Science.gov

Sample records for impact ejecta meterorites

  1. Bouldery Impact Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    29 November 2004 Meteor impact craters are common the surfaces of most solid objects in the Solar System. They are least common on the volcanically-active moon of Jupiter, Io, and on Earth, where volcanism, tectonism, and erosion have all acted to erase the record of impact cratering. On Mars, erosion has also been vigorous enough to destroy craters. In other areas on Mars, craters have been filled and buried within the planet's bedrock. This October 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a relatively young impact crater on the floor of the outflow channel system of Mangala Valles. The impact ejecta blanket in this case is quite bouldery. Some windblown sediment has partially filled the crater. These features are located near 15.1oS, 149.3oW. The crater is just over 300 meters across, about one third the diameter of the famous Meteor Crater in Arizona. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  2. Chicxulub Impact Ejecta From Albion Island, Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocampo, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A.; Alvarez, W.; Fouke, B.; Webster, C.; Vega, F.; Smit, J.; Fritsche, A.; Claeys, P.

    1999-01-01

    Impact ejecta from the Albion Formation are exposed in northern Belize. The ejecta come from the outer portion of the continuous ejecta blanket of the Chicxulub crater, which is located 360 km to the northwest.

  3. Chicxulub Impact Ejecta in Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocampo, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A.; Alvarez, W.; Fouke, B.; Asaro, F.; Webster, C., Jr.; Vega, F.; Smith, J.; Fritsche, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Chicxulub ejecta deposits in Belize provide the closest exposures of ejecta to the crater and the only exposures of proximal ejecta deposited in a terrestrial environment. A quarry on Albion Island in northern Belize exposes Late Cretaceous, possibly Maastrichtian, carbonate platform sediments that were folded, eroded, and subaerially weathered prior to the deposition of coarse ejecta from Chicxulub. These ejecta deposits are composed of a basal, about 1-m-thick clay and dolomite Spheroid Bed overlain by a about 15-m-thick coarse Diamictite Bed. Many and perhaps most of the clay spheroids are altered glass. Many dolomite spheroids have concentric layers and angular cores are probably of accretionary lapilli origin. A slight Ir concentration (111-152 ppt) was detected in the base of the Spheroid Bed. The Diamictite Bed contains about 10% altered glass, rare shocked quartz, 3-8 m diameter boulders and striated and polished cobbles, one with a penetrating rock chip that plastically deformed the cobble. Ejecta deposits extend to the surface at Albion and the maximum thickness in this area is not known. Ejecta deposits are exposed in several roadside quarries in the Cayo District of central Belize. The Late Cretaceous here is also represented by carbonate platform sediments. The upper surface of the carbonate platform is a highly irregular and extensively recrystallized horizon possibly representing deep karst weathering. Approximately 30 in of diamictite overlies this horizon with a texture similar to the Diamictite Bed at the Albion quarry, but with a more diverse lithology. In three locations the Cayo diamictites, contain red clay layers with abundant polished and striated limestone pebbles and cobbles called Pook's Pebbles, several of which have penetrating rock chips and ablated surfaces. We interpret the Albion Spheroid Bed as a deposit from the impact vapor plume and the Albion and Cayo diamictites as the result of a turbulent flow that contained debris derived

  4. Characterizing Secondary Debris Impact Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, W. P.

    1999-01-01

    All spacecraft in low-Earth orbit are subject to high-speed impacts by meteoroids and orbital debris particles. These impacts can damage flight-critical systems which can in turn lead to catastrophic failure of the spacecraft. Therefore, the design of a spacecraft for an Earth-orbiting mission must take into account the possibility of such impacts and their effects on the spacecraft structure and on all of its exposed subsystem components. In addition to threatening the operation of the spacecraft itself, on-orbit impacts also generate a significant amount of ricochet particles. These high-speed particles can destroy critical external spacecraft subsystem and also increase the contamination of the orbital environment. This report presents a summary of the work performed towards the development of an empirical model that characterizes the secondary ejecta created by a high-speed impacta on a typical aerospace structural surface.

  5. Impact ejecta on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The partitioning of energy and the distribution of the resultant ejecta on the moon is numerically modeled using a Eulerian finite difference grid. The impact of an iron meteoroid at 15 km/sec on a gabbroic anorthosite lunar crust is examined. The high speed impact induced flow is described over the entire hydrodynamic regime from a time where the peak pressures are 6 Mbar until the stresses everywhere in the flow are linearly elastic, and less than 5 kbar. Shock-induced polymorphic phase changes, (plagioclase and pyroxene to hollandite and perovskite), and the subsequent reversion to low pressure phases are demonstrated to enhance shock wave attenuation. A rate-dependent equation of state is used for describing the hysteretic effect of the phase change. Ballistic equations for a spherical planet are then applied to material with net velocity away from the moon.

  6. Impact ejecta emplacement on terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    2011-10-01

    Impact cratering is one of the most fundamental processes responsible for shaping the surfaces of solid planetary bodies. One of the principal characteristics of impact events is the formation and emplacement of ejecta deposits, an understanding of which is critical for planetary exploration. Current models of ejecta emplacement, however, do not account for several important observations of ejecta deposits on the terrestrial planets, in particular, the presence of more than one layer of ejecta. Furthermore, there is also no universal model for the origin and emplacement of ejecta on different planetary bodies. We present a unifying working hypothesis for the origin and emplacement of ejecta on the terrestrial planets, in which the ejecta are emplaced in a multi-stage process. The generation of the continuous ejecta blanket occurs during the excavation stage of cratering, via the conventional ballistic sedimentation and radial flow model. This is followed by the emplacement of more melt-rich, ground-hugging flows - the "surface melt flow" phase - during the terminal stages of crater excavation and the modification stage of crater formation. Minor fallback occurs during the final stages of crater formation. Several factors will affect the final morphology and character of ejecta deposits. The volatile content and cohesiveness of the uppermost target rocks will significantly affect the runout distance of the ballistically emplaced continuous ejecta blanket, with impact angle also influencing the overall geometry of the deposits (e.g., the production of the characteristic butterfly pattern seen in very oblique impacts). Ejecta deposited during the surface melt flow stage is influenced by several factors, most importantly planetary gravity, surface temperature, and the physical properties of the target rocks. Topography and angle of impact play important roles in determining the final distribution of surface melt flow ejecta deposits with respect to the source crater

  7. Orbital Evolution of Impact Ejecta from Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarellos, Jose Luis; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; Hamill, Patrick

    2002-11-01

    We have numerically computed the orbital evolution of ˜10 3 particles representing high-speed ejecta from Gilgamesh, the largest impact basin on Ganymede. The integration includes the four Galilean satellites, Jupiter (including J2 and J4), Saturn, and the Sun. The integrations last 100,000 years. The particles are ejected at a variety of speeds and directions, with the fastest particles ejected at 1.4 times the escape speed vesc≡ 2GM G/R G of Ganymede. Ejecta with speeds v<0.96 vesc follow suborbital trajectories. At v˜0.96 vesc there is a transition characterized by complex behavior suggestive of chaos. For v>0.96 vesc, most particles escape Ganymede and achieve orbits about Jupiter. Eventually most (˜71%) of the jovicentric particles hit Ganymede, with 92% of these hitting within 1000 years. The accretion rate scales as 1/ t. Their impact sites are randomly distributed, as expected for planetocentric debris. We estimate that most of the resulting impact craters are a few kilometers across and smaller. The rest of the escaping ejecta are partitioned as follows: ˜3% hit Io; ˜10% hit Europa; ˜13% hit Callisto; 2% reach heliocentric space; and less than ˜1% hit Jupiter. Only two particles survived the entire 10 5-year integration. Ejecta from large impact events do not appear to be a plausible source of large craters on the Galilean satellites; however, such ejecta may account for the majority of small craters.

  8. Chicxulub Ejecta Impact Trenches And Terminal Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, R. L.

    2013-05-01

    DISCOVERY During a Pacific voyage from E. Australia to the US on a small sailing research vessel what appears to be two Chicxulub impact trenches were discovered in the ocean floor at depths of 4,627m and 3,519m. DESCRIPTION Trench A begins at a depth of 4,627m, 704km from the Chicxulub impact and is 18km long, 5km wide and 225m deep. Trench B begins at a depth of 3,519m, 732km from the Chixculub impact and is 23km long, 7 km wide and 400m deep. At the end of Trench B is what appears to be a debris deposit 5km long. Their relationship to the Chicxulub impact seems confirmed by their central axis, which when extended intersect at the Chicxulub impact at N Lat 21.33, W Long 89.5. Down range 286km from the end of Trench B is what appears to be the terminal impact of the object that created the two trenches. This is in the form of several large boulders, small seamounts, and islands in shallower depths indicating breakup of the object 1040km from the Chicxulub impact. The trenches are in an area of the Caribbean where currents prevented them from being silted in, preserving their physical form on the ocean floor. The object that created the trenches could have been large ejecta from the impact or possibly part of the asteroid that separated before impact or upon impact and carried on 1000km down range. The trajectory of both trenches is an upward angle of about 3 degrees. This indicates that the trajectory of the object was at a low angle, very high velocity and was deflected slightly upward upon impact with the ocean floor 4,627 below sea level. RESEARCH The first two phases of 10 phases consisting of mapping, exploration, research, and documentation of the impacts have been completed. Phase 1 consisted of assembling available sea floor data of the area of the impacts. Phase 2 consisted of selecting aerial and under water images from Google Earth, preparing bathymetric mapping from a GEBCO_08. BODC raster analysis with 50m contour intervals of the impact area

  9. Jet ejecta mass upon oblique impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, W.; Ahrens, T. J.; Miller, G. H.; Petach, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical models in the jetting regime for symmetric and asymmetric impact of thin plates predict the mass and velocity of jetted material upon oblique impact. However, experimental constraints on the amount of material which form jets upon oblique impact are not known. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted in which tungsten (W) flyer plates at speeds of 1.5 to 2.0 km/s were obliquely impacted into carbon targets at 30 deg in the regime of jetting, yielding radiation temperatures in the about 3200 K range. Both framing-camera and flash X-ray imaging were conducted. Broad cm-sized craters induced by jet ejecta on 2024 Al witness plates were used to infer jet mass. We infer, from measured witness plate crater volumes, that jet masses in the range of 0.01 to 0.06 g are produced by a 32 mm diameter, 6 mm thick W impactor. This is about one to two orders of magnitude less than those calculated from present theoretical models. In contrast, in refractory material experiments, the mass of gabbro ejecta trapped in styrofoam is 0.52 g, which is similar to that calculated.

  10. Trajectories of ballistic impact ejecta on a rotating Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, W.

    1994-01-01

    On an airless, slowly rotating planetary body like the Moon, ejecta particles from an impact follow simple ballistic trajectories. If gaseous interactions in the fireball are ignored, ejecta particles follow elliptical orbits with the center of the planetary body at one focus until they encounter the surface at the point of reimpact. The partial elliptical orbit of the ejecta particle lies in a plane in inertial (galactic) coordinates. Because of the slow rotation rate (for example, 360 degrees/28 days for the Moon), the intersection of the orbital plane and the surface remains nearly a great circle during the flight time of the ejecta. For this reason, lunar rays, representing concentrations of ejecta with the same azimuth but different velocities and/or ejecta angles, lie essentially along great circles. Ejecta from airless but more rapidly rotating bodies will follow more complicated, curving trajectories when plotted in the coordinate frame of the rotating planet or viewed as rays on the planetary surface. The curvature of trajectories of ejecta particles can be treated as a manifestation of the Coriolis effect, with the particles being accelerated by Coriolis pseudoforces. However, it is more straightforward to calculate the elliptical orbit in inertial space and then determine how far the planet rotates beneath the orbiting ejecta particle before reimpact. The Earth's eastward rotation affects ballistic ejecta in two ways: (1) the eastward velocity component increases the velocity of eastbound ejecta and reduces the velocity of westbound ejecta; and (2) the Earth turns underneath inflight ejecta, so that although the latitude of reimpact is not changed, the longitude is displaced westward, with the displacement increasing as a function of the time the ejecta remains aloft.

  11. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  12. Chicxulub Ejecta Trenches and Terminal Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, R.

    2012-12-01

    DISCOVERY During a Pacific voyage from E. Australia to the US on a small sailing research vessel what appears to be two Chicxulub impact trenches were discovered in the ocean floor at depths of 4,627m and 3,519m. DESCRIPTION Trench A begins at a depth of 4,627m, 704km from the Chicxulub impact and is 18km long, 5km wide and 225m deep. Trench B begins at a depth of 3,519m, 732km from the Chixculub impact and is 23km long, 7 km wide and 400m deep. At the end of Trench B is what appears to be a debris deposit 5km long. Their relationship to the Chicxulub impact seems confirmed by their central axis, which when extended intersect at the Chicxulub impact at N Lat 21.33, W Long 89.5. Down range 286km from the end of Trench B is what appears to be the terminal impact of the object that created the two trenches. This is in the form of several large boulders, small seamounts, and islands in shallower depths indicating breakup of the object 1040km from the Chicxulub impact. The trenches are in an area of the Caribbean where currents prevented them from being silted in, preserving their physical form on the ocean floor. The object that created the trenches could have been large ejecta from the impact or possibly part of the asteroid that separated before impact or upon impact and carried on 1000km down range. The trajectory of both trenches is an upward angle of about 3 degrees. This indicates that the trajectory of the object was at a low angle, very high velocity and was deflected slightly upward upon impact with the ocean floor 3,519m below sea level. RESEARCH The first two phases of 10 phases consisting of mapping, exploration, research, and documentation of the impacts have been completed. Phase 1 consisted of assembling available sea floor data of the area of the impacts. Phase 2 consisted of selecting aerial and under water images from Google Earth, preparing bathymetric mapping from a GEBCO_08. BODC raster analysis with 50m contour intervals of the impact area

  13. Detection of Impact Ejecta on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanwei; Srama, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    One of the highest-priority issues for a future human or robotic lunar exploration is the lunar dust. This problem should be studied in depth in order to develop an environment model for a future lunar exploration. The impact ejecta of interplanetary meteoroids is one of the source mechanics of the lunar dust environment. A dust detector placed on the lunar surface is exposed to strong variations in the impact ejecta environment. The purpose of this article is a study of the speed and trajectory information of ejecta created by micrometeoroid impacts. Autodyn14.0/2D software was used to simulate the impacting by micrometeoroids bombarding the lunar surface. The projectiles were selected as 10 μm spheres in diameter with the speed of 17 km-s-1. We used impact angles of 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°. A part of impact ejecta grains created in the early stage of impact process can be captured by a sensor placed on the lunar surface (e.g. Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment) or mounted on a lunar lander (e.g. Lunar Dust eXplorer (LDX)). Most of the detectable ejecta grains have very-low-speeds (< 100 m-s-1) together with a few of high-speed ejecta grains (> 1 km-s-1). Comparing with the most recently analysis of LEAM data, the impact ejecta grains are considered as one of the most possible sources for the recorded events. Furthermore, a sensor mounted on a lander instead of directly placed on the lunar surface has more chances to measure high-speed ejecta. A new developed instrument, such as LDX, will be a powerful tool to study the lunar dust environment.

  14. Ejecta Dynamics during Hypervelocity Impacts into Dry and Wet Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerth, T.; Schäfer, F.; Thoma, K.; Poelchau, M.; Kenkmann, T.; Deutsch, A.

    2011-03-01

    Hypervelocity impact experiments into dry and water saturated porous Seeberger sandstone were conducted at the two-stage light gas accelerator at the Ernst-Mach-Institute (EMI) and the ejecta dynamics were analyzed.

  15. Impact ejecta dynamics in an atmosphere - Experimental results and extrapolations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that the impacts of 0.635-cm aluminum projectiles at 6 km/sec into fine pumice dust, at 1 atm, generate a ball of ionized gas behind an expanding curtain of upward moving ejecta. The gas ball forms a toroid which dissolves as it is driven along the interior of the ejecta curtain, by contrast to near-surface explosions in which a fireball envelops early-time crater growth. High frame rate Schlieren photographs show that the atmosphere at the base of the ejecta curtain is initially turbulent, but later forms a vortex. These experiments suggest that although small size ejecta may be decelerated by air drag, they are not simply lofted and suspended but become incorporated in an ejecta cloud that is controlled by air flow which is produced by the response of the atmosphere to the impact. The extrapolation of these results to large body impacts on the earth suggests such contrasts with laboratory experiments as a large quantity of impact-generated vapor, the supersonic advance of the ejecta curtain, the lessened effect of air drag due to the tenuous upper atmosphere, and the role of secondary cratering.

  16. Martian impact craters: Continuing analysis of lobate ejecta sinuosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Nadine G.

    1990-01-01

    The lobate ejecta morphology surrounding most fresh Martian impact craters can be quantitatively analyzed to determine variations in ejecta sinuosity with diameter, latitude, longitude, and terrain. The results of such studies provide another clue to the question of how these morphologies formed: are they the results of vaporization of subsurface volatiles or caused by ejecta entrainment in atmospheric gases. Kargel provided a simple expression to determine the degree of non-circularity of an ejecta blanket. This measure of sinuosity, called 'lobateness', is given by the ratio of the ejecta perimeter to the perimeter of a circle with the same area as that of the ejecta. The Kargel study of 538 rampart craters in selected areas of Mars led to the suggestion that lobateness increased with increasing diameter, decreased at higher latitude, and showed no dependence on elevation or geologic unit. Major problems with the Kargel analysis are the limited size and distribution of the data set and the lack of discrimination among the different types of lobate ejecta morphologies. Bridges and Barlow undertook a new lobateness study of 1582 single lobe (SL) and 251 double lobe (DL) craters. The results are summarized. These results agree with the finding of Kargel that lobateness increases with increasing diameter, but found no indication of a latitude dependence for SL craters. The Bridges and Barlow study has now been extended to multiple lobe (ML) craters. Three hundred and eighty ML craters located across the entire Martian surface were studied. ML craters provide more complications to lobateness studies than do SL and DL craters - in particular, the ejecta lobes surrounding the crater are often incomplete. Since the lobateness formula compares the perimeter of the ejecta lobe to that of a circle, the analysis was restricted only to complete lobes. The lobes are defined sequentially starting with the outermost lobe and moving inward.

  17. An Impact Ejecta Behavior Model for Small, Irregular Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J. E.; Melosh, H. J.; Greenberg, R.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, spacecraft observations of asteroids 951 Gaspra, 243 Ida, 253 Mathilde, and 433 Eros have shown the overriding dominance of impact processes with regard to the structure and surface morphology of these small, irregular bodies. In particular, impact ejecta play an important role in regolith formation, ranging from small particles to large blocks, as well as surface feature modification and obscuration. To investigate these processes, a numerical model has been developed based upon the impact ejecta scaling laws provided by Housen, Schmidt, and Holsapple, and modified to more properly simulate the late-stage ejection velocities and ejecta plume shape changes (ejection angle variations) shown in impact cratering experiments. A target strength parameter has also been added to allow the simulation of strength-dominated cratering events in addition to the more familiar gravity-dominated cratering events. The result is a dynamical simulation which models -- via tracer particles -- the ejecta plume behavior, ejecta blanket placement, and impact crater area resulting from a specified impact on an irregularly shaped target body, which is modeled in 3-dimensional polygon fashion. This target body can be placed in a simple rotation state about one of its principal axes, with the impact site and projectile/target parameters selected by the user. The gravitational force from the irregular target body (on each tracer particle) is determined using the polygonized surface (polyhedron) gravity technique developed by Werner.

  18. The Impact Ejecta Environment of Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-10-01

    Impact ejecta production is a ubiquitous process that occurs on all airless bodies throughout the solar system. Unlike the Moon, which retains a large fraction of its ejecta, asteroids primarily shed their ejecta into the interplanetary dust population. These grains carry valuable information about the chemical compositions of their parent bodies that can be measured via in situ dust detection. Here, we use recent Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer/Lunar Dust Experiment measurements of the lunar dust cloud to calculate the dust ejecta distribution for any airless body near 1 au. We expect this dust distribution to be highly asymmetric, due to non-isotropic impacting fluxes. We predict that flybys near these asteroids would collect many times more dust impacts by transiting the apex side of the body compared to its anti-apex side. While these results are valid for bodies at 1 au, they can be used to qualitatively infer the ejecta environment for all solar-orbiting airless bodies.

  19. Crater-ray formation by impact-induced ejecta particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadono, T.; Suzuki, A. I.; Wada, K.; Mitani, N. K.; Yamamoto, S.; Arakawa, M.; Sugita, S.; Haruyama, J.; Nakamura, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    We performed impact experiments with granular targets to reveal the formation process of crater "rays", the non-uniform ejecta distributions around some fresh craters on the Moon and planets. We found mesh patterns, loosely woven with spaces like a net, as ejecta. A characteristic length of spaces between meshes was evaluated, and an angle, defined as the ratio of the characteristic length to the distance from the ejection point, was obtained as ∼a few degrees. These features are similar to the results of the analyses of the ray patterns around two lunar craters, Glushko and Kepler. Numerical simulations of granular material showed that clear mesh pattern appeared at lower coefficients of restitution between particles but was less clear at larger one, suggesting that the inelastic collisions between particles cause the clear mesh-pattern formation of impact ejecta.

  20. Correlation between speed and size for ejecta from hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, M.; Schmidt, J.; Kempf, S.; Spahn, F.

    2015-11-01

    Ejecta created in hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids on atmosphereless bodies are an efficient source for circumplanetary and interplanetary dust. The impact erodes the target surface and releases material into space. The ejecta are typically micron sized and populate a dust cloud around the parent body, whose number density decreases with increasing distance from the target. Unbound particles escape and add to the planetary dust environment. Here we explore the influence of a correlation between the fragment size and the ejection speed, such that larger fragments are (on average) launched with lower speeds. This behavior is suggested by theoretical considerations and impact experiments. We find that such a correlation provides a dynamical filter that removes large ejecta from high altitudes. The effect is stronger for bigger ejecta and for more massive parent bodies. Our results suggest that large particles found in the circumplanetary and interplanetary dust environment either originate from impacts on smaller moons, impacts of unusually large or fast impactors, or an entirely different process of dust production.

  1. Distal ejecta - an efficient tool to study ancient impacts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, N.

    2011-12-01

    Ejecta from impact craters received a scientific attention not too many years ago, after the revolutionary discovery of the global K-Pg layer and its Ir-anomaly. Impact ejecta are subjected to quick erosion and, hence, are not widely presented on Earth. However, globally distributed ejecta from the largest terrestial craters may be locally preserved even if the crater itself is totally obliterated. The oldest craters on Earth, Vredefort and Sudbury, are ~1.5 Gyr younger than then oldest Archean spherule layers [1-2]. These ejecta layers potentially allow to extract an important information regarding a projectile type/size, the Earth's crust and ocean. Recent numerical modeling of the K-Pg layer [3] successfully reproduced ejecta distribution around the globe including chemical composition, shock metamorphic features, and pressure-temperature history of deposited materials. It has been shown that the main components of global ejecta are projectile and sediments (the uppermost layer of the target), while materials from the crystalline basement represent the minor component and have been transported non-ballistically by atmospheric flows. These results could serve as a benchmark for the modeling of ancient impacts. As the Archean layers are much thicker and the spherules are larger, we can speculate about much larger and more frequent impacts. A few questions should be addressed via numerical modeling: 1) are these ejecta layers proximal layers of relatively small impacts or distal layers of giant impacts; 2) is there any correlation between layers at different locations;.3) why there are no any shocked minerals within these layers; 3) why the composition of spherules is mainly basaltic? In this paper the modeling results are compared with available observations (mainly on K-Pg boundary) and then are extrapolated to much larger impacts. [1] Lowe D.R., Byerly G. R., Asaro F., Kyte F. T. (1989) Science 245:959-962. [2] Simonson, B. M. and B. P. Glass (2004) Annual

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Distribution of Shock Effects in Regolith Impact Ejecta Using an Ejecta Recovery Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Montes, R.; Cardenas, F.; Cintala, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Because the mass-flux of solar system meteoroids is concentrated in the approx. 200 microns size range, small-scale impacts play a key role in driving the space weathering of regoliths on airless bodies. Quantifying this role requires improved data linking the mass, density and velocity of the incoming impactors to the nature of the shock effects produced, with particular emphasis on effects, such as production of impact melt and vapor, that drive the optical changes seen in space weathered regoliths. Of particular importance with regard to space weathering is understanding not only the composition of the shock melt created in small-scale impacts, but also how it is partitioned volumetrically between the local impact site and more widely distributed ejecta. To improve the ability of hypervelocity impact experiments to obtain this type of information, we have developed an enclosed sample target chamber with multiple-geometry interior capture cells for in-situ retention of ejecta from granular targets. A key design objective was to select and test capture cell materials that could meet three requirements: 1) Capture ejecta fragments traveling at various trajectories and velocities away from the impact point, while inducing minimal additional damage relative to the primary shock effects; 2) facilitate follow-up characterization of the ejecta either on or in the cell material by analytical SEM, or ex-situ by microprobe, TEM and other methods; and 3) enable the trajectories of the captured and characterized ejecta to be reconstructed relative to the target.

  3. Ejecta Production in Microgravity from Low Velocity Impacts in Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Dove, A.; Brisset, J.; Rascon, A. N.; Brightwell, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the results of the third PRIME (Physics of Regolith Impacts in Microgravity Experiment) campaign on-board the NASA C-9 airplane in August 2014. The objective of PRIME is to study low-velocity impacts of cm-scale particles into planetary regolith under reduced gravity and microgravity conditions, measuring how dust on the surfaces of planetary ring particles, planetesimals and asteroids dissipates energy in the collision and the mass-velocity distribution of any ejecta produced in the impact. PRIME can perform impacts into granular materials at speeds of ~5-50 cm/s in microgravity. Impacts are performed in vacuum and projectiles are spherical particles launched by a spring designed to provide the desired impact energy. The target materials studied are quartz sand and JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant, filled to a depth of 2 cm in the target tray. Projectile materials are quartz, brass, and stainless steel to provide a range of impact energies at constant impact velocity. Impacts are performed in isolated chambers and up to 8 experiments can be performed per flight. The data collected consists of video recordings of the impacts, taken with a high resolution video camera at 120 frames per second. The impacts observed during the PRIME-3 campaign resulted in 9 marble rebounds and 15 impacts with ejecta. Seven of these 15 were at accelerations of ~0.05 g while the remaining impacts were performed in free fall. For each rebound observed, the coefficient of restitution of the impact was measured and for each collision that produced ejecta, the ejected particles were tracked to determine their initial velocities. The PRIME-3 campaign successfully extended the region of the parameter field explored by investigating impacts at velocities lower than observed during previous campaigns while collecting new data on impacts at asteroid gravity levels. We present our new results and combine them with results from previous similar experiments and discuss applications to

  4. Oblique impact: Projectile richochet, concomitant ejecta and momentum transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, Donald E.; Schultz, Peter H.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of oblique impact indicate that projectile richochet occurs for trajectory angles less than 30 deg and that the richocheted projectile, accompanied by some target material, are ejected at velocities that are a large fraction of the impact velocity. Because the probability of occurrence of oblique impact less than 30 deg on a planetary body is about one out of every four impact events, oblique impacts would seem to be a potential mechanism to provide a source of meteorites from even the largest atmosphere-free planetary bodies. Because the amount of richocheted target material cannot be determined from previous results, additional experiments in the Ames Vertical Gun laboratory were undertaken toward that purpose using pendulums; one to measure momentum of the richocheted projectile and concomitant target ejecta, and a second to measure the momentum transferred from projectile to target. These experiments are briefly discussed.

  5. Popigai Impact Structure Modeling: Morphology and Worldwide Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Artemieva, N. A.; Pierazzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    The approx. 100 km in diameter, 35.7 0.2 Ma old Popigai structure [1], northern Siberia (Russia), is the best-preserved of the large terrestrial complex crater structures containing a central-peak ring [2- 4]. Although remotely located, the excellent outcrops, large number of drill cores, and wealth of geochemical data make Popigai ideal for the general study of the cratering processes. It is most famous for its impact-diamonds [2,5]. Popigai is the best candidate for the source crater of the worldwide late Eocene ejecta [6,7].

  6. Impact ejecta in upper Eocene deposits at Massignano, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Billy P.; Liu, Shaobin; Montanari, Alessandro

    2004-04-01

    Previous workers have shown that an impact ejecta layer at Massignano, Italy contains a positive Ir anomaly, flattened spheroids (pancake spherules), Ni-rich spinel crystals, and shocked quartz with multiple sets of planar deformation features. Because of sample sizes and work by different investigators, it was not clear if the shocked quartz is associated with the Ir anomaly and pancake spherules or if it belongs to a separate impact event. To address this problem, we carried out a high-resolution stratigraphic study of this ejecta layer. The ejecta layer was sampled continuously at 1 cm intervals in two adjacent columns. The carbonate was removed with dilute HCl, and the noncarbonate fraction was gently sieved. Pancake spherules were recovered from the 250-500 mm size fraction and counted. At the peak abundance, the number of pancake spherules in the 250-500 mm size fraction is about 6-7/g of sample. The pancake spherules removed from the 250-500 mm size fraction are mostly translucent to opaque pale green, but some have a grey color or dark opaque patches due to a coating of Ni- and Cr-rich spinel crystals. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction data indicate that the green spherules are composed of iron-rich smectite, probably nontronite. Black opaque spinel stringers (dark spinel-rich pancake spherules), usually <200 mm across, can be seen in a polished section of a block that includes the ejecta layer. None of the dark spinel-rich pancake spherules were recovered from the sieved non-carbonate fraction due to their fragile nature, but we believe that they are from the same impact event as the green pancake spherules. The <250 mm size fractions from both columns were disaggregated using ultrasonics and re-sieved. The 63-125 mm size fractions were then searched for shocked quartz using a petrographic microscope. At the peak-abundance level, the number of shocked quartz grains in the 63-125 mm size fraction is about 7/g of sample. Some of the

  7. Shock Melting, Crater Formation, and Ejecta Distribution in the 17th March 2013 Lunar Impact Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, R.; Prieur, N. C.; Tasdelen, E.; Wünnemann, K.; Werner, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    We measure crater characteristics by LRO-NAC images. By these constraints, we model the impact using the iSALE shock physics code. We determine melt volumes and ejecta distribution for various impact scenarios.

  8. Analysis of Regolith Simulant Ejecta Distributions from Normal Incident Hypervelocity Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Cooke, William; Suggs, Rob; Moser, Danielle E.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Constellation Program. The Constellation Program has defined one of its many goals as long-term lunar habitation. Critical to the design of a lunar habitat is an understanding of the lunar surface environment; of specific importance is the primary meteoroid and subsequent ejecta environment. The document, NASA SP-8013 'Meteoroid Environment Model Near Earth to Lunar Surface', was developed for the Apollo program in 1969 and contains the latest definition of the lunar ejecta environment. There is concern that NASA SP-8013 may over-estimate the lunar ejecta environment. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has initiated several tasks to improve the accuracy of our understanding of the lunar surface ejecta environment. This paper reports the results of experiments on projectile impact into powdered pumice and unconsolidated JSC-1A Lunar Mare Regolith simulant targets. Projectiles were accelerated to velocities between 2.45 and 5.18 km/s at normal incidence using the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). The ejected particles were detected by thin aluminum foil targets strategically placed around the impact site and angular ejecta distributions were determined. Assumptions were made to support the analysis which include; assuming ejecta spherical symmetry resulting from normal impact and all ejecta particles were of mean target particle size. This analysis produces a hemispherical flux density distribution of ejecta with sufficient velocity to penetrate the aluminum foil detectors.

  9. Energy and mass distributions of impact ejecta blankets on the moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The paper applies previously calculated impact-induced flow fields (O'Keefe and Ahrens, 1977) resulting from interaction of 5-cm radius gabbroic anorthosite impactor with a half-space of the same material, at various velocities, to obtain mass and energy ejecta distributions. Whereas earlier results described the ejecta distribution from a 15 km/s impact of an iron object on the moon in terms of mass vs. distance, the present results describe, at a given distance from the impact, the energy content as a function of depth, i.e., the thermal structure of ejecta blankets. Pertinent computational methods are included, and several tables and plots supplement the text.

  10. NOx production and rainout from Chicxulub impact ejecta reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkos, Devon; Alexeenko, Alina; Kulakhmetov, Marat; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay

    2015-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact 66.0 Ma ago initiated the second biggest extinction in the Phanerozoic Eon. The cause of the concurrent oceanic nitrogen isotopic anomaly, however, remains elusive. The Chicxulub impactor struck the Yucatán peninsula, ejecting 2 × 1015 kg of molten and vaporized rock that reentered globally as approximately 1023 microscopic spherules. Here we report that modern techniques indicate that this ejecta generates 1.5 × 1014 moles of NOx, which is enough to cause the observed nitrogen enrichment of the basal layer. Additionally, reentry-based NO production would explain the anomalously heavy isotopic composition of the observed nitrogen. We include N, O, N2, O2, and NO species in simulations of nonequilibrium chemically reacting flow around a reentering spherule. We then determine the net production of NO from all the spherules and use turbulence models to determine how quickly this yield diffuses through the atmosphere. Upon reaching the stratosphere and troposphere, cloud moisture absorbs the NOx and forms nitric acid. We model this process and determine the acidity of the resulting precipitation, which peaks about 1 year after the impact. The precipitation ultimately reaches the upper ocean, where we assume that the well-mixed surface layer is 100 m deep. We then model the naturally occurring carbonate/bicarbonate buffer and determine the net pH. We find that insufficient NOx reaches the ocean to directly cause the observed end-Cretaceous oceanic extinction via acidification and buffer removal. However, the resulting nitrates are sufficient to explain the concurrent nitrogen isotopic anomaly and facilitate an end-Cretaceous algae bloom.

  11. Properties of Ejecta Blanket Deposits Surrounding Morasko Meteorite Impact Craters (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szokaluk, M.; Muszyński, A.; Jagodziński, R.; Szczuciński, W.

    2016-08-01

    Morasko impact craters are a record of the fall of a meteorite into the soft sediments. The presented results illustrate the geological structure of the area around the crater as well as providing evidence of the occurrence of ejecta blanket.

  12. Ejecta From Impacts: Experimental Studies of Target Effects and Application to Planetary Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.; Meech, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Hypervelocity impact events mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces. The ejecta velocities reflect the initial conditions and flow-field inside the transient crater, and control the ballistic path and eventual emplacement of material. Studies of ejection velocities during main-stage excavation flow describe the speed and direction of ejected material as a function of time after impact or launch position. While these past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. The effects of impact angle, more physically realistic target and impactor properties and heterogeneities, and the interplay between strength and gravity on ejection processes are highly relevant for interpretation ejecta deposits, especially due to the flood of recent high resolution data of the terrestrial bodies, natural impacts such as that on A2/Linear, and the Deep Impact and LCROSS missions. Here, we present a study of the effects of target properties on the ejecta velocity distribution. A suite of hypervelocity (~5.5km/s) impact experiments into a variety of target materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). These materials included sands of varying sizes and shapes (and thus material properties), air-fall pumice dust (as a regolith analog), and consolidated resin-coated sand blocks of known strength. The implementation of novel Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) techniques permits non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity distribution within the ejecta curtain by following the path of individual ejecta particles. The PTV system developed at the AVGR uses a series of high-speed cameras (ranging from 11,000 to 500,000 frames per second) to allow measurement of particle velocity over a large dynamic range for both vertical and

  13. Identification and Characterization of Well-Preserved Impact Ejecta Deposits Using THEMIS Global Infrared Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. R.; Christensen, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has been acquiring infrared observations of the Martian surface for nearly thirteen years. Daytime infrared images from the first twelve years of the mission have previously been used to generate a complete global mosaic, while nighttime infrared images have been used to generate a near-global mosaic between 60°N-60°S. A combined product has been generated by overlaying the daytime global mosaic with a colorized version of the nighttime global mosaic, resulting in a near-global map that can be used to more easily identify surface features with unique thermal characteristics.Well-preserved ejecta deposits associated with fresh impact craters are readily identifiable in the combined map by their characteristic nighttime temperature pattern, which is controlled by variations in the thermal inertia of the ejecta material. The pattern consists of relatively high thermal inertia material in and around the crater, an inner ejecta ring composed of intermediate thermal inertia material and an outer ejecta ring composed of low thermal inertia material.A near-global survey (60°N-60°S) of these well-preserved ejecta deposits has shown that the vast majority occur in a small region covering northern Terra Sirenum and eastern Daedalia Planum, with a smaller concentration present in Syria Planum. A comparison of THEMIS and Viking images has verified that the larger craters and ejecta deposits were present at the time of the Viking mission and are not the result of more recent impacts. The survey also identified similarly fresh impact craters across the planet that are lacking an outer ring of low thermal inertia ejecta material, possibly due to erosion of the original ejecta deposits. This suggests that local conditions in Terra Sirenum, Daedalia Planum and Syria Planum are favorable for the long-term preservation of the fine-grained component of fresh impact ejecta deposits.

  14. Constraining planetary atmospheric density: application of heuristic search algorithms to aerodynamic modeling of impact ejecta trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Y. C.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    Impact craters on the terrestrial planets are typically surrounded by a continuous ejecta blanket that the initial emplacement is via ballistic sedimentation. Following an impact event, a significant volume of material is ejected and falling debris surrounds the crater. Aerodynamics rule governs the flight path and determines the spatial distribution of these ejecta. Thus, for the planets with atmosphere, the preserved ejecta deposit directly recorded the interaction of ejecta and atmosphere at the time of impact. In this study, we develop a new framework to establish links between distribution of the ejecta, age of the impact and the properties of local atmosphere. Given the radial distance of the continuous ejecta extent from crater, an inverse aerodynamic modeling approach is employed to estimate the local atmospheric drags and density as well as the lift forces at the time of impact. Based on earlier studies, we incorporate reasonable value ranges for ejection angle, initial velocity, aerodynamic drag, and lift in the model. In order to solve the trajectory differential equations, obtain the best estimate of atmospheric density, and the associated uncertainties, genetic algorithm is applied. The method is validated using synthetic data sets as well as detailed maps of impact ejecta associated with five fresh martian and two lunar impact craters, with diameter of 20-50 m, 10-20 m, respectively. The estimated air density for martian carters range 0.014-0.028 kg/m3, consistent with the recent surface atmospheric density measurement of 0.015-0.020 kg/m3. This constancy indicates the robustness of the presented methodology. In the following, the inversion results for the lunar craters yield air density of 0.003-0.008 kg/m3, which suggest the inversion results are accurate to the second decimal place. This framework will be applied to older martian craters with preserved ejecta blankets, which expect to constrain the long-term evolution of martian atmosphere.

  15. Asteroid Impact Deflection and Assessment (AIDA) mission - Properties of Impact Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Murdoch, Naomi; Asphaug, Erik; Cheng, Andrew F.; Housen, Kevin R.; Michel, Patrick; Miller, Paul L.; Stickle, Angela; Tancredi, Gonzalo; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Wuennemann, Kai; Yu, Yang; AIDA Impact Simulation Working Group

    2016-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact Deflection and Assessment (AIDA) mission is composed of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) rendezvous mission. The DART spacecraft is designed to impact the small satellite of near-Earth asteroid 65803 Didymos in October 2022, while the in-situ AIM spacecraft observes. AIDA's Modeling and Simulation of Impact Outcomes Working Group is tasked with investigating properties of the debris ejected from the impact. The orbital evolution of this ejecta has important implications for observations that the AIM spacecraft will take as well as for the safety of the spacecraft itself. Ejecta properties including particle sizes, bulk densities, and velocities all depend on the poorly-known physical properties of Didymos' moon. The moon's density, internal strength, and especially its porosity have a strong effect on all ejecta properties. Making a range of assumptions, we perform a suite of numerical simulations to determine the fate of the ejected material; we will use simulation predictions to optimize AIM observations and safety. Ultimately, combining AIM's observations of the ejecta with detailed numerical simulations will help constrain key satellite parameters.We use distinct types of numerical tools to explore ejecta properties based on additional target parameters (different forms of friction, cohesion), e.g., the shock physics code iSALE, smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes, and the granular code PKDGRAV. Given the large discrepancy between the 6 km/s impact speed of DART and the moon's 6 cm/s escape speed, a great challenge will be to determine properties of the low-speed ejecta. Very low-speed material relevant to the safety of the AIM spacecraft and its ability to conduct its observations may loft from the crater at late stages of the impact process, or from other locations far from the impact site due to seismic energy propagation. The manner in which seismic waves manifests in

  16. Simulated meteorite impacts and volcanic explosions: Ejecta analyses and planetary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1992-09-01

    Past cratering studies have focused primarily on crater morphology. However, important questions remain about the nature of crater deposits. Phenomena that need to be studied include the distribution of shock effects in crater deposits and crater walls; the origin of mono- and polymict breccia; differences between local and distal ejecta; deformation induced by explosive volcanism; and the production of unshocked, high-speed ejecta that could form the lunar and martian meteorites found on the Earth. To study these phenomena, one must characterize ejecta and crater wall materials from impacts produced under controlled conditions. New efforts at LLNL simulate impacts and volcanism and study resultant deformation. All experiments use the two-stage light-gas gun facility at LLNL to accelerate projectiles to velocities of 0.2 to 4.3 km/s, including shock pressures of 0.9 to 50 GPa. We use granite targets and novel experimental geometries to unravel cratering processes in crystalline rocks. We have thus far conducted three types of simulations: soft recovery of ejecta, 'frozen crater' experiments, and an 'artificial volcano. Our ejecta recovery experiments produced a useful separation of impactites. Material originally below the projectile remained trapped there, embedded in the soft metal of the flyer plate. In contrast, material directly adjacent to the projectile was jetted away from the impact, producing an ejecta cone that was trapped in the foam recovery fixture. We find that a significant component of crater ejecta shows no signs of strong shock; this material comes from the near-surface 'interference zone' surrounding the impact site. This phenomenon explains the existence of unshocked meteorites on the Earth of lunar and martian origin. Impact of a large bolide on neighboring planets will produce high-speed, weakly shocked ejecta, which may be trapped by the Earth's gravitational field. 'Frozen crater' experiments show that the interference zone is highly

  17. Simulated meteorite impacts and volcanic explosions: Ejecta analyses and planetary implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Past cratering studies have focused primarily on crater morphology. However, important questions remain about the nature of crater deposits. Phenomena that need to be studied include the distribution of shock effects in crater deposits and crater walls; the origin of mono- and polymict breccia; differences between local and distal ejecta; deformation induced by explosive volcanism; and the production of unshocked, high-speed ejecta that could form the lunar and martian meteorites found on the Earth. To study these phenomena, one must characterize ejecta and crater wall materials from impacts produced under controlled conditions. New efforts at LLNL simulate impacts and volcanism and study resultant deformation. All experiments use the two-stage light-gas gun facility at LLNL to accelerate projectiles to velocities of 0.2 to 4.3 km/s, including shock pressures of 0.9 to 50 GPa. We use granite targets and novel experimental geometries to unravel cratering processes in crystalline rocks. We have thus far conducted three types of simulations: soft recovery of ejecta, 'frozen crater' experiments, and an 'artificial volcano. Our ejecta recovery experiments produced a useful separation of impactites. Material originally below the projectile remained trapped there, embedded in the soft metal of the flyer plate. In contrast, material directly adjacent to the projectile was jetted away from the impact, producing an ejecta cone that was trapped in the foam recovery fixture. We find that a significant component of crater ejecta shows no signs of strong shock; this material comes from the near-surface 'interference zone' surrounding the impact site. This phenomenon explains the existence of unshocked meteorites on the Earth of lunar and martian origin. Impact of a large bolide on neighboring planets will produce high-speed, weakly shocked ejecta, which may be trapped by the Earth's gravitational field. 'Frozen crater' experiments show that the interference zone is highly

  18. Comparison of Ejecta Distributions from Normal Incident Hypervelocity Impact on Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Cooke, William; Scruggs, Rob; Moser, Danielle E.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is progressing toward long-term lunar habitation. Critical to the design of a lunar habitat is an understanding of the lunar surface environment; of specific importance is the primary meteoroid and subsequent ejecta environment. The document, NASA SP-8013, was developed for the Apollo program and is the latest definition of the ejecta environment. There is concern that NASA SP-8013 may over-estimate the lunar ejecta environment. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has initiated several tasks to improve the accuracy of our understanding of the lunar surface ejecta environment. This paper reports the results of experiments on projectile impact into powered pumice and unconsolidated JSC-1A Lunar Mare Regolith stimulant (JSC-1A) targets. The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) was used to accelerate projectiles to velocities in excess of 5 km/s and impact the targets at normal incidence. The ejected particles were detected by thin aluminum foil targets placed around the impact site and angular distributions were determined for ejecta. Comparison of ejecta angular distribution with previous works will be presented. A simplistic technique to characterize the ejected particles was formulated and improvements to this technique will be discussed for implementation in future tests.

  19. Transfer of Impact Ejecta Material from the Surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos

    PubMed Central

    Melosh, Henry J.; Vaquero, Mar; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Russian Phobos-Grunt spacecraft originally planned to return a 200 g sample of surface material from Phobos to Earth. Although it was anticipated that this material would mainly be from the body of Phobos, there is a possibility that such a sample may also contain material ejected from the surface of Mars by large impacts. An analysis of this possibility is completed by using current knowledge of aspects of impact cratering on the surface of Mars and the production of high-speed ejecta that might reach Phobos or Deimos. Key Words: Impact cratering—Ejecta transfer—Phobos. Astrobiology 13, 963–980. PMID:24131246

  20. A new look at lunar impact craters provides insights into ejecta and melt emplacement on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Grieve, R. A.; Tornabene, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    Impact cratering is one of the most fundamental processes responsible for shaping the surfaces of solid planetary bodies. Even on Earth, where the impact record is sparse, it is now apparent that impact events also have played an important role throughout Earth's history, shaping the geological landscape, affecting the evolution of life and producing economic benefits. It is widely acknowledged that the Moon provides a unique natural laboratory for studying the impact processes on planetary scales. One of the most important, but least understood aspects of impact cratering is the generation and emplacement of impact ejecta. In this contribution, we utilize new high-resolution imagery of lunar craters in addition to observations of terrestrial impact structures. Current models of ejecta emplacement do not account for several important observations of ejecta deposits on the terrestrial planets, in particular, the presence of more than one layer of ejecta. On the Moon, this addional ejecta layer takes the form of impact melt ponds on the rim terraces of complex lunar craters and overlying parts of the continuous ejecta blanket. It is also notable that there is also no universal model for the origin and emplacement of ejecta on different planetary bodies. We present a unifying working hypothesis for the origin and emplacement of ejecta on the terrestrial planets, in which the ejecta are emplaced in a multi-stage process. The generation of the continuous ejecta blanket occurs during the excavation stage of cratering, via the conventional ballistic sedimentation and radial flow model. This is followed by the emplacement of more melt-rich, ground-hugging flows - the "surface melt flow" phase - during the terminal stages of crater excavation and the modification stage of crater formation. Minor fallback occurs during the final stages of crater formation. Several factors will affect the final morphology and character of ejecta deposits. The volatile content and cohesiveness

  1. Exploring hotspots of pneumococcal pneumonia and potential impacts of ejecta dust exposure following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Mitchell, Peter; Apparicio, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) is well-known. Yet, some events may increase its incidence. Natural disasters may worsen air quality, a risk factor for PP. We investigated spatial/spatio-temporal clustering of PP pre- and post-earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand. The earthquakes resulted in deaths, widespread damage and liquefaction ejecta (a source of air-borne dust). We tested for clusters and associations with ejecta, using 97 cases (diagnosed 10/2008-12/2011), adjusted for age and area-level deprivation. The strongest evidence to support the potential role of ejecta in clusters of PP cases was the: (1) geographic shift in the spatio-temporal cluster after deprivation adjustment to match the post-earthquake clusters and; (2) increased relative risk in the fully-adjusted post-earthquake compared to the pre-earthquake cluster. The application of spatial statistics to study PP and ejecta are novel. Further studies to assess the long-term impacts of ejecta inhalation are recommended particularly in Christchurch, where seismic activity continues.

  2. Ejecta Pattern of the Impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1999-01-01

    The collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL 9) with Jupiter created crescent-shaped ejecta patterns around impact sites. Although the observed impact plumes rose through a similar height of approx.3000 km, the radii of the created ejects patterns differ from impact to impact and generally are larger for larger impacts. The azimuthal angle of the symmetry axis of the ejects pattern is larger than that predicted by the models of oblique impacts, due to the action of the Coriolis force that rotates ejecta patterns counterclockwise from the south. We study the formation of ejects patterns using a simple model of ballistic plume above a rotating plane. The ejected particles follow ballistic trajectories and slide horizontally for about an hour after reentry into the jovian atmosphere. The lateral expansion of the plume is stopped by the friction force, which is assumed to be proportional to the square of the horizontal velocity. Two different mass-velocity distributions used in the simulations produce qualitatively similar results. The simulated ejecta patterns fit very well the "crescents" observed at the impact sites. The sizes and azimuthal angles of symmetry axis of ejects patterns depend on a parameter L, which has dimension of length and is related to the mass of the fragment. Thus more massive impacts produce larger ejects patterns that are rotated through a wider angle.

  3. Measurement of Primary Ejecta From Normal Incident Hypervelocity Impact on Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Cooke, William; Moser, Danielle; Swift, Wesley

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to make progress toward long-term lunar habitation. Critical to the design of a lunar habitat is an understanding of the lunar surface environment. A subject for further definition is the lunar primary ejecta environment. The document NASA SP-8013 was developed for the Apollo program and is the latest definition of the primary ejecta environment. There is concern that NASA SP-8013 may over-estimate the lunar primary ejecta environment. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has initiated several tasks to improve the accuracy of our understanding of the lunar surface primary ejecta environment. This paper reports the results of experiments on projectile impact into pumice targets, simulating lunar regolith. The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) was used to accelerate spherical Pyrex projectiles of 0.29g to velocities ranging between 2.5 km/s and 5.18 km/s. Impact on the pumice target occurred at normal incidence. The ejected particles were detected by thin aluminum foil targets placed around the pumice target in a 0.5 Torr vacuum. A simplistic technique to characterize the ejected particles was formulated. Improvements to this technique will be discussed for implementation in future tests.

  4. Meteorite impact ejecta: dependence of mass and energy lost on planetary escape velocity.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J D; Ahrens, T J

    1977-12-23

    The calculated energy efficiency of mass ejection for iron and anorthosite objects striking an anorthosite planet at speeds of 5 to 45 kilometers per second decreases with increasing impact velocity at low escape velocities. At escape velocities of >10(5) and >2 x 10(4) centimeters per second, respectively, the slower impactors produce relatively less ejecta for a given impact energy. The impact velocities at which ejecta losses equal meteorite mass gains are found to be approximately 20, 35, and 45 kilometers per second for anorthosite objects and approximately 25, 35, and 40 kilometers per second for iron objects striking anorthosite surfaces for the gravity fields of the moon, Mercury, and Mars. PMID:17741703

  5. Meteorite impact ejecta: dependence of mass and energy lost on planetary escape velocity.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J D; Ahrens, T J

    1977-12-23

    The calculated energy efficiency of mass ejection for iron and anorthosite objects striking an anorthosite planet at speeds of 5 to 45 kilometers per second decreases with increasing impact velocity at low escape velocities. At escape velocities of >10(5) and >2 x 10(4) centimeters per second, respectively, the slower impactors produce relatively less ejecta for a given impact energy. The impact velocities at which ejecta losses equal meteorite mass gains are found to be approximately 20, 35, and 45 kilometers per second for anorthosite objects and approximately 25, 35, and 40 kilometers per second for iron objects striking anorthosite surfaces for the gravity fields of the moon, Mercury, and Mars.

  6. Integrated Studies of Impact-Basin Ejecta as Probes of the Lunar Crust: Imbrium and Serenitatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Brad L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    The large, late, basin impacts on the Earth side of the Moon fundamentally reshaped the structure of the crust, its surface morphology, and the composition of the megaregolith and surface soils. The latest (except for Orientale on the western limb) and largest was the Imbrium impact, which produced massive ejecta deposits over much of the Procellarum region and beyond, and ejected material that mixed with surface regolith nearly Moonwide. The basins serve as natural probes into the lunar crust; therefore, understanding the nature and composition of ejecta produced by them provides information about the crust at depth. Gravity data allow modeling of the structure of the crust beneath the basins, and from such models one can infer depths of excavation and the nature of crustal response following impact.

  7. Observations of ejecta clouds produced by impacts onto Saturn's rings.

    PubMed

    Tiscareno, Matthew S; Mitchell, Colin J; Murray, Carl D; Di Nino, Daiana; Hedman, Matthew M; Schmidt, Jürgen; Burns, Joseph A; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Porco, Carolyn C; Beurle, Kevin; Evans, Michael W

    2013-04-26

    We report observations of dusty clouds in Saturn's rings, which we interpret as resulting from impacts onto the rings that occurred between 1 and 50 hours before the clouds were observed. The largest of these clouds was observed twice; its brightness and cant angle evolved in a manner consistent with this hypothesis. Several arguments suggest that these clouds cannot be due to the primary impact of one solid meteoroid onto the rings, but rather are due to the impact of a compact stream of Saturn-orbiting material derived from previous breakup of a meteoroid. The responsible interplanetary meteoroids were initially between 1 centimeter and several meters in size, and their influx rate is consistent with the sparse prior knowledge of smaller meteoroids in the outer solar system.

  8. Observations of ejecta clouds produced by impacts onto Saturn's rings.

    PubMed

    Tiscareno, Matthew S; Mitchell, Colin J; Murray, Carl D; Di Nino, Daiana; Hedman, Matthew M; Schmidt, Jürgen; Burns, Joseph A; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Porco, Carolyn C; Beurle, Kevin; Evans, Michael W

    2013-04-26

    We report observations of dusty clouds in Saturn's rings, which we interpret as resulting from impacts onto the rings that occurred between 1 and 50 hours before the clouds were observed. The largest of these clouds was observed twice; its brightness and cant angle evolved in a manner consistent with this hypothesis. Several arguments suggest that these clouds cannot be due to the primary impact of one solid meteoroid onto the rings, but rather are due to the impact of a compact stream of Saturn-orbiting material derived from previous breakup of a meteoroid. The responsible interplanetary meteoroids were initially between 1 centimeter and several meters in size, and their influx rate is consistent with the sparse prior knowledge of smaller meteoroids in the outer solar system. PMID:23620048

  9. Impact ejecta at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Morgan F.; Fung, Megan K.; Wright, James D.; Katz, Miriam E.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2016-10-01

    Extraterrestrial impacts have left a substantial imprint on the climate and evolutionary history of Earth. A rapid carbon cycle perturbation and global warming event about 56 million years ago at the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary (the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) was accompanied by rapid expansions of mammals and terrestrial plants and extinctions of deep-sea benthic organisms. Here, we report the discovery of silicate glass spherules in a discrete stratigraphic layer from three marine P-E boundary sections on the Atlantic margin. Distinct characteristics identify the spherules as microtektites and microkrystites, indicating that an extraterrestrial impact occurred during the carbon isotope excursion at the P-E boundary.

  10. Experimental hypervelocity impact into quartz sand - Distribution and shock metamorphism of ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Gault, D. E.; Wedekind, J.; Polkowski, G.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for vertical impacts of 0.3-g cylindrical plastic projectiles into noncohesive quartz sand in which vertical and horizontal reference strate were employed by using layers of colored sand. The impacts were performed at velocities of 5.9-6.9 km/sec with a vertical gun ballistic range. The craters, 30-33 cm in diameter, reveal a radial decay of the ejecta mass per unit area with a power of -2.8 to -3.5. Material displaced from the upper 15% of the crater depth d is represented within the whole ejecta blanked, material from deeper than 28% of d is deposited inside 2 crater radii, and no material from deeper than 33% of d was ejected beyond the crater rim. Shock-metamorphosed particles (glassy agglutinates, cataclastic breccias, and comminuted quartz) amount to some 4% of the total displaced mass and indicate progressive zones of decay of shock intensity from a peak pressure of 300 kbar. The shock-metamorphosed particles and the shock-induced change in the grain size distribution of ejected samples have close analogies to the basic characteristics of the lunar regolith. Possible applications to regolith formation and to ejecta formations of large-scale impact craters are discussed.

  11. Geochemistry and Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous/tertiary Boundary Impact Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, Alan Russell

    1992-01-01

    An array of stratigraphic, chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical evidence indicates that an impact terminated the Cretaceous Period. The 180-km-diameter Chicxulub crater, which now lies buried on the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, was probably formed by the impact. The impactor was probably a long-period comet. Shock devolatization of the thick carbonate/evaporite sequence impacted at Chicxulub probably led to a severe and long-lasting greenhouse warming and a prompt pulse of sulfuric acid rain. The fallout of crater ejecta formed two layers: a lower layer which varies in thickness following a power -law relation based on distance from the Chicxulub crater and an upper, globally-distributed, uniformly ~3-mm-thick layer. The upper layer probably represents the fallout of condensates and entrained solid and liquid particles which were distributed globally by the impact fireball. The lower layer consists of brecciated rock and impact melt near the crater and largely altered tektites far from the crater. The clasts of this layer were probably ballistically transported. The Raton, New Mexico K/T boundary section preserves the fireball and ejecta layers in a coal-free nonmarine environment. Siderophile, chalcophile, and lithophile trace element anomalies occur similar to those found at marine K/T boundary localities. Soot occurs peaking in the 3-mm-thick fireball layer and the immediately overlying 3 mm of sediment, implying prompt burning of the Cretaceous forests. The Brazos River, Texas continental-shelf K/T sections preserve coarse boundary sediments which were probably produced by impact waves. Siderophile and chalcophile trace-element anomalies occur suggesting that the fireball layer and possibly part of the ejecta layer are interbedded with the coarse boundary sediments. The Beloc, Haiti deep-sea K/T sections preserve a thick ejecta sequence including altered and unaltered tektites and shocked minerals capped by the fireball layer. The thick K/T ejecta preserved at

  12. Initial Observations of Lunar Impact Melts and Ejecta Flows with the Mini-RF Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Spudis, Paul D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Cahill, Joshua T.; Raney, R. Keith

    2011-01-01

    The Mini-RF radar on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's spacecraft has revealed a great variety of crater ejecta flow and impact melt deposits, some of which were not observed in prior radar imaging. The craters Tycho and Glushko have long melt flows that exhibit variations in radar backscatter and circular polarization ratio along the flow. Comparison with optical imaging reveals that these changes are caused by features commonly seen in terrestrial lava flows, such as rafted plates, pressure ridges, and ponding. Small (less than 20 km) sized craters also show a large variety of features, including melt flows and ponds. Two craters have flow features that may be ejecta flows caused by entrained debris flowing across the surface rather than by melted rock. The circular polarization ratios (CPRs) of the impact melt flows are typically very high; even ponded areas have CPR values between 0.7-1.0. This high CPR suggests that deposits that appear smooth in optical imagery may be rough at centimeter- and decimeter- scales. In some places, ponds and flows are visible with no easily discernable source crater. These melt deposits may have come from oblique impacts that are capable of ejecting melted material farther downrange. They may also be associated with older, nearby craters that no longer have a radar-bright proximal ejecta blanket. The observed morphology of the lunar crater flows has implications for similar features observed on Venus. In particular, changes in backscatter along many of the ejecta flows are probably caused by features typical of lava flows.

  13. Meteoroid Impact Ejecta Detection by Nanosatellites for Asteroid Surface Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, N.; Close, S.; Goel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Asteroids are constantly bombarded by much smaller meteoroids at extremely high speeds, which results in erosion of the material on the asteroid surface. Some of this material is vaporized and ionized, forming a plasma that is ejected into the environment around the asteroid where it can be detected by a constellation of closely orbiting nanosatellites. We present a concept to leverage this natural phenomenon and to analyze this excavated material using low-power plasma sensors on nanosatellites in order to determine the composition of the asteroid surface. This concept would enable a constellation of nanosatellites to provide useful data complementing existing techniques such as spectroscopy, which require larger and more power-hungry sensors. Possible mission architectures include precursor exploratory missions using nanosatellites to survey and identify asteroid candidates worthy of further study by a large spacecraft, or simultaneous exploration by a nanosatellite constellation with a larger parent spacecraft to decrease the time required to cover the entire asteroid surface. The use of meteoroid impact plasma to analyze the surface composition of asteroids will not only produce measurements that have not been previously obtained, including the molecular composition of the surface, but will also yield a better measurement of the meteoroid flux in the vicinity of the asteroid. Current meteoroid models are poorly constrained beyond the orbit of Mars, due to scarcity of data. If this technology is used to survey asteroids in the main belt, it will offer a dramatic increase in the availability of meteoroid flux measurements in deep space, identifying previously unknown meteoroid streams and providing additional data to support models of solar system dust dynamics.

  14. Ejecta thickness and structural rim uplift measurements of Martian impact craters: Implications for the rim formation of complex impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Sebastian; Kenkmann, Thomas; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The elevated rim in simple craters results from the structural uplift of preimpact target rocks and the deposition of a coherent proximal ejecta blanket at the outer edge of the transient cavity. Given the considerable, widening of the transient cavity during crater modification and ejecta thickness distributions, the cause of elevated crater rims in complex craters is less obvious. The thick, proximal ejecta in complex impact craters is deposited well inside the final crater rim and target thickening should rapidly diminish with increasing distance from the transient cavity rim. Our study of 10 complex Martian impact craters ranging from 8.2 to 53.0 km in diameter demonstrates that the mean structural rim uplift at the final crater rim makes 81% of the total rim elevation, while the mean ejecta thickness contributes 19%. Thus, the structural rim uplift seems to be the dominant factor to build up the total amount of the raised crater rim of complex craters. To measure the widening of the transient cavity during modification and the distance between the rim of the final crater and that of the transient cavity, we constructed balanced cross section restorations to estimate the transient cavity of nine complex Martian impact craters. The final crater radii are ~1.38-1.87 times the transient cavity radii. We propose that target uplift at the position of the final crater rim was established during the excavation stage.

  15. The acraman impact structure: source of ejecta in late precambrian shales, South australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, G E

    1986-07-11

    A major probable impact structure occurs in middle Proterozoic dacitic volcanics in the Gawler Ranges, central South Australia. The structure has an inner depressed area about 30 kilometers in diameter that contains the Lake Acraman salina, an intermediate depression or ring about 90 kilometers in diameter, and a possible outer ring approximately 160 kilometers in diameter. Outcrops of dacite in Lake Acraman are intensely shattered and contain shatter cones and multiple sets of shock lamellac in quartz grains. The Acraman structure is the largest probable impact structure known in Australia and is the likely source of dacitic ejecta found in late Precambrian marine shales some 300 kilometers to the east.

  16. Transfer of impact ejecta material from the surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos.

    PubMed

    Chappaz, Loïc; Melosh, Henry J; Vaquero, Mar; Howell, Kathleen C

    2013-10-01

    The Russian Phobos-Grunt spacecraft originally planned to return a 200 g sample of surface material from Phobos to Earth. Although it was anticipated that this material would mainly be from the body of Phobos, there is a possibility that such a sample may also contain material ejected from the surface of Mars by large impacts. An analysis of this possibility is completed by using current knowledge of aspects of impact cratering on the surface of Mars and the production of high-speed ejecta that might reach Phobos or Deimos.

  17. Striations, Polish, and Related Features from Clasts in Impact-Ejecta Deposits and the "Tillite Problem"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Ernstson, K.; Anguita, F.; Claudin F.

    1997-01-01

    Proximal ejecta deposits related to three large terrestrial impacts, the 14.8-Ma Ries impact structure in Germany (the Bunte Breccia), the 65-Ma Chicxulub impact structure in the Yucatan (the Albion and Pook's Hill Diamictites in Belize) and the mid-Tertiary Azuara impact structure in Spain (the Pelarda Fm.) occur in the form of widespread debris-flow deposits most likely originating from ballistic processes. These impact-related diamictites typically are poorly sorted, containing grain sizes from clay to large boulders and blocks, and commonly display evidence of mass flow, including preferred orientation of long axes of clasts, class imbrication, flow noses, plugs and pods of coarse debris, and internal shear planes. Clasts of various lithologies show faceting, various degrees of rounding, striations (including nailhead striae), crescentic chattermarks, mirror-like polish, percussion marks, pitting, and penetration features. Considering the impact history of the Earth, it is surprising that so few ballistic ejecta, deposits have been discovered, unless the preservation potential is extremely low, or such materials exist but have been overlooked or misidentified as other types of geologic deposits . Debris-flow diamictites of various kinds have been reported in the geologic record, but these are commonly attributed to glaciation based on the coarse and poorly sorted nature of the deposits and, in many cases, on the presence of clasts showing features considered diagnostic of glacial action, including striations of various kinds, polish, and pitting. These diamictites are the primary evidence for ancient ice ages. We present evidence of the surface features on clasts from known proximal ejecta debris-flow deposits and compare these features with those reported in diamictites. interpreted as ancient glacial deposits (tillites). Our purpose is to document the types of features seen on clasts in diamictites of ejecta origin in order to help in the interpretation of

  18. Meteorite impact ejecta - Dependence of mass and energy lost on planetary escape velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The amounts of material and energy which escape a planet in a meteorite impact event is calculated as functions of impact and escape velocities. Results are obtained from the computed flow induced by the impact of iron and gabbroic anorthosite spheres onto a half-space of anorthosite at impact velocities of 5 to 45 km/sec. The impact-induced flows were determined by a numerical method using the mass, momentum, and energy conservation relations in finite-difference approximation, within an Eulerian computational grid. The impact velocities at which ejecta losses equal meteorite mass gains are found to be approximately 20, 35, and 45 km/sec for anorthosite objects and approximately 25, 35, and 40 km/sec for iron objects striking anorthosite surfaces for the gravity fields of the moon, Mercury and Mars.

  19. Iridium Concentrations and Abundances of Meteoritic Ejecta from the Eltanin Impact in Sediment Cores from Polarstern Expedition ANT XII/4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2002-01-01

    The abundances of meteoritic ejecta from the Eltanin asteroid impact have been examined in several sediment cores recovered by the FS Polarstern during expedition ANT XII/4 using elemental concentrations of iridium and weights of coarse ejecta debris. Three cores with well-preserved impact deposits, PS204-1, PS2708-1, and PS2709-1, each contain Ir and ejecta fluences similar to those found in USNS Eltanin core E13-4. Small Ir anomalies and traces of ejecta were found in cores PS2706-1 and PS2710-1, but since these cores lack well-defined deposits, these are considered to be reworked and not representative of the fallout. No evidence of ejecta was found in cores PS2802-1 and PS2705-1. These results confirm earlier speculation that the Eltanin impact resulted in deposits of ejecta with up to 1 gram/sq centimeter of depris over a wide area of the ocean floor. However, there are sill large uncertainties over the actual regional or global extent of this unique sediment deposit.

  20. An Impact Sensor System for the Characterization of the Micrometeoroid and Lunar Secondary Ejecta Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Burchell, M.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Stansbery, E.; Blum, Jurgen; Cooke, William; Pisacane, V.

    2009-01-01

    The Impact Sensor for Micrometeoroid and Lunar Secondary Ejecta (IMMUSE) project aims to apply and integrate previously demonstrated impact sensing subsystems to characterize the micrometeoroid and lunar secondary (MMSE) environment on the surface of the Moon. Once deployed, data returned from IMMUSE will benefit: (1) Fundamental Lunar Science: providing data to improve the understanding of lunar cratering processes and dynamics of the lunar regolith. (2) Lunar Exploration Applied Science: providing an accurate MMSE environment definition for reliable impact risk assessments, cost-effective shielding designs, and mitigation measures for long-term lunar exploration activities. (3) Planetary Science: providing micrometeoroid data to aid the understanding of asteroidal collisions and the evolution of comets. A well-established link between micrometeoroid impacts and lunar regolith is also key to understanding other regolith-covered bodies from remote-sensing data. The IMMUSE system includes two components: (1) a large area (greater than or equal to 1 m2) micrometeoroid detector based on acoustic impact and fiber optic displacement sensors and (2) a 100 cm2 lunar secondary ejecta detector consisting of dual-layer laser curtain and acoustic impact sensors. The combinations of different detection mechanisms will allow for a better characterization of the MMSE environment, including flux, particle size/mass, and impact velocity. IMMUSE is funded by the NASA LASER Program through 2012. The project fs goal is to reach a Technical Readiness Level of 4 in preparation for a more advanced development beyond 2012. Several prototype subsystems have been constructed and subjected to low impact and hypervelocity impact tests. The presentation will include a status review and preliminary test results.

