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) on international scientific journals. A bibliometric analysis was conducted of publications included in three main scientific publication databases: Eric, EBSCOhost and the ISI Web of Knowledge, from 2002 to 2010. The paper focused on four main…

  9. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment strengthens and expands our understanding of climate-related health impacts by providing a more definitive description of climate-related health burdens in the United States. It builds on the 2014 USGCRP National Climate Assessment and reviews and synthesizes key ...

  10. Students' Perceptions about Peer Assessment for Writing: Their Origin and Impact on Revision Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Julia H.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate students' negative perceptions about an online peer assessment system for undergraduate writing across the disciplines. Specifically, we consider the nature of students' resistance to peer assessment; what factors influence that resistance; and how students' perceptions impact their revision work. We do this work by first examining…

  11. On the Impact of Formative Assessment on Student Motivation, Achievement, and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Shavelson, Richard J.; Ayala, Carlos C.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Brandon, Paul R.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Tomita, Miki K.; Young, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment was hypothesized to have a beneficial impact on students' science achievement and conceptual change, either directly or indirectly by enhancing motivation. We designed and embedded formatives assessments within an inquiry science unit. Twelve middle-school science teachers with their students were randomly assigned either to…

  12. Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education in China: Impact on Different Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuiyun

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the scheme proposed to assess the quality of higher education institutions in China, namely, the Quality Assessment of Undergraduate Education (QAUE) scheme. This article aims to determine the impact of the QAUE on universities and explore the reasons that intended effects have or have not been generated in the evaluated…

  13. Laser-SPS systems analysis and environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The systems feasibility and environmental impact of replacing the microwave transmitters on the Satellite Power System with laser transmitters are examined. The lasers suggested are two molecular-gas electric-discharge lasers (EDL's), namely the CO and CO2 lasers. Calculations are made on system efficiency, atmospheric transmission efficiency, and laser beam spreading. It is found that the present satellite concept using lasers is far too inefficient and massive to be economically viable. However, the safety issues associated with laser power transmission appear tractable, and no effects could be identified which present a real danger of serious injury to the environment, although certain phenomena deserve closer scrutiny.

  14. Impact of hyperhidrosis on quality of life and its assessment.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Henning

    2014-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is an embarrassing condition that may interfere with routine activities, cause emotional distress, and disturb both professional and social lives of patients. Objective examination is variable and unreliable, so efforts have been made in the last 15 years to substantiate the limitations of these patients, especially in primary focal hyperhidrosis. Almost all therapeutic studies use standardized or self-designed instruments to evaluate the impact of the disease on quality of life and the improvement achieved by treatment. This article gives an overview of the difficulties with which patients with hyperhidrosis are confronted and of research investigating the restrictions.

  15. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.

  16. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    SciTech Connect

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  17. Assessing the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on households: a modified domestic assets index approach.

    PubMed

    Arlikatti, Sudha; Peacock, Walter Gillis; Prater, Carla S; Grover, Himanshu; Sekar, Arul S Gnana

    2010-07-01

    This paper offers a potential measurement solution for assessing disaster impacts and subsequent recovery at the household level by using a modified domestic assets index (MDAI) approach. Assessment of the utility of the domestic assets index first proposed by Bates, Killian and Peacock (1984) has been confined to earthquake areas in the Americas and southern Europe. This paper modifies and extends the approach to the Indian sub-continent and to coastal surge hazards utilizing data collected from 1,000 households impacted by the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) in the Nagapattinam district of south-eastern India. The analyses suggest that the MDAI scale is a reliable and valid measure of household living conditions and is useful in assessing disaster impacts and tracking recovery efforts over time. It can facilitate longitudinal studies, encourage cross-cultural, cross-national comparisons of disaster impacts and inform national and international donors of the itemized monetary losses from disasters at the household level. PMID:20298262

  18. Quantifying the CV: Adapting an Impact Assessment Model to Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohémier, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    We present the process and results of applying the Becker Model to the curriculum vitae of a Yale University astronomy professor. As background, in July 2013, the Becker Medical Library at Washington Univ. in St. Louis held a workshop for librarians on the Becker Model, a framework developed by research assessment librarians for quantifying medical researchers' individual and group outputs. Following the workshop, the model was analyzed for content to adapt it to the physical sciences.

  19. Impact of animation on assessment of conceptual understanding in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancy, Melissa H.; Beichner, Robert

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil and paper test. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The animated and static versions of the test were given to students and the results were statistically analyzed. Think-aloud interviews were also conducted to provide additional insight into the statistical findings. We found that good verbal skills tended to increase performance on the static version but not on the animated version of the test. In general, students had a better understanding of the intent of the question when viewing an animation and gave an answer that was more indicative of their actual understanding, as reflected in separate interviews. In some situations this led students to the correct answer and in others it did not. Overall, we found that animation can improve assessment under some conditions by increasing the validity of the instrument.