  1. Comparing Radar and Optical Data Sets of Lunar Impact Crater Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Patterson, G.; Cahill, J.; Grier, J.

    2015-12-01

    Impact cratering is a primary weathering process of airless bodies and is the dominant method of redistributing material across the lunar surface. Crater ejecta blankets are a window into the impact cratering process and can provide important information on the properties of subsurface materials as well as surface evolution. Radar scattering information, in particular the circular polarization ratio (CPR), provides a useful means of investigating these properties. Using data returned from the Mini-RF instrument onboard NASA's LRO, we observe significant diversity in the CPR around young mare craters as a function of distance from the crater rim, regardless of crater size or relative age. Some commonalities in the scattering profiles are observed for all crater diameters: higher CPR values occur near the crater rim that decay with radial distance outward, larger craters have a higher CPR than smaller craters, and the overall shapes of the profiles are similar such that the main scattering characteristics of the studied craters can generally be grouped into three main categories. Comparing CPR profiles with data at other wavelengths provides additional insights and suggests two interesting results. The first is that comparisons of radar and optical data imply relationships between mare subsurface stratigraphy and structure and the relative size of the material found within the ejecta blanket. Of the examined craters, twelve have shelves of approximately constant CPR as well as discrete layers outcropping in the subsurface, and nine fall along a trend line when comparing shelf-width with thickness of subsurface layers. The second is that comparisons of radar data with other wavelengths may provide insights into the maturity of the surface. For example, some examined craters have laterally extensive, optically bright ejecta blankets suggesting that a region of rough, high-CPR material should be present near the crater rim, though this is not observed. Radar data is

  2. Shared origin for seven of Mars Trojans - impact ejecta from Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Jacobson, Seth A.; Aharonson, Oded

    2016-10-01

    Seven out of nine Mars Trojans belong to an orbital grouping that started to spread about 109 years ago (Cuk et al. 2015). We spectrally observed two of them (311999 and 385250) using the IRTF telescope and found that both present an identical olivine-rich reflectance spectrum, that is similar to the reflectance spectrum of (5261) Eureka, the largest of these seven Trojans (Rivkin et al. 2007). These measurements confirm the shared origin of the seven. Moreover, olivine-rich reflectance spectra is rare within asteroids, but is visible in numerous locations on Mars and is found within SNC meteorites that are argued to originate from Mars (Chassigny, ALHA77005; McSween 1985). This spectral resemblance encourages us to suggest that the seven Trojans are impact ejecta from Mars' plutonic rock. We will present dynamical calculations showing how the impact ejecta could have been caught in L5 and that there are enough size-relevant craters on Mars surface to produce these seven Trojans.

  3. Modification of Mercury's Bulk Mantle Composition by Reaccumulation of Condensed Ejecta from a Formative Giant Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Sean; Stevenson, D. J.; Elkins-Tanton, L.

    2010-10-01

    Difficulties encountered in reproducing Mercury's compositional attributes through modeling of formational processes have bolstered support for the hypothesis that one or more giant impacts stripped away a significant proportion of proto-Mercury's silicate mantle. Previous investigations demonstrate sufficient removal of mantle material to account for the planet's unusually high mean density, but do not consider the effects of multiple silicate and oxide phases. In this study we extend the present theory by investigating the consequences of a more realistic chemical model on the evolution of the ejected material. We suggest that the majority of condensation within the expanding vapor plume can be modeled as an equilibrium process following homogeneous nucleation of refractory phases leading to larger particle sizes than previously estimated. We use a thermodynamic model focused on major element composition of ejected material to analyze the effect of differential condensation on the expansion and final state of ejecta. For ejecta of sufficiently high specific entropy, our simplified chemical models indicate that energy released during condensation of MgO-rich phases buffers the temperature, delaying or preventing onset of FeO condensation. If sufficient spatial separation between condensates and vapor arises or if significant amounts of uncondensed FeO vapor remain uncondensed, reaccumulated ejecta would be enriched in MgO and refractory phases. This is compatible with an FeO depletion of Mercury's surface relative to other terrestrial bodies as spectroscopic data suggest (McClintock, Science, 2008). Despite conflicts in the data and the necessity for further relating it to bulk mantle composition, we describe potential tests of our model. Concentration of incompatible elements in the crust formed by a magma ocean would intensify FeO loss. The proposed process leads to a greater depletion in FeO and a lesser depletion in refractory, incompatible elements (Al2O3, Ca

  4. The Search for Sustainable Subsurface Habitats on Mars, and the Sampling of Impact Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Lindgren, Paula

    2010-07-01

    On Earth, the deep subsurface biosphere of both the oceanic and the continental crust is well known for surviving harsh conditions and environments characterized by high temperatures, high pressures, extreme pHs, and the absence of sunlight. The microorganisms of the terrestrial deep biosphere have an excellent capacity for adapting to changing geochemistry, as the alteration of the crust proceeds and the conditions of their habitats slowly change. Despite an almost complete isolation from surface conditions and the surface biosphere, the deep biosphere of the crustal rocks has endured over geologic time. This indicates that the deep biosphere is a self-sufficient system, independent of the global events that occur at the surface, such as impacts, glaciations, sea level fluctuations, and climate changes. With our sustainable terrestrial subsurface biosphere in mind, the subsurface on Mars has often been suggested as the most plausible place to search for fossil Martian life, or even present Martian life. Since the Martian surface is more or less sterile, subsurface settings are the only place on Mars where life could have been sustained over geologic time. To detect a deep biosphere in the Martian basement, drilling is a requirement. However, near future Mars sample return missions are limited by the mission's payload, which excludes heavy drilling equipment and restrict the missions to only dig the topmost meter of the Martian soil. Therefore, the sampling and analysis of Martian impact ejecta has been suggested as a way of accessing the deeper Martian subsurface without using heavy drilling equipment. Impact cratering is a natural geological process capable of excavating and exposing large amounts of rock material from great depths up to the surface. Several studies of terrestrial impact deposits show the preservation of pre-impact biosignatures, such as fossilized organisms and chemical biological markers. Therefore, if the Martian subsurface contains a record

  5. The origin of Phobos grooves from ejecta launched from impact craters on Mars: Tests of the hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsley, Kenneth R.; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of the martian moon Phobos is characterized by parallel and intersecting grooves that bear resemblance to secondary crater chains observed on planetary surfaces. Murray (2011) has hypothesized that the main groove-forming process on Phobos is the intersection of Phobos with ejecta from primary impact events on Mars to produce chains of secondary craters. The hypothesis infers a pattern of parallel jets of ejecta, either fluidized or solidified, that break into equally-spaced fragments and disperse uniformly along-trajectory during the flight from Mars to Phobos. At the moment of impact with Phobos the dispersed fragments emplace secondary craters that are aligned along strike corresponding to the flight pattern of ejecta along trajectory. The aspects of the characteristics of grooves on Phobos cited by this hypothesis that might be explained by secondary ejecta include: their observed linearity, parallelism, planar alignment, pitted nature, change in character along strike, and a "zone of avoidance" where ejecta from Mars is predicted not to impact (Murray, 2011). To test the hypothesis we plot precise Keplerian orbits for ejecta from Mars (elliptical and hyperbolic with periapsis located below the surface of Mars). From these trajectories we: (1) set the fragment dispersion limits of ejecta patterns required to emplace the more typically well-organized parallel grooves observed in returned images from Phobos; (2) plot ranges of the ejecta flight durations from Mars to Phobos and map regions of exposure; (3) utilize the same exposure map to observe trajectory-defined ejecta exposure shadows; (4) observe hemispheric exposure in response to shorter and longer durations of ejecta flight; (5) assess the viability of ejecta emplacing the large family of grooves covering most of the northern hemisphere of Phobos; and (6) plot the arrival of parallel lines of ejecta emplacing chains of craters at oblique incident angles. We also assess the bulk volume of

  6. Asteroid Impact Deflection and Assessment (AIDA) mission - Full-Scale Modeling and Simulation of Ejecta Evolution and Fates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Yu, Yang; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Schwartz, Stephen; Stickle, Angela; Miller, Paul L.; Cheng, Andy F.; Michel, Patrick; AIDA Impact Simulation Working Group

    2016-10-01

    The proposed Asteroid Impact Deflection and Assessment (AIDA) mission includes NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), whose impact with the secondary of near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos is expected to liberate large amounts of ejecta. We present efforts within the AIDA Impact Simulation Working Group to comprehensively simulate the behavior of this impact ejecta as it moves through and exits the system. Group members at JPL, OCA, and UMD have been working largely independently, developing their own strategies and methodologies. Ejecta initial conditions may be imported from output of hydrocode impact simulations or generated from crater scaling laws derived from point-source explosion models. We started with the latter approach, using reasonable assumptions for the secondary's density, porosity, surface cohesive strength, and vanishingly small net gravitational/rotational surface acceleration. We adopted DART's planned size, mass, closing velocity, and impact geometry for the cratering event. Using independent N-Body codes, we performed Monte Carlo integration of ejecta particles sampled over reasonable particle size ranges, and over launch locations within the crater footprint. In some cases we scaled the number of integrated particles in various size bins to the estimated number of particles consistent with a realistic size-frequency distribution. Dynamical models used for the particle integration varied, but all included full gravity potential of both primary and secondary, the solar tide, and solar radiation pressure (accounting for shadowing). We present results for the proportions of ejecta reaching ultimate fates of escape, return impact on the secondary, and transfer impact onto the primary. We also present the time history of reaching those outcomes, i.e., ejecta clearing timescales, and the size-frequency distribution of remaining ejecta at given post-impact durations. We find large numbers of particles remain in the system for several

  7. Dynamics of ejecta from a binary asteroid impact in the framework of the AIDA mission: a NEOShield-2 contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Schwartz, S. R.; Michel, P.; Benner, L. A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of the ejecta cloud that results from a binary asteroid impact is one of the tasks of the NEOShield-2 project, funded by the European Commission in its program Horizon 2020. Results from such an investigation will have great relevance to the Phase-A study of the AIDA space mission, a collaborative effort between ESA and NASA, which aims to perform a kinetic impactor demonstration. Our study presents a multi-scale dynamical model of the ejecta cloud produced by a hypervelocity impact, which enables us to check the behaviors of the ejecta at different spatial and time scales. This model is applied to the impact into the small moon of the binary Near- Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos on October 2022 as considered by the AIDA mission. We attempt to model the process by including as much practical information as possible, e.g., the gravitational environment influenced by the non-spherical shapes of the bodies based on observed shape of the primary), the solar tides, and the solar radiation pressure. Our simulations show the general patterns of motion of the ejecta cloud, which we use to assess the potential hazard to an observing spacecraft. We also look into the grain-scale dynamics of the ejecta during this process, which has influence on the re-accumulation of particles orbiting in the vicinity.

  8. Martian impact cratering rate over the last 3 billions years derived from layered ejecta craters dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagain, Anthony; Bouley, Sylvain; Costard, François; Baratoux, David

    2016-04-01

    All chronology models used in dating planetary surfaces are based on the lunar chronology system. The cratering density of the Moon has been calibrated with absolute ages from Apollo lunar samples. However, there are no lunar samples between 3 Gy and 800 My and only four samples have been dated between 800 My and present. Therefore, the evolution of the cratering rate after the LHB and before 3 Gy is well constrained. The cratering rate between 3 Gy and present has been assumed to be constant [1, 2]. Nevertheless, this assumption is challenged by the analysis of the geological record, such as the frequency of landslide on Mars as a function of time [3, 4]. It is therefore necessary to re-examine the validity of this assumption and place constraints on the cratering rate since the last 3 Gy. For this purpose, we study the rate of impact cratering using small craters on a set of 53 layered ejecta craters larger than 5 km in diameter in Acidalia Planitia, Mars. LECs larger than 5km have large enough surfaces to date their formation by counting craters larger than 100m present on their blankets. Furthermore, limits of their ejecta blankets are clearly defined by a terminal bead. In order to determine the crater emplacement ages, we have applied the methodology dating described in our previous study [6] on all ejecta layers. Errors on measured ages were calculated following [7]. The age of the study area is 2.8±0.2 Gy. Our crater counts on distal ejecta blankets reveal ages younger than the age of the surrounding surface, as expected. It is essential to take into account errors on measured ages. The statistical sample used to build this emplacement frequency distribution and our dating methodology are sufficiently reliable to deduce that a constant impact cratering rate over the last 3 Gy is not a correct approximation. The excessive number of craters emplaced 1Gy ago compared to the cratering rate used suggests a decreased impact cratering rate over the last 1Gy and

  9. Investigating Atmospheric Effects on Impact Ejecta Morphology: Possible Tool for Determining Past Climate Conditions on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, John F.; Barnouin-Jha, Oliver S.; Cheng, Andrew F.

    1999-01-01

    The combined use of impact crater morphology and mechanics provides important information on the physical conditions of both planetary atmospheres and planetary and asteroid surfaces present during crater formation, while an understanding of the rate of crater production on the surface of asteroids provides information of their surface and spin rate evolution. The research performed with support from this project improves our understanding of (1) the mechanics of impact cratering in order to gain insights on the evolution of these physical surface conditions on planets with atmospheres and asteroids, and (2) how impact flux across an asteroid surface may vary due to anisotropic distribution of impactors in the solar system. As part of this project, we have undertaken three studies. In the first study, we investigate atmospheric effects on the morphology of ejecta excavated during a cratering event in order to determine the atmospheric and target conditions from observed crater morphologies. In the second study, we use the physical and morphological consequences of oblique impacts on an asteroid to understand how the asteroid Mathilde (recently imaged by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous - NEAR- spacecraft) could have survived the formation of five giant craters. In a third study, we use a Monte Carlo method to calculate the impact flux on an asteroid given a distribution of impactors on elliptical orbits. In the following section, we present the result obtained from all three studies.

  10. Generation and emplacement of fine-grained ejecta in planetary impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ghent, R.R.; Gupta, V.; Campbell, B.A.; Ferguson, S.A.; Brown, J.C.W.; Fergason, R.L.; Carter, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We report here on a survey of distal fine-grained ejecta deposits on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. On all three planets, fine-grained ejecta form circular haloes that extend beyond the continuous ejecta and other types of distal deposits such as run-out lobes or ramparts. Using Earth-based radar images, we find that lunar fine-grained ejecta haloes represent meters-thick deposits with abrupt margins, and are depleted in rocks 1cm in diameter. Martian haloes show low nighttime thermal IR temperatures and thermal inertia, indicating the presence of fine particles estimated to range from ???10??m to 10mm. Using the large sample sizes afforded by global datasets for Venus and Mars, and a complete nearside radar map for the Moon, we establish statistically robust scaling relationships between crater radius R and fine-grained ejecta run-out r for all three planets. On the Moon, ???R-0.18 for craters 5-640km in diameter. For Venus, radar-dark haloes are larger than those on the Moon, but scale as ???R-0.49, consistent with ejecta entrainment in Venus' dense atmosphere. On Mars, fine-ejecta haloes are larger than lunar haloes for a given crater size, indicating entrainment of ejecta by the atmosphere or vaporized subsurface volatiles, but scale as R-0.13, similar to the ballistic lunar scaling. Ejecta suspension in vortices generated by passage of the ejecta curtain is predicted to result in ejecta run-out that scales with crater size as R1/2, and the wind speeds so generated may be insufficient to transport particles at the larger end of the calculated range. The observed scaling and morphology of the low-temperature haloes leads us rather to favor winds generated by early-stage vapor plume expansion as the emplacement mechanism for low-temperature halo materials. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Impacts into quartz sand: Crater formation, shock metamorphism, and ejecta distribution in laboratory experiments and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünnemann, Kai; Zhu, Meng-Hua; StöFfler, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the ejection mechanics by a complementary approach of cratering experiments, including the microscopic analysis of material sampled from these experiments, and 2-D numerical modeling of vertical impacts. The study is based on cratering experiments in quartz sand targets performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range. In these experiments, the preimpact location in the target and the final position of ejecta was determined by using color-coded sand and a catcher system for the ejecta. The results were compared with numerical simulations of the cratering and ejection process to validate the iSALE shock physics code. In turn the models provide further details on the ejection velocities and angles. We quantify the general assumption that ejecta thickness decreases with distance according to a power-law and that the relative proportion of shocked material in the ejecta increase with distance. We distinguish three types of shock metamorphic particles (1) melt particles, (2) shock lithified aggregates, and (3) shock-comminuted grains. The agreement between experiment and model was excellent, which provides confidence that the models can predict ejection angles, velocities, and the degree of shock loading of material expelled from a crater accurately if impact parameters such as impact velocity, impactor size, and gravity are varied beyond the experimental limitations. This study is relevant for a quantitative assessment of impact gardening on planetary surfaces and the evolution of regolith layers on atmosphereless bodies.

  12. Dating a Small Impact Crater: An Age of Kaali Crater (Estonia) Based on Charcoal Emplaced Within Proximal Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; Välja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2015-09-01

    The Kaali crater was formed shortly after (tpq) 1530-1455 BC (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). This age is based on dating charcoal within the ejecta blanket that makes it directly related to the impact, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects.

  13. Reseeding of early earth by impacts of returning ejecta during the late heavy bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Llyd E.; Armstrong, John C.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2003-03-01

    Mounting attention has focused on interplanetary transfer of microorganisms (panspermia), particularly in reference to exchange between Mars and Earth. In most cases, however, such exchange requires millions of years, over which time the transported microorganisms must remain viable. During a large impact on Earth, however, previous work (J.C. Armstrong et al., 2002, Icarus 160, 183-196) has shown that substantial amounts of material return to the planet of origin over a much shorter period of time (< 5000 years), considerably mitigating the challenges to the survival of a living organism. Conservatively evaluating experiments performed [by others] on Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans to constrain biological survival under impact conditions, we estimate that if the Earth were hit by a sterilizing impactor ˜ 300 km in diameter, with a relative velocity of 30 km s -1 (such as may have occurred during the Late Heavy Bombardment), an initial cell population in the ejecta of order 10 3-10 5 cells kg -1 would in most cases be sufficient for a single modern organism to survive and return to an again-clement planet 3000-5000 years later. Although little can be said about the characteristics or distribution of ancient life, our calculations suggest that impact reseeding is a possible means by which life, if present, could have survived the Late Heavy Bombardment.

  14. Impact melt- and projectile-bearing ejecta at Barringer Crater, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Bunch, Ted E.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Buitenhuis, Eric; Wittke, James H.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the impact cratering process continues to evolve and, even at well-known and well-studied structures, there is still much to be learned. Here, we present the results of a study on impact-generated melt phases within ejecta at Barringer Crater, Arizona, one of the first impact craters on Earth to be recognized and arguably the most famous. We report on previously unknown impact melt-bearing breccias that contain dispersed fragments of the projectile as well as impact glasses that contain a high proportion of projectile material - higher than any other glasses previously reported from this site. These glasses are distinctly different from so-called "melt beads" that are found as a lag deposit on the present-day erosion surface and that we also study. It is proposed that the melts in these impact breccias were derived from a more constrained sub-region of the melt zone that was very shallow and that also had a larger projectile contribution. In addition to low- and high-Fe melt beads documented previously, we document Ca-Mg-rich glasses and calcite globules within silicate glass that provide definitive evidence that carbonates underwent melting during the formation of Barringer Crater. We propose that the melting of dolomite produces Ca-Mg-rich melts from which calcite is the dominant liquidus phase. This explains the perhaps surprising finding that despite dolomite being the dominant rock type at many impact sites, including Barringer Crater, calcite is the dominant melt product. When taken together with our estimate for the amount of impact melt products dispersed on, and just below, the present-day erosional surface, it is clear that the amount of melt produced at Barringer Crater is higher than previously estimated and is more consistent with recent numerical modeling studies. This work adds to the growing recognition that sedimentary rocks melt during hypervelocity impact and do not just decompose and/or devolatilize as was previously thought

  15. Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Planetary Analog Geologic Settings: Impact Ejecta, Volcanics, and Fluvial Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Grant, J. A.; Carter, L. M.; Garry, W.; Williams, K. K.; Morgan, G. A.; Daubar, I.; Bussey, B.

    2012-12-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from terrestrial analog environments can help constrain models for evolution of the lunar and martian surfaces, aid in interpretation of orbital SAR data, and help predict what might be encountered in the subsurface during future landed scientific or engineering operations. Results and interpretations presented here from impact ejecta (Barringer Meteorite Crater), volcanic deposits (Northern Arizona cinders overlying lavas, columnar-jointed Columbia River flood basalts, Hawaii lava flows), and terrains influenced by fluvial-related activity (channeled scablands megaflood bar, Mauna Kea glacio-fluvial deposits) focus on defining the radar "fingerprint" of geologic materials and settings that may be analogous to those found on the Moon and Mars. The challenge in using GPR in geologic investigations is the degree to which different geologic features and processes can be uniquely identified and distinguished in the data. Our approach to constraining this is to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize GPR signatures of different geological environments and to compare them with "ground-truth" observations of subsurface exposures immediately adjacent or subjacent to our GPR transects. Several sites were chosen in each field area based on accessibility, visual access to the subsurface, and presence of particular geologic features of interest. The interpreted distribution of blocks in impact ejecta at Meteor Crater, using a 400 MHz antenna (wavelength of 75 cm) is 1.5-3 blocks per m^3 in the upper 1 m (and 0.5-1 blocks per m^3 in the upper two meters), which is close to the in situ measured block distribution of 2-3 blocks larger than 0.25-0.30 m per m^3. This is roughly the detection limit to be expected from the λ/3 resolution approximation of radar wavelength and indicates that the 400 MHz GPR is characterizing the block population in ejecta. While megaflood bar deposits are also reflector-rich, individual reflectors are in

  16. Computer modeling of large asteroid impacts into continental and oceanic sites: Atmospheric, cratering, and ejecta dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddy, D. J.; Schuster, S. H.; Rosenblatt, M.; Grant, L. B.; Hassig, P. J.; Kreyenhagen, K. N.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous impact cratering events have occurred on the Earth during the last several billion years that have seriously affected our planet and its atmosphere. The largest cratering events, which were caused by asteroids and comets with kinetic energies equivalent to tens of millions of megatons of TNT, have distributed substantial quantities of terrestrial and extraterrestrial material over much or all of the Earth. In order to study a large-scale impact event in detail, computer simulations were completed that model the passage of a 10 km-diameter asteroid through the Earth's atmosphere and the subsequent cratering and ejecta dynamics associated with impact of the asteroid into two different targets, i.e., an oceanic site and a continental site. The calcuations were designed to broadly represent giant impact events that have occurred on the Earth since its formation and specifically represent an impact cratering event proposed to have occurred at the end of Cretaceous time. Calculation of the passage of the asteroid through a U.S. Standard Atmosphere showed development of a strong bow shock that expanded radially outward. Behind the shock front was a region of highly shock compressed and intensely heated air. Behind the asteroid, rapid expansion of this shocked air created a large region of very low density that also expanded away from the impact area. Calculations of the cratering events in both the continental and oceanic targets were carried to 120 s. Despite geologic differences, impacts in both targets developed comparable dynamic flow fields, and by approx. 29 s similar-sized transient craters approx. 39 km deep and approx. 62 km across had formed. For all practical purposes, the atmosphere was nearly completely removed from the impact area for tens of seconds, i.e., air pressures were less than fractions of a bar out to ranges of over 50 km. Consequently, much of the asteroid and target materials were ejected upward into a near vacuum. Effects of secondary

  17. Digital Elevation Models Aid the Analysis of Double Layered Ejecta (DLE) Impact Craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Boyce, J. M.; Garbeil, H.

    2014-12-01

    Considerable debate has recently taken place concerning the origin of the inner and outer ejecta layers of double layered ejecta (DLE) craters on Mars. For craters in the diameter range ~10 to ~25 km, the inner ejecta layer of DLE craters displays characteristic grooves extending from the rim crest, and has led investigators to propose three hypotheses for their formation: (1) deposition of the primary ejecta and subsequent surface scouring by either atmospheric vortices or a base surge; (2) emplacement through a landslide of the near-rim crest ejecta; and (3) instabilities (similar to Gortler vortices) generated by high flow-rate, and high granular temperatures. Critical to resolving between these models is the topographic expression of both the ejecta layer and the groove geometry. To address this problem, we have made several digital elevation models (DEMs) from CTX and HiRISE stereo pairs using the Ames Stereo Pipeline at scales of 24 m/pixel and 1 m/pixel, respectively. These DEMs allow several key observations to be made that bear directly upon the origin of the grooves associated with DLE craters: (1) Grooves formed on the sloping ejecta layer surfaces right up to the preserved crater rim; (2) There is clear evidence that grooves traverse the topographic boundary between the inner and outer ejecta layers; and (3) There are at least two different sets of radial grooves, with smaller grooves imprinted upon the larger grooves. There are "deep-wide" grooves that have a width of ~200 m and a depth of ~10 m, and there are "shallow-narrow" grooves with a width of <50 m and depth <5 m. These two scales of grooves are not consistent with their formation analogous to a landslide. Two different sets of grooves would imply that, simultaneously, two different depths to the flow would have to exist if the grooves were formed by shear within the flow, something that is not physically possible. All three observations can only be consistent with a model of groove formation

  18. Crater Ejecta Deposition on Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Otto, Katharina; Schulzeck, Franziska; Krohn, Katrin; Gathen, Isabell v. d.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-10-01

    Since March 6 2015 the Dawn spacecraft (Russell et al., 2012) is orbiting the dwarf planet Ceres inside the asteroid main belt. Color ratio data of the Framing Camera instrument show distinct bluish characteristics of recently exposed materials such as impact ejecta of young craters. Besides the common radial pattern of proximal ejecta, the distribution of remote ejecta is heavily affected by the relatively fast rotation of Ceres. We compare results from n-body simulations of impact ejecta with specific patterns in the color ratio data of the Dawn Framing Camera. Results of this work can also be used in order to predict prominent regions and patterns of secondary cratering.

  19. New modeling results of the Bunte breccia ejecta morphology and thickness variations outside the Ries impact crater, southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, S.; Wulf, G.; Jung, D.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Ries impact crater with a diameter of ~25 km represents a relatively pristine, complex impact crater in southern Germany that was formed during the Miocene (14.34+-0.08 Ma) [1, 2]. The impact occurred into a two-layered target that consists of ~650 m partly water-saturated and subhorizontally layered sediments (limestones, sandstones, shales) of Triassic to Tertiary ages underlain by crystalline basement rocks (mainly gneisses, granites and amphibolites) [3, 4]. The continuous ejecta blanket of the crater ejected up to a distance of 45 km from the crater center is built up by so called Bunte breccias, a polymict lithic breccia. The ejected breccia material mainly consists of unshocked to weakly shocked sedimentary target clasts in addition to a minority of crystalline basement clasts and reworked surfical sediments (e.g., Upper Freshwater Molasses or Upper Seawater Molasses) [5, 6]. Here we present new results of the morphology of the (i) paleo-relief and (ii) the thickness variations of the continuous ejecta blanket with radial range. For this study we combined digital elevation data and geologic information of the recent geologic map [7] in ArcGIS (ESRI) and RockWorks14 (RockWare) to extract the elevation of the lower contact plane ("paleo-surface") and the contact between the Bunte breccia and the overlain Suevite deposits. In detail, we extracted the mapping information of the autochthonous-allochthonous ("Bunte breccia base") and allochthonous-suevite ("Bunte breccia top") intersections from the geologic map [7], descriptions of nine NASA drilling sites [6], and included up to 40 drillings carried out by the Bavarian Environment Agency to interpolate the morphology and thickness variation of the Bunte breccia ejecta outside the Ries impact crater. Due to the highest data density and the widespread occurrence of Bunte breccia deposits as well as Suevite, the southwestern part of the ejecta blanket was selected for the study and delivered a more or less

  20. IMPACT OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA EJECTA ON BINARY COMPANIONS IN THE SINGLE-DEGENERATE SCENARIO

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Ricker, Paul M.; Taam, Ronald E. E-mail: pmricker@illinois.edu

    2012-05-10

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to be caused by thermonuclear explosions of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf in close binary systems. In the single-degenerate scenario (SDS), the companion star is non-degenerate and can be significantly affected by the explosion. We explore this interaction by means of multi-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations using the FLASH code. We consider several different companion types, including main-sequence-like stars (MS), red giants (RG), and helium stars (He). In addition, we include the symmetry-breaking effects of orbital motion, rotation of the non-degenerate star, and Roche-lobe overflow. A detailed study of a sub-grid model for Type Ia supernovae is also presented. We find that the dependence of the unbound stellar mass and kick velocity on the initial binary separation can be fitted by power-law relations. By using the tracer particles in FLASH, the process leading to the unbinding of matter is dominated by ablation, which has usually been neglected in past analytical studies. The level of Ni/Fe contamination of the companion that results from the passage of the supernova ejecta is found to be {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} for the MS star, {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} for the He star, and {approx}10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} for the RG. The spinning MS companion star loses about half of its initial angular momentum during the impact, causing the rotational velocity to drop to a quarter of the original rotational velocity, suggesting that the Tycho G star is a promising progenitor candidate in the SDS.

  1. Comet Ejecta in Aerogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for annotated image

    This image shows a particle impact on the aluminum frame that holds the aerogel tiles. The debris from the impact shot into the adjacent aerogel tile producing the explosion pattern of ejecta framents captured in the material. A nice cratering experiment.

  2. The disposition of impact ejecta resulting from the AIDA-DART mission to binary asteroid 65803 Didymos: an independent investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, James E.; O'Brien, David P.

    2016-10-01

    If all goes as planned, in the year 2020 a joint ESA and NASA mission will be launched that will rendezvous with the near-Earth binary asteroid system 65803 Didymos in the fall of 2022. The European component, the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) spacecraft will arrive first and characterize the system, which consists of a ~800 m diameter primary and a ~160 m diameter secondary, orbiting a common center of mass at a semi-major axis distance of ~1200 m with a orbital period of 11.9 hr. Following system characterization, the AIDA spacecraft will remove to a safe distance while the NASA component, the 300 kg Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft collides with the trailing edge of the secondary body (with respect to the binary's retrograde mutual orbit). Meanwhile, the AIDA spacecraft will conduct observations of this impact and its aftermath, specifically looking for changes made to the primary, the secondary, and their mutual orbit as a result of the DART collision. Of particular interest is the ballistic flight and final disposition of the ejecta produced by the impact cratering process, not just from the standpoint of scientific study, but also from the standpoint of AIDA spacecraft safety.In this study, we investigate a series of hypothetical DART impacts utilizing a semi-empirical, numerical impact ejecta plume model originally developed for the Deep Impact mission and designed specifically with impacts on small bodies in mind. The resulting excavated mass is discretized into 7200 individual tracer particles, each representing a unique combination of speed, mass, and ejected direction. The trajectory of each tracer is computed numerically under the gravitational influence of both primary and secondary, along with the effects of solar radiation pressure. Each tracer is followed until it either impacts a body or escapes the system, whereupon tracking is continued in the heliocentric frame using an N-body integrator. Various impact

  3. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by UPb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krogh, T.E.; Kamo, S.L.; Bohor, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    UPb isotopic dating of single 1-3 ??g zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 ?? 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, white those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 ?? 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With UPb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age. ?? 1993.

  4. Radioactivity and Thermalization in the Ejecta of Compact Object Mergers and Their Impact on Kilonova Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Kasen, Daniel; Wu, Meng-Ru; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    One promising electromagnetic signature of compact object mergers are kilonovae: approximately isotropic radioactively powered transients that peak days to weeks post-merger. Key uncertainties in kilonova modeling include the emission profiles of the radioactive decay products—non-thermal β -particles, α -particles, fission fragments, and γ -rays—and the efficiency with which their kinetic energy is absorbed by the ejecta. The radioactive energy emitted, along with its thermalization efficiency, sets the luminosity budget and is therefore crucial for predicting kilonova light curves. We outline uncertainties in the radioactivity, describe the processes by which the decay products transfer energy to the ejecta, and calculate time-dependent thermalization efficiencies for each particle type. We determine the net thermalization efficiency and explore its dependence on r-process yields—in particular, the production of α -decaying translead nuclei—and on ejecta mass, velocity, and magnetic fields. We incorporate our results into detailed radiation transport simulations, and calculate updated kilonova light curve predictions. Thermalization effects reduce kilonova luminosities by a factor of roughly 2 at peak, and by an order of magnitude at later times (15 days or more after explosion). We present analytic fits to time-dependent thermalization efficiencies, which can be used to improve light curve models. We revisit the putative kilonova that accompanied gamma-ray burst 130603B, and estimate the mass ejected in that event. We find later time kilonova light curves can be significantly impacted by α -decay from translead isotopes; data at these times may therefore be diagnostic of ejecta abundances.

  5. Noachian Impact Ejecta on Murray Ridge and Pre-impact Rocks on Wdowiak Ridge, Endeavour Crater, Mars: Opportunity Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Franklin, B. J.; Grant, J. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Meridiani Planum since January 2004, and has completed 4227% of its primary mission. Opportunity has been investigating the geology of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater, first on the Cape York segment and now on Cape Tribulation. The outcrops are divided York; (ii) the Shoemaker fm, impact breccias representing ejecta from the crater; into three formations: (i) the lower Matijevic fm, a pre-impact lithology on Cape and (iii) the upper Grasberg fm, a post-impact deposit that drapes the lower portions of the eroded rim segments. On the Cape Tribulation segment Opportunity has been studying the rocks on Murray Ridge, with a brief sojourn to Wdowiak Ridge west of the rim segment. team member Thomas Wdowiak, who died in 2013.) One region of Murray Ridge has distinctive CRISM spectral characteristics indicating the presence of a small concentration of aluminous smectite based on a 2.2 micron Al-OH combination band (hereafter, the Al-OH region).

  6. The Ries impact crater described as an analogue for a Martian double-layered ejecta crater on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Sebastian; Wulf, Gerwin; Jung, Dietmar; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The Ries impact crater (~26 km-diameter) is described as a relatively pristine, complex impact crater in southern Germany. The oblique impact occurred during the Miocene (14.9 Ma) and hit into a two-layered target material that consists of ~650 m partly water-saturated and subhorizontally layered sediments (limestones, sandstones, shales) of Triassic to Tertiary ages underlain by crystalline basement rocks (mainly gneisses, granites and amphibolites) [1, 2, 3, 4]. The continuous and well-preserved ejecta blanket reaches up to a distance of 45 km from the crater center. It is built up by so called Bunte Breccia material that is described as a polymict lithic breccia. Bunte Breccia mainly consists of unshocked to weakly shocked sedimentary target clasts including a minority of crystalline basement clasts and reworked surfical sediments (e.g., Upper Freshwater Molasses or Upper Seawater Molasses) [5, 6]. Here we present our final interpolation results of the morphology of the paleo-surface and the thickness variations of the continuous ejecta blanket (Bunte Breccia) with radial range outside of the Ries impact crater. Our results were then compared with ejecta distribution characteristics of Martian complex double-layered ejecta craters (DLE) [7]. We combined digital elevation data (ASTER DEM) and geologic information of the recent geologic map [8], in addition with nine NASA Drillings [6], and up to 40 Bavarian Environment Agency drillings in ArcGIS (ESRI) and RockWorks14 (RockWare) to interpolate the elevation of the lower contact plane ("paleo-surface") and the contact between the Bunte breccia and the overlain Suevite deposits to reconstruct the Bunte Breccia thickness variation outside of the Ries impact crater [7]. Our final interpolation results of the paleo-surface and Bunte Breccia top surface provide an increasing Bunte breccia thickness with increasing distance from the crater center. The ejecta thickness distribution clearly deviates from a steady decrease

  7. A formation mechanism for concentric ridges in ejecta surrounding impact craters in a layer of fine glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ayako I.; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Kadono, Toshihiko; Wada, Koji; Yamamoto, Satoru; Arakawa, Masahiko

    2013-07-01

    Ejecta patterns are experimentally examined around craters formed in a layer of glass beads by vertical impacts at low velocities. The diameters of the constituent glass beads of three different targets range 53-63 μm, 90-106 μm, and 355-500 μm. The impact velocities and ambient pressures range from a few to 240 m s-1 and from 500 Pa to the atmospheric pressure, respectively. Various ejecta patterns are observed around craters and are classified into two major classes based on whether they have concentric ridges or not. We propose a possible formation model for the ridges in which the wake created by a projectile as it passes through the atmosphere causes the crater rim to collapse: The model can explain the observation that the degree of collapse of the resultant crater rim depends on the impact velocity and ambient pressure. Using the ratio between the hydrodynamic drag of the airflow induced by the wake and the gravitational force of the degraded part of the rim, we calculate the critical conditions of the impact velocity and ambient pressure necessary for the wake to erode the rim. The conditions turn out to be roughly consistent with the boundary between the two morphological classes. As a result, it is possible that the projectile wake triggers the collapse of the crater rim, leading to a ground-hugging flow that settles to form the distal ridge observed in this study. This mechanism may play a role in producing ejecta morphologies on planetary bodies with atmosphere.

  8. Evidence for Multiple Holocene Marine Impact Events: Ejecta in a Bog Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D. H.; Courty, M.; Breger, D.; Costa, S.; Gerard-Little, P.; Burckle, L.; Pekar, S.

    2006-12-01

    In a core from Tamarack Pond (a former bog) in the Hudson Highlands of New York, we found two layers containing marine microfossils. Because carbon rich sediments can be bioturbated over 20 cm depths, we give the layer thicknesses as 20 cm. The first layer is at 332-354 cm depth. It contains a radiolarian with a splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal. It also contains a benthonic foraminiferal fossil. The second layer is at 432-454 cm depth. The second layer contains a degraded radiolarian fossil, a silicate with a splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal, a carbon rich spherule containing Fe-Cr-Ni metal, and a grain of titanomagnetite with multiple craters. It also contains organic matter with Sn in it. As Tamarack Pond is quite far from the ocean, the marine fossils in the cores are unlikely to be windblown debris of Holocene age. A benthonic foraminifera is particularly unlikely to be blown by the wind. This conclusion is strengthened by the observation that the splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal occurs in chondritic relative abundances with Fe>Cr>Ni. In grains with a thick layer of splashed metal, the Ni is sufficiently abundant to produce 3 distinct Ni peaks in the X-ray analysis. Such a high abundance of Ni coupled with chondritic relative abundances suggests that the Fe-Cr- Ni splash is derived from the vaporization of an extraterrestrial impactor. If we assume that the sedimentation rate of the Tamarack Pond core is the same as that of a previously dated core from nearby Sutherland Pond, the two layers have an uncorrected C-14 age of around 900-1200 B.C. for the layer at 332-354 cm and 2100 to 2400 B.C. for the layer at 432-454 cm. Both ages have a rough correspondence with times of climate downturn recorded in tree ring data (1159 and 2354 B.C.). These climate downturns cannot be explained by volcanic eruptions and are proposed to be cosmogenic in origin[1]. The older layer also corresponds in components to a previously studied circa 2350 B.C. impact ejecta

  9. Ejecta velocity distribution of impact craters formed on quartz sand: Effect of projectile density on crater scaling law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujido, Sayaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Suzuki, Ayako I.; Yasui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    In order to clarify the effects of projectile density on ejecta velocity distributions for a granular target, impact cratering experiments on a quartz sand target were conducted by using eight types of projectiles with different densities ranging from 11 g cm-3 to 1.1 g cm-3, which were launched at about 200 m s-1 from a vertical gas gun at Kobe University. The scaling law of crater size, the ejection angle of ejecta grains, and the angle of the ejecta curtain were also investigated. The ejecta velocity distribution obtained from each projectile was well described by the π-scaling theory of v0/√{gR} =k2(x0/R)-1/μ, where v0, g, R and x0 are the ejection velocity, gravitational acceleration, crater radius and ejection position, respectively, and k2 and μ are constants mostly depending on target material properties (Housen, K.R., Holsapple, K.A. [2011]. Icarus 211, 856-875). The value of k2 was found to be almost constant at 0.7 for all projectiles except for the nylon projectile, while μ increased with the projectile density, from 0.43 for the low-density projectile to 0.6-0.7 for the high-density projectile. On the other hand, the π-scaling theory for crater size gave a μ value of 0.57, which was close to the average of the μ values obtained from ejecta velocity distributions. The ejection angle, θ, of each grain decreased slightly with distance, from higher than 45° near the impact point to 30-40° at 0.6 R. The ejecta curtain angle is controlled by the two elementary processes of ejecta velocity distribution and ejection angle; it gradually increased from 52° to 63° with the increase of the projectile density. The comparison of our experimental results with the theoretical model of the crater excavation flow known as the Z-model revealed that the relationship between μ and θ obtained by our experiments could not be described by the Z-model (Maxwell, D.E. [1977]. In: Roddy, D.J., Pepin, R.O., Merrill, R.B. (Eds.), Impact and Explosion Cratering

  10. Recent research on the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA - Impact debris and reworked ejecta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J.W.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Kunk, M.J.; Gohn, G.S.; Edwards, L.E.; ,; Powars, D.S.; Izett, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Four new coreholes in the western annular trough of the buried, late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure provide samples of shocked minerals, cataclastic rocks, possible impact melt, mixed sediments, and damaged microfossils. Parautochthonous Cretaceous sediments show an upward increase in collapse, sand fluidization, and mixed sediment injections. These impact-modifi ed sediments are scoured and covered by the upper Eocene Exmore beds, which consist of highly mixed Cretaceous to Eocene sediment clasts and minor crystalline-rock clasts in a muddy quartz-glauconite sand matrix. The Exmore beds are interpreted as seawater-resurge debris flows. Shocked quartz is found as sparse grains and in rock fragments at all four sites in the Exmore, where these fallback remnants are mixed into the resurge deposit. Crystalline-rock clasts that exhibit shocked quartz or cataclastic fabrics include felsites, granitoids, and other plutonic rocks. Felsite from a monomict cataclasite boulder has a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb zircon age of 613 ?? 4 Ma. Leucogranite from a polymict cataclasite boulder has a similar Neoproterozoic age based on muscovite 40Ar/39Ar data. Potassium-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages from this leucogranite show cooling through closure (???150 ??C) at ca. 261 Ma without discernible impact heating. Spherulitic felsite is under investigation as a possible impact melt. Types of crystalline clasts, and exotic sediment clasts and grains, in the Exmore vary according to location, which suggests different provenances across the structure. Fractured calcareous nannofossils and fused, bubbled, and curled dinofl agellate cysts coexist with shocked quartz in the Exmore, and this damage may record conditions of heat, pressure, and abrasion due to impact in a shallow-marine environment. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  11. Geologic Mapping of Bakhuysen Crater, Mars: Analogies to the Ries Impact Ejecta with Insights into Martian Impact Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudill, C. M.; Osinski, G. R.; Tornabene, L. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report the mapping and geologic interpretation of 150-km diameter Bakhuysen Crater, Mars, which supports previous work suggesting similar mechanisms of multi-unit ejecta emplacement on other comparable rocky bodies.

  12. Styles of ejecta emplacement under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments provide essential first-order constraints on processes affecting ballistic ejecta and styles of ejecta emplacement under different atmospheric environments at planetary scales. The NASA-Ames Vertical Gun allows impacting different fine-grained particulate targets under varying atmospheric pressure and density, thereby helping to isolate controlling variables. Further analysis now permits characterizing distinct modes of emplacement that reflect the degree of ejecta entrainment within a turbidity flow created by ejecta curtain movement through the atmosphere.

  13. Computer simulations of large asteroid impacts into oceanic and continental sites--preliminary results on atmospheric, cratering and ejecta dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roddy, D.J.; Schuster, S.H.; Rosenblatt, M.; Grant, L.B.; Hassig, P.J.; Kreyenhagen, K.N.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations have been completed that describe passage of a 10-km-diameter asteroid through the Earth's atmosphere and the subsequent cratering and ejecta dynamics caused by impact of the asteroid into both oceanic and continental sites. The asteroid was modeled as a spherical body moving vertically at 20 km/s with a kinetic energy of 2.6 ?? 1030 ergs (6.2 ?? 107 Mt ). Detailed material modeling of the asteroid, ocean, crustal units, sedimentary unit, and mantle included effects of strength and fracturing, generic asteroid and rock properties, porosity, saturation, lithostatic stresses, and geothermal contributions, each selected to simulate impact and geologic conditions that were as realistic as possible. Calculation of the passage of the asteroid through a U.S. Standard Atmosphere showed development of a strong bow shock wave followed by a highly shock compressed and heated air mass. Rapid expansion of this shocked air created a large low-density region that also expanded away from the impact area. Shock temperatures in air reached ???20,000 K near the surface of the uplifting crater rim and were as high as ???2000 K at more than 30 km range and 10 km altitude. Calculations to 30 s showed that the shock fronts in the air and in most of the expanding shocked air mass preceded the formation of the crater, ejecta, and rim uplift and did not interact with them. As cratering developed, uplifted rim and target material were ejected into the very low density, shock-heated air immediately above the forming crater, and complex interactions could be expected. Calculations of the impact events showed equally dramatic effects on the oceanic and continental targets through an interval of 120 s. Despite geologic differences in the targets, both cratering events developed comparable dynamic flow fields and by ???29 s had formed similar-sized transient craters ???39 km deep and ???62 km across. Transient-rim uplift of ocean and crust reached a maximum altitude of nearly

  14. Proximal ejecta deposits of the K-Pg Chixulub impact: The case for carbonate impact melt spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Alex; Schulte, Peter

    2010-05-01

    When 65.5 million yrs. ago an about ~10 km-sized asteroid hit Earth (Chicxulub impact event), ejecta was distributed world-wide to form the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) event bed. Continuous sections across this K-Pg boundary document unambiguously that the 'K-T' mass extinction was triggered by the Chicxulub event, not only because of the projectile's size but particularly by the specific composition of the target, namely a 3-km- (in the West) to about 4.5-km-thick (in the Gulf area) layer of volatile-rich carbonate and sulfate platform sediments on top of the crystalline basement (Schulte et al., 2010). Modeling, petrographic and geochemical studies on natural samples as well as experimental results show that shock pressure and high post-shock temperatures yield irreversible deformations and transformations on carbonate and sulfate target lithologies which are also expected to occur in the context of the Chicxulub event. Twofold devastating effects on life are predicted (i) dissociation of carbonates and sulfates with nearly instantaneous release of vast quantities of CO2, and of about 100 to 500 Gt sulfur triggering severe climate effects, and (ii) deposition of carbonate and sulfate melts together with silicate melts, causing short-term disruption of the thermal conditions proximal to the crater. Silicate impact glasses with high CaO contents occur, for example, as spherules in the K-Pg event bed at Haiti and in melt lithologies from drill cores (e.g., Yucatan-6, Chicxulub-1, Yaxcopoil-1). Carbonate melt glasses have not been reported so far in K-Pg event beds. Hence, the following question was answered so far: Where are the huge amounts of carbonates that suffered impact metamorphism and were ejected in the Chicxulub event? The Chicxulub ejecta deposits in the Gulf of Mexico area contain up to 80 wt% carbonates which, however, have been interpreted as precipitation product during diagenesis. In consequence, the abundant mm-sized ejecta spherules consisting of a

  15. Ejecta types on Ganymede and Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, V. M.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Ejecta types on Ganymede and Callisto have been identified from Voyager 1 and 2 images. Image resolution used range from approx. 0.6 to approx. 4 km/pxl, which allowed the surveying of almost all of the mappable surface of the two satellites. Seven ejecta classes were identified on Voyager images of Ganymede on the basis of albedo pattern and type of terminus. The ejecta of different terrains on ejecta characteristics were investigated for the most populated ejecta types. Two major ejecta types were identified on Callisto; both have counterparts on Ganymede. Type C1 has a uniformly high albedo and a sharp terminus. Type C2 has a gradational terminus and a moderate albedo. The similarity in ejecta types on Ganymede and Callisto may indicate similarities in the near surface environment of the two satellites, with different ejecta types representing several possible conditions for the impact environment.

  16. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  17. Impact melt-bearing breccias of the Mistastin Lake impact structure: A unique planetary analogue for ground-truthing proximal ejecta emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, M. M.; Osinski, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Impact craters are the dominant geological landform on rocky planetary surfaces; however, relationships between specific craters and their ejecta are typically poorly constrained. With limited planetary samples, scientists look to terrestrial craters as analogues. Impact ejecta is defined here as any target material, regardless of its physical state, that is transported beyond the rim of the transient cavity [1]. The original transient cavity reaches its maximum size during the excavation stage of crater formation, before rim collapse begins in the modification stage [2]. In complex craters, during the modification stage, rocks around the periphery of the bowl-shaped transient crater collapse downward and inward to form a series of terraces along the outer margin of the crater structure [3]. Proximal impact ejecta, can therefore be found on the terraces of the modified rim of a complex crater, interior to the final crater rim [1]. Although typically poorly preserved on Earth due to post-impact erosional processes, impact ejecta have been identified in the terraced rim region of the Mistastin Lake impact structure, located in northern Labrador, Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W) [4]. The Mistastin Lake impact structure is an intermediate-size, complex crater (28 km apparent crater diameter) formed by a meteorite impact ~36 Ma in crystalline target rocks. The original crater has been differentially eroded; however, a terraced rim and distinct central uplift are still observed [5]. The inner portion of the structure is covered by the Mistastin Lake and the surrounding area is locally covered by soil/glacial deposits and vegetation. Locally, allochthonous impactites overlying fractured target rocks are exposed along the lakeshore and along banks of radially cutting streams. They define a consistent stratigraphy, including, from bottom to top: monomict, lithic breccias, allochthonous polymict lithic breccias, and allochthonous impact melt rocks. Mistastin impact breccias range

  18. Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B.J.; Hammond, R.H.; Anderson, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2, (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*,+Na2O -K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson

  19. Impact spallation processes on the Moon: A case study from the size and shape analysis of ejecta boulders and secondary craters of Censorinus crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, N.; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2016-01-01

    Impact spallation is a fundamental process responsible for formation of ejecta boulders from impact craters. Although theoretical spallation models were developed about three decades ago, only limited geological observations have been made so far to test these models. The 3.8 km Censorinus crater on the Moon provides an excellent opportunity for studying the impact spallation processes associated with a fresh simple crater formed by oblique impact. Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Narrow Angle Camera images, we prepared the ejecta boulder distribution map of Censorinus crater and measured the boulder sizes and shapes. Mapping of about 242,000 ejecta boulders enabled us to document the size distribution of boulders both radial and concentric to the impact crater. Larger size boulders dominate the crater rim areas, while they become smaller away from the crater. The boulder distribution exhibits a radial asymmetry suggesting Censorinus is a oblique impact, in which the uprange ejecta have smaller ranges with larger concentration of boulders near the southwestern crater rim, while the downrange ejecta are in general characterized by smaller boulders with high spatial dispersion. The cumulative size-frequency distribution (CSFD) of boulders shows a highly variable fragmentation history in which the uprange boulders suffered more complex fragmentation. The ejecta boulders also exhibit a variety of shapes that are gleaned from their axial ratios and edge angle characteristics. There is a general decrease of axial ratios away from the crater rim. Rectangular boulders dominate the crater rim and they become more equant away from the crater. In addition to the boulder sizes, the boulder shape distribution also exhibits a mild asymmetry in response to the oblique impact. Small size fresh impact craters (84,000 craters) are abundant on the Censorinus ejecta and post-date Censorinus. These craters are found in two morphologic types in which a large majority of craters

  20. Ponds, Flows, and Ejecta of Impact Cratering and Volcanism: A Remote Sensing Perspective of a Dynamic Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopar, Julie D.

    Both volcanism and impact cratering produce ejecta and associated deposits incorporating a molten rock component. While the heat sources are different (exogenous vs. endogenous), the end results are landforms with similar morphologies including ponds and flows of impact melt and lava around the central crater. Ejecta from both impact and volcanic craters can also include a high percentage of melted rock. Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) images, crucial details of these landforms are finally revealed, suggesting a much more dynamic Moon than is generally appreciated. Impact melt ponds and flows at craters as small as several hundred meters in diameter provide empirical evidence of abundant melting during the impact cratering process (much more than was previously thought), and this melt is mobile on the lunar surface for a significant time before solidifying. Enhanced melt deposit occurrences in the lunar highlands (compared to the mare) suggest that porosity, target composition, and pre-existing topography influence melt production and distribution. Comparatively deep impact craters formed in young melt deposits connote a relatively rapid evolution of materials on the lunar surface. On the other end of the spectrum, volcanic eruptions have produced the vast, plains-style mare basalts. However, little was previously known about the details of small-area eruptions and proximal volcanic deposits due to a lack of resolution. High-resolution images reveal key insights into small volcanic cones (0.5-3 km in diameter) that resemble terrestrial cinder cones. The cones comprise inter-layered materials, spatter deposits, and lava flow breaches. The widespread occurrence of the cones in most nearside mare suggests that basaltic eruptions occur from multiple sources in each basin and/or that rootless eruptions are relatively common. Morphologies of small-area volcanic deposits indicate diversity in eruption behavior of lunar basaltic

  1. The Manson impact crater: Estimation of the energy of formation, possible size of the impacting asteroid or comet, and ejecta volume and mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddy, D. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Anderson, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    A research program on the Manson impact structure has substantially improved our knowledge of the detailed features of this eroded crater. As part of our structural studies, we have derived a value of 21 km for the diameter of the final transient cavity formed during crater excavation. With this information, we can estimate the energy of formation of the Manson crater and the possible size of the impacting asteroid or comet. In addition, we have estimated the near- and far-field ejecta volumes and masses.

  2. Gamma (γ)-Ray Activity as a Tool for Identification of Hidden Ejecta Deposits Around Impact Crater on Basaltic Target: Example from Lonar Crater, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, T.; Misra, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Reddy, K.

    2013-11-01

    Geophysical techniques based on radioactivity measurements are not generally used for exploration of asteroid impact craters. Our studies on the field and laboratory measurements of radioactivity on samples from the Lonar crater, India, show that this technique could be an important method for mapping the distribution of ejecta around the deeply excavated impact craters particularly when these structures are formed on relatively old target rocks/palaeosol. The Lonar ejecta shows ~1.3 times higher γ-ray count rates in the field on average compared to the underlying palaeosol and ~1.9 times higher values over the target basalt while measured by a portable Geiger-Müller pulse counter. The absorbed γ-dose rate (D) of the Lonar samples, computed from 232Th, 238U, and 40K abundances in these samples, also show that the ejecta has distinct bulk dose rates (average ~8.42 nGy h-1) as compared to those of the palaeosol (~18.34 nGy h-1), target basalt (~11.97 nGy h-1), and the impact-melts and spherules (~14 nGy h-1). Therefore, radioactivity mapping of the terrestrial and planetary impact craters by direct methods has importance in mapping ejecta distributions around these structures.

  3. The Cretaceous-Paleogene transition and Chicxulub impact ejecta in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico: Paleoenvironments, sequence stratigraphic setting and target lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Peter

    2003-07-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-P) transition is characterized by a period of mass extinctions, the Chicxulub impact event, sea-level changes, and considerable climate changes (e.g., cooling). The Gulf of Mexico region is a key area for addressing these issues, specifically because of the proximity to the large Chicxulub impact structure in southern Mexico, and because of its shallow shelf areas throughout the Maastrichtian to Danian period. This study presents the results of a multidisciplinary investigation of Chicxulub impact ejecta and marine sediments from the K-P transition in the western Gulf of Mexico. Sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical aspects of K-P sections and cores from northeastern Mexico, Texas, and Alabama have been by studied with focus on Chicxulub ejecta, long- or short-term facies change, and sequence stratigraphic setting. CHICXULUB EJECTA: The Chicxulub ejecta (or impact spherule) deposits from northeastern Mexico and Texas revealed an unexpected complex and localized ejecta composition. Fe-Mg-rich chlorite- as well as Si-Al-K-rich glass-spherules are the predominant silicic ejecta components in northeastern Mexico, whereas in Texas, spherules of Mg-rich smectite compositions were encountered. Spherules contain Fe-Ti-K-rich schlieren, Fe-Mg-rich globules, and rare µm-sized metallic and sulfidic Ni-Co-(Ir-?) rich inclusions. This composition provides evidence for a distinct range of target rocks of mafic to intermediate composition, presumably situated in the northwestern sector of the Chicxulub impact structure, in addition to the possibility of contamination by meteoritic material. The absence of spinels and the ubiquitous presence of hematite and goethite points to high oxygen fugacity during the impact process. Besides these silicic phases, the most prominent ejecta component is carbonate.! Carbonate is found in ejecta deposits as unshocked clasts, accretionary lapilli-like grains, melt globules (often with quenching textures

  4. The Role of Target Characteristics in the Formation of Impact Crater Ejecta Morphologies at High Latitudes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, N. G.; Boyce, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The fine-grained ice-rich material covering high latitudes on Mars gives rise to the double-layer ejecta and low-aspect-ratio layered ejecta morphologies seen around fresh craters. These morphologies erode into pancake and pedestal morphologies.

  5. Butterfly Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 4 September 2003

    In the heavily cratered southern highlands of Mars, the type of crater seen in this THEMIS visible image is relatively rare. Elliptical craters with 'butterfly' ejecta patterns make up roughly 5% of the total crater population of Mars. They are caused by impactors which hit the surface at oblique, or very shallow angles. Similar craters are also seen in about the same abundance on the Moon and Venus.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24.6, Longitude 41 East (319 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Searching for Crisium Basin ejecta - Chemistry and ages of Luna 20 impact melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Spudis, P. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Korotev, R. L.; Nichols, R. H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical (INAA) and chronological (Ar-40 - Ar-39) analyses of six Luna 20 impact melts are performed, and these are compared to the results of Podosek et al. (1973), commonly taken to be representative of the Crisium Basin impact. At least two chemical groups of impact melts are identified. One is interpreted as melts derived from the local crust by craters over the last 3.9 Ga. Another group, which includes one of the samples dated by Podosek et al. (1973), is chemically and chronologically (3.85 + or - 0.02 Ga) indistinguishable from Apollo 17 samples interpreted as Serenitatis impact melts, and hence could be melt formed by that event and deposited at the Luna 20 site. One sample (22023,3,F) has a well-defined age of 3.895 + or - 0.017 Ga, and is chemically similar to, but distinct from, impact melts from other basins. This sample, and its chemistry and age are tentatively identified with the Crisium Basin impact. Whether the age of the Crisium impact is given by 22023,3,F, the samples analyzed by Podosek et al. (1973), or neither, it is clear that Crisium impact melt is not abundant in the Luna 20 collection.

  7. Impact ejecta layer from the mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, Brooks B; Benoist, Stephen L; El Hassani, Ahmed; Wheeler, Christopher; Crick, Rex E

    2003-06-13

    We have found evidence for a bolide impacting Earth in the mid-Devonian ( approximately 380 million years ago), including high concentrations of shocked quartz, Ni, Cr, As, V, and Co anomalies; a large negative carbon isotope shift (-9 per mil); and microspherules and microcrysts at Jebel Mech Irdane in the Anti Atlas desert near Rissani, Morocco. This impact is important because it is coincident with a major global extinction event (Kacák/otomari event), suggesting a possible cause-and-effect relation between the impact and the extinction. The result may represent the extinction of as many as 40% of all living marine animal genera. PMID:12805544

  8. Impact Ejecta Layer from the Mid-Devonian: Possible Connection to Global Mass Extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Brooks B.; Benoist, Stephen L.; Hassani, Ahmed El; Wheeler, Christopher; Crick, Rex E.

    2003-06-01

    We have found evidence for a bolide impacting Earth in the mid-Devonian (~380 million years ago), including high concentrations of shocked quartz, Ni, Cr, As, V, and Co anomalies; a large negative carbon isotope shift (-9 per mil); and microspherules and microcrysts at Jebel Mech Irdane in the Anti Atlas desert near Rissani, Morocco. This impact is important because it is coincident with a major global extinction event (Kacák/otomari event), suggesting a possible cause-and-effect relation between the impact and the extinction. The result may represent the extinction of as many as 40% of all living marine animal genera.

  9. Cratering on Titan: impact melt, ejecta, and the fate of surface organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, Natalia; Lunine, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    We conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of hypervelocity impacts into the crust of Titan to determine the fraction of liquid water generated, under the reasonable assumption that the crust is largely water ice, and to track the fate of the organic-rich layer that is thought to overlie the ice over much of the surface. Impactors larger than a kilometer in diameter are only slightly affected by the atmosphere, while those well under that size are strongly decelerated and broken up before reaching the surface. Impact of a 2 km diameter icy projectile into the crust at velocities of 7 km per second or higher, and angles of impact between 30° and 45°, generate about 2-5% melt by volume within the crater. Our results for the amount of aqueous melt generated in impacts on Titan are broadly consistent with the analytic model developed by Thompson and Sagan (1992) although our numerical model allows us to more precisely quantify the fraction of melt, and fate of the organics, as a function of the impact parameters. While much of the organic surface layer is heavily shocked and ejected from the immediate region of the crater, a significant fraction located behind the oblique impact trajectory is only lightly shocked and is deposited in the liquid water at the crater base. Simple calculations suggest that the resulting aqueous organic phase may remain liquid for hundreds of years or longer, enough time for the synthesis of simple precursor molecules to the origin of life.

  10. Ejecta- and Size-Scaling Considerations from Impacts of Glass Projectiles into Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson J. L. B.; Cintala, M. J.; Siebenaler, S. A.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most promising means of learning how initial impact conditions are related to the processes leading to the formation of a planetary-scale crater is through scaling relationships.1,2,3 The first phase of deriving such relationships has led to great insight into the cratering process and has yielded predictive capabilities that are mathematically rigorous and internally consistent. Such derivations typically have treated targets as continuous media; in many, cases, however, planetary materials represent irregular and discontinuous targets, the effects of which on the scaling relationships are still poorly understood.4,5 We continue to examine the effects of varying impact conditions on the excavation and final dimensions of craters formed in sand. Along with the more commonly treated variables such as impact speed, projectile size and material, and impact angle,6 such experiments also permit the study of changing granularity and friction angle of the target materials. This contribution presents some of the data collected during and after the impact of glass spheres into a medium-grained sand.

  11. The Acraman impact structure: Estimation of the diameter by the ejecta layer thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurov, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The big role of gigantic craters formation in geological history of the Earth was established by the example of the K/T boundary event. The discovery of the iridium anomaly in the sedimentary rocks of Vendian in the western part of Ukrainian shield allows to suppose its origin in connection with the great impact of that time. The only big impact structure of that age is the Acraman Crater in south-eastern part of Australia. The Acraman Crater is presented by deeply eroded structure, original diameter of which it is difficult to determine. By geological and morphological data the Acraman Crater is presented by an inner ring 30 km in diameter, an intermediate ring 90 km in diameter, and an outer ring about 150-160 km in diameter.

  12. Still water: dead zones and collimated ejecta from the impact of granular jets.

    PubMed

    Ellowitz, Jake; Turlier, Hervé; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Zhang, Wendy W; Nagel, Sidney R

    2013-10-18

    When a dense granular jet hits a target, it forms a large dead zone and ejects a highly collimated conical sheet with a well-defined opening angle. Using experiments, simulations, and continuum modeling, we find that this opening angle is insensitive to the precise target shape and the dissipation mechanisms in the flow. We show that this surprising insensitivity arises because dense granular jet impact, though highly dissipative, is nonetheless controlled by the limit of perfect fluid flow.

  13. Impact ejecta horizon within late precambrian shales, adelaide geosyncline, South australia.

    PubMed

    Gostin, V A; Haines, P W; Jenkins, R J; Compston, W; Williams, I S

    1986-07-11

    A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline.

  14. Parabolic Ejecta Features on Titan? Probably Not

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Melosh, H. J.

    1996-03-01

    Radar mapping of Venus by Magellan indicated a number of dark parabolic features, associated with impact craters. A suggested mechanism for generating such features is that ejecta from the impact event is 'winnowed' by the zonal wind field, with smaller ejecta particles falling out of the atmosphere more slowly, and hence drifting further. What discriminates such features from simple wind streaks is the 'stingray' or parabolic shape. This is due to the ejecta's spatial distribution prior to being winnowed during fallout, and this distribution is generated by the explosion plume of the impact piercing the atmosphere, allowing the ejecta to disperse pseudoballistically before re-entering the atmosphere, decelerating to terminal velocity and then being winnowed. Here we apply this model to Titan, which has a zonal wind field similar to that of Venus. We find that Cassini will probably not find parabolic features, as the winds stretch the deposition so far that ejecta will form streaks or bands instead.

  15. Drop interaction with the ejecta sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.; Ray, P.; Josserand, C.; Zaleski, S.

    2011-11-01

    We studied experimentally and numerically the dynamics of the ejecta sheet produced by a drop impacting on a deep pool of the same liquid at high Reynolds and Weber numbers. Ultra-high speed imaging revealed a diversity of evolutions by using different mixtures of water and glycerine, and different impact velocities. We observed a transition from a smooth ejecta sheet to a more irregular splashing for a Reynolds number of 3500. In this transition regime, the ejecta sheet interacts with the impacting drop. This interaction can pull the ejecta sheet towards the centre of the drop at lower splash parameters, or generate a bumping on the ejecta sheet moving outwards at higher splash parameters. The volume of fluid (VOF) code Gerris was used to reproduce numerically this peculiar dynamics in axisymmetric conditions. Very good agreement with the experiments was reached by using adaptive refinement and parallelization of the calculations.

  16. A Precambrian proximal ejecta blanket from Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Kenneth; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Porcelli, Don; Thackrey, Scott; Parnell, John

    2008-04-01

    Ejecta blankets around impact craters are rarely preserved onEarth. Although impact craters are ubiquitous on solid bodiesthroughout the solar system, on Earth they are rapidly effaced,and few records exist of the processes that occur during emplacementof ejecta. The Stac Fada Member of the Precambrian Stoer Groupin Scotland has previously been described as volcanic in origin.However, shocked quartz and biotite provide evidence for high-pressureshock metamorphism, while chromium isotope values and elevatedabundances of platinum group metals and siderophile elementsindicate addition of meteoritic material. Thus, the unit isreinterpreted here as having an impact origin. The ejecta blanketreaches >20 m in thickness and contains abundant dark green,vesicular, devitrified glass fragments. Field observations suggestthat the deposit was emplaced as a single fluidized flow thatformed as a result of an impact into water-saturated sedimentarystrata. The continental geological setting and presence of groundwatermake this deposit an analogue for Martian fluidized ejecta blankets.

  17. Crater ejecta scaling laws - Fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housen, K. R.; Schmidt, R. M.; Holsapple, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    Self-consistent scaling laws are developed for meteoroid impact crater ejecta. Attention is given to the ejection velocity of material as a function of the impact point, the volume of ejecta with a threshold velocity, and the thickness of ejecta deposit in terms of the distance from the impact. Use is made of recently developed equations for energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. Consideration is given to scaling of laboratory trials up to real-world events and formulations are developed for calculating the ejection velocities and ejecta blanket profiles in the gravity and strength regimes of crater formation. It is concluded that, in the gravity regime, the thickness of an ejecta blanket is the same in all directions if the thickness and range are expressed in terms of the crater radius. In the strength regime, however, the ejecta velocities are independent of crater size, thereby allowing for asymmetric ejecta blankets. Controlled experiments are recommended for the gravity/strength transition.

  18. Craters Without Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housen, Kevin R.; Holsapple, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    A significant portion of the Solar System's population of minor bodies may be quite porous. A unique aspect of crater formation in porous bodies is that large craters may form without the ejecta deposits that are associated with craters on less porous bodies. In this paper. laboratory experiments and scaling theories are used to identify the conditions under which ejecta deposits are suppressed. The results are consistent with the interpretation that large craters on asteroid Mathilde (porosity approx. 50%) and Saturn's moon Hyperion (porosity >40%) apparently formed without producing Significant ejecta deposits. while smaller bodies do have notable regoliths.

  19. Double-layered ejecta craters on Mars: morphology, formation, and a comparison with the Ries ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Wulf, Gerwin; Sturm, Sebastian; Pietrek, Alexa

    2015-04-01

    The ejecta blankets of impact craters in volatile-rich environments often show characteristic layered ejecta morphologies. The so-called double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters are probably the most confusing crater types showing two ejecta layers with distinct morphologies. A phenomenological ejecta excavation and emplacement model for DLE craters is proposed based on a detailed case study of the Martian crater Steinheim - a textbook like, pristine DLE crater - and studies of other DLE craters [1]. The observations show that DLE craters on Mars are the result of an impact event into a rock/ice mixture that produces large amounts of shock-induced vaporization and melting of ground ice. The deposits of the ejecta curtain are wet in the distal part and dryer in composition in the proximal part. As a result, the outer ejecta layer is emplaced as medial and distal ejecta that propagate outwards in a fluid saturated debris flow mode after landing overrunning previously formed secondary craters. In contrast, the inner ejecta layer is formed by a translational slide of the proximal ejecta deposits. This slide overruns and superimposes parts of the outer ejecta layer. Basal melting of the ice components of the ejecta volumes at the transient crater rim is induced by frictional heating and the enhanced pressure at depth. The results indicate similar processes also for other planetary bodies with volatile-rich environments, such as Ganymede, Europa or the Earth. The Ries crater on Earth has a similar ejecta thickness distribution as DLE craters on Mars [2]. Here basal sliding and fluidization of the ejecta increases outward by the entrainment of locally derived Tertiary sands and clays, that are saturated with groundwater. References: [1] Wulf, G. & Kenkmann, T. (2015) Met. Planet. Sci. (in press); [2] Sturm, S., Wulf. G., Jung, D. & Kenkmann, T. (2013) Geology 41, 531-534.

  20. The Outer Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Kerstin

    η Carinae is surrounded by a complex circumstellar nebula ejected during more than one eruption, the great eruption in the 1840s and the second or lesser eruption in the 1890s. Beyond the well-defined edges of its famous bipolar nebula are additional nebulous features and ejecta referred to as the outer ejecta. The outer ejecta includes a variety of structures of very different sizes and morphologies distributed in a region 0.67 pc in diameter with a mass of > 2-4 M⊙. Some individual features in the outer ejecta are moving extremely fast, up to 3,200 km/s, with most of the expansion velocities between 400-900 km/s. As a consequence of these high velocities, structures in the outer ejecta interact with the surrounding medium and with each other. The strong shocks that arise from these interactions give rise to soft X-ray emission. The global expansion pattern of the outer ejecta reveals an overall bipolar distribution, giving a symmetric structure to its morphologically more irregular appearance. The long, highly collimated filaments, called strings, are particularly unusual. The material in the strings follow a Hubble-flow and appear to originate at the central star. The properties of the nebulae associated with other LBVs also are described and compared with η Car. HR Car and AG Car show similar bipolar morphologies but are much older; HR Car's nebula may be η Car's older twin. The larger, extended nebulae detected around the giant eruption LBV P Cygni, and the extended nebulosity associated with AG Car and HR Car could be either from previous eruptions or facsimiles to η Car's outer ejecta.

  1. Paleomagnetism of Triassic bedded chert from Japan for determining the age of an impact ejecta layer deposited on peri-equatorial latitudes of the paleo-Pacific Ocean: A preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Koji; Yamashita, Daisuke; Onoue, Tetsuji; Uehara, Daiki

    2015-12-01

    Bedded chert samples from the Norian (Upper Triassic) Sakahogi section of the Mino Terrane in the Inuyama area, southwest Japan, have been collected for paleomagnetic study in order to determine the age of an impact ejecta layer interbedded within it and the paleolatitude of its deposition. Thermal demagnetization of the bedded chert samples revealed four distinct remanent magnetization components. The last demagnetized component with both polarities is interpreted to be the primary magnetization, which produced the first magnetostratigraphic data of the middle to upper Norian from Panthalassa, consistent with Tethyan magnetostratigraphic sections. Tie points were derived from paleomagnetic and paleontological data, from which the stratigraphic position of the ejecta layer was compared with the astronomically tuned geomagnetic polarity time scale (APTS). The age of ejecta layer is estimated to be about 212 Ma. This magnetostratigraphic age is consistent with the radiometric age of the Manicouagan impact that formed the second largest known crater in the Phanerozoic at Quebec, Canada. The results of this study, as well as previous studies, suggest that the chert section, which includes the ejecta layer, was deposited within a paleolatitude range of 0.3-14.4°N. This indicates that the material ejected by the Manicouagan impact event reached near the equatorial region of the paleo-Pacific Ocean.

  2. Secondary craters from large impacts on Europa and Ganymede: Ejecta size-velocity distributions on icy worlds, and the scaling of ejected blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Nowicki, L. T.

    2013-09-01

    We have mapped fields of secondary craters around three large primary craters on Europa and Ganymede and estimated the size and velocity of the fragments that formed the secondaries using updated scaling equations for ice impacts. We characterize the upper envelope of the fragment size-velocity distribution to obtain a function for the largest fragments at a given ejection velocity. Power-law velocity exponents found in our study of icy satellite secondary fields are compared to the exponents found for similar studies of mercurian, lunar, and martian craters; for all but basin-scale impacts, fragment size decreases more slowly with increasing ejection velocity than on rocky bodies. Spallation theory provides estimates of the size of ejected spall plates at a given velocity, but this theory predicts fragments considerably smaller than are necessary to form most of our observed secondaries. In general, ejecta fragment sizes scale with primary crater diameter and decrease with increasing ejection velocity, υej, by 1/υej or greater, and point-source scaling implies a relation between the two. The largest crater represented in any of these studies, Gilgamesh on Ganymede, exhibits a relatively steep velocity dependence. Extrapolating the results to the escape speed for each icy moon yields the size of the largest fragment that could later re-impact to form a so-called sesquinary crater, either on the parent moon or a neighboring satellite. We find that craters above 2 km in diameter on Europa and Ganymede are unlikely to be sesquinaries.

  3. Chicxulub High-Altitude Ballistic Ejecta from Central Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    Chicxulub ejecta are found in central Belize, 475 km southeast of the impact crater center. These deposits are ballistic ejecta launched along high-altitude trajectories above the atmosphere and deposited as a discontinuous sheet on the terminal Cretaceous land surface.

  4. Multiringed basins - Illustrated by Orientale and associated features. [geologic mapping and photographs of lunar ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Hodges, C. A.; Scott, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Geologic mapping and photographs of the Orientale multiring basin are studied as to origin, size, and nature and distribution of ejecta. Six facies of ejecta are observed around the Cordillera Mountains: concentric, radial, smooth plains, grooved, secondary impact craters, and fissured. Transport of these ejecta occurred by block gliding, landsliding, debris flow, and possibly by base surge, viscous flow, and ballistic ejection. The ejecta are mainly clastic types, but melts and annealed breccias are expected to be abundant. Mixing of ejecta and substrate materials must have occurred; compositions of the ejecta are probably zoned laterally and vertically.

  5. Ejecta emplacement: from distal to proximal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, N.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Most part of impact ejecta is deposited ballistically at some distance from a crater, defined by ejection velocity V and ejection angle α: d=v2sinα/g. In case of giant impacts, planetary curvature should be taken into account [1]. Combined with ejecta scaling [2], these relations allow to define ejecta thickness as a function of distance. Ejecta from large craters are deposited at velocity high enough to mobilize substrate material and to thicken ejecta deposits [3]. Ballistic approximation is valid for airless bodies (if impact vaporization is not vast) or for proximal ejecta of large impact craters, where ejecta mass per unit area is substantially greater than the mass of involved vapor/atmosphere (M-ratio). Deposition of distal ejecta, in which ejecta mass is negligible compared to the atmosphere, may be also treated in a simplified manner, i.e. as 1) passive motion of ejected particles within an impact plume and 2) later, as sedimentation of particles in undisturbed atmosphere (equilibrium between gravity and drag). In all intermediate M-ratio values, impact ejecta move like a surge, i.e. dilute suspension current in which particles are carried in turbulent flows under the influence of gravity. Surges are well-known for near-surface explosive tests, described in detail for volcanic explosions (Plinian column collapse, phreato-magmatic eruption, lateral blast), and found in ejecta from the Chicxulub [4] and the Ries [5]. Important aspects of surge transport include its ability to deposit ejecta over a larger area than that typical of continuous ballistic ejecta and to create multiple ejecta layers. Numerical model Two-phase hydrodynamics. Surges should be modeled in the frame of two-phase hydrodynamics, i.e. interaction between solid/molten particles and atmospheric gas/impact vapor should be taken into account. There are two techniques of solving equations for dust particle motion in a gas flow. The first one describes solid/molten particles as a

  6. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.

    2016-10-01

    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  7. An aerodynamic mechanism for the splashing-up of the ejecta sheet in high-velocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbaglah, Gilou; Josserand, Christophe; Prosperetti, Andréa; Zaleski, Stéphane; Institut d'Alembert CNRS-UPMC Team; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the deformation of a 2D liquid jet by aerodynamic stresses has been investigated by numerical simulations with the flow solver Gerris and a dynamic model was proposed to predict the shape of the jet. This is similar to the initial stages of the formation of the corolla upon impact of a drop on a solid. A self-similar behavior is observed in the simulations and the jet profile is in good agreement with the model prediction in exponential of the square root of time. University of Twente

  8. Structure of Solar Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, G.; Cantó, J.; Lara, A.; González, R.; Schwenn, R.

    Solar Ejecta (SE) have been of interest in the last years, especially those which may reach Earth environment. It is possible to observe the SE early evolution, when they are in the field of view of coronagraphs. There are few indirect observations, as the case of interplanetary scintillation, of SEs in the interplanetary medium. Finally, we observe SEs in situ when they arrive at 1 AU.The SEs structure and evolution are important to understand the origin of these phenomena but to predict the possible effects in the space weather. It is of general acceptance that SEs are "Erupting Flux Ropes" traveling trough the Solar Wind. The "shapes" have been modeled as cylinders or as "ice cream cones" in order to represent the many different projections observed on Coronagraphs.We present a model of the SE evolution based on purely Hydrodynamic considerations. This model reproduces in good approximation some of the features observed in the images and in the measures of the shocks near Earth.

  9. Nighttime IR Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Today's crater is slightly older than one shown yesterday. The ballistically emplaced ejecta is now a uniform gray tone in this nighttime IR image. With time dust will cover young surfaces and control the IR image tone. This crater is located east of Huygens Crater.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -10.6, Longitude 64.3 East (295.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Influence of shockwave profile on ejecta

    SciTech Connect

    Zellner, Michael B; Dimonte, Guy; Germann, Tim C; Hammerberg, James E; Rigg, Paulo A; Buttler, William T; Stevens, Gerald D; Turley, William D

    2009-01-01

    This effort investigates the relation between shock-pulse shape and the amount of micron-scale fragments ejected (ejecta) upon shock release at the metal/vacuum interface of shocked Sn targets. Two shock-pulse shapes are considered: a supported shock created by impacting a Sn target with a sabot that was accelerated using a powder gun; and an unsupported or Taylor shockwave, created by detonation of high explosive that was press-fit to the front-side of the Sn target. Ejecta production at the back-side or free-side of the Sn coupons were characterized through use of piezoelectric pins. Assay foils, optical shadowgraphy, and x-ray attenuation.

  11. Morphology and Scaling of Ejecta Deposits on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Ridolfi, Francis J.; Bredekamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Continuous ejecta deposits on Ganymede consist of two major units, or facies: a thick inner hummocky pedestal facies, and a relatively thin outer radially scoured facies defined also by the inner limit of the secondary crater field. Both ejecta facies have a well-defined power-law relationship to crater diameter for craters ranging from 15 to approx. 600 km across. This relationship can be used to estimate the nominal crater diameter for impact features on icy satellites (such as palimpsests and multiring basins) for which the crater rim is no longer recognizable. Ejecta deposits have also been mapped on 4 other icy satellites. Although morphologically similar to eject deposits on the Moon, ejecta deposits for smaller craters are generally significantly broader in extent on the icy satellites, in apparent defiance of predictions of self-similarity. A greater degree of rim collapse and enlargement on the Moon may explain the observed difference.

  12. Martian rampart crater ejecta - Experiments and analysis of melt-water interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohletz, K. H.; Sheridan, M. F.

    1983-10-01

    Viking images of Martian craters with rampart-bordered ejecta deposits reveal distinct impact ejecta morphology when compared to that associated with similar-sized craters on the Moon and Mercury. It is suggested that target water explosively vaporized during impact alters initial ballistic trajectories of ejecta and produces surging flow emplacement. The dispersal of particulates during a series of controlled steam explosions generated by interaction of a thermite melt with water has been experimentally modeled. Study of terrestrial, lobate, volcanic ejecta produced by steam-blast explosions reveals that particle size and vapor to clast volume ratio are primary parameters characterizing the emplacement mechanism and deposit morphology.

  13. Global Distribution of Small Rayed Craters on Mars: Sequences of Ejecta Retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calef, F. J., III; Herrick, R. R.; Sharpton, V. L

    2011-01-01

    Small rayed impact craters (SRC), whose diameter (D) is less than1 km, should be distributed spatially and temporally random across Mars. Ejecta retention, the capacity of and time period impact excavated material remains in place around a crater, can serve as a proxy to understand global resurfacing rates and recent surficial processes. Ejecta retention depends on two factors: formation, where the target material is more conducive to creating ejecta rays, and retention, the erosion/deposition rate where ejecta are emplaced. This research aims to quantify the distribution of SRC on Mars, as well as develop a classification scheme for ejecta retention with correlations to known processes. Our ultimate goal is to better understand the retention environment over the "lifespan" of the rayed ejecta.

  14. Venusian extended ejecta deposits as time-stratigraphic markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenberg, Noam R.

    1992-01-01

    Use of impact crater ejects at time-stratigraphic markers was established during lunar geologic mapping efforts. The basic premise is that the deposition of impact ejecta, either by itself or mixed with impact-excavated material, is superimposed on a surface. The deposit becomes an observable, mappable unit produced in a single instant in geologic time. Up to two-thirds of Venus craters exhibit extended ejecta deposits. A reconnaissance survey of 336 craters (about 40 percent of the total population) was conducted. About half the craters examined were located in and around the Beta-Atla-Themis region, and half were spread over the western hemisphere of the planet. The survey was conducted using primarily C1-MIDR images. The preliminary survey shows: (1) of the 336 craters, 223 were found to have extended ejecta deposits. This proportion is higher than that found in other Venus crater databases by up to a factor of 2. (2) 53 percent of all extended ejecta craters were unambiguously superimposed on all volcanic and tectonic units. Crater Annia Faustina's associated parabolic ejecta deposit is clearly superimposed on volcanic flows coming from Gula Mons to the west. Parabola material from Faustina has covered the lava flows, smoothing the surface and reducing its specific backscatter cross section. The stratigraphy implies that the parabola material is the youngest observable unit in the region. (3) 12 percent of extended ejecta deposits are superimposed by volcanic materials. Crater Hwangcini has extended ejecta that has been covered by volcanic flows from a dome field to the northwest, implying that the volcanic units were emplaced subsequent to the ejecta deposit and are the youngest units in the locality. (4) It is difficult to determine the stratigraphic relationships of the remaining extended ejecta deposits in SAR at C1-MIDR resolution. Examination of higher resolution images and application of the other Magellan datasets in systematic manner should resolve

  15. Eltanin: Ground Truth for Kilometer-Sized Deep-Ocean Impacts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyte, F. T.; Gersonde, R.; Kuhn, G.

    2009-12-01

    Deposits of the late Pliocene (2.5 Ma) Eltanin impact are unique in the known geological record. The only known example of a km-sized asteroid to impact a deep-ocean (5 km) basin, is the most meterorite-rich locality known on Earth. This was discovered as an Ir anomaly in sediments from three cores collected in the SE Pacific in 1965 by the USNS Eltanin. Subsequently, two expeditions of the R/V Polarstern in 1995 and 2001 have conducted geological and geophysical investigations in the impact region. An area of ~80,000 km2 has been mapped in some detail, and deposits from the impact are found in 23 cores spanning a region extending 660 (E-W) by 250 km (N-S). We find a central region 50 to 100 km across, near the Freeden Seamounts (57.3S, 90.5W), where sediments as old as Eocene have been ripped up (perhaps to basement) and redeposited by the impact into a chaotic mix of pebble to boulder-sized fragments. This is overlain by a fining upward sequence of sediments with laminations and some cross-bedding consistent with deposition in a high-energy flow regime. Near the top of this impact deposit, sub mm- to cm-sized meteoritic ejecta is mixed into the disturbed sediment. This ejecta is composed of 90% shock-melted asteroid and 10% unmelted meteorite fragments from the lo-metal mesosiderite asteroid. The amount of meteoritic ejecta in 13 cores from the central region record deposition of 3 to 50 kg of asteroid material per square meter. Km-sized impacts are fairly common on geological timescales, occurring a few times per m.y., so one or two other similar-sized, and several smaller projectiles likely hit the Pacific basin since the Late Pliocene. Undoubtedly, this is not the only such impact collected in deep-sea cores; it is unique only in that it has been recognized. Eltanin thus serves as type section for identifying ocean-impact deposits at other localities. Projectiles of this size cannot penetrate to the ocean floor and indeed there is no chemical evidence in the

  16. Summary of Results from Analyses of Deposits of the Deep-Ocean Impact of the Eltanin Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Gersonde, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Deposits of the late Pliocene (2.5 Ma) Eltanin impact are unique in the known geological record. The only known example of a km-sized asteroid to impact a deep-ocean (5 km) basin, is the most meterorite-rich locality known. This was discovered as an Ir anomaly in sediments from three cores collected in 1965 by the USNS Eltanin. These cores contained mm-sized shock-melted asteroid materials and unmelted meteorite fragments. Mineral chemistry of meteorite fragments, and siderophole concentrations in melt rocks, indicate that the parent asteroid was a low-metal (4\\%) mesosiderite. A geological exploration of the impact in 1995 by Polarstern expedition ANT-XIV4 was near the Freeden Seamounts (57.3S, 90.5 W), and successfully collected three cores with impact deposits. Analyses showed that sediments as old as Eocene were eroded by the impact disturbance and redeposited in three distinct units. The lowermost is a chaotic assemblage of sediment fragments up to 50 cm in size. Above this is a laminated sand-rich unit that deposited as a turbulent flow, and this is overlain by a more fine-grained deposit of silts and clays that settled from a cloud of sediment suspended in the water column. Meteoritic ejecta particles were concentrated near the base of the uppermost unit, where coarse ejecta caught up with the disturbed sediment. Here we will present results from a new suite of cores collected on Polarstern expedition ANT-XVIIU5a. In 2001, the Polarstern returned to the impact area and explored a region of 80,000 sq-km., collecting at least 16 sediment cores with meteoritic ejecta. The known strewn field extends over a region 660 by 200 km. The meteoritic ejecta is most concentrated in cores on the Freeden seamounts, and in the basins to the north, where the amount of meteoritic material deposited on the ocean floor was as much as 3 g/sq-cm. These concentrations drop off to the north and the east to levels as low as approximately 0.1 g/sq-cm. We were unable to sample the

  17. Ejecta production mechanisms on painted surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariteau, Muriel; Mandeville, Jean-Claude; Schäfer, Frank

    2001-10-01

    Painted surfaces are frequently used on space vehicles, whether on satellites or on rocket bodies. A bibliographic research allows us to evaluate the painted surfaces in orbit at about 63000 m2. The observation of impacts on painted surfaces of the LDEF satellite shows that the total ejected mass is large. However, no description of hypervelocity impact tests on painted surfaces has been found in the literature. An ejecta model has been previously developed at ONERA/DESP. This model is applicable for hypervelocity impacts on homogeneous ductile targets, homogeneous brittle targets and solar cells. The objective of this work is to extend this model to the case of painted surfaces. Consequently, impact pictures on painted surfaces of LDEF were analysed and some laboratory impact tests were performed at the Ernst-Mach-Institut, in Freiburg, under an ESA contract.

  18. Mass loading of the Earth's magnetosphere by micron size lunar ejecta. 1: Ejecta production and orbital dynamics in cislunar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. M.; Tanner, W. G.; Anz, P. D.; Chen, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Particulate matter possessing lunar escape velocity sufficient to enhance the cislunar meteroid flux was investigated. While the interplanetary flux was extensively studied, lunar ejecta created by the impact of this material on the lunar surface is only now being studied. Two recently reported flux models are employed to calculate the total mass impacting the lunar surface due to sporadic meteor flux. There is ample evidence to support the contention that the sporadic interplanetary meteoroid flux enhances the meteroid flux of cislunar space through the creation of micron and submicron lunar ejecta with lunar escape velocity.

  19. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 4: Flow Ejecta Crater Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Flow ejecta craters - craters surrounded by lobate ejecta blankets - are found throughout the study area. The ratio of the crater's diameter to that of the flow ejecta in this region is approximately 40 to 45%. Flow ejecta craters are dominantly sharply defined craters, with slightly degraded craters being somewhat less common. This is probably indicative of the ejecta's relatively low resistence to weathering and susceptibility to burial. Flow ejecta craters here seem to occur within a narrow range of crater sizes - the smallest being about 4km in diameter and the largest being about 27km in diameter. Ejecta blankets of craters at 4km are easily seen and those of smaller craters are simply not seen even in images with better than average resolution for the region. This may be due to the depth of excavation of small impacting bodies being insufficient to reach volatile-rich material. Flow ejecta craters above 24km are rare, and those craters above 27km do not display flow ejecta blankets. This may be a result of an excavation depth so great that the volatile content of the ejecta is insufficient to form a fluid ejecta blanket. The geomorphic/geologic unit appears also to play an important role in the formation of flow ejecta craters. Given the typical size range for the occurrence of flow ejecta craters for most units, it can be seen that the percentage of flow ejecta craters to the total number of craters within this size range varies significantly from one unit to the next. The wide variance in flow ejecta crater density over this relatively small geographical area argues strongly for a lithologic control of their distribution.

  20. Geomorphology and geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre regions of Mars. Part 4: Flow ejecta crater distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-04-01

    Flow ejecta craters - craters surrounded by lobate ejecta blankets - are found throughout the study area. The ratio of the crater's diameter to that of the flow ejecta in this region is approximately 40 to 45%. Flow ejecta craters are dominantly sharply defined craters, with slightly degraded craters being somewhat less common. This is probably indicative of the ejecta's relatively low resistence to weathering and susceptibility to burial. Flow ejecta craters here seem to occur within a narrow range of crater sizes - the smallest being about 4km in diameter and the largest being about 27km in diameter. Ejecta blankets of craters at 4km are easily seen and those of smaller craters are simply not seen even in images with better than average resolution for the region. This may be due to the depth of excavation of small impacting bodies being insufficient to reach volatile-rich material. Flow ejecta craters above 24km are rare, and those craters above 27km do not display flow ejecta blankets. This may be a result of an excavation depth so great that the volatile content of the ejecta is insufficient to form a fluid ejecta blanket. The geomorphic/geologic unit appears also to play an important role in the formation of flow ejecta craters. Given the typical size range for the occurrence of flow ejecta craters for most units, it can be seen that the percentage of flow ejecta craters to the total number of craters within this size range varies significantly from one unit to the next. The wide variance in flow ejecta crater density over this relatively small geographical area argues strongly for a lithologic control of their distribution.

  1. A model for wind-extension of the Copernicus ejecta blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfuss, D. E.; Michael, D.; Anselmo, J. C.; Kincheloe, N. K.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between crater ejecta and the transient wind from impact-shock vaporization is discussed. Based partly on Shoemaker's (1962) ballistic model of the Copernicus ejecta and partly on Rehfuss' (1972) treatment of lunar winds, a simple model is developed which indicates that if Copernicus were formed by a basaltic meteorite impacting at 20 km/s, then 3% of the ejecta mass would be sent beyond the maximum range expected from purely ballistic trajectories. That 3% mass would, however, shift the position of the outer edge of the ejecta blanket more than 400% beyond the edge of the ballistic blanket. For planetary bodies lacking an intrinsic atmosphere, the present model indicates that this form of hyperballistic transport can be very significant for small (no more than about 1 kg) ejecta fragments.

  2. Radial thickness variations of Orientale basin ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordell, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Moore et al. (1974) measure the thickness of Orientale basin ejecta on the basis of filling of individual prebasin craters and a depth-diameter relation for fresh lunar craters. In the reported investigation the concept of filling of preexisting craters with basin ejecta is utilized somewhat differently to ascertain Orientale basin ejecta thicknesses and volume from the Cordillera ring with a radius of 450 km out to almost 2 radii. Briefly, the approach is to assume a reasonable geometric model for the form of Orientale ejecta, calculate how many pre-Orientale craters would be destroyed by the deposition of the ejecta, and match the model to Orientale crater statistics. The results of the investigation show that a radial ejecta thickness function can be derived from crater statistics.

  3. Transient classification and novae ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert

    2016-07-01

    A third parameter, in addition to luminosity and rate of brightness decline, derived from the spectra of transients is suggested as a means of more accurately classifying objects in outburst. Principal component analysis of the spectra of transients is suggested as the best way to determine the third parameter. A model is suggested for novae ejecta that is based on the ballistic ejection of an ensemble of clouds having a wide range of sizes. Short term brightness fluctuations of novae, the formation of dust, and the production of X-ray emission follow naturally from such a picture of the evolving clouds.

  4. The interaction of rock and water during shock decompression: A hybrid model for fluidized ejecta formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rager, Audrey Hughes

    Crater and ejecta morphology provide insight into the composition and structure of the target material. Martian rampart craters, with their unusual single-layered (SLE), double-layered (DLE), and multi-layered ejecta (MLE), are the subject of particular interest among planetary geologists because these morphologies are thought to result from the presence of water in the target. Also of interest are radial lines extending from the crater rim to the distal rampart of DLE craters. Exactly how these layered ejecta morphologies and radial lines form is not known, but they are generally thought to result from interaction of the ejecta with the atmosphere, subsurface volatiles, or some combination of both. Using the shock tube at the University of Munich, this dissertation tests the hypothesis that the decompression of a rock-water mixture across the vaporization curve for water during the excavation stage of impact cratering results in an increased proportion of fines in the ejecta. This increase in fine material causes the ejecta to flow with little or no liquid water. Also tested are the effects of water on rock fragmentation during shock decompression when the vaporization curve for water is not crossed. Using results from these experiments, a hybrid model is proposed for the formation of fluidized ejecta and suggests that the existing atmospheric and subsurface volatile models are end members of a mechanism resulting in ejecta fluidization. Fluidized ejecta can be emplaced through interaction with an atmosphere (atmospheric model) or through addition of liquid water into the ejecta through shock melting of subsurface ice (subsurface volatile model). This dissertation proposes that these models are end members that explain the formation of fluidized ejecta on Mars. When the vaporization curve for water is crossed, the expanding water vapor increases the fragmentation of the ejecta as measured by a significant reduction in the median grain size of ejecta. Reducing the

  5. Planet Earth Set to Broil: Thermal Radiation from Chicxulub Ejecta Reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldin, T. J.; Melosh, H. J.

    2009-03-01

    We model the thermal radiation transfer due to the atmospheric reentry of hypervelocity Chicxulub impact ejecta. Self-shielding of downward radiation by the spherules limits the magnitude and duration of the thermal pulse at the Earth’s surface.

  6. Investigations of primary and secondary impact structures on the moon and laboratory experiments to study the ejecta of secondary particles. Ph.D. Thesis - Ruprecht Karl Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, B.

    1977-01-01

    Young lunar impact structures were investigated by using lunar orbiter, Apollo Metric and panorama photographs. Measurements on particularly homogeneous areas low in secondary craters made possible an expansion of primary crater distribution to small diameters. This is now sure for a range between 20m or = D or = 20km and this indicates that the size and velocity distribution of the impacting bodies in the last 3 billion years has been constant. A numerical approximation in the form of a 7th degree polynomial was obtained for the distribution.

  7. Using martian single and double layered ejecta craters to probe subsurface stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Eriita; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2015-02-01

    Martian craters with fluidized ejecta - including single-layered, double-layered and multiple-layered craters - have been studied extensively, with their formation generally suggested to require some presence of volatiles in the subsurface. However, experimental reproduction of these morphologies, impact modelling, and the occurrence of layered ejecta in putative volatile poor regions suggests that other factors may also play important roles. A recent extensive catalogue of martian impact craters (Robbins, S.J., Hynek, B.M. [2012a]. J. Geophys. Res. 117, E05004) classifies crater ejecta along with their location, diameters and ejecta extents, potentially providing new information on the links between these morphologies and the subsurface. We utilise this catalogue to examine the regional variation in ejecta mobility, onset diameter and the correlation between ejecta mobility and diameter for single- and double-layered ejecta craters on Mars. A simple regional stratigraphic model is developed to explain the observed trends through the viscosity of the layers within the target. Using this model, the potential relative thickness and burial depths of low viscosity layers in the martian subsurface are hypothesised, and compared to other observations and models of subsurface volatiles and how they have varied throughout time.

  8. Large ejecta fragments from asteroids. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.

    1994-01-01

    The asteroid 4 Vesta, with its unique basaltic crust, remains a key mystery of planetary evolution. A localized olivine feature suggests excavation of subcrustal material in a crater or impact basin comparable in size to the planetary radius (R(sub vesta) is approximately = 280 km). Furthermore, a 'clan' of small asteroids associated with Vesta (by spectral and orbital similarities) may be ejecta from this impact 151 and direct parents of the basaltic achondrites. To escape, these smaller (about 4-7 km) asteroids had to be ejected at speeds greater than the escape velocity, v(sub esc) is approximately = 350 m/s. This evidence that large fragments were ejected at high speed from Vesta has not been reconciled with the present understanding of impact physics. Analytical spallation models predict that an impactor capable of ejecting these 'chips off Vesta' would be almost the size of Vesta! Such an impact would lead to the catastrophic disruption of both bodies. A simpler analysis is outlined, based on comparison with cratering on Mars, and it is shown that Vesta could survive an impact capable of ejecting kilometer-scale fragments at sufficient speed. To what extent does Vesta survive the formation of such a large crater? This is best addressed using a hydrocode such as SALE 2D with centroidal gravity to predict velocities subsequent to impact. The fragmentation outcome and velocity subsequent to the impact described to demonstrate that Vesta survives without large-scale disassembly or overturning of the crust. Vesta and its clan represent a valuable dataset for testing fragmentation hydrocodes such as SALE 2D and SPH 3D at planetary scales. Resolution required to directly model spallation 'chips' on a body 100 times as large is now marginally possible on modern workstations. These boundaries are important in near-surface ejection processes and in large-scale disruption leading to asteroid families and stripped cores.

  9. Small Rayed Crater Ejecta Retention Age Calculated from Current Crater Production Rates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calef, F. J. III; Herrick, R. R.; Sharpton, V. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ejecta from impact craters, while extant, records erosive and depositional processes on their surfaces. Estimating ejecta retention age (Eret), the time span when ejecta remains recognizable around a crater, can be applied to estimate the timescale that surface processes operate on, thereby obtaining a history of geologic activity. However, the abundance of sub-kilometer diameter (D) craters identifiable in high resolution Mars imagery has led to questions of accuracy in absolute crater dating and hence ejecta retention ages (Eret). This research calculates the maximum Eret for small rayed impact craters (SRC) on Mars using estimates of the Martian impactor flux adjusted for meteorite ablation losses in the atmosphere. In addition, we utilize the diameter-distance relationship of secondary cratering to adjust crater counts in the vicinity of the large primary crater Zunil.

  10. The Absorption Spectrum of the η Car Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, K. E.; Viera, G.; Gull, T. R.

    2005-09-01

    The ultraviolet spectrum of η Car and the very nearby ejecta is dominated by complex wind profiles of the extended atmosphere. Increasingly from the STIS NUV to FUV, absorption features from the ejecta and the interstellar medium are superimposed. The absorption from the foreground ejecta display a velocity dispersion between -650 > v > -100 km s-1, with two easily separated components at -146 and -513 km s-1. These two velocities components have earlier been determined to be formed at very different distances from the central source (Gull et al. 2004), and seem to be linked to Little Homunculus and the Homunculus, respectively.The -146 and -513 km s-1 components show different ionization structures. While the -146 km s-1 component shows a spectrum from almost exclusively singly ionized iron group elements, the fast -513 km s-1 has a lower excitation temperature and consequently shows lines from both neutral and singly ionized species. H2 has a huge impact on the spectrum between 1200 to 1650 Å{} and can for some regions completely describe the ejecta spectrum. The ejecta vary in absorption throughout the spectroscopic period. The -146 km s-1 component strengthens when the minimum approaches. The fast component is not significantly affected across the minimum, however, the molecular lines show a dramatic decrease in intensity likely caused by the drop of FUV radiation reaching the -513 km s-1 ejecta. In this spectral range interstellar features such as S II, C II, C IV, Si II and Si IV have a significant impact on the spectrum. We used an earlier study by Walborn et al. (2002) to estimate the ISM's influence on the η Car spectrum. Many of the interstellar lines show a large velocity dispersion (-388 to +127 km s-1). Within 0.1 arcsec of the central source, STIS resolves spatial features at the 0.25 arcsec scale. A number of strong emission lines are observable in the spectrum and associable with the Weigelt blobs B and C. During the minimum when the FUV and X

  11. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griscom, D. L.

    2012-02-01

    The discovery nearly two decades ago of a 90 km-diameter impact crater below the lower Chesapeake Bay has gone unnoted by the general public because to date all published literature on the subject has described it as "buried". To the contrary, evidence is presented here that the so-called "upland deposits" that blanket ∼5000 km2 of the U.S. Middle-Atlantic Coastal Plain (M-ACP) display morphologic, lithologic, and stratigraphic features consistent with their being ejecta from the 35.4 Ma Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure (CBIS) and absolutely inconsistent with the prevailing belief that they are of fluvial origin. Specifically supporting impact origin are the facts that (i) a 95 %-pure iron ore endemic to the upland deposits of southern Maryland, eastern Virginia, and the District of Columbia has previously been proven to be impactoclastic in origin, (ii) this iron ore welds together a small percentage of well-rounded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the upland deposits into brittle sheets interpretable as "spall plates" created in the interference-zone of the CBIS impact, (iii) the predominantly non-welded upland gravels have long ago been shown to be size sorted with an extreme crater-centric gradient far too large to have been the work of rivers, but well explained as atmospheric size-sorted interference-zone ejecta, (iv) new evidence is provided here that ~60 % of the non-welded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the (lower lying) gravel member of the upland deposits display planar fractures attributable to interference-zone tensile waves, (v) the (overlying) loam member of the upland deposits is attributable to base-surge-type deposition, (vi) several exotic clasts found in a debris flow topographically below the upland deposits can only be explained as jetting-phase crater ejecta, and (vii) an allogenic granite boulder found among the upland deposits is deduced to have been launched into space and sculpted by hypervelocity air friction during reentry. An

  12. Phase Doppler Anemometry as an Ejecta Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, David; Chapman, David

    2015-06-01

    When a shock wave is incident on a free surface, micron sized pieces of the material can be ejected from the surface. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) is being developed to simultaneously measure the size and velocity of the individual shock induced ejecta particles. The measurements will provide an insight into ejecta phenomena. The results from experiments performed on the 13 mm bore light gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London are presented. Specially grooved tin targets were shocked at pressures of up to 14 GPa, below the melt on release pressure, to generate ejecta particles. The experiments are the first time that PDA has been successfully fielded on dynamic ejecta experiments. The results and the current state of the art of the technique are discussed along with the future improvements required to further improve performance and increase usability.

  13. Insights into complex layered ejecta emplacement and subsurface stratigraphy in Chryse Planitia, Mars, through an analysis of THEMIS brightness temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Eriita; Caprarelli, Graziella; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2016-06-01

    Layered ejecta craters on Mars have been interpreted to indicate the presence of volatiles in the substrate, making them important targets for the investigation of sites of astrobiological significance. If the ejecta are associated with the presence of water in the substratum, specific surface grain size trends are expected. In this study we explore the distribution of grain sizes in the layered ejecta of impact craters located in Chryse Planitia, using Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) thermal infrared data. Ejecta grain size trends, in conjunction with ejecta mobility and lobateness values, are applied to assess the degree of surface flow of the ejecta, and in turn to constrain the plausible volatile abundance, cohesion, and fine particle content of the target materials. Craters with a larger fraction of small grain sizes in their ejecta showed greater ejecta mobility and lobateness, consistent with a water-rich and/or a low-cohesion target. Craters displaying decreasing grain size with increasing radius had smaller diameters and lower ejecta mobility and lobateness, indicating only a minimal component of surface ejecta flow. Ejecta grain size trends varied with crater diameter, from which the presence of vertical compositional stratigraphy in Chryse Planitia is inferred and interpreted. Our observations are synthesized into a number of plausible geologic scenarios for Chryse Planitia.

  14. Flow-ejecta Crater in Icaria Planum - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) acquired this high resolution image of a flow ejecta crater on November 19, 1997, at 8:26 PM PST, about 18 minutes after the start the 45th orbit of Mars. The area shown is roughly 6.5 by 40.2 kilometers (4 by 25 miles), and is located near 40 degrees South latitude, 120 degrees West longitude. Features as small as 15-18 m (50-60 feet) across are visible in the picture.

    Flow ejecta craters are so named because the material blasted out of the crater during the impact process appears to have flowed across the surface of Mars. First seen in Mariner 9 images in 1973, and described in detail using Viking Orbiter images acquired in 1976-78, flow-ejecta craters are considered by many scientists to be evidence that liquid water could be found in the near-subsurface at the time the craters formed. This image, a factor of two better than any previous view of such features (and a factor of 33 better than the best Viking frame of the specific crater, 056A61), shows two smaller, pre-existing craters and the interaction of the flowing ejecta with these craters. The uppermost small crater has been over-topped and partly buried by the flow, while the flow has been diverted around the lower crater. Ridges formed where the flow 'stacked up' behind obstacles, or came to rest.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  15. Ejecta emplacement and modes of formation of Martian fluidized ejecta craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P.

    1981-01-01

    From an analysis of 1173 craters possessing single (type 1) and double (type 2) concentric ejecta deposits, type 2 craters are found to occur most frequently in areas that have also been described as possessing periglacial features. The frequency of occurrence of central peaks and wall failure (terraces plus scallops) within the craters indicates that, by analogy with previous analyses, type 1 craters form in more fragmental targets than type 2 craters. The maximum range of the outer ejecta deposits of type 2 craters, however, consistently extends about 0.8 crater radii further than ejecta deposits of type 1 craters, suggesting a greater degree of ejecta fluidization for the twin-lobed type 2 craters. Numerous characteristics of Ries Crater, West Germany, show similarities to craters on Mars, indicating that Martian fluidized ejecta craters may be closer analogs to this terrestrial crater than are lunar craters.

  16. Ejecta modeling in the FLAG hydrocode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jimmy; Harrison, Alan

    2011-11-01

    We present the development of an ejecta model in the FLAG code. Ejecta is the term given to particulate matter produced at the free surface of a material subject to extreme shock loading. Modeling ejecta in a continuum hydrodynamics code challenges assumptions underlying the numerical approximations made in the hydrodynamics; the representative scales for the particulates are much smaller than the scales for the bulk material producing the ejecta. The FLAG hydrocode models continuum mechanics in an Arbitrary-Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. To model ejecta in FLAG, a hybrid particle-mesh representation was defined that allows for coupling with continuum materials. Numerical models were developed and implemented for particle production and integrating the particle equations of motion, while conserving mass, momentum and energy. This work documents advances in source and transport modeling, calibration and validation. Spatial and temporal dependencies have been added to the source models to account for free-surface geometry, mesh dependence, and shock loading. Physically relevant drag models have been implemented. These will be presented along with calibration results.

  17. Thermally distinct ejecta blankets from Martian craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-06-01

    A study of Martian ejecta blankets is carried out using the high-resolution thermal IR/visible data from the Termoskan instrument aboard Phobos '88 mission. It is found that approximately 100 craters within the Termoskan data have an ejecta blanket distinct in the thermal infrared (EDITH). These features are examined by (1) a systematic examination of all Termoskan data using high-resolution image processing; (2) a study of the systematics of the data by compiling and analyzing a data base consisting of geographic, geologic, and mormphologic parameters for a significant fraction of the EDITH and nearby non-EDITH; and (3) qualitative and quantitative analyses of localized regions of interest. It is noted that thermally distinct ejecta blankets are excellent locations for future landers and remote sensing because of relatively dust-free surface exposures of material excavated from depth.

  18. Numerical modeling of the ejecta distribution and formation of the Orientale basin on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Hua; Wünnemann, Kai; Potter, Ross W. K.

    2015-12-01

    The formation and structure of the Orientale basin on the Moon has been extensively studied in the past; however, estimates of its transient crater size, excavated volume and depth, and ejecta distribution remain uncertain. Here we present a new numerical model to reinvestigate the formation and structure of Orientale basin and better constrain impact parameters such as impactor size and velocity. Unlike previous models, the observed ejecta distribution and ejecta thickness were used as the primary constraints to estimate transient crater size—the best measure of impact energy. Models were also compared to basin morphology and morphometry, and subsurface structures derived from high-resolution remote sensing observations and gravity data, respectively. The best fit model suggests a 100 km diameter impactor with a velocity of ~12 km s-1 formed the Orientale basin on a relatively "cold" Moon. In this impact scenario the transient crater diameter is ~400 km or 460 km depending on whether the crater is defined using the diameter of the excavation zone or the diameter of the growing cavity at the time of maximum crater volume, respectively. The volume of ejecta material is ~4.70 × 106 km3, in agreement with recent estimates of the Orientale ejecta blanket thickness from remote sensing studies. The model also confirms the remote sensing spectroscopic observations that no mantle material was excavated and deposited at Orientale's rim.

  19. Kinematical analysis of the ejecta created after a catastrophic collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Oro, A.; Cellino, A.; Paolicchi, P.; Tanga, P.

    2014-07-01

    avoid huge computations, whenever one is interested in the general properties of the process, and not in the details? In this preliminary analysis, we have studied a pair of ejecta fields produced by old SPH computations (Michel et al., 2001). The most surprising and significant indication is that, at least in these cases, about 20 % of the original ejecta appear to have initially crossing trajectories forcing them to have necessarily mutual impacts, without any role played by the mutual gravity. This property marks a significant difference with respect to the ''simple'' models, usually allowing collisions only as a consequence of the gravity, and might be important to shape the reaccumulation properties. It has to be noted that this property is not resolution-independent (in principle, for a given total volume of the ejecta, a larger number of smaller ejecta with similar kinematical properties should entail a larger collision probability). We also discuss the possibility of identifying in these ejection fields an analogue of the ''irradiation point'' usually defined in the semiempirical models.

  20. Self-Secondary Crater Populations on Copernican Continuous Ejecta Blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, M.; Jolliff, B.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Plescia, J.; Artemieva, N.

    2016-05-01

    Self-secondary craters (a population of craters formed on continuous ejecta deposits by fragments from the parent crater) may account for melt/ejecta CSFD discrepancies, and may imply inner Solar System cratering flux estimates are overestimated.

  1. Lunar Basin Ejecta Emplacement: Evidence from Schiller-Schickard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    1993-07-01

    Basin-forming impacts have played a major role in the geologic history of the Moon, serving to modify and redistribute crustal materials. The Orientale basin has become the model for understanding lunar basin structure [e.g., 1]. Orientale can also provide information on a key aspect of basin formation: the nature of the processes occurring during the emplacement of basin ejecta. In the Schiller-Schickard (SS) region, roughly 1300 km from the basin center, Orientale ejecta has interacted with pre- existing mare basalt [2]. This interaction produced a light plains deposit of the type sometimes referred to as a cryptomare. The amount of mare basalt in the light plains is an expression of the extent of "local mixing," i.e., the degree to which the substrate is disrupted by the impacting ejecta and incorporated into the resulting deposit. The SS region presents an opportunity to test the Oberbeck model of ejecta emplacement [3] because of the presence of a spectrally distinct substrate (mare basalt). Near-infrared (0.6-2.5 micrometer) reflectance spectra for a variety of features in the SS region have been collected with Univ. of Hawaii telescopes and analyzed to extract compositional information from the characteristics of the "1 micrometer" mafic mineral absorption band [4]. Further insight into a multivariate data set such as these spectra can be obtained through application of principal components analysis (PCA) [5]. The mapping of the spectra into PC space aids in the identification of spectral endmembers and reveals mixing trends. Four endmembers identified in the group of SS spectra are (1) mature highlands surfaces, (2) fresh highlands surfaces, (3) mature mare surfaces, and (4) fresh mare surfaces. Spectra for light plains deposits and mare surfaces with highlands contamination fall between these endmembers in PC space. Mixing models based on PCA enable the contribution of each endmember to the mixture spectra to be quantified. Preliminary results indicate

  2. Dynamical Behavior of Ejecta Produced by the Proposed ISIS Kinetic Impactor Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Chesley, Steven R.; Farnocchia, Davide

    2014-05-01

    Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) is a proposed mission of opportunity that would demonstrate and test kinetic impact (KI) for orbit modification of a hypothetical NEO to reduce its Earth impact probability. Unlike Deep Impact, this test entails measuring ΔV imparted to a far smaller asteroidal target body (Bennu) using another spacecraft in rendezvous with that body both before and after the KI event (OSIRIX-REx). To quantify any hazard to OSIRIS-REx from collision with liberated ejecta, we perform detailed study of the ejecta's dynamical behavior. For KI event energy matching a 440 kg impactor at 13.43 km/s closing velocity, we model crater formation and ejecta generation consistent with the small net surface acceleration in the targeted equatorial region of the sunlit hemisphere at the February 2021 impact epoch, and reasonable material strength for such a low-density rubble-pile. A crater ≈25 m in diameter is excavated over several minutes, liberating several thousand metric tons of material, with maximum velocity ≈34 m/s. We propagate ejecta under all relevant dynamical effects, including shape-model-derived full body gravity, differential solar tide acceleration, and solar radiation pressure (SRP) accounting for realistic particle size-frequency distribution, optical properties, and shadowing. We present the proportion of particles reaching the dynamical fates of return impact or exit from the region of importance to OSIRIS-REx operations, vs. time. We show where the re-accreted ejecta deposits on the surface, and the size-frequency distribution of the population remaining at 1, 5, 10, etc. days post-impact. We find clearing times from the system are nonlinearly dependent on particle size as expected, especially for low-velocity ejecta which stream away anti-sunward under the action of SRP within a paraboloid zone. Higher-velocity ejecta persist for longer durations within a sunward extension of the original ejecta cone. We visualize

  3. Detection of Crater Ejecta in Venus Tessera Terrain using Magellan SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, J. L.; Campbell, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tesserae, areas of high radar backscatter with a highly deformed morphology, are hypothesized to be some of the oldest materials on the surface of Venus, while parabolic crater ejecta deposits are some of the youngest geologic features. Recently, Earth-based radar data were used to make the first detailed maps of crater ejecta deposits within tessera terrains, such as Alpha Regio. In this work, we analyze tesserae using Magellan radar image data based on this new understanding of surface properties, with the goal of extending the technique for identifying crater deposits beyond the coverage of the Earth-based data. Our goals are to define stratigraphic relationships, determine whether there is a non-uniform distribution of crater ejecta within the tesserae, and identify uncontaminated tessera regions as possible future landing sites. We first present detections of ejecta in tesserae from Magellan images of craters also observed in the Earth-based data, then show several tessera regions that have only Magellan coverage but apparently similar surface mantling deposits. Tellus Tessera contains a concentration of low radar backscatter surfaces, in its center and southwest, interpreted as fine-grained ejecta deposits from Bernhardt crater. At Sudenitsa Tessera, located on the northern edge of the Beta-Atla-Themis region, several low backscatter tessera areas occur that are not associated with any obvious impact crater. This suggests that the low-backscatter ejecta were sourced from a crater that was resurfaced in the recent (likely less than 50-100 Ma) past. From these analyses it is evident that crater parabola deposits are non-uniformly distributed in tesserae, and future landing site selection will need to account for the presence of these deposits. Fine-grained deposits in the tesserae may also preserve evidence of ejecta after the parent crater is buried by plains-forming lavas.

  4. Thermomagnetic analysis of meterorites. 4: Ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, M. W.; Herndon, J. M.; Larson, E. E.; Watson, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Samples of all available ureilites have been analyzed thermomagnetically. For three of the six (Dyalpur, Goalpara and Havero) evidence was found for only low-nickel metallic-iron as the magnetic component and the (saturation magnetization vs, temperature) curves were reversible. In the Novo Urei ureilite, magnetite in addition to low-nickel metallic-iron was indicated and again the Js-T curve was reversible. For the two badly weathered ureilites, Dingo Pup Donga and North Haig, indication was also found that both initial magnetite and low-nickel metallic-iron were present. However, the Js-T curves were somewhat irreversible and the final saturation magnetization was 20% and 50% greater than initially for North Haig and Dingo Pup Donga, respectively. This behavior is interpreted to be the result of magnetite production from a secondary iron oxide during the experiment.

  5. Lunar crater ejecta: Physical properties revealed by radar and thermal infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, R. R.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Tai Udovicic, C. J.; Campbell, B. A.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the physical properties, and changes through time, of lunar impact ejecta using radar and thermal infrared data. We use data from two instruments on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) - the Diviner thermal radiometer and the Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) radar instrument - together with Earth-based radar observations. We use this multiwavelength intercomparison to constrain block sizes and to distinguish surface from buried rocks in proximal ejecta deposits. We find that radar-detectable rocks buried within the upper meter of regolith can remain undisturbed by surface processes such as micrometeorite bombardment for >3 Gyr. We also investigate the thermophysical properties of radar-dark haloes, comprised of fine-grained, rock-poor ejecta distal to the blocky proximal ejecta. Using Diviner data, we confirm that the halo material is depleted in surface rocks, but show that it is otherwise thermophysically indistinct from background regolith. We also find that radar-dark haloes, like the blocky ejecta, remain visible in radar observations for craters with ages >3 Ga, indicating that regolith overturn processes cannot replenish their block populations on that timescale.

  6. Sesquinary catenae on the Martian satellite Phobos from reaccretion of escaping ejecta.

    PubMed

    Nayak, M; Asphaug, E

    2016-08-30

    The Martian satellite Phobos is criss-crossed by linear grooves and crater chains whose origin is unexplained. Anomalous grooves are relatively young, and crosscut tidally predicted stress fields as Phobos spirals towards Mars. Here we report strong correspondence between these anomalous features and reaccretion patterns of sesquinary ejecta from impacts on Phobos. Escaping ejecta persistently imprint Phobos with linear, low-velocity crater chains (catenae) that match the geometry and morphology of prominent features that do not fit the tidal model. We prove that these cannot be older than Phobos' current orbit inside Mars' Roche limit. Distinctive reimpact patterns allow sesquinary craters to be traced back to their source, for the first time across any planetary body, creating a novel way to probe planetary surface characteristics. For example, we show that catena-producing craters likely formed in the gravity regime, providing constraints on the ejecta velocity field and knowledge of source crater material properties.

  7. Wind interaction with falling ejecta - Origin of the parabolic features on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Melosh, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative model in which the parabolic features are produced by the interaction of the zonal winds with material ejected ballistically from the impact crater is proposed. As the ejecta particles fall through the atmosphere, the winds transport them downwind from their entry point, smaller particles being transported a greater distance. Since the ejecta distribution is initially axially symmetric and smaller particles are thrown farther from the crater, the winds blow the particles on the upwind side back upon one another, leading to a pile-up of material. On the downwind side, the winds disperse the ejecta particles and no pile-up occurs. The resulting thickness distribution on the Venusian surface matches the observed parabolic features closely. The dual parabolic features associated with the crater Carson is also explained by this model.

  8. Sesquinary catenae on the Martian satellite Phobos from reaccretion of escaping ejecta.

    PubMed

    Nayak, M; Asphaug, E

    2016-01-01

    The Martian satellite Phobos is criss-crossed by linear grooves and crater chains whose origin is unexplained. Anomalous grooves are relatively young, and crosscut tidally predicted stress fields as Phobos spirals towards Mars. Here we report strong correspondence between these anomalous features and reaccretion patterns of sesquinary ejecta from impacts on Phobos. Escaping ejecta persistently imprint Phobos with linear, low-velocity crater chains (catenae) that match the geometry and morphology of prominent features that do not fit the tidal model. We prove that these cannot be older than Phobos' current orbit inside Mars' Roche limit. Distinctive reimpact patterns allow sesquinary craters to be traced back to their source, for the first time across any planetary body, creating a novel way to probe planetary surface characteristics. For example, we show that catena-producing craters likely formed in the gravity regime, providing constraints on the ejecta velocity field and knowledge of source crater material properties. PMID:27575002

  9. Sesquinary catenae on the Martian satellite Phobos from reaccretion of escaping ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, M.; Asphaug, E.

    2016-08-01

    The Martian satellite Phobos is criss-crossed by linear grooves and crater chains whose origin is unexplained. Anomalous grooves are relatively young, and crosscut tidally predicted stress fields as Phobos spirals towards Mars. Here we report strong correspondence between these anomalous features and reaccretion patterns of sesquinary ejecta from impacts on Phobos. Escaping ejecta persistently imprint Phobos with linear, low-velocity crater chains (catenae) that match the geometry and morphology of prominent features that do not fit the tidal model. We prove that these cannot be older than Phobos' current orbit inside Mars' Roche limit. Distinctive reimpact patterns allow sesquinary craters to be traced back to their source, for the first time across any planetary body, creating a novel way to probe planetary surface characteristics. For example, we show that catena-producing craters likely formed in the gravity regime, providing constraints on the ejecta velocity field and knowledge of source crater material properties.

  10. Sesquinary catenae on the Martian satellite Phobos from reaccretion of escaping ejecta

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, M.; Asphaug, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Martian satellite Phobos is criss-crossed by linear grooves and crater chains whose origin is unexplained. Anomalous grooves are relatively young, and crosscut tidally predicted stress fields as Phobos spirals towards Mars. Here we report strong correspondence between these anomalous features and reaccretion patterns of sesquinary ejecta from impacts on Phobos. Escaping ejecta persistently imprint Phobos with linear, low-velocity crater chains (catenae) that match the geometry and morphology of prominent features that do not fit the tidal model. We prove that these cannot be older than Phobos' current orbit inside Mars' Roche limit. Distinctive reimpact patterns allow sesquinary craters to be traced back to their source, for the first time across any planetary body, creating a novel way to probe planetary surface characteristics. For example, we show that catena-producing craters likely formed in the gravity regime, providing constraints on the ejecta velocity field and knowledge of source crater material properties. PMID:27575002

  11. (U-Th)/He Zircon Dating of Chesapeake Bay Ejecta; Ocean Drilling Program Site 1073A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biren, M. B.; van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J.-A.; Hodges, K. V.; Glass, B. P.; Koeberl, C.; Hale, W.

    2014-09-01

    Results from our (U-Th)/He zircon dating of distal ejecta associated with the 40 km diameter Chesapeake Bay impact structure of Virginia, are in excellent agreement with previous K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating studies of the North American tektites.

  12. Spectra of Cas A's Highest Velocity Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2010-08-01

    The young age and close distance of the Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) make it perhaps our best case study and clearest look at the explosion dynamics of a core-collapse supernova (CCSN). Interestingly, Cas A exhibits two nearly opposing streams of high velocity ejecta or `jets' in its NE and SW regions racing outward at speeds more than twice that of the main shell. The nature of these jets, however, and their possible association with an aspherical supernova explosion mechanism is controversial. A handful of existing low-resolution spectra of outer knots in the NE jet display chemical abundances hinting at an origin from the S-Si-Ca- Ar rich layer deep inside the progenitor. If these abundances could be firmly established in both the NE and SW jets, it would be very strong evidence in support of a highly asymmetrical explosion engine for Cas A's progenitor and, in turn, for CCSNe in general. We request KPNO 4m telescope + MARS time to obtain high quality multi-object spectroscopy of Cas A's highest velocity ejecta to measure their nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, calcium, and argon abundances. These spectra will be analyzed with the metal-rich shock models of J. Raymond and then compared to current sets of CCSN models paying particular attention to knot composition vs. ejection velocity and ejecta mixing.

  13. 40Ar/39Ar age of the Manson impact structure, Iowa, and correlative impact ejecta in the Crow Creek member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous), South Dakota and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izett, G.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Obradovich, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    A set of 34 laser total-fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses of sanidine from a melt layer in crater-fill deposits of the Manson impact structure in Iowa has a weighted-mean age of 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma. This age is about 9.0 m.y. older than 40Ar/39Ar ages of shocked microcline from the Manson impact structure reported previously by others. The 74.1 Ma age of the sanidine, which is a melt product of Precambrian microcline clasts, indicates that the Manson impact structure played no part in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction at 64.5 Ma. Moreover, incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar ages of the sanidine show that it is essentially free of excess 40Ar and has not been influenced by postcrystallization heating or alteration. An age spectrum of the matrix of the melt layer shows effects of 39Ar recoil, including older ages in the low-temperature increments and younger ages in the high-temperature increments. At 17 places in eastern South Dakota and Nebraska, shocked quartz and feldspar grains are concentrated in the lower part of the Crow Creek Member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous). The grains are largest (3.2 mm) in southeastern South Dakota and decrease in size (0.45 mm) to the northwest, consistent with the idea that the Manson impact structure was their source. The ubiquitous presence of shocked grains concentrated in a thin calcarenite at the base of the Crow Creek Member suggests it is an event bed recording an instant of geologic time. Ammonites below and above the Crow Creek Member limit its age to the zone of Didymoceras nebrascense of earliest late Campanian age. Plagioclase from a bentonite bed in this zone in Colorado has a 40Ar/39Ar age of 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma commensurate with our sanidine age of 74.1 Ma for the Manson impact structure. 40Ar/39Ar ages of bentonite beds below and above the Crow Creek are consistent with our 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma age for the Manson impact structure and limit its age to the interval ?? 74.5 0.1 to 73.8 ?? 0.1 Ma. Recently, two origins for the

  14. Dynamics of ejecta from the binary asteroid Didymos, the target of the AIDA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Yu, Yang; Schwartz, Stephen; Naidu, Shantanu; Benner, Lance

    2016-04-01

    The AIDA space mission, a collaborative effort between ESA and NASA, aims to characterize the near-Earth asteroid binary (65803) Didymos and to perform a kinetic impactor demonstration on the small moon of the binary system. Our study presents a multi-scale dynamical model of the ejecta cloud produced by a hypervelocity impact, which enables us to compute the ejecta properties at different spatial and time scales. This model is applied to the impact into the small moon of Didymos on October 2022 as considered by the AIDA mission. We model the process by including as much practical information as possible, e.g., the gravitational environment influenced by the non-spherical shapes of the bodies (based on the observed shape of the primary), the solar tides, and the solar radiation pressure. Our simulations show where and for how long the ejecta cloud evolves with time for the considered ejecta initial conditions. This information is used to assess the potential hazard to the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) observing spacecraft and to determine the safest positions. This study is performed with support of the European Space Agency and in the framework of the NEOShield-2 project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 640351.

  15. A class of ejecta transport test problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, James E; Buttler, William T; Oro, David M; Rousculp, Christopher L; Morris, Christopher; Mariam, Fesseha G

    2011-01-31

    Hydro code implementations of ejecta dynamics at shocked interfaces presume a source distribution function ofparticulate masses and velocities, f{sub 0}(m, v;t). Some of the properties of this source distribution function have been determined from extensive Taylor and supported wave experiments on shock loaded Sn interfaces of varying surface and subsurface morphology. Such experiments measure the mass moment of f{sub o} under vacuum conditions assuming weak particle-particle interaction and, usually, fully inelastic capture by piezo-electric diagnostic probes. Recently, planar Sn experiments in He, Ar, and Kr gas atmospheres have been carried out to provide transport data both for machined surfaces and for coated surfaces. A hydro code model of ejecta transport usually specifies a criterion for the instantaneous temporal appearance of ejecta with source distribution f{sub 0}(m, v;t{sub 0}). Under the further assumption of separability, f{sub 0}(m,v;t{sub 0}) = f{sub 1}(m)f{sub 2}(v), the motion of particles under the influence of gas dynamic forces is calculated. For the situation of non-interacting particulates, interacting with a gas via drag forces, with the assumption of separability and simplified approximations to the Reynolds number dependence of the drag coefficient, the dynamical equation for the time evolution of the distribution function, f(r,v,m;t), can be resolved as a one-dimensional integral which can be compared to a direct hydro simulation as a test problem. Such solutions can also be used for preliminary analysis of experimental data. We report solutions for several shape dependent drag coefficients and analyze the results of recent planar dsh experiments in Ar and Xe.

  16. Eta Carinae and Its Ejecta, the Homunculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    Eta Carinae (Eta Car), its interacting winds and historical ejecta provide an unique astrophysical laboratory that permits addressing a multitude of questions ranging from stellar evolution, colliding winds, chemical enrichment, nebular excitation to the formation of molecules and dust. Every 5.54 years, Eta Car changes from high excitation to several-months-long low excitation caused by modulation of the massive interacting winds due to a very eccentric binary orbit. The surrounding Homunculus (Figure 1) and Little Homunculus, thrown out in the 1840s Great Eruption and the 1890s Lesser Eruption, respond to the changing flux, providing clues to many physical phenomena of great interest to astrophysicists.

  17. Tyrrhena Terra: hydrated lobates ejecta and plains, as seen by OMEGA/MEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Bouley, S.; Mangold, N.; Meresse, S.; Costard, F.; Poulet, F.; Ansan, V.; Le Mouelic, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2009-04-01

    networks located on the higher plateaus, or plains cut by valleys. Their typical size is 10 to 20 km x 50 to 100 km. Most of them are located be-tween 1 km and 1.5 km in altitude. Here also, pyroxene is identified with OMEGA on every hydrated plain, but OMEGA does not detect olivine on the same outcrops. These detections suggest a partial alteration of rocks in Tyrrhena Terra, or a spatial mixing of hydrated and unal-tered materials (for example a pyroxene-rich cap over a hydrated unit, or an intricate mixing of altered and unaltered materials). Two hypotheses can be drawn at this stage for the origin of the hydrated minerals restricted to the ejecta blan-kets: (1) formation of phyllosilicates and hydrated silicate minerals resulting from impact associated processes; (2) excavation of hydrated materials buried before the impact [3]. The study of hydrated minerals in ejecta can also be important concerning the implication of volatiles for the lo-bate ejecta. The studied region is located in Noachian terrains, but most craters are not of Noachian age. They are surrounded by fresh ejecta without high erosion and relative low density of craters. This shows that, if formed by hydrothermal alteration during the impact, the hydrated minerals would be recent, while an excavation would limit the age of the alteration to the age of the terrain, i.e. Noachian. In addition, the observed alteration is located on the ejecta blankets, while hydrothermal models due to the impact predict alteration in the crater center, but do not find alteration possible on distal ejecta. The observation of the hydrated minerals in alluvial plains suggests that this material was collected material from the highlands or formed in situ by weathering [9]. The observation at high spatial resolution of hydrated minerals inside the valley flanks, upstream from the alluvial plains, is crucial to understand the location and time of alteration, and would constrain the process of alteration of the ejecta blankets

  18. Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, James Edward; Plohr, Bradley J

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.

  19. The Fate of Ejecta from Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ejecta from Saturn's moon Hyperion is subject to powerful perturbations from nearby Titan, which control its ultimate fate. We have performed numerical integrations to simulate a simplified system consisting of Saturn (including oblateness), Tethys, Dione, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, and the Sun (treated simply as a massive satellite). In addition, 1050 massless particles were ejected from Hyperion at five different points in its orbit. These particles started more or less evenly distributed over latitude and longitude, 1 km above Hyperion's mean radius, and were ejected radially outward at speeds 10\\% faster than its escape speed. Only about 4\\% of the particles survived for the 100,000-year course of the integration, while $\\sim$8/% escaped from the Saturnian system. Titan accreted $\\sim$77\\% of all the particles, while Hyperion reaccreted only $\\sim$5\\%. This may help to account for Hyperion's rugged shape. Three particles hit Rhea and 2 hit Dione, but $\\sim$5\\% of the particles were removed when they penetrated within 150,000 km of Saturn. Most removals occurred within the first few thousand years. In general, ejecta from Hyperion are much more widely scattered than previously thought, and cross the orbits of all of the other classical satellites.

  20. A steady-state model of the lunar ejecta cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such ``dust exospheres'' have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2,3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the - currently ongoing - investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.[1] Gault, D. Shoemaker, E.M., Moore, H.J., 1963, NASA TN-D 1767. [2] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Hamilton, D. P., Grun, E., 1999, Nature, 399, 558. [3] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Sremcevic, M., Grun, E., 2003, Icarus, 164, 170. [4] Grun, E., Horanyi, M., Sternovsky, Z., 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1672. [5] Elphic, R.C., Hine, B., Delory, G.T., Salute, J.S., Noble, S., Colaprete, A., Horanyi, M., Mahaffy, P., and the LADEE Science Team, 2014, LPSC XLV, LPI Contr. 1777, 2677.

  1. A burst in a wind bubble and the impact on baryonic ejecta: high-energy gamma-ray flashes and afterglows from fast radio bursts and pulsar-driven supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tenuous wind bubbles, which are formed by the spin-down activity of central compact remnants, are relevant in some models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SNe). We study their high-energy signatures, focusing on the role of pair-enriched bubbles produced by young magnetars, rapidly rotating neutron stars, and magnetized white dwarfs. (i) First, we study the nebular properties and the conditions allowing for escape of high-energy gamma-rays and radio waves, showing that their escape is possible for nebulae with ages of ≳10-100 yr. In the rapidly rotating neutron star scenario, we find that radio emission from the quasi-steady nebula itself may be bright enough to be detected especially at sub-mm frequencies, which is relevant as a possible counterpart of pulsar-driven SNe and FRBs. (ii) Secondly, we consider the fate of bursting emission in the nebulae. We suggest that an impulsive burst may lead to a highly relativistic flow, which would interact with the nebula. If the shocked nebula is still relativistic, pre-existing non-thermal particles in the nebula can be significantly boosted by the forward shock, leading to short-duration (maybe millisecond or longer) high-energy gamma-ray flashes. Possible dissipation at the reverse shock may also lead to gamma-ray emission. (iii) After such flares, interactions with the baryonic ejecta may lead to afterglow emission with a duration of days to weeks. In the magnetar scenario, this burst-in-bubble model leads to the expectation that nearby (≲10-100 Mpc) high-energy gamma-ray flashes may be detected by the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory and the Cherenkov Telescope Array, and the subsequent afterglow emission may be seen by radio telescopes such as the Very Large Array. (iv) Finally, we discuss several implications specific to FRBs, including constraints on the emission regions and limits on soft gamma-ray counterparts.

  2. Ground penetrating radar geologic field studies of the ejecta of Barringer Meteorite Crater, Arizona, as a planetary analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Grant, John A.; Williams, Kevin K.; Carter, Lynn M.; Brent Garry, W.; Daubar, Ingrid J.

    2013-09-01

    penetrating radar (GPR) has been a useful geophysical tool in investigating a variety of shallow subsurface geological environments on Earth. Here we investigate the capabilities of GPR to provide useful geologic information in one of the most common geologic settings of planetary surfaces, impact crater ejecta. Three types of ejecta are surveyed with GPR at two wavelengths (400 MHz, 200 MHz) at Meteor Crater, Arizona, with the goal of capturing the GPR signature of the subsurface rock population. In order to "ground truth" the GPR characterization, subsurface rocks are visually counted and measured in preexisting subsurface exposures immediately adjacent to and below the GPR transect. The rock size-frequency distribution from 10 to 50 cm based on visual counts is well described by both power law and exponential functions, the former slightly better, reflecting the control of fragmentation processes during the impact-ejection event. GPR counts are found to overestimate the number of subsurface rocks in the upper meter (by a factor of 2-3x) and underestimate in the second meter of depth (0.6-1.0x), results attributable to the highly scattering nature of blocky ejecta. Overturned ejecta that is fractured yet in which fragments are minimally displaced from their complement fragments produces fewer GPR returns than well-mixed ejecta. The use of two wavelengths and division of results into multiple depth zones provides multiple aspects by which to characterize the ejecta block population. Remote GPR measurement of subsurface ejecta in future planetary situations with no subsurface exposure can be used to characterize those rock populations relative to that of Meteor Crater.