  20. Impact of Animation on Assessment of Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancy, Melissa H.

    2007-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil and paper test. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The animated and static versions of the test were given to students and the results were statistically analyzed. Think-aloud interviews were also conducted to provide additional insight into the statistical findings. We found that good verbal skills tended to increase performance on the static version but not on the animated version of the test. In general, students had a better understanding of the intent of the question when viewing an animation and gave an answer that was more indicative of their actual understanding, as reflected in separate interviews. In some situations this led students to the correct answer and in others it did not. Overall, we found that animation can improve assessment under some conditions by increasing the validity of the instrument.

  1. Power plant impact assessment: a simple fishery production model approach

    SciTech Connect

    MacCall, A.D.; Parker, K.R.; Leithiser, R.; Jessee, B.

    1983-07-01

    The relative abundance of a cohort affected by power plant entrainment mortality as a fraction (R/sub c/) of the abundance of that cohort in the absence of power plant impact can be calculated by R/sub c/ = exp (-E/sub i/t/sub i/) where t/sub i/ is the duration of life stage i, and E/sub i/ is the entrainment mortality rate at stage i. Rate E/sub i/ can be estimated by the ratio of nonsurviving entrained organisms during a given time interval to the mean standing crop of stage i organisms in the source water during that interval. An estimate of adult abundance allows calculation of equivalent adult losses. When insufficient information is available to determine the long-term effect on the population, the fishery ''potential yield'' formula provides an interim estimate. Relative equilibrium abundance of the affected population (R/sub e/) is approximated by R/sub e/ = 1-(..sigma..E/sub i/t/sub i/ + F/sub p/ + F/sub f/)/2M, where F/sub p/ is adult mortality rate due to power plant impingement, F/sub f/ is adult mortality rate due to fisheries, and M is adult natural mortality rate. As in the case of the ''potential yield'' formula, this approximation of long-term equilibrium impact should be discarded when better estimates can be developed.

  2. Assessment of the atmospheric impact of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigurdsson, H.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant global impact of volcanic activity is likely to be related to the effects of volcanic gases on the Earth's atmosphere. Volcanic gas emissions from individual volcanic arc eruptions are likely to cause increases in the stratospheric optical depth that result in surface landmass temperature decline of 2 to 3 K for less than a decade. Trachytic and intermediate magmas are much more effective in this regard than high-silica magmas, and may also lead to extensive ozone depletion due to effect of halogens and magmatic water. Given the assumed relationship between arc volcanism and subduction rate, and the relatively small variation in global spreading rates in the geologic record, it is unlikely that the rates of arc volcanism have varied greatly during the Cenozoic. Hotspot related basaltic fissure eruptions in the subaerial environment have a higher mass yield of sulfur, but lofting of the valcanic aerosol to levels above the tropopause is required for a climate impact. High-latitude events, such as the Laki 1783 eruption can easily penetrate the tropopause and enter the stratosphere, but formation of a stratospheric volcanic aerosol form low-latitude effusive basaltic eruptions is problematical, due to the elevated low-latitude tropopause. Due to the high sulfur content of hotspot-derived basaltic magmas, their very high mass eruption rates and the episodic behavior, hotspots must be regarded as potentially major modifiers of Earth's climate through the action of their volcanic volatiles on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere.

  3. Assessing The Impact Of Computed Radiography And PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgcock, Marcus W.; Kehr, Katherine

    1989-05-01

    Our institution (San Francisco VA Medical Center) is a VA pilot center for total digital imaging and PACS. Quantitative information about PACS impact on health care is limited, because no centers have done rigorous preimplementation studies. We are gathering quantitative service delivery and cost data before, during, and after stepwise implementation of computed radiography and PACS at our institution to define the impact on imaging service delivery. We designed a simple audit method using the x-ray request and time clocks to determine patient waiting time, imaging time, film use, image availability to the radiologist, matching of current with previous images, image availability to clinicians, and time to final interpretation. Our department model is a multichannel, mulitserver patient queue. Our current radiograph file is space limited, containing only one year of images; older images are kept in a remote file area in another building. In addition, there are 16 subfile areas within the Radiology Service and the medical center. Our preimplementation audit showed some long waiting times (40 minutes, average 20) and immediate retrieval of prior films in only 42% of cases, with an average retrieval time of 22 hours. Computed radiography and the optical archive have the potential to improve these figures. The audit will be ongoing and automated as implementation of PACS progresses, to measure service improvement and learning curve with the new equipment. We present the audit format and baseline preimplementation figures.

  4. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  5. A Critical Review of Environmental Impact Statements in Sri Lanka with Particular Reference to Ecological Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S.

    2008-03-01

    This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981 2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of “explanatory power”, on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the

  6. A critical review of environmental impact statements in Sri Lanka with particular reference to ecological impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S

    2008-03-01

    This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981-2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of "explanatory power", on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the analysis

  7. Using health impact assessment to integrate environmental justice into federal environmental regulatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Tina K; Payne-Sturges, Devon C

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory interventions are the first line of action used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to fulfill its mission to protect the environment and health. Although the Agency has prioritized the integration of environmental justice into its activities, uncertainty remains in how these considerations will be incorporated into its regulatory decision-making processes. In this article, we examine the emerging practice of Health Impact Assessment and argue for its use within the regulatory assessment paradigm to help answer policy-relevant environmental justice questions. Through the use of a health lens, Health Impact Assessments can lead to a better characterization of the potential impacts and benefits of a rule by introducing novel assessments of potentially significant health effects that would otherwise be excluded, revealing whether the rule is likely to exacerbate inequities or create new ones. This article proposes a framework to overcome analytic barriers in achieving a more comprehensive, equity-focused regulatory analysis.

  8. Using health impact assessment to integrate environmental justice into federal environmental regulatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Tina K; Payne-Sturges, Devon C

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory interventions are the first line of action used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to fulfill its mission to protect the environment and health. Although the agency has prioritized the integration of environmental justice into its activities, uncertainty remains in how these considerations will be incorporated into its regulatory decision-making processes. In this article, we examine the emerging practice of Health Impact Assessment and argue for its use within the regulatory assessment paradigm to help answer policy-relevant environmental justice questions. Through the use of a health lens, Health Impact Assessments can lead to a better characterization of the potential impacts and benefits of a rule by introducing novel assessments of potentially significant health effects that would otherwise be excluded, revealing whether the rule is likely to exacerbate inequities or create new ones. This article proposes a framework to overcome analytic barriers in achieving a more comprehensive, equity-focused regulatory analysis.

  9. Hydrological criteria to assess changes of flow dynamic in urban impacted catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Grottker, M.; Leibundgut, Ch.

    With regards to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive various assessment thresholds exist for morphological, biochemical and hydro-morphological parameters for sustainable water management. Besides the knowledge about the importance of hydrology for habitat conditions and biota respectively, there exists still a lack in consideration of changes of flow dynamics due to human impacts in current water protection. Natural flow variability maintains the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. In general alteration of flow dynamics result in changes of duration, magnitude and frequency of flows. Especially urban rivers can be crucial impacted by a rapid and short-term runoff response, mainly due to the impact of combined sewer and storm water overflows. The variability in flow dynamics makes the definition of fixed hydrological assessment indices difficult. There is the need of further knowledge in which ways flow dynamic is changed by human impacts and which hydrological parameters are suitable to capture these changes. In this study the hydrological assessment criteria flow acceleration, peak discharge and discharge dosage are determined with the focus to assess the quantitative impact on urban rivers. Dependencies of these hydrological parameters are studied within comprehensive statistical analyses with long-term data sets. The hydrological parameters were compared on impacted and un-impacted sites. The influence of land use, influences of discharge data resolution and scale dependencies respectively were investigated. Additionally, probability analyses and calculations of recurrence intervals were conducted for all three parameters. Using those three, sensitive hydrological parameters a hydrological approach is given, which considers the natural hydrograph as target value for a hydrological assessment and captures the whole spectrum of possible changes of the flood hydrograph. Furthermore, the suggested parameters are easily to determine from discharge

  10. BioGeochemistry of antimony, Sources, Transfers, Impacts and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Gael; Pinelli, Eric; Hedde, Mickael; Guiresse, Maritxu; De Vleeschouwer, François; Silvestre, Jérôme; Enrico, Maxime; Gandois, Laure; Monna, Fabrice; Gers, Charles; Probst, Anne

    2013-04-01

    BioGeoSTIB is a project funded by ADEME (French Environmental Protection Agency). Its aim is to provide a better understanding of biogeochemical cycle disturbances of antimony by man. Specifically, it is focused on the atmosphere-soil-organism interfaces. Based on a multi-scale approach, the impact of antimony on organisms and organism communities and the factors of Sb dispersion in the environment aim to better characterized. This report gives the main results of 2 and 1 -2 years of research. Using peat bogs as environmental archives, we show that Sb contamination in soils date back to the beginning of the metallurgy. Atmospheric deposition of Sb largely increased by 100 times during the Industrial Revolution compared to natural levels (~0,001-0,01 mg m-2 an-1) estimated in the deepest peat layers. This disturbance in the antimony geochemical cycle modified its concentrations in soils. One main source of present Sb contamination is automotive traffic due to Sb in braking lines. This emerging contamination was characterized close to a roundabout. This additional source of Sb does not seem to impact soil fauna but Sb concentrations in soil solutions exceed 1 μg L-1. Genotoxicity tests have been performed on the model plant Vicia faba and show that antimony is genotoxic at its lowest concentrations and that there is a synergistic effect lead, a trace metal frequently found in association with antimony in the environment. It is a main issue to determine Sb critical loads in the environment but main identified lacks are thermodynamic data, which are not available yet, to model the behavior of Sb in soil solutions and the fact the antimony is always associated with other anthropogenic trace metals like lead. Critical thresholds of Sb have been determined for the first time based on genotoxicity experiment. Simulations show that these thresholds can be exceeded in the future, whereas present limits for invertebrates (US-EPA) are and will not be reached. However

  11. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  12. Assessing the impacts of phenotypic plasticity on evolution.