  3. Ejecta Knot Evolution in Cas A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, John; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Dewey, D.; Trowbridge, S.; Bastien, F.; Sato, K.

    2011-01-01

    Supernova remnants are remarkable laboratories for studying, among other phenomena, explosive nucleosynthesis and plasma dynamics. Time-dependent signatures of such processes can further inform our understanding, and may be found in widely spaced epochs of observation from high spatial and spectral resolution instruments. We investigated the spectral evolution in the X-ray band of the bright ejecta knots in Cassiopeia A over the last decade. Both dispersed and non-dispersed spectra from the Chandra HETG and ACIS instruments were used for this study, helping to better constrain signs of evolution. We present our findings of how such physical properties as the temperature, elemental abundances, velocity, and non-equilibrium ionization age changed over ten years of the several hundred year old remnant's lifetime, along with a careful analysis of the confounding background contamination and model parameter correlations.

  4. Tektites - Volcanic ejecta from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. S.; Lowrey, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility is considered that tektites are lunar volcanic ejecta, and lunar regions are examined from which tektites could be ejected with the necessary velocities and trajectories to reach the earth. The examined regions include areas around the Lunar Transient Phenomena sites near Censorinus, Messier, Messier A, and Taruntius, the area of Mare Foecunditatis near Secchi X, areas near Cauchy and Capella, and the eastern part of Mare Tranquillitatis. Evidence of acidic volcanic activity in these regions is described in detail, including possible calderas, mudflows, and endogenous domes. It is suggested that the moon is still gently degassing and that more violent eruptions of material may still occur on rare occasions. Remotely-sensed evidence of recent lunar internal activity is noted.

  5. ASYMMETRIC EJECTA DISTRIBUTION IN SN 1006

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Katsuji; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2013-07-01

    We present the results from deep X-ray observations ({approx}400 ks in total) of SN 1006 with Suzaku. The thermal spectrum from the entire supernova remnant (SNR) exhibits prominent emission lines of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. The observed abundance pattern in the ejecta components is in good agreement with that predicted by a standard model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe). The spatially resolved analysis reveals that the distribution of the O-burning and incomplete Si-burning products (Si, S, and Ar) is asymmetric, while that of the C-burning products (O, Ne, and Mg) is relatively uniform in the SNR interior. The peak position of the former is clearly shifted by 5' ({approx}3.2 pc at the distance of 2.2 kpc) to the southeast (SE) from the SNR's geometric center. Using the SNR age of {approx}1000 yr, we constrain that the velocity asymmetry (in projection) of the ejecta is {approx}3100 km s{sup -1}. The Fe abundance is also significantly higher in the SE region than in the northwest. Given that the non-uniformity is observed only in the heavier elements (Si through Fe), we argue that SN 1006 originates from an asymmetric explosion, as is expected from recent multidimensional simulations of Type Ia SNe, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that inhomogeneous ambient medium had induced the apparent non-uniformity. Possible evidence for the Cr-K-shell line and line broadening in the Fe-K-shell emission is also found.

  6. Hellas Basin ejecta: A prime stratigraphic marker and sampling target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Elbert A.

    1988-01-01

    The Hellas Basin and associated ejecta deposits dominate a large portion of the southern highlands of Mars. These deposits have been particularly well-documented at the scale 1:5,000,000 in the Sinus Sabaeus (MC-20), Iapygia (MC-21) and Mare Tyrrhenum (MC-22) quadrangles (1,2,3) where they have been mapped as ancient hilly and cratered material. In MC-22 the ejecta deposit is interpreted to thin from west to east, away from Hellas. In the eastern part of MC-22, the outlines of some large older craters, such as Hershel, can be seen through the thin ejecta cover and some of these buried craters even have enough relief to act as depositional traps for later mostly eolian sediments. Superposed on the ejecta is a population of numerous intermediate-sized to smaller craters which indicates the relatively old age of the ejecta deposit and causes the unit to have rather rough surface topography. Numerous small channels on steeply sloping crater rims and regionally sloping surface indicate erosion, transportation and redeposition of substantial amounts of ejecta materials, probably by aqueous fluvial processes. Numerous more recent volcanic constructs and flows also are superposed on the ejecta.

  7. Ejecta Curtains and Ground Ice on Mars: Efficiencies of Volatile Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Asphaug, E.; Gisler, G. R.; Zahnle, K.; Weaver, R. P.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-12-01

    One of the leading hypotheses that might account for a vigorous hydrologic cycle in the late Hesperian on Mars is that major impact events injected near-surface water into the atmosphere (Segura et al. 2001). In particular, a 50 km diameter impactor is calculated to deposit several meters of "rock rain" globally, potentially triggering the widespread global release of water from ground ice. While the release of volatiles near the impact site is a comparatively simple matter of plotting shock levels as a function of distance, and assuming that target rocks shocked to greater than a given level release all their ice as vapor (Dey, 1989), the potentially greater effect is how efficiently the crater ejecta, which is far more widespread, releases vapor. Near the crater thick sheets of poorly sorted but shock-heated materials plow up the surface at relatively low velocities. Far from the crater the ejecta strike the surface at high velocities but are more thinly spread or confined to discrete patches or jets. Beginning with 1D models, and moving to 2D and eventually 3D models, we examine, using the adaptive-mesh Eulerian hydrocode SAGE (Gisler et al. 2004), the effect of crater ejecta and secondary impacts on the transient volatile budget in the proposed late Hesperian hydrologic cycles. We make use of advanced equations of state, including mixed Alluvium-H20 equation of state in the ice-saturated regolith.

  8. Estimates of primary ejecta and local material for the Orientale basin: Implications for the formation and ballistic sedimentation of multi-ring basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Minggang; Zhu, Meng-Hua

    2016-04-01

    A clear understanding of thickness distributions of primary ejecta and local material is critical to interpreting the process of ballistic sedimentation, provenances of lunar samples, the evolution of the lunar surface, and the origin of multi-ring basins. The youngest lunar multi-ring basin, Orientale, provides the best preserved structure for determining the thicknesses of primary ejecta and local material. In general, the primary ejecta thickness was often estimated using crater morphometry. However, previous methods ignored either crater erosion, the crater interior geometry, or both. In addition, ejecta deposits were taken as mostly primary ejecta. And, as far as we know, the local material thickness had not been determined for the Orientale. In this work, we proposed a model based on matching measurements of partially filled pre-Orientale craters (PFPOCs) with the simulations of crater erosion to determine their thicknesses. We provided estimates of primary ejecta thickness distribution with the thickness of 0.85 km at Cordillera ring and a decay power law exponent of b = 2.8, the transient crater radius of 200 km, excavation volume of 2.3 ×106 km3, primary ejecta volume of 2.8 ×106 km3. These results suggest that previous works (e.g., Fassett et al., 2011; Moore et al., 1974) might overestimate the primary ejecta thicknesses of Orientale, and the primary ejecta thickness model of Pike (1974a) for multi-ring basins may give better estimates than the widely cited model of McGetchin et al. (1973) and the scaling law for impacts into Ottawa Sand (Housen et al., 1983). Structural uplift decays slower than previously thought, and rim relief is mostly rim uplift for Orientale. The main reason for rim uplift may be the fracturing and squeezing upward of the surrounding rocks. The proportion of local material to ejecta deposits increases with increasing radial distance from basin center, and the thickness of local material is larger than that of primary ejecta at

  9. Flow Ejecta and Slope Landslides in Small Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This high resolution picture of a moderately small impact crater on Mars was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) on October 17, 1997 at 4:11:07 PM PST, during MGS orbit 22. The image covers an area 2.9 by 48.4 kilometers (1.8 by 30 miles) at 9.6 m (31.5 feet) per picture element, and is centered at 21.3 degrees N, 179.8 degrees W, near Orcus Patera. The MOC image is a factor of 15X better than pervious Viking views of this particular crater (left, Viking image 545A49).

    The unnamed crater is one of three closely adjacent impact features that display the ejecta pattern characteristic of one type of 'flow-ejecta' crater. Such patterns are considered evidence of fluidized movement of the materials ejected during the cratering event, and are believed to indicate the presence of subsurface ice or liquid water.

    Long, linear features of different brightness values can be seen on the on the steep slopes inside and outside the crater rim. This type of feature, first identified in Viking Orbiter images acquired over 20 years ago, are more clearly seen in this new view (about 3 times better than the best previous observations). Their most likely explanation is that small land or dirt slides, initiated by seismic or wind action, have flowed down the steep slopes. Initially dark because of the nature of the surface disturbance, these features get lighter with time as the ubiquitous fine, bright dust settles onto them from the martian atmosphere. Based on estimates of the dust fall-out rate, many of these features are probably only a few tens to hundreds of years old. Thus, they are evidence of a process that is active on Mars today.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with

  10. Calculation of ejecta thickness and structural uplift for Lunar and Martian complex crater rims.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Tim; Sturm, Sebastian; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Crater rims of simple and complex craters have an elevation that is formed during the excavation stage of crater formation. For simple crater rims it is believed that the elevation is due to the sum of two equal parts, the thickness of the most proximal impact ejecta blanket (overturned flap) plus the thickness that results from plastic deformation including injection [1, 2, 3]. We intend to measure and quantify the kinematics of mass movements, especially concerning the question why complex impact craters have elevated crater rims like simple craters and precisely constrain the ejecta thickness and structural uplift of Lunar and Martian crater rims to understand what the main contributor to the elevated rim is [4]. We investigated a pristine 16 km-diameter unnamed Martian complex crater (21.52°N, 184.35°) and the lunar complex craters Bessel (21.8°N, 17.9°E) 16 km in diameter and Euler (23.3°N, 29.2°W) 28 km in diameter [5, 6]. In the crater walls of these craters we found columnar lavas on Mars and basaltic layering on the Moon. We used the uppermost layers of these exposed outcrops along the crater wall to determine the dip of the target rocks (Mars) and to distinguish between the bedrock and the overlying ejecta. We precisely measured the structural uplift and ejecta thickness of these complex craters. The unnamed crater on Mars has a mean rim height of 375.75 m, with a structural uplift of 233.88 m (57.44%), exposed as columnar lavas and the superposing ejecta has a height of 141.87 m (43.56%). For the Lunar complex crater Euler the mean total rim height is 790 ± 100 m, with a minimal structural uplift of 475 ± 100 m (60 ± 10 %), exposed as basaltic layers [e.g., 7, 8] and a maximum ejecta thickness of 315 ± 100 m (40 ± 10%). The Lunar complex crater Bessel has a total rim height of 430 ± 15 m , with a minimal structural uplift of 290 ± 15 m (67 ± 3 %), exposed as basaltic layers and a maximum ejecta thickness of 140 ± 115 m (33 ± 3%). For the

  11. Crater ejecta morphology and the presence of water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to review the possible effects of projectile, target, and environment on the cratering process. The discussion presented suggests that contradictions in interpreting Martian crater ejecta morphologies reflect oversimplifying the process as a singular consequence of buried water. It seem entirely possible that most ejecta facies could be produced without the presence of liquid water. However, the combination of extraordinary ejecta fluidity, absence of secondaries, and high ejection angles all would point to the combined effects of atmosphere and fluid rich substrates. Moreover, recent experiments revealing the broad scour zone associated with rapid vapor expansion may account for numerous craters in the circum-polar regions with subtle radial grooving extending 10 crater radii away with faint distal ramparts. Thus certain crater ejecta morphologies may yet provide fundamental clues for the presence of unbound water.

  12. Crater ejecta morphology and the presence of water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    The possible effects of projectile, target, and environment on the cratering process is reviewed. It is suggested that contradictions in interpreting Martian crater ejecta morphologies reflect over simplifying the process as a singular consequence of buried water. It seem entirely possible that most ejecta facies could be produced without the presence of liquid water. However, the combination of extraordinary ejecta fluidity, absence of secondaries, and high ejection angles all would point to the combined effects of atmosphere and fluid rich substrates. Moreover, recent experiments revealing the broad scour zone associated with rapid vapor expansion may account for numerous craters in the circumpolar regions with subtle radial grooving extending 10 crater radii away with faint distal ramparts. Thus certain crater ejecta morphologies may yet provide fundamental clues for the presence of unbound water.

  13. EJECTA KNOT FLICKERING, MASS ABLATION, AND FRAGMENTATION IN CASSIOPEIA A

    SciTech Connect

    Fesen, Robert A.; Zastrow, Jordan A.; Hammell, Molly C.; Shull, J. Michael; Silvia, Devin W.

    2011-08-01

    Ejecta knot flickering, ablation tails, and fragmentation are expected signatures associated with the gradual dissolution of high-velocity supernova (SN) ejecta caused by their passage through an inhomogeneous circumstellar medium or interstellar medium (ISM). Such phenomena mark the initial stages of the gradual merger of SN ejecta with and the enrichment of the surrounding ISM. Here we report on an investigation of this process through changes in the optical flux and morphology of several high-velocity ejecta knots located in the outskirts of the young core-collapse SN remnant Cassiopeia A using Hubble Space Telescope images. Examination of WFPC2 F675W and combined ACS F625W + F775W images taken between 1999 June and 2004 December of several dozen debris fragments in the remnant's northeast ejecta stream and along the remnant's eastern limb reveal substantial emission variations ('flickering') over timescales as short as nine months. Such widespread and rapid variability indicates knot scale lengths {approx_equal} 10{sup 15} cm and a highly inhomogeneous surrounding medium. We also identify a small percentage of ejecta knots located all around the remnant's outer periphery which show trailing emissions typically 0.''2-0.''7 in length aligned along the knot's direction of motion suggestive of knot ablation tails. We discuss the nature of these trailing emissions as they pertain to ablation cooling, knot disruption, and fragmentation, and draw comparisons to the emission 'strings' seen in {eta} Car. Finally, we identify several tight clusters of small ejecta knots which resemble models of shock-induced fragmentation of larger SN ejecta knots caused by a high-velocity interaction with a lower density ambient medium.

  14. Simulating regolith ejecta due to gas impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Wesley Allen; Metzger, Philip; Dove, Adrienne; Britt, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Space missions operating at or near the surface of a planet or small body must consider possible gas-regolith interactions, as they can cause hazardous effects or, conversely, be employed to accomplish mission goals. They are also directly related to a body's surface properties; thus understanding these interactions could provide an additional tool to analyze mission data. The Python Regolith Interaction Calculator (PyRIC), built upon a computational technique developed in the Apollo era, was used to assess interactions between rocket exhaust and an asteroid's surface. It focused specifically on threshold conditions for causing regolith ejecta. To improve this model, and learn more about the underlying physics, we have begun ground-based experiments studying the interaction between gas impingement and regolith simulant. Compressed air, initially standing in for rocket exhaust, is directed through a rocket nozzle at a bed of simulant. We assess the qualitative behavior of various simulants when subjected to a known maximum surface pressure, both in atmosphere and in a chamber initially at vacuum. These behaviors are compared to prior computational results, and possible flow patterns are inferred. Our future work will continue these experiments in microgravity through the use of a drop tower. These will use several simulant types and various pressure levels to observe the effects gas flow can have on target surfaces. Combining this with a characterization of the surface pressure distribution, tighter bounds can be set on the cohesive threshold necessary to maintain regolith integrity. This will aid the characterization of actual regolith distributions, as well as informing the surface operation phase of mission design.

  15. Numerical Modelling and Ejecta Distribution Analysis of a Martian Fresh Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, A.; Cremonese, G.; Cambianica, P.; Daubar, I.; McEwen, A. S.; Re, C.

    2015-12-01

    Images taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal fresh craters on Mars that are known to be recent as they are constrained by before and after images (Daubar et al., 2013). In particular, on Nov. 19, 2013 an image acquired by HiRISE, ESP_034285_1835, observed a 25 m diameter fresh crater located at 3.7° N, 53.4° E. This impact occurred between July 2010 and May 2012, as constrained by Context camera (CTX) images. Because the terrain where the crater formed is dusty, the fresh crater appears blue in the enhanced color of the HiRISE image, due to removal of the reddish dust in that area. We analyze this crater using the iSALE shock physics code (Amsden et al., 1980, Collins et al., 2004, Ivanov et al., 1997, Melosh et al., 1992, Wünnemann et al., 2006) to model the formation of this impact structure which is ~25 m in diameter and ~ 2.5 - 3 m in depth. These values are obtained from the DTM profile we have generated. We model the Martian surface considering different target compositions as regolith and fractured basalt rock and we based our simulations on a basalt projectile with a porosity of 10% (which is derived from the average of the meteorite types proposed by Britt et al., 2002) that hits the Martian surface with a beginning velocity equal to 7 km/s (Le Feuvre & Wieczorek, 2011) and an impact angle of 90°. The projectile size is around 1 m and it is estimated from the comparison between the DTM profile and the profiles obtained by numerical modelling. The primary objective of this analysis is the detailed study of the ejecta, in fact we will track the ejecta coming from the simulation and compare them to the ejecta distribution computed on the image (the ejecta reached a distance of more than 15 km). From the matching of the simulated ejecta with their real distribution, we will be able to understand the goodness of the simulation and also put constraints on the target material.

  16. The LCROSS Ejecta Plume Revealed: First Characterization from Earth-based Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C.; Chanover, N.; Hermalyn, B.; Strycker, P. D.; Hamilton, R. T.; Suggs, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    On October 9, 2009, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck the floor of Cabeus crater. We observed the LCROSS impact site at 0.5-second intervals throughout the time of impact in the V-band (491 to 591 nm) using the Agile camera on the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Our initial analysis of these images showed that the ejecta plume could be no brighter than 9.5 magnitudes/arcsec^2. (Chanover et al. 2011, JGR). We subsequently applied a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique to filter out time-varying seeing distortions and image registration errors from an 8-minute sequence of images centered on the LCROSS impact time and unambiguously detected the evolving plume below the noise threshold. This is the first and only reported image detection of the LCROSS plume from ground-based instruments. Our detection is consistent with an ejecta plume that reaches peak brightness between 12 and 20 seconds after impact and fades to an undetectable level within 90 seconds after impact. This is consistent with in situ observations made by the LCROSS Shepherding Satellite (LCROSS S/SC) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that observed the impact from above (Colaprete et al., and Hayne et. al., 2010, Science). To test our detection method, we compared the brightness profiles derived from our impact image sequence to those extracted from a sequence with a simulated ejecta pattern. We performed 3-D ballistic simulations of trial impacts, starting with initial particle ejection angles and velocities derived from laboratory measurements made with the NASA Ames Vertical Gun of impacts of hollow test projectiles (Hermalyn et. al., 2012, Icarus). We extracted images from these simulations at 0.5-second intervals, combined them with a computer generated lunar landscape, and introduced image distortions due to time-varying seeing conditions and instrumental noise sources to produce a synthetic ejecta image sequence. We then re

  17. Crater Ejecta by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 24 June 2004 This pair of images shows a crater and its ejecta.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 164.2 East (195.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  18. Geologic Mapping of Ejecta Deposits in Oppia Quadrangle, Asteroid (4) Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, W. Brent; Williams, David A.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Mest, Scott C.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Tosi, Federico; Schafer, Michael; LeCorre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Jaumann, Ralf; Pieters, Carle M.; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Oppia Quadrangle Av-10 (288-360 deg E, +/- 22 deg) is a junction of key geologic features that preserve a rough history of Asteroid (4) Vesta and serves as a case study of using geologic mapping to define a relative geologic timescale. Clear filter images, stereo-derived topography, slope maps, and multispectral color-ratio images from the Framing Camera on NASA's Dawn spacecraft served as basemaps to create a geologic map and investigate the spatial and temporal relationships of the local stratigraphy. Geologic mapping reveals the oldest map unit within Av-10 is the cratered highlands terrain which possibly represents original crustal material on Vesta that was then excavated by one or more impacts to form the basin Feralia Planitia. Saturnalia Fossae and Divalia Fossae ridge and trough terrains intersect the wall of Feralia Planitia indicating that this impact basin is older than both the Veneneia and Rheasilvia impact structures, representing Pre-Veneneian crustal material. Two of the youngest geologic features in Av-10 are Lepida (approximately 45 km diameter) and Oppia (approximately 40 km diameter) impact craters that formed on the northern and southern wall of Feralia Planitia and each cross-cuts a trough terrain. The ejecta blanket of Oppia is mapped as 'dark mantle' material because it appears dark orange in the Framing Camera 'Clementine-type' colorratio image and has a diffuse, gradational contact distributed to the south across the rim of Rheasilvia. Mapping of surface material that appears light orange in color in the Framing Camera 'Clementine-type' color-ratio image as 'light mantle material' supports previous interpretations of an impact ejecta origin. Some light mantle deposits are easily traced to nearby source craters, but other deposits may represent distal ejecta deposits (emplaced greater than 5 crater radii away) in a microgravity environment.

  19. Geologic mapping of ejecta deposits in Oppia Quadrangle, Asteroid (4) Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garry, W. Brent; Williams, David A.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Mest, Scott C.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Tosi, Federico; Schäfer, Michael; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Jaumann, Ralf; Pieters, Carle M.; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2014-12-01

    Oppia Quadrangle Av-10 (288-360°E, ±22°) is a junction of key geologic features that preserve a rough history of Asteroid (4) Vesta and serves as a case study of using geologic mapping to define a relative geologic timescale. Clear filter images, stereo-derived topography, slope maps, and multispectral color-ratio images from the Framing Camera on NASA's Dawn spacecraft served as basemaps to create a geologic map and investigate the spatial and temporal relationships of the local stratigraphy. Geologic mapping reveals the oldest map unit within Av-10 is the cratered highlands terrain which possibly represents original crustal material on Vesta that was then excavated by one or more impacts to form the basin Feralia Planitia. Saturnalia Fossae and Divalia Fossae ridge and trough terrains intersect the wall of Feralia Planitia indicating that this impact basin is older than both the Veneneia and Rheasilvia impact structures, representing Pre-Veneneian crustal material. Two of the youngest geologic features in Av-10 are Lepida (∼45 km diameter) and Oppia (∼40 km diameter) impact craters that formed on the northern and southern wall of Feralia Planitia and each cross-cuts a trough terrain. The ejecta blanket of Oppia is mapped as 'dark mantle' material because it appears dark orange in the Framing Camera 'Clementine-type' color-ratio image and has a diffuse, gradational contact distributed to the south across the rim of Rheasilvia. Mapping of surface material that appears light orange in color in the Framing Camera 'Clementine-type' color-ratio image as 'light mantle material' supports previous interpretations of an impact ejecta origin. Some light mantle deposits are easily traced to nearby source craters, but other deposits may represent distal ejecta deposits (emplaced >5 crater radii away) in a microgravity environment.

  20. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jonghee; Hwang, Una

    2013-01-01

    The ejecta of the Cas A supernova remnant has a complex morphology, consisting of dense fast-moving line emitting knots and diffuse X-ray emitting regions that have encountered the reverse shock, as well as more slowly expanding, unshocked regions of the ejecta. Using the Spitzer 5-35 micron IRS data cube, and Herschel 70, 100, and 160 micron PACS data, we decompose the infrared emission from the remnant into distinct spectral components associated with the different regions of the ejecta. Such decomposition allows the association of different dust species with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories, and determination of the dust heating mechanisms. Our decomposition identified three characteristic dust spectra. The first, most luminous one, exhibits strong emission features at approx. 9 and 21 micron, and a weaker 12 micron feature, and is closely associated with the ejecta knots that have strong [Ar II] 6.99 micron and [Ar III] 8.99 micron emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low MgO-to-SiO2 ratios. A second, very different dust spectrum that has no indication of any silicate features, is best fit by Al2O3 dust and is found in association with ejecta having strong [Ne II] 12.8 micron and [Ne III] 15.6 micron emission lines. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that best matched by magnesium silicates with relatively high MgO-to-SiO2 ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta and the shocked interstellar/circumstellar material. All three spectral components include an additional featureless cold dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with [Si II] 34.8 micron emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. The dust mass giving rise to the warm dust component is about approx. 0.1solar M. However, most of the dust mass

  1. Characteristics and Origin of Martian Low-Aspect-Ratio Layered Ejecta (LARLE) Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Boyce, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    An unusual crater morphology is found primarily at high latitudes on Mars. These craters display an extensive outer deposit beyond the normal layered ejecta blanket. This outer deposit extends up to 20 crater radii from the rim, terminates in a sinuous flame-like edge, and is extremely thin, leading to a low aspect ratio (A = thickness/length). These craters are thus called Low-Aspect-Ratio Layered Ejecta (LARLE) craters. We have conducted a survey of all LARLE craters 1-km-diameter and larger on Mars. We find 139 LARLE craters ranging in diameter from 1.0 to 12.2 km with a median of 2.8 km. Most (97%) are found poleward of 35N and 40S, with the remainder primarily found in the equatorial Medusae Fossae Formation. The surfaces of the freshest LARLE layers commonly exhibit radial, curvilinear ridges and dune-like landforms, and the LARLE deposit typically drapes over pre-existing terrain. We propose that the LARLE deposit is formed by a different mechanism than that responsible for the normal layered ejecta patterns. We suggest that impact into relatively-thick fine-grained ice-rich mantles enhances the formation of a base surge that is deposited after formation of the inner layered ejecta deposits. This base surge is similar to the density-driven, turbulent cloud of suspended fine-grained particles produced by impact erosion and mobilization of the surrounding surface material by ejecta from shallow-depth-of-burst nuclear and high-explosion craters. We have applied a base surge equation developed for terrestrial explosive events to two fresh LARLE craters. After adjustment of the equation for Martian conditions, it predicts runout distances that are within 99% of the observed values. All Martian craters likely produce a base surge during formation, but the presence of the obvious LARLE deposit is attributed to crater formation in thick, fine-grained, sedimentary deposits. These sediments are the source of the extra particulate debris incorporated into and deposited

  2. Surface property variations in Venusian fluidized ejecta blanket craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Baker, Victor R.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive study of Magellan Cycles 1 and 2 radar data from Venus reveals surface roughness and dielectric variations associated with fluidized ejecta blanket (FEB) craters that help illuminate styles of flow ejecta emplacement. This study develops new procedures of digital unit mapping and polygon-filling algorithms using Magellan synthetic aperture radar (SAR), altimetry, and radiometry data. These techniques allow the extraction of radiophysical information for FEB crater materials, nearby plains, and lava flows. Backscatter curve slopes of the FEBs studied here are consistent with surface textures that are transitional between a'a and pahoehoe-like. Average surface property values of ejecta units are relatively similar for a given crater, but are discernibly different from other craters. Individual crater ejecta reflectivity and emissivity values are relatively similar to those for the surrounding plains, which may suggest a link between plains material and ejecta dielectric properties. Increasing FEB roughness downflow are interpreted to be associated with more lava-like flows, while decreasing roughness are more similar to trends typical of gravity (pyroclastic-like or debris-like) flows. Most commonly, FEB crater flow materials exhibit transitions from proximal, lava/melt-like flow styles to distal, gravity flow-like styles. Some FEBs show more complicated behavior, however, or appear to be more dominated by dielectric differences downflow, as inferred from correlations between the data sets. Such transitions may result from changes in local topography or from overlapping of flow lobes during FEB emplacement.

  3. Thickness of Proximal Ejecta from the Orientale Basin from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data: Implications for Multi-Ring Basin Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, Caleb I.a; Head, James W.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the ejecta distribution around large lunar basins is important to understanding the origin of basin rings, the volume of the transient cavity, the depth of sampling, and the nature of the basin formation processes. We have used newly obtained altimetry data of the Moon from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to estimate the thickness of ejecta in the region surrounding the Orientale impact basin, the youngest and best preserved large basin on the Moon. Our measurements yield ejecta thicknesses of approx.2900 m near the Cordillera Mountains, the topographic rim of Orientale, decaying to approx.1 km in thickness at a range of 215 km. These measurements imply a volume of ejecta in the region from the Cordillera ring to a radial range of one basin diameter of approx.2.9 x 10(exp 6)cu km and permit the derivation of an ejecta-thickness decay model, which can be compared with estimates for the volume of excavation and the size of the transient cavity. These data are consistent with the Outer Rook Mountains as the approximate location of the transient cavity s rim crest and suggest a volume of approx.4.8 x 10(exp 6)cu km for the total amount of basin ejecta exterior to this location.

  4. Characterization of Lunar Crater Ejecta Deposits Using Radar Data from the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, G. W.; Raney, R. K.; Cahill, J. T.; Bussey, B.

    2012-12-01

    Impact cratering is the dominant weathering process on the surface of the Moon and a primary means of distrib-uting material on the lunar surface [1]. Radar data provide unique information on both the horizontal and vertical distribution of impact deposits [2]. The Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument flown on the Lunar Re-connaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) with an innovative hybrid dual-polarimetric archi-tecture, transmitting (quasi-) circular polarization, and receiving orthogonal linear polarizations and their relative phase [3]. The four Stokes parameters that characterize the observed backscattered EM field are calculated from the received data. These parameters can be used to derive a variety of child products that include the circular polariza-tion ratio (CPR) and the m-chi decomposition. The former provides an indication of surface roughness and the latter provides an indication of the scattering properties of the surface [4]. Using these products, we examine the crater Byrgius A and demonstrate the ability to differentiate materials within ejecta deposits and their relative thicknesses. Byrgius A is a 19 km diameter Copernican located in the lunar highlands east of the Orientale Basin and west of Mare Humorum. Visible image data of the region obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Wide An-gle Camera (LROC WAC) [5] at a resolution of 100 m/pixel show optically bright ejecta deposits associated with the crater that extend to radial distances of 100s of km, with near continuous deposits observed to an average radial distance of 70 km. Mini-RF CPR information derived from S-band (12.6 cm) data of the region show an increased roughness for Byrgius A and its ejecta deposits relative to the surrounding terrain. This is a commonly observed characteristic of young, fresh craters and indicates that the crater and its ejecta have a higher fraction of cm- to m-scale scatterers at the surface and/or buried to depths

  5. Ejecta model development at pRad (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, William T; Oro, David M; Dimonte, Guy; Terrones, Guillermo; Morris, Christopher; Bainbridge, J R; Hogan, Gary E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Holtkamp, David B.; Kwiathowski, Kris; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Merrill, Frank E; Nedrow, Paul; Saunders, Alexander; Schwartz, C L; Stone, B; Tupa, Dale; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy S

    2010-02-09

    In July 2009 we fielded three explosively (HE) driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments at the LANSCE Proton Radiography Facility (pRad), and in August of 2009 we fielded one flyer plate experiment on the pRad 40 mm powder gun. One HE experiment was done in vacuum, and the other two within four atmospheres of noble gasses: Xe and Ne. These two gases were chosen to study the viscous effects on ejecta formation. It is unexpected, but the viscosity {eta} of Ne is twice that of Xe, and, due to the atomic mass difference between the two, the kinematic viscosity ({eta}/{rho}) of Ne is about ten times that of Xe. The results showed that ejecta formation is sensitively linked to the gas density, which implies that the Weber number is more important in ejecta formation than the Reynolds number.

  6. Regions of abnormally low proton temperature as signatures of ejecta: Solar cycle dependence and association with other ejecta signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    1995-01-01

    Solar wind proton temperatures lower than expected for 'normal' solar wind expansion are a common signature of 'ejecta' (i.e. interplanetary coronal mass ejections). We have surveyed the OMNI solar wind data base for 1965-1991, and Helios data for 1974-1980, to identify regions of abnormally low temperatures. Their occurrence rate is clearly dependent on solar activity levels, in particular when the minority of events associated with encounters with the heliospheric plasma sheet are excluded. The analysis of the OMNI data may provide an indication of the rate of ejecta at the Earth, and hence of the CME rate, extending back to before spacecraft coronagraph observations became available in the early 1970's. We discuss the association of these solar wind structures with cosmic ray depressions bidirectional particle flows, and other ejecta signatures. Our impression is that no one ejecta signature provides a truly comprehensive indication of the presence of ejecta, but that abnormally low temperature depressions encompass most of the regions identified by these other individual signatures.

  7. Interstellar and ejecta dust in the cas a supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jeonghee; Hwang, Una

    2014-05-01

    Infrared continuum observations provide a means of investigating the physical composition of the dust in the ejecta and swept up medium of the Cas A supernova remnant (SNR). Using low-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra (5-35 μm), and broad-band Herschel PACS imaging (70, 100, and 160 μm), we identify characteristic dust spectra, associated with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories. The most luminous spectrum exhibits strong emission features at ∼9 and 21 μm and is closely associated with ejecta knots with strong Ar emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low Mg to Si ratios. Another dust spectrum is associated with ejecta having strong Ne emission lines. It has no indication of any silicate features and is best fit by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dust. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that are best matched by magnesium silicates with a relatively high Mg to Si ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray-emitting shocked ejecta, but it is also evident in regions where shocked interstellar or circumstellar material is expected. However, the identification of dust composition is not unique, and each spectrum includes an additional featureless dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. Most of the dust mass in Cas A is associated with this unidentified cold component, which is ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}. The mass of warmer dust is only ∼0.04 M {sub ☉}.

  8. The dynamic ejecta of compact object mergers and eccentric collisions.

    PubMed

    Rosswog, Stephan

    2013-06-13

    Compact object mergers eject neutron-rich matter in a number of ways: by the dynamical ejection mediated by gravitational torques, as neutrino-driven winds, and probably also a good fraction of the resulting accretion disc finally becomes unbound by a combination of viscous and nuclear processes. If compact binary mergers indeed produce gamma-ray bursts, there should also be an interaction region where an ultra-relativistic outflow interacts with the neutrino-driven wind and produces moderately relativistic ejecta. Each type of ejecta has different physical properties, and therefore plays a different role for nucleosynthesis and for the electromagnetic (EM) transients that go along with compact object encounters. Here, we focus on the dynamic ejecta and present results for over 30 hydrodynamical simulations of both gravitational wave-driven mergers and parabolic encounters as they may occur in globular clusters. We find that mergers eject approximately 1 per cent of a Solar mass of extremely neutron-rich material. The exact amount, as well as the ejection velocity, depends on the involved masses with asymmetric systems ejecting more material at higher velocities. This material undergoes a robust r-process and both ejecta amount and abundance pattern are consistent with neutron star mergers being a major source of the 'heavy' (A>130) r-process isotopes. Parabolic collisions, especially those between neutron stars and black holes, eject substantially larger amounts of mass, and therefore cannot occur frequently without overproducing gala- ctic r-process matter. We also discuss the EM transients that are powered by radioactive decays within the ejecta ('macronovae'), and the radio flares that emerge when the ejecta dissipate their large kinetic energies in the ambient medium. PMID:23630377

  9. MIXING OF CLUMPY SUPERNOVA EJECTA INTO MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Liubin; Desch, Steven J.; Scannapieco, Evan; Timmes, F. X.

    2012-09-01

    Several lines of evidence, from isotopic analyses of meteorites to studies of the Sun's elemental and isotopic composition, indicate that the solar system was contaminated early in its evolution by ejecta from a nearby supernova. Previous models have invoked supernova material being injected into an extant protoplanetary disk, or isotropically expanding ejecta sweeping over a distant (>10 pc) cloud core, simultaneously enriching it and triggering its collapse. Here, we consider a new astrophysical setting: the injection of clumpy supernova ejecta, as observed in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant, into the molecular gas at the periphery of an H II region created by the supernova's progenitor star. To track these interactions, we have conducted a suite of high-resolution (1500{sup 3} effective) three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations that follow the evolution of individual clumps as they move into molecular gas. Even at these high resolutions, our simulations do not quite achieve numerical convergence, due to the challenge of properly resolving the small-scale mixing of ejecta and molecular gas, although they do allow some robust conclusions to be drawn. Isotropically exploding ejecta do not penetrate into the molecular cloud or mix with it, but, if cooling is properly accounted for, clumpy ejecta penetrate to distances {approx}10{sup 18} cm and mix effectively with large regions of star-forming molecular gas. In fact, the {approx}2 M{sub Sun} of high-metallicity ejecta from a single core-collapse supernova is likely to mix with {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} of molecular gas material as it is collapsing. Thus, all stars forming late ( Almost-Equal-To 5 Myr) in the evolution of an H II region may be contaminated by supernova ejecta at the level {approx}10{sup -4}. This level of contamination is consistent with the abundances of short-lived radionuclides and possibly some stable isotopic shifts in the early solar system and is

  10. Long-wave stratospheric transmission of Mount St. Helens ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Haughney, L. C.; Innis, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Ames Research C-141 aircraft underflew the Mount St. Helens ejecta plume in Utah three days after the eruption. Upward-looking 20-40-microns on-board radiometry provided data resulting in a calculated long-wave transmission of 0.93. From this value, an optical depth of 0.073 is inferred. This value is compared with an accepted background, stratospheric infrared optical depth of 0.06. Assumptions on particle size, shortwave albedo, and thermal warming imply little surface temperature change caused by the ejecta on the third day immediately following the eruption.

  11. Long-wave stratospheric transmission of Mount St. Helens ejecta.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, P M; Haughney, L C; Innis, R C

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Ames Research C-141 aircraft underflew the Mount St. Helens ejecta plume in Utah three days after the eruption. Upward-looking 20-40-microm on-board radiometry provided data resulting in a calculated long-wave transmission of 0.93. From this value, an optical depth of 0.073 is inferred. This value is compared with an accepted background, stratospheric infrared optical depth of 0.06. Assumptions on particle size, shortwave albedo, and thermal warming imply little surface temperature change caused by the ejecta on the third day immediately following the eruption.

  12. Planetary geological studies. [MARS crater morphology and ejecta deposit topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    A global data base was assembled for the study of Mars crater ejecta morphology. The craters were classified as to morhology using individual photographic prints of Viking orbiter frames. Positional and scale information were derived by fitting digitized mosaic coordinates to lattitude-longitude coordinates of surface features from the Mars geodetic control net and feature coordinates from the U.S.G.S. series of 1:5,00,000 scale shaded relief maps. Crater morphology characteristics recorded are of two classes - attributes of each ejecta deposit and other crater charactersitics. Preliminary efforts to check the data base with findings of other workers are described.

  13. Clay mineralogy of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay. [in search for asteroid ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Reynolds, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer clay samples from four localities were subjected to analyses which imply that they are neither mineralogically exotic nor distinct from locally derived clays above and below the boundary. The anomalous iridium-rich ejecta component predicted by the asteroid impact scenario of Alvarez et al (1980) was not detected. It is proposed that volcanic material be considered as an explanation of the geochemical anomalies of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. A model which involves a period of intense volcanism at the end of the Cretaceous would generate a variety of climatic and biological effects consonant with the geologic history of that period.

  14. Geology of Lunar Landing Sites and Origin of Basin Ejecta from a Clementine Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this research were to examine Clementine multispectral data covering the Apollo landing sites in order to: (1) provide ground truth for the remotely sensed observations, (2) extend our understanding of the Apollo landing sites to the surrounding regions using the empirically calibrated Clementine data, and (3) investigate the composition and distribution of impact-basin ejecta using constraints based upon the remotely sensed data and the Apollo samples. Our initial efforts (in collaboration with P. Lucey and coworkers) to use the Apollo soil compositions to "calibrate" information derived from the remotely sensed data resulted in two extremely useful algorithms for computing estimates of the concentrations of FeO and TiO2 from the UV-VIS 5-band data. In this effort, we used the average surface soil compositions from 37 individual Apollo and 3 Luna sample stations that could be resolved using the Clementine data. We followed this work with a detailed investigation of the Apollo 17 landing site, where the sampling traverses were extensive and the spectral and compositional contrast between different soils covers a wide range. We have begun to investigate the nature and composition of basin ejecta by comparing the thick deposits on the rim of Imbrium in the vicinity of the Apollo 15 site and those occurring southeast of the Serenitatis basin, in the Apollo 17 region. We continue this work under NAG5-6784, "Composition, Lithology, and Heterogeneity of the lunar crust using remote sensing of impact-basin uplift structures and ejecta as probes. The main results of our work are given in the following brief summaries of major tasks. Detailed accounts of these results are given in the attached papers, manuscripts, and extended abstracts.

  15. Radar Scattering Properties of Young Lunar Crater Ejecta Blankets Using Mini-RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Patterson, G. W.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Bussey, D. B. J.

    2016-05-01

    Mini-Rf data provides a powerful way to examine young lunar crater ejecta. Radial profiles of radar returns outward from the crater rim provide insights into ejecta emplacement, crater degradation, and near surface stratigraphy.

  16. The Links Between Target Properties and Layered Ejecta Craters in Acidalia and Utopia Planitiae Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E.; Osinski, G. R.

    2013-08-01

    Layered ejecta craters on Mars may form from excavation into subsurface volatiles. We examine a new catalogue of martian craters to decipher differences between the single- and double-layered ejecta populations in Acidalia and Utopia.

  17. Unmelted Meteoritic Debris Collected from Eltanin Ejecta in Polarstern Cores from Expedition ANT XII/4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1.7g of unmelted meteorite particles have been recovered from FS Polarstern piston cores collected on expedition ANT XII/4 that contain ejecta from the Eltanin impact event. Most of the mass (1.2 g) is a large, single specimen that is a polymict breccia, similar in mineralogy and chemistry to howardites or the silicate fraction of mesosiderites. Most of the remaining mass is in several large individual pieces (20-75mg each) that are polymict breccias, fragments dominated by pyroxene, and an igneous rock fragment. The latter has highly fractionated REE, similar to those reported in mafic clasts from mesosiderites. Other types of specimens identified include fragments dominated by maskelynite or olivine. These pieces of the projectile probably survived impact by being blown off the back surface of the Eltanin asteroid during its impact into the Bellingshausen Sea.

  18. The effects of water vaporization on rock fragmentation during rapid decompression: Implications for the formation of fluidized ejecta on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rager, Audrey Hughes; Smith, Eugene I.; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-01-01

    Crater and ejecta morphology provide insight into the composition and structure of the target material. Fluidized ejecta surrounding Martian rampart craters are thought to result from the addition of water to the ejecta during impact into a water-rich (ice or liquid) regolith. Here we test experimentally an alternate hypothesis. We propose that the decompression of a rock-water mixture across the water vaporization curve during the excavation stage of impact cratering results in an increased proportion of fines in the ejecta. This enables the ejecta to flow with little or no liquid water present. To test this hypothesis, fragmentation experiments were conducted on sandstone (28 vol% open porosity) from the northern Eldorado Mountains, Nevada, using a shock-tube apparatus at the LMU Munich, Germany. Rock samples with 0-92% of their open pore space filled with water were pressurized to 15 MPa at 177 °C or 300 °C and rapidly decompressed. As the water vaporization curve is crossed, the water in the pore space rapidly flashes to steam causing, together with the expanding gas in the water-free pore space, the sample to fragment. The presence of water has a significant effect on the grain size distribution and grain shape of the fragmented rock samples. In comparison with (dry) control samples, samples with water with 15-50% open pore space exhibit much smaller grain sizes. The predominant grain shape of dry as well as partially water-saturated samples is bladed, reflecting fracturing parallel to the decompression front. Samples with >80% water in open pore space had an increase in fines and larger particles but less intermediate sized particles. Fragments from experiments with >80% water in open pore space also displayed a more equant grain shape, indicating that the decompression of water caused fracturing independent of the orientation of the decompression front. These results may provide insight into the morphology of Martian rampart craters. We propose here that

  19. Investigation of the enhanced spatial density of submicron lunar ejecta between L values 1.2 and 3.0 in the earth's magnetosphere: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. M.; Tanner, W. G.; Goad, H. S.

    1987-01-01

    Initial results from the measurement conducted by the dust particle experiment on the lunar orbiting satellite Lunar Explorer 35 (LE 35) were reported with the data interpreted as indicating that the moon is a significant source of micrometeroids. Primary sporadic and stream meteoroids impacting the surface of the moon at hypervelocity was proposed as the source of micron and submicron particles that leave the lunar craters with velocities sufficient to escape the moon's gravitational sphere of influence. No enhanced flux of lunar ejecta with masses greater than a nanogram was detected by LE 35 or the Lunar Orbiters. Hypervelocity meteoroid simulation experiments concentrating on ejecta production combined with extensive analyses of the orbital dynamics of micron and submicron lunar ejecta in selenocentric, cislunar, and geocentric space have shown that a pulse of these lunar ejecta, with a time correlation relative to the position of the moon relative to the earth, intercepts the earth's magnetopause surface (EMPs). As shown, a strong reason exists for expecting a significant enhancement of submicron dust particles in the region of the magnetosphere between L values of 1.2 and 3.0. This is the basis for the proposal of a series of experiments to investigate the enhancement or even trapping of submicron lunar ejecta in this region. The subsequent interaction of this mass with the upper-lower atmosphere of the earth and possible geophysical effects can then be studied.

  20. The dynamical and radiative evolution of clumpy supernova ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Jones, T. W.; Rudnick, L.; Tregillis, I. L.; Kang, Hyesung

    1994-01-01

    Numerical simulations describing the dynamical and radiative evolution of clumpy supernova ejecta are compared with observations of optical and radio emission knots in supernova remnant (SNR) Cassiopeia A. Three major phases are identified in the evolution of clumpy ejecta: a bow-shock phase, an instability phase, and a dispersal phase. The phenomenological and radiative signatures of each phase are discussed and compared with multi-epoch measurements of small-scale features in Cas A. Good correspondence is found between theory and observations. Both support the premise that compact radio emission features are controlled more by magnetic field amplification triggered in the instability phase than by in situ acceleration of new relativistic particles.

  1. Nucleosynthesis in the ejecta of neutron star mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Wanajo, Shinya; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Shibata, Masaru; Nishimura, Nobuya; Kyutoku, Koutarou

    2014-05-02

    We present, for the first time, the result of nucleosynthesis calculations based on the fully general-relativistic simulation of a NS-NS merger with approximate neutrino transport taken into account. It is found that the bulk of the dynamical ejecta are appreciably shock-heated and neutrino-processed, resulting in a wide range of electron fraction, Y{sub e} ∼ 0.1-0.4. The mass-averaged abundance distribution of calculated nucleosynthesis yields is in remarkable agreement with the full-mass range (A ≈ 90-240) of the solar r-process curve. This implies, if our model is representative of such events, that the dynamical ejecta of NS-NS mergers can be the origin of the Galactic r-process nuclei.

  2. The Vakkejokk Breccia, Northernmost Sweden: A Cambrian Analogue to the Proximal Ejecta Layer and Resurge Deposits at the Ordovician Lockne Marine-Target Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormö, J.; Nielsen, A. T.; Alwmark, C.

    2016-08-01

    We propose the Cambrian Vakkejokk Breccia in the Scandinavian arctic to be a uniquely well-preserved and well-exposed proximal impact ejecta layer. The associated crater is likely 2-4 km in diameter and currently covered by Caledonian overthrusts.

  3. Lunar Radar Scattering from Near-Surface Buried Crater Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Ustinov, E. A.; Heggy, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Apollo 15, 16, and 17 core tubes show that the uppermost few meters of the lunar regolith are interlaced layers of a fine grained powders and blocky crater ejecta. The layers of crater ejecta have dielectric constants in the range of 7-9 while the fine-grained powders has dielectric constant on the order of 2.7. These differences in dielectric constant, in turn, create radar reflections that are both refracted and reflected back through the space-regolith interface. Note that for a dielectric constant of 2.7 for the lunar regolith, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at the angle of 30-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of 18-degrees. At the limb, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at an angle near 90-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of about 37-degrees. These angles are within the range where radar backscatter is in the quasi-specular regime. When these buried crater ejecta layers are modeled using Hagfors’ formulation (Hagfors, 1963), echo powers match the behavior observed for average lunar backscatter at centimeter wavelengths for higher (30° to 90°) angles of incidence. In addition, Hagfors et al. (1965) conducted an experiment where the Moon was illuminated at 23-cm wavelength with circular polarization and the differences were observed in orthogonal linear polarizations. Modeling of these observations and assuming again that the buried crater ejecta scatter in a quasi-specular manner, echo differences in horizontal and vertical linear polarizations are in relatively good agreement with the observations. The data from Chandrayaan Mini-RF radar, which operated at S-Band (13cm) wavelength, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mini-RF radar, which is operating at S-Band and X-Band (4-cm) wavelengths, provide an opportunity for a new examination of whether radar backscatter from buried crater ejecta behaves like a quasi-specular scatter. These radars reproduce the

  4. Advance warning of high-speed ejecta based on real-time shock analyses: When fast-moving ejecta appear to be overtaking slow-moving shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, Kristoff W.; Taylor, David K.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Hu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Interplanetary shocks propagating into the magnetosphere can have significant space weather consequences. However, for many purposes it is the ejecta behind the shock that is the greater threat. The ejecta can be fast moving, impart significant momentum upon the magnetopause, and may contain a flux rope with strong southward magnetic fields. When transient solar wind activity strikes the magnetosphere, it can lead to enhanced magnetospheric currents and elevated radiation levels in the near-Earth environment. It is therefore desirable to use the observed shocks ahead of ejecta to predict any aspects of the approaching ejecta that can be predicted. We have examined 39 shocks observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft in the years 1998 to 2003. Within the selection are shocks that were chosen because they appear to propagate significantly more slowly than the speed of the ejecta behind it. While appearing at first to be a contradiction, we show that the shocks are propagating across the radial direction and at significant angles to the velocity of the ejecta. These slow-moving shocks are actually precursors of fast-moving and potentially significant ejecta. Reversing the analysis, we are able to predict the peak speed of the ejecta well in advance of their observation, up to or in excess of 10 h following the shock crossing, when slow-moving shocks are seen, and we have incorporated this feature into our real-time shock analysis.

  5. Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.; Sonder, I.; Ross, P.-S.; White, J. D. L.

    2015-08-01

    The volume, grain size, and depositional facies of material deposited outside an explosion crater, ejecta, are sensitive to the depth of the explosion, the explosion energy, and the presence or absence of a crater before the explosion. We detonate buried chemical explosives as an analog for discrete volcanic explosions in experiments to identify unique characteristics of proximal, medial, and distal ejecta facies and their distribution from a range of scaled depths in undisturbed and cratered ground. Ejecta are here discussed in terms of three facies: (1) proximal ejecta, which form a constructional landform around a crater; (2) medial ejecta, which form a continuous sheet deposit that thins much more gradually with distance; and (3) distal ejecta that are deposited as isolated clasts. The extent of proximal ejecta away from the crater, relative to crater size, is not sensitive to scaled depth, but the volume proportion of proximal ejecta to the total ejecta deposit is sensitive to the presence of a crater and scaled depth. Medial ejecta distribution and volume contributions are both sensitive to the presence of a crater and to scaled depth. Distal ejecta distance is dependent on scaled depth and the presence of a crater, while the volume proportion of distal ejecta is less sensitive to scaled depth or presence of a crater. Experimental facies and deposit structures inferred from observations of jet dynamics are used to suggest facies associations anticipated from eruptions dominated by explosions of different scaled depth configurations. We emphasize that significant differences in tephra ring deposits can result from the effects of scaled depth and preexisting craters on ejecta dynamics, and are not necessarily related to fundamental differences in explosion mechanisms or degree of magma fragmentation.

  6. Self-Shielding of Thermal Radiation by Chicxulub Ejecta: Firestorm or Fizzle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldin, T. J.; Melosh, H. J.

    2008-12-01

    The discovery of soot within the Chicxulub ejecta sequence and the observed survival patterns of terrestrial organisms across the K/Pg boundary led to the hypothesis that thermal radiation from the atmospheric reentry of hypervelocity impact ejecta was sufficient to ignite global wildfires and cause biological catastrophe. Using a two-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow code, KFIX-LPL, we model the atmospheric reentry of distal Chicxulub ejecta and calculate the fluxes of thermal radiation throughout the atmosphere. The model treatment includes optical opacity, allowing us to examine the effects that greenhouse gases and the spherules themselves have on the transfer of thermal radiation to the ground. We model a simple Chicxulub scenario where 250-µm spherules reenter the atmosphere for an hour with maximum inflow after 10 minutes. Our models predict a pulse of thermal radiation at the ground peaking at ~6 kW/m2, analogous to an oven set on 'broil'. Previous calculations, which did not consider spherule opacity, yielded >10 kW/ m2 sustained over an hour or more and such an extended pulse of high fluxes is thought to be required for wildfire ignition. However, our model suggests a half-hour in which fluxes exceed the solar norm and only a few minutes >5 kW/m2. Large fluxes are not sustained in our models due to the increasingly opaque cloud of settling spherules, which increasingly blocks the transmission of thermal radiation from the decelerating spherules above. Hence, the spherules themselves limit the magnitude and duration of thermal radiation at the ground. Such self-shielding may have prevented the ignition of global wildfires following Chicxulub and limited other environmental effects. Keeping the impact wildfire hypothesis will require a mechanism to override this effect. A nonuniform distribution of spherule reentry may produce gaps in the opaque spherule layer through which the downward thermal radiation may be concentrated. Additionally, an opaque cloud

  7. Neutron star kicks and their relationship to supernovae ejecta mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume that the velocity is given by vkick = α (Mejecta/Mremnant) + β . To test this simple relationship, we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different α and β values, and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of α = 70 km s-1 and β = 110 km s-1 reproduce the Hobbs et al. observed two-dimensional velocities, and α = 70 km s-1 and β = 120 km s-1 reproduce their inferred three-dimensional velocity distribution for nearby single neutron stars with ages less than 3 Myr. After testing isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis `kick' orientations, we find no statistical preference for a `kick' orientation. While ejecta mass cannot be the only factor that determines the velocity of supernova compact remnants, we suggest that it is a significant contributor and that the ejecta-based `kick' should replace the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution currently used in many population synthesis codes.

  8. Formation of Dust in the Ejecta of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Maeda, Keiichi; Kozasa, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the formation of dust grains in the ejecta of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), adopting the carbon-deflagration W7 model. In the calculations of dust formation, we apply the nucleation and grain growth theory and consider the two extreme cases of the formation of CO and SiO molecules: complete formation and no formation. The results of the calculations show that for the sticking probability of α j = 1, C, silicate, Si, and FeS grains can condense at early times of ~100-300 days after the explosion, whereas Fe and SiC grains cannot form substantially. Due to the low gas density in SNe Ia with no H-envelope, the average radii of the newly formed grains are generally below 0.01 μm, being much smaller than those in Type II-P SNe. This supports our previous conclusion that the radius of dust formed in the ejecta is smaller in SNe with less massive envelopes. The total dust mass ranges from 3 × 10-4 M sun to 0.2 M sun for α j = 0.1-1, depending on whether or not CO and SiO molecules are formed. We also estimate the optical depths and thermal emission by the newly formed dust and compare them to the relevant observations of SNe Ia. We find that the formation of C grains in SNe Ia must be suppressed to be consistent with observational constraints. This implies that energetic photons and electrons heavily depress the formation efficiency of C grains or that the outermost C-O layer of SNe Ia is almost fully burned. Finally, we calculate dust destruction in the SN remnants and find that dust grains formed in the ejecta of SNe Ia are almost completely destroyed in the shocked gas before being injected into the interstellar medium. This indicates that SNe Ia are unlikely to be the major sources of interstellar dust.

  9. Neutron Star Kicks and their Relationship to Supernovae Ejecta Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume the velocity is given by vkick = α (Mejecta/Mremnant) + β . To test this simple relationship we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different α and β values and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of α = 70 km s-1 and β = 110 km s-1 reproduce the Hobbs et al. (2005) observed 2-dimensional velocities and α = 70 km s-1 and β = 120 km s-1 reproduce their inferred 3-dimensional velocity distribution for nearby single neutron stars with ages less than 3 Myrs. After testing isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis `kick' orientations, we find no statistical preference for a `kick' orientation. While ejecta mass cannot be the only factor that determines the velocity of supernovae compact remnants, we suggest it is a significant contributor and that the ejecta based `kick' should replace the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution currently used in many population synthesis codes.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA DUST DESTRUCTION. II. METAL-ENRICHED EJECTA KNOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Silvia, Devin W.; Smith, Britton D.; Shull, J. Michael E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu

    2012-03-20

    Following our previous work, we investigate through hydrodynamic simulations the destruction of newly formed dust grains by sputtering in the reverse shocks of supernova remnants. Using an idealized setup of a planar shock impacting a dense, spherical clump, we implant a population of Lagrangian particles into the clump to represent a distribution of dust grains in size and composition. We vary the relative velocity between the reverse shock and ejecta clump to explore the effects of shock heating and cloud compression. Because supernova ejecta will be metal-enriched, we consider gas metallicities from Z/Z{sub Sun} = 1 to 100 and their influence on the cooling properties of the cloud and the thermal sputtering rates of embedded dust grains. We post-process the simulation output to calculate grain sputtering for a variety of species and size distributions. In the metallicity regime considered in this paper, the balance between increased radiative cooling and increased grain erosion depends on the impact velocity of the reverse shock. For slow shocks (v{sub shock} {<=} 3000 km s{sup -1}), the amount of dust destruction is comparable across metallicities or in some cases is decreased with increased metallicity. For higher shock velocities (v{sub shock} {>=} 5000 km s{sup -1}), an increase in metallicity from Z/Z{sub Sun} = 10 to 100 can lead to an additional 24% destruction of the initial dust mass. While the total dust destruction varies widely across grain species and simulation parameters, our most extreme cases result in complete destruction for some grain species and only 44% dust mass survival for the most robust species. These survival rates are important in understanding how early supernovae contribute to the observed dust masses in high-redshift galaxies.

  11. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  12. Chemical Composition of Impact Glass and Suevite-Type Partial Melts of the Rab and Krk Islands and Their Relation with the Proposed Krk Impact Structure in Northern Adriatic, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čalogović, M.; Marjanac, T.; Fazinić, S.; Strmić-Palinkaš, S.; Tomša, A. M.; Marjanac, L.

    2015-09-01

    Chemical composition of Krk impact structure ejecta represented by incomplete melts and glasses indicate affinity with Pleistocene loess as target lithology, and suggests Pleistocene age of the impact.

  13. Molecules and Dust in the Humunculus: Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the 18401s, Eta Carinae ejected massive amounts of nitrogen-rich, carbon- and oxygen-poor material which we see as the hourglass-shaped Homunculus. With the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, we detected multiple shells in line of sight, the most massive and intriguing being at -513 km/s. Numerous lines of Fe I, Fe II, Ni II, Cr II, Sc II, Sr II, Ti II, V II, etc are identified as well as nearly a thousand H2 lines. The metals have energy level populations consistent with 760K and excited by photons < 8.5eV. We have now identified CH, CH+, OH, and NH at the same velocity, but at 60K, suggesting stratification in the outer ejecta. Analysis of the interior, photoionized emission hourglass structure, known as the Little Homunculus, indicates He, N overabundances and C, 0 underabundances (approximately 1/80 solar). A skirt of neutral and partially ionized gas lies between the lobes of the hourglasses. A portion is seen as the Strontium Filament, a metal- ionized, neutral hydrogen structure. Relative abundances of TiNi are 1/80 solar, CrNi are 1/20 solar. This complex of ejecta appears to have been ejected by a massive star(s) at the end of the hydrogen-burning phase when convection led to overproduction of nitrogen at the expense of carbon and oxygen. Given the underabundances of carbon and oxygen, the chemistry of this system is quite different to the normal ISM, leading to a nitrogen- dominated chemistry. What little C and 0 that is formed is immediately taken up by SiO and Al0 molecules leading to a very different gas/dust ratio than the normal ISM. Dust in this ejecta is abundance, but known to be very grey in character. Observations with HST/STIS and VLT/UVES will be presented along with simple physical models and CLOUD modeling. Insight by the participants will be solicited.

  14. FORMATION OF DUST IN THE EJECTA OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, Takaya; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Kozasa, Takashi; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2011-07-20

    We investigate the formation of dust grains in the ejecta of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), adopting the carbon-deflagration W7 model. In the calculations of dust formation, we apply the nucleation and grain growth theory and consider the two extreme cases of the formation of CO and SiO molecules: complete formation and no formation. The results of the calculations show that for the sticking probability of {alpha}{sub j} = 1, C, silicate, Si, and FeS grains can condense at early times of {approx}100-300 days after the explosion, whereas Fe and SiC grains cannot form substantially. Due to the low gas density in SNe Ia with no H-envelope, the average radii of the newly formed grains are generally below 0.01 {mu}m, being much smaller than those in Type II-P SNe. This supports our previous conclusion that the radius of dust formed in the ejecta is smaller in SNe with less massive envelopes. The total dust mass ranges from 3 x 10{sup -4} M{sub sun} to 0.2 M{sub sun} for {alpha}{sub j} = 0.1-1, depending on whether or not CO and SiO molecules are formed. We also estimate the optical depths and thermal emission by the newly formed dust and compare them to the relevant observations of SNe Ia. We find that the formation of C grains in SNe Ia must be suppressed to be consistent with observational constraints. This implies that energetic photons and electrons heavily depress the formation efficiency of C grains or that the outermost C-O layer of SNe Ia is almost fully burned. Finally, we calculate dust destruction in the SN remnants and find that dust grains formed in the ejecta of SNe Ia are almost completely destroyed in the shocked gas before being injected into the interstellar medium. This indicates that SNe Ia are unlikely to be the major sources of interstellar dust.

  15. Unburned Material in the Ejecta of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Burns, Christopher R.; Hamuy, Mario; Mazzali, Paolo; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; González, Sergio; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, Barry F.; Persson, S. E.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of unburned material in the ejecta of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is investigated using early-time spectroscopy obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The tell-tale signature of pristine material from a C+O white dwarf progenitor star is the presence of carbon, as oxygen is also a product of carbon burning. The most prominent carbon lines in optical spectra of SNe Ia are expected to arise from C II. We find that at least 30% of the objects in the sample show an absorption at ≈6300 Å which is attributed to C II λ6580. An alternative identification of this absorption as Hα is considered to be unlikely. These findings imply a larger incidence of carbon in SNe Ia ejecta than previously noted. We show how observational biases and physical conditions may hide the presence of weak C II lines, and account for the scarcity of previous carbon detections in the literature. This relatively large frequency of carbon detections has crucial implications on our understanding of the explosive process. Furthermore, the identification of the 6300 Å absorptions as carbon would imply that unburned material is present at very low expansion velocities, merely ≈1000 km s-1 above the bulk of Si II. Based on spectral modeling, it is found that the detections are consistent with a mass of carbon of 10-3 to 10-2 M ⊙. The presence of this material so deep in the ejecta would imply substantial mixing, which may be related to asymmetries of the flame propagation. Another possible explanation for the carbon absorptions may be the existence of clumps of unburned material along the line of sight. However, the uniformity of the relation between C II and Si II velocities is not consistent with such small-scale asymmetries. The spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia with and without carbon signatures are compared. A trend toward bluer color and lower luminosity at maximum light is found for objects which show carbon. This paper includes data gathered with

  16. Is the Ejecta of ETA Carinae Overabundant or Overexcited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore; Davidson, Kris; Johansson, Sveneric; Damineli, Augusto; Ishibashi, Kaxunori; Corcoran, Michael; Hartman, Henrick; Viera, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister

    2003-01-01

    The ejecta of Eta Carinae, revealed by HST/STIS, are in a large range of physical conditions. As Eta Carinae undergoes a 5.52 period, changes occur in nebular emission and nebular absorption. "Warm" neutral regions, partially ionized regions, and fully ionized regions undergo significant changes. Over 2000 emission lines, most of Fe-like elements, have been indentified in the Weigelt blobs B and D. Over 500 emission lines have been indentified in the Strontium Filament. An ionized Little Homunculus is nestled within the neutral-shelled Homunculus. In line of sight, over 500 nebular absorption lines have been identified with up to twenty velocity components. STIS is following changes in many nebular emission and absorption lines as Eta Carinae approaches the minimum, predicted to be in June/July 2003, during the General Assembly. Coordinated observations with HST, CHANDRA, RXTE, FUSE, UVES/VLT, Gemini and other observatories are following this minimum.

  17. The reionization of unshocked ejecta in SN 1006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Fesen, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    The validity of carbon-deflagration models white dwarf models for type Ia supernovae is investigated by examining whether most of the iron in the center of SN 1006 exists in forms other than Fe II, such as iron grains or other ionic stages of iron, as the models require. The possible ways in which iron can be hidden in SN 1006 are reviewed, and an argument on observational grounds is made against any appreciable fraction of iron in grains or Fe I. Various mechanisms for ionizing unshocked iron beyond Fe II are discussed; the most probable mechanism for ionizing the iron appears to be photoionization by UV and X-ray emission from reverse-shocked ejecta. A detailed model for this reverse-shcok photoionization mechanism is described.

  18. A 3D view of the SN 1987A Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Claes

    2013-10-01

    SN 1987A represents the most important source of information about the explosion physics of any SN. For this the morphology of the ejecta is together with the radioactive isotopes the best diagnostics. From HST imaging in H-alpha and NIR AO imaging in Si/Fe at 1.64 mu one finds completely different morphologies, with the 1.64 mu image dominated by the processed core and H-alpha by the surrounding H envelope. Besides Cas A (Type IIb), this is the only core collapse SN where we have this information. We propose to use STIS to map the debris in SN 1987A in 3D with the best possible angular resolution. There has been no such STIS map since 2004, while the physics of the emission has undergone some profound changes. From being powered by radioactivity the energy input is now dominated by X-rays from the collision with the circumstellar ring. Compared to 2004 the 3D structure can be determined with a factor of 3 better spatial resolution and also better spectral resolution. The 3D structure in H-alpha can also give independent clues to where the large mass of dust detected by Herschel is located as well as its properties. It also gives a complementary view of the ejecta to the future ALMA imaging in CO which will have similar spatial resolution. Besides the debris we will be able to probe the 10,000 km/s reverse shock close to the ring in H-alpha. By observing this also in Ly-alpha one may test different emission processes which have been proposed, as well as probing the region producing the synchrotron emission observed by ALMA. The opportunity to observe the SN in this stage will never come back

  19. Fresh lunar impact craters - Review of variations with size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-three morphologic characteristics are reviewed for fresh lunar impact craters wider than 1 km. Bar graphs express the way each characteristic varies with crater size. The features are grouped as crater structure, ejecta, and downhill flow features. Major structural transitions occur at diameters of about 15 and 200 km. Details of the ejecta blanket, which include several kinds of lineations, dunelike ridges, troughs, and lobes, reflect different transport regimes in the ejecta. Some materials at larger craters flowed downhill in lavalike fashion after the ejecta was deposited; the lavalike materials are probably impact melt.

  20. Groove formation on Phobos: Testing the Stickney ejecta emplacement model for a subset of the groove population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous theories have been proposed for the formation of grooves on Phobos, and no single explanation is likely to account fully for the wide variety of observed groove morphologies and orientations. One set of grooves is geographically associated with the impact crater Stickney. We test the hypothesis that these grooves were formed by clasts that were ejected from the Stickney crater interior at velocities such that they were able to slide, roll, and/or bounce to distances comparable to observed groove lengths (of the order of one-quarter of the circumference of Phobos), partly crushing the regolith and partly pushing it aside as they moved. We show that this mechanism is physically possible and is consistent with the sizes, shapes, lengths, linearity, and distribution of Stickney-related grooves for plausible values of the material properties of both the regolith and the ejecta clasts. Because the escape velocity from Phobos varies by more than a factor of two over the surface of the satellite, it is possible for ejecta clasts to leave the surface again after generating grooves. We make predictions for the surface characteristics and distributions of such grooves and their deposits on the basis of this model, and then compare them with remotely sensed observations of Phobos' grooves. We find that many of their characteristics can be accounted for by a model in which grooves are formed by rolling and bouncing boulders ejected from Stickney. As a further test of this hypothesis, we examine a wide range of lunar boulder tracks, and find that they have considerable similarities to grooves on Phobos in terms of morphology, structure, and relationships with underlying topography. We therefore find that the emplacement of very low-velocity ejecta associated with the Stickney cratering event is a candidate mechanism for the formation of grooves on Phobos. This model and these predictions can be further tested by analysis of high-resolution image data from current and

  1. Flow Ejecta and Slope Landslides in Small Crater - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This high resolution picture of a moderately small impact crater on Mars was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) on October 17, 1997 at 4:11:07 PM PST, during MGS orbit 22. The image covers an area 2.9 by 48.4 kilometers (1.8 by 30 miles) at 9.6 m (31.5 feet) per picture element, and is centered at 21.3 degrees N, 179.8 degrees W, near Orcus Patera. The MOC image is a factor of 15X better than pervious Viking views of this particular crater.