    PubMed

    Wund, Matthew A

    2012-07-01

    In the past decade, there has been a resurgent interest in whether and how phenotypic plasticity might impact evolutionary processes. Of fundamental importance is how the environment influences individual phenotypic development while simultaneously selecting among phenotypic variants in a population. Conceptual and theoretical treatments of the evolutionary implications of plasticity are numerous, as are criticisms of the conclusions. As such, the time is ripe for empirical evidence to catch up with theoretical predictions. To this end, I provide a summary of eight hypotheses at the core of this issue, highlighting various approaches by which they can be tested. My goal is to provide practical guidance to those seeking to understand the complex ways by which phenotypic plasticity can influence evolutionary innovation and diversification.

  13. Assessing the impact of human activities on British Columbia's estuaries.

    PubMed

    Robb, Carolyn K

    2014-01-01

    The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC's estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

  14. Assessing dengue vaccination impact: Model challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Recker, Mario; Vannice, Kirsten; Hombach, Joachim; Jit, Mark; Simmons, Cameron P

    2016-08-31

    In response to the sharp rise in the global burden caused by dengue virus (DENV) over the last few decades, the WHO has set out three specific key objectives in its disease control strategy: (i) to estimate the true burden of dengue by 2015; (ii) a reduction in dengue mortality by at least 50% by 2020 (used as a baseline); and (iii) a reduction in dengue morbidity by at least 25% by 2020. Although various elements will all play crucial parts in achieving this goal, from diagnosis and case management to integrated surveillance and outbreak response, sustainable vector control, vaccine implementation and finally operational and implementation research, it seems clear that new tools (e.g. a safe and effective vaccine and/or effective vector control) are key to success. The first dengue vaccine was licensed in December 2015, Dengvaxia® (CYD-TDV) developed by Sanofi Pasteur. The WHO has provided guidance on the use of CYD-TDV in endemic countries, for which there are a variety of considerations beyond the risk-benefit evaluation done by regulatory authorities, including public health impact and cost-effectiveness. Population-level vaccine impact and economic and financial aspects are two issues that can potentially be considered by means of mathematical modelling, especially for new products for which empirical data are still lacking. In December 2014 a meeting was convened by the WHO in order to revisit the current status of dengue transmission models and their utility for public health decision-making. Here, we report on the main points of discussion and the conclusions of this meeting, as well as next steps for maximising the use of mathematical models for vaccine decision-making.

  15. Assessing dengue vaccination impact: Model challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Recker, Mario; Vannice, Kirsten; Hombach, Joachim; Jit, Mark; Simmons, Cameron P

    2016-08-31

    In response to the sharp rise in the global burden caused by dengue virus (DENV) over the last few decades, the WHO has set out three specific key objectives in its disease control strategy: (i) to estimate the true burden of dengue by 2015; (ii) a reduction in dengue mortality by at least 50% by 2020 (used as a baseline); and (iii) a reduction in dengue morbidity by at least 25% by 2020. Although various elements will all play crucial parts in achieving this goal, from diagnosis and case management to integrated surveillance and outbreak response, sustainable vector control, vaccine implementation and finally operational and implementation research, it seems clear that new tools (e.g. a safe and effective vaccine and/or effective vector control) are key to success. The first dengue vaccine was licensed in December 2015, Dengvaxia® (CYD-TDV) developed by Sanofi Pasteur. The WHO has provided guidance on the use of CYD-TDV in endemic countries, for which there are a variety of considerations beyond the risk-benefit evaluation done by regulatory authorities, including public health impact and cost-effectiveness. Population-level vaccine impact and economic and financial aspects are two issues that can potentially be considered by means of mathematical modelling, especially for new products for which empirical data are still lacking. In December 2014 a meeting was convened by the WHO in order to revisit the current status of dengue transmission models and their utility for public health decision-making. Here, we report on the main points of discussion and the conclusions of this meeting, as well as next steps for maximising the use of mathematical models for vaccine decision-making. PMID:27461457

  16. Assessing Pavlov's impact on the American conditioning enterprise.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S R

    1988-01-01

    In this article, the visibility of Pavlov and of Watson in American psychology are compared, and the periods of their respective influence are specified with greater precision than is afforded by merely impressionistic methods. The author also critically examines the possibility that the early history of the American classic-conditioning enterprise involved a succession of two phases: a Watsonian/speculative phase and a Pavlovian/empirical phase. In conclusion, the author assesses the possibility that the publication of Pavlov's Conditioned Reflexes (1927) "stimulated" scholarly work on Pavlovian conditioning, and finds this proposition lacking empirical support.

  17. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site.

  18. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS{reg_sign}): Exposure pathway and human health impact assessment models

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) provides physics-based models for human health risk assessment for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. MEPAS analyzes pollutant behavior in various media (air, soil, groundwater and surface water) and estimates transport through and between media and exposure and impacts to the environment, to the maximum individual, and to populations. MEPAS includes 25 exposure pathway models, a database with information on more than 650 contaminants, and a sensitivity module that allows for uncertainty analysis. Four major transport pathways are considered in MEPAS: groundwater, overland, surface water, and atmospheric. This report describes the exposure pathway and health impact assessment component of MEPAS, which provides an estimate of health impacts to selected individuals and populations from exposure to pollutants. The exposure pathway analysis starts with pollutant concentration in a transport medium and estimates the average daily dose to exposed individuals from contact with the transport medium or a secondary medium contaminated by the transport medium. The average daily dose is then used to estimate a measure of health impact appropriate to the type of pollutant considered. Discussions of the exposure pathway models include the assumptions and equations used to convert the transport medium concentrations to exposure medium concentrations. The discussion for a given exposure pathway defines the transport pathways leading to the exposure, the special processes considered in determining the pollutant concentration in the exposure medium, and the exposure model used to estimate the average daily dose. Models for the exposure pathway and health impact assessments require definition of several parameters. A summary of the notation used for these parameters is provided.

  19. Environmental justice, impact assessment and the politics of knowledge: The implications of assessing the social distribution of environmental outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Gordon

    2010-09-15

    Claims of environmental injustice have increasingly become part of environmental conflicts, both explicitly through the work of environmental justice campaigning groups and implicitly through the arguments deployed about the rights and wrongs of a given situation. Such claims can centre on different notions of justice, including those concerned with questions of distribution and procedure. This paper focuses on distributional or outcome justice and explores what implications follow when the distributional concerns of environmental justice are included in the practice of impact assessment processes, including through social impact assessment (SIA). The current use of impact assessment methods in the UK is reviewed showing that although practices are evolving there is a little routine assessment of distributional inequalities. It is argued that whilst this should become part of established practice to ensure that inequalities are revealed and matters of justice are given a higher profile, the implications for conflict within decision making processes are not straightforward. On the one hand, there could be scope for conflict to be ameliorated by analysis of inequalities informing the debate between stakeholders, and facilitating the implementation of mitigation and compensation measures for disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, contestation over how evidence is produced and therefore what it shows, and disagreement as to the basis on which justice and injustice are to be determined, means that conflict may also be generated and sustained within what are essentially political and strategic settings.

  20. Safety assessment characteristics of pedestrian legform impactors in vehicle-front impact tests.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of safety assessment results of front-area vehicle impact tests carried out using the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impactor and a flexible legform impactor (FLEX legform impactor). Different types of vehicles (sedan, sport utility vehicle, high-roof K-car, and light cargo van) were examined. The impact locations in the study were the center of the bumper and an extremely stiff structure of the bumper (i.e., in front of the side member) of each tested vehicle. The measured injury criteria were normalized by injury assessment reference values of each legform impactor. The test results for center and side-member impacts indicated that there were no significant differences in ligament injury assessments derived from the normalized knee ligament injury measures between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. Evaluations made using the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor are thus similar in the vehicle safety investigation for knee ligament injury. Vehicle-center impact test results revealed that the tibia fracture assessments derived from the normalized tibia fracture measures did not significantly differ between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. However, for an impact against an extremely stiff structure, there was a difference in the tibia fracture assessment between the FLEX legform impactor and the TRL legform impactor owing to their different sensor types.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments: Theorising the nature and implications of their political constitution

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija; Emmelin, Lars

    2010-11-15

    The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness in Western countries, demand has increased for evidence that these instruments are effective (however defined). Resurgent interest in evaluation has not, however, been accompanied by the conceptual developments required to redress longstanding theoretical problems associated with such activities. In order to sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for impact assessment instruments this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of impact assessment. It is argued that raising awareness about the political character of impact assessment instruments, in itself, is a vital step in advancing effectiveness evaluation theory. Broader theoretical lessons on the framing of evaluation research are also drawn from the political analysis. We conclude that, at least within the contemporary research context, learning derived from analysing the meaning and implications of plural interpretations of effectiveness represents the most constructive strategy for advancing impact assessment and policy integration theory.

  2. Assessing the impact of obesity on labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Maarten; Lundborg, Petter; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2010-12-01

    We study the effect of obesity on employment, using rich data from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). The results show a significant negative association between obesity and employment even after controlling for a rich set of demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioral variables. In order to account for the endogeneity of obesity, we use and assess instruments introduced by Cawley (2004); the obesity status of biological relatives. Using parental obesity as an instrument, we show that the association between obesity and employment is no longer significant. Similar results are obtained in a model of first differences. We provide a number of different checks on the instruments, by exploiting the richness of the NCDS data. The results show mixed evidence regarding the validity of the instruments.