    The unnamed crater is one of three closely adjacent impact features that display the ejecta pattern characteristic of one type of 'flow-ejecta' crater. Such patterns are considered evidence of fluidized movement of the materials ejected during the cratering event, and are believed to indicate the presence of subsurface ice or liquid water.

    Long, linear features of different brightness values can be seen on the on the steep slopes inside and outside the crater rim. This type of feature, first identified in Viking Orbiter images acquired over 20 years ago, are more clearly seen in this new view (about 3 times better than the best previous observations). Their most likely explanation is that small land or dirt slides, initiated by seismic or wind action, have flowed down the steep slopes. Initially dark because of the nature of the surface disturbance, these features get lighter with time as the ubiquitous fine, bright dust settles onto them from the martian atmosphere. Based on estimates of the dust fall-out rate, many of these features are probably only a few tens to hundreds of years old. Thus, they are evidence of a process that is active on Mars today.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner

  2. Dark-rimmed Crater and Extensive Ejecta Blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 166840) from a distance of 63,400 kilometers (39,300 miles) about an hour after it passed under the South Pole of Mercury. The dark-rimmed crater at upper left is 67 kilometers (42 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by an extensive ejecta blanket and exhibits a bright ray pattern, which extends into and beyond the larger crater (120 kilometers, 75 miles) to its right and near the picture's center. The dark-rimmed crater is similar to crater Tycho on Earth's moon. The center of this picture is located 33 degrees S. Lat. 158 degrees W. Long. North is to the top.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  3. Atypical dust species in the ejecta of classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. A.; Evans, A.; Woodward, C. E.; Gehrz, R. D.

    2011-03-01

    A classical nova outburst arises from a thermonuclear runaway in the hydrogen-rich material accreted onto the surface of a white dwarf in a binary system. These explosions can produce copious amounts of heavy element enriched material that are ejected violently into the surrounding interstellar medium. In some novae, conditions in the ejecta are suitable for the formation of dust of various compositions, including silicates, amorphous carbon, silicon carbide, and hydrocarbons. Multiple dust grain types are sometimes produced in the same system. CO formation in novae may not reach saturation, thus invalidating the usual paradigm in which the C:O ratio determines the dust species. A few novae, such as V705 Cas and DZ Cru, have exhibited emission features near 6, 8, and 11 μmthat are similar to "Unidentified Infrared" (UIR) features, but with significant differences in position and band structure. Here, we present Spitzer IRS spectra of two recent dusty novae, V2361 Cyg and V2362 Cyg, that harbor similar peculiar emission structures superimposed on features arising from carbonaceous grains. In other astronomical objects, such as star forming regions and young stellar objects, emission peaks at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 μmhave been associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) complexes. We suggest that hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) may be the source of these features in novae based upon the spectral behavior of the emission features and the conditions under which the dust formed.

  4. The Ejecta of Eta Carinae: Just what is the Mass?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, T. R.

    2006-08-01

    Estimates of the Homunculus and the Little Homunculus suggest that at least 12 solar masses were ejected in the two events of the 1840s and the 1890s (Smith et al 2003 AJ 125, 1458). We have begun a systematic analysis of the metal lines seen in the warm Homunculus and hot Little Homunculus in an attempt to characterize the properties of the gas. Analysis of these structures and the Strontium Filament suggest that Ti/Ni (and likewise Ti/Fe) is overabundant. Likely this is due to oxygen and carbon underabundances which prevent metal oxides forming. As a result, much Ti, V, Sr, Sc, Ni and Fe is left in gaseous phase. The dust associated with Eta Carinae is known to have peculiar properties. Given that many metals normally depleted in the ISM are overabundant in the ejecta of Eta Carinae, we are led to suspect that the gas/dust ratio is underestimated. Observational examples of these hundreds of lines will be shown along with model estimates of temperature, density and abundances.

  5. Behavior of vortices generated by an advancing ejecta curtain in theory, in the laboratory, and on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnouin, O. S.; Schultz, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    Several papers assess the interaction between an atmosphere and advancing ejecta to assess possible atmospheric processes affecting ejecta emplacement. Ejecta travel through an atmosphere in two modes: larger ejecta blocks follow ballistic trajectories unhindered by the atmosphere; finer ejecta are entrained in a turbulent basal cloud, which develops as the advancing ejecta curtain generates strong atmospheric winds. Laboratory experiments reveal that this cloud of fine ejecta produce ramparts, flow lobes, or radial scouring that superposes larger ballistic ejecta emplaced earlier. Martian, Venusian, and terrestrial ejecta facies can be interpreted in terms of processes observed in the laboratory with appropriate first-order corrections for scaling. A continuum model of the atmospheric flow around an advancing inclined plate simulated and reproduced some of the complex flow patterns observed in front and at the top of the curtain. Here we consider improvements to the model to compare quantitatively the approximate position of ejecta deposition (i.e., run-out distance) with laboratory experiments and Martian ejecta facies.

  6. Analysis of ejecta fate from proposed man-made impactors into near-Earth objects --- a NEOShield study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids measuring 100 meters across tend to impact the Earth once every 5,000 years on average [1]. Smaller bodies enter into the Earth's atmosphere more frequently, but may detonate before reaching the surface. Conversely, impacts from larger bodies are more rare [2], but can come with devastating global consequences to living species. In 2005, a United States Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect, by 2020, 90 percent of near-Earth objects (NEOs) having diameters of 140 meters or greater [3]. One year prior, ESA's Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory Panel (NEOMAP) recommended the study of a kinetic impactor mission as a priority in the framework of NEO risk assessment [4]. A ''Phase-A'' study of such a mission, Don Quixote, took place at ESA until 2007. In accordance with NEOMAP and with the Target NEO Global Community's recommendations in 2011 [5], the NEOShield Project is being funded for 3.5 years by the European Commission in its FP7 program. NEOShield began in 2012 and is primarily, but not exclusively, a European consortium of research institutions and engineering industries that aims to analyze promising mitigation options and provide solutions to the critical scientific and technical obstacles involved in confronting threats posed by the small bodies in the neighborhood of the Earth's orbit [6]. To further explore the NEO threat mitigation via the strategy of kinetic impact, building upon the Don Quixote study, the idea is to target a specific NEO for impact and attempt to quantify the response. How long do ejecta remain aloft and where do they end up? Fragments that are ejected at high speeds escape, but what about material moving at or near the escape speed of the NEO or that suffer energy-dissipating collisions after being ejected? Where would be a ''safe'' location for an observing spacecraft during and subsequent to the impact? Here, we outline the early phases of an ongoing numerical investigation of the fate of the material ejected from a

  7. X-Ray Heating of the Ejecta of Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Larsson, Josefin; Fransson, Claes; Kirshner, Robert; Challis, Peter; McCray, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Band R band images from 1994 to 2009 show that the optical luminosity of SN 1987A has transitioned from being powered by radioactive decay of Ti-44 to energy deposited by X-rays produced as the ejecta interacts with the surrounding material (Larsson et al. 2011, Nature, 474, 484). The B and R band flux from the densest, central parts of the ejecta followed the expected exponential decline until 2001 (about day 5000) when the flux in these bands started increasing, more than doubling by the end of 2009. This increase is the result of heat deposited by X-rays from the shock interaction of the fast-moving outer ejecta with the inner circumstellar ring. In time, the X-rays will penetrate farther into the ejecta, enabling us to analyze the structure and chemistry of the vanished star.

  8. Phobos, Deimos, and the moon - Size and distribution of crater ejecta blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Ejecta block characteristics observed on Phobos, Deimos, and the moon are examined. The analyzed source craters on Deimos are 0.8-2.3 km in diameter, those on Phobos are 1.5-10 km, and the lunar craters are between 0.2-3.5 km in diameter. The size and radial distribution of the ejecta blocks for the three bodies are compared. It is observed that the size distribution of the ejecta blocks surrounding craters on the three objects are basically similar, and the radial distribution of the blocks for Phobos and the moon are the same (within 2 radii of the crater center); however, the ejecta on Deimos are more dispersed (greater than or equal to 2 radii from the crater center).

  9. Mass loading of the Earth's magnetosphere by micron size lunar ejecta. 2: Ejecta dynamics and enhanced lifetimes in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. M.; Tanner, W. G.; Anz, P. D.; Chen, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive studies were conducted concerning the indivdual mass, temporal and positional distribution of micron and submicron lunar ejecta existing in the Earth-Moon gravitational sphere of influence. Initial results show a direct correlation between the position of the Moon, relative to the Earth, and the percentage of lunar ejecta leaving the Moon and intercepting the magnetosphere of the Earth at the magnetopause surface. It is seen that the Lorentz Force dominates all other forces, thus suggesting that submicron dust particles might possibly be magnetically trapped in the well known radiation zones.

  10. Comprehensive investigation of the dynamics of micron and submicron lunar ejecta in heliocentric space

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrave, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The forces which act on micron and submicron dust particles in interplanetary space are studied in detail. Particular attention is given to Mie scattering theory as it applies to the calculation of the force due to radiation pressure. All of the forces are integrated into a computer model to study the heliocentric orbits of lunar ejecta. It is shown that lunar ejecta contribute to a geocentric dust cloud, as well as to a heliocentric dust belt.

  11. Preflow stresses in Martian rampart ejecta blankets - A means of estimating the water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woronow, A.

    1981-02-01

    Measurements of extents of rampart ejecta deposits as a function of the size of the parent craters support models which, for craters larger than about 6 km diameter, constrain ejecta blankets to all have a similar maximum thickness regardless of the crater size. These volatile-rich ejecta blankets may have failed under their own weights, then flowed radially outward. Assuming this to be so, some of the physicomechanical properties of the ejecta deposits at the time of their emplacement can then be determined. Finite-element studies of the stress magnitudes, distributions, and directions in hypothetical Martian rampart ejecta blankets reveal that the material most likely failed when the shear stresses were less than 500 kPa and the angle of internal friction was between 26 and 36 deg. These figures imply that the ejecta has a water content between 16 and 72%. Whether the upper limit or the lower limit is more appropriate depends on the mode of failure which one presumes: namely, viscous flow of plastic deformation.

  12. Nebular Hydrogen Absorption in the Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Ishibashi, K.; Davidson, K.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of Eta Carinae and immediate ejecta reveal narrow Balmer absorption lines in addition to the nebular-scattered broad P-Cygni absorptions. The narrow absorption correlates with apparent disk structure that separates the two Homunculus lobes. We trace these features about half way up the Northern lobe until the scattered stellar Balmer line doppler-shifts redward beyond the nebular absorption feature. Three-dimensional data cubes, made by mapping the Homunculus at Balmer alpha and Balmer beta with the 52 x 0.1 arcsecond aperture and about 5000 spectral resolving power, demonstrate that the absorption feature changes slowly in velocity with nebular position. We have monitored the stellar Balmer alpha line profile of the central source over the past four years. The equivalent width of the nebular absorption feature changes considerably between observations. The changes do not correlate with measured brightness of Eta Carinae. Likely clumps of neutral hydrogen with a scale size comparable to the stellar disk diameter are passing through the intervening light path on the timescales less than several months. The excitation mechanism involves Lyman alpha radiation (possibly the Lyman series plus Lyman continuum) and collisions leading to populating the 2S metastable state. Before the electron can jump to the ground state by two photon emission (lifetime about 1/8 second), a stellar Balmer photon is absorbed and the electron shifts to an NP level. We see the absorption feature in higher Balmer lines, and but not in Paschen lines. Indeed we see narrow nebular Paschen emission lines. At present, we do not completely understand the details of the absorption. Better understanding should lead to improved insight of the unique conditions around Eta Carinae that leads to these absorptions.

  13. Evidence for Crater Ejecta on Venus Tessera Terrain from Earth-Based Radar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Campbell, Donald B.; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Nolan, Michael C.; Chandler, John F.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Earth-based radar maps of Venus from the 1988 and 2012 inferior conjunctions, which had similar viewing geometries. Processing of both datasets with better image focusing and co-registration techniques, and summing over multiple looks, yields maps with 1-2 km spatial resolution and improved signal to noise ratio, especially in the weaker same-sense circular (SC) polarization. The SC maps are unique to Earth-based observations, and offer a different view of surface properties from orbital mapping using same-sense linear (HH or VV) polarization. Highland or tessera terrains on Venus, which may retain a record of crustal differentiation and processes occurring prior to the loss of water, are of great interest for future spacecraft landings. The Earth-based radar images reveal multiple examples of tessera mantling by impact ''parabolas'' or ''haloes'', and can extend mapping of locally thick material from Magellan data by revealing thinner deposits over much larger areas. Of particular interest is an ejecta deposit from Stuart crater that we infer to mantle much of eastern Alpha Regio. Some radar-dark tessera occurrences may indicate sediments that are trapped for longer periods than in the plains. We suggest that such radar information is important for interpretation of orbital infrared data and selection of future tessera landing sites.

  14. OPACITIES AND SPECTRA OF THE r-PROCESS EJECTA FROM NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Barnes, Jennifer; Badnell, N. R.

    2013-09-01

    Material ejected during (or immediately following) the merger of two neutron stars may assemble into heavy elements through the r-process. The subsequent radioactive decay of the nuclei can power transient electromagnetic emission similar to, but significantly dimmer than, an ordinary supernova. Identifying such events is an important goal of future optical surveys, offering new perspectives on the origin of r-process nuclei and the astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. Predictions of the transient light curves and spectra, however, have suffered from the uncertain optical properties of heavy ions. Here we argue that the opacity of an expanding r-process material is dominated by bound-bound transitions from those ions with the most complex valence electron structure, namely the lanthanides. For a few representative ions, we run atomic structure models to calculate the radiative transition rates for tens of millions of lines. The resulting r-process opacities are orders of magnitude larger than that of ordinary (e.g., iron-rich) supernova ejecta. Radiative transport calculations using these new opacities suggest that the light curves should be longer, dimmer, and redder than previously thought. The spectra appear to be pseudo-blackbody, with broad absorption features, and peak in the infrared ({approx}1 {mu}m). We discuss uncertainties in the opacities and attempt to quantify their impact on the spectral predictions. The results have important implications for observational strategies to find and study the radioactively powered electromagnetic counterparts to neutron star mergers.

  15. Data analysis to separate particles of different speed regimes and charges. [lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment and pioneer space probe data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the instruments on the lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment (LEAM) and the Pioneer 8 and 9 space probes were essentially similar, a comparison of their results indicates that different sets of particles caused the different responses. On Pioneer, the events were caused by the impact of cosmic dust, the so-called beta particles expelled from the vicinity of the sun by solar radiation pressure, augmented by extremely high energy but definitely identifiable interstellar grains. On the moon, the events were due to the impact of slowly moving, highly charged lunar dust being propelled electrostatically across the terminator. Both theoretical analysis and experimental testing confirming these conclusions are discussed.

  16. Discovery of Outlying, High-Velocity O-Rich Ejecta in Cas A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, R.; Hammell, M.; Morse, J.; Borkowski, K.; Chevalier, R.; Dopita, M.; Lawrence, S.; Raymond, J.; van den Bergh, S.

    2004-12-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 and ACS images of the Galactic supernova remnant Cas A taken in 2000, 2002, and 2004 which reveal the presence of numerous outlying ejecta knots whose optical emission is dominated by oxygen lines including [O I] 6300,6364 A, and [O II] 7319,7330 A. These ejecta are found immediately behind the faster moving [N II] 6548,6583 A dominated ejecta knots and are seen (in projection) to lie slightly ahead or roughly coincident with the remnant's forward blast wave as detected in deep Chandra X-ray images (Hwang et al. 2004, ApJL, in press). Proper motion derived projected expansion velocities indicate this O-rich layer is expanding at 8000 -- 8500 km/s, or some 500 km/s slower than the outer N-rich material. Location of O-dominated ejecta knots in the eastern portion of the remnant behind N-rich ejecta but ahead of the remnant's outermost S,Si-rich ejecta as seen in X-ray emission maps, suggests that: 1) With the exception of the NE-SW jet regions, the Cas A SN largely retained the progenitor's He,N -- O -- S,Si abundance zones, and 2) Fingers of X-ray emitting, Fe-rich material seen along the eastern limb at larger radial distances than S,Si-rich ejecta did not significantly penetrate the progenitor's O-rich or He,N-rich outer layers. This research was funded by NASA HST GO programs 8281, 9238, and 9890.

  17. Evidence for multiple ejecta: April 7-11, 1997, ISTP Sun-Earth connection event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, D.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Delaboudinière, J.-P.; Fox, N.; Kaiser, M.; Lepping, R.; Michels, D.; Plunkett, S.; Reames, D.; Reiner, M.; Richardson, I.; Rostoker, G.; Steinberg, J.; Thompson, B.; von Rosenvinge, T.

    Evidence is presented that the enhanced geomagnetic activity, on April 10-11, 1997, was caused by one of two ejecta that left the Sun at ≈ 14 UT on April 7. This ejecta was not directly detected at the Earth. The evidence for this interpretation is based on WIND spacecraft observations in the solar wind (SW). It is consistent with: (i) measured velocities of the coronal mass ejections from the SOHO coronagraph; (ii) the initial propagation speed of the shock generated in this event, estimation from type II radio burst observations from the WAVES instrument on WIND, and (iii) the time profile of energetic ions observed by EPACT on WIND. This locally unobserved ejecta (moving at 600 to 700 kms-1) generated a fast shock which accelerated ions to several tens of MeV/amu. The inferred passage of the first ejecta close to Earth (on April 10 to 11) is based on the observation of an interplanetary shock (IS) ahead of a field and plasma compressional region where the draping of the SW flow and possibly the changes in the direction of the IMF are consistent with a location northward of a faster ejecta. This ejecta was responsible for disturbed SW conditions including approximately ten hours of southward orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and a ram pressure many times above normal. The slower moving ejecta was directed toward Earth and was observed with WIND from about 0550 until 1500 UT on April 11. It had a strong northward IMF and produced density enhancements which elevated the ram pressure to more than four times above normal.

  18. Multiproxy Approach of the K-T and Chicxulub Ejecta Layers Along the Brazos River, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, T.; Keller, G.

    2006-05-01

    from the K-T boundary by at least 20 to cm of normal hemipelagic claystone showing calcite, phyllosilicates, TOC, isotope and granulometric values similar to the pre-event sediments and reflect therefore normal sedimentary conditions. The Chicxulub spherule ejecta in the glauconitic sand near the base of the storm beds is reworked from an older original ejecta layer, as indicated by abundant reworked fossil shells. This is similar to the reworked spherule layers at the base of the siliciclastic deposits throughout NE Mexico, where the original layer is within marls up to 5 m below (base of CF1) and predating the K-T by 300,000 years. The original ejecta layer in Cottonmouth Creek lies 60 cm below the basal unconformity of the storm beds and within claystones near the base of zone CF1. This layer consists of a prominent 3-4 cm thick yellow clay of pure and well-crystallized smectite (Cheto Mg-smectite) that possibly represents the alteration product of Chicxulub impact glass. Glass altered smectite spherules are commonly present and present the same geochemical composition as glass and spherules weathered to smectite from Haiti and NE-Mexico. Similar Cheto smectite layers have been documented from ejecta spherule deposits in Central America and the Caribbean. The Brazos results confirm that the Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary by about 300,000 years, as earlier observed based on impact glass spherule layers in northeastern Mexico and the suevite breccia from the Yaxcopoil-1 core in Yucatan.

  19. Searching for the Circumstellar Ejecta Around Cool Hypergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, M. T.; Humphreys, R. M.; Marengo, M.; Gehrz, R. D.; Woodward, C. E.; Polomski, E.

    2005-05-01

    We present HST and Spitzer images of several of the most luminous cool stars in the Galaxy. These highly unstable, very massive stars lie on or near the empirical upper luminosity boundary in the H-R diagram, and are characterized by high mass loss phenomena, sometimes violent, which may be responsible for the upper boundary. These observations are designed to search for circumstellar structures close to the star as well as more distant nebulosity. We discuss the presence, or lack of, ejecta around these hypergiants, and the evolutionary implications. Our high-resolution WFPC2 images show compact nebulosity around the cool M-type hypergiants NML Cyg, VX Sgr and S Per. The powerful OH/IR source NML Cyg exhibits a small, peculiar bean-shaped asymmetric nebula that closely matches the distribution of the surrounding H2O vapor masers. NML Cyg's concave outer envelope is likely shaped by photo-dissociation from the powerful, nearby association Cyg OB2 inside the Cygnus X superbubble. VX Sgr and S Per, also OH/IR sources, have marginally resolved envelopes. S Per's circumstellar nebula appears elongated in a NE/SW orientation similar to that for its surrounding OH and H2O masers, while VX Sgr is obscured by a spheroidal envelope. We find no evidence in our WFPC2 images for circumstellar nebulosity around the intermediate-type hypergiants ρ Cas, HR 8752, HR 5171a nor the normal M-type supergiant μ Cep. We conclude that very likely, there has been no high mass loss event prior to 500-1000 yrs ago for these four stars. Our IRAC images (ρ Cas, HR 8752, and R 150) also show no evidence for extended structure. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work is in part provided by NASA through contracts 1256406 and 1215746 issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Minnesota.

  20. Small Impact Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small impact crater with a 'butterfly' ejecta pattern. The butterfly pattern results from an oblique impact. Not all oblique impacts result in an elliptical crater, but they can result in a non-radial pattern of ejecta distribution. The two-toned nature of the ejecta -- with dark material near the crater and brighter material further away -- might indicate the nature of subsurface materials. Below the surface, there may be a layer of lighter-toned material, underlain by a layer of darker material. The impact throws these materials out in a pattern that reflects the nature of the underlying layers.

    Location near: 3.7oN, 348.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  1. Micrometeoroid and Lunar Secondary Ejecta Flux Measurements: Comparison of Three Acoustic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsaro, R. D.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burtchell, M.; Pisacane, V.; Lagakos, N.; Williams, E.; Stansbery, E.

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the inherent capability of three large-area acoustic sensor systems and their applicability for micrometeoroids (MM) and lunar secondary ejecta (SE) detection and characterization for future lunar exploration activities. Discussion is limited to instruments that can be fabricated and deployed with low resource requirements. Previously deployed impact detection probes typically have instrumented capture areas less than 0.2 square meters. Since the particle flux decreases rapidly with increased particle size, such small-area sensors rarely encounter particles in the size range above 50 microns, and even their sampling the population above 10 microns is typically limited. Characterizing the sparse dust population in the size range above 50 microns requires a very large-area capture instrument. However it is also important that such an instrument simultaneously measures the population of the smaller particles, so as to provide a complete instantaneous snapshot of the population. For lunar or planetary surface studies, the system constraints are significant. The instrument must be as large as possible to sample the population of the largest MM. This is needed to reliably assess the particle impact risks and to develop cost-effective shielding designs for habitats, astronauts, and critical instrument. The instrument should also have very high sensitivity to measure the flux of small and slow SE particles. is the SE environment is currently poorly characterized, and possess a contamination risk to machinery and personnel involved in exploration. Deployment also requires that the instrument add very little additional mass to the spacecraft. Three acoustic systems are being explored for this application.

  2. Spall strength and ejecta production of gold under explosively driven shock wave compression

    SciTech Connect

    La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L. R.; Holtkamp, D. B.

    2013-12-16

    Explosively driven shock wave experiments were conducted to characterize the spall strength and ejecta production of high-purity cast gold samples. The samples were from 0.75 to 1.84 mm thick and 30 mm in diameter. Peak stresses up to 44 GPa in gold were generated using PBX-9501 high explosive. Sample free surface and ejecta velocities were recorded using photonic Doppler velocimetry techniques. Lithium niobate pins were used to quantify the time dependence of the ejecta density and the total ejected mass. An optical framing camera for time-resolved imaging and a single-image x-ray radiograph were used for additional characterization. Free surface velocities exhibited a range of spall strengths from 1.7 to 2.4 GPa (mean: 2.0 ±0.3 GPa). The pullback signals were faint, minimal ringing was observed in the velocity records, and the spall layer continued to decelerate after first pull back. These results suggest finite tensile strength was present for some time after the initial void formation. Ejecta were observed for every sample with a roughened free surface, and the ejecta density increased with increased surface roughness, which was different in every experiment. The total ejected mass is consistent with the missing mass model.

  3. A Chandra X-Ray Survey of Ejecta in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present a survey of the X-ray emitting ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on an extensive analysis of over 6000 spectral regions extracted on 2.5-10" angular scales using the Chandra 1 Ms observation. We interpret these results in the context of hydrodynamical models for the evolution of the remnant. The distributions of fitted temperature and ionization age are highly peaked and suggest that the ejecta were subjected to multiple secondary shocks. Based on the fitted emission measure and element abundances, and an estimate of the emitting volume, we derive masses for the X-ray emitting ejecta as well as showing the distribution of the mass of various elements over the remnant. The total shocked Fe mass appears to be roughly 0.14 Solar Mass, which accounts for nearly all of the mass expected in Fe ejecta. We find two populations of Fe ejecta, that associated with normal Si-burning and that associated with alpha-rich freeze-out, with a mass ratio of approximately 2:1. Surprisingly, essentially all of this Fe (both components) is well outside the central regions of the SNR, presumably having been ejected by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. We discuss this, and its implications for the neutron star kick.

  4. Photoionization Heating of Nova Ejecta by the Post-outburst Supersoft Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Timothy; Wolf, William M.; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The expanding ejecta from a classical nova remains hot enough (˜ {{10}4} K) to be detected in thermal radio emission for up to years after the cessation of mass loss triggered by a thermonuclear instability on the underlying white dwarf (WD). Nebular spectroscopy of nova remnants confirms the hot temperatures observed in radio observations. During this same period, the unstable thermonuclear burning transitions to a prolonged period of stable burning of the remnant hydrogen-rich envelope, causing the WD to become, temporarily, a super-soft X-ray source. We show that photoionization heating of the expanding ejecta by the hot WD maintains the observed nearly constant temperature of (1-4) × {{10}4} K for up to a year before an eventual decline in temperature due to either the cessation of the supersoft phase or the onset of a predominantly adiabatic expansion. We simulate the expanding ejecta using a one-zone model as well as the Cloudy spectral synthesis code, both incorporating the time-dependent WD effective temperatures for a range of masses from 0.60 {{M}⊙ } to 1.10 {{M}⊙ }. We show that the duration of the nearly isothermal phase depends most strongly on the velocity and mass of the ejecta and that the ejecta temperature depends on the WD’s effective temperature, and hence its mass.

  5. The r-process and neutrino-heated supernova ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.; Wilson, J. R.; Mathews, G. J.; Hoffman, R. D.; Meyer, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    As a neutron star is formed by the collapse of the iron core of a massive star, its Kelvin-Helmholtz evolution is characterized by the release of gravitational binding energy as neutrinos. The interaction of these neutrinos with heated material above the neutron star generates a hot bubble in an atmosphere that is nearly in hydrostatic equilibrium and heated, after approximately 10 s, to an entropy of S/N(sub AS)k greater than or approximately = 400. The neutron-to-proton ratio for material moving outward through this bubble is set by the balance between neutrino and antineutrino capture on nucleons. Because the electron antineutrino spectrum at this time is hotter than the electron neutrino spectrum, the bubble is neutron-rich (0.38 less than or approximately = Y(sub e) less than or approximately = 0.47). Previous work using a schematic model has shown that these conditions are well suited to the production of heavy elements by the r-process. In this paper we have advanced the numerical modeling of a 20 solar mass 'delayed' supernova explosion to the point that we can follow the detailed evolution of material moving through the bubble at the late times appropiate to r-process nucleosynthesis. The supernova model predicts a final kinetic energy for the ejecta of 1.5 x 10(exp 51) ergs and leaves behind a remnant with a baryon mass of 1.50 solar mass (and a gravitational mass of 1.445 solar mass). We follow the thermodynamic and compositional evolution of 40 trajectories in rho(t), T(t), Y(sub e)(t) for a logarithmic grid of mass elements for the last approximately = 0.03 solar mass to be ejected by the proto-neutron star down to the last less than 10(exp -6) solar mass of material expelled at up to approximately = 18 s after core collapse. We find that an excellent fit to the solar r-process abundance distribution is obtained with no adjustable parameters in the nucleosynthesis calculations. Moreover, the abundances are produced in the quantities required to account

  6. Asteroid Geophysics and Quantifying the Impact Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D.; Wooden, D. H.; Korycanksy, D. G., .

    2015-01-01

    The internal structure of an asteroid, i.e., strength, composition, and thermal properties, contribute to the behavior of the object as it passes through the atmosphere, whether it produces an airblast, and the nature of the impact and ejecta.

  7. Numerical Model of an Apophis-Like Impact Against the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, V. V.; Artemieva, N. A.; Glazachev, D. O.; Popova, O. P.; Svettsov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    We present a numerical model of Apophis-like impacts and use it to study the impact consequences including blast waves, formation of an impact crater, ejecta, thermal radiation, and ionospheric disturbances.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Effects in Propagating Relativistic Ejecta: Reverse Shock and Magnetic Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Y.; Nishikawa, K.I.; Zhang, B.; Giacomazzo, B.; Hardee, P.E.; Nagataki, S.; Hartmann, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    We solve the Riemann problem for the deceleration of arbitrarily magnetized relativistic ejecta injected into a static unmagnetized medium. We find that for the same initial Lorentz factor, the reverse shock becomes progressively weaker with increasing magnetization s (the Poynting-to-kinetic energy flux ratio), and the shock becomes a rarefaction wave when s exceeds a critical value, sc, defined by the balance between the magnetic pressure in the ejecta and the thermal pressure in the forward shock. In the rarefaction wave regime, we find that the rarefied region is accelerated to a Lorentz factor that is significantly larger than the initial value. This acceleration mechanism is due to the strong magnetic pressure in the ejecta.

  9. Characterization of the K-T and Chicxulub Ejecta Layers along the Brazos River, Texas: Correlation with NE Mexico and Yucatan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, A.; Gerta, K.

    2005-05-01

    We report the results of preliminary investigations of four K-T boundary sections, which are located in small tributaries (Cottonmouth and Darting Minnow creeks) of the Brazos River. The study is based on high-resolution sampling, sedimentological observations, biostratigraphy, bulk rock and clay mineralogy, geochemistry and granulometry. The Cottonmouth Creek exposure is characterized by Late Maastrichtian dark grey fossiliferous claystone, interrupted by laterally variable channel fill storm deposits, which previously have been erroneously interpreted as impact tsunami deposits. These deposits consist of a basal shell hash (10cm), followed by glauconitic sand with altered impact spherules (10cm), laminated sandstones, and 4 to 5 hummocky cross-bedded sandstone layers separated by burrowed erosion surfaces that mark repeated colonization of the ocean floor between storm events. Above and below these storm events are dark grey fossiliferous claystones of the late Maastrichtian zone CF1, which spans the last 300,000 years of the Cretaceous. The K-T boundary is 40 cm above the storm deposits. Granulometric analyses of this interval reveal no size grading due to suspension settling from storm or tsunami waves, but rather indicate normal hemipelagic sedimentation. The Chicxulub spherule ejecta in the glauconitic sand near the base of the storm beds is reworked from an older original ejecta layer, as indicated by abundant reworked fossil shells. This is similar to the reworked spherule layers at the base of the siliclastic deposits throughout NE Mexico, where the original layer is within marls up to 5 m below (base of CF1) and predating the K-T by 300,000 years. We may have discovered the original ejecta layer in Cottonmouth Creek 60 cm below the basal unconformity of the storm beds and within claystones near the base of zone CF1. This layer consists of a prominent 3-4 cm thick yellow clay of pure and well-crystallized smectite (Cheto Mg-smectite) that possibly

  10. NON-EQUIPARTITION OF ENERGY, MASSES OF NOVA EJECTA, AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Yaron, Ofer; Prialnik, Dina; Kovetz, Attay

    2010-04-01

    The total masses ejected during classical nova (CN) eruptions are needed to answer two questions with broad astrophysical implications: can accreting white dwarfs be 'pushed over' the Chandrasekhar mass limit to yield type Ia supernovae? Are ultra-luminous red variables a new kind of astrophysical phenomenon, or merely extreme classical novae? We review the methods used to determine nova ejecta masses. Except for the unique case of BT Mon (nova 1939), all nova ejecta mass determinations depend on untested assumptions and multi-parameter modeling. The remarkably simple assumption of equipartition between kinetic and radiated energy (E {sub kin} and E {sub rad}, respectively) in nova ejecta has been invoked as a way around this conundrum for the ultra-luminous red variable in M31. The deduced mass is far larger than that produced by any CN model. Our nova eruption simulations show that radiation and kinetic energy in nova ejecta are very far from being in energy equipartition, with variations of 4 orders of magnitude in the ratio E {sub kin}/E {sub rad} being commonplace. The assumption of equipartition must not be used to deduce nova ejecta masses; any such 'determinations' can be overestimates by a factor of up to 10,000. We data-mined our extensive series of nova simulations to search for correlations that could yield nova ejecta masses. Remarkably, the mass ejected during a nova eruption is dependent only on (and is directly proportional to) E {sub rad}. If we measure the distance to an erupting nova and its bolometric light curve, then E {sub rad} and hence the mass ejected can be directly measured.

  11. LATE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE EJECTA AND REVERSE SHOCK IN SN 1987A

    SciTech Connect

    Fransson, Claes; Groeningsson, Per; Jerkstrand, Anders; Lundqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper; Larsson, Josefin; Spyromilio, Jason; Leibundgut, Bruno; Kjaer, Karina; Chevalier, Roger; McCray, Richard; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2013-05-01

    We present observations with the Very Large Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the broad emission lines from the inner ejecta and reverse shock of SN 1987A from 1999 February until 2012 January (days 4381-9100 after explosion). We detect broad lines from H{alpha}, H{beta}, Mg I], Na I, [O I], [Ca II], and a feature at {approx}9220 A. We identify the latter line with Mg II {lambda}{lambda}9218, 9244, which is most likely pumped by Ly{alpha} fluorescence. H{alpha} and H{beta} both have a centrally peaked component extending to {approx}4500 km s{sup -1} and a very broad component extending to {approx}> 11, 000 km s{sup -1}, while the other lines have only the central component. The low-velocity component comes from unshocked ejecta, heated mainly by X-rays from the circumstellar environment, whereas the very broad component comes from faster ejecta passing through the reverse shock, created by the collision with the circumstellar ring. The flux in H{alpha} from the reverse shock has increased by a factor of four to six from 2000 to 2007. After that there is a tendency of flattening of the light curve, similar to what may be seen in the optical lines from the shocked ring. The core component seen in H{alpha}, [Ca II], and Mg II has experienced a similar increase, which is consistent with that found from HST photometry. The energy deposition of the external X-rays is calculated using explosion models for SN 1987A and we predict that the outer parts of the unshocked ejecta will continue to brighten because of this. The external X-ray illumination also explains the edge-brightened morphology of the ejecta seen in the HST images. We finally discuss evidence for dust in the ejecta from line asymmetries.

  12. Compositional Mapping of Planetary moons by Mass Spectrometry of Dust Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Schmidt, J.; Spahn, F.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Trieloff, M.

    2011-12-01

    Classical methods to analyze the surface composition of planetary objects from a space craft are IR and gamma ray spectroscopy and neutron backscatter measurements. We present a complementary method to analyze rocky or icy dust particles as samples of planetary objects from where they were ejected. Such particles, generated by the ambient meteoroid bombardment that erodes the surface, are naturally present on all atmosphereless moons and planets - they are enshrouded in clouds of ballistic dust particles. In situ mass spectroscopic analysis of these grains impacting on to a detector on a spacecraft reveals their composition as characteristic samples of planetary surfaces at flybys or from an orbiter. The well established approach of dust detection by impact ionization has recently shown its capabilities by analyzing ice particles expelled by subsurface salt water on Saturn's moon Enceladus. Applying the method on micro-meteoroid ejecta of less active moons would allow for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a huge number of samples from various surface areas, thus combining the advantages of remote sensing and a lander. Utilizing the heritage of the dust detectors onboard Ghiotto, Ulysses, Galileo, and Cassini a variety of improved, low-mass lab-models have been build and tested. They allow the chemical characterization of ice and dust particles encountered at speeds as low as 1 km/s and an accurate reconstruction of their trajectories. Depending on the sampling altitude, a dust trajectory sensor can trace back the origin of each analyzed grain with about 10 km accuracy at the surface. Since achievable detection rates are on the order of thousand per orbit, an orbiter can create a compositional map of samples taken from a greater part of the surface. Flybies allow an investigation of certain surface areas of interest. Dust impact velocities are in general sufficiently high for impact ionization at orbiters about planetary objects with a radius of at least

  13. THE CHEMISTRY OF POPULATION III SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. FORMATION OF MOLECULES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Cherchneff, Isabelle; Dwek, Eli E-mail: eli.dwek@nasa.go

    2009-09-20

    We study the formation and destruction of molecules in the ejecta of Population III supernovae (SNe) using a chemical kinetic approach to follow the evolution of molecular abundances from day 100 to day 1000 after explosion. The chemical species included in the study range from simple diatomic molecules to more complex dust precursor species. All relevant molecule formation and destruction processes that are unique to the SN environment are considered. Our work focuses on zero-metallicity progenitors with masses of 20, 170, and 270 M{sub sun}, and we study the effect of different levels of heavy element mixing and the inward diffusion of hydrogen and helium on the ejecta chemistry. We show that the ejecta chemistry does not reach a steady state within the relevant timespan ({approx}3 yr) for molecule formation, thus invalidating previous results relying on this assumption. The primary species formed in the harsh SN environment are O{sub 2}, CO, SiS, and SO. The SiO, formed as early as 200 days after explosion, is rapidly depleted by the formation of silica molecular precursors in the ejecta. The rapid conversion of CO to C{sub 2} and its thermal fractionation at temperatures above 5000 K allow for the formation of carbon chains in the oxygen-rich zone of the unmixed models, providing an important pathway for the formation of carbon dust in hot environments where the C/O ratio is less than 1. We show that the fully mixed ejecta of a 170 M{sub sun} progenitor synthesizes 11.3 M{sub sun} of molecules, whereas 20 M{sub sun} and 270 M{sub sun} progenitors produce 0.78 M{sub sun} and 3.2 M{sub sun} of molecules, respectively. The admixing of 10% of hydrogen into the fully mixed ejecta of the 170 M{sub sun} progenitor increases its molecular yield to {approx}47 M{sub sun}. The unmixed ejecta of a 170 M{sub sun} progenitor SN without hydrogen penetration synthesizes {approx}37 M{sub sun} of molecules, whereas its 20 M{sub sun} counterpart produces {approx}1.2 M {sub sun

  14. Low-Energy Impacts onto Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Laura M.; Colwell, J.; Mellon, M.; Stemm, B.

    2012-10-01

    Low-Energy Impacts onto Lunar Regolith Simulant Laura M. Seward1, Joshua E. Colwell1, Michael T. Mellon2, and Bradley A. Stemm1, 1Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 2Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado. Impacts and cratering in space play important roles in the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. Low-velocity impacts and disturbances to planetary regolith are also a consequence of manned and robotic exploration of planetary bodies such as the Moon, Mars, and asteroids. We are conducting a program of laboratory experiments to study low-velocity impacts of 1 to 5 m/s into JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant, JSC-Mars-1 Martian regolith simulant, and silica targets under 1 g. We use direct measurement of ejecta mass and high-resolution video tracking of ejecta particle trajectories to derive ejecta mass velocity distributions. Additionally, we conduct similar experiments under microgravity conditions in a laboratory drop tower and on parabolic aircraft with velocities as low as 10 cm/s. We wish to characterize and understand the collision parameters that control the outcome of low-velocity impacts into regolith, including impact velocity, impactor mass, target shape and size distribution, regolith depth, target relative density, and crater depth, and to experimentally determine the functional dependencies of the outcomes of low-velocity collisions (ejecta mass and ejecta velocities) on the controlling parameters of the collision. We present results from our ongoing study showing the positive correlation between impact energy and ejecta mass. The total ejecta mass is also dependent on the packing density (porosity) of the regolith. We find that ejecta mass velocity fits a power-law or broken power-law distribution. Our goal is to understand the physics of ejecta production and regolith compaction in low-energy impacts and experimentally validate predictive models for dust flow and deposition. We will present our

  15. X-ray illumination of the ejecta of supernova 1987A.

    PubMed

    Larsson, J; Fransson, C; Ostlin, G; Gröningsson, P; Jerkstrand, A; Kozma, C; Sollerman, J; Challis, P; Kirshner, R P; Chevalier, R A; Heng, K; McCray, R; Suntzeff, N B; Bouchet, P; Crotts, A; Danziger, J; Dwek, E; France, K; Garnavich, P M; Lawrence, S S; Leibundgut, B; Lundqvist, P; Panagia, N; Pun, C S J; Smith, N; Sonneborn, G; Wang, L; Wheeler, J C

    2011-06-08

    When a massive star explodes as a supernova, substantial amounts of radioactive elements--primarily (56)Ni, (57)Ni and (44)Ti--are produced. After the initial flash of light from shock heating, the fading light emitted by the supernova is due to the decay of these elements. However, after decades, the energy powering a supernova remnant comes from the shock interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding medium. The transition to this phase has hitherto not been observed: supernovae occur too infrequently in the Milky Way to provide a young example, and extragalactic supernovae are generally too faint and too small. Here we report observations that show this transition in the supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. From 1994 to 2001, the ejecta faded owing to radioactive decay of (44)Ti as predicted. Then the flux started to increase, more than doubling by the end of 2009. We show that this increase is the result of heat deposited by X-rays produced as the ejecta interacts with the surrounding material. In time, the X-rays will penetrate farther into the ejecta, enabling us to analyse the structure and chemistry of the vanished star.

  16. Detailed Analysis of the Intra-Ejecta Dark Plains of Caloris Basin, Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buczkowski, Debra L.; Seelos, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Caloris basin on Mercury is floored by light-toned plains and surrounded by an annulus of dark-toned material interpreted to be ejecta blocks and smooth, dark, ridged plains. Strangely, preliminary crater counts indicate that these intra-ejecta dark plains are younger than the light-toned plains within the Caloris basin. This would imply a second, younger plains emplacement event, possibly involving lower albedo material volcanics, which resurfaced the original ejecta deposit. On the other hand, the dark plains may be pre-Caloris light plains covered by a thin layer of dark ejecta. Another alternative to the hypothesis of young, dark volcanism is the possibility that previous crater counts have not thoroughly distinguished between superposed craters (fresh) and partly-buried craters (old) and therefore have not accurately determined the ages of the Caloris units. This abstract outlines the tasks associated with a new mapping project of the Caloris basin, intended to improve our knowledge of the geology and geologic history of the basin, and thus facilitate an understanding of the thermal evolution of this region of Mercury.

  17. THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE EJECTA IN SUPERNOVA 1987A: A STUDY OVER TIME AND WAVELENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Josefin; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper; Kjaer, Karina; Leibundgut, Bruno; Spyromilio, Jason; Jerkstrand, Anders; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mattila, Seppo; McCray, Richard; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2013-05-01

    We present a study of the morphology of the ejecta in Supernova 1987A based on images and spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as well as integral field spectroscopy from VLT/SINFONI. The HST observations were obtained between 1994 and 2011 and primarily probe the outer H-rich zones of the ejecta. The SINFONI observations were obtained in 2005 and 2011 and instead probe the [Si I]+[Fe II] emission from the inner regions. We find a strong temporal evolution of the morphology in the HST images, from a roughly elliptical shape before {approx}5000 days, to a more irregular, edge-brightened morphology with a ''hole'' in the middle thereafter. This transition is a natural consequence of the change in the dominant energy source powering the ejecta, from radioactive decay before {approx}5000 days to X-ray input from the circumstellar interaction thereafter. The [Si I]+[Fe II] images display a more uniform morphology, which may be due to a remaining significant contribution from radioactivity in the inner ejecta and the higher abundance of these elements in the core. Both the H{alpha} and the [Si I]+[Fe II] line profiles show that the ejecta are distributed fairly close to the plane of the inner circumstellar ring, which is assumed to define the rotational axis of the progenitor star. The H{alpha} emission extends to higher velocities than [Si I]+[Fe II], as expected from theoretical models. There is no clear symmetry axis for all the emission. Instead, we find that the emission is concentrated to clumps and that the emission is distributed somewhat closer to the ring in the north than in the south. This north-south asymmetry may be partially explained by dust absorption. We compare our results with explosion models and find some qualitative agreement, but note that the observations show a higher degree of large-scale asymmetry.

  18. Supernova Ejecta in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Hwang, Una; Green, David A.; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of approximately 1900, and most likely located near the Galactic Center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities (is) approximately greater than 18,000 km s-1 have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially-resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs: Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K alpha emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including 56Ni) with velocities greater than 18,000 km s-1 were ejected by this SN. But in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent 3D delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

  19. The density and mass of unshocked ejecta in Cassiopeia a through low frequency radio absorption

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaney, Tracey; Kassim, Namir E.; Rudnick, Lawrence; Perley, R. A. E-mail: namir.kassim@nrl.navy.mil E-mail: rperley@nrao.edu

    2014-04-10

    Characterizing the ejecta in young supernova remnants is a requisite step toward a better understanding of stellar evolution. In Cassiopeia A the density and total mass remaining in the unshocked ejecta are important parameters for modeling its explosion and subsequent evolution. Low frequency (<100 MHz) radio observations of sufficient angular resolution offer a unique probe of unshocked ejecta revealed via free-free absorption against the synchrotron emitting shell. We have used the Very Large Array plus Pie Town Link extension to probe this cool, ionized absorber at 9'' and 18.''5 resolution at 74 MHz. Together with higher frequency data we estimate an electron density of 4.2 cm{sup –3} and a total mass of 0.39 M {sub ☉} with uncertainties of a factor of ∼2. This is a significant improvement over the 100 cm{sup –3} upper limit offered by infrared [S III] line ratios from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our estimates are sensitive to a number of factors including temperature and geometry. However using reasonable values for each, our unshocked mass estimate agrees with predictions from dynamical models. We also consider the presence, or absence, of cold iron- and carbon-rich ejecta and how these affect our calculations. Finally we reconcile the intrinsic absorption from unshocked ejecta with the turnover in Cas A's integrated spectrum documented decades ago at much lower frequencies. These and other recent observations below 100 MHz confirm that spatially resolved thermal absorption, when extended to lower frequencies and higher resolution, will offer a powerful new tool for low frequency astrophysics.

  20. SUPERNOVA EJECTA IN THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Hwang, Una; Green, David A.; Petre, Robert

    2013-07-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of {approx}1900, and most likely located near the Galactic center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities {approx}>18,000 km s{sup -1} have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs; Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K{alpha} emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including {sup 56}Ni) with velocities >18,000 km s{sup -1} were ejected by this SN. However, in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent three-dimensional delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

  1. A DETAILED KINEMATIC MAP OF CASSIOPEIA A'S OPTICAL MAIN SHELL AND OUTER HIGH-VELOCITY EJECTA

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A.

    2013-08-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematic reconstructions of optically emitting material in the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). These Doppler maps have the highest spectral and spatial resolutions of any previous survey of Cas A and represent the most complete catalog of its optically emitting material to date. We confirm that the bulk of Cas A's optically bright ejecta populate a torus-like geometry tilted approximately 30 Degree-Sign with respect to the plane of the sky with a -4000 to +6000 km s{sup -1} radial velocity asymmetry. Near-tangent viewing angle effects and an inhomogeneous surrounding circumstellar material/interstellar medium environment suggest that this geometry and velocity asymmetry may not be faithfully representative of the remnant's true 3D structure or the kinematic properties of the original explosion. The majority of the optical ejecta are arranged in several well-defined and nearly circular ring-like structures with diameters between approximately 30'' (0.5 pc) and 2' (2 pc). These ejecta rings appear to be a common phenomenon of young core-collapse remnants and may be associated with post-explosion input of energy from plumes of radioactive {sup 56}Ni-rich ejecta that rise, expand, and compress non-radioactive material. Our optical survey encompasses Cas A's faint outlying ejecta knots and exceptionally high-velocity NE and SW streams of S-rich debris often referred to as ''jets''. These outer knots, which exhibit a chemical make-up suggestive of an origin deep within the progenitor star, appear to be arranged in opposing and wide-angle outflows with opening half-angles of Almost-Equal-To 40 Degree-Sign.

  2. The Density and Mass of Unshocked Ejecta in Cassiopeia A through Low Frequency Radio Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLaney, Tracey; Kassim, Namir E.; Rudnick, Lawrence; Perley, R. A.

    2014-04-01

    Characterizing the ejecta in young supernova remnants is a requisite step toward a better understanding of stellar evolution. In Cassiopeia A the density and total mass remaining in the unshocked ejecta are important parameters for modeling its explosion and subsequent evolution. Low frequency (<100 MHz) radio observations of sufficient angular resolution offer a unique probe of unshocked ejecta revealed via free-free absorption against the synchrotron emitting shell. We have used the Very Large Array plus Pie Town Link extension to probe this cool, ionized absorber at 9'' and 18.''5 resolution at 74 MHz. Together with higher frequency data we estimate an electron density of 4.2 cm-3 and a total mass of 0.39 M ⊙ with uncertainties of a factor of ~2. This is a significant improvement over the 100 cm-3 upper limit offered by infrared [S III] line ratios from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our estimates are sensitive to a number of factors including temperature and geometry. However using reasonable values for each, our unshocked mass estimate agrees with predictions from dynamical models. We also consider the presence, or absence, of cold iron- and carbon-rich ejecta and how these affect our calculations. Finally we reconcile the intrinsic absorption from unshocked ejecta with the turnover in Cas A's integrated spectrum documented decades ago at much lower frequencies. These and other recent observations below 100 MHz confirm that spatially resolved thermal absorption, when extended to lower frequencies and higher resolution, will offer a powerful new tool for low frequency astrophysics.

  3. Distribution of Ejecta in Analog Tephra Rings from Discrete Single and Multiple Subsurface Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.; Sonder, I.; Ross, P. S.; White, J. D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Buried-explosion experiments were used to investigate the spatial and volumetric distribution of extra-crater ejecta resulting from a range of explosion configurations with and without a crater present. Explosion configuration is defined in terms of scaled depth, the relationship between depth of burial and the cube root of explosion energy, where an optimal scaled depth explosion produces the largest crater diameter for a given energy. The multiple explosion experiments provide an analog for the formation of maar-diatreme ejecta deposits and the deposits of discrete explosions through existing conduits and hydrothermal systems. Experiments produced meter-sized craters with ejecta distributed between three major facies based on morphology and distance from the crater center. The proximal deposits form a constructional steep-sided ring that extends no more than two-times the crater radius away from center. The medial deposits form a low-angle continuous blanket that transitions with distance into the isolated clasts of the distal ejecta. Single explosion experiments produce a trend of increasing volume proportion of proximal ejecta as scaled depth increases (from 20-90% vol.). Multiple explosion experiments are dominated by proximal deposits (>90% vol.) for all but optimal scaled depth conditions (40-70% vol.). In addition to scaled depth, the presence of a crater influences jet shape and how the jet collapses, resulting in two end-member depositional mechanisms that produce distinctive facies. The experiments use one well-constrained explosion mechanism and, consequently, the variations in depositional facies and distribution are the result of conditions independent of that mechanism. Previous interpretations have invoked variations in fragmentation as the cause of this variability, but these experiments should help with a more complete reconstruction of the configuration and number of explosions that produce a tephra ring.

  4. Young Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small, relatively young impact crater in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. Boulders can be seen in the crater ejecta deposit.

    Location near: 2.3oN, 57.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  5. X-RAY EJECTA KINEMATICS OF THE GALACTIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.0+1.8

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalerao, Jayant; Park, Sangwook; Dewey, Daniel; Hughes, John P.; Mori, Koji; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-02-10

    We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra High Energy Transmision Grating Spectrometer observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the three-dimensional structure of the clumpy X-ray emitting ejecta material in this remnant, we measured Doppler shifts in emission lines from metal-rich ejecta knots projected at different radial distances from the expansion center. We estimate radial velocities of ejecta knots in the range of –2300 ≲ v{sub r}  ≲ 1400 km s{sup –1}. The distribution of ejecta knots in velocity versus projected-radius space suggests an expanding ejecta shell with a projected angular thickness of ∼90'' (corresponding to ∼3 pc at d = 6 kpc). Based on this geometrical distribution of the ejecta knots, we estimate the location of the reverse shock approximately at the distance of ∼4 pc from the center of the supernova remnant, putting it in close proximity to the outer boundary of the radio pulsar wind nebula. Based on our observed remnant dynamics and the standard explosion energy of 10{sup 51} erg, we estimate the total ejecta mass to be ≲8 M {sub ☉}, and we propose an upper limit of ≲35 M {sub ☉} on the progenitor's mass.

  6. Production of impact melt in craters on Venus, Earth, and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickery, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Impact craters imaged by Magellan clearly show large amounts of flow-like ejecta whose morphology suggests that the flows comprise low-viscosity material. It was suggested that this material may be either turbidity flows or very fine-grained ejecta, flows of ejecta plus magma, or impact melts. The last of these hypotheses is considered. If these flows are composed of impact melts, there is much more melt relative to the crater volume than is observed on the moon. The ANEOS equation of state program was used for dunite to estimate the shock pressures required for melting, with initial conditions appropriate for Venus, Earth, and the moon. A simple model was then developed, based on the Z-model for excavation flow and on crater scaling relations that allow to estimate the ratio of melt ejecta to total ejecta as a function of crater size on the three bodies.

  7. Condensation of dust in the ejecta of Type II-P supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Arkaprabha; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Aims: We study the production of dust in Type II-P supernova ejecta by coupling the gas-phase chemistry to the dust nucleation and condensation phases. We consider two supernova progenitor masses with homogeneous and clumpy ejecta to assess the chemical type and quantity of dust that forms. Grain size distributions are derived for all dust components as a function of post-explosion time. Methods: The chemistry of the gas phase and the simultaneous formation of dust clusters are described by a chemical network that includes all possible processes that are efficient at high gas temperatures and densities. The formation of key bimolecular species (e.g., CO, SiO) and dust clusters of silicates, alumina, silica, metal carbides, metal sulphides, pure metals, and amorphous carbon is considered. A set of stiff, coupled, ordinary, differential equations is solved for the gas conditions pertaining to supernova explosions. These master equations are coupled to a dust condensation formalism based on Brownian coagulation. Results: We find that Type II-P supernovae produce dust grains of various chemical compositions and size distributions as a function of post-explosion time. The grain size distributions gain in complexity with time, are slewed towards large grains, and differ from the usual Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck power-law distribution characterising interstellar dust. Gas density enhancements in the form of ejecta clumps strongly affect the chemical composition of dust and the grain size distributions. Some dust type, such as forsterite and pure metallic grains, are highly dependent on clumpiness. Specifically, a clumpy ejecta produces large grains over 0.1 μm, and the final dust mass for the 19 M⊙ progenitor reaches 0.14 M⊙. Clumps also favour the formation of specific molecules, such as CO2, in the oxygen-rich zones. Conversely, the carbon and alumina dust masses are primarily controlled by the mass yields of alumina and carbon in the ejecta zones where the dust is

  8. Ejecta of Eta Carinae: What We Learn about N-Rich Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    At least one member of the binary system, Eta Carinae, is in the late stages of CNO-cycle. At least ten solar masses of ejecta make up the Homunculus, a neutral bi-polar shell ejected in the 1840s and the Little Homunculus, an internal, ionized bi-polar shell ejected in the 1890s. HST/STIS and VLTAJVES high dispersion spectroscopy revealed absorptions of multiple elements and diatomic molecules in these shells, some, such as V II and Sr II have not been seen previously in the ISM. The skirt region between the bi-lobes includes the very bright Weigelt blobs, within 0.1 to 0.3" of the central source, and the more distant, unusual Strontium Filament, a neutral emission nebula photoexcited by Balmer continuum, but shielded by Fe II from Lyman radiation. The 600+ emission lines are due to metals usually tied up in dust, but underabundances of C and O prevent precipitation as oxides onto the dust grains. Indications are that Ti/Ni is 100X solar, likely due not to nuclear processing, but the very different photo-excitation environments coupled with N-rich, C-, O-poor chemistry. In the Homunculus, level populations of the molecules indicate 60K gas; the metal absorption lines, 760K; that of the Little Homunculus 6400K during the broad spectroscopic maximum, relaxing to 5000K for the few month long minimum. Lyman radiation, including both continuum and Lyman lines, is trapped across periastron. leading to temporary relaxation of the ejecta. These ejecta are a treasure trove of information on material thrown out of massive stars in the CNO-cycle, well before the helium burning phase. Curiously, spectra of three very recent SWIFT GRBs indicate the presence of warm, photoexcited ejecta in the vicinity of the protoGRBs, but obviously of very different abundances. However, the ejecta of Eta Carinae promise to be a nearby example of massive ejecta, the study of which should lead to increased insight of earlier, very distant massive stars.

  9. The NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Rob

    2008-01-01

    We have a fruitful observing program underway which has significantly increased the number of lunar impacts observed. We have done initial test shots at the Ames Vertical Gun Range obtained preliminary luminous efficiency values. More shots and better diagnostics are needed to determine ejecta properties. We are working to have a more accurate ejecta. environment definition to support lunar lander, habitat, and EVA design. Data also useful for validation of sporadic model at large size range.

  10. Detection of water in the LCROSS ejecta plume.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, Anthony; Schultz, Peter; Heldmann, Jennifer; Wooden, Diane; Shirley, Mark; Ennico, Kimberly; Hermalyn, Brendan; Marshall, William; Ricco, Antonio; Elphic, Richard C; Goldstein, David; Summy, Dustin; Bart, Gwendolyn D; Asphaug, Erik; Korycansky, Don; Landis, David; Sollitt, Luke

    2010-10-22

    Several remote observations have indicated that water ice may be presented in permanently shadowed craters of the Moon. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was designed to provide direct evidence. On 9 October 2009, a spent Centaur rocket struck the persistently shadowed region within the lunar south pole crater Cabeus, ejecting debris, dust, and vapor. This material was observed by a second "shepherding" spacecraft, which carried nine instruments, including cameras, spectrometers, and a radiometer. Near-infrared absorbance attributed to water vapor and ice and ultraviolet emissions attributable to hydroxyl radicals support the presence of water in the debris. The maximum total water vapor and water ice within the instrument field of view was 155 ± 12 kilograms. Given the estimated total excavated mass of regolith that reached sunlight, and hence was observable, the concentration of water ice in the regolith at the LCROSS impact site is estimated to be 5.6 ± 2.9% by mass. In addition to water, spectral bands of a number of other volatile compounds were observed, including light hydrocarbons, sulfur-bearing species, and carbon dioxide. PMID:20966242

  11. Detection of water in the LCROSS ejecta plume.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, Anthony; Schultz, Peter; Heldmann, Jennifer; Wooden, Diane; Shirley, Mark; Ennico, Kimberly; Hermalyn, Brendan; Marshall, William; Ricco, Antonio; Elphic, Richard C; Goldstein, David; Summy, Dustin; Bart, Gwendolyn D; Asphaug, Erik; Korycansky, Don; Landis, David; Sollitt, Luke

    2010-10-22

    Several remote observations have indicated that water ice may be presented in permanently shadowed craters of the Moon. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was designed to provide direct evidence. On 9 October 2009, a spent Centaur rocket struck the persistently shadowed region within the lunar south pole crater Cabeus, ejecting debris, dust, and vapor. This material was observed by a second "shepherding" spacecraft, which carried nine instruments, including cameras, spectrometers, and a radiometer. Near-infrared absorbance attributed to water vapor and ice and ultraviolet emissions attributable to hydroxyl radicals support the presence of water in the debris. The maximum total water vapor and water ice within the instrument field of view was 155 ± 12 kilograms. Given the estimated total excavated mass of regolith that reached sunlight, and hence was observable, the concentration of water ice in the regolith at the LCROSS impact site is estimated to be 5.6 ± 2.9% by mass. In addition to water, spectral bands of a number of other volatile compounds were observed, including light hydrocarbons, sulfur-bearing species, and carbon dioxide.

  12. Stellar ejecta from falling comet-like bodies: young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibodov, Firuz S.; Ibadov, Subhon

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution spectral observations of young stars with dense protoplanetary discs like Beta Pictoris led to the discovery of variable emission lines of metal atoms, Na, Fe etc., that indicate the presence of fluxes of comet-like evaporating bodies falling onto the stars, FEBs. Assuming the presence of stellar atmospheres similar to the solar one, we show that passages of the FEBs through the stellar chromosphere and photosphere with velocities around 600 km/s will be accompanied by aerodynamic crushing of the nuclei, transverse expansion of the crushed matter, ``explosion'' of the flattened nuclei in a relatively very thin sub-photosphere layer due to sharp deceleration, and impulse production of a hot plasma. The impulsive rise of the layer's temperature and density lead to the generation of a strong ``blast'' shock wave and shock wave-induced ejection/eruption of hot plasma into space above the chromosphere. Observations of such impact-induced high-temperature phenomena are of interest for the physics/prognosis of stellar/solar flares as well as physics of comets.

  13. No signature of ejecta interaction with a stellar companion in three type Ia supernovae.

    PubMed

    Olling, Rob P; Mushotzky, Richard; Shaya, Edward J; Rest, Armin; Garnavich, Peter M; Tucker, Brad E; Kasen, Daniel; Margheim, Steve; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2015-05-21

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to be the result of a thermonuclear runaway in carbon/oxygen white dwarfs, but it is uncertain whether the explosion is triggered by accretion from a non-degenerate companion star or by a merger with another white dwarf. Observations of a supernova immediately following the explosion provide unique information on the distribution of ejected material and the progenitor system. Models predict that the interaction of supernova ejecta with a companion star or circumstellar debris lead to a sudden brightening lasting from hours to days. Here we present data for three supernovae that are likely to be type Ia observed during the Kepler mission with a time resolution of 30 minutes. We find no signatures of the supernova ejecta interacting with nearby companions. The lack of observable interaction signatures is consistent with the idea that these three supernovae resulted from the merger of binary white dwarfs or other compact stars such as helium stars. PMID:25993963

  14. No signature of ejecta interaction with a stellar companion in three type Ia supernovae.

    PubMed

    Olling, Rob P; Mushotzky, Richard; Shaya, Edward J; Rest, Armin; Garnavich, Peter M; Tucker, Brad E; Kasen, Daniel; Margheim, Steve; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2015-05-21

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to be the result of a thermonuclear runaway in carbon/oxygen white dwarfs, but it is uncertain whether the explosion is triggered by accretion from a non-degenerate companion star or by a merger with another white dwarf. Observations of a supernova immediately following the explosion provide unique information on the distribution of ejected material and the progenitor system. Models predict that the interaction of supernova ejecta with a companion star or circumstellar debris lead to a sudden brightening lasting from hours to days. Here we present data for three supernovae that are likely to be type Ia observed during the Kepler mission with a time resolution of 30 minutes. We find no signatures of the supernova ejecta interacting with nearby companions. The lack of observable interaction signatures is consistent with the idea that these three supernovae resulted from the merger of binary white dwarfs or other compact stars such as helium stars.

  15. Geoeffectiveness of Magnetic Storms Driven by Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) and Ejecta-Related Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N. E.; Mitchell, E. J.; Knipp, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the energetics of magnetic storms associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). We analyze storms driven by CIRs and compare to those driven by ejecta-related events to determine how they differ in overall properties and in particular in their distribution of energy. To compare these different types of events, we look at events with comparable input parameters such as the epsilon parameter and note the properties of the resulting storms. We estimate the energy output by looking at the ring current and ionospheric Joule heating and auroral precipitation derived from Dst* and the PC index. In general, ejecta-driven storms seem to produce more intense events, as parameterized by Dst*, but they are not as long-lasting, and in many cases do not deposit the same amount of energy. This is observed even for events which are estimated to have similar total input quantities, such as epsilon. This may be related to the high speed of the solar wind, in that an increased magnetosonic Mach number may influence the reconnection rate and therefore the coupling. Additionally, we find that the energy output in the recovery phase of CIR-driven storms correlates highly with energy input during recovery, suggesting that the system is still being driven by the solar wind in recovery. This is different from what we find with ejecta-driven storms, which depend more on input energy from the main phase. Additionally, we find the efficiency of the coupling to vary greatly from CIR to ejecta-driven storms, with the CIR storms coupling substantially more efficiently.

  16. Abundance anomalies in metal-poor stars from Population III supernova ejecta hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluder, Alan; Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-02-01

    We present a simulation of the long-term evolution of a Population III supernova remnant in a cosmological minihalo. Employing passive Lagrangian tracer particles, we investigate how chemical stratification and anisotropy in the explosion can affect the abundances of the first low-mass, metal-enriched stars. We find that reverse shock heating can leave the inner mass shells at entropies too high to cool, leading to carbon enhancement in the recollapsing gas. This hydrodynamic selection effect could explain the observed incidence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars at low metallicity. We further explore how anisotropic ejecta distributions, recently seen in direct numerical simulations of core-collapse explosions, may translate to abundances in metal-poor stars. We find that some of the observed scatter in the Population II abundance ratios can be explained by an incomplete mixing of supernova ejecta, even in the case of only one contributing enrichment event. We demonstrate that the customary hypothesis of fully mixed ejecta clearly fails if post-explosion hydrodynamics prefers the recycling of some nucleosynthetic products over others. Furthermore, to fully exploit the stellar-archaeological programme of constraining the Pop III initial mass function from the observed Pop II abundances, considering these hydrodynamical transport effects is crucial. We discuss applications to the rich chemical structure of ultrafaint dwarf satellite galaxies, to be probed in unprecedented detail with upcoming spectroscopic surveys.

  17. SULFUR MOLECULE CHEMISTRY IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA RECORDED BY SILICON CARBIDE STARDUST

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Peter; Fujiya, Wataru; Zinner, Ernst E-mail: fujiya@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-02-15

    We studied about 3400 presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the Murchison CM2 meteorite for C- and Si-isotopic compositions. Among these grains we identified 7 unusual or type C SiC (U/C) grains, characterized by isotopically heavy Si, and 36 supernova type X SiC grains, characterized by isotopically light Si. Selected U/C and X grains were also measured for S-, Mg-Al-, and Ca-Ti-isotopic compositions. We show that the U/C grains incorporated radioactive {sup 44}Ti, which is evidence that they formed in the ejecta of Type II supernova (SNII) explosions. Abundances of radioactive {sup 26}Al and {sup 44}Ti are compatible with those observed in X grains. U/C and X grains carry light S with enrichments in {sup 32}S of up to a factor of 2.7. The combination of heavy Si and light S observed in U/C grains is not consistent with abundance predictions of simple supernova models. The isotope data suggest preferential trapping of S from the innermost supernova zones, the production site of radioactive {sup 44}Ti, by the growing silicon carbide particles. A way to achieve this is by sulfur molecule chemistry in the still unmixed ejecta. This confirms model predictions of molecule formation in SNII ejecta and shows that sulfur molecule chemistry operates in the harsh and hot environments of stellar explosions.

  18. Sulfur Molecule Chemistry in Supernova Ejecta Recorded by Silicon Carbide Stardust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Peter; Fujiya, Wataru; Zinner, Ernst

    2012-02-01

    We studied about 3400 presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the Murchison CM2 meteorite for C- and Si-isotopic compositions. Among these grains we identified 7 unusual or type C SiC (U/C) grains, characterized by isotopically heavy Si, and 36 supernova type X SiC grains, characterized by isotopically light Si. Selected U/C and X grains were also measured for S-, Mg-Al-, and Ca-Ti-isotopic compositions. We show that the U/C grains incorporated radioactive 44Ti, which is evidence that they formed in the ejecta of Type II supernova (SNII) explosions. Abundances of radioactive 26Al and 44Ti are compatible with those observed in X grains. U/C and X grains carry light S with enrichments in 32S of up to a factor of 2.7. The combination of heavy Si and light S observed in U/C grains is not consistent with abundance predictions of simple supernova models. The isotope data suggest preferential trapping of S from the innermost supernova zones, the production site of radioactive 44Ti, by the growing silicon carbide particles. A way to achieve this is by sulfur molecule chemistry in the still unmixed ejecta. This confirms model predictions of molecule formation in SNII ejecta and shows that sulfur molecule chemistry operates in the harsh and hot environments of stellar explosions.