  3. A program to assess microbial impacts on nuclear waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.; Meike, A.

    1996-02-20

    In this paper we discuss aspects of a comprehensive program to identify and bound potential effects of microorganisms on long-term nuclear waste containment, using as examples, studies conducted within the Yucca Mountain Project. A comprehensive program has been formulated which cuts across standard disciplinary lines to address the specific concerns of microbial activity in a radioactive waste repository. Collectively, this program provides bounding parameters of microbial activities that modify the ambient geochemistry and hydrology, modify corrosion rates, and transport and transform radionuclides under conditions expected to be encountered after geological waste emplacement. This program is intended to provide microbial reaction rates and bounding conditions in a form that can be integrated into existing chemical and hydrological models. The inclusion of microbial effects will allow those models to more accurately assess long term repository integrity.

  4. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Stevenson, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts.

  5. Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne; McIver, Lachlan

    2013-01-30

    Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of bio-physical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food, who provided informed comment and input into the understanding of the potential health impacts and development of adaptation strategies. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed with the application of a qualitative process that considered both the consequences and the likelihood of each of the potential health impacts occurring. Potential adaptation strategies and actions were developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by the various sectors in Vanuatu to contribute to future decision making processes associated with the health impacts of climate change.

  6. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 0, Computer Codes Volume 2: Impact Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W. ); Arimescu, Carmen ); Kanyid, Beverly A. ); Miley, Terri B. )

    2001-12-01

    One activity of the Department of Energy?s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project is an assessment of cumulative impacts from Hanford Site wastes on the subsurface environment and the Columbia River. Through the application of a system assessment capability (SAC), decisions for each cleanup and disposal action will be able to take into account the composite effect of other cleanup and disposal actions. The SAC has developed a suite of computer programs to simulate the migration of contaminants (analytes) present on the Hanford Site and to assess the potential impacts of the analytes, including dose to humans, socio-cultural impacts, economic impacts, and ecological impacts. The general approach to handling uncertainty in the SAC computer codes is a Monte Carlo approach. Conceptually, one generates a value for every stochastic parameter in the code (the entire sequence of modules from inventory through transport and impacts) and then executes the simulation, obtaining an output value, or result. This document provides user instructions for the SAC codes that generate human, ecological, economic, and cultural impacts.

  7. Climate change impact assessment on food security in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettema, Janneke; Aldrian, Edvin; de Bie, Kees; Jetten, Victor; Mannaerts, Chris

    2013-04-01

    As Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country, food security is a persistent challenge. The potential impact of future climate change on the agricultural sector needs to be addressed in order to allow early implementation of mitigation strategies. The complex island topography and local sea-land-air interactions cannot adequately be represented in large scale General Climate Models (GCMs) nor visualized by TRMM. Downscaling is needed. Using meteorological observations and a simple statistical downscaling tool, local future projections are derived from state-of-the-art, large-scale GCM scenarios, provided by the CMIP5 project. To support the agriculture sector, providing information on especially rainfall and temperature variability is essential. Agricultural production forecast is influenced by several rain and temperature factors, such as rainy and dry season onset, offset and length, but also by daily and monthly minimum and maximum temperatures and its rainfall amount. A simple and advanced crop model will be used to address the sensitivity of different crops to temperature and rainfall variability, present-day and future. As case study area, Java Island is chosen as it is fourth largest island in Indonesia but contains more than half of the nation's population and dominates it politically and economically. The objective is to identify regions at agricultural risk due to changing patterns in precipitation and temperature.

  8. Tundra disturbance and ecosystem production: Implications for impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truett, Joe C.; Kertell, Kenneth

    1992-07-01

    Environmental regulations governing industrial activities in tundra environments stem largely from the expected ecological effects of the activities. One of the major ecological effects of industrial activities is the surface subsidence associated with thermokarst, which can result in changes in primary and secondary production. The primary production changes associated with thermokarst are strongly governed by three ecosystem properties—soil temperature, water regime, and nutrient availability. Most disturbances set in motion a more-or-less predictable sequence of landscape change related to these properties: soil warming, thermokarst, surface flooding, accelerated organic matter decomposition, and increased nutrient availability. The warmed soil and the enhanced nutrient availability typically lead to increased annual primary production, increased dominance by graminoids, and reduced plant species diversity. These vegetational changes may in turn potentially enhance secondary production, but in general these second-level responses have yet to be quantified. More information is needed about the food-chain effects of tundra landscape disturbances before regulators can make well-informed predictions of impacts or plan useful habitat rehabilitation.

  9. Assessment of distributed solar power systems: Issues and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, R. A.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T. C.; Patton, J. B.

    1982-11-01

    The installation of distributed solar-power systems presents electric utilities with a host of questions. Some of the technical and economic impacts of these systems are discussed. Among the technical interconnect issues are isolated operation, power quality, line safety, and metering options. Economic issues include user purchase criteria, structures and installation costs, marketing and product distribution costs, and interconnect costs. An interactive computer program that allows easy calculation of allowable system prices and allowable generation-equipment prices was developed as part of this project. It is concluded that the technical problems raised by distributed solar systems are surmountable, but their resolution may be costly. The stringent purchase criteria likely to be imposed by many potential system users and the economies of large-scale systems make small systems (less than 10 to 20 kW) less attractive than larger systems. Utilities that consider life-cycle costs in making investment decisions and third-party investors who have tax and financial advantages are likely to place the highest value on solar-power systems.

  10. Observations and Impact Assessments of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2007-05-01

    "Space weather" refers to conditions on the Sun, in the solar wind, and in Earth`s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Activity on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections can lead to high levels of radiation in space and can cause major magnetic storms at the Earth. Space radiation can come as energetic particles or as electromagnetic emissions. Adverse conditions in the near-Earth space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids. This can lead to a variety of socioeconomic losses. Astronauts and airline passengers exposed to high levels of radiation are also at risk. Society`s vulnerability to space weather effects is an issue of increasing concern. We are dependent on technological systems that are becoming more susceptible to space weather disturbances. We also have a permanent human presence in space with the International Space Station and the President and NASA have expressed a desire to expand our human space activities with missions to the moon and Mars. This will make space weather of even greater concern in the future. In this talk I will describe many space weather effects and will describe some of the societal and economic impacts that extreme events have had.

  11. Assessing the impact of training on staff performance.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This pretested document was prepared as a management and reference tool for a world-wide audience of family planning (FP) policy-makers, program managers, service managers, and trainers. The report describes a training impact evaluation (TIE) process that helps managers identify and strengthen the links between training and staff performance. Introductory information deals with understanding training evaluation, the various types of training evaluation, and conducting a TIE. The following steps of the TIE process are then described: 1) identifying job performance issues (defining key job-related tasks and choosing indicators/setting standards); 2) collecting data (evaluation techniques and instruments, how to design an effective evaluation instrument, sample definition, and how to plan and organize the data collection process); 3) analyzing the data (tabulation, aggregation, cross-tabulation, and disaggregation); 4) interpreting the data (using a decision-tree); 5) reporting the findings (developing a written report and making an oral presentation); and 6) making changes (responsibilities for acting on recommendations, handling resistance to change, agreeing on a new or revised training course and/or changing organizational procedures or systems, and clarifying expectations for a training event). An example is provided of the process and results of a TIE conducted in the Central Asian Republics. The report ends with a discussion of ways to continue the TIE process, the comments of reviewers about various aspects of the process, and a checklist to use when making a TIE. PMID:12292100

  12. Participatory impact assessment of soil and water conservation scenarios in Oum Zessar watershed, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    König, Hannes Jochen; Sghaier, Mongi; Schuler, Johannes; Abdeladhim, Mohamed; Helming, Katharina; Tonneau, Jean-Philippe; Ounalli, Nadia; Imbernon, Jacques; Morris, Jake; Wiggering, Hubert

    2012-07-01

    Environmental threats and progressive degradation of natural resources are considered critical impediments to sustainable development. This paper reports on a participatory impact assessment of alternative soil and water conservation (SWC) scenarios in the Oum Zessar watershed, Tunisia. The first objective was to assess the impact of three SWC scenarios on key social, economic and environmental land use functions. The second objective was to test and evaluate the applicability of the 'Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA)' for assessing scenario impacts in the context of a developing country, in this case Tunisia. The assessed scenarios included: the originally planned SWC policy implementation at 85 % coverage of arable land of the watershed, the current implementation (70 %), and a hypothetical expansion of SWC measures to the entire watershed (100 %). Our results suggest that implementation of the SWC policy at 100 % coverage of arable land achieves the maximum socioeconomic benefit. However, if stakeholders' preferences regarding land use functions are taken into account, and considering the fact that the implementation of SWC measures also implies some negative changes to traditional landscapes and the natural system, SWC implementation at 85 % coverage of arable land might be preferable. The FoPIA approved to be a useful tool for conducting a holistic sustainability impact assessment of SWC scenarios and for studying the most intriguing sustainability problems while providing possible recommendations towards sustainable development. We conclude that participatory impact assessment contributes to an enhanced regional understanding of key linkages between policy effects and sustainable development, which provides the foundation for improved policy decision making.