  19. The role of the ejecta magnetic flux on the two-step Forbush decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masías Meza, Jimmy; Dasso, Sergio

    A Forbush Decrease (FD) is a depression in the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) background intensity, and are usually associated to the passage of an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME). Magnetic Clouds (MCs) are a subset of ICMEs that are well studied, and are known to cause the deepest FDs. Usually, FDs present two steps in the depression profile, one associated to the shock arrival, and a steeper one restricted to the duration of the ejecta passage. There is a wide variety of processes responsible for the GCR depressions. For instance: the enhanced solar wind (SW) convection, reduced diffusion coefficients, enhanced adiabatic cooling, increase of the coherent magnetic field, etc. Our aim is to make a selection of FD events filtering those associated to well studied magnetic structures, such as Magnetic Clouds (MCs), in order to minimize the mixing processes involved in the ICME-GCR interactions in the resulting sample, and to study statistical properties. We determine the parameters of each FD profile and look for correlations with the associated MC parameters. We propose a method to decompose the FD profile into shock and ejecta components, and investigate correlations with the associated amplitudes of the ejecta components. We introduce the parameter, ``magnetic flux per unit length F/L'', and investigate its importance in the context of a simple ``diffusive barrier'' model. According to the correlations found, the two-step events are better represented by the ``diffusive barrier'' model, and the flux F/L is the parameter that better correlates with these events.

  20. The Circumstellar Medium of Cassiopeia A Inferred from the Outer Ejecta Knot Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the circumstellar medium density profile on the X-ray emission from outer ejecta knots in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant using the 1 Ms Chandra observation. The spectra of a number of radial series of ejecta knots at various positions around the remnant are analyzed using techniques similar to those devised in previous papers. We can obtain a reasonable match to our data for a circumstellar density profile proportional to r(sup -2) as would arise from the steady dense wind of a red supergiant, but the agreement is improved if we introduce a central cavity around the progenitor into our models. Such a profile might arise if the progenitor emitted a, fast tenuous stellar wind for a short period immediately prior to explosion. We review other lines of evidence supporting this conclusion. The spectra also indicate the widespread presence of Fe-enriched plasma that was presumably formed by complete Si burning during the explosion, possibly via alpha-rich freezeout. This component is typically associated with hotter and more highly ionized gas than the bulk of the O- and Si-rich ejecta.

  1. The contribution of chemical abundances in nova ejecta to the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fanger; Zhu, Chunhua; Lü, Guoliang; Wang, Zhaojun

    2016-06-01

    According to the nova model from Yaron et al. (2005, ApJ, 418, 794) and José and Hernanz (1998, ApJ, 494, 680), and using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we investigate the contribution of chemical abundances in nova ejecta to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Galaxy. We find that the mass ejected from classical novae is about 2.7 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1. In the nova ejecta, the isotopic ratios of C, N, and O, that is, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and 17O/16O, are higher by about one order of magnitude than those in red giants. We estimate that about 10%, 5%, and 20% of 13C, 15N, and 17O in the ISM of the Galaxy come from nova ejecta, respectively. However, the chemical abundances of C, N, and O calculated by our model cannot cover all observational values. This means that there is still a long way to go to understand novae.

  2. Modeling post-explosion anisotropies of ejecta in SNR Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Pumo, M.; Bocchino, F.

    2016-06-01

    Supernova remnats (SNRs) show a complex morphology characterized by an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of ejecta, believed to reflect pristine structures and features of the progenitor supernova (SN) explosion. Filling the gap between SN explosions and their remnants is very important for a comprehension of the origin of present-day structure of ejecta in SNRs and to probe and constraint current models of SN explosions. The SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is an attractive laboratory for studying the SNe-SNRs connection, being one of the best studied SNRs for which its 3D structure is known. We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model describing the evolution of Cas A from the immediate aftermath of the SN explosion to its expansion through the interstellar medium, taking into account the distribution of element abundances of the ejecta, the back reaction of accelerated cosmic rays at the shock front, and the deviations from equilibrium of ionizazion for the most important elements. We use the model to derive the physical parameters characterizing the SN explosion and reproducing the today morphology of Cas A.

  3. Extreme luminosities in ejecta produced by intermittent outflows around rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.

    2015-02-01

    Extreme sources in the Transient Universe show evidence of relativistic outflows from intermittent inner engines, such as cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). They probably derive from rotating back holes interacting with surrounding matter. We show that these interactions are enhanced inversely proportional to the duty cycle in advection of magnetic flux, as may apply at high accretion rates. We demonstrate the morphology and ballistic propagation of relativistic ejecta from burst outflows by numerical simulations in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. Applied to stellar mass black holes in core-collapse of massive stars, it provides a robust explosion mechanism as a function of total energy output. At breakout, these ejecta may produce a low-luminosity GRB. A long GRB may ensue from an additional ultrarelativistic baryon-poor inner jet from a sufficiently long-lived intermittent inner engine. The simulations demonstrate a complex geometry in mergers of successive ejecta, whose mixing and shocks provide a pathway to broad-band high-energy emission from magnetic reconnection and shocks.

  4. X-Ray Illumination of the Ejecta of Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, J.; Fransson, C.; Oestlin, G.; Groeningsson, P.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kozma, C.; Sollerman, J.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Chevalier, R. A.; Heng, K.; McCray, R.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Bouchet, P.; Crotts, A.; Danziger, J.; Dwek, E.; France, K.; Garnavich, P. M.; Lawrence, S. S.; Leibundgut, B.; Lundqvist, P.; Panagia, N.; Pun, C. S. J.; Sonneborn, G.

    2011-01-01

    When a massive star explodes as a supernova, substantial amounts of radioactive elements-primarily Ni-56, Ni-57 and Ti-44 are produced. After the initial from shock heating, the light emitted by the supernova is due to the decay of these elements. However, after decades, the energy powering a supernova remnant comes from the shock interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding medium. The transition to this phase has hitherto not been observed: supernovae occur too infrequently in the Milky Way to provide a young example, and extragalactic supernovae are generally too faint and too small. Here we report observations that show this transition in the supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellan Cloud. From 1994 to 200l, the ejecta faded owing to radioactive decay of Ti-44 as predicted. Then the flux started to increase, more than doubling by the end of 2009. We show that this increase is the result of heat deposited by X-rays produced as the ejecta interacts with the surrounding material. In time, the X-rays will penetrate farther into the ejects, enabling us to analyse the structure and chemistry of the vanished star.

  5. An Exploration Zone in Cerberus Containing Young and Old Terrains, Including Fossae/Faults and Shergottite Distal Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. P.; Niles, P. B.; Bell, M. S.; Milbury, C.; Rice, J. W.; Burton, A. S.; Archer, P. D.; Rampe, E. B.; Piqueux, S.

    2015-10-01

    Cerberus contains Amazonian lava flows embaying a range of photogeologic units: ridged plains, heavily cratered terrain, highland knobs, and perhaps the Medusa Fossae Fm. Zunil Crater distal ejecta produced secondary crater fields (of shergottites?).

  6. Ejecta from large craters on the Moon: Comments on the geometric model of McGetchin et al.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Amendments to a quantitative scheme developed by T.R. McGetchin et al. (1973) for predicting the distribution of ejecta from lunar basins yield substantially thicker estimates of ejecta, deposited at the basin rim-crest and at varying ranges byond, than does the original model. Estimates of the total volume of material ejected from a basin, illustrated by Imbrium, also are much greater. Because many uncertainties affect any geometric model developed primarily from terrestrial analogs of lunar craters, predictions of ejecta thickness and volume on the Moon may range within at least an order of magnitude. These problems are exemplified by the variability of T, thickness of ejecta at the rim-crest of terrestrial experimental craters. The proportion of T to crater rim-height depends critically upon scaled depth-of-burst and whether the explosive is nuclear or chemical. ?? 1974.

  7. An HST Survey of the Highest-velocity Ejecta in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2016-02-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR images of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant that survey its high-velocity, S-rich debris in the NE jet and SW counterjet regions through [S iii] λλ9069, 9531 and [S ii] λλ10,287-10,370 line emissions. We identify nearly 3400 sulfur emitting knots concentrated in ˜120° wide opposing streams, almost triple the number previously known. The vast majority of these ejecta knots lie at projected distances well out ahead of the remnant’s forward blast wave and main shell ejecta, extending to angular distance of 320\\prime\\prime to the NE and 260\\prime\\prime to the SW from the center of expansion. Such angular distances imply undecelerated ejecta knot transverse velocities of 15,600 and 12,700 km s-1, respectively, assuming an explosion date ≈ 1670 AD and a distance of 3.4 kpc. Optical spectra of knots near the outermost tip of the NE ejecta stream show strong emission lines of S, Ca, and Ar. We estimate a total mass ˜0.1 {M}⊙ and a kinetic energy of at least ˜ 1× {10}50 erg for S-rich ejecta in the NE jet and SW counterjet. Although their broadness and kinetic energy argue against the Cas A SN being a jet-induced explosion, the jets are kinematically and chemically distinct from the rest of the remnant. This may reflect an origin in a jet-like mechanism that accelerated interior material from a Si-, S-, Ar-, and Ca-rich region near the progenitor’s core up through the mantle and H-, He-, N-, and O-rich outer layers with velocities that greatly exceeded that of the rapidly expanding photosphere. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc.

  8. Impact Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Today marks the 45th anniversary of the dawn of the Space Age (October 4, 1957). On this date the former Soviet Union launched the world's first satellite, Sputnik 1. Sputnik means fellow traveler. For comparison Sputnik 1 weighed only 83.6 kg (184 pounds) while Mars Odyssey weighs in at 758 kg (1,671 pounds).

    This scene shows several interesting geologic features associated with impact craters on Mars. The continuous lobes of material that make up the ejecta blanket of the large impact crater are evidence that the crater ejecta were fluidized upon impact of the meteor that formed the crater. Volatiles within the surface mixed with the ejecta upon impact thus creating the fluidized form. Several smaller impact craters are also observed within the ejecta blanket of the larger impact crater giving a relative timing of events. Layering of geologic units is also observed within the large impact crater walls and floor and may represent different compositional units that erode at variable rates. Cliff faces, dissected gullies, and heavily eroded impact craters are observed in the bottom half of the image at the terminus of a flat-topped plateau.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS

  9. North American tektite debris and impact ejecta from DSDP Site 612

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, B.P. )

    1989-12-01

    A layer of tektite glass and shock-metamorphosed grains found in an upper Eocene section of core 21 from DSDP Site 612 taken on the continental slope off New Jersey may belong to the North American tektite strewn field. In order to better define the layer, a series of samples was taken continuously through the layer at 1 cm intervals. Tektite fragments are in an 8 cm thick layer; microtektites are concentrated in the upper 4 cm, while spherules with crystalline textures (microkrystites) are concentrated in the lower half of the layer. Millimeter-size splash forms are mostly in the lower part of the tektite-bearing layer. Rock and mineral grains showing evidence of shock metamorphism are abundant in the upper half of the tektite-bearing layer. Coesite is abundant, and stishovite was found in one rock fragment. The size and abundance of the tektite glass and the abundance of shocked debris indicate that Site 612 is relatively close to the source crater, which may be to the north of Site 612 on the coastal plain or adjacent continental shelf. 40 refs.

  10. THE RELATION BETWEEN EJECTA VELOCITY, INTRINSIC COLOR, AND HOST-GALAXY MASS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Ryan J.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, using a large low-redshift sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we discovered a relation between SN Ia ejecta velocity and intrinsic color that improves the distance precision of SNe Ia and reduces potential systematic biases related to dust reddening. No SN Ia cosmological results have yet made a correction for the 'velocity-color' relation. To test the existence of such a relation and constrain its properties at high redshift, we examine a sample of 75 SNe Ia discovered and observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey and Supernova Legacy Survey. From each spectrum, we measure ejecta velocities at maximum brightness for the Ca H and K and Si II {lambda}6355 features, v{sup 0}{sub CaHandK} and v{sup 0}{sub SiII}, respectively. Using SN light curve parameters, we determine the intrinsic B{sub max} - V{sub max} for each SN. Similar to what was found at low redshift, we find that SNe Ia with higher ejecta velocity tend to be intrinsically redder than SNe Ia with lower ejecta velocity. The distributions of ejecta velocities for SNe Ia at low and high redshift are similar, indicating that current cosmological results should have little bias related to the velocity-color relation. Additionally, we find a slight (2.4{sigma} significant) trend between SN Ia ejecta velocity and host-galaxy mass such that SNe Ia in high-mass host galaxies tend to have lower ejecta velocities as probed by v{sup 0}{sub CaHandK}. These results emphasize the importance of spectroscopy for SN Ia cosmology.

  11. PRODUCTION OF ALL THE r-PROCESS NUCLIDES IN THE DYNAMICAL EJECTA OF NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Wanajo, Shinya; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Shibata, Masaru; Nishimura, Nobuya; Kyutoku, Koutarou

    2014-07-10

    Recent studies suggest that binary neutron star (NS-NS) mergers robustly produce heavy r-process nuclei above the atomic mass number A ∼ 130 because their ejecta consist of almost pure neutrons (electron fraction of Y {sub e} < 0.1). However, the production of a small amount of the lighter r-process nuclei (A ≈ 90-120) conflicts with the spectroscopic results of r-process-enhanced Galactic halo stars. We present, for the first time, the result of nucleosynthesis calculations based on the fully general relativistic simulation of a NS-NS merger with approximate neutrino transport. It is found that the bulk of the dynamical ejecta are appreciably shock-heated and neutrino processed, resulting in a wide range of Y {sub e} (≈0.09-0.45). The mass-averaged abundance distribution of calculated nucleosynthesis yields is in reasonable agreement with the full-mass range (A ≈ 90-240) of the solar r-process curve. This implies, if our model is representative of such events, that the dynamical ejecta of NS-NS mergers could be the origin of the Galactic r-process nuclei. Our result also shows that radioactive heating after ∼1 day from the merging, which gives rise to r-process-powered transient emission, is dominated by the β-decays of several species close to stability with precisely measured half-lives. This implies that the total radioactive heating rate for such an event can be well constrained within about a factor of two if the ejected material has a solar-like r-process pattern.

  12. Target of Opportunity Observations of TOADS: Finding the Dust in Super-Outburst Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, Donald; Ciardi, David; Howell, Steve

    2008-03-01

    Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf novae (TOADs) consist of a white dwarf primary star and an extremely low mass main sequence or brown dwarf-like secondary star. The latter fills its Roche lobe and transfers matter to the white dwarf through the inner Lagrange point into an accretion disk. TOADs undergo non-thermonuclear (i.e., disk instability) super-outbursts on timescales of decades. During the decline from super-outburst peak they display a characteristic dip in light curves at visible wavelengths, reminiscent of what is observed in slow classical (i.e., thermonuclear runaway) novae. In classical novae, the visible light dip is attributed to the formation of dust in the nova ejecta but, until now, the cause of the dip in TOAD light curves has remained unclear. In 2004, a previously unknown TOAD was discovered as it went into super-outburst, and our team was granted a Spitzer DDT program with which we have detected the likely formation of dust in the outburst ejecta. We now propose a Target of Opportunity program with Spitzer to observe an additional super-outbursting TOAD, in order to address the following questions: 1) Do all TOADs produce dust during their outbursts?; 2) What is the timescale for dust formation and dissipation?; 3) How much dust is produced during a super-outburst?; and 4) How does the dust production scale with the outburst amplitude? Spitzer is uniquely capable of detecting and characterizing the dust formed in the ejecta during super-outbursts and fundamentally changing the understanding of TOADs, their super-outbursts, and their contribution to the recycling of the interstellar medium.

  13. ALMA observations of supernova 1987A mixing, nucleosynthesis and dynamics of the ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Kamenetzky, J.; Abellan, F.; Barlow, M. J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Marcaide, J.; McCray, R.; Woosley, S.

    2016-06-01

    ALMA observations of supernova 1987A mixing, nucleosynthesis and dynamics of the ejecta We present a molecular line survey for supernova 1987A, using the Atacama Large Millimetre / submillimetre Array (ALMA). We detected the CO, SiO, HCO+ and SO molecular lines from the ejecta. Those molecules can probe three different aspects of the SN 1987A ejecta: 1. Footprints of mixing and dynamics in the early days after the supernova explosion, 2. Molecular chemistry in the last twenty-five years 3. Explosive nuclear synthesis, using isotopologues, hence isotope ratios The extent of mixing after supernova explosions is still not well understood. Molecules can provide a new tool to probe this: microscopic mixing stirs the elements from different layers of nuclear-reaction zones in the stellar core, opening the possibility to form molecules with elements from different nuclearburning zones. This process should have increased the abundance of HCO+, making it feasible now for ALMA to detect them. Our new ALMA observations have revealed several interesting features of the molecular gas. For instance, the SiO molecular lines clearly show dips in the line profile, while the CO lines do not. The different line profiles suggest that SiO and CO are spatially distributed at different locations. This could potentially be caused by different dynamics taking place immediately after the explosion, as SN hydrodynamical simulations suggest. ALMA spectra contain lines of isotopologues, which are molecules composed of atoms with different isotopes, and allow us to estimate the isotope ratios. Our upper limits of 28Si/29Si and 28Si/30Si are consistent with theoretically predicted values for SN 1987A. However, the ratios are at least a factor of two larger than isotopes measured in SN-associated pre-solar grains. Such thing could support the theory that neutron-rich isotopes are produced less efficiently in low metallicity environments, such as the Large Magellanic Cloud, where SN 1987A is

  14. Crustal and subcrustal nodules in ejecta from Kilbourne Hole Maar, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    Nodules retrieved from the ejecta of volcanic craters serve as the source of two major items of information. The first is in providing details of the geochemistry and mineralogy of the Earth's interior by supplying samples of materials that cannot be obtained by existing drilling techniques. The other is in providing information regarding the process which led to their transport from the Earth's interior to the surface. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the morphology of the nodules in an attempt to place some constraints on the process that brought them to the surface. This attempt is briefly discussed.

  15. Supernova Search at Intermediate-redshift. III. Expansion Velocities of the Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balastegui, A.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Méndez, J.; Altavilla, G.; Irwin, M.; Schamanache, K.; Balland, C.; Pain, R.; Walton, N.

    2005-12-01

    We discuss the expansion velocities of different elements in the ejecta of the intermediate--z Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered as a part of the International Time Programme (ITP) project ``Ω and Λ from Supernovae and the Physics of Supernovae Explosions'' at the European Northern Observatory (ENO). The expansion velocities measured for each normal SNIa are found to be within the typical velocity dispersion for their epoch. Meanwhile, the subluminous SN 2002lk SiII expansion velocity is significantly higher than that of SN 1991bg shortly after maximum. The observed phase was younger in SN2002lk than in the local subluminous SNIa SN1991bg.

  16. Heavy-Element Ejecta in G1.9+0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Green, D.; Hwang, U.; Petre, R.; Krishnamurthy, K.; Willett, R.

    2013-04-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of about 1900, most likely located near the Galactic center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities in excess of 18,000 km/s have been shocked so far in this dynamically-young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed for spatially-resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy, Raginsky, & Willett, and then used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs: Si, S, Ar, and Ca) and by iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric and inhomogeneous, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern limb. Fe K emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with a thermal plane-shock model indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern shell, IMEs are at least 5 times less abundant than Fe (by mass), indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including radioactive Ni) with velocities > 18,000 km/s were ejected by this SN. More modest (up to a factor of 2) Fe overabundances with respect to IMEs are present in other locations within the northern limb. There are several thousandths of a solar mass of shocked Fe in G1.9+0.3. In several locations within the remnant, including the (inner) west limb, we also find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity, presumably undiluted products of O-burning were also ejected by the SN. If the underlying continuum is thermal, with plasma temperatures of 3-4 keV, then it must be produced by lighter elements such as O that comprise the bulk of the shocked gas. We discuss these findings in the context of Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. We also

  17. On the possibility of dust condensation in the ejecta of supernova 1987a.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Ney, E P

    1987-10-01

    We suggest that supernova 1987a may condense dust of substantial visual optical thickness as do many novae. The dust will act as a calorimeter of the photon luminosity of any central engine that is dominant at the time of dust formation. Observations of novae suggest that dust formation may occur when the expanding ejecta reach a temperature of 1000 K. The early luminosity of the supernova may be dominated by radioactivity that is unrelated to the central engine that determines the energy balance for the long-term development of the supernova. We discuss the possibility that a constant luminosity central power source such as a pulsar dominates the luminosity of the supernova ejecta by the time that dust can condense and argue that, if a shell mass of more than a few tenths of one solar mass was ejected, emission from dust may be observable in the thermal infrared spectral region. Maximum dust optical depth should occur by late 1987 or early 1988. If the dust becomes optically thick, the visual light from the supernova may drop precipitously. The characteristics of an optically thick dust shell as a calorimeter of the luminosity of the central engine are discussed and are related to previous observations of dust formation in type II supernovae. It is suggested that dust of several chemical compositions may form at different epochs.

  18. Three Dimensional Study of the Interaction of Supernova Ejecta with a Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Beatrice

    2008-03-01

    Recent isotopic analysis of chondrites shows evidence for live 60Fe in the early Solar System. Only supernovae can produce this short-lived radionuclide, indicating that our Solar System formed in such proximity. Observations of the Orion Nebula, the Eta Carina Nebula and the Eagle Nebula show that young protoplanetary disks, in the stage of forming solids, exist in the vicinity of OB stars. Confirming that our Solar System was subjected to supernova ejecta requires proving that protoplanetary disks can survive the event. A first step has already been carried out by our research group using a two dimensional axisymmetric model. For the following step, we have developed a three dimensional model of protoplanetary disk that allows us to study, as the function of the ejecta incidence and the mass of the disk, the capture of supernova material and the stripping induced by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. I will be presenting that model, the computational implication of such work, as well as preliminary results.

  19. Suzaku study on the ejecta of the supernova remnant G272.2-3.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitsukasa, Fumiyoshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Mori, Koji; Katsuda, Satoru; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    We report reanalyses of the Suzaku observations of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G272.2-3.2, for which previous studies were limited below 3 keV. With careful data reduction and background subtraction, we discover the K-shell lines of Ar, Ca, and Fe above 3 keV. The X-ray spectrum of G272.2-3.2 consists of two components, a low-temperature collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) plasma (kTe ˜ 0.2 keV) and a high-temperature non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) plasma (kTe = 0.6-3 keV). The CIE plasma has solar abundances over the entire area, hence it originates from the interstellar medium. On the other hand, the abundances of the NEI plasma increase toward the inner region, suggesting ejecta origin. The line center energy of the Fe K-shell emission (˜6.4 keV) suggests that the ejecta are recently heated by reverse shock, a common feature in Type Ia SNRs.

  20. On the possibility of dust condensation in the ejecta of supernova 1987a

    PubMed Central

    Gehrz, R. D.; Ney, E. P.

    1987-01-01

    We suggest that supernova 1987a may condense dust of substantial visual optical thickness as do many novae. The dust will act as a calorimeter of the photon luminosity of any central engine that is dominant at the time of dust formation. Observations of novae suggest that dust formation may occur when the expanding ejecta reach a temperature of 1000 K. The early luminosity of the supernova may be dominated by radioactivity that is unrelated to the central engine that determines the energy balance for the long-term development of the supernova. We discuss the possibility that a constant luminosity central power source such as a pulsar dominates the luminosity of the supernova ejecta by the time that dust can condense and argue that, if a shell mass of more than a few tenths of one solar mass was ejected, emission from dust may be observable in the thermal infrared spectral region. Maximum dust optical depth should occur by late 1987 or early 1988. If the dust becomes optically thick, the visual light from the supernova may drop precipitously. The characteristics of an optically thick dust shell as a calorimeter of the luminosity of the central engine are discussed and are related to previous observations of dust formation in type II supernovae. It is suggested that dust of several chemical compositions may form at different epochs. PMID:16593876

  1. The effect of ambient pressure on ejecta sheets from free-surface ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, J. O.; Mansoor, M. M.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Truscott, T. T.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations from an experimental study of the ablation of a free liquid surface promoted by a focused laser pulse, causing a rapid discharge of liquid in the form of a very thin conical-shaped sheet. In order to capture the dynamics, we employ a state-of-the-art ultra-high-speed video camera capable of capturing events at 5 × 106 fps with shutter speeds down to 20 ns, whereby we were able to capture not only the ejecta sheet, but also the shock wave, emerging at speeds of up to 1.75 km/s, which is thus found to be hypersonic (Mach 5). Experiments were performed at a range of ambient pressures in order to study the effect of air drag on the evolution of the sheet, which was always observed to dome over, even at pressures as low as 3.8 kPa. At reduced pressures, the extended sheet evolution led to the formation of interference fringe patterns from which, by comparison with the opening speed of rupture, we were able to determine the ejecta thickness.

  2. A 3D kinematic study of the northern ejecta `jet' of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Christine S.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2015-03-01

    We present moderate resolution [O III] λλ4959, 5007 line emission spectra of the Crab nebula's northern ejecta jet. These data along with an [O III] image of the Crab nebula were used to build three-dimensional kinematic maps of the jet and adjacent remnant nebulosity to better understand the jet's properties and thus its likely origin. We find the jet's systemic velocity to be +170 ± 15 km s-1 with radial velocities ranging from -190 to +480 km s-1. Our data indicate that the jet consists of thin filamentary walls (Vexp ≃ 40-75 km s-1), is virtually hollow in [O III] emission, and elliptical and funnel-like in shape rather than a straight cylindrical tube as previously thought. Examination of the Crab's 3D filamentary structure along the jet's base reveals a large and nearly emission-free opening in the remnant's thick outer ejecta shell. The jet's blueshifted and redshifted sides are surprisingly well defined and, like the jet's sharp western limb, appear radially aligned with the remnant's centre of expansion. These alignments, along with the opening in the nebula at the jet's base and proper motions indicating an expansion age in line with the 1054 supernova event, suggest a direct connection between the jet's formation and the Crab's radial expansion. While our analysis supports the scenario that the jet may simply represent the highest velocity material of the remnant's N-S bipolar expansion, the nature of this expansion asymmetry remains unclear.

  3. Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, A M; Kulkarni, S R; Nakar, E; Berger, E; Cameron, P B; Fox, D B; Frail, D; Gal-Yam, A; Sari, R; Cenko, S B; Kasliwal, M; Chevalier, R A; Piran, T; Price, P A; Schmidt, B P; Pooley, G; Moon, D-S; Penprase, B E; Ofek, E; Rau, A; Gehrels, N; Nousek, J A; Burrows, D N; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J

    2006-08-31

    Over the past decade, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--including the subclass of X-ray flashes (XRFs)--have been revealed to be a rare variety of type Ibc supernova. Although all these events result from the death of massive stars, the electromagnetic luminosities of GRBs and XRFs exceed those of ordinary type Ibc supernovae by many orders of magnitude. The essential physical process that causes a dying star to produce a GRB or XRF, and not just a supernova, is still unknown. Here we report radio and X-ray observations of XRF 060218 (associated with supernova SN 2006aj), the second-nearest GRB identified until now. We show that this event is a hundred times less energetic but ten times more common than cosmological GRBs. Moreover, it is distinguished from ordinary type Ibc supernovae by the presence of 10(48) erg coupled to mildly relativistic ejecta, along with a central engine (an accretion-fed, rapidly rotating compact source) that produces X-rays for weeks after the explosion. This suggests that the production of relativistic ejecta is the key physical distinction between GRBs or XRFs and ordinary supernovae, while the nature of the central engine (black hole or magnetar) may distinguish typical bursts from low-luminosity, spherical events like XRF 060218.

  4. Mapping the Unshocked Interior Ejecta in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2011-08-01

    Cassiopeia A (Cas A) provides perhaps our best look at the explosion dynamics of a core-collapse supernova (CCSN). Exploratory spectra of Cas A obtained by us in 2010 showed that the KPNO 4m + MARS' exceptional far-red throughput is capable of detecting the remnant's faint interior [S III] 9069,9531 and [Fe II] 8617 line emissions, thereby allowing one to study the structure of the whole remnant, from its core to the outer layers. Our November 2010 HST/WFC3 [S III] images show that this faint interior emission, which is presumably photoionized by UV and X-ray flux from Cas A's bright main shell, is extensive and seemingly highly structured. Here we request eight (8) nights using the KPNO 4m + MARS to obtain far-red spectroscopy of Cas A in order to survey the remnant's interior unshocked S- and Fe-rich ejecta...an observation that seemed impossible just a year ago. The proposed observations, when combined with our extensive set of spectra of Cas A's bright outer ejecta, will yield the first complete map of a CCSN - from its center to the outer, bright reverse-shock heated layers. These observations will give us an extraordinarily rare look at the geometry of a remnant's inner volume of expanding cloud of S- and Fe-rich debris unmodified by reverse shock instabilities, thus offering a unique and powerful test of high-mass progenitor supernova explosion models.

  5. Modeling the CME Ejecta and Coronal Wave of the 2012-06-14 Event Using STEREO and SOHO Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Koning, C. A.; Odstrcil, D.; Pizzo, V. J.

    2012-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play a crucial role in disrupting the space environment as they plow through the heliosphere after being expelled from the Sun. In particular, energetic CMEs in the corona consist of at least two elements: the classic CME ejecta or driver visible as a discrete, bright blob of erupting coronal material; and an enveloping compressive wave that forms deep in the corona due to the sudden plasma motion associated with the erupting ejecta. Using STEREO/COR2 and SOHO/LASCO coronagraph observations, we separately characterize the ejecta and surrounding coronal wave for the CME observed on 2012-06-14. These results are subsequently cast into a new form of input conditions for an Enlil MHD simulation. We discuss the model results obtained from the coronagraph observations, as well as the Enlil simulation of this event.

  6. Mapping X-Ray Ejecta Distribution in the Galactic Core-Collapse SNR G292.0+1.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangwook; Bhalerao, Jayant; Schenck, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Based on our deep Chandra ACIS observation, we present the spatial distributions of individual elements of the shocked metal-rich ejecta in the textbook-type Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 (G292). To separate the complex network of overabundant ejecta-dominated regions from low-abundant circumstellar regions, we apply our adaptive-mesh grid method to extract X-ray spectra from over 3000 sub-regions across G292, and perform various spectral model fits to individual regional spectra. Our initial results show highly asymmetric, differential spatial distributions for individual ejecta elements O, Ne, Mg, and Si. Gas temperature, pressure, and density also show substantially non-uniform distributions in G292. Implications from our initial results on the explosion asymmetry and the progenitor’s nature are briefly discussed.

  7. JET COLLIMATION IN THE EJECTA OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGERS: A NEW CANONICAL PICTURE OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2014-04-01

    The observations of jet breaks in the afterglows of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) indicate that the jet has a small opening angle of ≲ 10°. The collimation mechanism of the jet is a longstanding theoretical problem. We numerically analyze the jet propagation in the material ejected by a double neutron star (NS) merger, and demonstrate that if the ejecta mass is ≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}, the jet is well confined by the cocoon and emerges from the ejecta with the required collimation angle. Our results also suggest that there are some populations of choked (failed) SGRBs or new types of events with low luminosity. By constructing a model for SGRB 130603B, which is associated with the first kilonova/macronova candidate, we infer that the equation of state of NSs would be soft enough to provide sufficient ejecta to collimate the jet, if this event is associated with a double NS merger.

  8. Mixing in ejecta of supernovae. I - General properties of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and mixing width in ejecta of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Matsuda, Takuya; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    1992-05-01

    Nonlinear growth of 2D Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities are numerically studied to apply to the mixing in the supernova ejecta. Highly refined calculations of mixing in the realistic model of SN 1987A with a better code and various mesh resolutions are presented. It is shown that mixing width (or the extent of mixing) due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities is still too small to account for the observations even with relatively large initial perturbation. The mixing width is found to depend only slightly on the mesh resolution when the initial amplitude is larger than about 5 percent of the expansion speed. To clarify the basic properties of the R-T instabilities and the dependence of the mixing width on the initial density structure, initial perturbation, and numerical resolution, highly simplified ideal models of R-T instabilities of compressible gas with an adiabatic constant of 4/3 are considered. It is found that, when the initial amplitude of the velocity perturbation is larger than 1 percent of the sound speed, the mixing width in time depends mainly on the initial amplitudes and the density ratio.

  9. Ejecta patterns of Meteor Crater, Arizona derived from the linear un-mixing of TIMS data and laboratory thermal emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Michael S.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of thermal infrared data depends upon the understanding and removal of complicating effects. These effects may include physical mixing of various mineralogies and particle sizes, atmospheric absorption and emission, surficial coatings, geometry effects, and differential surface temperatures. The focus is the examination of the linear spectral mixing of individual mineral or endmember spectra. Linear addition of spectra, for particles larger than the wavelength, allows for a straight-forward method of deconvolving the observed spectra, predicting a volume percent of each endmember. The 'forward analysis' of linear mixing (comparing the spectra of physical mixtures to numerical mixtures) has received much attention. The reverse approach of un-mixing thermal emission spectra was examined with remotely sensed data, but no laboratory verification exists. Understanding of the effects of spectral mixing on high resolution laboratory spectra allows for the extrapolation to lower resolution, and often more complicated, remotely gathered data. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data for Meteor Crater, Arizona were acquired in Sep. 1987. The spectral un-mixing of these data gives a unique test of the laboratory results. Meteor Crater (1.2 km in diameter and 180 m deep) is located in north-central Arizona, west of Canyon Diablo. The arid environment, paucity of vegetation, and low relief make the region ideal for remote data acquisition. Within the horizontal sedimentary sequence that forms the upper Colorado Plateau, the oldest unit sampled by the impact crater was the Permian Coconino Sandstone. A thin bed of the Toroweap Formation, also of Permian age, conformably overlays the Coconino. Above the Toroweap lies the Permian Kiabab Limestone which, in turn, is covered by a thin veneer of the Moenkopi Formation. The Moenkopi is Triassic in age and has two distinct sub-units in the vicinity of the crater. The lower Wupatki member is a fine

  10. The 3-Dimensional Inner and Outer Structure of Ejecta Around Eta Carinae as Detected by the STIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishibashi, Kazunori; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The HST/STIS instrument was used successfully to perform a complete mapping of the Homunculus nebula at two wavelength ranges including H-alpha and H-beta with a spectral resolving power of about 5000 and a spatial resolution of 0.1". The individual spectra were merged to synthesize three-dimensional data cubes that contain a set of images of Eta Car with spatial resolution of 0.10 to 0.251, sliced at velocity increment of 10 -- 30 km/s. For the first time this unique method allows us to diagnose the origin of intrinsic narrow emission structure of the nebula with high spatial and velocity resolution. Our initial analysis revealed the inner emission structure appeared to trace an elongated bipolar shell (possibly other shells as well) with a scale size of an arcsecond (i.e., "little homunculus in the Homunculus"). Furthermore, the mapping data cube revealed that the "fan" or "paddle" -- often referred as the source of peculiar blue-shifted intrinsic emissions including the Strontium cloud -- is not the source of intrinsic emissions. The fan is not even a part of the equatorial disk, but is spatially separated from the peculiar emission structure. Indeed we suggest that the fan is a surface of the Northwest lobe, possibly revealed by a blowout of the equatorial disk. We will use a number of visualization techniques (tomographic animations and simple 3-D models) to show these structures. These new results have strong impact upon future numerical modelings of the Homunculus nebula and of understanding of the evolution of the ejecta powered by the central source(s).

  11. Lateral and Vertical Heterogeneity of Thorium in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane: As Reflected in the Ejecta Deposits of Post-Imbrium Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    1999-01-01

    discussed above and their ejecta, with the goal of describing the materials they excavate. One interpretation for the origin of the high-Th material is that subsurface KREEPy materials have been excavated by impact craters. The material excavated may be either volcanic KREEP (e,g., Apennine Bench Formation), KREEPy impact-melt breccia formed by the Imbrium impact (e.g., Fra Mauro Formation), or other KREEP-rich crustal material. Determining which type of material is responsible for the elevated Th and its extent is important to understanding the premare and possibly the prebasin stratigraphy of the Imbrium-Procellarum Region. Merging the 5 deg. Th data with the shaded relief map, we observe that the highest Th concentrations are not related to pre-Imbrium upper crustal materials. The Apennines, Alpes, and Caucasus Mountains represent the pre-Imbrian highlands material and do not express concentrations of Th, FeO, and TiO2 as high as the most Th-fich materials exposed within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane. We observe that, in general, these massifs contain 10-14 wt% FeO and 4-7 ppm Th. Determining whether the Th signal is from KREEP basalts or KREEPy impact-melt breccias cannot be done with the Clementine data because the two rock types are compositionally and mineralogically too similar (e.g., the Th-rich, mafic impact-melt breccias in the Apollo sample collection are dominated by a KREEP-basalt like component. Mapping-the distribution and sizes of craters and whether they display elevated Th concentrations or not, should reveal the depth and thickness of the KREEP-rich materials, and whether they are ubiquitous (i.e., impact-melt breccia) or more randomly distributed; this might be taken as an indicator of localized KREEP-basalt flows. Within the southeastern region of the Imbrium basin, there are two Th hot spots. The first is associated with the crater Aristillus, and the latter with the Apennine Bench Formation. Adjacent to these two hot spots are craters with a lower Th

  12. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, L. Andrew; Vacca, William D.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Wagner, R. Mark; Evans, Aneurin; Krautter, Joachim; Schwarz, Greg J.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2012-08-10

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  13. Large meteorite impacts: The K/T model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary event represents probably the largest meteorite impact known on Earth. It is the only impact event conclusively linked to a worldwide mass extinction, a reflection of its gigantic scale and global influence. Until recently, the impact crater was not definitively located and only the distal ejecta of this impact was available for study. However, detailed investigations of this ejecta's mineralogy, geochemistry, microstratigraphy, and textures have allowed its modes of ejection and dispersal to be modeled without benefit of a source crater of known size and location.

  14. Meteoritic Microfossils in Eltanin Impact Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Gersonde, Rainer; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    We report the unique occurrence of microfossils composed largely of meteoritic ejecta particles from the late Pliocene (2.5 Ma) Eltanin impact event. These deposits are unique, recording the only known km-sized asteroid impact into a deep-ocean (5 km) basin. First discovered as in Ir anomaly in sediment cores that were collected in 1965, the deposits contain nun-sized shock-melted asteroidal material, unmelted meteorite fragments (named the Eltanin meteorite), and trace impact spherules. Two oceanographic expeditions by the FS Polarstern in 1995 and 2001 explored approximately 80,000 sq-km. of the impact region, mapping the distribution of meteoritic ejecta, disturbance of seafloor sediments by the impact, and collected 20 new cores with impact deposits in the vicinity of the Freeden Seamounts (57.3S, 90.5W). Analyses of sediment cores show that the impact disrupted sediments on the ocean floor, redepositing them as a chaotic jumble of sediment fragments overlain by a sequence of laminated sands, silts and clays deposited from the water column. Overprinted on this is a pulse of meteoritic ejecta, likely transported ballistically, then settled through the water column. At some localities, meteoritic ejecta was as much as 0.4 to 2.8 g/cm2. This is the most meteorite-rich locality known on Earth.

  15. Subeffusive Ejecta At Mount Vesuvius: Evidence For A "shallow" Magma Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigolini, C.; Ruffini, R.; Laiolo, M.

    Subeffusive ejecta of the 1944 eruption of Mount Vesuvius are tephritic clinopyroxene-rich porphyries and italites. These materials are associated to pyroclas- tic deposits of phono-tephritic composition. Tephrytic porphyries show a hypidiomor- phic granular texture and consist of phenocrystic leucite, diopsidic clinopyroxene, olivine and phlogopite on a holocrystalline matrix of leucite, plagioclase, phlogopite. Titanomagnetite and apatite are accessory phases. Sampled italites ejecta are charac- terized by an orthocumulithic texture consisting of a crystals leucite and interstitial brownish glass. This glass includes rare elongated microphenocrysts of plagioclase and subordinated clinopyroxene. REE patterns for the tephritic porphyries are com- parable with those of recent lavas and tephra and show a sligthly higher enrichment in HREE (up to 10 times the average chondrite). Spider diagrams, normalized to pri- mordial mantle values, indicate that the tephritic porphyries lack a negative anomaly in Ta which, in turn, is strongly negative within the lavas. This is due to the higher content of phenocrystic clinopyroxene (with a high mineral/melt partition coefficient) within the tephritic porphyries. Thermobarometric estimates indicate that leucite is in equilibrium with a tephritic melt at pressures of 5.7-6 kbar for temperatures ranging 1100-1200 C. Moreover, selected reactions for the assemblage Ol+Cpx+An+SiO2 (liq) define equilibrium pressures of 3.2-5 kbar [both for hydrous (with about 2 wt % H2O) and anhydrous conditions] for temperatures ranging 1150-1200 C. These esti- mates suggests the existence of a secondary "shallow" reservoir located at a depth of about 10-18 Km below Mount Vesuvius, which is consistent with recent petrological and geophysical data.

  16. The Host Galaxies of Fast-Ejecta Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Modjaz, Maryam; Kocevski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic-BL), the only kind of SN observed at the locations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), exhibit wide features indicative of high ejecta velocities ((is) approximately 0.1c). We study the host galaxies of a sample of 245 low-redshift (z (is) less than 0.2) core-collapse SN, including 17 SN Ic-BL, discovered by galaxy-untargeted searches, and 15 optically luminous and dust-obscured z (is) less than 1.2 LGRBs. We show that, in comparison with SDSS galaxies having similar stellar masses, the hosts of low-redshift SN Ic- BL and z (is) is less than 1.2 LGRBs have high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities. Core-collapse SN having typical ejecta velocities, in contrast, show no preference for such galaxies. Moreover, we find that the hosts of SN Ic-BL, unlike those of SN Ib/Ic and SN II, exhibit high gas velocity dispersions for their stellar masses. The patterns likely reflect variations among star-forming environments, and suggest that LGRBs can be used as probes of conditions in high-redshift galaxies. They may be caused by efficient formation of massive binary progenitors systems in densely star-forming regions, or, less probably, a higher fraction of stars created with the initial masses required for a SN Ic-BL or LGRB. Finally, we show that the preference of SN Ic-BL and LGRBs for galaxies with high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities cannot be attributed to a preference for low metal abundances but must reflect the influence of a separate environmental factor.

  17. Overlapping Ballistic Ejecta Fields: Separating Distinct Blasts at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Sears, H.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, W. B.; Neish, C.; Karunatillake, S.; Button, N.; Purcell, S.; Mallonee, H.; Ostler, B.

    2015-12-01

    Kings Bowl is a ~2200ka pit crater created by a phreatic blast along a volcanic fissure in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. The main crater measures approximately 80m in length, 30m in width, and 30m in depth, with smaller pits located nearby on the Great Rift fissure, and has been targeted by the FINESSE team as a possible analogue for Cyane Fossae, Mars. The phreatic eruption is believed to have occurred due to the interaction of groundwater with lava draining back into the fissure following a lava lake high stand, erupting already solidified basalt from this and previous ERSP lava flows. The contemporaneous draw back of the lava with the explosions may conceal some smaller possible blast pits as more lava drained into the newly formed pits. Ballistic ejecta from the blasts occur on both sides of the fissure. To the east, the ballistic blocks are mantled by fine tephra mixed with eolian dust, the result of a westerly wind during the explosions. We use differential GPS to map the distribution of ballistic blocks on the west side of the fissure, recording position, percent vesiculation, and the length of 3 mutually perpendicular axes for each block >20cm along multiple transects parallel to the fissure. From the several hundred blocks recorded, we have been able to separate the ballistic field into several distinct blast deposits on the basis of size distributions and block concentration. The smaller pits identified from the ballistic fields correspond broadly to the northern and southern limits of the tephra/dust field east of the fissure. Soil formation and bioturbation of the tephra by sagebrush have obliterated any tephrostratigraphy that could have been linked to individual blasts. The ballistic block patterns at Kings Bowl may be used to identify distinct ejecta groups in high-resolution imagery of Mars or other planetary bodies.

  18. Radioactive decay products in neutron star merger ejecta: heating efficiency and γ-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokezaka, K.; Wanajo, S.; Tanaka, M.; Bamba, A.; Terada, Y.; Piran, T.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive decay of the freshly synthesized r-process nuclei ejected in compact binary mergers powers optical/infrared macronovae (kilonovae) that follow these events. The light curves depend critically on the energy partition among the different decay products and it plays an important role in estimates of the amount of ejected r-process elements from a given observed signal. We show that 20-50 per cent of the total radioactive energy is released in γ-rays on time-scales from hours to a month. The number of emitted γ-rays per unit energy interval has roughly a flat spectrum between a few dozen keV and 1 MeV so that most of the energy is carried by ˜1 MeV γ-rays. However, at the peak of macronova emission the optical depth of the γ-rays is ˜0.02 and most of the γ-rays escape. The loss of these γ-rays reduces the heat deposition into the ejecta and hence reduces the expected macronova signals if those are lanthanides dominated. This implies that the ejected mass is larger by a factor of 2-3 than what was previously estimated. Spontaneous fission heats up the ejecta and the heating rate can increase if a sufficient amount of transuranic nuclei are synthesized. Direct measurements of these escaping γ-rays may provide the ultimate proof for the macronova mechanisms and an identification of the r-process nucleosynthesis sites. However, the chances to detect these signals are slim with current X-ray and γ-ray missions. New detectors, more sensitive by at least a factor of 10, are needed for a realistic detection rate.

  19. Discovery of X-Ray-Emitting O-Ne-Mg-Rich Ejecta in the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Park, Sangwook; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of X-ray-emitting O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta in the middle-aged Galactic O-rich supernova remnant Puppis A with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We use line ratios to identify a low-ionization filament running parallel to the northeastern edge of the remnant that requires super-solar abundances, particularly for O, Ne, and Mg, which we interpret to be from O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta. Abundance ratios of Ne/O, Mg/O, and Fe/O are measured to be [approx]2, [approx]2, and <0.3 times the solar values. Our spatially resolved spectral analysis from the northeastern rim to the western rim otherwise reveals sub-solar abundances consistent with those in the interstellar medium. The filament is coincident with several optically emitting O-rich knots with high velocities. If these are physically related, the filament would be a peculiar fragment of ejecta. On the other hand, the morphology of the filament suggests that it may trace ejecta heated by a shock reflected strongly off the dense ambient clouds near the northeastern rim.

  20. The 2011 outburst of recurrent nova T PYX: Radio observations reveal the ejecta mass and hint at complex mass loss

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Chomiuk, Laura; Roy, Nirupam; Krauss, Miriam I.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rupen, Michael P.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Weston, Jennifer; Mukai, Koji

    2014-04-10

    Despite being the prototype of its class, T Pyx is arguably the most unusual and poorly understood recurrent nova. Here, we use radio observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to trace the evolution of the ejecta over the course of the 2011 outburst of T Pyx. The radio emission is broadly consistent with thermal emission from the nova ejecta. However, the radio flux began rising surprisingly late in the outburst, indicating that the bulk of the radio-emitting material was either very cold, or expanding very slowly, for the first ∼50 days of the outburst. Considering a plausible range of volume filling factors and geometries for the ejecta, we find that the high peak flux densities of the radio emission require a massive ejection of (1-30) × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}. This ejecta mass is much higher than the values normally associated with recurrent novae, and is more consistent with a nova on a white dwarf well below the Chandrasekhar limit.

  1. On the Determination of Ejecta Structure and Explosion Asymmetry from the X-ray Knots of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laming, J. Martin; Hwang, Una

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of Chandra X-ray spectra from individual ejecta knots in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The spectra are fitted to give the electron temperature T(sub e), and (single) ionization age n(sub e)t. These quantities are compared with the predictions of self similar hydrodynamic models incorporating time dependent ionization and radiation losses, and Coulomb electron-ion equilibration behind the reverse shock, for a variety of different ejecta density profiles described by a uniform density core and a power law envelope. We find that the ejecta close to the 'jet' region in the NE, but not actually in the jet itself, have a systematically shallower outer envelope than ejecta elsewhere in the remnant, and we interpret this as being due to more energy of the initial explosion being directed in this polar direction as opposed to equatorially. The degree of asymmetry we infer is at the low end of that generally modelled in asymmetric core-collapse simulations, and may be used to rule out highly asymmetric explosion models.

  2. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY-EMITTING O-Ne-Mg-RICH EJECTA IN THE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT PUPPIS A

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuda, Satoru; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Park, Sangwook; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-05-10

    We report on the discovery of X-ray-emitting O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta in the middle-aged Galactic O-rich supernova remnant Puppis A with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We use line ratios to identify a low-ionization filament running parallel to the northeastern edge of the remnant that requires super-solar abundances, particularly for O, Ne, and Mg, which we interpret to be from O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta. Abundance ratios of Ne/O, Mg/O, and Fe/O are measured to be {approx}2, {approx}2, and <0.3 times the solar values. Our spatially resolved spectral analysis from the northeastern rim to the western rim otherwise reveals sub-solar abundances consistent with those in the interstellar medium. The filament is coincident with several optically emitting O-rich knots with high velocities. If these are physically related, the filament would be a peculiar fragment of ejecta. On the other hand, the morphology of the filament suggests that it may trace ejecta heated by a shock reflected strongly off the dense ambient clouds near the northeastern rim.

  3. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, D. S.; Pazuchanics, P.; Johnson, R.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbitts, A.; Tunnell, T.; Marks, D.; Capelle, G. A.; Grover, M.; Marshall, B.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; LaLone, B.

    2014-06-30

    An ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic, including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, we will also describe the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles. Finally, we will present results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn-ejecta experiments. Particle-size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double-pulsed experiment will be described.

  4. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Danny S.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Johnson, Randall P.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbitts, A.; Tunnell, T.; Marks, D.; Capelle, G. A.; Grover, M.; Marshall, B.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; LaLone, B.

    2014-06-25

    An Ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles will also be described. Finally, results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn ejecta experiments will be presented. Particle size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double pulsed experiment will be described.

  5. Efficiency of linear and angular momentum transfer in oblique impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirono, S.; Tada, M.; Nakamura, A. M.; Kadono, T.; Rivkin, A.; Fujiwara, A.

    1993-09-01

    Linear and angular momentum transfer efficiencies for oblique impacts into spherical mortar targets at velocity up to about 4 km/s were determined. Angular momentum transfer efficiency decreases gradually while linear momentum transfer increases with increasing impact velocity. This is understood by determining the impact velocity dependence of both the total momentum carried by ejecta and its direction.

  6. Impact Cratering Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Many Martian craters are surrounded by ejecta blankets which appear to have been fluidized forming lobate and layered deposits terminated by one or more continuous distal scarps, or ramparts. One of the first hypotheses for the formation of so-called rampart ejecta features was shock-melting of subsurface ice, entrainment of liquid water into the ejecta blanket, and subsequent fluidized flow. Our work quantifies this concept. Rampart ejecta found on all but the youngest volcanic and polar regions, and the different rampart ejecta morphologies are correlated with crater size and terrain. In addition, the minimum diameter of craters with rampart features decreases with increasing latitude indicating that ice laden crust resides closer to the surface as one goes poleward on Mars. Our second goal in was to determine what strength model(s) reproduce the faults and complex features found in large scale gravity driven craters. Collapse features found in large scale craters require that the rock strength weaken as a result of the shock processing of rock and the later cratering shear flows. In addition to the presence of molten silicate in the intensely shocked region, the presence of water, either ambient, or the result of shock melting of ice weakens rock. There are several other mechanisms for the reduction of strength in geologic materials including dynamic tensile and shear induced fracturing. Fracturing is a mechanism for large reductions in strength. We found that by incorporating damage into the models that we could in a single integrated impact calculation, starting in the atmosphere produce final crater profiles having the major features found in the field measurements (central uplifts, inner ring, terracing and faulting). This was accomplished with undamaged surface strengths (0.1 GPa) and in depth strengths (1.0 GPa).

  7. Dense Iron Ejecta and Core-Collapse Supernova Explosion in the Young Supernova Remnant G11.2-0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Dae-Sik; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Matthews, Keith; Lee, Jae-Joon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Seok, Ji Yeon; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of dense (gsim103 cm-3) iron ejecta in the young core-collapse supernova remnant G11.2-0.3. Five ejecta knots projected to be close to its center show a large dispersion in their Doppler shifts: two knots in the east are blueshifted by more than 1000 km s-1, while three western knots have relatively small blueshifts of 20-60 km s-1. This velocity discrepancy may indicate that the western knots have been significantly decelerated or that there exists a systematic velocity difference among the knots. One ejecta filament in the northwestern boundary, on the other hand, is redshifted by gsim200 km s-1, while opposite filament in the southeastern boundary shows a negligible radial motion. Some of the knots and filaments have secondary velocity components, and one knot shows a bow shock-like feature in the velocity structure. The iron ejecta appear to be devoid of strong emission from other heavy elements, such as S, which may attest to the α-rich freezeout process in the explosive nucleosynthesis of the core-collapse supernova explosion close to its center. The prominent bipolar distribution of the Fe ejecta in the northwestern and southeastern direction, along with the elongation of the central pulsar wind nebula in the perpendicular direction, is consistent with the interpretation that the supernova exploded primarily along the northwestern and southeastern direction. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Estimated thickness of ejecta deposits compared to to crater rim heights. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The area of the continuous ejecta deposits on mercury was calculated to vary from 2.24 to 0.64 times the crater's area for those of diameter 40 km to 300 km. Because crater boundaries on the geologic map include the detectable continuous ejecta blanket, plains exterior to these deposits must consist of farther-flung ejecta (of that or other craters), or volcanic deposits flooding the intervening areas. Ejecta models are explored.

  9. Impact jetting of geological materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenbo; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1995-08-01

    To understand jetting of earth materials, gabbro slabs (5 mm thick) were accelerated to 1.5-2 km sec -1 and impacted gabbro (5-10 mm thick), novaculite (10 mm thick), and porous sandstone (12 mm thick) targets at inclination angles of 30°-60°. The ejecta were collected using a catcher box filled with styrofoam and the particles are extracted using chloroform. Jetting angles are determined by the relative positions of the target and the crater produced by the ejecta. The mass of the ejected particles per unit area (˜50 mg cm -2) of the impactor remains almost independent of the impact velocity, inclination angle, thickness of the target and sample mineralogy, and density. Hydrodynamic models are used to calculate the jetting mass, angle, and velocity. Theoretical models predict ˜6 times more ejecta than the experimentally measured as the inclination angle increases. X-ray diffraction of the recovered ejecta shows that it is still in crystalline form, which agrees with thermodynamic calculations. Because the experimental results indicate that the theoretical jetting model for thin metal plates provides a poor description of the experiments, the application of metal plate theory to planet-sized objects appears to be questionable.

  10. Synchronized Lunar Pole Impact Plume Sample Return Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Foster, Cyrus; Colaprete, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The presented trajectory design enables two maneuverable spacecraft launched onto the same trans-lunar injection trajectory to coordinate a steep impact of a lunar pole and subsequent sample return of the ejecta plume to Earth. To demonstrate this concept, the impactor is assumed to use the LCROSS missions trajectory and spacecraft architecture, thus the permanently-shadowed Cabeus crater on the lunar south pole is assumed as the impact site. The sample-return spacecraft is assumed to be a CubeSat that requires a complimentary trajectory design that avoids lunar impact after passing through the ejecta plume to enable sample-return to Earth via atmospheric entry.

  11. High luminosity, slow ejecta and persistent carbon lines: SN 2009dc challenges thermonuclear explosion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenberger, S.; Benetti, S.; Childress, M.; Pakmor, R.; Hachinger, S.; Mazzali, P. A.; Stanishev, V.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Agnoletto, I.; Bufano, F.; Ergon, M.; Harutyunyan, A.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Kromer, M.; Navasardyan, H.; Nicolas, J.; Pastorello, A.; Prosperi, E.; Salgado, F.; Sollerman, J.; Stritzinger, M.; Turatto, M.; Valenti, S.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2011-04-01

    Extended optical and near-IR observations reveal that SN 2009dc shares a number of similarities with normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), but is clearly overluminous, with a (pseudo-bolometric) peak luminosity of log (L) = 43.47 (erg s-1). Its light curves decline slowly over half a year after maximum light [Δm15(B)true= 0.71], and the early-time near-IR light curves show secondary maxima, although the minima between the first and the second peaks are not very pronounced. The bluer bands exhibit an enhanced fading after ˜200 d, which might be caused by dust formation or an unexpectedly early IR catastrophe. The spectra of SN 2009dc are dominated by intermediate-mass elements and unburned material at early times, and by iron-group elements at late phases. Strong C II lines are present until ˜2 weeks past maximum, which is unprecedented in thermonuclear SNe. The ejecta velocities are significantly lower than in normal and even subluminous SNe Ia. No signatures of interaction with a circumstellar medium (CSM) are found in the spectra. Assuming that the light curves are powered by radioactive decay, analytic modelling suggests that SN 2009dc produced ˜1.8 M⊙ of 56Ni assuming the smallest possible rise time of 22 d. Together with a derived total ejecta mass of ˜2.8 M⊙, this confirms that SN 2009dc is a member of the class of possible super-Chandrasekhar-mass SNe Ia similar to SNe 2003fg, 2006gz and 2007if. A study of the hosts of SN 2009dc and other superluminous SNe Ia reveals a tendency of these SNe to explode in low-mass galaxies. A low metallicity of the progenitor may therefore be an important prerequisite for producing superluminous SNe Ia. We discuss a number of possible explosion scenarios, ranging from super-Chandrasekhar-mass white-dwarf progenitors over dynamical white-dwarf mergers and Type I? SNe to a core-collapse origin of the explosion. None of the models seems capable of explaining all properties of SN 2009dc, so that the true nature of this SN

  12. Influence of shockwave profile on ejecta from shocked Pb surface: Atomistic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guo-Wu; Zhang, Shi-Wen; Hong, Ren-Kai; Tang, Tie-Gang; Chen, Yong-Tao

    2016-08-01

    We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of the ejection process from a grooved Pb surface subjected to supported and unsupported shock waves with various shock-breakout pressures (P SB) inducing a solid–liquid phase transition upon shock or release. It is found that the total ejecta mass changing with P SB under a supported shock reveals a similar trend with that under an unsupported shock and the former is always less than the latter at the same P SB. The origin of such a discrepancy could be unraveled that for an unsupported shock, a larger velocity difference between the jet tip and its bottom at an early stage of jet formation results in more serious damage, and therefore a greater amount of ejected particles are produced. The cumulative areal density distributions also display the discrepancy. In addition, we discuss the difference of these simulated results compared to the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472254 and 11272006).

  13. Mapping the Kinematic Structure of Radioactive Ejecta in Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardy, Christopher L.; Parrent, Jerod; Fesen, Robert A.; Hoflich, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Late-time (t ~ 300 d) observation of near-infrared (NIR) [Fe II] lines has proven to be a very powerful tool for probing the physics of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions. The few available examples have revealed that at least some SNe Ia exhibit a layered ejecta structure which persists down to the innermost regions of the SN envelope, in contradiction to all of the currently popular models of SNe Ia which predict that the innermost regions (at least) should exhibit large-scale turbulent mixing. Thus a key piece of physics is missing from our understanding of these events. NIR spectroscopy of Type Ia supernovae at these epochs tests the limits of 8 m class telescopes for even the brightest SNe Ia, and so these phenomena remain poorly observed. However, it may be possible to use the strong [Fe II] emission line at 7155 Ato similar effect. Unfortunately this line is usually partly blended with [Ca II] emission which complicates the extraction of the true [Fe II] line profile. We propose to use concurrent NIR and optical spectra of two recent nearby Type Ia supernovae, both to increase the still anemic data set of late- time SN Ia spectra, and to act as a pilot study to test whether the dramatic success obtained at great effort in the NIR can be reproduced much more cheaply through optical spectroscopy.

  14. Shock-produced ejecta from tin: Comparative study by molecular dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachkov, S. A.; Parshikov, A. N.; Zhakhovsky, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental methods of observation of early stage of shock-induced ejecta from metal surface with micrometer-sized perturbations are still limited in terms of following a complete sequence of processes having microscale dimensions and nanoscale times. Therefore, simulations by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods can shed of light on details of micro-jet evolution. The size of simulated sample is too restricted in MD, but the simulations with large enough number of atoms can be scaled well to the sizes of realistic samples. To validate such scaling the comparative MD and SPH simulations of tin samples are performed. SPH simulation takes the realistic experimental sizes, while MD uses the proportionally scaled sizes of samples. It is shown that the velocity and mass distributions along the jets simulated by MD and SPH are in a good agreement. The observed difference in velocity of spikes between MD and experiments can be partially explained by a profound effect of surface tension on jets ejected from the small-scale samples.

  15. Locating and Measuring the High Mass Ejecta from the Unstable Massive Star System eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The luminous, massive binary system eta Carinae is both one of the nearest and most unstable objects in a class of evolved massive stars, near the end of its lifetime before expected destruction in a supernova. It experienced a major outburst in 1843, producing the well-known Homunculus nebula, containing some 15 to 40 Msun in warm (~170 K) and cool (90-110 K) dust and associated gas, according to mid-infrared ISO spectroscopy. The location of this material is very uncertain, due to large apertures of the spectroscopic observations, and lack of direct imaging beyond 25 microns. We propose to use the FORCAST imager with long wavelength filters to better locate and estimate the mass in thermal components of this material that may be resolved, constraining it to the interior regions or bipolar lobes of the Homunculus nebula, or in outer ejecta that would support the hypothesis of a major event prior to the 1843 eruption. This is crucial to understanding the mass-loss history of this object on the edge of a final supernova explosion, and provide constraints on the distribution and extinction properties of the dust in 3D hydrodynamical + radiative transfer numerical modeling of the Homunculus nebula.

  16. FIRST EVIDENCE OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER FORMATION FROM THE EJECTA OF PROMPT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Bekki, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations of globular clusters (GCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have discovered that one of the intermediate-age GCs, NGC 1718, with [Fe/H] = -0.7 has an extremely low [Mg/Fe] ratio of {approx}-0.9. We propose that NGC 1718 was formed from the ejecta of Type Ia supernovae mixed with very metal-poor ([Fe/H] <-1.3) gas about {approx}2 Gyr ago. The proposed scenario is shown to be consistent with the observed abundances of Fe-group elements such as Cr, Mn, and Ni. In addition, compelling evidence for asymptotic giant branch stars playing a role in chemical enrichment during this GC formation is found. We suggest that the origin of the metal-poor gas is closely associated with efficient gas transfer from the outer gas disk of the Small Magellanic Cloud to the LMC disk. We anticipate that the outer part of the LMC disk contains field stars exhibiting significantly low [Mg/Fe] ratios, formed through the same process as NGC 1718.

  17. Confirmation of dust condensation in the ejecta of supernova 1987a.

    PubMed Central

    Gehrz, R D; Ney, E P

    1990-01-01

    Shortly after its outburst, we suggested that supernova 1987a might condense a dust shell of substantial visual optical thickness as many classical novae do and predicted that dust might form within a year after the explosion. A critical examination of recent optical and infrared observations reported by others confirms that dust grains had begun to grow at a temperature of 1000 K after 300 days and that the dust shell had become optically thick by day 600. After day 600, the infrared luminosity closely followed the intrinsic luminosity expected for thermalized 56Co gamma rays, demonstrating that the luminosity is powered by radioactivity and that the dust is outside the radioactivity zone. The infrared luminosity sets an upper limit to the soft intrinsic bolometric luminosity of a pulsar central engine. This upper limit for the pulsar in supernova 1987a is the same luminosity as the Crab pulsar has today 936 years after its formation. It is unlikely that the rotation rate for a pulsar in supernova 1987a can be much higher than approximately 30 revolutions per sec. The relatively long time required for the shell to grow to maximum optical depth as compared with the dust in nova shells may be related to the relatively low outflow velocity of the condensible ejecta. PMID:11607082

  18. A DECADE-BASELINE STUDY OF THE PLASMA STATES OF EJECTA KNOTS IN CASSIOPEIA A

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, John; Dewey, Daniel; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Heine, Sarah N. T.; Canizares, C. R.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Sato, Kosuke E-mail: jmrv@mit.edu

    2013-05-20

    We present the analysis of 21 bright X-ray knots in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant from observations spanning 10 yr. We performed a comprehensive set of measurements to reveal the kinematic and thermal state of the plasma in each knot, using a combined analysis of two high energy resolution High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and four medium energy resolution Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) sets of spectra. The ACIS electron temperature estimates agree with the HETG-derived values for approximately half of the knots studied, yielding one of the first comparisons between high resolution temperature estimates and ACIS-derived temperatures. We did not observe the expected spectral evolution-predicted from the ionization age and density estimates for each knot-in all but three of the knots studied. The incompatibility of these measurements with our assumptions has led us to propose a dissociated ejecta model, with the metals unmixed inside the knots, which could place strong constraints on supernova mixing models.

  19. A STUBBORNLY LARGE MASS OF COLD DUST IN THE EJECTA OF SUPERNOVA 1987A

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Dwek, E.; Babler, B.; Baes, M.; Fritz, Jacopo; Meixner, M.; Cernicharo, José; Clayton, Geoff C.; Dunne, L.; Fransson, C.; Lundqvist, P.; Gear, Walter; Gomez, H. L.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Indebetouw, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Lebouteiller, V.; and others

    2015-02-10

    We present new Herschel photometric and spectroscopic observations of Supernova 1987A, carried out in 2012. Our dedicated photometric measurements provide new 70 μm data and improved imaging quality at 100 and 160 μm compared to previous observations in 2010. Our Herschel spectra show only weak CO line emission, and provide an upper limit for the 63 μm [O I] line flux, eliminating the possibility that line contaminations distort the previously estimated dust mass. The far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is well fitted by thermal emission from cold dust. The newly measured 70 μm flux constrains the dust temperature, limiting it to nearly a single temperature. The far-infrared emission can be fitted by 0.5 ± 0.1 M {sub ☉} of amorphous carbon, about a factor of two larger than the current nucleosynthetic mass prediction for carbon. The observation of SiO molecules at early and late phases suggests that silicates may also have formed and we could fit the SED with a combination of 0.3 M {sub ☉} of amorphous carbon and 0.5 M {sub ☉} of silicates, totalling 0.8 M {sub ☉} of dust. Our analysis thus supports the presence of a large dust reservoir in the ejecta of SN 1987A. The inferred dust mass suggests that supernovae can be an important source of dust in the interstellar medium, from local to high-redshift galaxies.

  20. Impact vaporization: Late time phenomena from experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    While simple airflow produced by the outward movement of the ejecta curtain can be scaled to large dimensions, the interaction between an impact-vaporized component and the ejecta curtain is more complicated. The goal of these experiments was to examine such interaction in a real system involving crater growth, ejection of material, two phased mixtures of gas and dust, and strong pressure gradients. The results will be complemented by theoretical studies at laboratory scales in order to separate the various parameters for planetary scale processes. These experiments prompt, however, the following conclusions that may have relevance at broader scales. First, under near vacuum or low atmospheric pressures, an expanding vapor cloud scours the surrounding surface in advance of arriving ejecta. Second, the effect of early-time vaporization is relatively unimportant at late-times. Third, the overpressure created within the crater cavity by significant vaporization results in increased cratering efficiency and larger aspect ratios.

  1. NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Cooke, William; Swift, Wesley; Hollon, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office nas implemented a program to monitor the Moon for meteoroid impacts from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Using off-the-shelf telescopes and video equipment, the moon is monitored for as many as 10 nights per month, depending on weather. Custom software automatically detects flashes which are confirmed by a second telescope, photometrically calibrated using background stars, and published on a website for correlation with other observations, Hypervelocity impact tests at the Ames Vertical Gun Facility have been performed to determine the luminous efficiency ana ejecta characteristics. The purpose of this research is to define the impact ejecta environment for use by lunar spacecraft designers of the Constellation (manned lunar) Program. The observational techniques and preliminary results will be discussed.

  2. Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Stickle, A.; Barnouin, O.; Ernst, C.; Atchison, J.; Pravec, P.; Richardson, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid and (ii) to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The AIDA target will be the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, with the deflection experiment to occur in late September, 2022. The DART impact on the secondary member of the binary at ~7 km/s is expected to alter the binary orbit period by about 4 minutes, assuming a simple transfer of momentum to the target, and this period change will be measured by Earth-based observatories. The AIM spacecraft will characterize the asteroid target and monitor results of the impact in situ at Didymos. The DART mission is a full-scale kinetic impact to deflect a 150 m diameter asteroid, with known impactor conditions and with target physical properties characterized by the AIM mission. Predictions for the momentum transfer efficiency of kinetic impacts are given for several possible target types of different porosities, using Housen and Holsapple (2011) crater scaling model for impact ejecta mass and velocity distributions. Results are compared to numerical simulation results using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code of Jutzi and Michel (2014) with good agreement. The model also predicts that the ejecta from the DART impact may make Didymos into an active asteroid, forming an ejecta coma that may be observable from Earth-based telescopes. The measurements from AIDA of the momentum transfer from the DART impact, the crater size and morphology, and the evolution of an ejecta coma will

  3. Fe-rich ejecta in the supernova remnant G352.7–0.1 with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Sezer, A.; Gök, F.

    2014-07-20

    In this work, we present results from a ∼201.6 ks observation of G352.7–0.1 using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer on board Suzaku X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from the remnant is well described by two-temperature thermal models of non-equilibrium ionization with variable abundances with a column density of N{sub H} ∼ 3.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. The soft component is characterized by an electron temperature of kT{sub e} ∼ 0.6 keV, an ionization timescale of τ ∼ 3.4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3} s, and enhanced Si, S, Ar, and Ca abundances. The hard component has kT{sub e} ∼ 4.3 keV, τ ∼ 8.8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3} s, and enhanced Fe abundance. The elemental abundances of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe are found to be significantly higher than the solar values that confirm the presence of ejecta. We detected strong Fe K-shell emission and determined its origin to be the ejecta for the first time. The detection of Fe ejecta with a lower ionization timescale favors a Type Ia origin for this remnant.

  4. ASYMMETRY IN THE OBSERVED METAL-RICH EJECTA OF THE GALACTIC TYPE IA SUPERNOVA REMNANT G299.2–2.9

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Seth; Park, Sangwook; Badenes, Carles; Burrows, David N.; Hughes, John P.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Mori, Koji; Slane, Patrick O. E-mail: badenes@pitt.edu E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu E-mail: slane@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-09-01

    We have performed a deep Chandra observation of the Galactic Type Ia supernova remnant G299.2–2.9. Here we report the initial results from our imaging and spectral analysis. The observed abundance ratios of the central ejecta are in good agreement with those predicted by delayed-detonation Type Ia supernovae models. We reveal inhomogeneous spatial and spectral structures of metal-rich ejecta in G299.2–2.9. The Fe/Si abundance ratio in the northern part of the central ejecta region is higher than that in the southern part. A significant continuous elongation of ejecta material extends out to the western outermost boundary of the remnant. In this western elongation, both the Si and Fe are enriched with a similar abundance ratio to that in the southern part of the central ejecta region. These structured distributions of metal-rich ejecta material suggest that this Type Ia supernova might have undergone a significantly asymmetric explosion and/or has been expanding into a structured medium.

  5. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE TYPE IIn SN 2010jl: EVIDENCE FOR HIGH VELOCITY EJECTA

    SciTech Connect

    Borish, H. Jacob; Huang, Chenliang; Chevalier, Roger A.; Breslauer, Benjamin M.; Kingery, Aaron M.; Privon, George C.

    2015-03-01

    The Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl was relatively nearby and luminous, allowing detailed studies of the near-infrared (NIR) emission. We present 1-2.4 μm spectroscopy over the age range of 36-565 days from the earliest detection of the supernova. On day 36, the H lines show an unresolved narrow emission component along with a symmetric broad component that can be modeled as the result of electron scattering by a thermal distribution of electrons. Over the next hundreds of days, the broad components of the H lines shift to the blue by 700 km s{sup –1}, as is also observed in optical lines. The narrow lines do not show a shift, indicating they originate in a different region. He I λ10830 and λ20587 lines both show an asymmetric broad emission component, with a shoulder on the blue side that varies in prominence and velocity from –5500 km s{sup –1} on day 108 to –4000 km s{sup –1} on day 219. This component may be associated with the higher velocity flow indicated by X-ray observations of the supernova. The absence of the feature in the H lines suggests that this is from a He-rich ejecta flow. The He I λ10830 feature has a narrow P Cygni line, with absorption extending to ∼100 km s{sup –1} and strengthening over the first 200 days, and an emission component which weakens with time. At day 403, the continuum emission becomes dominated by a blackbody spectrum with a temperature of ∼1900 K, suggestive of dust emission.

  6. Properties of the -513 km/s Ejecta in the Spectrum of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, Anthony; Gull, Theodore; Vieira, G.; Johansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    In the spectral region 2400-3160A of Eta Carinae, we have identified approximately 500 absorption lines each with up to twenty velocity components. The -512 kilometers per second component is truely unique as 1) the typical line width is less than 3 kilometers per second, 2) the identified lines are in Fe I, Fe II, V II and Ti II, and 3) the lines originate from lower levels up to 2000 cm-1 above the ground level. We have measured the velocity centers, full width at half maximum and equivalent widths for approximately 100 absorption lines. Initial results were very confusing as we found more variation in central velocities than would be expected from known STIS echelle wavelength standards. Upon further review, we found that the reporteded wavelengths in the NIST and Kurucz databases were not sufficiently accurate. S. Johansson searched FTS laboratory measurements performed at Lund for V II and Ti II and provided much improved wavelength measures. Likewise, we find more variation in column density than expected statistically from the accuracy of the equivalent widths for lines originating from the same energy level. We are reviewing the published gf values and our measurements to improve the measured column densities. Some spectroscopy of the ejecta has already been accomplished at two different epochs. Preliminary measures of equivalent widths indicate there may be some variation with time, but we await measurements planned for July 2003 during the upcoming spectroscopic minimum of Eta Carinae. These observations were accomplished through STScI and funding was from STIS GTO resources.

  7. Properties of the -513 km/s Ejecta in the Spectrum of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, A.; Gull, T. R.; Vieira, G.; Johansson, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the spectral region 2400-3160A of Eta Carinae, we have identified approximately 500 absorption lines each with up to twenty velocity components. The -512 kilometers per second component is truly unique as 1) the typical line width is less than 3 kilometers per second, 2) the identified lines are in Fe I, Fe II, VII and Ti II, and 3) the lines originate from lower levels up to 2000 cm-1 above the ground level. We have measured the velocity centers, full width at half maximum and equivalent widths for approximately 100 absorption lines. Initial results were very confusing as we found bore variation in central velocities than would be expected from known STIS echelle wavelength standards. Upon further review, we found that the reported wavelengths in the NIST and Kurucz databases were not sufficiently accurate. S. Johansson searched FTS laboratory measurements performed at Lund for V II and Ti II and provided much improved wavelength measures. Likewise, we find more variation in column density than expected statistically from the accuracy of the equivalent widths for lines originating from the same energy level. We are reviewing the published gf values and our measurements to improve the measured column densities. Some spectroscopy of the ejecta has already been accomplished at two different epochs. Preliminary measures of equivalent widths indicate there may be some variation with time, but we await measurements planned for July 2003 during the upcoming spectroscopic minimum of Eta Carinae. The observations were accomplished through STScI and funding was from STIS GTO resources.

  8. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA COLORS AND EJECTA VELOCITIES: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN REGRESSION WITH NON-GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2014-12-20

    We investigate the statistical dependence of the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II λ6355 spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model, accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust, and implement a Gibbs sampler and deviance information criteria to estimate the correlation. The method is applied to the apparent colors from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SNe Ia. The apparent color distributions of high-velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae exhibit significant discrepancies for B – V and B – R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B – V and B – R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, respectively. A linear model finds significant slopes of –0.021 ± 0.006 and –0.030 ± 0.009 mag (10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}){sup –1} for intrinsic B – V and B – R colors versus velocity, respectively. Because the ejecta velocity distribution is skewed toward high velocities, these effects imply non-Gaussian intrinsic color distributions with skewness up to +0.3. Accounting for the intrinsic-color-velocity correlation results in corrections to A{sub V} extinction estimates as large as –0.12 mag for HV SNe Ia and +0.06 mag for NV events. Velocity measurements from SN Ia spectra have the potential to diminish systematic errors from the confounding of intrinsic colors and dust reddening affecting supernova distances.

  9. Elemental and Molecular Relative Abundances in the Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kober, G. V.; Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K.; Bruhweiler, F.; Verner, K.; Stahl, O.; Weis, K.; Bomans, D.

    2006-01-01

    We are measuring relative elemental abundances for the ejecta in the line of sight from Eta Carinae using high dispersion spectroscopy with the HST/STIS and the VLT/UVES. While multiple velocity components have been identified, we focus on the -513 and -146 km/s components originating from the Homunculus and the Little Homunculus. Complicating factors are the complex nebular structures in the immediate vicinity of the bright, massive star: the very bright emission structures, Weigelt blobs B, C and D, the broad, clumpy structures of the extended wind apparently not photoionized by Eta Car B, and general scattered starlight from the extended wind and the dusty core of the circumstellar material. We have used the 3050 to 3160A region of overlap between STIS and UVES to intercompare equivalent widths of absorption lines to estimate the 'contributing factor', namely the amount of light originating from the star compared to nebular structures. While the extracted STIS spectra are from 0.1" wide aperture, the UVES spectra are limited by the 1" seeing conditions. Curiously we find that the scattering contribution in the UVES spectra changes with time, apparently with orbital phase of the 5.54-year period. This indicates that the dust may be modified by changes in the central source with phase. The noticeable drop in scattered light appears to occur about 1.7 years (phase 0.35) after the spectroscopic minimum. Relative abundances of iron peak elements and some molecules will be estimated. Observations in this study were accomplished with HST through STSci and with VLT through ESO and funded under STIS GTO resources.

  10. Exploring and Modeling High-excitation Emission in the Ejecta and the Wind of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, Andrea

    Eta Carinae is the most massive, most luminous star in our region of the Galaxy. It is an evolved massive star and therefore provides many clues to the fate of the most massive stars. In the 1840s its unstable nature culminated in the Great Eruption when it briefly became the second brightest star in the sky and ejected more than ten solar masses, which today enshroud the surviving star as a bipolar nebula. Every 5.54 years Eta Car's photometry and spectra show dramatic changes which last for several months. Combining data from HST/STIS, Gemini-S/GMOS, and VLT/UVES from 1998 to 2010, I analyzed two spectroscopic cycles. Observations with a variety of different slit position angles made it possible to map the emission across the nebula and the complex outer ejecta of Eta Car permit to observe the star at different stellar latitudes via reflected light. The spectroscopic cycles are thought to be regulated by a hot companion star and therefore give us information to the nature and orbit of the stars hidden behind Eta Car's opaque wind. The observations, covering more than 10 years, made it also possible to observe the ongoing long-term recovery from the Great Eruption. Topics covered in this thesis include: 1) spatial and temporal behavior of the high-excitation emission lines, 2) parameters of the secondary star, 3) He II 4687 emission during the 2009 "Event," 4) changing wind structure during the 2009 "Event," 5) origin of the He I lines, and 6) major changes in the broad-line wind spectrum indicating a decrease in Eta Car's wind density.

  11. Impact-induced compositional variations on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Barr, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The surface of Mercury shows unexpected spectral variations spatially associated with crater and basin ejecta (the so-called 'low-reflectance material' or LRM; [1]). The low reflectance is suggested to be caused by a native darkening agent at depth that has been excavated and redeposited onto the surface [1]. Although LRM is generally associated with crater ejecta, it is not found within the ejecta blankets of many large impact craters, perhaps suggesting that the subsurface source is heterogeneous [2]. We have developed a 3-D Monte Carlo model of impact cratering, excavation, and ejecta blanket deposition. Our simulations of the effect of early impacts onto Mercury show that if the LRM originates from depth to cover ~15% of Mercury's surface [2], its source is ~30 km deep. Considering the estimated mercurian crustal thickness of 50 km [3] this implies the darkening agent is most probably located within a chemically distinct lower crust. Simulations show that repeated and overlapping impacts redistribute the darkening agent away from the basin source and create a weak association between crater size and LRM abundance. Thus subsurface heterogeneity is not required to produce the weak association between crater size and LRM abundance within crater ejecta; this is a natural consequence of overlapping impacts. Our results can elucidate the new high-resolution compositional mapping of Mercury's heavily cratered terrain and provide insight into subsurface composition. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the Center for Lunar Origin and Evolution through the NASA Lunar Science Institute NNA09DB32A. References: [1] Denevi and Robinson, 2008, Icarus 197, 239-246. [2] Denevi et al., 2009, Science 324, 613-618. [3] Smith et al., 2012, Science 336, 214-217.

  12. Survivability of bacteria ejected from icy surfaces after hypervelocity impact.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Mark J; Galloway, James A; Bunch, Alan W; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2003-02-01

    Both the Saturnian and Jovian systems contain satellites with icy surfaces. If life exists on any of these icy bodies (in putative subsurface oceans for example) then the possibility exists for transfer of life from icy body to icy body. This is an application of the idea of Panspermia, wherein life migrates naturally through space. A possible mechanism would be that life, here taken as bacteria, could become frozen in the icy surface of one body. If a high-speed impact occurred on that surface, ejecta containing the bacteria could be thrown into space. It could then migrate around the local region of space until it arrived at a second icy body in another high-speed impact. In this paper we consider some of the necessary steps for such a process to occur, concentrating on the ejection of ice bearing bacteria in the initial impact, and on what happens when bacteria laden projectiles hit an icy surface. Laboratory experiments using high-speed impacts with a light gas gun show that obtaining icy ejecta with viable bacterial loads is straightforward. In addition to demonstrating the viability of the bacteria carried on the ejecta, we have also measured the angular and size distribution of the ejecta produced in hypervelocity impacts on ice. We have however been unsuccessful at transferring viable bacteria to icy surfaces from bacteria laden projectiles impacting at hypervelocities. PMID:12967273

  13. Survivability of bacteria ejected from icy surfaces after hypervelocity impact.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Mark J; Galloway, James A; Bunch, Alan W; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2003-02-01

    Both the Saturnian and Jovian systems contain satellites with icy surfaces. If life exists on any of these icy bodies (in putative subsurface oceans for example) then the possibility exists for transfer of life from icy body to icy body. This is an application of the idea of Panspermia, wherein life migrates naturally through space. A possible mechanism would be that life, here taken as bacteria, could become frozen in the icy surface of one body. If a high-speed impact occurred on that surface, ejecta containing the bacteria could be thrown into space. It could then migrate around the local region of space until it arrived at a second icy body in another high-speed impact. In this paper we consider some of the necessary steps for such a process to occur, concentrating on the ejection of ice bearing bacteria in the initial impact, and on what happens when bacteria laden projectiles hit an icy surface. Laboratory experiments using high-speed impacts with a light gas gun show that obtaining icy ejecta with viable bacterial loads is straightforward. In addition to demonstrating the viability of the bacteria carried on the ejecta, we have also measured the angular and size distribution of the ejecta produced in hypervelocity impacts on ice. We have however been unsuccessful at transferring viable bacteria to icy surfaces from bacteria laden projectiles impacting at hypervelocities.

  14. Signature of Electron Capture in Iron-rich Ejecta of SN 2003du

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Gerardy, Christopher L.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Fesen, Robert A.; Maeda, Keiichi; Ohkubo, Takuya; Tominaga, Nozomu

    2004-12-01

    Late-time near-infrared and optical spectra of the normal-bright Type Ia supernova 2003du about 300 days after the explosion are presented. At this late epoch, the emission profiles of well-isolated [Fe II] lines (in particular that of the strong 1.644 μm feature) trace out the global kinematic distribution of radioactive material in the expanding supernova ejecta. In SN 2003du, the 1.644 μm [Fe II] line seems to show a flat-topped profile, indicative of a thick but hollow-centered expanding shell, rather than a strongly peaked profile that would be expected from a ``center-filled'' distribution. Based on detailed models for exploding Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs, we show that the feature is consistent with spherical explosion models. Our model predicts a central region of nonradioactive electron capture elements up to 2500-3000 km s-1 as a consequence of burning under high density and an extended region of radioactive 56Ni up to 9000-10,000 km s-1. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that the 1.644 μm [Fe II] line profile is not consistent with strong mixing between the regions of electron-capture isotopes and the 56Ni layers, as is predicted by detailed three-dimensional models for nuclear deflagration fronts. We discuss the possibility that the flat-topped profile could be produced as a result of an infrared catastrophe and conclude that such an explanation is unlikely. We discuss the limitations of our analysis and place our results into context by comparison with constraints on the distribution of radioactive 56Ni in other SNe Ia and briefly discuss the potential implications of our result for the use of SNe Ia as cosmological standard candles. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  15. A Stubbornly Large Mass of Cold Dust in the Ejecta of Supernova 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Dwek, E.; Barlow, M. J.; Babler, B.; Baes, M.; Meixner, M.; Cernicharo, José; Clayton, Geoff C.; Dunne, L.; Fransson, C.; Fritz, Jacopo; Gear, Walter; Gomez, H. L.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Indebetouw, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Lebouteiller, V.; Lim, T. L.; Lundqvist, P.; Pearson, C. P.; Roman-Duval, J.; Royer, P.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Swinyard, B. M.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Verstappen, Joris; Wesson, Roger; Zanardo, Giovanna; Blommaert, Joris A. D. L.; Decin, Leen; Reach, W. T.; Sonneborn, George; Van de Steene, Griet C.; Yates, Jeremy A.

    2015-02-01

    We present new Herschel photometric and spectroscopic observations of Supernova 1987A, carried out in 2012. Our dedicated photometric measurements provide new 70 μm data and improved imaging quality at 100 and 160 μm compared to previous observations in 2010. Our Herschel spectra show only weak CO line emission, and provide an upper limit for the 63 μm [O I] line flux, eliminating the possibility that line contaminations distort the previously estimated dust mass. The far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is well fitted by thermal emission from cold dust. The newly measured 70 μm flux constrains the dust temperature, limiting it to nearly a single temperature. The far-infrared emission can be fitted by 0.5 ± 0.1 M ⊙ of amorphous carbon, about a factor of two larger than the current nucleosynthetic mass prediction for carbon. The observation of SiO molecules at early and late phases suggests that silicates may also have formed and we could fit the SED with a combination of 0.3 M ⊙ of amorphous carbon and 0.5 M ⊙ of silicates, totalling 0.8 M ⊙ of dust. Our analysis thus supports the presence of a large dust reservoir in the ejecta of SN 1987A. The inferred dust mass suggests that supernovae can be an important source of dust in the interstellar medium, from local to high-redshift galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAF-IFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/MCYT (Spain). SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and

  16. The impact environment of the Hadean Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abramov, Oleg; Kring, David A. Kring; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Impact bombardment in the first billion years of solar system history determined in large part the initial physical and chemical states of the inner planets and their potential to host biospheres. The range of physical states and thermal consequences of the impact epoch, however, are not well quantified. Here, we assess these effects on the young Earth's crust as well as the likelihood that a record of such effects could be preserved in the oldest terrestrial minerals and rocks. We place special emphasis on modeling the thermal effects of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) – a putative spike in the number of impacts at about 3.9 Gyr ago – using several different numerical modeling and analytical techniques. A comprehensive array of impact-produced heat sources was evaluated which includes shock heating, impact melt generation, uplift, and ejecta heating. Results indicate that ∼1.5–2.5 vol.% of the upper 20 km of Earth's crust was melted in the LHB, with only ∼0.3–1.5 vol.% in a molten state at any given time. The model predicts that approximately 5–10% of the planet's surface area was covered by >1 km deep impact melt sheets. A global average of ∼600–800 m of ejecta and ∼800–1000 m of condensed rock vapor is predicted to have been deposited in the LHB, with most of the condensed rock vapor produced by the largest (>100-km) projectiles. To explore for a record of such catastrophic events, we created two- and three-dimensional models of post-impact cooling of ejecta and craters, coupled to diffusion models of radiogenic Pb*-loss in zircons. We used this to estimate what the cumulative effects of putative LHB-induced age resetting would be of Hadean zircons on a global scale. Zircons entrained in ejecta are projected to have the following average global distribution after the end of the LHB: ∼59% with no impact-induced Pb*-loss, ∼26% with partial Pb*-loss and ∼15% with complete Pb*-loss or destruction of the grain. In addition to the

  17. PREDICTING CME EJECTA AND SHEATH FRONT ARRIVAL AT L1 WITH A DATA-CONSTRAINED PHYSICAL MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-20

    We present a method for predicting the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) flux rope in situ, as well as the sheath of solar wind plasma accumulated ahead of the driver. For faster CMEs, the front of this sheath will be a shock. The method is based upon geometrical separate measurement of the CME ejecta and sheath. These measurements are used to constrain a drag-based model, improved by including both a height dependence and accurate de-projected velocities. We also constrain the geometry of the model to determine the error introduced as a function of the deviation of the CME nose from the Sun–Earth line. The CME standoff-distance in the heliosphere fit is also calculated, fit, and combined with the ejecta model to determine sheath arrival. Combining these factors allows us to create predictions for both fronts at the L1 point and compare them against observations. We demonstrate an ability to predict the sheath arrival with an average error of under 3.5 hr, with an rms error of about 1.58 hr. For the ejecta the error is less than 1.5 hr, with an rms error within 0.76 hr. We also discuss the physical implications of our model for CME expansion and density evolution. We show the power of our method with ideal data and demonstrate the practical implications of having a permanent L5 observer with space weather forecasting capabilities, while also discussing the limitations of the method that will have to be addressed in order to create a real-time forecasting tool.

  18. Inferring supernova IIb/Ib/Ic ejecta properties from light curves and spectra: correlations from radiative-transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Woosley, Stan; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Langer, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    We present 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations for a large grid of supernovae (SNe) IIb/Ib/Ic that result from the terminal explosion of the mass donor in a close-binary system. Our sample covers ejecta masses Me of 1.7-5.2 M⊙, kinetic energies Ekin of 0.6-5.0 × 1051 erg, and 56Ni masses of 0.05-0.30 M⊙. We find a strong correlation between the 56Ni mass and the photometric properties at maximum, and between the rise time to bolometric maximum and the post-maximum decline rate. We confirm the small scatter in (V - R) at 10 d past R-band maximum. The quantity V_m ≡ √{2E_kin/M_e} is comparable to the Doppler velocity measured from He I 5875 Å at maximum in SNe IIb/Ib, although some scatter arises from the uncertain level of chemical mixing. The O I 7772 Å line may be used for SNe Ic, but the correspondence deteriorates with higher ejecta mass/energy. We identify a temporal reversal of the Doppler velocity at maximum absorption in the ˜1.05 μm feature in all models. The reversal is due to He I alone and could serve as a test for the presence of helium in SNe Ic. Because of variations in composition and ionization, the ejecta opacity shows substantial variations with both velocity and time. This is in part the origin of the offset between our model light curves and the predictions from the Arnett model.

  19. Impact fragmentation of Lonar Crater, India: Implications for impact cratering processes in basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, P.; Prasanna Lakshmi, K. J.; Krishna, N.; Menon, R.; Sruthi, U.; Keerthi, V.; Senthil Kumar, A.; Mysaiah, D.; Seshunarayana, T.; Sen, M. K.

    2014-09-01

    Impact fragmentation is an energetic process that has affected all planetary bodies. To understand its effects in basalt, we studied Lonar Crater, which is a rare terrestrial simple impact crater in basalt and analogues to kilometer-scale simple craters on Mars. The Lonar ejecta consists of basaltic fragments with sizes ranging from silt to boulder. The cumulative size and mass frequency distributions of these fragments show variation of power index for different size ranges, suggesting simple and complex fragmentation. The general shape of the fragments is compact, platy, bladed, and elongated with an average edge angle of 100°. The size distribution of cobble- to boulder-sized fragments is similar to the fracture spacing distribution in the upper crater wall, indicating the provenance of those large fragments. Its consistency with a theoretical spallation model suggests that the large fragments were ejected from near surface of the target, whereas the small fragments from deeper level. The petrophysical properties of the ejecta fragments reflect the geophysical heterogeneity in the target basalt that significantly reduced the original size of spall fragments. The presence of Fe/Mg phyllosilicates (smectites) both in the ejecta and wall indicates the role of impact in excavating the phyllosilicates from the interior of basaltic target affected by aqueous alteration. The seismic images reveal a thickness variation in the ejecta blanket, segregation of boulders, fractures, and faults in the bedrock beneath the crater rim. The fracturing, fragmentation, and fluvial degradation of Lonar Crater have important implications for Mars.

  20. Geomorphic analysis of small rayed craters on Mars: Examining primary versus secondary impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, Fred J.; Herrick, Robert R.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    2009-10-01

    Twenty confirmed impacts over a 7-year time period on Mars were qualitatively and statistically compared to 287 secondary craters believed to originate from Zunil, an ˜500 ka, 10-km diameter, primary crater. Our goal was to establish criteria to distinguish secondaries from primaries in the general crater population on the basis of their horizontal planforms. Recent primary impacts have extensive “air blast” zones, distal ray systems (>100 crater radii, R), and ephemeral ejecta. Recent primaries formed clusters of craters from atmospheric fragmentation of the meteoroid body. Secondary craters have ejecta blankets with shorter rays that are consistent with emplacement by low-impact velocities (near 1 km/s). The mean extent of the continuous ejecta blankets was less distal for secondaries (5.38 ± 1.57R) versus primaries (18.07 ± 7.01R), though primary ejecta were less fractal (Fractal Dimension Index (FD I ) < 1.30) and more circular on average (Circularity Ratio (C R ) = 0.55 ± 0.25 versus 0.27 ± 0.13 for secondaries). Crater rims were remarkably circular (primaries C R = 0.97 ± 0.02, secondaries at 0.94 ± 0.05), though secondaries have the lowest values (C R < 0.9). Secondary crater rims were elongated toward or orthogonal to their primary of origin. Uprange source directions for most secondaries, determined by ejecta planform and crater rim ellipticity, point toward Zunil, although contamination from other primaries is considered in some areas. Ejecta blanket discrepancies between recent primaries and Zunil secondaries are attributable to differences in impact velocity and retention age. After removal of the ejecta blanket, crater rims are generally not diagnostic for determining crater origin. Fragmentation of primaries may play some role in steepening the size-frequency distribution of crater diameters in the 5 m < D < 30 m range.

  1. Lateral and Vertical Heterogeneity of Thorium in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane: As Reflected in the Ejecta Deposits of Post-Imbrium Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    1999-01-01

    discussed above and their ejecta, with the goal of describing the materials they excavate. One interpretation for the origin of the high-Th material is that subsurface KREEPy materials have been excavated by impact craters. The material excavated may be either volcanic KREEP (e,g., Apennine Bench Formation), KREEPy impact-melt breccia formed by the Imbrium impact (e.g., Fra Mauro Formation), or other KREEP-rich crustal material. Determining which type of material is responsible for the elevated Th and its extent is important to understanding the premare and possibly the prebasin stratigraphy of the Imbrium-Procellarum Region. Merging the 5 deg. Th data with the shaded relief map, we observe that the highest Th concentrations are not related to pre-Imbrium upper crustal materials. The Apennines, Alpes, and Caucasus Mountains represent the pre-Imbrian highlands material and do not express concentrations of Th, FeO, and TiO2 as high as the most Th-fich materials exposed within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane. We observe that, in general, these massifs contain 10-14 wt% FeO and 4-7 ppm Th. Determining whether the Th signal is from KREEP basalts or KREEPy impact-melt breccias cannot be done with the Clementine data because the two rock types are compositionally and mineralogically too similar (e.g., the Th-rich, mafic impact-melt breccias in the Apollo sample collection are dominated by a KREEP-basalt like component. Mapping-the distribution and sizes of craters and whether they display elevated Th concentrations or not, should reveal the depth and thickness of the KREEP-rich materials, and whether they are ubiquitous (i.e., impact-melt breccia) or more randomly distributed; this might be taken as an indicator of localized KREEP-basalt flows. Within the southeastern region of the Imbrium basin, there are two Th hot spots. The first is associated with the crater Aristillus, and the latter with the Apennine Bench Formation. Adjacent to these two hot spots are craters with a lower Th

  2. Analyses of sweep-up, ejecta, and fallback material from the 4250 metric ton high explosive test ''MISTY PICTURE'

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.H.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Rawson, G.; Mazzola, T.

    1988-01-01

    The MISTY PICTURE surface burst was detonated at the White Sands Missle range in May of 1987. The Los Alamos National Laboratory dust characterization program was expanded to help correlate and interrelate aspects of the overall MISTY PICTURE dust and ejecta characterization program. Pre-shot sampling of the test bed included composite samples from 15 to 75 m distance from Surface Ground Zero (SGZ) representing depths down to 2.5 m, interval samples from 15 to 25 m from SGZ representing depths down to 3m, and samples of surface material (top 0.5 cm) out to distances of 190 m from SGZ. Sweep-up samples were collected in GREG/SNOB gages located within the DPR. All samples were dry-sieved between 8.0 mm and 0.045 mm (16 size fractures); selected samples were analyzed for fines by a contrifugal settling technique. The size distributions were analyzed using spectral decomposition based upon a sequential fragmentation model. Results suggest that the same particle size subpopulations are present in the ejecta, fallout, and sweep-up samples as are present in the pre-shot test bed. The particle size distribution in post-shot environments apparently can be modelled taking into account heterogeneities in the pre-shot test bed and dominant wind direction during and following the shot. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Exploring a Detonation Nature of Mesoscopic Perturbations and Ejecta Formation from the Mesoscale Probing of the PBX-driven Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaksin, Igor; Guiruis, Raafat; Rodrigues, Luis; Mendes, Ricardo; Plaksin, Svyatoslav; Fernandes, Eduardo; Ferreira, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Ejecting debris from free surface of liner is of considerable interest at optimization of explosive devices, in which the PBX-driven liner effects shock compression of gaseous matter. Following factors were historically considered as main drivers of material ejection: granular microstructure of liner material, roughness and surface defects of liner, and shock pressure time history in PBX-driven liner. In contrast to existing models, we are considering the small scale fluctuations of detonation flow as probable dominating factor of surface jetting in the PBX-driven collapsing liners. Obtained experimental evidence is indicative that jetting from the liners is caused by meso-scale perturbations of PBX detonations, which are identified as (1) ejecta of overdriven detonation products through detonation front, (2) ejecta-driven detonation cells, and (3) galloping detonation front motion. Spatially resolved scenarios of each of phenomena (1-3) were obtained in experiments with copper-liners and HMX-based PBXs fabricated on maximum packing density of crystalline constituents. Both the DRZ-induced perturbations translated to a PBX-driven liner and the ejected debris were recorded and quantitatively measured in the mesoscale range with application of the 96-channel optical analyzer MCOA-UC. Work was supported by the ONR and ONR Global Grants N00014-12-1-0477 and N62909-12-1-7131 with Drs. Clifford Bedford and John Zimmerman Program Managers.

  4. Fractal dimensions of rampart impact craters on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ching, Delwyn; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Bruno, Barbara C.

    1993-01-01

    Ejecta blanket morphologies of Martian rampart craters may yield important clues to the atmospheric densities during impact, and the nature of target materials (e.g., hard rock, fine-grained sediments, presence of volatiles). In general, the morphologies of such craters suggest emplacement by a fluidized, ground hugging flow instead of ballistic emplacement by dry ejecta. We have quantitatively characterized the shape of the margins of the ejecta blankets of 15 rampart craters using fractal geometry. Our preliminary results suggest that the craters are fractals and are self-similar over scales of approximately 0.1 km to 30 km. Fractal dimensions (a measure of the extent to which a line fills a plane) range from 1.06 to 1.31. No correlations of fractal dimension with target type, elevation, or crater size were observed, though the data base is small. The range in fractal dimension and lack of correlation may be due to a complex interplay of target properties (grain size, volatile content), atmospheric pressure, and crater size. The mere fact that the ejecta margins are fractals, however, indicates that viscosity and yield strength of the ejecta were at least as low as those of basalts, because silicic lava flows are not generally fractals.

  5. Multiple impacts across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; Stinnesbeck, W.; Adatte, T.; Stüben, D.

    2003-09-01

    The stratigraphy and age of altered impact glass (microtektites, microkrystites) ejecta layers from the Chicxulub crater are documented in Late Maastrichtian and Early Danian sediments in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Haiti. In northeastern Mexico, two to four ejecta layers are present in zone CF1, which spans the last 300 ky of the Maastrichtian. The oldest ejecta layer is dated at 65.27±0.03 Ma based on sediment accumulation rates and extrapolated magnetostratigraphy. All younger ejecta layers from the Maastrichtian and Early Danian Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina zone Pla(l) may represent repeated episodes of reworking of the oldest layer at times of sea level changes and tectonic activity. The K/T boundary impact event (65.0 Ma) is not well represented in this area due to widespread erosion. An Early Danian Pla(l) Ir anomaly is present in five localities (Bochil, Actela, Coxquihui, Trinitaria and Haiti) and is tentatively identified as a third impact event at about 64.9 Ma. A multiimpact scenario is most consistent with the impact ejecta evidence. The first impact is associated with major Deccan volcanism and likely contributed to the rapid global warming of 3-4 °C in intermediate waters between 65.4 and 65.2 Ma, decrease in primary productivity and onset of terminal decline in planktic foraminiferal populations. The K/T boundary impact marks a major drop in primary productivity and the extinction of all tropical and subtropical species. The Early Danian impact may have contributed to the delayed recovery in productivity and evolutionary diversity.

  6. Momentum transfer from oblique impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Gault, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    A completely satisfactory experiment would be in a low gravity environment where the effect of momentum imparted by ejecta impacting the surface can be removed or controlled from momentum transfer during impact. Preliminary estimates can be made using a ballistic pendulum. Such experiments were initiated at the NASA-Ames Vertical Gun Range in order to examine momentum transfer due to impact vaporization for oblique impacts. The preliminary results indicate that momentum from oblique impacts is very inefficient: decreasing with increasing impact velocity and perhaps size; increasing with decreasing density; and increasing with increasing impact angle. At face value, such results minimize the effect of momentum transfer by grazing impact; the more probable impact angles of 30 deg would have a greater effect, contrary to the commonly held impression.

  7. Modeling SNR Cassiopeia A from the Supernova Explosion to its Current Age: The Role of Post-explosion Anisotropies of Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Bocchino, F.

    2016-05-01

    The remnants of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) have complex morphologies that may reflect asymmetries and structures developed during the progenitor SN explosion. Here we investigate how the morphology of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) reflects the characteristics of the progenitor SN with the aim of deriving the energies and masses of the post-explosion anisotropies responsible for the observed spatial distribution of Fe and Si/S. We model the evolution of Cas A from the immediate aftermath of the progenitor SN to the three-dimensional interaction of the remnant with the surrounding medium. The post-explosion structure of the ejecta is described by small-scale clumping of material and larger-scale anisotropies. The hydrodynamic multi-species simulations consider an appropriate post-explosion isotopic composition of the ejecta. The observed average expansion rate and shock velocities can be well reproduced by models with ejecta mass M ej ≈ 4M ⊙ and explosion energy E SN ≈ 2.3 × 1051 erg. The post-explosion anisotropies (pistons) reproduce the observed distributions of Fe and Si/S if they had a total mass of ≈0.25 M ⊙ and a total kinetic energy of ≈1.5 × 1050 erg. The pistons produce a spatial inversion of ejecta layers at the epoch of Cas A, leading to the Si/S-rich ejecta physically interior to the Fe-rich ejecta. The pistons are also responsible for the development of the bright rings of Si/S-rich material which form at the intersection between the reverse shock and the material accumulated around the pistons during their propagation. Our result supports the idea that the bulk of asymmetries observed in Cas A are intrinsic to the explosion.

  8. Ejection and Lofting of Dust from Hypervelocity Impacts on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Hypervelocity impact events mobilize and redistribute fine-grained regolith dust across the surfaces of planetary bodies. The ejecta mass-velocity distribution controls the location and emplacement of these materials. The current flux of material falling on the moon is dominated by small bolides and should cause frequent impacts that eject dust at high speeds. For example, approximately 25 LCROSS-sized (~20-30m diameter) craters are statistically expected to be formed naturally on the moon during any given earth year. When scaled to lunar conditions, the high-speed component of ejecta from hypervelocity impacts can be lofted for significant periods of time (as evidenced by the LCROSS mission results, c.f., Schultz, et al., 2010, Colaprete, et al., 2010). Even at laboratory scales, ejecta can approach orbital velocities; the higher impact speeds and larger projectiles bombarding the lunar surface may permit a significant portion of material to be launched closer to escape velocity. When these ejecta return to the surface (or encounter local topography), they impact at hundreds of meters per second or faster, thereby "scouring" the surface with low mass oblique impacts. While these high-speed ejecta represent only a small fraction of the total ejected mass, the lofting and subsequent ballistic return of this dust has the highest mobilization potential and will be directly applicable to the upcoming LADEE mission. A suite of hypervelocity impact experiments into granular materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). This study incorporates both canonical sand targets and air-fall pumice dust to simulate the mechanical properties of lunar regolith. The implementation of a Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) technique permits non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity distribution within the ejecta curtain by following the path of individual ejecta particles. The PTV system developed at the AVGR uses a series of high-speed cameras (ranging

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration at Lonar Crater, India and Elemental Variations in Impact Crater Clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Misra, S.; Narasimham, V.

    2005-01-01

    The role of hydrothermal alteration and chemical transport involving impact craters could have occurred on Mars, the poles of Mercury and the Moon, and other small bodies. We are studying terrestrial craters of various sizes in different environments to better understand aqueous alteration and chemical transport processes. The Lonar crater in India (1.8 km diameter) is particularly interesting being the only impact crater in basalt. In January of 2004, during fieldwork in the ejecta blanket around the rim of the Lonar crater we discovered alteration zones not previously described at this crater. The alteration of the ejecta blanket could represent evidence of localized hydrothermal activity. Such activity is consistent with the presence of large amounts of impact melt in the ejecta blanket. Map of one area on the north rim of the crater containing highly altered zones at least 3 m deep is shown.

  10. Ruthenium/Iridium Ratios in the Cretaceous-tertiary Boundary Clay: Implications for Global Dispersal and Fractionation Within the Ejecta Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Noreen Joyce; Goodfellow, W. D.; Gregoire, D. C.; Veizer, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) and iridium (Ir) are the least mobile platinum group elements (PGE's) within the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay (BC). The Ru/Ir ratio is, therefore, the most useful PGE interelement ratio for distinguishing terrestrial and extraterrestrial contributions to the BC. The Ru/Ir ratio of marine K-T sections (1.77 +/- 0.53) is statistically different from that of the continental sections (0.93 +/- 0.28). The marine Ru/Ir ratios are chondritic (C1 = 1.48 +/- 0.09), but the continental ratios are not. We discovered an inverse correlation of shocked quartz size (or distance from the impact site) and Ru/Ir ratio. This correlation may arise from the difference in Ru and Ir vaporization temperature and/or fractionation during condensation from the ejecta cloud. Postsedimentary alteration, remobilization, or terrestrial PGE input may be responsible for the Ru/Ir ratio variations within the groups of marine and continental sites studied. The marine ratios could also be attained if approximately 15 percent of the boundary metals were contributed by Deccan Trap emissions. However, volcanic emissions could not have been the principal source of the PGE's in the BC because mantle PGE ratios and abundances are inconsistent with those measured in the clay. The Ru/Ir values for pristine Tertiary mantle xenoliths (2.6 +/- 0.48), picrites (4.1 +/- 1.8), and Deccan Trap basalt (3.42 +/- 1.96) are all statistically distinct from those measured in the K-T BC.

  11. GK Per (Nova Persei 1901): HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGERY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EJECTA, AND FIRST SPECTRUM OF THE JET-LIKE FEATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Mizusawa, Trisha; De Marco, Orsola; Williams, Robert; Livio, Mario

    2012-06-15

    We have imaged the ejecta of GK Persei (Nova Persei 1901 A.D.) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), whose 0.1 arcsec resolution reveals hundreds of cometary-like structures with long axes aligned toward GK Per. One or both ends of the structures often show a brightness enhancement relative to the structures' middle sections, but there is no simple regularity to their morphologies (in contrast with, for example, the Helix nebula). Some of structures' morphologies suggest the presence of slow-moving or stationary material with which the ejecta is colliding, while others suggest shaping from a wind emanating from GK Per itself. The most detailed expansion map of any classical nova's ejecta was created by comparing HST images taken in successive years. Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 narrowband images and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra demonstrate that the physical conditions in this nova's ejecta vary strongly on spatial scales much smaller than those of the ejecta. Directly measuring accurate densities and compositions, and hence masses of this and other nova shells, will demand data at least as resolved spatially as those presented here. The filling factor of the ejecta is 1% or less, and the nova ejecta mass must be less than 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }. A modest fraction of the emission nebulosities vary in brightness by up to a factor of two on timescales of one year. Finally, we present the deepest images yet obtained of a jet-like feature outside the main body of GK Per nebulosity, and the first spectrum of that feature. Dominated by strong, narrow emission lines of [N II], [O II], [O III], and [S II], this feature is probably a shock due to ejected material running into stationary interstellar matter, slowly moving ejecta from a previous nova episode, or circumbinary matter present before 1901. An upper limit to the mass of the jet is of order a few times 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }. If the jet mass is close to this limit then the jet might be an

  12. Phobos and deimos: Analysis of surface features, ejecta dynamics and a volatile loss mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Greenberg, R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    The question of whether the crater population on Phobos represents a production population or an equilibrium population is considered. The absolute ages of cratered surfaces are interpreted and analyzed. A computer program was developed to study the dynamics of material ejected from Martian satellites and to investigate the hypothesis that at least some of the extensive set of linear features discovered on the surface of Phobos could be the result of secondary cratering from the Stickney impact. The possibility that Deimos was catastrophically disrupted by a large impact but subsequently reaccreted is considered as well as the probability the Phobos had an impact nearly large enough to disrupt it are also discussed.

  13. ESTIMATING THE SIZE OF LATE VENEER IMPACTORS FROM IMPACT-INDUCED MIXING ON MERCURY

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Barr, A. C.

    2014-02-10

    Late accretion of a ''veneer'' of compositionally diverse planetesimals may introduce chemical heterogeneity in the mantles of the terrestrial planets. The size of the late veneer objects is an important control on the angular momenta, eccentricities, and inclinations of the terrestrial planets, but current estimates range from meter-scale bodies to objects with diameters of thousands of kilometers. We use a three-dimensional global Monte Carlo model of impact cratering, excavation, and ejecta blanket formation to show that evidence of mantle heterogeneity can be preserved within ejecta blankets of mantle-exhuming impacts on terrestrial planets. Compositionally distinct provinces implanted at the time of the late veneer are most likely to be preserved in bodies whose subsequent geodynamical evolution is limited. Mercury may have avoided intensive mixing by solid-state convection during much of its history. Its subsequent bombardment may have then excavated evidence of primordial mantle heterogeneity introduced by the late veneer. Simple geometric arguments can predict the amount of mantle material in the ejecta blanket of mantle-exhuming impacts, and deviations in composition relative to geometric predictions can constrain the length-scale of chemical heterogeneities in the subsurface. A marked change in the relationship between mantle and ejecta composition occurs when chemically distinct provinces are ∼250 km in diameter; thus, evidence of bombardment by thousand-kilometer-sized objects should be readily apparent from the variation in compositions of ejecta blankets in Mercury's ancient cratered terrains.

  14. The Detection of Cold Dust in Cassiopeia A: Evidence for the Formation of Metallic Needles in the Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2004-06-01

    Ejecta from core-collapse supernovae contain a few solar masses of refractory elements and therefore can be the most important source of interstellar dust if these elements condense efficiently into solids. However, infrared observations of young supernova remnants, such as Cas A or Kepler, and observations of SN 1987A have detected only ~10-3 Msolar of hot dust in these objects. Recently, Dunne et al. obtained 450 and 850 μm SCUBA images of Cas A and reported the detection of 2-4 Msolar of cold (18 K) dust in the remnant. Here we show that their interpretation of the observations faces serious difficulties. Their inferred dust mass ignores the effect of grain destruction by sputtering and is larger than the mass of refractory material in the ejecta of a 10-30 Msolar star. The cold dust model faces even more difficulties if the 170 μm observations of the remnant are included in the analysis, which decreases the cold dust temperature to ~ 8 K and increases its mass to >~ 20 Msolar. We offer here a more plausible interpretation of their observation, in which the cold dust emission is generated by conducting needles in the ejecta. The needle properties are completely determined by the combined submillimeter and X-ray observations of the remnant. The needles are collisionally heated by the shocked gas. They are very efficient emitters at submillimeter wavelengths and, with a resistivity of a few μΩ cm, can readily attain a temperature of 8 K. Taking the destruction of needles into account, a dust mass of only 10-4 to 10-3 Msolar is needed to account for the observed SCUBA emission. The needles consist of metallic whiskers with <~1% of embedded impurities, which may have condensed out of blobs of material that were expelled at high velocities from the inner metal-rich layers of the star in an asymmetric explosion. Conductive needles may also be the source of the cold dust emission detected by Morgan et al. in Kepler. When aligned in the magnetic field, needles may

  15. AKARI INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.0+1.8: UNVEILING CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM AND SUPERNOVA EJECTA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ho-Gyu; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nozawa, Takaya; Kozasa, Takashi E-mail: isakon@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.j E-mail: koo@astrohi.snu.ac.k E-mail: jeongws@kasi.re.k E-mail: tnozawa@mail.sci.hokudai.ac.j

    2009-11-20

    We present the results of AKARI observations of the O-rich supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8 using six Infrared Camera (IRC) and four Far-Infrared Surveyor bands covering 2.7-26.5 mum and 50-180 mum, respectively. The AKARI images show two prominent structures; a bright equatorial ring (ER) structure along the east-west direction and an outer elliptical shell structure surrounding the remnant. The ER structure is clumpy and incomplete with its western end opened. The outer shell is almost complete and slightly squeezed along the north-south direction. The central position of the outer shell is approx1' northwest from the embedded pulsar and coincides with the center of the ER structure. In the northern and southwestern regions, there is also faint emission with a sharp boundary beyond the bright shell structure. The ER and the elliptical shell structures were partly visible in optical and/or X-rays, but they are much more clearly revealed in our AKARI images. There is no evident difference in infrared colors of the two prominent structures, which is consistent with the previous proposition that both structures are of circumstellar origin. However, we have detected faint infrared emission of a considerably high 15/24 mum ratio associated with the supernova (SN) ejecta in the southeastern and northwestern areas. Our IRC spectra show that the high ratio is at least partly due to the emission lines from Ne ions in the SN ejecta material. In addition, we detect a narrow, elongated feature outside the SNR shell. We derive the physical parameters of the infrared-emitting dust grains in the shocked circumstellar medium (CSM) and compare the result with model calculations of dust destruction by an SN shock. The AKARI results suggest that the progenitor was at the center of the infrared circumstellar shell in the red supergiant stage and that the observed asymmetry in the SN ejecta could be a result of either a dense CSM in the equatorial plane and/or an asymmetric

  16. Correlation of lunar far-side magnetized regions with ringed impact basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, K.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    By the method of electron reflection, we have identified seven well-defined magnetized regions in the equatorial belt of the lunar far side sampled by the Apollo 16 Particles and Fields subsatellite. Most of these surface magnetic fields lie within one basin radius from the rim of a ringed impact basin, where thick deposits of basin ejecta are observed or inferred. The strongest of the seven magnetic features is linear, at least 250 km long, and radial to the Freundlich-Sharonov basin. The apparent correlation with basin ejecta suggests some form of impact origin for the observed permanently magnetized regions. ?? 1979.

  17. Oceanic Impact: Mechanisms and Environmental Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersonde, Rainer (Editor); Deutsch, Alex (Editor); Ivanov, Boris A. (Editor); Kyte, Frank T. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The contents include the following: Oceanic impacts-a growing field of fundamental geoscience. Shock metamorphism on the ocean floor (numerical simulations). Numerical modeling of impact-induced modifications of the deep-sea floor. Computer modelling of the water resurge at a marine impact: the Lockne crater, Sweden. Experimental investigation of the role of water in impact vaporization chemistry. Calcareous plankton stratigraphy around the Pliocene Eltanin asteroid impact area (SE Pacific): documentation and application for geological and paleoceanographic reconstruction. Composition of impact melt debris from the Eltanin impact strewn field, Bellingshausen Sea. Iridium concentrations and abundances of meteoritic ejecta from the Eltanin impact in sediment cores from Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4. Unmelted meteoritic debris collected from Eltanin ejecta in Polarstern cores from expedition ANT XII/4. Impact tsunami-Eltanin. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America. The Mjolnir marine impact crater porosity anomaly. Kardla (Hiiu-maa Island, Estonia) - the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure. Long-term effect of the Kardla crater (Hiiu-maa, Estonia) on Late Ordovician carbonate sedimentation. The middle Devonian Kaluga impact crater (Russia): new interpretation of marine setting.

  18. New observational evidence of global seismic effects of basin-forming impacts on the Moon from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    New maps of kilometer-scale topographic roughness and concavity of the Moon reveal a very distinctive roughness signature of the proximal ejecta deposits of the Orientale basin (the Hevelius Formation). No other lunar impact basin, even the just-preceding Imbrium basin, is characterized by this type of signature although most have similar types of ejecta units and secondary crater structures. The preservation of this distinctive signature, and its lack in basins formed prior to Orientale, is interpreted to be the result of seismically induced smoothing caused by this latest major basin-forming event. Intense seismic waves accompanying the Orientale basin-forming event preceded the emplacement of its ejecta in time and operated to shake and smooth steep and rough topography associated with earlier basin deposits such as Imbrium. Orientale ejecta emplaced immediately following the passage of the seismic waves formed the distinctive roughness signature that has been preserved for almost 4 billion years.

  19. Nature Versus Nurture: Do Asymmetries in Supernova Remnant Ejecta Reflect the Explosion or the Environment of the Progenitor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Laura A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) have statistically more spherical and mirror-symmetric X-ray line and continuum emission than core-collapse (CC) SNRs. The ability to type SNRs based on thermal X-ray emission morphology alone could reflect either the distinct explosion mechanisms or the different circumstellar environments of Type Ia and CC SNRs. In this talk, we present new results exploring this "nature" versus "nurture" conundrum. To test if asymmetries arise from explosions, we examine whether pulsar kick velocities are correlated with ejecta (a)symmetries (as measured using Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT images). We also study Type Ia and CC SNRs in a variety of conditions to search for trends in (a)symmetries with environmental factors (e.g., star-formation activity). Collectively, this work provides new insights into the nature of SN explosions and the dynamical evolution of their remnants.

  20. A Spectral and Morphometric Analysis of a Small Lunar Dome Complex Blanketed by Ejecta in Euclides-J Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdies, Charles

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on a relatively unexplored area located some 33.4 geodetic km away from the central floor of Euclides, in the NE direction, precisely at -6.62° Latitude and -29.89° Longitude. Land-based CCD observations of this area showed a small group of dome-like structures situated on an elevated basaltic platform. One hypothesis is that these features represent a series of mounds made up of a collection of undifferentiated crater materials or ejecta as described by USGS (Geologic Atlas of the Moon. Department of Interior, US Geological Survey—I-458, 1965). This hypothesis is tested against an alternative one in that the area shows the presence of domes that are partly covered by these ejecta. The present spectrometric results place the basalt within the chosen AOI subset in the low-Ti category (1-5 wt% TiO2) and a FeO abundance wt% of between 12 and 14. Spectrometrically, similar dome features have been observed by other investigators near the Milichus/Tobias Mayer regions. A possible classification for this feature would be DW/1a/6h/8j. Details of the cluster analysis used for raster classification is presented as an effective approach to discriminate between different classes of the lunar surface. This approach was used to map the lunar soil geology over the selected showing better lunar geological information than the current mapping information available by USGS. This same approach can be used to effectively map out other regions of the lunar surface.

  1. Abundance patterns of multiple populations in globular clusters: a chemical evolution model based on yields from AGB ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ercole, Annibale; D'Antona, Francesca; Ventura, Paolo; Vesperini, Enrico; McMillan, Stephen L. W.

    2010-09-01

    A large number of spectroscopic studies have provided evidence of the presence of multiple populations in globular clusters by revealing patterns in the stellar chemical abundances. This paper is aimed at studying the origin of these abundance patterns. We explore a model in which second generation (SG) stars form out of a mix of pristine gas and ejecta of the first generation of asymptotic giant branch stars. We first study the constraints imposed by the spectroscopic data of SG stars in globular clusters on the chemical properties of the asymptotic and super asymptotic giant branch ejecta. With a simple one-zone chemical model, we then explore the formation of the SG population abundance patterns focusing our attention on the Na-O, Al-Mg anticorrelations and on the helium distribution function (HDF). We carry out a survey of models and explore the dependence of the final SG chemical properties on the key parameters affecting the gas dynamics and the SG formation process. Finally, we use our chemical evolution framework to build specific models for NGC 2808 and M4, two Galactic globular clusters which show different patterns in the Na-O and Mg-Al anticorrelation and have different helium distributions. We find that the amount of pristine gas involved in the formation of SG stars is a key parameter to fit the observed O-Na and Mg-Al patterns. The HDF for these models is in general good agreement with the observed one. Our models, by shedding light on the role of different parameters and their interplay in determining the final SG chemical properties, illustrate the basic ingredients, constraints and problems encountered in this self-enrichment scenario which must be addressed by more sophisticated chemical and hydrodynamic simulations.

  2. Deep-sea record of impact apparently unrelated to mass extinction in the Late Triassic.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Tetsuji; Sato, Honami; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yoshihiro; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Osawa, Takahito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Toh, Yosuke; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Harada, Hideo; Orchard, Michael J; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2012-11-20

    The 34-million-year (My) interval of the Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on Earth. Late Triassic impact events have been considered a factor in biotic extinction events in the Late Triassic (e.g., end-Triassic extinction event), but this scenario remains controversial because of a lack of stratigraphic records of ejecta deposits. Here, we report evidence for an impact event (platinum group elements anomaly with nickel-rich magnetite and microspherules) from the middle Norian (Upper Triassic) deep-sea sediment in Japan. This includes anomalously high abundances of iridium, up to 41.5 parts per billion (ppb), in the ejecta deposit, which suggests that the iridium-enriched ejecta layers of the Late Triassic may be found on a global scale. The ejecta deposit is constrained by microfossils that suggest correlation with the 215.5-Mya, 100-km-wide Manicouagan impact crater in Canada. Our analysis of radiolarians shows no evidence of a mass extinction event across the impact event horizon, and no contemporaneous faunal turnover is seen in other marine planktons. However, such an event has been reported among marine faunas and terrestrial tetrapods and floras in North America. We, therefore, suggest that the Manicouagan impact triggered the extinction of terrestrial and marine organisms near the impact site but not within the pelagic marine realm. PMID:23129649

  3. Largest impact craters on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Weitz, C. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.

    1992-01-01

    High-resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have allowed us to perform a detailed study on 25 large impact craters on Venus with diameters from 70 to 280 km. The dimension of these large craters is comparable with the characteristic thickness of the venusian lithosphere and the atmospheric scale height. Some physical parameters for the largest impact craters on Venus (LICV), such as depth, ring/diameter ratio, and range of ballistic ejecta deposits, have been obtained from the SAR images and the altimetry dataset produced by MIT. Data related to each of these parameters is discussed.

  4. Analysis of the flux and polarization spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2001el: Exploring the geometry of the high-velocity Ejecta

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Wang, Lifan; Howell, D.A.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Hoeflich, Peter; Baade, Dietrich; Baron, E.; Hauschildt, P.H.

    2003-01-15

    SN 2001el is the first normal Type Ia supernova to show a strong, intrinsic polarization signal. In addition, during the epochs prior to maximum light, the CaII IR triplet absorption is seen distinctly and separately at both normal photospheric velocities and at very high velocities. The unusual, high-velocity triplet absorption is highly polarized, with a different polarization angle than the rest of the spectrum. The unique observation allows us to construct a relatively detailed picture of the layered geometrical structure of the supernova ejecta: in our interpretation, the ejecta layers near the photosphere (v approximately 10,000 km/s) obey a near axial symmetry, while a detached, high-velocity structure (v approximately 18,000-25,000 $ km/s) of CaII line opacity deviates from the photospheric axisymmetry. By partially obscuring the underlying photosphere, the high-velocity structure causes a more incomplete cancellation of the polarization of the photospheric light, and so gives rise to the polarization peak of the high-velocity IR triplet feature. In an effort to constrain the ejecta geometry, we develop a technique for calculating 3-D synthetic polarization spectra and use it to generate polarization profiles for several parameterized configurations. In particular, we examine the case where the inner ejecta layers are ellipsoidal and the outer, high-velocity structure is one of four possibilities: a spherical shell, an ellipsoidal shell, a clumped shell, or a toroid. The synthetic spectra rule out the clearly discriminated if observations are obtained from several different lines of sight. Thus, assuming the high velocity structure observed for SN 2001el is a consistent feature of at least known subset of type Ia supernovae, future observations and analyses such as these may allow one to put strong constraints on the ejecta geometry and hence on supernova progenitors and explosion mechanisms.

  5. On reported occurrences of shock-deformed clasts in the volcanic ejecta from Toba caldera, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Schuraytz, B. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reports of shock-deformed phenocrysts from the Toba ignimbrite deposits, Sumatra, have prompted considerable debate over whether shock-deformation products are clear evidence of a meteorite impact origin for the K/T boundary deposits as well as terresrial 'cryptoexplosion' structures. Evidence presented in favor of volcanically induced shock at Toba includes kinked biotites and rare occurrences of single set of lamellae in quartz grains but rests most heavily upon occurrences of mosaic extinction patterns in plagioclase phenocrysts. The present analysis of several of the same Toba samples reveals that these mosaic patterns ae related to distinct compositional zoning and cannot be attributed to deformation of the crystal lattice that shock would produce. Additionally, in more than 200 quartz grains examined, no occurrences of microdeformation features or mosaic textures similar to those associated with known impact structures and the K/T boundary are detected. It is concluded that evidence of shock deformation in the Toba deposits has not been demonstrated.

  6. Venus - Impact Crater in Eastern Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image, which is 50 kilometers (31 miles) in width and 80 kilometers (50 miles) in length, is centered at 11.9 degrees latitude, 352 degrees longitude in the eastern Navka Region of Venus. The crater, which is approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) in diameter, displays a butterfly symmetry pattern. The ejecta pattern most likely results from an oblique impact, where the impactor came from the south and ejected material to the north.

  7. Atmospheric effects on oblique impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations often use vertical impact angles (90 deg) in order to avoid the complicating effect of asymmetry. Nevertheless, oblique impacts represent the most likely starting condition for planetary cratering. Changing both impact angles and atmospheric pressure not only allows testing previous results for vertical impacts but also reveals phenomena whose signatures would otherwise be masked in the planetary cratering record. The laboratory studies were performed for investigating impact cratering processes. Impact angles can be increased from 0 to 90 deg in 15 deg increments while maintaining a flat target surface. Different atmospheres (nitrogen, argon, and helium) characterized the effects of both gas density and Mach number. Targets varied according to purpose. Because of the complexities in atmosphere-impactor-ejecta interactions, no single combination allows direct simulation of a planetary-scale (10-100 km) event. Nevertheless, fundamental processes and observed phenomena allow formulating first-order models at such broad scales.

  8. USING THE X-RAY MORPHOLOGY OF YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANTS TO CONSTRAIN EXPLOSION TYPE, EJECTA DISTRIBUTION, AND CHEMICAL MIXING

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Laura A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Badenes, Carles; Pooley, David A.

    2011-05-10

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are a complex class of sources, and their heterogeneous nature has hindered the characterization of their general observational properties. To overcome this challenge, in this paper, we use statistical tools to analyze the Chandra X-ray images of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs. We apply two techniques, a power-ratio method (a multipole expansion) and wavelet-transform analysis, to measure the global and local morphological properties of the X-ray line and thermal emission in 24 SNRs. We find that Type Ia SNRs have statistically more spherical and mirror-symmetric thermal X-ray emission than core-collapse (CC) SNRs. The ability to type SNRs based on thermal emission morphology alone enables, for the first time, the typing of SNRs with weak X-ray lines and those with low-resolution spectra. Based on our analyses, we identify one source (SNR G344.7-0.1) as originating from a CC explosion that was of unknown origin previously; we also confirm the tentative Type Ia classifications of G337.2-0.7 and G272.2-3.2. Although the global morphology is indicative of the explosion type, the relative morphology of the X-ray line emission within SNRs is not: all sources in our sample have well-mixed ejecta, irrespective of stellar origin. In particular, we find that 90% of the bright metal-line-emitting substructures are spatially coincident and have similar scales, even if the metals arise from different burning processes. Moreover, the overall X-ray line morphologies within each SNR are the same, with <6% differences. These findings reinforce observationally that hydrodynamical instabilities can efficiently mix ejecta in Type Ia and CC SNRs. The only exception is W49B, which can be attributed to its jet-driven/bipolar explosive origin. Based on comparative analyses across our sample, we describe several observational constraints that can be used to test hydrodynamical models of SNR evolution; notably, the filling factor of X-ray emission

  9. A Study of SN Ejecta in the Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8: Cas A's Older Cousin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert

    2006-07-01

    Recent studies of the southern oxygen-rich supernova remnant {SNR} G292.0+1.8 have shown it to be the only Galactic SNR to exhibit all the features we expect in young remnants of core-collapse supernovae: an outer shell behind an expanding primary shock, high-velocity fragments of undiluted metal-rich ejecta, and a central pulsar surrounded by a pulsar-wind nebula. G292.0+1.8's optical emission consists of numerous knots and filaments of O- and S-rich ejecta spread throughout much of the remnant shell, many with radially oriented pencil-like geometries that may trace their origins to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the SN event. The evolution and fine-scale structure of SN debris in young remnants is poorly understood and largely uncharted territory. For testing models for the distribution of metal-rich ejecta from core-collapse SNe, how the ejecta evolve and clump, and how SN shocks interact with the local circumstellar medium, the 3000-yr-old G292.0+1.8 remnant rivals the 320-yr-old Cas A remnant in importance. We therefore propose the first HST images of G292.0+1.8 in order to characterize the fine-scale spatial distribution of the ejecta, their sub-arcsecond chemical make-up, and the detailed structure and scale lengths for metal-rich SN ejecta clumps. The proposed HST images of G292.0+1.8 will be used in conjunction with existing Spitzer Cycle 1 infrared data and an upcoming 0.5 Msec Chandra X-ray image. We expect to achieve the same kind of results for G292 that have already been obtained for Cas A. High-resolution HST images of this remnant, combined with Spitzer and Chandra data and contrasted with a similar data set on Cas A, will provide superb multiwavelength benchmarks for both very young and older core-collapse SNRs.

  10. Bilateral symmetry elements of the Zhamanshin impact crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masaytis, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    The internal structure of the Zhamanshin impact structure and the nature of rocks developed within it are studied to establish the impact structure parameters. It is found that the diameter of the visible crater is about 13 km. The small annular structures observed are found to not be secondary craters, and no correlation is found between the asymmetrical distribution of ejecta material and the arrangement of these annular forms.

  11. Atmospheric effects on ejecta emplacement and crater formation on Venus from Magellan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.

    1992-01-01

    Surface signatures of energy partitioning are used as a framework for testing extrapolations from laboratory experiments and other planetary settings to assess the effects of both gravity and an atmosphere on impact crater formation on Venus. The dense lower atmosphere of Venus is found to assume the role of a low-density target for bodies smaller than about 4 km in diameter. Air blasts created by cratering in the atmosphere produce distinctive surface signatures that allow the derivation of an independent assessment of impactor energy at the limit of break up. Dynamic pressures during entry of larger bodies will exceed their strength limit but may not prevent penetration of the atmosphere due to aerodynamic reshaping that minimizes the drag coefficient. This process may account for the formation of unusually small craters (1-3 km). The dense atmosphere of Venus preserves signatures of early time cratering processes on the surface that are typically lost on atmosphere-free surfaces.

  12. Meteoritic Microfossils In Eltanin Impact Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyte, F. T.; Wollenburg, J.; Gersonde, R.; Kuhn, G.

    2006-12-01

    Introduction: We report the unique occurrence of microfossils composed largely of meteoritic ejecta particles from the late Pliocene (2.5 Ma) Eltanin impact event. These deposits are unique, recording the only known km- sized asteroid impact into a deep-ocean (5 km) basin. First discovered as in Ir anomaly in sediment cores that were collected in 1965, the deposits contain mm-sized shock-melted asteroidal material, unmelted meteorite fragments (named the Eltanin meteorite), and trace impact spherules. Two oceanographic expeditions by the FS Polarstern in 1995 and 2001 explored 80,000 square km of the impact region, mapping the distribution of meteoritic ejecta, disturbance of seafloor sediments by the impact, and collected 20 new cores with impact deposits in the vicinity of the Freeden Seamounts (57.3S, 90.5W). Analyses of sediment cores show that the impact disrupted sediments on the ocean floor, redepositing them as a chaotic jumble of sediment fragments overlain by a sequence of laminated sands, silts and clays deposited from the water column. Overprinted on this is a pulse of meteoritic ejecta, likely transported ballistically, then settled through the water column. At some localities, meteoritic ejecta was as much as 5 to 50 kg per square meter. This is the most meteorite-rich locality known on Earth. Results: Two cores were taken in a basin near the top of the Freeden Seamounts at a water depth of 2.7 km. Sediments in this shallow basin are compositionally different than those at all other sites as they contain abundant calcareous microfossils. In deeper water sites (4 to 5 km depth), higher pressures and CO2 concentrations cause dissolution of calcite and sediments contain siliceous (opal) microfossils or are barren. An exception to this is a few sites in the immediate vicinity of the seamounts that contain calcareous sediments that flowed off the seamounts after being disturbed by the impact. At the top of the seamounts, sediments with meteoritic ejecta

  13. The Impact Environment of the Hadean Earth at the Dawn of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O.; Kring, D. A.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Impact bombardments in the first billion years of Solar System history determined in large part the initial physical and chemical states of the terrestrial planets and their potential to host biospheres. The range of physical states and thermal consequences of the impact epoch, however, is not well quantified. Here, we assess these effects on the young Earth's crust with special emphasis on the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) - a putative spike in the number of impacts at about 3.9 Gyr ago - using several different numerical modeling and analytical techniques. A comprehensive array of impact-produced heat sources was evaluated, which includes shock heating, impact melt generation, uplift, and ejecta heating. Results indicate that ~1.5 - 2.5 vol. % of the upper 20 km of the crust was melted in the LHB, with only ~0.3 - 1.5 vol. % in a molten state at any given time. The model predicts that approximately 5 to 10% of the Earth's surface area was covered by > 1 km deep impact melt sheets. A global average of ~600-800 m of ejecta and ~800-1000 m of condensed rock vapor is predicted to have been deposited at that time, with most of the condensed rock vapor produced by the largest (> 100-km) projectiles. Two- and three- dimensional models of post-impact cooling of ejecta and craters, coupled to diffusion models of radiogenic Pb*-loss in zircons were used to evaluate what the cumulative effects of putative LHB-induced age resetting would be of Hadean zircons on a global scale. Zircons entrained in ejecta are projected have the following average global distribution after the end of the LHB: ~59% with no impact-induced Pb*-loss, ~26% with partial Pb*-loss, and ~15% with complete Pb*-loss or destruction of the grain. In addition to the relatively high erodibility of ejecta, our results show that if the ca. 3.9 Gyr old zones documented in the Jack Hills zircons are a signature of the LHB, they were most likely sourced from impact ejecta. Degree of melting in the upper 20 km of

  14. Earth's Archean Impact Record In The ICDP Drilling "Barberton Mountain Land".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Jörg; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas; Reimold, Uwe; Koeberl, Christian; Mc Donald, Ian; Hofmann, Axel; Luais, Beatrice

    2013-04-01

    The marine meta-sedimentary successions in the "Barberton Mountain Land" are formed by Archean volcanic and sedimentary rocks including the oldest known impact ejecta layers on Earth. The chemical signature (high iridium concentrations, chromium isotopic ratios) of some of these up to tens of cm thick Archean spherule layers advocate that these ejecta deposits represent mainly extraterrestrial material [1]. These ejecta layers contain millimetre sized spherules that are larger and accumulated thicker layers compared to any impact ejecta layer known from Phanerozoic sediments, including the global ejecta layer of the Chicxulub impact catering event terminating the Mesozoic era of Earth's history [2]. The Archean spherule layers are interpreted as products of large impacts by 20 to >100 km diameter objects [3, 4]. Identifying traces of mega-impacts in Earth's ancient history could be of relevance for the evolution of atmosphere, biosphere, and parts of the Earth's crust during that time. In addition, recognizing global stratigraphic marker horizons is highly valuable for inter-correlating sedimentary successions between Archean cratons [5]. However estimates regarding size of the impact event and correlations between the different outcrops in the Barberton mountain land are complicated by post depositional alterations of the tectonically deformed sediments [6, 7]. The relatively fresh samples recovered from below the water table during the 2011-2012 ICDP drilling "Barberton Mountain Land" are promising samples to investigate and to discriminate primary and secondary features of these rare rocks. We plan to conduct 1) petrographic, micro-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the impact ejecta layers, 2) bulk chemical analyses of major and trace elements, and 3) LAICP- MS elemental mapping of platinum group element (PGE) distributions. and elemental analyses of moderately siderophile elements. This aims at 1) characterization of the ejecta layers, 2

  15. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are

  16. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY EMITTING EJECTA IN TYCHO’S SNR: INDICATIONS OF SHOCKED TITANIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Miceli, M.; Sciortino, S.; Orlando, S.; Troja, E.