  13. Human health and wellbeing in environmental impact assessment in New South Wales, Australia: Auditing health impacts within environmental assessments of major projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Patrick J.; Harris, Elizabeth; Thompson, Susan; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Kemp, Lynn

    2009-09-15

    Internationally the inclusion of health within environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been shown to be limited. While Australian EIA documentation has not been studied empirically to date, deficiencies in practice have been documented. This research developed an audit tool to undertake a qualitative descriptive analysis of 22 Major Project EAs in New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that health and wellbeing impacts were not considered explicitly. They were, however, included indirectly in the identification of traditional public health exposures associated with the physical environment and to a lesser extent the inclusion of social and economic impacts. However, no health data was used to inform any of the assessments, there was no reference to causal pathways between exposures or determinants and physical or mental health effects, and there was no inclusion of the differential distribution of exposures or health impacts on different populations. The results add conceptually and practically to the long standing integration debate, showing that health is in a position to add value to the EIA process as an explicit part of standard environmental, social and economic considerations. However, to overcome the consistently documented barriers to integrating health in EIA, capacity must be developed amongst EIA professionals, led by the health sector, to progress health related knowledge and tools.

  14. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    SciTech Connect

    Suopajärvi, Leena

    2013-09-15

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest.

  15. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-11-15

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  16. Impact of Psychometric Decisions on Assessment Outcomes in an Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Vasanthi

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, based on the amendments to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), all states were faced with a statutory requirement to develop and implement alternate assessments for students with disabilities unable to participate in the statewide large-scale assessment. States were given the challenge of creating, implementing, and…

  17. Impact of an Assessment Course on Teacher Candidates' Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Jennifer; Colby, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Understanding effective and appropriate techniques for assessing student learning has never been as critical and political as is it is today. Accurate assessment methodologies employed in public schools are vital to the interpretation of student achievement data through which school effectiveness is being measured. Although there is a need,…

  18. Blasim: A computational tool to assess ice impact damage on engine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, E. S.; Abumeri, G. H.; Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    A portable computer called BLASIM was developed at NASA LeRC to assess ice impact damage on aircraft engine blades. In addition to ice impact analyses, the code also contains static, dynamic, resonance margin, and supersonic flutter analysis capabilities. Solid, hollow, superhybrid, and composite blades are supported. An optional preprocessor (input generator) was also developed to interactively generate input for BLASIM. The blade geometry can be defined using a series of airfoils at discrete input stations or by a finite element grid. The code employs a coarse, fixed finite element mesh containing triangular plate finite elements to minimize program execution time. Ice piece is modeled using an equivalent spherical objective that has a high velocity opposite that of the aircraft and parallel to the engine axis. For local impact damage assessment, the impact load is considered as a distributed force acting over a region around the impact point. The average radial strain of the finite elements along the leading edge is used as a measure of the local damage. To estimate damage at the blade root, the impact is treated as an impulse and a combined stress failure criteria is employed. Parametric studies of local and root ice impact damage, and post-impact dynamics are discussed for solid and composite blades.

  19. Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts in La Plata River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N. O.; Venencio, M.

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the variability of the streamflows in La Plata Basin (LPB), particularly in its major tributaries Paraná and Uruguay, is presented in this work. The La Plata Basin, the fifth largest basin in the world and second only to the Amazon in South America, is 3.6 million km2 and covers portions of 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Sub-basins include the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, Pilcomayo, and Uruguay. Major rivers of the basin are the Paraguay, the Uruguay and the Paraná. Streamflows in the LPB have been above normal in the last decades, e.g. the mean flow in the Paraná river during the 1971-1994 period was 34% higher than the mean flow during the 1931-1970 period. A similar analysis carried out on the precipitation records for the La Plata basin showed only a 14% increase during the same periods for the Upper Paraná basin and a 20% increase for the Uruguay basin. In this paper it is postulated that the increase in the streamflows, not explained by precipitation increases, is due to the changes in cultivation patterns in the upper basins of the Paraná and Uruguay. Particularly, the substitution of coffee plantations for annual crops, mainly soybeans, has produced a change in the infiltration patterns that influenced the discharges.

  20. Assessing the epidemiological impact of Wolbachia deployment for dengue control

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, Louis; Ferguson, Neil M.; Harris, Eva; Holmes, Edward C.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; O’Neill, Scott L.; Ooi, Eng E.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Ryan, Peter A.; Scott, Thomas W.; Simmons, Cameron P.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dengue viruses cause more human morbidity and mortality than any other arthropod-borne virus. Dengue prevention relies primarily on vector control but the failure of traditional methods has promoted the development of novel entomological approaches. Although use of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia to control mosquito populations was proposed half a century ago, it has only gained significant interest as a potential agent of dengue control in the last decade. Here, we review the evidence that supports a practical approach for dengue reduction through field release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes and discuss the additional studies that must be conducted before the strategy can be validated and operationally implemented. A critical next step is to assess the efficacy of Wolbachia deployment in reducing dengue virus transmission. We argue that a cluster-randomized trial is currently premature because Wolbachia strain choice for release as well as deployment strategies are still being optimized. We therefore present a pragmatic approach to acquiring preliminary evidence of efficacy via a suite of complementary methodologies: prospective cohort study, geographical cluster investigation, virus phylogenetic analysis, virus surveillance in mosquitoes, and vector competence assays. This multi-pronged approach could provide valuable intermediate evidence of efficacy to justify a future cluster-randomized trial. PMID:26051887