    2015-06-01

    Young supernova remnants (SNRs) show characteristic ejecta-dominated X-ray emission that allows us to probe the products of explosive nucleosynthesis processes and to ascertain important information about the physics of supernova explosions. Hard X-ray observations have recently revealed the presence of the radioactive decay lines of {sup 44}Ti at ∼67.9 and ∼78.4 keV in Tycho’s SNR. Here, we analyze a set of XMM-Newton archive observations of Tycho’s SNR. We produce equivalent width (EW) maps of the Fe K and Ca xix emission lines and find indications for a stratification of the abundances of these elements and significant anisotropies. We then perform spatially resolved spectral analysis by identifying five different regions characterized by high/low values of the Fe K EW. We find that the spatial distribution of the Fe K emission is correlated with that of Cr xxii. We also detect the Ti K line complex in the spectra extracted from the two regions with the highest values of Fe and Cr EWs. The Ti line emission remains undetected in regions where Fe and Cr EWs are low. Our results indicate that the post-shock Ti is spatially colocated with other iron-peak nuclei in Tycho’s SNR, in agreement with the predictions of multi-D models of SNe Ia.

  17. A numeral model to simulate the chemical processing of volcanic ejecta in eruption plumes and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Hort, Marthias; Brasseur, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject tremendous amount of gases and particles into the atmosphere that can notably affect different components of the climate system. The scale of such impacts strongly depends on the eruption magnitude as well as the physicochemical properties of the erupted material, which are mainly shaped during the atmospheric transport within the eruption plume and cloud. For instance, the radiative forcing of an eruption through backscattering the incoming solar radiation depends on the amount and properties of the sulfate aerosols formed as the result of in-cloud processes including chemical conversion of volcanic SO2 to sulfate. The rate, pathway and efficiency of this conversion can therefore significantly influence the radiative forcing posed by the eruption. Models that can simulate such in-plume and in-cloud processes are rare. Here we present the framework and initial results of a numerical model that simulates the chemical interaction of gas, ash and aerosols within the volcanic eruption plumes and clouds. The chemical mechanism takes into account the gaseous and aqueous chemistry as well as the gas-aerosol partitioning within a fully-coupled scheme. In other words, it is capable of modeling the changes in the gas, liquid and solid phase separately as well as the interactions between phases. For instance, the results show that the ash dissolution reduces the acidity of its liquid coating and thus, enhances the scavenging of SO2 and HCl. The potential application of the model in volcanology, geochemistry and atmospheric sciences are discussed.

  18. DYNAMICS OF X-RAY-EMITTING EJECTA IN THE OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT PUPPIS A REVEALED BY THE XMM-NEWTON REFLECTION GRATING SPECTROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tamagawa, Toru; Ohira, Yutaka; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2013-05-10

    Using the unprecedented spectral resolution of the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board XMM-Newton, we reveal dynamics of X-ray-emitting ejecta in the oxygen-rich supernova remnant Puppis A. The RGS spectrum shows prominent K-shell lines, including O VII He{alpha} forbidden and resonance, O VIII Ly{alpha}, O VIII Ly{beta}, and Ne IX He{alpha} resonance, from an ejecta knot positionally coincident with an optical oxygen-rich filament (the so-called {Omega} filament) in the northeast of the remnant. We find that the line centroids are blueshifted by 1480 {+-} 140 {+-} 60 km s{sup -1} (the first and second term errors are measurement and calibration uncertainties, respectively), which is fully consistent with that of the optical {Omega} filament. Line broadening at 654 eV (corresponding to O VIII Ly{alpha}) is obtained to be {sigma} {approx}< 0.9 eV, indicating an oxygen temperature of {approx}< 30 keV. Analysis of XMM-Newton MOS spectra shows an electron temperature of {approx}0.8 keV and an ionization timescale of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} s. We show that the oxygen and electron temperatures as well as the ionization timescale can be reconciled if the ejecta knot was heated by a collisionless shock whose velocity is {approx}600-1200 km s{sup -1} and was subsequently equilibrated due to Coulomb interactions. The RGS spectrum also shows relatively weak K-shell lines of another ejecta feature located near the northeastern edge of the remnant, from which we measure redward Doppler velocities of 650 {+-} 70 {+-} 60 km s{sup -1}.

  19. Geomorphologic mapping of the lunar crater Tycho and its impact melt deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, T.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-07-01

    Using SELENE/Kaguya Terrain Camera and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data, we produced a new, high-resolution (10 m/pixel), geomorphological and impact melt distribution map for the lunar crater Tycho. The distal ejecta blanket and crater rays were investigated using LROC wide-angle camera (WAC) data (100 m/pixel), while the fine-scale morphologies of individual units were documented using high resolution (∼0.5 m/pixel) LROC narrow-angle camera (NAC) frames. In particular, Tycho shows a large coherent melt sheet on the crater floor, melt pools and flows along the terraced walls, and melt pools on the continuous ejecta blanket. The crater floor of Tycho exhibits three distinct units, distinguishable by their elevation and hummocky surface morphology. The distribution of impact melt pools and ejecta, as well as topographic asymmetries, support the formation of Tycho as an oblique impact from the W-SW. The asymmetric ejecta blanket, significantly reduced melt emplacement uprange, and the depressed uprange crater rim at Tycho suggest an impact angle of ∼25-45°.

  20. Ejection of heavy elements from the stellar core to the periphery of the cloud of ejecta during a supernova explosion: A possible model of the processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmitrenko, N. V.; Rozanov, V. B.; Stepanov, R. V.; Yakhin, R. A.; Belyaev, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    The possibility of simulating the processes during supernova explosions in laboratory conditions using powerful lasers (laboratory astrophysics) is investigated. The Chandra observations of ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant are analyzed. Based on the DIANA and NUTCY numerical codes, we have performed 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations of the ejecta expansion dynamics for a supernova with a mass of ˜5-15 solar masses within several hundred seconds after its explosion, including an initial asymmetry. We propose a model for the explosion and expansion of ejecta that illustrates strong inhomogeneities in the distribution of material to the extent that the Fe, Si, and S material from the stellar center turns out to be ejected to the periphery, the "star turns inside out," in agreement with observations. Based on hydrodynamic similarity criteria, we consider possible supernova-simulating laser targets that will allow one to reproduce the physical processes that take place during the explosion of an astrophysical object, such as the shock propagation through the material, the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the boundaries of envelopes with different densities, etc.

  1. Fresh, Rayed Impact Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-416, 9 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a fresh, young meteor impact crater on the martian surface. It is less than 400 meters (less than 400 yards) across. While there is no way to know the exact age of this or any other martian surface feature, the rays are very well preserved. On a planet where wind can modify surface features at the present time, a crater with rayed ejecta patterns must be very young indeed. Despite its apparent youth, the crater could still be many hundreds of thousands, if not several million, of years old. This impact scar is located within the much larger Crommelin Crater, near 5.6oN, 10.0oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  2. Impact-generated winds on Venus: Causes and effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Pater H.

    1992-01-01

    The pressure of the dense atmosphere of Venus significantly changes the appearance of ejecta deposits relative to craters on the Moon and Mercury. Conversely, specific styles and sequences of ejecta emplacement can be inferred to represent different intensities of atmospheric response winds acting over different timescales. Three characteristic timescales can be inferred from the geologic record: surface scouring and impactor-controlled (angle and direction) initiation of the long fluidized run-out flows; nonballistic emplacement of inner, radar-bright ejecta facies and radar-dark outer facies; and very late reworking of surface materials. These three timescales roughly correspond to processes observed in laboratory experiments that can be scaled to conditions on Venus (with appropriate assumptions): coupling between the atmosphere and earlytime vapor/melt (target and impactor) that produces an intense shock that subsequently evolves into blast/response winds; less energetic dynamic response of the atmosphere to the outward-moving ballistic ejecta curtain that generates nonthermal turbulent eddies; and late recovery of the atmosphere to impact-generated thermal and pressure gradients expressed as low-energy but long-lived winds. These different timescales and processes can be viewed as the atmosphere equivalent of shock melting, material motion, and far-field seismic response in the target. The three processes (early Processes, Atmospheric Processes, and Late Recovery Winds) are discussed at length.

  3. Experimental studies of oblique impact. [of meteorites on planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Wedekind, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Meteoritic materials most probably impact planetary bodies along oblique trajectories inclined less than 45 deg above their surfaces. Laboratory studies of hypervelocity impacts against rock and particulate media are presented that indicate important effects of obliquity on crater size, shape, and ejecta distribution. The effects are particularly important to crater size-frequency analyses and geologic interpretations of crater formations. Impacts at shallow incidence, which are not uncommon, lead to ricochet of the impacting object accompanied with some entrained excavated materials at velocities only slightly reduced from the pre-impact value.

  4. The meteorite impact-induced tsunami hazard.

    PubMed

    Wünnemann, K; Weiss, R

    2015-10-28

    When a cosmic object strikes the Earth, it most probably falls into an ocean. Depending on the impact energy and the depth of the ocean, a large amount of water is displaced, forming a temporary crater in the water column. Large tsunami-like waves originate from the collapse of the cavity in the water and the ejecta splash. Because of the far-reaching destructive consequences of such waves, an oceanic impact has been suggested to be more severe than a similar-sized impact on land; in other words, oceanic impacts may punch over their weight. This review paper summarizes the process of impact-induced wave generation and subsequent propagation, whether the wave characteristic differs from tsunamis generated by other classical mechanisms, and what methods have been applied to quantify the consequences of an oceanic impact. Finally, the impact-induced tsunami hazard will be evaluated by means of the Eltanin impact event. PMID:26392614

  5. The meteorite impact-induced tsunami hazard.

    PubMed

    Wünnemann, K; Weiss, R

    2015-10-28

    When a cosmic object strikes the Earth, it most probably falls into an ocean. Depending on the impact energy and the depth of the ocean, a large amount of water is displaced, forming a temporary crater in the water column. Large tsunami-like waves originate from the collapse of the cavity in the water and the ejecta splash. Because of the far-reaching destructive consequences of such waves, an oceanic impact has been suggested to be more severe than a similar-sized impact on land; in other words, oceanic impacts may punch over their weight. This review paper summarizes the process of impact-induced wave generation and subsequent propagation, whether the wave characteristic differs from tsunamis generated by other classical mechanisms, and what methods have been applied to quantify the consequences of an oceanic impact. Finally, the impact-induced tsunami hazard will be evaluated by means of the Eltanin impact event.

  6. Trioctahedral micas in xenolithic ejecta from recent volcanism of the Somma-Vesuvius (Italy): Crystal chemistry and genetic inferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balassone, Giuseppina; Scordari, Fernando; Lacalamita, Maria; Schingaro, Emanuela; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Petti, Carmela; Mondillo, Nicola

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the first crystal chemical database resulting from a detailed structural investigation of trioctahedral micas found in xenolithic ejecta produced during the AD 1631, 1872 and 1944 eruptions, three explosive episodes of recent volcanic period of Vesuvius volcano (Southern Italy). Three xenolith types were selected: metamorphic/metasomatic skarns, pyrometamorphic/hydrothermally altered nodules and mafic cumulates. They are related to different magma chemistry and effusive styles: from sub-plinian and most evolved (AD 1631 eruption) to violent strombolian with medium evolution degree (AD 1872 eruption) to vulcanian-effusive, least evolved (AD 1944 eruption) event, respectively. Both xenoliths and micas were investigated employing multiple techniques: the xenoliths were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and quantitative energy-dispersive microanalysis; the micas were studied by electron probe microanalysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The mica-bearing xenoliths show variable texture and mineralogical assemblage, clearly related to their different origin. Based on the major oxide chemistry, only one xenolithic sample falls in the skarn compositional field from the Somma-Vesuvius literature, some fall close to the skarns and cumulate fields, others plot close to the syenite/foidolite/essexite field. A subgroup of the selected ejecta does not fall or approach any of the compositional fields. Trace and rare earth element patterns show some petrological affinity between studied xenoliths and erupted magmas with typical Eu, Ta and Nb negative anomalies. Strongly depleted patterns were detected for the 1631 metamorphic/metasomatic skarns xenoliths. Three distinct mica groups were distinguished: 1) Mg-, Al-rich, low Ti-bearing, low to moderate F-bearing varieties (1631 xenolith), 2) Al-moderate, F- and Mg-rich, Ti-, Fe-poor varieties (1872 xenolith), and 3

  7. The 2D Distribution of Iron-rich Ejecta in the Remnant of SN 1885 in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Höflich, Peter A.; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2015-05-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet Fe i and Fe ii images of the remnant of Supernova 1885 (S And) which is observed in absorption against the bulge of the Andromeda galaxy, M31. We compare these Fe i and Fe ii absorption line images to previous HST absorption images of S And, of which the highest quality and theoretically cleanest is Ca ii H and K. Because the remnant is still in free expansion, these images provide a 2D look at the distribution of iron synthesized in this probable Type Ia explosion, thus providing insights and constraints for theoretical SN Ia models. The Fe i images show extended absorption offset to the east from the remnant’s center as defined by Ca ii images and is likely an ionization effect due to self-shielding. More significant is the remnant’s apparent Fe ii distribution which consists of four streams or plumes of Fe-rich material seen in absorption that extend from remnant center out to about 10,000 km s-1. This is in contrast to the remnant’s Ca ii absorption, which is concentrated in a clumpy, broken shell spanning velocities of 1000-5000 km s-1 but which extends out to 12,500 km s-1. The observed distributions of Ca- and Fe-rich ejecta in the SN 1885 remnant are consistent with delayed detonation white dwarf models. The largely spherical symmetry of the Ca-rich layer argues against a highly anisotropic explosion as might result from a violent merger of two white dwarfs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract No. NAS5-26555.

  8. THE 2D DISTRIBUTION OF IRON-RICH EJECTA IN THE REMNANT OF SN 1885 IN M31

    SciTech Connect

    Fesen, Robert A.; Höflich, Peter A.; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2015-05-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet Fe i and Fe ii images of the remnant of Supernova 1885 (S And) which is observed in absorption against the bulge of the Andromeda galaxy, M31. We compare these Fe i and Fe ii absorption line images to previous HST absorption images of S And, of which the highest quality and theoretically cleanest is Ca ii H and K. Because the remnant is still in free expansion, these images provide a 2D look at the distribution of iron synthesized in this probable Type Ia explosion, thus providing insights and constraints for theoretical SN Ia models. The Fe i images show extended absorption offset to the east from the remnant’s center as defined by Ca ii images and is likely an ionization effect due to self-shielding. More significant is the remnant’s apparent Fe ii distribution which consists of four streams or plumes of Fe-rich material seen in absorption that extend from remnant center out to about 10,000 km s{sup −1}. This is in contrast to the remnant’s Ca ii absorption, which is concentrated in a clumpy, broken shell spanning velocities of 1000–5000 km s{sup −1} but which extends out to 12,500 km s{sup −1}. The observed distributions of Ca- and Fe-rich ejecta in the SN 1885 remnant are consistent with delayed detonation white dwarf models. The largely spherical symmetry of the Ca-rich layer argues against a highly anisotropic explosion as might result from a violent merger of two white dwarfs.

  9. Apollo 16 site geology and impact melts - Implications for the geologic history of the lunar highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Spudis, P.D.

    1984-11-15

    The geology of the Apollo 16 site is reconsidered on the basis of data from photogeology, geochemical remote sensing, and lunar samples. The site possesses an upper surface of anorthositic gabbro and related rocks. Mafic components were deposited as basin ejecta. The events involved in its geological evolution were the Nectaris impact and the Imbrium impact. The role of large, local craters in the history of the region was to serve as topographic depressions to accumulate basin ejecta. The most abundant melt composition at Apollo 16 is an aluminous variety of LKFM basalt supplied by the Nectaris impact as ejected basin impact melt. The mafic LKFM melt may have been supplied by the Imbrium impact. More aluminous melt groups are probably derived from local, small craters. The remainder of the deposits in the region are composed of anorthositic clastic debris derived from the Nectaris basin, the local crustal substrate, and Imbrium and other basins.

  10. Apollo 16 site geology and impact melts - Implications for the geologic history of the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    The geology of the Apollo 16 site is reconsidered on the basis of data from photogeology, geochemical remote sensing, and lunar samples. The site possesses an upper surface of anorthositic gabbro and related rocks. Mafic components were deposited as basin ejecta. The events involved in its geological evolution were the Nectaris impact and the Imbrium impact. The role of large, local craters in the history of the region was to serve as topographic depressions to accumulate basin ejecta. The most abundant melt composition at Apollo 16 is an aluminous variety of LKFM basalt supplied by the Nectaris impact as ejected basin impact melt. The mafic LKFM melt may have been supplied by the Imbrium impact. More aluminous melt groups are probably derived from local, small craters. The remainder of the deposits in the region are composed of anorthositic clastic debris derived from the Nectaris basin, the local crustal substrate, and Imbrium and other basins.

  11. Evidence for a Tsunamigenic Impact Event in the New York Metropolitan Area Approximately 2300 B.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagen, K. T.; Abbott, D.; Nitsche, F.; West, A.; Bunch, T.; Breger, D.; Slagle, A.; Carbotte, S.

    2008-12-01

    Oceanic impacts are a growing source of concern for the scientific community. Though the Earth is ~70 percent covered with water, and logic would therefore dictate that ~70 percent of impacts occur in the oceans, scientific investigations have focused on continental events. This is in part due to the difficulties inherent in examining submarine impact structures. Oceanic impacts lack many of the known features of continental events; however, oceanic impacts, unlike their continental counterparts, produce catastrophic tsunami events that may be used to identify them. Recent discoveries point to a tsunami event that affected the New York metropolitan area approximately 2300 years ago (Goodbred et al. 2006). Here it is shown that impact ejecta found in the tsunami deposit layer indicate an oceanic impact as the source of the tsunami. The sharp resolution of the stratigraphic study of the cores suggests that the sediment containing the impact ejecta was deposited in a tsunami-like event, rather than reworking from an older event. Samples were taken from the layer in sediment cores CD01-01, CD01-02, SD30, and VM32-2 from the Hudson River. Layer thickness ranged from approximately half a meter in CD01-02 to four centimeters in VM32-2. Individual ejecta grains were identified through an examination of the tsunami layer samples with optical and electron microscopy, as well compositional analysis via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Carbon and aluminum silicate impact spherules were found in the samples. Also present in the samples were shock-metamorphosed phases of feldspar, ilmenite, and olivine exhibiting planar deformation features and shock lamellae consistent with studies of known impact ejecta. TEM studies of the spherules revealed the presence of associated hexagonal nanodiamonds, also known as lonsdaleite, which are uniquely related to shock formation. In addition, the New York area lacks the extreme seismic and volcanic activity that might produce similar

  12. Differences in generation of magnetic storms driven by magnetic clouds, ejecta, sheath region before ICME and CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Nadezhda; Yermolaev, Yuri; Lodkina, Irina

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the efficiency of main phase storm generation by different solar wind (SW) streams when using 12 functions coupling (FC) various interplanetary parameters with magnetospheric state. By using our Catalog of Solar Wind Phenomena [Yermolaev et al., 2009] created on the basis of the OMNI database for 1976-2000, we selected the magnetic storms with Dst ≤ -50 nT for which interplanetary sources were following: MC (10 storms); Ejecta (31 storms); Sheath (21 storms); CIRs (31magnetic storms). To compare the interplanetary drivers we estimate an efficiency of magnetic storm generation by type of solar wind stream with using 12 coupling functions. We obtained that in average Sheath has more large efficiency of the magnetic storm generation and MC has more low efficiency in agreement with our previous results which show that by using a modification of formula by Burton et al. [1975] for connection of interplanetary conditions with Dst and Dst* indices the efficiency of storm generation by Sheath and CIR was ~50% higher than generation by ICME [Nikolaeva et al., 2013; 2015]. The most part of FCs has sufficiently high correlation coefficients. In particular the highest values of coefficients (~ 0.5 up to 0.63) are observed for Sheath- driven storms. In a small part of FCs with low coefficients it is necessary to increase the number of magnetic storms to increase the statistical significance of results. The reliability of the obtained data and possible reasons of divergences for various FCs and various SW types require further researches. The authors are grateful for the opportunity to use the OMNI database. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 16-02-00125, and by Program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences. References: Nikolaeva, N. S., Y. I. Yermolaev, and I. G. Lodkina (2013), Modeling of Dst-index temporal profile on the main phase of the magnetic storms generated by different types of solar wind, Cosmic

  13. Power law and exponential ejecta size distributions from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded Cu and Sn metals under melt conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L.

    2013-11-21

    Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study and to model the ejecta production from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals under melt conditions. A generic 3D crystal in contact with vacuum containing about 10{sup 8} atoms and with a sinusoidal free surface roughness is shock loaded so as to undergo a solid-liquid phase change on shock. The reflection of the shock wave at the interface metal/vacuum gives rise to the ejection of 2D jets/sheets of atoms (Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in the continuum limit), which develop and break up, forming ejecta (fragments) of different volumes (or mass). The fragmentation process is investigated by analyzing the evolution of the resulting volume distribution of the ejecta as a function of time. Two metals are studied (Cu and Sn) and the amplitude of the roughness is varied. The simulations show that the associated distributions exhibit a generic behavior with the sum of two distinct terms of varying weight, following the expansion rate of the jets: in the small size limit, the distribution obeys a power law dependence with an exponent equal to 1.15 ± 0.08; and in the large size limit, it obeys an exponential form. These two components are interpreted, with the help of additional simple simulations, as the signature of two different basic mechanisms of fragmentation. The power law dependence results from the fragmentation of a 2D network of ligaments arranged following a fractal (scale free) geometry and generated when the sheets of liquid metal expand and tear. The exponential distribution results from a 1D Poisson fragmentation process of the largest ligaments previously generated. Unlike the power law distribution, it is governed by a characteristic length scale, which may be provided by energy balance principle.

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Impact-Related Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Impact-Related Deposits" included:Evidence for a Lightning-Strike Origin of the Edeowie Glass; 57Fe M ssbauer Spectroscopy of Fulgurites: Implications for Chemical Reduction; Ca-Metasomatism in Crystalline Target Rocks from the Charlevoix Structure, Quebec, Canada: Evidence for Impact-related Hydrothermal Activity; Magnetic Investigations of Breccia Veins and Basement Rocks from Roter Kamm Crater and Surrounding Region, Namibia; Petrologic Complexities of the Manicouagan Melt Sheet: Implications for 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology; Laser Argon Dating of Melt Breccias from the Siljan Impact Structure, Sweden: Implications for Possible Relationship to Late Devonian Extinction Events; Lunar Impact Crater, India: Occurrence of a Basaltic Suevite?; Age of the Lunar Impact Crater, India: First Results from Fission Track Dating; The Fluidized Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket, Mexico: Implications for Mars; Low Velocity Ejection of Boulders from Small Lunar Craters: Ground Truth for Asteroid Surfaces; Ejecta and Secondary Crater Distributions of Tycho Crater: Effects of an Oblique Impact; Potassium Isotope Systematics of Crystalline Lunar Spherules from Apollo 16; Late Paleocene Spherules from the North Sea: Probable Sea Floor Precipitates: A Silverpit Provenance Unproven; A Lithological Investigation of Marine Strata from the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Interval, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Including a Search for Shocked Quartz; Triassic Cratered Cobbles: Shock Effects or Tectonic Pressure?; Regional Variations of Trace Element Composition Within the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field; Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Microtektite-bearing Sands and Tsunami Beds, Alabama Gulf Coastal Plain; Sand Lobes on Stewart Island as Probable Impact-Tsunami Deposits; Distal Impact Ejecta, Uppermost Eocene, Texas Coastal Plain; and Continental Impact Debris in the Eltanin Impact Layer.

  15. Thermoluminescence dating of the Kamil impact crater (Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sighinolfi, Gian Paolo; Sibilia, Emanuela; Contini, Gabriele; Martini, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating has been used to determine the age of the meteorite impact crater at Gebel Kamil (Egyptian Sahara). Previous studies suggested that the 45 m diameter structure was produced by a fall in recent times (less than 5000 years ago) of an iron meteorite impactor into quartz-arenites and siltstones belonging to the Lower Cretaceous Gilf Kebir Formation. The impact caused the complete fragmentation of the impactor, and the formation of a variety of impactites (e.g., partially vitrified dark and light materials) present as ejecta within the crater and in the surrounding area. After a series of tests to evaluate the TL properties of different materials including shocked intra-crater target rocks and different types of ejecta, we selected a suite of light-colored ejecta that showed evidence of strong thermal shock effects (e.g., partial vitrification and the presence of high-temperature and -pressure silica phases). The abundance of quartz in the target rocks, including the vitrified impactites, allowed TL dating to be undertaken. The variability of radioactivity of the intracrateric target rocks and the lack of direct in situ dosimetric evaluations prevented precise dating; it was, however, possible to constrain the impact in the 2000 BC-500 AD range. If, as we believe, the radioactivity measured in the fallback deposits is a reliable estimate of the mean radioactivity of the site, the narrower range 1600-400 BC (at the 2σ confidence level) can be realistically proposed.

  16. Meteoroid Flux from Lunar Impact Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert; Moser, Danielle; Cooke, William; Suggs, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    The flux of kilogram-sized meteoroids has been determined from the first 5 years of observations by NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program (Suggs et al. 2014). Telescopic video observations of 126 impact flashes observed during photometric conditions were calibrated and the flux of meteoroids to a limiting mass of 30 g was determined to be 6.14 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1) at the Moon, in agreement with the Grun et al. (1985) model value of 7.5 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1). After accounting for gravitational focusing effects, the flux at the Earth to a limiting impact energy of 3.0 x10(exp -6) kilotons of TNT (1.3 x 10(exp 7) J) was determined to be consistent with the results in Brown et al. (2002). Approximately 62% of the impact flashes were correlated with major meteor showers as cataloged in visual/optical meteor shower databases. These flux measurements, coupled with cratering and ejecta models, can be used to develop impact ejecta engineering environments for use in lunar surface spacecraft design and risk analyses.

  17. Exploration of the Eltanin Impact Area (Bellingshausen Sea): Expedition ANT XVIII5a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersonde, Rainer; Kyte, Frank T.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of the Eltanin asteroid into the Bellingshausen Sea (2.15 Ma) is the only known impact in a deep-ocean (approx. 5 km) basin. On 26 March 2001, the FS Polarstern returned to the impact area during expedition ANT XVIII/5a. Over a period of 14 days, this region was explored by detailed bathymetric mapping, acoustic profiling of sediment deposits, and direct sampling with 18 piston cores and four gravity cores. Preliminary shipboard examination of microfossils showed that sixteen of the piston cores and three gravity cores contained sediments at least as old as the impact event and have a high probability of containing a record of the disturbances caused by the impact. During the expedition, portions of eleven piston cores were opened for preliminary examination of the impact deposits. Visual examination of cores and microscopic identification of suspect impact melt particles were were used to identify ejecta and X-ray radiographs of the opened core segments permitted analysis of sediment structures. Impact deposits were found in nine of the eleven opened cores, and a similar success rate is anticipated in the seven cores remaining to be opened. These preliminary observations indicate that the highest concentrations of meteoritic ejecta and the largest particle sizes appear to occur in the region north of the San Martin seamounts. Recovered debris includes cm-sized melt rocks and a 2.5 cm meteorite. This expedition has confirmed the presence of high concentrations of meteoritic ejecta across a region at least as large as 10(exp 5) sq km. Quantitative analyses of ejecta distribution within this region will require further study, but previous estimates of 1 km for the minimum diameter of the Eltanin asteroid, appear safe.

  18. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INTERACTING NEAR 1 AU: FORMATION OF A COMPLEX EJECTA AND GENERATION OF A TWO-STEP GEOMAGNETIC STORM

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.; Lugaz, Noé

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished.

  19. The magnitude of impact damage on LDEF materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allbrooks, Martha; Atkinson, Dale

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the magnitude and types of impact damage to materials and systems on the LDEF. This report will provide insights which permit NASA and industry space-systems designers to more rapidly identify potential problems and hazards in placing a spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO). This report is structured to provide (1) a background on LDEF, (2) an introduction to the LEO meteoroid and debris environments, and (3) descriptions of the types of damage caused by impacts into structural materials, and contamination caused by spallation and ejecta from impact events.

  20. The LCROSS Impact Cratering Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Hermalyn, B.; Ernst, C. M.; Colaprete, A.

    2009-12-01

    The large Earth-Departure-Upper Stage (the “EDUS”) and the LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft (SSc) will both slam into the permanently shadowed regions near the lunar south pole on October 9, 2009. The goal of this mission is to excavate possible ice buried below the surface, thereby providing a measure of potential reservoirs of water for future human exploration. Impact experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) have contributed to the mission design and planning. These experiments have included predictions for target selection (Schultz, 2006), a re-assessment of excavation at early times (Hermalyn and Schultz, 2009), and excavation depths (this study). Such predictions are critical for designing instrument sensitivity/selection for the SSc and earth-based telescopic observing campaigns. Because the EDUS has an effective low density (with concentrations at two ends), we have explored the effects of impactor density and configuration (hollow, solid) on the early-stage cratering process, including excavation depths. Most ejecta scaling studies use loose quartz or flint-shot sand in order to track late-stage excavation scaling. This approach does not work well at earlier stages, which comprise a greater fraction of growth at larger scales (see Hermalyn and Schultz, 2009; Hermalyn and Schultz, this volume). Experiments using solid and hollow aluminum spheres impacted a variety of target types (fine and coarse sand, fine pumice, and JSC-1a) in order to assess their effect on this earlier stage of crater growth. Tracers were placed at different depths allowed tracking of excavation. Results have direct implications to the LCROSS experiment and observations (after appropriate scaling). First, the effective low-density impactor significantly reduces excavation depths to a projectile diameter or less, even in sand. This becomes more important for regolith-like targets since the hollow projectile collapses and target compression prevents deep penetration

  1. Post-impact alteration of the Manson impact structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossey, L. J.; Mccarville, P.

    1993-01-01

    Core materials from the Manson impact site (Manson, Iowa) are examined in order to evaluate post-impact alteration processes. Diagenetic interpretation of post-impact events is based on petrologic, mineralogic, and geochemical investigation of core materials including the following: target strata, disturbed and disrupted strata, ejecta, breccias, microbreccias, and impact melt. The diagenetic study utilizes research cores obtained by the continental scientific drilling project (CSDP) at the Manson structure, as well as core and cuttings of related materials. Samples include impactites (breccias, microbreccias, and melt material), crater fill material (sedimentary clast breccias), disturbed and disrupted target rocks, and reference target material (Amoco Eisheid No. 1 materials). The study of multiple cores will permit development of a regional picture of post-impact thermal history. The specific objectives are as follows: (1) provide a detailed description of authigenic and alteration mineralogy from diverse lithologies encountered in research drill cores at the Manson impact structure, and (2) identify and relate significant post-impact mineral alteration to post-impact thermal regime (extent and duration). Results will provide mineralogical and geochemical constraints on models for post-impact processes including the following: infilling of the crater depression; cooling and hydrothermal alteration of melt rocks; and subsequent long-term, low-temperature alteration of target rocks, breccias, and melt rocks. Preliminary petrologic and x-ray diffraction examination of fracture linings and void fillings from research core M1 indicate the presence of quartz, chlorite, mixed-layer clays, gypsum/anhydrite, calcite, and minor pyrite.

  2. Launch of martian meteorites in oblique impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, Natalia; Ivanov, Boris

    2004-09-01

    A high-velocity oblique impact into the martian surface accelerates solid target material to escape velocity. A fraction of that material eventually falls as meteorites on Earth. For a long time they were called the SNC meteorites (Shergotty, Nakhla, and Chassigny). We study production of potential martian meteorites numerically within the frame of 3D hydrodynamic modeling. The ratio of the volume of escaping solid ejecta to projectile volume depends on the impact angle, impact velocity and the volatile content in the projectile and in the target. The size distribution of ejected fragments appears to be of crucial importance for the atmosphere-ejecta interaction in the case of a relatively small impact (with final crater size <3 km): 10-cm-sized particles are decelerated efficiently, while 30-50% of larger fragments could escape Mars. The results of numerical modeling are compared with shock metamorphic features in martian meteorites, their burial depth, and preatmospheric mass. Although it is impossible to accelerate ejected fragments to escape velocity without substantial compression (above 10 GPa), the maximum temperature increase in dunite (Chassigny) or ortopyroxenite (ALH84001) may be lower than 200 degree. This result is consistent with the observed chaotic magnetization of ALH84001. The probability of microbes' survival may be rather high even for the extreme conditions during the ejection process.

  3. The Chicxulub asteroid impact and mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Peter; Alegret, Laia; Arenillas, Ignacio; Arz, José A; Barton, Penny J; Bown, Paul R; Bralower, Timothy J; Christeson, Gail L; Claeys, Philippe; Cockell, Charles S; Collins, Gareth S; Deutsch, Alexander; Goldin, Tamara J; Goto, Kazuhisa; Grajales-Nishimura, José M; Grieve, Richard A F; Gulick, Sean P S; Johnson, Kirk R; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Koeberl, Christian; Kring, David A; MacLeod, Kenneth G; Matsui, Takafumi; Melosh, Jay; Montanari, Alessandro; Morgan, Joanna V; Neal, Clive R; Nichols, Douglas J; Norris, Richard D; Pierazzo, Elisabetta; Ravizza, Greg; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Robin, Eric; Salge, Tobias; Speijer, Robert P; Sweet, Arthur R; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Vajda, Vivi; Whalen, Michael T; Willumsen, Pi S

    2010-03-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary approximately 65.5 million years ago marks one of the three largest mass extinctions in the past 500 million years. The extinction event coincided with a large asteroid impact at Chicxulub, Mexico, and occurred within the time of Deccan flood basalt volcanism in India. Here, we synthesize records of the global stratigraphy across this boundary to assess the proposed causes of the mass extinction. Notably, a single ejecta-rich deposit compositionally linked to the Chicxulub impact is globally distributed at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The temporal match between the ejecta layer and the onset of the extinctions and the agreement of ecological patterns in the fossil record with modeled environmental perturbations (for example, darkness and cooling) lead us to conclude that the Chicxulub impact triggered the mass extinction.

  4. Olivine or impact melt: Nature of the “Orange” material on Vesta from Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Schmedemann, Nico; Becker, Kris J.; O'Brien, David P.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Prettyman, Thomas H.; Li, Jian-Yang; Cloutis, Edward A.; Denevi, Brett W.; Kneissl, Thomas; Palmer, Eric; Gaskell, Robert W.; Nathues, Andreas; Gaffey, Michael J.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Garry, William B.; Sierks, Holger; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.; De Sanctis, Maria C.; Ammanito, Eleonora

    2013-11-01

    NASA’s Dawn mission observed a great variety of colored terrains on asteroid (4) Vesta during its survey with the Framing Camera (FC). Here we present a detailed study of the orange material on Vesta, which was first observed in color ratio images obtained by the FC and presents a red spectral slope. The orange material deposits can be classified into three types: (a) diffuse ejecta deposited by recent medium-size impact craters (such as Oppia), (b) lobate patches with well-defined edges (nicknamed “pumpkin patches”), and (c) ejecta rays from fresh-looking impact craters. The location of the orange diffuse ejecta from Oppia corresponds to the olivine spot nicknamed “Leslie feature” first identified by Gaffey (Gaffey, M.J. [1997]. Icarus 127, 130-157) from ground-based spectral observations. The distribution of the orange material in the FC mosaic is concentrated on the equatorial region and almost exclusively outside the Rheasilvia basin. Our in-depth analysis of the composition of this material uses complementary observations from FC, the visible and infrared spectrometer (VIR), and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND). Several possible options for the composition of the orange material are investigated including, cumulate eucrite layer exposed during impact, metal delivered by impactor, olivine-orthopyroxene mixture and impact melt. Based on our analysis, the orange material on Vesta is unlikely to be metal or olivine (originally proposed by Gaffey (Gaffey, M.J. [1997]. Icarus 127, 130-157)). Analysis of the elemental composition of Oppia ejecta blanket with GRaND suggests that its orange material has ∼25% cumulate eucrite component in a howarditic mixture, whereas two other craters with orange material in their ejecta, Octavia and Arruntia, show no sign of cumulate eucrites. Morphology and topography of the orange material in Oppia and Octavia ejecta and orange patches suggests an impact melt origin. A majority of the orange patches appear to

  5. Titan impacts and escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, D. G.; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on hydrodynamic calculations of impacts of large (multi-kilometer) objects on Saturn's moon Titan. We assess escape from Titan, and evaluate the hypothesis that escaping ejecta blackened the leading hemisphere of Iapetus and peppered the surface of Hyperion. We carried out two- and three-dimensional simulations of impactors ranging in size from 4 to 100 km diameter, impact velocities between 7 and 15 km s -1, and impact angles from 0° to 75° from the vertical. We used the ZEUSMP2 hydrocode for the calculations. Simulations were made using three different geometries: three-dimensional Cartesian, two-dimensional axisymmetric spherical polar, and two-dimensional plane polar. Three-dimensional Cartesian geometry calculations were carried out over a limited domain (e.g. 240 km on a side for an impactor of size di = 10 km), and the results compared to ones with the same parameters done by Artemieva and Lunine (2005); in general the comparison was good. Being computationally less demanding, two-dimensional calculations were possible for much larger domains, covering global regions of the satellite (from 800 km below Titan's surface to the exobase altitude 1700 km above the surface). Axisymmetric spherical polar calculations were carried out for vertical impacts. Two-dimensional plane-polar geometry calculations were made for both vertical and oblique impacts. In general, calculations among all three geometries gave consistent results. Our basic result is that the amount of escaping material is less than or approximately equal to the impactor mass even for the most favorable cases. Amounts of escaping material scaled most strongly as a function of velocity, with high-velocity impacts generating the largest amount, as expected. Dependence of the relative amount of escaping mass fesc = mesc/ Mi on impactor diameter di was weak. Oblique impacts (impact angle θi > 45°) were more effective than vertical or near-vertical impacts; ratios of mesc/ Mi ˜ 1-2 were

  6. In the aftermath of the Chicxulub impact - Contrasting effects at proximal and distal localities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, V.; Ocampo, A.; Gómez Tapias, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Chicxulub impact is clearly correlated to a large biotic mass extinction and the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is globally identified as a sharp contact associated with an iridium anomaly. So far the timing of the biotic recovery has been difficult to assess due to low sample resolution. Here we present new data on the global extinction and recovery of vegetation connected to the Chicxulub impact. We further apply the Fluidized Ejecta Blanket (FEB) as an analogue to the FEBs on Mars. Proximal impact ejecta deposits from the Chicxulub crater were first identified in Belize and these sites represent the type section for the Albion Formation. The Albion Formation Spheroid bed rest on the fractured and karstified Maastrichtian Barton Creek Dolomite and is a distinct unit composed of clay spherules and dolomite spheroids. The Spheroid Bed is overlain by a calcareous 15-m-thick unit of coarse diamictite bed containing altered glass, large accretionary blocks, striated, polished, and impacted cobbles, and rare grains of shocked quartz. The Albion Formation's Spheroid bed and Diamictite Bed is interpreted to be a Fluidized Ejecta Blanket (FEB) and this has only been identified around a few craters and is therefore an unique terrestrial analogue to the FEBs found and first identified on Mars. A stratigraphical definition of the Chicxulub FEB will provide a clear analogue to the impact cratering processes on Mars and other planets in our solar system.

  7. The Importance of Physical Models for Deriving Dust Masses and Grain Size Distributions in Supernova Ejecta. I. Radiatively Heated Dust in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 Solar Mass, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 micron. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-09-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  9. Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 bolide event: new evidence of a late Eocene impact-wave deposit and a possible impact site, US east coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    A remarkable >60-m-thick, upward-fining, polymictic, marine boulder bed is distributed over >15 000 km2 beneath Chesapeake Bay and the surrounding Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf. The wide varieties of clast lithologies and microfossil assemblages were derived from at least seven known Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic units. The supporting pebbly matrix contains variably mixed assemblages of microfossils along with trace quantities of impact ejecta. The youngest microfossils in the boulder bed are of early-late Eocene age. On the basis of its unusual characteristics and its stratigraphic equivalent to a layer of impact ejecta at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612. It is postulated that this boulder bed was formed by a powerful bolide-generated wave train that scoured the ancient inner shelf and coastal plain of southeastern Virginia. -from Authors

  10. Shock Metamorphic Evolution on the Moon and Impact Craters Applied by Shock Impact Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Kato, T.; Imai, M.

    1992-07-01

    It has been considered that quartz minerals can be formed by magmatic crystallization of the Earth or Earth-type planets under high-temperature condition of the magma. However, if similar high temperature can be obtained at impact processes, silica minerals will be formed even under impact condition (1,2,3,4). Impact experiments. The following various silica and feldspar minerals can be obtained in the artificial impact crater experiments of various type target rocks. a) Fine-grained shocked quartz aggregates crystallized from vaporization of feldspar compositions are shown by the increased abundance of shocked quartz (SQ) and feldspar(F) at the "fine ejecta"; that is, SQ/F=3.0 and 5.6 in the granite and gabbroic anorthosite, respectively (cf. Table 1). Chemical compositions of large fragments broken by impact processes reveal partly anomalous diaplectic feldspar grains with irregularly wavy extinction and nonstoichiometric composition. b) Impact effects of density change and shocked quartz formation (SQ/F) show larger in fine-grained gabbroic anorthosite than hard coarse-grained granite. c) Stishovite and coesite could not be observed in small laboratory experiments. d) The highest density of shocked quartz crystal (SQ) in fine-grained ejecta can be obtained in quartz-rich target-rock of sandstone, which is the same implication to the Barringer impact crater with sandstone (1,3). Shock metamorphism of lunar and planetary materials. By using the experimental impact results of shock metamorphism (4), major plagioclase minerals of anorthosite formed by magmatic ocean processes on the primordial planetary and lunar surfaces, can be changed to diaplectic plagioclases and shocked silica minerals by impact shock effects, resulting in the formation of shocked quartz (SQ) by rapid crystallization. The SU phases formed by impact can be changed to normal quartz (Q) by magmatic evolution process under high temperature. The present results of shock metamorphic evolution will

  11. A Suzaku Study of Ejecta Structure and Origin of Hard X-ray Emission in the Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Katsuda, Satoru; Mori, Koji; Petre, Robert; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2012-01-01

    We report an X-ray study of the evolved Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1S6.2+S.7 based on six pointing observations with Suzaku. The remnant's large extent (100' in diameter) allows us to investigate its radial structure in the northwestern and eastern directions from the apparent center. The X-ray spectra. were well fit with a two-component non-equilibrium ionization model representing the swept-up interstellar medium (ISM) and the metal-rich ejecta. We found prominent central concentrations of Si, S and Fe from the ejecta component; the lighter elements of O, Ne and Mg were distributed more uniformly. The temperature of the ISM component suggests a slow shock (610-960 km/s), hence the remnant's age is estimated to be 7,000-15,000 yr, assuming its distance to be approx. 1.1 kpc. G1S6.2+5.7 has also been thought to emit hard, non-thermal X-rays, despite being considerably older than any other such remnant. In response to a recent discovery of a background cluster of galaxies (2XMM J045637.2+522411), we carefully excluded its contribution, and reexamined the origin of the hard X-ray emission. We found that the residual hard X-ray emission is consistent with the expected level of the cosmic X-ray background. Thus, no robust evidence for the non-thermal emission was obtained from G156.2+5.7. These results are consistent with the picture of an evolved SNR.

  12. Coring the Chesapeake Bay impact crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In July 1983, the shipboard scientists of Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 95 found an unexpected bonus in a core taken 150 kilometers east of Atlantic City, N.J. At Site 612, the scientists recovered a 10-centimeter-thick layer of late Eocene debris ejected from an impact about 36 million years ago. Microfossils and argon isotope ratios from the same layer reveal that the ejecta were part of a broad North American impact debris field, previously known primarily from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Since that serendipitous beginning, years of seismic reflection profiling, gravity measurements and core drilling have confirmed the source of that strewn field - the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, the largest structure of its kind in the United States, and the sixth-largest impact crater on Earth.

  13. Large Impact Basin Morphologies on Vesta in Solar System Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, P.; O'Brien, D. P.; Marchi, S.; Sykes, M. V.; Williams, D. A.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jaumann, R.; McCord, T. B.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    Dawn global imaging and topographic mapping (@ 20-70 m scales) reveals that the 505-km-wide impact basin Rheasilvia has a large central complex, steep rim scarp and bowl-shaped floor, elements similar to large impact basins on midsize icy satellites of Saturn. Impact melt and debris volumes are generally lower on Vesta and on icy satellites than on lunar basins. These similarities suggest that the Rheasilvia morphology may be a consequence of large impacts into lower gravity objects. Lower impact velocities and planetary curvature may also be important. Low melt volumes are consistent with predictions based on lower impact velocities on Vesta. Rheasilvia ejecta deposits extend over 100-150 km from the rim, and generally appear to scale similarly on Vesta and the Moon. Rheasiliva ejecta covers at least all of the southern hemisphere and may be more than 5 km thick near the rim. Oddly, the compositional feature associated with Rheasilvia is offset from its center by more than 100 km. A number of pre-Rheasilvia impact basins are mapped, including several large structures near the north pole. Most are degraded and original morphologies may be difficult to determine. Rheasilvia partially obliterated the older 400-km-wide 10-km-deep Veneneia basin, the interior of which is highly disrupted. The next largest basin, ~250-km-across is also old and heavily cratered. If it ever possessed a central peak, it has since been obliterated.

  14. Impact seeding and reseeding in the inner solar system.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Brett; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F; Burns, Joseph A

    2005-08-01

    Assuming that asteroidal and cometary impacts onto Earth can liberate material containing viable microorganisms, we studied the subsequent distribution of the escaping impact ejecta throughout the inner Solar System on time scales of 30,000 years. Our calculations of the delivery rates of this terrestrial material to Mars and Venus, as well as back to Earth, indicate that transport to great heliocentric distances may occur in just a few years and that the departure speed is significant. This material would have been efficiently and quickly dispersed throughout the Solar System. Our study considers the fate of all the ejected mass (not just the slowly moving material), and tabulates impact rates onto Venus and Mars in addition to Earth itself. Expressed as a fraction of the ejected particles, roughly 0.1% and 0.001% of the ejecta particles would have reached Venus and Mars, respectively, in 30,000 years, making the biological seeding of those planets viable if the target planet supported a receptive environment at the time. In terms of possibly safeguarding terrestrial life by allowing its survival in space while our planet cools after a major killing thermal pulse, we show via our 30,000- year integrations that efficient return to Earth continues for this duration. Our calculations indicate that roughly 1% of the launched mass returns to Earth after a major impact regardless of the impactor speed; although a larger mass is ejected following impacts at higher speeds, a smaller fraction of these ejecta is returned. Early bacterial life on Earth could have been safeguarded from any purported impact-induced extinction by temporary refuge in space. PMID:16078867

  15. Impact seeding and reseeding in the inner solar system.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Brett; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F; Burns, Joseph A

    2005-08-01

    Assuming that asteroidal and cometary impacts onto Earth can liberate material containing viable microorganisms, we studied the subsequent distribution of the escaping impact ejecta throughout the inner Solar System on time scales of 30,000 years. Our calculations of the delivery rates of this terrestrial material to Mars and Venus, as well as back to Earth, indicate that transport to great heliocentric distances may occur in just a few years and that the departure speed is significant. This material would have been efficiently and quickly dispersed throughout the Solar System. Our study considers the fate of all the ejected mass (not just the slowly moving material), and tabulates impact rates onto Venus and Mars in addition to Earth itself. Expressed as a fraction of the ejected particles, roughly 0.1% and 0.001% of the ejecta particles would have reached Venus and Mars, respectively, in 30,000 years, making the biological seeding of those planets viable if the target planet supported a receptive environment at the time. In terms of possibly safeguarding terrestrial life by allowing its survival in space while our planet cools after a major killing thermal pulse, we show via our 30,000- year integrations that efficient return to Earth continues for this duration. Our calculations indicate that roughly 1% of the launched mass returns to Earth after a major impact regardless of the impactor speed; although a larger mass is ejected following impacts at higher speeds, a smaller fraction of these ejecta is returned. Early bacterial life on Earth could have been safeguarded from any purported impact-induced extinction by temporary refuge in space.

  16. Impact structures in Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    More than 50 years of space and planetary exploration and concomitant studies of terrestrial impact structures have demonstrated that impact cratering has been a fundamental process – an essential part of planetary evolution – ever since the beginning of accretion and has played a major role in planetary evolution throughout the solar system and beyond. This not only pertains to the development of the planets but to evolution of life as well. The terrestrial impact record represents only a small fraction of the bombardment history that Earth experienced throughout its evolution. While remote sensing investigations of planetary surfaces provide essential information about surface evolution and surface processes, they do not provide the information required for understanding the ultra-high strain rate, high-pressure, and high-temperature impact process. Thus, hands-on investigations of rocks from terrestrial impact craters, shock experimentation for pressure and temperature calibration of impact-related deformation of rocks and minerals, as well as parameter studies pertaining to the physics and chemistry of cratering and ejecta formation and emplacement, and laboratory studies of impact-generated lithologies are mandatory tools. These, together with numerical modeling analysis of impact physics, form the backbone of impact cratering studies. Here, we review the current status of knowledge about impact cratering – and provide a detailed account of the African impact record, which has been expanded vastly since a first overview was published in 1994. No less than 19 confirmed impact structures, and one shatter cone occurrence without related impact crater are now known from Africa. In addition, a number of impact glass, tektite and spherule layer occurrences are known. The 49 sites with proposed, but not yet confirmed, possible impact structures contain at least a considerable number of structures that, from available information, hold the promise to be able to

  17. Progressive deformation of feldspar recording low-barometry impact processes, Tenoumer impact structure, Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Kah, Linda C.; Harris, R. Scott

    2014-06-01

    The Tenoumer impact structure is a small, well-preserved crater within Archean to Paleoproterozoic amphibolite, gneiss, and granite of the Reguibat Shield, north-central Mauritania. The structure is surrounded by a thin ejecta blanket of crystalline blocks (granitic gneiss, granite, and amphibolite) and impact-melt rocks. Evidence of shock metamorphism of quartz, most notably planar deformation features (PDFs), occurs exclusively in granitic clasts entrained within small bodies of polymict, glass-rich breccia. Impact-related deformation features in oligoclase and microcline grains, on the other hand, occur both within clasts in melt-breccia deposits, where they co-occur with quartz PDFs, and also within melt-free crystalline ejecta, in the absence of co-occurring quartz PDFs. Feldspar deformation features include multiple orientations of PDFs, enhanced optical relief of grain components, selective disordering of alternate twins, inclined lamellae within alternate twins, and combinations of these individual textures. The distribution of shock features in quartz and feldspar suggests that deformation textures within feldspar can record a wide range of average pressures, starting below that required for shock deformation of quartz. We suggest that experimental analysis of feldspar behavior, combined with detailed mapping of shock metamorphism of feldspar in natural systems, may provide critical data to constrain energy dissipation within impact regimes that experienced low average shock pressures.

  18. Locating the LCROSS Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William; Shirley, Mark; Moratto, Zachary; Colaprete, Anthony; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Hensley, Scott; Wilson, Barbara; Slade, Martin; Kennedy, Brian; Gurrola, Eric; Harcke, Leif

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observations and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission impacted a spent Centaur rocket stage into a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south pole. The Sheperding Spacecraft (SSC) separated approx. 9 hours before impact and performed a small braking maneuver in order to observe the Centaur impact plume, looking for evidence of water and other volatiles, before impacting itself. This paper describes the registration of imagery of the LCROSS impact region from the mid- and near-infrared cameras onboard the SSC, as well as from the Goldstone radar. We compare the Centaur impact features, positively identified in the first two, and with a consistent feature in the third, which are interpreted as a 20 m diameter crater surrounded by a 160 m diameter ejecta region. The images are registered to Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter (LRO) topographical data which allows determination of the impact location. This location is compared with the impact location derived from ground-based tracking and propagation of the spacecraft's trajectory and with locations derived from two hybrid imagery/trajectory methods. The four methods give a weighted average Centaur impact location of -84.6796 deg, -48.7093 deg, with a 1s uncertainty of 115 m along latitude, and 44 m along longitude, just 146 m from the target impact site. Meanwhile, the trajectory-derived SSC impact location is -84.719 deg, -49.61 deg, with a 1 alpha uncertainty of 3 m along the Earth vector and 75 m orthogonal to that, 766 m from the target location and 2.803 km south-west of the Centaur impact. We also detail the Centaur impact angle and SSC instrument pointing errors. Six high-level LCROSS mission requirements are shown to be met by wide margins. We hope that these results facilitate further analyses of the LCROSS experiment data and follow-up observations of the impact region

  19. The Meteoritic Component in Impact Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    marine sediments that was attributed to an increase in interplanetary dust due to a shower of comets invading the inner solar system. We planned to detect a change in the Cr-isotopic composition in the flux of fine-grained extraterrestrial matter to ocean sediments. This would provide evidence for the comet shower hypothesis. We planned attempt to locate late Eocene impact deposits in a new high resolution, hi-latitude site that had the potential for excellent preservation and new information of the sources and effects of these impacts. Although most impacts on Earth occur in deep-ocean basins, only one such event is known - the late Pliocene impact of the Eltanin asteroid. The ejecta from this impact includes Ir- rich impact melt, spherules, and actual meteorites from the km-sized mesosiderite asteroid. Through a study of the ejecta, we can learn about the formation, distribution, alteration and preservation of Ir-rich deposits. We can also learn about meteorite survival during hypervelocity impacts and we can study pieces of a km-sized object to learn more about the mesosiderite parent body. Analyses of sediment cores and geophysical exploration of the impact site can further our understanding of the processes involved in deep-ocean impacts and potential effects on the terrestrial climate and biosphere. We planned analyses of this ejecta, a search for ejecta 5000 km distant from the impact area, and a new oceanographic expedition to study and sample the impact site. In addition to these three specific areas of research, the PI planned to remain flexible and available to exploit new opportunities presented by new discoveries, and to engage in new collaborations if other researchers require his expertise to develop new projects that fit within the objectives of the overall research program.

  20. Initial Mapping of Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Anomalies: Relationship to the Caloris Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    78 low-altitude orbit passes of MESSENGER calibrated magnetometer data from August and September of 2014 have been applied to produce approximate maps of the crustal magnetic field covering latitudes of 50-80N and longitudes of 160-320E. Only anomalies with wavelengths < 215 km were mapped and amplitudes were adjusted for differences in spacecraft altitude using an equivalent source dipole technique. Maps of the radial field component show that the strongest large-scale anomalies are located in the western part of the mapped region just north and northeast of the 1550-km diameter Caloris impact basin centered at 164E, 30N. When adjusted to a common altitude of ~ 40 km, the strongest single anomaly (~170E, 60N; > 6 nT) lies over a smooth plains unit that extends north-northeastward from Caloris. A second anomaly (185E, 53N, > 5 nT) lies on the Odin Formation, interpreted as Caloris ejecta (e.g., Guest and Greeley, USGS, 1983). As previously reported by Johnson et al. (Science, 2015), a third anomaly (~ 212E, 61N, > 5 nT) also lies over a smooth plains unit, Suisse Planitia. Most smooth plains units on Mercury may have a volcanic origin (Denevi et al., JGR, 2013). However, as discussed by the latter authors, a subset of the smooth plains occur in an annulus around Caloris and could have an impact-related origin, involving fluidized basin ejecta deposition (Wilhelms, Icarus, 1976). A similar origin is widely accepted for the lunar Cayley smooth plains, which dominate the geology near the Apollo 16 landing site where the strongest surface magnetic fields were measured and which correlate best with orbital anomalies on the lunar near side (Halekas et al., JGR, 2001). Two of the remaining three anomalies (220E, 68N, > 4 nT; 234E, 77N, > 5 nT) lie over an older intermediate plains unit with an uncertain interpretation, possibly consisting of impact basin and crater ejecta as well as volcanic materials (Grolier and Boyce, USGS, 1984). In view of the proximity of the

  1. Modeling the Impact Ejected Dust Contribution to the Lunar Exosphere: Results from Experiments and Ground Truth from LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.

    2013-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates the presence of lofted regolith dust above the lunar surface. These observations range from multiple in-situ and orbital horizon glow detections to direct measurement of dust motion on the surface, as by the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment. Despite this evidence, the specific mechanisms responsible for the lofting of regolith are still actively debated. These include impact ejection, electrostatic lofting, effects of high energy radiation, UV/X- rays, and interplay with solar wind plasma. These processes are highly relevant to one of the two main scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (due to launch September, 2013): to directly measure the lunar exospheric dust environment and its spatial and temporal variability towards the goal of better understanding the dust flux. Of all the proposed mechanisms taking place on the lunar surface, the only unequivocal ongoing process is impact cratering. Hypervelocity impact events, which mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces, are arguably the most pervasive geologic process on rocky bodies. While many studies of dust lofting state that the impact flux rate is orders of magnitude too low to account for the lunar horizon glow phenomenon and discount its contribution, it is imperative to re-examine these assumptions in light of new data on impact ejecta, particularly from the contributions from mesoscale (impactor size on the order of grain size) and macroscale (impactor > grain size) cratering. This is in large part due to a previous lack of data, for while past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. In particular, it is the high-speed early-time ejecta that will reach

  2. Lunar impact basins and crustal heterogeneity: new Western limb and far side data from galileo.

    PubMed

    Belton, M J; Head, J W; Pieters, C M; Greeley, R; McEwen, A S; Neukum, G; Klaasen, K P; Anger, C D; Carr, M H; Chapman, C R; Davies, M E; Fanale, F P; Gierasch, P J; Greenberg, R; Ingersoll, A P; Johnson, T; Paczkowski, B; Pilcher, C B; Veverka, J

    1992-01-31

    Multispectral images of the lunar western limb and far side obtained from Galileo reveal the compositional nature of several prominent lunar features and provide new information on lunar evolution. The data reveal that the ejecta from the Orientale impact basin (900 kilometers in diameter) lying outside the Cordillera Mountains was excavated from the crust, not the mantle, and covers pre-Orientale terrain that consisted of both highland materials and relatively large expanses of ancient mare basalts. The inside of the far side South Pole-Aitken basin (>2000 kilometers in diameter) has low albedo, red color, and a relatively high abundance of iron- and magnesium-rich materials. These features suggest that the impact may have penetrated into the deep crust or lunar mantle or that the basin contains ancient mare basalts that were later covered by highlands ejecta.

  3. Lunar impact basins and crustal heterogeneity - New western limb and far side data from Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Head, James W., III; Pieters, Carle M.; Greeley, Ronald; Mcewen, Alfred S.; Neukum, Gerhard; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Anger, Clifford D.; Carr, Michael H.; Chapman, Clark R.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral images of the lunar western limb and far side obtained from Galileo reveal the compositional nature of several prominent lunar features and provide new information on lunar evolution. The data reveal that the ejecta from the Orientale impact basin (900 kilometers in diameter) lying outside the Cordillera Mountains was excavated from the crust, not the mantle, and covers pre-Orientale terrain that consisted of both highland materials and relatively large expanses of ancient mare basalts. The inside of the far side South Pole-Aitken basin (greater than 2000 kilometers in diameter) has low albedo, red color, and a relatively high abundance of iron- and magnesium-rich materials. These features suggest that the impact may have penetrated into the deep crust or lunar mantle or that the basin contains ancient mare basalts that were later covered by highlands ejecta.

  4. Lunar impact basins and crustal heterogeneity: New western limb and far side data from galileo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.M.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Neukum, G.; Klaasen, K.P.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Greenberg, R.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.; Paczkowski, B.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral images of the lunar western limb and far side obtained from Galileo reveal the compositional nature of several prominent lunar features and provide new information on lunar evolution. The data reveal that the ejecta from the Orientale impact basin (900 kilometers in diameter) lying outside the Cordillera Mountains was excavated from the crust, not the mantle, and covers pre-Orientale terrain that consisted of both highland materials and relatively large expanses of ancient mare basalts. The inside of the far side South Pole-Aitken basin (>2000 kilometers in diameter) has low albedo, red color, and a relatively high abundance of iron- and magnesium-rich materials. These features suggest that the impact may have penetrated into the deep crust or lunar mantle or that the basin contains ancient mare basalts that were later covered by highlands ejecta.

  5. Sediment Transport, Mixing, and Erosion by an Impact Generated Tsunami: Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D. H.; Tester, E. W.; Meyers, C. A.; Breger, D.; Chivas, A. R.

    2007-12-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria contains two impact crater candidates, the 18 km Tabban and 12 km Kanmare craters. We have identified an impact ejecta layer in cores from the Gulf of Carpentaria containing probable shocked quartz, magnetic iron oxide impact spherules with a bimodal size distribution, vitreous Ca phosphate with a few percent Na2O and MgO(whitlockite?), lithified glauconite microfossil casts with partial calcite rims, and other impact ejecta. The quartz grains have at least 3 different orientations of closely spaced linear fractures only a few micrometers apart (probable planar deformation features). As we have imaged these planar features using a scanning electron microscope, the shocked nature of the grains must be confirmed by measuring crystallographic directions on conventional thin sections. We found impact ejecta at the deepest depth of our sampling in six different cores (Table 1). The ejecta layer extends up into the top 2 cm of every core. However, the thickness of the layer in cm (Obs) is much greater than that predicted by simple air fall models(1) (Calc) of ejecta thickness as a function of kilometers from the nearest crater candidate (Dist). The concentration of impact ejecta is much too high to explain the layer thicknesses by bioturbation of a formerly thin layer of ejecta. Thus, we interpret these layers as a megatsunami deposit from the impact event that formed Tabban and Kanmare craters. As supporting evidence, core MD31 (also from the Gulf of Carpentaria) has 14C ages in the top 70 cm that do not increase uniformly with increasing depth, but instead fluctuate in a random manner(2). Although the dominant ostracod assemblage is marine, MD32 has a large percentage of reworked lacustrine fossils and broken shell in the top 38 cm(3). Many Holocene marine sequences from the deepest part of the Gulf of Carpentaria contain reworked lacustrine fossils(4). Because the Gulf of Carpentaria was a lake until around 10,400 yr B.P., the mixture of fossil

  6. Samples from Martian craters: Origin of the Martian soil by hydrothermal alteration of impact melt deposits and atmospheric interactions with ejecta during crater formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Horton E.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of the Martian soil is an important question for understanding weathering processes on the Martian surface, and also for understanding the global geochemistry of Mars. Chemical analyses of the soil will provide an opportunity to examine what may be a crustal average, as studies of loess on the Earth have demonstrated. In this regard the origin of the Martian soil is also important for understanding the chemical fractionations that have affected the composition of the soil. Several processes that are likely to contribute to the Martian soil are examined.

  7. Model for upper atmospheric aggregation of ash following hypervelocity impact events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthew; Artemieva, Natasha

    2014-05-01

    Introduction: Accretionary lapilli (AL) have been found in hypervelocity impact crater ejecta deposits and are similar to volcanically produced AL [1]. The initial conditions of ejection from an impact crater are vastly different than ejection from a volcano, particularly regarding the mass of ejecta and the velocity of ejection. Thus, some models of AL formation may not apply to impact ejecta. We propose an upper atmospheric aggregation model. A numerical model is herein described Numerical model: Re-entry is modeled using the 3D hydrocode SOVA [2], using mainly its "dusty flow" subroutines. Particles are treated as solid non-deformable; they move through the atmosphere and exchange momentum and energy. Radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer are included. Details of the procedure may be found in [2]. Initial mass flux of ejecta, velocities, and re-entry angles are derived from crater-forming models. The power law SFD N>m~m-b is used with the exponent b of 0.8 and 0.9. The largest fragment for a given distance can be deduced from observations. The smallest fragments are ~10 µm in diameter. Results: During re-entry, particles decelerate due to drag, heating the atmosphere, and the atmospheric gas heats particles via conduction, convection, and radiative transfer. Additionally, shock waves are generated. Intensity of these processes depends on the total mass and velocity of ejecta, but also on the ejecta SFD. Particles of varying sizes were modeled. Large particles penetrate to low altitudes, maintaining temperature. Small particles decelerate at high altitudes, have elevated temperatures, and heat the atmosphere to T> 600 K. These particles can release water from pores or, in some cases, from mineral structures. Cold particles entering later may be coated by this water, permitting aggregation and pushing other particles to lower altitudes. Substantial mixing of particles at temperatures and densities suitable for AL formation remains as long as ejecta

  8. Igneous vs impact processes for the origin of the Mare lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornitz, V.

    1973-01-01

    The respective role of external vs internal processes is considered. The inner Orientale basin was formed by the explosive impact of an asteroidal body. Within minutes after the impact, the concentric fracture system developed as an adjustment to the stresses generated by the shock wave. Examples are presented to illustrate that the upwelling of lava in the center of Mare Orientale and several craters on its ejecta blanket occurred well after the asteroidal collision which generated the bulls-eye structure. Thus, the lavas were not strictly impact melts. However, a close relationship may have existed between the impact and subsequent volcanism.

  9. SN Dust Yields: Fallback, Metallicity and Rotation Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marassi, Stefania; Schneider, Raffaella; Limongi, Marco; Chieffics, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Dust is an important ingredient in astrophysical environments as it regulates the physical and chemical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). Sites of dust formation are the expanding ejecta of core-collapse SNe. The amount of dust freshly condensed in SN explosions and surviving the subsequent passage of the reverse shock is a key quantity to assess the role of SNe as cosmic dust factories. Dust production in SNe depends on the SN type and on the physical properties of the stellar progenitor, such as its mass, ejecta temperature profile, metallicity and explosion energy. Using detailed pre-supernova and supernova explosion models for rotating and non-rotating progenitors with masses ranging between 13 to 120 M⊙ and metallicities in the range 0 < Z/Z⊙ < 1 (Limongi & Chieffi 2012, Limongi & Chieffi, in preparation), we investigate dust formation in SN ejecta. We follow nucleation and grain growth, taking into account the evolution of newly condensed grains and their partial destruction through the passage of the reverse shock in the supernova remnant. We assess the impact of stellar rotation and metallicity on the temperature and density profiles of the ejecta, and, as a consequence, on the resulting grain size distribution. Extending the models to the metal-free (Pop III) supernovae, we compute the mass-dependent dust and metal yields and we predict the chemical composition of star forming regions where second generation, low-mass stars form. We then compare the model predictions to the observed surface elemental abundances of carbon-normal and carbon-enhanced metal poor stars, and derive interesting constraints of the mass of Pop III stars and on the properties of the first SNe.

  10. The preservation of fossil biomarkers during meteorite impact events: Experimental evidence from biomarker-rich projectiles and target rocks

    NASA Astro